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Sample records for high-resolution infrared spectra

  1. High Resolution Infrared Spectra of Triacetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doney, Kirstin D.; Zhao, Dongfeng; Linnartz, Harold

    2015-06-01

    Triacetylene, HC6H, is the longest poly-acetylene chain found in space, and is believed to be involved in the formation of longer chain molecules and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, abundances are expected to be low, and observational confirmation requires knowledge of the gas-phase spectra, which up to now has been incomplete with only the weak, low lying bending modes being known. We present new infrared (IR) spectra in the C-H stretch region obtained using ultra-sensitive and highly precise IR continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (cw-CRDS), combined with supersonic plasma expansions The talk reviews the accurate determination of the rotational constants of the asymmetric fundamental mode, νb{5}, including discussion on the perturber state, and associated hot bands. The determined molecular parameters are accurate enough to aid astronomical searches with such facilities as ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) or the upcoming JWST (James Webb Space Telecscope), which can now probe even trace molecules (abundances of ˜ 10-6 - 10-10 with respect to H2). D. Zhao, J. Guss, A. Walsh, H. Linnartz, Chem. Phys. Lett., 565, 132 (2013) K.D. Doney, D. Zhao, H. Linnartz, in preparation

  2. Atlas of high resolution infrared spectra of carbon dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Benner, D. C.; Devi, V. M.; Ferry, P. S.; Sutton, C. H.; Richardson, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    An atlas of long-path room-temperature absorption spectra of carbon dioxide is presented for the spectral intervals 1830-2100 cm, 2395-2680 cm, and 3140-3235 cm. The spectral data were recorded at high signal to noise with the 0.01 cm resolution Fourier transform interferometer. The spectra were obtained with pressures between 1 and 10 Torr of CO2 and with total paths between 24 and 384 meters. A compilation of the measured line positions and the assignments derived from the analysis are presented. Of the 3336 lines in the atlas, 94 percent were identified as CO2 lines or as residual lines H2O and CO. Calculated positions are presented for the carbon dioxide lines; a total of 52 bands of C-12O2-16, C-13O2-16, C-12O-16O-18, C-12O-16O-17, and C-13O-16O18 were identified. The weakest carbon dioxide lines marked in the atlas have intensities of approximately 0.5 x 10 to the negative 26th power cm/molecule at room temperature.

  3. Optimal Extraction of High-Resolution Spectra From the Infrared Spectrograph on Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, Gregory

    We propose to develop optimal extraction for the high-resolution modules on the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, apply it to the full archive of IRS data, and post the results on a publicly available website. The currently used extraction algorithm sums everything in the slit, both source and backgrond emission. The new scheme will separate the source from its background, making it possible to analyze spectra taken in complex fields and generally improving the signal/noise quality of the data by a factor of nearly two. Most of the currently available high-resolution spectra require further reduction before they can be analyzed. Our improvements to the data will open the science contained in the thousands of high-resolution IRS observations to the full astronomy community. We will test our algorithm on high-resolution IRS spectra of young stellar objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud, which will ensure both an immediate science return, a polished extraction algorithm, and a reliable archive of optimally extracted spectra from all of the high-resolution IRS observations available to the astronomical community. The result will build on the momentum of CASSIS, the Cornell Atlas of of Spitzer/IRS Sources, which curently contains over 12,000 optimally extracted low-resolution spectra from the IRS. It will be a valuable addition to the legacy of the IRS and Spitzer.

  4. CRIRES-POP. A library of high resolution spectra in the near-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebzelter, T.; Seifahrt, A.; Uttenthaler, S.; Ramsay, S.; Hartman, H.; Nieva, M.-F.; Przybilla, N.; Smette, A.; Wahlgren, G. M.; Wolff, B.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Käufl, H. U.; Seemann, U.

    2012-03-01

    Context. New instrumental capabilities and the wealth of astrophysical information extractable from the near-infrared wavelength region have led to a growing interest in the field of high resolution spectroscopy at 1-5 μm. Aims: We aim to provide a library of observed high-resolution and high signal-to-noise-ratio near-infrared spectra of stars of various types throughout the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. This is needed for the exploration of spectral features in this wavelength range and for comparison of reference targets with observations and models. Methods: High quality spectra were obtained using the CRIRES near-infrared spectrograph at ESO's VLT covering the range from 0.97 μm to 5.3 μm at high spectral resolution. Accurate wavelength calibration and correction for telluric lines were performed by fitting synthetic transmission spectra for the Earth's atmosphere to each spectrum individually. Results: We describe the observational strategy and the current status and content of the library which includes 13 objects. The first examples of finally reduced spectra are presented. This publication will serve as a reference paper to introduce the library to the community and explore the extensive amount of material. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (084.D-0912, 085.D-0161, 086.D-0066, and 087.D-0195).The spectra presented in Figs. 3 to 15 are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/539/A109

  5. Physical parameters of T dwarfs derived from high-resolution near-infrared spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Burgo, C.; Martín, E. L.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Hauschildt, P. H.

    2009-07-01

    Aims: We determine the effective temperature, surface gravity and projected rotational velocity of nine T dwarfs from the comparison of high-resolution near-infrared spectra and synthetic models, and estimate the mass and age of the objects from state-of-the-art models. Methods: We use the AMES-COND cloudless solar metallicity models provided by the PHOENIX code to match the spectra of nine T-type field dwarfs observed with the near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph NIRSPEC using ten echelle orders to cover part of the J band from 1.147 to 1.347 μm with a resolving power R˜20 000. The projected rotational velocity, effective temperature and surface gravity of the objects are determined based on the minimum root mean square of the differences between the modelled and observed relative fluxes. Estimates of the mass and age of the objects are obtained from effective temperature-surface gravity diagrams, where our results are compared with existing solar metallicity models. Results: The modelled spectra reproduce quite well the observed features for most of the T dwarfs, with effective temperatures in the range of 922-1009 K, and surface gravities between 104.1 and 104.9 cm s-2. Our results support the assumption of a dust free atmosphere for T dwarfs later than T5, where dust grains form and then gravitationally sediment into the low atmosphere. The modelled spectra do not accurately mimic some individual very strong lines like the K i doublet at 1.2436 and 1.2525 μm. Our modelled spectra does not match well the observed spectra of the two T dwarfs with earlier spectral types, namely SDSSp J125453.90-012247.4 (T2) and 2MASS J05591914-1404488 (T4.5), which is likely due to the presence of condensate clouds that are not incorporated in the models used here. By comparing our results and their uncertainties to evolutionary models, we estimate masses in the interval ≈5-75~MJ for T dwarfs later than T5, which are in good agreement with those found in the literature

  6. High resolution infrared measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, B.; Cawley, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Sample ground based cloud radiance data from a high resolution infrared sensor are shown and the sensor characteristics are presented in detail. The purpose of the Infrared Analysis Measurement and Modeling Program (IRAMMP) is to establish a deterministic radiometric data base of cloud, sea, and littoral terrain clutter to be used to advance the design and development of Infrared Search and Track (IRST) systems as well as other infrared devices. The sensor is a dual band radiometric sensor and its description, together with that of the Data Acquisition System (DAS), are given. A schematic diagram of the sensor optics is shown.

  7. Estimation of Venus wind velocities from high-resolution infrared spectra. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. A. H.

    1978-01-01

    Zonal velocity profiles in the Venus atmosphere above the clouds were estimated from measured asymmetries of HCl and HF infrared absorption lines in high-resolution Fourier interferometer spectra of the planet. These asymmetries are caused by both pressure-induced shifts in the positions of the hydrogen-halide lines perturbed by CO2 and Doppler shifts due to atmospheric motions. Particularly in the case of the HCl 2-0 band, the effects of the two types of line shifts can be easily isolated, making it possible to estimate a profile of average Venus equatorial zonal velocity as a function of pressure in the region roughly 60 to 70 km above the surface of the planet. The mean profiles obtained show strong vertical shear in the Venus zonal winds near the cloud-top level, and both the magnitude and direction of winds at all levels in this region appear to vary greatly with longitude relative to the sub-solar point.

  8. New spectral features of stratospheric trace gases identified from high-resolution infrared balloon-borne and laboratory spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Kosters, J. J.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    A new Michelson-type interferometer system operating in the infrared at very high resolution has been used to record numerous balloon-borne solar absorption spectra of the stratosphere, ground-based solar absorption spectra, and laboratory spectra of molecules of atmospheric interest. In the present work results obtained for several important stratospheric trace gases, HNO3, CIONO2, HO2NO2, NO2, and COF2, in the 8- to 12-micron spectral region are reported. Many new features of these gases have been identified in the stratospheric spectra. Comparison of the new spectra with line-by-line simulations shows that previous spectral line parameters are often inadequate and that new analysis of high-resolution laboratory and atmospheric spectra and improved theoretical calculations will be required for many bands. Preliminary versions of several sets of improved line parameters under development are discussed.

  9. Collaborative Study of Analysis of High Resolution Infrared Atmospheric Spectra Between NASA Langley Research Center and the University of Denver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Aaron

    1999-01-01

    The Langley-D.U. collaboration on the analysis of high resolution infrared atmospheric spectra covered a number of important studies of trace gases identification and quantification from field spectra, and spectral line parameters analysis. The collaborative work included: Quantification and monitoring of trace gases from ground-based spectra available from various locations and seasons and from balloon flights. Studies toward identification and quantification of isotopic species, mostly oxygen and Sulfur isotopes. Search for new species on the available spectra. Update of spectroscopic line parameters, by combining laboratory and atmospheric spectra with theoretical spectroscopy methods. Study of trends of atmosphere trace constituents. Algorithms developments, retrievals intercomparisons and automatization of the analysis of NDSC spectra, for both column amounts and vertical profiles.

  10. Analysis of High-Resolution Infrared and CARS Spectra of ³⁴S¹⁸O₃

    SciTech Connect

    Masiello, Tony; Vulpanovici, Nicolae; Barber, Jeffrey B.; Chrysostom, Engelene; Nibler, Joseph W.; Maki, Arthur; Blake, Thomas A.; Sams, Robert L.; Weber, Alfons

    2004-09-11

    As part of a series of investigations of isotopic forms of sulfur trioxide, high-resolution infrared and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopies were used to study the fundamental modes and several hot bands of 32S18O3. Hot bands originating from the v2 and v4 bending mode levels have been found to couple strongly to the IR-inactive v1 symmetric stretching mode through indirect Coriolis interactions and Fermi resonances. Coriolis coupling effects are particularly noticeable in 32S18O3 due to the close proximity of the v2 and v4 fundamental vibrations, whose deperturbed wavenumber values are 486.488 13(4) and 504.284 77(4) cm-1. The uncertainties in the last digits are shown in parentheses and are two standard deviations. From the infrared transitions, accurate rovibrational constants are deduced for all of the mixed states, leading to deperturbed values for v1, and of 1004.68(2), 0.000 713(2), and 0.000 348(2) cm-1, respectively. The Be value is found to be 0.310 820(2) cm-1, yielding an equilibrium bond length re of 141.7333(4) pm that is, within experimental error, identical to the value of 141.7339(3) pm reported previously for 34S18O3. With this work, precise and accurate spectroscopic constants have now been determined in a systematic and consistent manner for all the fundamental vibrational modes of the sulfur trioxide D3h isotopomeric forms 32S16O3, 34S16O3, 32S18O3, and 34S18O3.

  11. Retrieval of Precise Radial Velocities from High Resolution Near-Infrared Spectra of M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peter; Plavchan, Peter; Gagne, Jonathan; Furlan, Elise; Bottom, Michael; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; White, Russel J.; Davison, Cassy; Mills, Sean; Beichman, Charles A.; Brinkworth, Carolyn; Johnson, John; Ciardi, David R.; Wallace, J. Kent; Mennesson, Bertrand; von Braun, Kaspar; Vasisht, Gautam; Prato, Lisa A.; Kane, Stephen R.; Tanner, Angelle M.; Walp, Bernie; Crawford, Sam; Lin, Sean

    2015-01-01

    We present a data analysis pipeline focused on obtaining precision radial velocities (RV) of M Dwarfs from spectra taken between 2.309 and 2.316 microns by the CSHELL spectrograph (R~46,000) at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility with the aid of a methane isotopologue gas cell (see poster by Plavchan et al. at this meeting). The pipeline compares the observed spectra with a forward model defined by parameters that are optimized using a simplex amoeba algorithm. The stellar template is optimized simultaneously with the fit parameters in an iterative process. The pipeline accounts for temporal variations in the spectral wavelength solution, line spread function, and interference fringes due to instrumental effects. We apply our pipeline to the M Dwarfs GJ 15 A and GJ 876 and the M Giant SV Peg. For GJ 15 A, we are able to obtain 30 m/s RV precision. For the planet host GJ 876, the two most massive planets are easily retrievable from our RV curve. For SV Peg, the single night RV precision can be as low as 15 m/s, with < 5 m/s obtainable through data stacking.

  12. High-Resolution Infrared Spectra of Bicyclo[1.1.1]pentane

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Matthew A.; Perry, Adam J.; Masiello, Tony; Schwartz, Keith D.; Nibler, Joseph W.; Weber, Alfons; Maki, Arthur; Blake, Thomas A.

    2010-07-01

    Infrared spectra of bicyclo[1.1.1]pentane (C5H8) have been recorded at a resolution (0.0015 cm-1) sufficient to resolve for the first time individual rovibrational lines. This initial report presents the ground state constants for this molecule determined from the detailed analysis of three of the ten infrared-allowed bands, v14(e′) at 540 cm-1, v17(a2″) at 1220 cm-1, v18(a2″) at 832 cm-1, and a partial analysis of the v11(e′) band at 1237 cm-1. The upper states of transitions involving the lowest frequency mode, v14(e′), show no evidence of rovibrational perturbations but those for the v17 and v18 (a2″) modes give clear indication of Coriolis coupling to nearby e′ levels. Accordingly, ground state constants were determined by use of the combination-difference method for all three bands. The assigned frequencies provided over 3300 consistent ground state difference values, yielding the following constants for the ground state (in units of cm-1): B0 = 0.2399412(2), DJ = 6.024(6) x 10-8, DJK = -1.930(21) x 10-8. For the unperturbed v14(e′) fundamental, more than 3500 transitions were analyzed and the band origin was found to be at 540.34225(2) cm-1. The numbers in parentheses are the uncertainties (two standard deviations) in the values of the constants. The results are compared with those obtained previously for [1.1.1]propellane and with those computed at the ab initio anharmonic level using the B3LYP density functional method with a cc-pVTZ basis set.

  13. High-Resolution Infrared Spectra of Spiropentane, C5H8

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Joseph E.; Coulterpark, K. A.; Masiello, Tony; Nibler, Joseph W.; Weber, Alfons; Maki, Arthur G.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2011-09-01

    Infrared spectra of spiropentane (C{sub 5}H{sub 8}) have been recorded at a resolution (0.002 cm{sup -1}) sufficient to resolve for the first time individual rovibrational lines. This initial report presents the ground state constants for this molecule determined from the detailed analysis of the {nu}16 (b2) parallel band at 993 cm{sup -1}. In addition, the determination included more than 2000 ground state combination-differences deduced from partial analyses of four other infrared-allowed bands, the {nu}24(e) perpendicular band at 780 cm{sup -1} and three (b2) parallel bands at 1540 cm{sup -1} ({nu}14), 1568 cm{sup -1} ({nu}5+{nu}16), and 2098 cm{sup -1} ({nu}5+{nu}14). In each of the latter four cases, the spectra show complications; in the case of {nu}24, these complications are due to rotational l-type doublings, and in the case of the parallel bands, the spectral complexities are due to Fermi resonance and Coriolis interactions of the upper states with nearby levels. The unraveling of these is underway but the assignment of many of these transitions permit the confident use of the ground state differences in determining the following constants for the ground state (in units of cm{sup -1}): B0 = 0.1394736(2), DJ = 2.458(1) x 10{sup -8}, DJK = 8.28(3) x 10{sup -8}. For the unperturbed {nu}16 fundamental, more than 3000 transitions were fit and the band origin was found to be at 992.53793(2) cm{sup -1}. The numbers in parentheses are the uncertainties (two standard deviations) in the value of the last digit of the constants. Surprisingly, the very accurate B0 value measured here is lower than the value (0.1418 cm{sup -1}) calculated from an electron diffraction structure, instead of being higher, as expected. Where possible, the rovibrational results are compared with those computed at the anharmonic level using the B3LYP density functional method with a cc-pVTZ basis set. These too suggest that the electron diffraction results are in question.

  14. High resolution infrared absorption spectra of various trace gases present in the upper atmosphere of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Robert H.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of NASA Grant NsG 7473 was to obtain and analyze high resolution infrared absorption spectra of various trace gases present in the Earth's upper atmosphere. The goal of the spectral analysis was to obtain values of absorption line strengths, widths and frequencies of sufficient accuracy for use in upper atmosphere trace gas monitoring. During the early phase of the grant, high resolution spectra were obtained from two instruments. One was the 0.02/cm resolution vacuum grating spectrometer at the Florida State University and the other was the 0.01/cm resolution Fourier transform spectrometer at the McMath solar telescope at the Kitt Peak Observatory. Using these instruments, a considerable amount of spectra of methane and hydrogen peroxide were obtained and analyzed. During the latter years of the project, data taking was halted while efforts were devoted to building a new 0.0025/cm resolution vacuum Fourier transform spectrometer. Progress during this phase of the grant then became greatly slowed due to a lack of suitable graduate students in the program. However, the instrument was completed and brought to the point of producing interferograms.

  15. Analysis of High-Resolution Infrared and CARS Spectra of ³⁴S¹⁸O₃

    SciTech Connect

    Masiello, Tony; Barber, Jeffrey B.; Chrysostom, Engelene; Nibler, Joseph W.; Maki, Arthur; Weber, Alfons; Blake, Thomas A.; Sams, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    Three fundamental modes and several hot bands of 34S18O3 have been investigated using both infrared spectroscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy (CARS). Coriolis coupling effects are particularly noticeable in 34S18O3 due to the close proximity of the v2 and v4 fundamental vibrations, whose wavenumber values are 477.508 64(5) and 502.055 65(4) cm-1. The uncertainties in the last digits are shown in parentheses and are two standard deviations. Hot band transitions from v2, v4 levels give access to infrared inactive v2, v4 combination/overtone levels which interact strongly with levels of the Raman-active v1 symmetric stretching mode due to indirect Coriolis couplings, l-resonances, and Fermi resonances. The result is a complex v1 CARS Q- branch spectrum that is the most perturbed of the four SO3 isotopomers we have studied. The relative importance of these interaction terms on the v1 CARS spectrum is examined in some detail and accurate rovibrational constants are determined for all of the mixed states, leading to deperturbed values of 1004.662(24), 0.000 350 3(9), and 0.000 706 6(12) cm-1 for v1, α1B, and α1C, respectively. The B e value is found to be 0.310 817(12) cm-1, which gives an equilibrium bond length re of 141.7339(3) pm, in excellent agreement with values of 141.7340(1) and 141.7347(7) pm reported earlier for 32S16O3 and 34S16O3.

  16. High resolution visible to short-wave near-infrared CCD spectra of Mars during 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James F., III; Bornhoeft, Karl; Lucey, Paul G.

    1994-01-01

    The 0.4 to 1.0 micron spectrum of Mars is dominated by a steep red, relatively featureless spectral slope. Earlier lower spectral observations interpreted the red color and the lack of absorption features in the spectra as evidence of poorly crystalline ferric oxide minerals. More recent higher spectral resolution observations and reinterpretations of older data sets have revealed measureable spectral structure, however. For example, absorption features near 0.65 and 0.86 micron were detected and spatially mapped in data obtained during the 1988 opposition. These absorptions were interpreted as evidence for crystalline hematite on Mars, occuring as an accessory phase in abundances of 3 to 6 percent in the soil. We are attempting to verify the existence of these subtle crystalline Fe(3+) absorption features and to map their spatial distribution in regions of the planet not imaged in 1988. During the 1990 opposition, we obtained imaging spectroscopic data of Mars from the University of Hawaii 2.24 m telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The data were obtained with the Wide Field Grism Spectrograph (WFGS), which uses an 800 x 800 CCD and a transmission grating ruled on a prism. We used a grating blazed at 4800 A in first order to obtain data from 0.50 to 0.94 micron at a spectral resolution of R = 200 to 350. The moon/Mars slit design used had projected dimensions of 0.29 x 153 inches, allowing for high spectral resolution and adequate cross-slit spatial sampling of the Martian disk.

  17. High Resolution Infrared Spectra of Jet-Cooled Formamide and Formamide Dimer in the C=O Stretch Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunahori, Fumie X.; Xu, Yunjie

    2012-06-01

    Formamide (FA) is the simplest molecule with a peptide bond. It has attracted considerable theoretical and spectroscopic attention as a model peptide. The structure of the FA monomer in the ground state was determined to be planar by rotational spectral analyses of several isotopic species. Its high resolution FIR spectrum and IR spectrum in the symmetric N-H stretching region were reported previously. Both matrix isolation and jet-cooled FTIR studies of FA dimer reported spectral evidence for the cyclic C2h symmetric FA dimer bonded by two NH---O bonds, which was predicted to be the most stable structure by ab initio calculations. No high-resolution spectrum of FA dimer, however, has been recorded so far. Our aim in the present study is to study high-resolution IR absorption spectra of both FA and its dimer in the C=O stretching region in order to gain information about the peptide-peptide interactions. IR spectrum of the FA monomer was measured using a rapid scan infrared laser spectrometer equipped with an astigmatic multipass cell. While the monomer band centers at 1754 cm-1, the lines most likely belonging to FA dimer were observed around 1740 cm-1. The spectral assignment of the C=O stretching band of the monomer was made by the means of ground state combination differences. Further data collection and spectral analysis of FA dimer are currently underway. The results will be updated at the conference. E. Hirota, R. Sugisaki, C. J. Nielsen, G. O. Sørensen, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 49, 251, 1974. C. L. Brummel, M. Shen, K. B. Hewett, L. A. Philips, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 11, 176, 1994 D. McNaughton, C. J. Evans, S. Lane, C. J. Nielsen, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 193, 104, 1999. A. Mardyukov, E. Sanchez-Garcia, P. Rodziewicz, N. L. Doltsinis, W. Sander, J. Phys. Chem. A., 111, 10552, 2007. M. Albrecht, C. A. Rice, M. A. Suhm, J. Phys. Chem. A., 112, 7530, 2008.

  18. Analysis of Atmospheric Trace Constituents from High Resolution Infrared Balloon-Borne and Ground-Based Solar Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Rinsland, C. P.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent results and ongoing studies of high resolution solar absorption spectra will be presented. The analysis of these spectra is aimed at the identification and quantification of trace constituents important in atmospheric chemistry of the stratosphere and upper troposphere. Analysis of balloon-borne and ground-based spectra obtained at 0.0025/ cm covering the 700-2200/ cm interval will be presented. Results from ground-based 0.02/ cm solar spectra, from several locations such as Denver, South Pole, M. Loa, and New Zealand will also be shown. The 0.0025/ cm spectra show many new spectroscopic features. The analysis of these spectra, along with corresponding laboratory spectra, improves the spectral line parameters, and thus the accuracy of trace constituents quantification. The combination of the recent balloon flights, with earlier flights data since 1978 at 0.02/ cm resolution, provides trends analysis of several stratospheric trace species. Results for COF2, F22, SF6, and other species will be presented. Analysis of several ground-based solar spectra provides trends for HCl, HF and other species. The retrieval methods used for total column density and altitude distribution for both ground-based and balloon-borne spectra will be presented. These are extended for the analysis of the ground-based spectra to be obtained by the high resolution interferometers of the Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC). Progress or the University of Denver studies for the NDSC will be presented. This will include intercomparison of solar spectra and trace gases retrievals obtained from simultaneous scans by the high resolution (0.0025/ cm) interferometers of BRUKER and BOMEM.

  19. Quantification of HCl from high-resolution, ground-based, infrared solar spectra in the 3000 per cm region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Murcray, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    Recent ground-based infrared solar spectra at 0.02 per cm resolution in the 3000 per cm region have been analyzed for the atmospheric content of HCl. Nonlinear spectral least-squares fitting applied to spectra obtained at several zenith angles shows little sensitivity of the results to tropospheric HCl but provides an accurate measurement of the total column amount.

  20. Collaborative Study for Analysis of High Resolution Infrared Atmospheric Spectra Between NASA Langley Research Center and the University of Denver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Langley-D.U. collaboration on the analysis of high resolultion infrared atmospheric spectra covered a number of important studies of trace gases identification and quantification from field spectra, and spectral line parameters analysis. The collaborative work included: 1) Quantification and monitoring of trace gases from ground-based spectra available from various locations and seasons and from balloon flights; 2) Identification and preliminary quantification of several isotopic species, including oxygen and Sulfur isotopes; 3) Search for new species on the available spectra, including the use of selective coadding of ground-based spectra for high signal to noise; 4) Update of spectroscopic line parameters, by combining laboratory and atmospheric spectra with theoretical spectroscopy methods; 5) Study of trends and correlations of atmosphere trace constituents; and 6) Algorithms developments, retrievals intercomparisons and automatization of the analysis of NDSC spectra, for both column amounts and vertical profiles.

  1. High resolution Fourier transform infrared spectra and analysis of the ν14, ν15 and ν16 bands of azetidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaporozan, Taras; Chen, Ziqiu; van Wijngaarden, Jennifer

    2010-12-01

    Rotationally resolved vibrational spectra of the three lowest frequency bands of the four-membered heterocycle azetidine (c-C 3H 6NH) have been collected with a resolution of 0.00096 cm -1 using the far infrared beamline at the Canadian Light Source synchrotron. The modes observed correspond principally to motions best described as: β-CH 2 rock ( ν14) at 736.701310(7) cm -1, ring deformation ( ν15) at 648.116041(8) cm -1, and the ring puckering mode ( ν16) at 207.727053(9) cm -1. A global fit of 14 276 rovibrational transitions from the three bands provided an accurate set of ground state spectroscopic constants as well as excited state parameters for each of the three vibrational modes. The ground state structure was determined to be that of the puckered conformer having the NH bond in an equatorial arrangement.

  2. High Resolution Infrared Spectra of Ar-Water and Ne-Water at 6 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Xu, Y.

    2012-06-01

    Ar- and Ne-water are highly floppy van der Waals complexes where the water subunit experiences nearly free internal rotation. Their ro-vibrational energy levels are characterized by the internal rotor states of the water subunit within the complex and a pseudo-diatomic rotational energy Hamiltonian. Large amplitude motions of the complexes lead to strong perturbations, such as Coriolis coupling and angular-radial coupling among the internal rotor states and the van der Waals bending and stretching states. Mid-infrared spectra of Ar- and Ne-water were measured with a direct absorption spectrometer with an external cavity quantum cascade laser at 6 μm and a 366-pass astigmatic absorption cell. footnote{X. Liu, Y. Xu, Z. S., W. S. Tam, I. Leonov, {Appl. Phys. B}, \\underline{{102}}, 629, 2011} The scan-to-scan frequency instability of the laser was addressed with a ``on-the-fly'' calibration procedure. The infrared spectrum of Ar-water has been studied by Weida and Nesbitt, in which the Σ 110 and π 110 states have been identified. At least three new overlapping bands at 1630 cm-1 have been observed and two of them have been tentatively assigned to the n=1, Σ 101 gets π 110 and Σ 110 gets Σ 101 bands. The n=1, π 101 gets Σ 101 band that was missing in the previous study was found at 1639 cm-1. Four new bands in the 1645-1665 cm-1 region have been observed and assigned to the π 212 gets π 101, Σ 212 gets Σ 101, π 212 gets Σ 101, and n=1, Σ 111 gets Σ 000. A global fit of the microwave, far-infrared, near-infrared and mid-infrared data was performed with Pickett's SPFIT program to determine the spectroscopic constants of these levels. Infrared spectrum of Ne-water is analogous to that of Ar-water. The Ne-water PES is much shallower than that Ar-water. As a result, there are fewer number of internal rotor states supported by the surface. Indeed, only the π 110 gets Σ 101, Σ 110 gets π 101, n=1, Σ 000 gets Σ 000, and π 111 gets Σ 000 bands were

  3. Line Identifications and Preliminary Synthesis of High-resolution Infrared Spectra of CP and Herbig Ae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, Charles R.; Castelli, F.; Hubrig, S.; Wolff, B.; Elkin, V.

    2012-01-01

    We report on surveys of infrared spectra of chemically peculiar and Herbig Ae stars based on CRIRES (Kaufl, et al. SPIE, 5492, 1218 2004). We discuss the magnetic CP stars Gamma Equ and HD 154708, and multiple-phase observations of the Herbig Ae star HD 101412. The Be star HR 4537 and HgMn HR 6620 were also examined. The primary emphasis of the present work is on line identifications primarily in four regions, 1065-1091, 1084-1109,1550-1587, and 2276-2313nm (with order gaps). Observations were reduced with recipes available from the ESO CRIRES data reduction pipeline. Wavelength calibration is determined from daytime ThAr arc lamp exposures. Generally speaking, this is not rich in atomic lines. The strongest features are the Paschen line P6 (1093.81nm), and He I (108.30nm). The latter shows phase variations indicative of a more complex magnetic field than that of a pure dipole. No individual molecular lines were found in these early stars, though CO emission from circumstellar material is likely present in HR 4537 and HD 101412. We used atomic line lists from Kurucz's site (kurucz.harvard.edu) and VALD (http://vald.astro.univie.ac.at/ cf. Kupka et al. 1999, A&AS, 138, 119), supplemented by Outred (J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 7, 1, 1978). The following spectra were identified in Gamma Equ: C I, Si I, Ca I, Mg I, II, Cr I, Fe I, Sr II, and Ce III (1584.75nm). The Ap star spectra show broad Zeeman patterns compatible with published models and field strengths. Synthetic calculations used SYNTHE and SYNTHMAG (Piskunov N. E., 1999, in Astrophys. Space Sci. Library Vol. 243, Solar polarization. Kluwer, p 515). The γ Equ model is from Heiter et al. (2002, A&A, 392, 619). and the line list from VALD.

  4. High-resolution Visible Spectra of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Chae Kyung; Kim, S.

    2006-09-01

    We have obtained high-resolution (R 30,000) spectra of Titan between 4,000 and 10,000 A on Feb. 23, 2005 (UT) using an optical echelle spectrograph (BOES) on the 1.8-m telescope at Bohyunsan Observatory, Korea. The raw Titan spectra contain telluric and solar absorption/emission lines. We used Kitt Peak solar atlases to remove the solar lines effectively. We also constructed synthetic spectra for the atmosphere of Titan including haze layers and utilizing laboratory spectra of CH4 available in literature. Preliminary results on the identifications of weak CH4 lines and on the derived opacities of the haze layers will be presented. Since the observations were carried out near the activities of Cassini observations of Titan, these high-resolution visible spectra are complementary to Cassini/VIMS imagery.

  5. High-resolution mid-infrared spectra of Co II, Ni I, and Fe II in SN 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Boyle, R. J.; Wiedemann, G. R.; Moseley, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    Ground-based infrared observations of SN 1987A on day 612 after the explosion have yielded resolved line profiles of Co II, Ni I, Fe II at 10.52, 11.31, and 17.94 micron, respectively. The spectra were taken at a resolving power of about 1000 with an array grating spectrometer on the 4 m telescope of Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. Based on the observed line intensities we have estimated the minimum mass of each ion: M(Co II) = (6.0 +/- 1.8) x 10 exp -5 solar mass; M(Ni I) = (1.1 +/- 0.1) x 10 exp -3 solar mass; and M(Fe II) = (8.0 +/- 1.5) x 10 exp -3 solar mass. From these we infer total masses for cobalt, nickel, and iron in the ejecta. The nickel and iron line profiles are markedly asymmetric. We interpret these as arising from two components, one centered on the stellar rest velocity with an approximately 3250 km/s full width, and the second at about +1200 km/s with an approximately 1100 km/s full width. The asymmetry may represent a large-scale fracturing of the ejecta by Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities.

  6. Deriving the Extinction to Young Stellar Objects using [Fe II] Near-infrared Emission Lines: Prescriptions from GIANO High-resolution Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecchioli, T.; Sanna, N.; Massi, F.; Oliva, E.

    2016-07-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) emission lines of Fe+ at 1.257, 1.321, and 1.644 μm share the same upper level; their ratios can then be exploited to derive the extinction to a line emitting region once the relevant spontaneous emission coefficients are known. This is commonly done, normally from low-resolution spectra, in observations of shocked gas from jets driven by Young Stellar Objects. In this paper we review this method, provide the relevant equations, and test it by analyzing high-resolution (R ∼ 50,000) NIR spectra of two young stars, namely the Herbig Be star HD 200775 and the Be star V1478 Cyg, which exhibit intense emission lines. The spectra were obtained with the new GIANO echelle spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Notably, the high-resolution spectra allowed checking the effects of overlapping telluric absorption lines. A set of various determinations of the Einstein coefficients are compared to show how much the available computations affect extinction derivation. The most recently obtained values are probably good enough to allow reddening determination within 1 visual mag of accuracy. Furthermore, we show that [Fe ii] line ratios from low-resolution pure emission-line spectra in general are likely to be in error due to the impossibility to properly account for telluric absorption lines. If low-resolution spectra are used for reddening determinations, we advice that the ratio 1.644/1.257, rather than 1.644/1.321, should be used, being less affected by the effects of telluric absorption lines.

  7. High Resolution Wavenumber Standards for the Infrared. (IUPAC Recommendations 1995)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guelachvili, G.; Birk, M.; Borde, C. J.; Brault, J. W.; Brown, L. R.; Carli, B.; Cole, A. R. H.; Evenson, K. M.; Fayt, A.; Hausamann, D.; Johns, J. W. C.; Kauppinen, J.; Kou, Q.; Maki, A. G.; Rao, K. N.; Toth, R. A.; Urban, W.; Valentin, A.; Verges, J.; Wagner, G.; Wappelhorst, M. H.; Wells, J. S.; Winnewisser, B. P.; Winnewisser, M.

    1995-01-01

    The calibration of high resolution infrared spectra is generally more precise than accurate. This is the case even when they are recorded with Fourier transform interferometers. This presentation aims at improving the accuracy of wavenumber measurements in the infrared by recommending a selection of spectral lines as wavenumber standards for absolute calibration.

  8. Upper limits for stratospheric H2O2 and HOCl from high resolution balloon-borne infrared solar absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, J. C.; Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, D. G.; Murcray, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    Solar absorption spectra from two stratospheric balloon flights have been analyzed for the presence of H2O2 and HOCl absorption in the 1230.0 to 1255.0 per cm region. The data were recorded at 0.02 per cm resolution during sunset with the University of Denver interferometer system on October 27, 1978 and March 23, 1981. Selected spectral regions were analyzed with the technique of nonlinear least squares spectral curve fitting. Upper limits of 0.33 ppbv for H2O2 and 0.36 ppbv for HOCl near 28 km are derived from the 1978 flight data while upper limits of 0.44 ppbv for H2O2 and 0.43 ppbv for HOCl at 29.5 km are obtained from the 1981 flight data.

  9. Rotational Analysis of Bands in the High-Resolution Infrared Spectra of cis,cis- and trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-2-d1

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Norman C.; Easterday, Clay C.; Nemchick, Deacon J.; Williamson, Drew; Sams, Robert L.

    2012-02-01

    Pure samples of cis,cis- and trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-2-d1 have been synthesized, and high-resolution (0.0015 cm-1) infrared spectra have been recorded for these nonpolar molecules in the gas phase. For the cis,cis isomer, the rotational structure in two C-type bands at 775 and 666 cm-1 and one A-type band at 866 cm-1 has been analyzed to yield a combined set of 2020 ground state combination differences (GSCDs). Ground state rotational constants fit to these GSCDs are A0 = 0.4195790(4), B0 = 0.0536508(8), and C0 = 0.0475802(9) cm-1. For the trans,trans isomer, three Ctype bands at 856, 839, and 709 cm-1 have been investigated to give a combined set of 1624 GSCDs. Resulting ground state rotational constants for this isomer are A0 = 0.9390117(8), B0 = 0.0389225(4), and C0 = 0.0373778(3) cm-1. Small inertial defects confirm the planarity of both isomers in the ground state. Upper state rotational constants have been determined for most of the transitions. The ground state rotational constants for the two isotopologues will contribute to the data set needed for determining semiexperimental equilibrium structures for the nonpolar isomers of 1,4- difluorobutadiene.

  10. High Resolution Wavenumber Standards for the Infrared. (IUPAC Recommendations 1995)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guelachvili, G.; Birk, M.; Bord, C.; Brault, J.; Brown, L.; Carli, B.; Cole, A.; Evenson, D.; Fayt, A.; Hausamann, D.; Johns, J.; Kauppinen, J.; Kou, Q.; Maki, A.; Narahari Rao, K.; Toth, R.; Urban, W.; Valentin, A.; Vergs, J.; Wagner, G.; Winnewisser, B.; Winnewisser, M.

    1995-01-01

    The calibration of high resolution infrared spectra is generally more precise than accurate even when they are recorded with Fourier interferometers. In order to improve the consistency of the spectral measurements, an IUPAC project has been undertaken. Its aim was to recommend a selection of spectral lines as wavenumber standards for absolute calibration in the infrared. This paper will report the final recommendations in the spectral range extending from about 4 to about 7000 cm(be).

  11. Rotational Analysis of Bands in the High-Resolution Infrared Spectra of trans,trans- and cis,cis-1,4-DIFLUOROBUTADIENE-2-d1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Norman C.; Nemchick, Deacon J.; Easterday, Clay C.; Glor, Ethan C.; Williamson, Drew F. K.; Blake, Thomas A.; Sams, Robert L.

    2010-06-01

    Ground state rotational constants for a series of isotopomers are being sought for use in determining the semi-experimental equilibrium structures of the isomers of 1,4-difluorobutadiene. Because fluorine substitution has a large influence on CC bond lengths in C3 and C4 rings, we asked how fluorine substitution affects butadiene. trans,trans- and cis,cis-1,4-Difluorobutadiene-2-d1 have been synthesized, and high-resolution (0.0013 cm-1) infrared spectra have been recorded for these nonpolar species. Analysis of the rotational structure in several bands is reported. For the trans,trans isomer, the C-type band at 709.0 cm-1 for ν 21(a^") has been fully analyzed, and the C-type band at 914.3 cm-1 for ν 18(a^") has been partially analyzed. Interfering with the analysis of the second band is overlap of its R branch with the P branch of the A/B-type band for ν 13(a^') at 933 cm-1. For the cis,cis isomer, as much as possible of the C-type band (K_a^' = 10 to 34) for ν 20(a^") at 775.4 cm-1 has been analyzed. An A-type band for ν 13(a^') at 865.8 cm-1 has also been analyzed into the band center. Small inertial defects confirm that these molecules are planar. Ground state rotational constants are reported for both isomers in comparison with those for the normal species. N. C. Craig, M. C. Moore, C. F. Neese, D. C. Oertel, L. Pedraza, and T. Masiello, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 254, 39-46 (2009).

  12. Reinvestigation of the microwave and new high resolution far-infrared spectra of cis-methyl nitrite, CH 3ONO: Rotational study of the two first torsional states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sironneau, V.; Chelin, P.; Tchana, F. Kwabia; Kleiner, I.; Pirali, O.; Roy, P.; Guillemin, J.-C.; Orphal, J.; Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Cooke, S. A.; Youngblood, W. J.; Agnew, A.; Dewberry, C. T.

    2011-05-01

    The first far-infrared high resolution absorption measurement of the cis-methyl nitrite molecule has been recorded in the range 15-400 cm -1 using the synchrotron AILES beamline radiation at SOLEIL with a resolution of 0.0011 cm -1. First assignments for the pure rotational transitions (15-65 cm -1) belonging to the ground ν t (= ν15) = 0 and first ν t = 1 excited torsional state are based on measurements from previous studies performed in the 13-40 GHz spectral range, as well as on new millimeter-wave measurements performed at Lille in the spectral range 75-465 GHz. A few measurements and remeasurements in the 1.8-13 GHz were also performed using the chirped FT-MW spectrometer located in North Texas. The pure rotational transitions in the far-infrared and in the microwave spectral range belonging to the two first torsional states have been globally fitted using the RAM ("Rho Axis Method") dealing with the rotation-torsion Hamiltonian and implemented in the BELGI code. A total of 708 and 713 microwave transitions (6 ⩽ J ⩽ 40, Kamax ⩽ 23) belonging to the ground torsional state ν t = 0 and 1 have been fitted with root-mean-square (rms) deviations of 37.4 kHz and 32.3 kHz respectively, and 3170 pure rotational transitions in the far-infrared range (12 ⩽ J max ⩽ 65, 0 ⩽ Kamax ⩽ 48) belonging to ν t = 0 and 1 have been fitted with a rms deviation of 0.00017 cm -1, using 35 parameters. Since in the far-infrared spectral range, the A-E internal rotor splittings have not been observed for the transitions belonging to the torsional ground ν t = 0 state of the cis-methyl nitrite species, another fit was performed on those lines, using a Watson type Hamiltonian for comparison.

  13. Metallicity determination of M dwarfs. High-resolution infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Sara; Heiter, Ulrike; Seifahrt, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Context. Several new techniques to determine the metallicity of M dwarfs with better precision have been developed over the last decades. However, most of these studies were based on empirical methods. In order to enable detailed abundance analysis, standard methods established for warmer solar-like stars, i.e. model-dependent methods using fitting of synthetic spectra, still need to be used. Aims: In this work we continue the reliability confirmation and development of metallicity determinations of M dwarfs using high-resolution infrared spectra. The reliability was confirmed through analysis of M dwarfs in four binary systems with FGK dwarf companions and by comparison with previous optical studies of the FGK dwarfs. Methods: The metallicity determination was based on spectra taken in the J band (1.1-1.4 μm) with the CRIRES spectrograph. In this part of the infrared, the density of stellar molecular lines is limited, reducing the amount of blends with atomic lines enabling an accurate continuum placement. Lines of several atomic species were used to determine the stellar metallicity. Results: All binaries show excellent agreement between the derived metallicity of the M dwarf and its binary companion. Our results are also in good agreement with values found in the literature. Furthermore, we propose an alternative way to determine the effective temperature of M dwarfs of spectral types later than M2 through synthetic spectral fitting of the FeH lines in our observed spectra. Conclusions: We have confirmed that a reliable metallicity determination of M dwarfs can be achieved using high-resolution infrared spectroscopy. We also note that metallicites obtained with photometric metallicity calibrations available for M dwarfs only partly agree with the results we obtain from high-resolution spectroscopy. Based on data obtained at ESO-VLT, Paranal Observatory, Chile, Program ID 082.D-0838(A) and 084.D-1042(A).

  14. Use of high-resolution measurements for the retrieval of temperature and gas-concentration profiles from outgoing infrared spectra in the presence of cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xianglei L; Yung, Yuk L; Margolis, Jack S

    2003-04-20

    We explore ways in which high-spectral-resolution measurements can aid in the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and gas-concentration profiles from outgoing infrared spectra when optically thin cirrus clouds are present. Simulated outgoing spectra that contain cirrus are fitted with spectra that do not contain cirrus, and the residuals are examined. For those lines with weighting functions that peak near the same altitude as the thin cirrus, unique features are observed in the residuals. These unique features are highly sensitive to the resolution of the instrumental line shape. For thin cirrus these residual features are narrow (< or = 0.1 cm(-1)), so high spectral resolution is required for unambiguous observation. The magnitudes of these unique features are larger than the noise of modern instruments. The sensitivities of these features to cloud height and cloud optical depth are also discussed. Our sensitivity studies show that, when the errors in the estimation of temperature profiles are not large, the dominant contribution to the residuals is the misinterpretation of cirrus. An analysis that focuses on information content is also presented. An understanding of the magnitude of the effect and of its dependence on spectral resolution as well as on spectral region is important for retrieving spacecraft data and for the design of future infrared instruments for forecasting weather and monitoring greenhouse gases. PMID:12716157

  15. On the Assessment and Uncertainty of Atmospheric Trace Gas Burden Measurements with High Resolution Infrared Solar Occultation Spectra from Space by the ATMOS Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M. C.; Chang, A. Y.; Gunson, M. R.; Abbas, M. M.; Goldman, A.; Irion, F. W.; Michelsen, H. A.; Newchurch, M. J.; Rinsland, C. P.; Stiller, G. P.; Zander, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument is a high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer that measures atmospheric composition from low Earth orbit with infrared solar occultation sounding in the limb geometry. Following an initial flight in 1985, ATMOS participated in the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) 1, 2, and 3 Space Shuttle missions in 1992, 1993, and 1994 yielding a total of 440 occultation measurements over a nine year period. The suite of more than thirty atmospheric trace gases profiled includes CO2, O3, N2O, CH4, H2O, NO, NO2, HNO3, HCl, HF, ClONO2, CCl3F, CCl2F2, CHF2Cl, and N2O5. The analysis method has been revised throughout the mission years culminating in the 'version 2' data set. The spectroscopic error analysis is described in the context of supporting the precision estimates reported with the profiles; in addition, systematic uncertainties assessed from the quality of the spectroscopic database are described and tabulated for comparisons with other experiments.

  16. High-Resolution Vibrational Spectra of Furazan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiefvater, Otto L.

    1991-10-01

    The study by Fourier transform (FT) infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the fundamental vibrational bands v12 and v5 of furazan yields the origins of these bands with a statistical uncertainty of 10-6 cm-1, which leads to an estimated absolute uncertainty of 10-4 cm-1. The values are v°12 = 952.6123 cm -1 and v°5 = 1.005.3536 cm -1. They confirm the values previously deduced from laser/microwave double resonance (LMDR) experiments. Previous results for the molecular constants of the vibrational ground state and of the two vibrationally excited states, as obtained by double resonance modulation (DRM) microwave spectroscopy alone, are confirmed and refined. Advantages brought about through the combination of the DRM microwave and the FT-IR technique are outlined.

  17. Analysis of the rotational structure in the high-resolution infrared spectra of trans-hexatriene-2-d1 and -3-d1

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Norman C.; Chen, Yihui; van Besien, Herman; Blake, Thomas A.

    2014-09-01

    The 2-d1 and 3-d1 isotopologues of trans-hexatriene have been synthesized, and their high-resolution (0.0015 cm-1) IR spectra have been recorded. For each of the isotopologues the rotational structure in four C-type bands for out-of-plane vibrational modes has been analyzed, and the ground state combination differences (GSCDs) have been pooled. Ground state rotational constants have been fitted to the GSCDs. For the 2-d species, A0, B0, and C0 values of 0.7837254(5), 0.0442806(3), and 0.0419299(2) cm-1 were fitted to 2450 GSCDs. For the 3-d species, A0, B0, and C0 values of 0.7952226(8), 0.0446149(7), and 0.0422661(4) cm-1 were fitted to 2234 GSCDs. For the eleven out-of-plane modes of the two isotopologues, predictions of anharmonic wavenumbers and harmonic intensities have been computed and compared with experiment where possible.

  18. High Resolution Infrared Spectra of the v2, v3, v4 and 2v3 Bands of 32S16O3

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, Arthur G.; Blake, Thomas A.; Sams, Robert L.; Vulpanovici, Nicolae; Barber, Jeffrey B.; Chrysostom, Engelene; Masiello, Tony; Nibler, Joseph W.; Weber, Alfons

    2001-09-14

    New measurements are reported for the infrared spectrum of sulfur trioxide, 32S16O3, with resolutions ranging from 0.0015 cm-1 to 0.0025 cm-1. New rovibrational constants have been measured for the fundamentals v2, v3, and v4, and the overtone band 2v3. Comparisons are made with the earlier high resolution measurements on SO3 and the high correlation among some of the constants related to the Coriolis coupling of the v2 and v4 levels is duscussed in order to understand the areas of disagreement with the arlier work. Splittings of some of the levels are observed and hte splitting constant for K = 3 of the ground state is determined for the first time. Other observed splittings include the K = 1 levels of 2v3 (I = 2), the K = 2 levels of the v3 and v4 states and the K = 3 levels of v2. This analysis shows that there are level corssings between the I = 0 and I = 2 states of 2v3 that allow one to determine the separation of the sub-band centers for those two states even thoug the I = o state is a dark state. This is a generalized phenomenon that should be found for many other molecules with the same symmetry. The I-type resonance constant that couples the I = 0 and 2 states is roughly the same as q3 which causes the splitting of the I = 1 levels of the v3 fundamental.

  19. High-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of water dimer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Z. S.; Miller, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    High-resolution near-infrared spectra are reported for all of the O-H stretch vibrational bands of the water dimer. The four O-H vibrations are characterized as essentially independent proton-donor or proton-acceptor motions. In addition to the rotational and vibrational information contained in these spectra, details are obtained concerning the internal tunneling dynamics in both the ground and excited vibrational states. These results show that, for tunneling motions which involve the interchange of the proton donor and acceptor molecules, the associated frequencies decrease substantially due to vibrational excitation. The predissociation lifetimes for the various states of the dimer are determined from linewidth measurements. These results clearly show that the predissociation dynamics is strongly dependent on the tunneling states, as well as the Ka quantum number, indicating that the internal tunneling dynamics plays an important role in determining the dissociation rate in this complex.

  20. High resolution infrared and Raman spectra of {sup 13}C{sup 12}CD{sub 2}: The CD stretching fundamentals and associated combination and hot bands

    SciTech Connect

    Di Lonardo, G.; Fusina, L. Canè, E.; Tamassia, F.; Martínez, R. Z.; Bermejo, D.

    2015-09-07

    Infrared and Raman spectra of mono {sup 13}C fully deuterated acetylene, {sup 13}C{sup 12}CD{sub 2}, have been recorded and analysed to obtain detailed information on the C—D stretching fundamentals and associated combination, overtone, and hot bands. Infrared spectra were recorded at an instrumental resolution ranging between 0.006 and 0.01 cm{sup −1} in the region 1800–7800 cm{sup −1}. Sixty new bands involving the ν{sub 1} and ν{sub 3} C—D stretching modes also associated with the ν{sub 4} and ν{sub 5} bending vibrations have been observed and analysed. In total, 5881 transitions have been assigned in the investigated spectral region. In addition, the Q branch of the ν{sub 1} fundamental was recorded using inverse Raman spectroscopy, with an instrumental resolution of about 0.003 cm{sup −1}. The transitions relative to each stretching mode, i.e., the fundamental band, its first overtone, and associated hot and combination bands involving bending states with υ{sub 4} + υ{sub 5} up to 2 were fitted simultaneously. The usual Hamiltonian appropriate to a linear molecule, including vibration and rotation l-type and the Darling–Dennison interaction between υ{sub 4} = 2 and υ{sub 5} = 2 levels associated with the stretching states, was adopted for the analysis. The standard deviation for each global fit is ≤0.0004 cm{sup −1}, of the same order of magnitude of the measurement precision. Slightly improved parameters for the bending and the ν{sub 2} manifold have been also determined. Precise values of spectroscopic parameters deperturbed from the resonance interactions have been obtained. They provide quantitative information on the anharmonic character of the potential energy surface, which can be useful, in addition to those reported in the literature, for the determination of a general anharmonic force field for the molecule. Finally, the obtained values of the Darling–Dennison constants can be valuable for understanding energy flows

  1. High resolution infrared spectra of the ν1- ν4 bands of BiH 3, and ab initio calculations of the spectroscopic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerzembeck, Wolfgang; Bürger, Hans; Breidung, Jürgen; Thiel, Walter

    2004-07-01

    The infrared spectrum of short-lived BiH 3 has been studied by Fourier transform technique. The BiH stretching bands ν1/ ν3 at 1733.2546/1734.4671 cm -1 and the bending fundamentals ν2/ ν4 at 726.6992/751.2385 cm -1 have been measured with a resolution of 5.5 and 6.6 × 10 -3 cm -1, respectively. The spectra were analyzed using different reductions of the rovibrational Hamiltonian accounting for the numerous resonance interactions in particular within the strongly Coriolis-coupled bending dyad. About 1150 and 980 transitions belonging to the ν1/ ν3 and ν2/ ν4 bands were fitted with an rms deviation of 0.62 and 0.53 × 10 -3 cm -1, respectively. High-level ab initio calculations at the coupled cluster CCSD(T) level with an energy-consistent small-core pseudopotential and large basis sets were carried out to determine the equilibrium structure, the anharmonic force field, and the associated spectroscopic constants of BiH 3. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the available experimental data.

  2. High-resolution studies of atmospheric IR emission spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, F. H.; Goldman, A.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Murcray, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric emission spectra obtained with two different spectrometer systems are presented. The first system (the BOMEM Michelson interferometer) is designed for emission work. Spectra were obtained under adverse conditions in the Antarctic, and are still of good absolute accuracy. The second system (a modified Bruker Instruments IFS120 very high spectral resolution interferometer) demonstrates the sensitivity that can be achieved even at higher spectral resolution. This system shows that mid-IR atmospheric emission spectra can be obtained with a good SNR in a reasonable length of time at a relatively high resolution. A properly designed high resolution system should achieve high accuracy, sensitivity, and resolution, thereby permitting measurements of many atmospheric constituents when solar spectra cannot be obtained.

  3. Simulation and fitting of high resolution Rutherford backscattering spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borschel, Christian; Schnell, Martin; Ronning, Carsten; Hofsäss, Hans

    2009-05-01

    A computer program for the analysis of high resolution Rutherford backscattering spectra (HR-RBS), which can be recorded with an electrostatic energy analyzer (ESA) and a resolution of about 1 keV, has been developed. The use of an ESA results in various differences compared to conventional RBS spectra, motivating the development of a new algorithm for simulation for these spectra. We present a Monte Carlo based diffusion-like fit approach for evaluation of the HR-RBS spectra, which is in particular useful for fitting concentration gradients. Examples for the application of the algorithm are shown to demonstrate its functionality.

  4. High Resolution Mass Spectra Analysis with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, David K.

    1980-01-01

    Highlighted are characteristics of programs written for a pocket-sized programmable calculator to analyze mass spectra data (such as displaying high resolution masses for formulas, predicting whether formulas are stable molecules or molecular ions, determining formulas by isotopic abundance measurement) in a laboratory or classroom. (CS)

  5. High-Resolution Vibrational Spectra of Furazan II. The B1 Fundamental ν 11 at ~ 1175 cm-1 from Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiefvater, Otto L.

    1992-03-01

    The high-resolution FT-IR spectrum of the A-type fundamental ν11 of furazan ( C2H2N20) has been recorded and analysed against the background of rotational information from DRM microwave spectroscopy to yield the band origin as ν110= 1175.3377 + 0.0001 cm-1 . The combined use of microwave (MW) and FT-IR data gives this band origin with a statistical uncertainty of σ= 10-6cm-1 and leads to a refinement of the rotational constants of the state ν11 = 1 over those derivable from either MW or FT-IR data alone

  6. High Resolution Optical and NIR Spectra of HBC 722

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Park, Sunkyung; Green, Joel D.; Cochran, William D.; Kang, Wonseok; Lee, Sang-Gak; Sung, Hyun-Il

    2015-07-01

    We present the results of high resolution (R ≥ 30,000) optical and near-IR spectroscopic monitoring observations of HBC 722, a recent FU Orionis object that underwent an accretion burst in 2010. We observed HBC 722 in the optical/near-IR with the Bohyunsan Optical Echelle Spectrograph, Hobby-Eberly Telescope-HRS, and Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph, at various points in the outburst. We found atomic lines with strongly blueshifted absorption features or P Cygni profiles, both evidence of a wind driven by the accretion. Some lines show a broad double-peaked absorption feature, evidence of disk rotation. However, the wind-driven and disk-driven spectroscopic features are anti-correlated in time; the disk features became strong as the wind features disappeared. This anti-correlation might indicate that the rebuilding of the inner disk was interrupted by the wind pressure during the first 2 years. The half-width at half-depth of the double-peaked profiles decreases with wavelength, indicative of the Keplerian rotation; the optical spectra with the disk feature are fitted by a G5 template stellar spectrum convolved with a rotation velocity of 70 km s-1 while the near-IR disk features are fitted by a K5 template stellar spectrum convolved with a rotation velocity of 50 km s-1. Therefore, the optical and near-IR spectra seem to trace the disk at 39 and 76 R⊙, respectively. We fit a power-law temperature distribution in the disk, finding an index of 0.8, comparable to optically thick accretion disk models. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  7. High Resolution Optical and NIR Spectra of HBC 722

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Park, Sunkyung; Green, Joel D.; Cochran, William D.; Kang, Wonseok; Lee, Sang-Gak; Sung, Hyun-Il

    2015-07-01

    We present the results of high resolution (R ≥ 30,000) optical and near-IR spectroscopic monitoring observations of HBC 722, a recent FU Orionis object that underwent an accretion burst in 2010. We observed HBC 722 in the optical/near-IR with the Bohyunsan Optical Echelle Spectrograph, Hobby–Eberly Telescope-HRS, and Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph, at various points in the outburst. We found atomic lines with strongly blueshifted absorption features or P Cygni profiles, both evidence of a wind driven by the accretion. Some lines show a broad double-peaked absorption feature, evidence of disk rotation. However, the wind-driven and disk-driven spectroscopic features are anti-correlated in time; the disk features became strong as the wind features disappeared. This anti-correlation might indicate that the rebuilding of the inner disk was interrupted by the wind pressure during the first 2 years. The half-width at half-depth of the double-peaked profiles decreases with wavelength, indicative of the Keplerian rotation; the optical spectra with the disk feature are fitted by a G5 template stellar spectrum convolved with a rotation velocity of 70 km s‑1 while the near-IR disk features are fitted by a K5 template stellar spectrum convolved with a rotation velocity of 50 km s‑1. Therefore, the optical and near-IR spectra seem to trace the disk at 39 and 76 R⊙, respectively. We fit a power-law temperature distribution in the disk, finding an index of 0.8, comparable to optically thick accretion disk models. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby–Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  8. Analysis of the rotational structure in the high-resolution infrared spectra of cis,cis- and trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-1-d1 and trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-1,4-d2

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Norman C.; Chen, Yihui; Lu, Yuhua; Neese, Christopher F.; Nemchick, Deacon J.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2013-06-01

    Samples of cis,cis- and trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-1- d1 and of trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-1,4-d2 have been synthesized, and high-resolution (≤0.0018 cm-1) infrared spectra of these substances have been recorded in the gas phase. Analysis of the rotational structure, mostly in C-type bands, has yielded ground state rotational constants. For the two 1-d1 species more than one band has been analyzed. For the 1,4-d2 species only one band was available for analysis. However, good agreement between the experimental centrifugal distortion constants and those predicted with a B3LYP/cc-pVTZ model give strong support to the analysis of the very dense spectrum. The ground state rotational constants are a contribution to finding semiexperimental equilibrium structures of the two nonpolar isomers of 1,4- difluorobutadiene.

  9. High-Resolution Vibrational Spectra of Furazan IV. The Aj Fundamental v2 at ~ 1418 cm-1 from Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiefvater, Otto L.; Klee, Stefan

    1993-06-01

    The band origin of the A1 mode v2 , which represents the symmetrical stretching vibration of the two C = N bonds of furazan, has been determined from the high-resolution FT-IR band as v20 = 1418.4724± 0.0001 cm-1. The rotational parameters of this excited state, as determined in a preceding DRM microwave study, have been confirmed and their precision was raised through the combined fit of microwave data and of some 2500 rovibrational transitions. The use of conjugate low-J Q-branch lines for the determination of the origin of a B-type IR band of an asymmetric rotor is illustrated.

  10. A reevaluation of the assignment of the vibrational fundamentals and the rotational analysis of bands in the high-resolution infrared spectra of trans- and cis- 1,3,5-hexatriene

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Norman C.; Leyden, Matthew C.; Moore, Michael C.; Patchen, Amie K.; van den Heuvel, Titus; Blake, Thomas A.; Masiello, Tony; Sams, Robert L.

    2010-07-01

    Assignments of the vibrational fundamentals of cis- and trans-1,3,5-hexatriene are reevaluated with new infrared and Raman spectra and with quantum chemical predictions of intensities and anharmonic frequencies. The rotational structure is analyzed in the high-resolution (0.0013-0.0018 cm -1) infrared spectra of three C-type bands of the trans isomer and two C-type bands of the cis isomer. The bands for the trans isomer are at 1010.96 cm-1 (v14), 900.908 cm-1 (v16), and 683.46 cm-1 (v17). Ground state (GS) rotational constants have been fitted to the combined ground state combination differences (GSCDs) for the three bands of the trans isomer. The bands for the cis isomer are at 907.70 cm-1 (v33) and 587.89 cm-1 (v35). GS rotational constants have been fitted to the combined GSCDs for the two bands of the cis isomer and compared with those obtained from microwave spectroscopy. Small inertial defects in the GSs confirm that both molecules are planar. Upper state rotational constants were fitted for all five bands.

  11. Strategies for Interpreting High Resolution Coherent Multidimensional Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Thresa A.; House, Zuri R.; Chen, Peter C.; Strangfeld, Benjamin R.

    2013-06-01

    The electronic spectra of certain molecules can be very complex and consist of a high density of peaks. The high density of peaks results in severe spectral congestion, making conventional data analysis techniques extremely difficult to use. One solution to this problem is to use high resolution coherent 2D spectroscopy (HRC2DS), which can improve resolution and sort peaks into recognizable clusters. This technique requires new data analysis techniques to accurately assign peaks. Even though HRC2DS can improve spectral resolution, some regions of the spectra may still remain congested. The ability to solve this problem using even higher dimensional techniques (e.g., high resolution coherent 3D spectroscopy) with 3D pattern recognition and data analysis techniques will be discussed.

  12. Design and implementation of spaceborne high resolution infrared touch screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tai-guo; Li, Wen-xin; Dong, Yi-peng; Ma, Wen; Xia, Jia-gao

    2015-10-01

    For the consideration of the special application environment of the electronic products used in aerospace and to further more improve the human-computer interaction of the manned aerospace area. The research is based on the design and implementation way of the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen on the basis of FPGA and DSP frame structure. Beside the introduction of the whole structure for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, this essay also gives the detail information about design of hardware for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, FPGA design, GUI design and DSP algorithm design based on Lagrange interpolation. What is more, the easy makes a comprehensive research of the reliability design for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen for the special purpose of it. Besides, the system test is done after installation of spaceborne infrared touch screen. The test result shows that the system is simple and reliable enough, which has a stable running environment and high resolution, which certainly can meet the special requirement of the manned aerospace instrument products.

  13. Principal component and sensitivity analysis of cirrus clouds using high-resolution IR radiance spectra: simulations and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldering, A.; Braverman, A.; Fetzer, E. J.

    2003-01-01

    A set of simulated and observed nadir-oriented high-resolution infrared emission spectra of synthetic cirrus clouds is analyzed to assess the spectrally dependent variability of radiance from the adjustment of some microphysical and bulk cirrus cloud properties.

  14. Band Selection Procedure for Reduction of High Resolution Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasztor, L.; Csillag, F.

    In this paper we present a technique for reduction of spectra based on the methods of multivariate statistical analysis. The procedure was developed for general processing of digital, high resolution spectra. The recursive band selection method can be applied in studies for weighting (original) spectral bands according their sensitivity to a predefined classification scheme. Additionally, definition of medium and broad band systems is possible, which can efficiently substitute the original spectrum. According to the characteristics of the method resulted from a remote sensing application (convergence, robustness), it is suggested for use in different (radio, UV, X-ray etc.) astronomical studies as well.

  15. CO2 retrieval algorithm for the thermal infrared spectra of the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite: Potential of retrieving CO2 vertical profile from high-resolution FTS sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Naoko; Imasu, Ryoichi; Ota, Yoshifumi; Niwa, Yosuke

    2009-09-01

    The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) was successfully launched in January 2009, with the aim of providing global observations of greenhouse gases. We developed an algorithm to retrieve CO2 vertical profiles from the terrestrial radiation spectra at 700-800 cm-1 and assessed its validity. For this purpose, we first computed GOSAT pseudomeasurement spectra and then performed CO2 retrieval simulations using the maximum a posteriori (MAP) method, with analytical data for temperature information. Our simulations with no uncertainty in the estimates of atmospheric conditions such as surface temperature, surface emissivity, and profiles of temperature, water vapor, and ozone showed that the retrieved CO2 profiles had an accuracy of 1% above 800 hPa, with little dependence on the a priori profiles. Introducing correlations between layers in an a priori error covariance matrix was important for CO2 retrieval especially above 200 hPa. Enhancing the correlations below 800 hPa was important for CO2 retrieval there. Selecting 100 channels based on CO2 information content for all layers, 10 channels for the region above 55 hPa, and 50 channels for the region below 800 hPa was sufficient to achieve CO2 retrieval with 1% accuracy from the troposphere through the stratosphere. Our simulations with possible errors in the atmospheric conditions showed that 1% accuracy was also achieved at 600-100 hPa in every latitude region, although the retrieved CO2 concentrations probably included up to 4% positive and negative biases at 30°S-30°N above 100 hPa and at mid- and high latitudes below 600 hPa, respectively.

  16. Modeling Titan's thermal infrared spectrum for high-resolution space observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.; Encrenaz, Th.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G.; Graner, G.; Dang-Nhu, M.; Arie, E.

    1993-04-01

    The observability of minor species in Titan's atmosphere in its infrared thermal range is systematically studied and modeled to generate synthetic spectra. The model results on methane, water vapor, benzene, allene, and other heavier trace molecules are used to illustrate the capabilities of instruments aboard the Infrared Space Observatory, in particular a high-resolution composite infrared spectrometer, to determine vertical distributions of the molecules in a few hours of integration time.

  17. Rotation spectrum and high resolution infrared spectra of the fundamental bands of 121SbD 3. Determination of the ground state and equilibrium structures. Ab initio calculations of the spectroscopic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canè, E.; Di Lonardo, G.; Fusina, L.; Jerzembeck, W.; Bürger, H.; Breidung, J.; Thiel, W.

    2006-01-01

    The high resolution infrared spectrum of 121SbD 3, recorded between 20 and 350 cm -1 and in the regions of bending and stretching fundamental bands, centred at 600 and 1350 cm -1, has been analysed. Splittings of the K″=3, 6 lines have been observed both in the rotation and ro-vibration spectra. A large number of 'perturbation allowed' transitions with selection rules Δ(k-ℓ)=±3, ±6 and ±9 have been identified in all fundamental bands. Accurate ground state molecular parameters have been determined fitting simultaneously the rotational transitions and about 9000 ground state combination differences obtained from lines assigned in the ro-vibrational spectra. The A and B reductions of the rotational Hamiltonian have been applied in the analysis of the ground state. They provided almost equivalent results. The molecular parameters of the 1 1, 2 1, 3 1 and 4 1 states have been obtained from the simultaneous analysis of the ν1 ( A1)/ ν3 ( E) stretching and of the ν2 ( A1)/ ν4 ( E) bending dyads. In fact, the corresponding excited states are affected by strong perturbations due to Coriolis and k-type rovibrational interactions that have been treated explicitly in the model adopted for the analysis. Improved effective ground state and equilibrium geometries have been determined and compared to those of 121SbH 3 and of 123SbD 3. Ab initio calculations at the coupled cluster CCSD(T) level with an energy-consistent large-core pseudopotential and large basis sets have been carried out to determine the equilibrium structure, the anharmonic force field, and the associated spectroscopic constants of 121-stibine. The theoretical constants and structural parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  18. POLLUX: a database of stellar spectra - First step : SED and High Resolution Synthetic Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, A.; Josselin, E.; Lèbre, A.; Martins, F.; Monier, R.; Plez, B.; Belmas, M.

    2008-10-01

    POLLUX is a stellar spectra database under development at the GRAAL laboratory (Montpellier, France). It will be made available on-line to the community through a VO compliant interface (http://pollux.graal.univ-montp2.fr). In its first version, POLLUX will propose theoretical data: high resolution synthetic spectra and spectral energy distribution.

  19. High resolution infrared datasets useful for validating stratospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.

    1992-01-01

    An important objective of the High Speed Research Program (HSRP) is to support research in the atmospheric sciences that will improve the basic understanding of the circulation and chemistry of the stratosphere and lead to an interim assessment of the impact of a projected fleet of High Speed Civil Transports (HSCT's) on the stratosphere. As part of this work, critical comparisons between models and existing high quality measurements are planned. These comparisons will be used to test the reliability of current atmospheric chemistry models. Two suitable sets of high resolution infrared measurements are discussed.

  20. CASSIS: The Cornell Atlas of Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph Sources. II. High-resolution Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebouteiller, V.; Barry, D. J.; Goes, C.; Sloan, G. C.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Weedman, D. W.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Houck, J. R.

    2015-06-01

    The Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope observed about 15,000 objects during the cryogenic mission lifetime. Observations provided low-resolution (R=λ /{Δ }λ ≈ 60-127) spectra over ≈ 5-38 μm and high-resolution (R≈ 600) spectra over 10-37 μm. The Cornell Atlas of Spitzer/IRS Sources (CASSIS) was created to provide publishable quality spectra to the community. Low-resolution spectra have been available in CASSIS since 2011, and here we present the addition of the high-resolution spectra. The high-resolution observations represent approximately one-third of all staring observations performed with the IRS instrument. While low-resolution observations are adapted to faint objects and/or broad spectral features (e.g., dust continuum, molecular bands), high-resolution observations allow more accurate measurements of narrow features (e.g., ionic emission lines) as well as a better sampling of the spectral profile of various features. Given the narrow aperture of the two high-resolution modules, cosmic ray hits and spurious features usually plague the spectra. Our pipeline is designed to minimize these effects through various improvements. A super-sampled point-spread function was created in order to enable the optimal extraction in addition to the full aperture extraction. The pipeline selects the best extraction method based on the spatial extent of the object. For unresolved sources, the optimal extraction provides a significant improvement in signal-to-noise ratio over a full aperture extraction. We have developed several techniques for optimal extraction, including a differential method that eliminates low-level rogue pixels (even when no dedicated background observation was performed). The updated CASSIS repository now includes all the spectra ever taken by the IRS, with the exception of mapping observations.

  1. High resolution infrared acquisitions droning over the LUSI mud eruption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Felice, Fabio; Romeo, Giovanni; Di Stefano, Giuseppe; Mazzini, Adriano

    2016-04-01

    The use of low-cost hand-held infrared (IR) thermal cameras based on uncooled micro-bolometer detector arrays became more widespread during the recent years. Thermal cameras have the ability to estimate temperature values without contact and therefore can be used in circumstances where objects are difficult or dangerous to reach such as volcanic eruptions. Since May 2006 the Indonesian LUSI mud eruption continues to spew boiling mud, water, aqueous vapor, CO2, CH4 and covers a surface of nearly 7 km2. At this locality we performed surveys over the unreachable erupting crater. In the framework of the LUSI Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126), in 2014 and 2015, we acquired high resolution infrared images using a specifically equipped remote-controlled drone flying at an altitude of m 100. The drone is equipped with GPS and an autopilot system that allows pre-programming the flying path or designing grids. The mounted thermal camera has peak spectral sensitivity in LW wavelength (μm 10) that is characterized by low water vapor and CO2 absorption. The low distance (high resolution) acquisitions have a temperature detail every cm 40, therefore it is possible to detect and observe physical phenomena such as thermodynamic behavior, hot mud and fluids emissions locations and their time shifts. Despite the harsh logistics and the continuously varying gas concentrations we managed to collect thermal images to estimate the crater zone spatial thermal variations. We applied atmosphere corrections to calculate infrared absorption by high concentration of water vapor. Thousands of images have been stitched together to obtain a mosaic of the crater zone. Regular monitoring with heat variation measurements collected, e.g. every six months, could give important information about the volcano activity estimating its evolution. A future data base of infrared high resolution and visible images stored in a web server could be a useful monitoring tool. An interesting development will be

  2. High Resolution Far-Infrared Spectra of Thiophosgene with a Synchrotron Source: The nu{sub 2} and nu{sub 4} Bands Near 500 cm{sup -1}

    SciTech Connect

    McKellar, A. R. W.; Billinghurst, B. E.

    2010-02-03

    Thiophosgene (Cl{sub 2}CS) is a favorite model system for studies of vibrational dynamics. But there are no previous rotationally-resolved infrared studies because the spectra are very congested due to its (relatively) large mass and multiple isotopic species. Here we report a detailed gas-phase study of the nu{sub 2} (approx504 cm{sup -1}) and nu{sub 4} (approx471 cm{sup -1}) fundamental bands, based on spectra obtained at the Canadian Light Source far-infrared beamline using synchrotron radiation and a Bruker IFS125 FT spectrometer.

  3. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy with Synchrotron Sources

    SciTech Connect

    McKellar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Most applications of synchrotron radiation lie in the ultraviolet and X-ray region, but it also serves as a valuable continuum source of infrared (IR) light which is much brighter (i.e. more highly directional) than that from normal thermal sources. The synchrotron brightness advantage was originally exploited for high spatial resolution spectroscopy of condensed-phase samples. But it is also valuable for high spectral resolution of gas-phase samples, particularly in the difficult far-IR (terahertz) range (1/{lambda} {approx} 10-1000 cm{sup -1}). Essentially, the synchrotron replaces the usual thermal source in a Fourier transform IR spectrometer, giving a increase of up to two (or even more) orders of magnitude in signal at very high-resolution. Following up on pioneering work in Sweden (MAX-lab) and France (LURE), a number of new facilities have recently been constructed for high-resolution gas-phase IR spectroscopy. In the present paper, this new field is reviewed. The advantages and difficulties associated with synchrotron IR spectroscopy are outlined, current and new facilities are described, and past, present, and future spectroscopic results are summarized.

  4. High-Resolution Mars Camera Test Image of Moon (Infrared)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This crescent view of Earth's Moon in infrared wavelengths comes from a camera test by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on its way to Mars. The mission's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera took the image on Sept. 8, 2005, while at a distance of about 10 million kilometers (6 million miles) from the Moon. The dark feature on the right is Mare Crisium. From that distance, the Moon would appear as a star-like point of light to the unaided eye. The test verified the camera's focusing capability and provided an opportunity for calibration. The spacecraft's Context Camera and Optical Navigation Camera also performed as expected during the test.

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched on Aug. 12, 2005, is on course to reach Mars on March 10, 2006. After gradually adjusting the shape of its orbit for half a year, it will begin its primary science phase in November 2006. From the mission's planned science orbit about 300 kilometers (186 miles) above the surface of Mars, the high resolution camera will be able to discern features as small as one meter or yard across.

  5. The TIROS-N high resolution infrared radiation sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, E. W.

    1979-01-01

    The high-resolution infrared radiation sounder (HIRS/2) was developed and flown on the Television and Infrared Observation Satellite, N Series (TIROS-N) as one means of obtaining atmospheric vertical profile information. The HIRS/2 receives visible and infrared spectrum radiation through a single telescope and selects 20 narrow spectral channels by means of a rotating filter wheel. A passive radiant cooler provides an operating temperature of 106.7K for the HgCdTe and InSb detectors while the visible detector operates at instrument frame temperature. Low noise amplifiers and digital processing provide 13 bit data for spacecraft data multiplexing and transmission. The qualities of system performance that determine sounding capability are the dynamic range of data collection, the noise equivalent radiance of the system, the registration of the air columns sampled in each channel, and the ability to upgrade the calibration of the instrument to maintain the performance standard throughout life. The basic performance of the instrument in test is described. Early orbital information from the TIROS-N launched on October 13, 1978 are given and some observations on system quality are made.

  6. Design of the WIYN High Resolution Infrared Camera (WHIRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smee, S. A.; Barkhouser, R. H.; Scharfstein, G. A.; Meixner, M.; Orndorff, J. D.; Miller, T.

    2011-01-01

    The WIYN High Resolution Infrared Camera (WHIRC) is a high-resolution near-infrared imager (0.8-2.5 μm) designed to produce superb images over a moderate (3.3' × 3.4') field of view on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. It takes scientific advantage of the excellent image quality produced by the telescope and its image stabilization subsystem, the WIYN Tip-Tilt Module (WTTM), which is located on one of two Nasmyth ports. WHIRC mounts to WTTM and reimages the WTTM focal plane to a plate scale of 0.1'' pixel-1 at the WHIRC detector. Its straight-through optical path makes for a compact, very low mass, instrument—a necessity, given the stringent moment-loading requirement at the WTTM interface. The WHIRC optical path consists of a vacuum window, a five-element collimator, a dual filter wheel, a five-element achromatic camera, and a 2k2 Raytheon VIRGO mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) detector. A novel all-aluminum lens cell design is used to achieve 13 μm lens centering tolerances between ambient and the 77 K operating temperature. A suite of 13 filters facilitates broadband (J, H, and Ks) imaging, as well as narrowband imaging tailored to a variety of astronomical investigations. The imaging performance of WHIRC is excellent. Irrespective of seeing, the telescope, and WTTM, WHIRC delivers 0.13'', 0.11'', and 0.08'' FWHM images in J, H, and Ks, respectively. On sky, the imaging is equally impressive yielding images as good as ~0.25 FWHM in Ks. In this article we describe the WHIRC design in detail and present the predicted and measured instrument performance.

  7. A high-resolution Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. L.; Forbes, F. F.; Thompson, R. I.; Steinmetz , D. L.; Harris, O.

    1973-01-01

    We have developed a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer having a resolution of 0.5/cm over the range of wavelength from 1 to 5.5 microns. It has been used to observe the sun over this wavelength range from a Lear Jet flying at an altitude of 14 km, and to observe a number of stars from the ground, using the 229-cm telescope of the Steward Observatory and the 152-cm aluminum-mirror telescope at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional in the Sierra de San Pedro Martir, Baja California, Mexico. The solar spectrum is given here, while the ground-based spectra are being published separately.

  8. Partial homogeneity based high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra under inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Zhiliang; Lin, Liangjie; Lin, Yanqin E-mail: chenz@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Zhong E-mail: chenz@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Youhe

    2014-09-29

    In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, it is of great necessity and importance to obtain high-resolution spectra, especially under inhomogeneous magnetic fields. In this study, a method based on partial homogeneity is proposed for retrieving high-resolution one-dimensional NMR spectra under inhomogeneous fields. Signals from series of small voxels, which characterize high resolution due to small sizes, are recorded simultaneously. Then, an inhomogeneity correction algorithm is developed based on pattern recognition to correct the influence brought by field inhomogeneity automatically, thus yielding high-resolution information. Experiments on chemical solutions and fish spawn were carried out to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. The proposed method serves as a single radiofrequency pulse high-resolution NMR spectroscopy under inhomogeneous fields and may provide an alternative of obtaining high-resolution spectra of in vivo living systems or chemical-reaction systems, where performances of conventional techniques are usually degenerated by field inhomogeneity.

  9. Automatic one dimensional spectra extraction for Weihai fiber-fed high resolution echelle spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shao Ming; Gao, Dong Yang

    2014-11-01

    One fiber-fed high resolution echelle spectrograph was built for the one meter telescope atWeihai Observatory of Shandong University. It is used for exoplanet searching by radial velocity method and for stellar spectra analysis. One dimensional spectra extraction from the raw echelle data is researched in this paper. Flat field images with different exposure times were used to trace the order position accurately. The accurate background was fitted from each CCD image and it was subtracted from the raw image to correct the background and straylight. The intensity of each order decreases towards the order margin, and the lengths of order are different between the blue and red regions. The order tracing during the data reduction was investigated in this work. Accurate flux can be obtained after considering the effects of bad pixels, the curvature of each order and so on. One Interactive Data Language program for one dimensional spectra extraction was adopted and implemented to echelle data reduction for Weihai fiber-fed high resolution echelle spectra, and the results are illustrated here. The program is efficient and accurate for echelle data reduction. It can be adopted to reduce data taken by other instruments even the spectrographs in other fields, and it is very convenient for astronomers.

  10. LSD-based analysis of high-resolution stellar spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsymbal, V.; Tkachenko, A.; Van, Reeth T.

    2014-11-01

    We present a generalization of the method of least-squares deconvolution (LSD), a powerful tool for extracting high S/N average line profiles from stellar spectra. The generalization of the method is effected by extending it towards the multiprofile LSD and by introducing the possibility to correct the line strengths from the initial mask. We illustrate the new approach by two examples: (a) the detection of astroseismic signatures from low S/N spectra of single stars, and (b) disentangling spectra of multiple stellar objects. The analysis is applied to spectra obtained with 2-m class telescopes in the course of spectroscopic ground-based support for space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler. Usually, rather high S/N is required, so smaller telescopes can only compete successfully with more advanced ones when one can apply a technique that enables a remarkable increase in the S/N of the spectra which they observe. Since the LSD profiles have a potential for reconstruction what is common in all the spectral profiles, it should have a particular practical application to faint stars observed with 2-m class telescopes and whose spectra show remarkable LPVs.

  11. Stratospheric NO and NO2 profiles at sunset from analysis of high-resolution balloon-borne infrared solar absorption spectra obtained at 33 deg N and calculations with a time-dependent photochemical model

    SciTech Connect

    Rinsland, C.P.; Boughner, R.E.; Larsen, J.C.; Goldman, A.

    1984-08-01

    Simultaneous stratospheric vertical profiles of NO and NO2 at sunset were derived from an analysis of infrared solar absorption spectra recorded from a float altitude of 33 km with an interferometer system during a balloon flight. A nonlinear least squares procedure was used to analyze the spectral data in regions of absorption by NO and NO2 lines. Normalized factors, determined from calculations of time dependent altitude profiles with a detailed photochemical model, were included in the onion peeling analysis to correct for the rapid diurnal changes in NO and NO2 concentrations with time near sunset. The CO2 profile was also derived from the analysis and is reported.

  12. Stratospheric NO and NO2 profiles at sunset from analysis of high-resolution balloon-borne infrared solar absorption spectra obtained at 33 deg N and calculations with a time-dependent photochemical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Boughner, R. E.; Larsen, J. C.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    Simultaneous stratospheric vertical profiles of NO and NO2 at sunset were derived from an analysis of infrared solar absorption spectra recorded from a float altitude of 33 km with an interferometer system during a balloon flight. A nonlinear least squares procedure was used to analyze the spectral data in regions of absorption by NO and NO2 lines. Normalized factors, determined from calculations of time dependent altitude profiles with a detailed photochemical model, were included in the onion peeling analysis to correct for the rapid diurnal changes in NO and NO2 concentrations with time near sunset. The CO2 profile was also derived from the analysis and is reported.

  13. High-resolution microwave spectra of solar bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahli, M.; Gary, D. E.; Hurford, G. J.

    1989-01-01

    A phenomenological and statistical study of flares observed in total power with the frequency-agile interferometer at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory during several months of high solar activity in 1981 is reported. Roughly 80 percent of the events have a complex spectrum consisting of more than one spectral component, implying that the microwave radiation of a burst usually does not come from a single homogeneous source. The presence of more than one component can lead to significant errors when data with low spectral resolution are used to determine the low-side spectral index. The low-frequency slope of a single spectra component is often steeper than expected, and the peak frequency stays nearly constant throughout a microwave event.

  14. Water Vapor on Betelgeuse as Revealed by TEXES High-Resolution 12 μm Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryde, N.; Harper, G. M.; Richter, M. J.; Greathouse, T. K.; Lacy, J. H.

    2006-02-01

    The outer atmosphere of the M supergiant Betelgeuse is puzzling. Published observations of different kinds have shed light on different aspects of the atmosphere, but no unified picture has emerged. They have shown, for example, evidence of a water envelope (MOLsphere) that in some studies is found to be optically thick in the mid-infrared. In this paper, we present high-resolution, mid-infrared spectra of Betelgeuse recorded with the TEXES spectrograph. The spectra clearly show absorption features of water vapor and OH. We show that a spectrum based on a spherical, hydrostatic model photosphere with Teff=3600 K, an effective temperature often assumed for Betelgeuse, fails to model the observed lines. Furthermore, we show that published MOLsphere scenarios are unable to explain our data. However, we are able to model the observed spectrum reasonably well by adopting a cooler outer photospheric structure corresponding to Tmod=3250 K. The success of this model may indicate that the observed mid-infrared lines are formed in cool photospheric surface regions. Given the uncertainties of the temperature structure and the likely presence of inhomogeneities, we cannot rule out the possibility that our spectrum could be mostly photospheric, albeit nonclassical. Our data put new, strong constraints on atmospheric models of Betelgeuse, and we conclude that continued investigation requires consideration of nonclassical model photospheres, as well as possible effects of a MOLsphere. We show that the mid-infrared water vapor features have great diagnostic value for the environments of K and M (super)giant star atmospheres.

  15. Spectra of Strong Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence from High-resolution Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beresnyak, Andrey

    2014-04-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is present in a variety of solar and astrophysical environments. Solar wind fluctuations with frequencies lower than 0.1 Hz are believed to be mostly governed by Alfvénic turbulence with particle transport depending on the power spectrum and the anisotropy of such turbulence. Recently, conflicting spectral slopes for the inertial range of MHD turbulence have been reported by different groups. Spectral shapes from earlier simulations showed that MHD turbulence is less scale-local compared with hydrodynamic turbulence. This is why higher-resolution simulations, and careful and rigorous numerical analysis is especially needed for the MHD case. In this Letter, we present two groups of simulations with resolution up to 40963, which are numerically well-resolved and have been analyzed with an exact and well-tested method of scaling study. Our results from both simulation groups indicate that the asymptotic power spectral slope for all energy-related quantities, such as total energy and residual energy, is around -1.7, close to Kolmogorov's -5/3. This suggests that residual energy is a constant fraction of the total energy and that in the asymptotic regime of Alfvénic turbulence magnetic and kinetic spectra have the same scaling. The -1.5 slope for energy and the -2 slope for residual energy, which have been suggested earlier, are incompatible with our numerics.

  16. SPECTRA OF STRONG MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Beresnyak, Andrey

    2014-04-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is present in a variety of solar and astrophysical environments. Solar wind fluctuations with frequencies lower than 0.1 Hz are believed to be mostly governed by Alfvénic turbulence with particle transport depending on the power spectrum and the anisotropy of such turbulence. Recently, conflicting spectral slopes for the inertial range of MHD turbulence have been reported by different groups. Spectral shapes from earlier simulations showed that MHD turbulence is less scale-local compared with hydrodynamic turbulence. This is why higher-resolution simulations, and careful and rigorous numerical analysis is especially needed for the MHD case. In this Letter, we present two groups of simulations with resolution up to 4096{sup 3}, which are numerically well-resolved and have been analyzed with an exact and well-tested method of scaling study. Our results from both simulation groups indicate that the asymptotic power spectral slope for all energy-related quantities, such as total energy and residual energy, is around –1.7, close to Kolmogorov's –5/3. This suggests that residual energy is a constant fraction of the total energy and that in the asymptotic regime of Alfvénic turbulence magnetic and kinetic spectra have the same scaling. The –1.5 slope for energy and the –2 slope for residual energy, which have been suggested earlier, are incompatible with our numerics.

  17. Long-Term Trends in the Concentrations of SF6, CHClF2, and COF2 in the Lower Stratosphere from Analysis of High-Resolution Infrared Solar Occultation Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Kosters, J. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Sze, N. D.; Massie, S. T.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term trends in the concentrations of SF6, CHClF2 (CFC-22), and COF2 in the lower stratosphere have been derived from analysis of ca. 1980 and more recent infrared solar occultation spectra recorded near 32 deg N latitude at approx. 0.02/ cm resolution. Consistent sets of line parameters and spectral calibration methods have been used in the retrievals to minimize systematic error effects. Quoted error limits are 1 sigma estimated precisions. The SF6 and CHClF2 results are based on spectra recorded by balloon-borne interferometers in March 1981 and June 1988 and a comparison of these results with the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Experiment/Spacelab 3 measurements obtained in May 1985 near 30 deg N latitude. In the 13-18 km altitude range the mean measured SF6 mixing ratio in parts per trillion by volume (pptv) increased from 1.17 +/- 0.21 in March 1981 to 2.02 +/- 0.20 pptv in June 1988, and the CHClF2 mixing ratio below 15 km altitude increased from 51 +/- 8 pptv in March 1981 to 102 +/- 10 pptv in June 1988. The CHClF2 retrievals used new empirical CHClF2 line parameters derived from 0.03/cm resolution laboratory spectra recorded at six temperatures between 203 and 293 K; the derived mixing ratios are approx. 30% higher than obtained with earlier sets of line parameters, thereby removing a large discrepancy noted previously between IR and in situ measurements of CHClF2. Assuming an exponential growth model for fitting the trends, SF6 and CHClF2 mean increase rates of 7.4% +/- 1.9% and 9.4% +/- 1.3% /year, are obtained, respectively, which correspond to cumulative increases by factors of approx. 1.7 and -2.0 in the concentrations of these gases over the 7.2-year measurement period. Analysis of spectra recorded in October 1979 and April 1989 yields COF2 volume mixing ratios that are respectively 0.44 +/- 0.17 and 1.21 +/- 0.24 times the ATMOS/Spacelab 3 values, from which an average COF2 increase rate of 10.3 +/- 1.8%/ year over this time

  18. A high-resolution atlas of the infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth atmosphere from space: A compilation of ATMOS spectra of the region from 650 to 4800 cm (2.3 to 16 micron). Volume 1: The Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Crofton B.; Norton, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    During the period April 29 through May 2, 1985, the Atmospheric Trace Molecular Spectroscopy experiment was operated as part of the Spacelab-3 payload of the shuttle Challenger. The instrument, a modified Michelson Interferometer covering the frequency range from 600 to 5000/cm, at a spectral resolution of 0.01/cm, recorded infrared spectra of the Sun and of the Earth's atmosphere at times close to entry into and exit from occultation by the Earth's limb as seen from the shuttle orbit of 360 km. Spectra were obtained that are free from absorptions due to constituents of the atmosphere (i.e., solar pure spectra), as well as spectra of the atmosphere itself, covering line-of-sight tangent altitudes that span the range from the lower thermosphere to the bottom of the troposphere. This atlas, believed to be the first record of observations of the continuous high resolution infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere from space, provides a compilation of these spectra arranged in a hardcopy format suitable for quick-look reference purposes; the data are also available in digital form.

  19. A high-resolution atlas of the infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth atmosphere from space: A compilation of ATMOS spectra of the region from 650 to 4800 cm (2.3 to 16 micron). Volume 1: The Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, Crofton B.; Norton, Robert H.

    During the period April 29 through May 2, 1985, the Atmospheric Trace Molecular Spectroscopy experiment was operated as part of the Spacelab-3 payload of the shuttle Challenger. The instrument, a modified Michelson Interferometer covering the frequency range from 600 to 5000/cm, at a spectral resolution of 0.01/cm, recorded infrared spectra of the Sun and of the Earth's atmosphere at times close to entry into and exit from occultation by the Earth's limb as seen from the shuttle orbit of 360 km. Spectra were obtained that are free from absorptions due to constituents of the atmosphere (i.e., solar pure spectra), as well as spectra of the atmosphere itself, covering line-of-sight tangent altitudes that span the range from the lower thermosphere to the bottom of the troposphere. This atlas, believed to be the first record of observations of the continuous high resolution infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere from space, provides a compilation of these spectra arranged in a hardcopy format suitable for quick-look reference purposes; the data are also available in digital form.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: High-resolution NIR spectra of local giants (Feuillet+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuillet, D. K.; Bovy, J.; Holtzman, J.; Girardi, L.; MacDonald, N.; Majewski, S. R.; Nidever, D. L.

    2016-04-01

    We present a sample of 705 local giant stars observed using the New Mexico State University 1m telescope with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III/Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectrograph, for which we estimate stellar ages and the local star formation history (SFH). The high-resolution (R~22500), near infrared (1.51-1.7μm) APOGEE spectra provide measurements of stellar atmospheric parameters (temperature, surface gravity, [M/H], and [α/M]). Due to the smaller uncertainties in surface gravity possible with high-resolution spectra and accurate Hipparcos distance measurements, we are able to calculate the stellar masses to within 30%. For giants, the relatively rapid evolution up the red giant branch allows the age to be constrained by the mass. We examine methods of estimating age using both the mass-age relation directly and a Bayesian isochrone matching of measured parameters, assuming a constant SFH. To improve the SFH prior, we use a hierarchical modeling approach to constrain the parameters of the model SFH using the age probability distribution functions of the data. The results of an α-dependent Gaussian SFH model show a clear age-[α/M] relation at all ages. Using this SFH model as the prior for an empirical Bayesian analysis, we determine ages for individual stars. The resulting age-metallicity relation is flat, with a slight decrease in [M/H] at the oldest ages and a ~0.5 dex spread in metallicity across most ages. For stars with ages <~1Gyr we find a smaller spread, consistent with radial migration having a smaller effect on these young stars than on the older stars. (1 data file).

  1. Criteria for spectral classification of cool stars using high-resolution spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, David; Martínez-Arnáiz, Raquel M.; Maldonado, Jesus; Roa-Llamazares, Juan; López-Santiago, Javier; Crespo-Chacón, Inés; Solano, Enrique

    2007-08-01

    We have compiled a large number of optical spectra of cool stars taken with different high-resolution echelle spectrographs (R 40 000). Many of those are available as spectral libraries (Montes et al. 1997, 1998, 1999, spectra.html)>.

  2. Water in the deep atmosphere of Venus from high-resolution spectra of the night side

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Bergh, C.; Bezard, B.; Crisp, D.; Maillard, J. P.; Owen, T.; Pollack, J.; Grinspoon, D.

    1995-01-01

    High-resolution, near-infrared (1.09 to 2.5 micrometers) spectra of the night side of Venus have been obtained in 1990 and 1991 using the Fourier Transform Spectrometer at the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii telescope. Absorptions due to H2O were detected in spectral windows near 2.3, 1.74, and 1.18 micrometers. Our analysis of these absorptions constrains the abundance of water vapor in three different altitude ranges located between the clouds and the surface: 30-40 km, 15-25 km and 0-15 km. A constant water vapor mixing ratio of 30 +/- 15 ppm below the clouds can fit the observations. These values are consistent with recent near-infrared studies of the night side of Venus at lower spectral resolution. The atmosphere of Venus appears to be dryer than originally suggested by the in-situ measurements made by the Pioneer Venus and Venera mass-spectrometers and gas-chromatographs.

  3. Synthesis, High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy, and Vibrational Structure of Cubane, C8H8.

    PubMed

    Boudon, V; Lamy, M; Dugue-Boyé, F; Pirali, O; Gruet, S; D'Accolti, L; Fusco, C; Annese, C; Alikhani, M E

    2016-06-30

    Carbon-cage molecules have generated a considerable interest from both experimental and theoretical points of view. We recently performed a high-resolution study of adamantane (C10H16), the smallest hydrocarbon cage belonging to the diamandoid family ( Pirali , O. ; et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2012 , 136 , 024310 ). There exist another family of hydrocarbon cages with additional interesting chemical properties: the so-called platonic hydrocarbons that comprise dodecahedrane (C20H20) and cubane (C8H8). Both possess C-C bond angles that deviate from the tetrahedral angle (109.8°) of the sp(3) hybridized form of carbon. This generates a considerable strain in the molecule. We report a new wide-range high-resolution study of the infrared spectrum of cubane. The sample was synthesized in Bari upon decarboxylation of 1,4-cubanedicarboxylic acid thanks to the improved synthesis of literature. Several spectra have been recorded at the AILES beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron facility. They cover the 600-3200 cm(-1) region. Besides the three infrared-active fundamentals (ν10, ν11, and ν12), we could record many combination bands, all of them displaying a well-resolved octahedral rotational structure. We present here a preliminary analysis of some of the recorded bands, performed thanks the SPVIEW and XTDS software, based on the tensorial formalism developed in the Dijon group. A comparison with ab initio calculations, allowing to identify some combination bands, is also presented. PMID:27267150

  4. Time series of high-resolution spectra of SN 2014J observed with the TIGRE telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jack, D.; Mittag, M.; Schröder, K.-P.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Hempelmann, A.; González-Pérez, J. N.; Trinidad, M. A.; Rauw, G.; Cabrera Sixto, J. M.

    2015-08-01

    We present a time series of high-resolution spectra of the Type Ia supernova 2014J, which exploded in the nearby galaxy M82. The spectra were obtained with the HEROS échelle spectrograph installed at the 1.2-m TIGRE telescope. We present a series of 33 spectra with a resolution of R ≈ 20 000, which covers the important bright phases in the evolution of SN 2014J during the period from 2014 January 24 to April 1. The spectral evolution of SN 2014J is derived empirically. The expansion velocities of the Si II P-Cygni features were measured and show the expected decreasing behaviour, beginning with a high velocity of 14 000 km s-1 on January 24. The Ca II infrared triplet feature shows a high-velocity component with expansion velocities of >20 000 km s-1 during the early evolution apart from the normal component showing similar velocities as Si II. Further broad P-Cygni profiles are exhibited by the principal lines of Ca II, Mg II and Fe II. The TIGRE SN 2014J spectra also resolve several very sharp Na I D doublet absorption components. Our analysis suggests interesting substructures in the interstellar medium of the host galaxy M82, as well as in our Milky Way, confirming other work on this SN. We were able to identify the interstellar absorption of M82 in the lines of Ca II H & K at 3933 and 3968 Å as well as K I at 7664 and 7698 Å. Furthermore, we confirm several diffuse interstellar bands, at wavelengths of 6196, 6283, 6376, 6379and 6613 Å and give their measured equivalent widths.

  5. High-Resolution Vibrational Spectra of Furazan III. The A1 Fundamentals v3 at ~ 1316 cm-1 and v4 at ~ 1036 cm-1 from Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiefvater, Otto L.

    1993-04-01

    With prior information on vibrationally excited states from DRM microwave spectroscopy, two B-type high-resolution FT-IR bands of furazan were examined to yield the band origins v03 = 1316.2254 cm-1 and v04 = 1036.1689 cm-1 with an estimated absolute uncertainty of ±0.0001 cm-1 . The rotational and distortion constants of both fundamental states were refined by the combination of rotational with rovibrational data in the least-squares fits of the bands.

  6. Line broadening interference for high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra under inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Zhiliang; Yang, Jian; Lin, Yanqin E-mail: chenz@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Zhong E-mail: chenz@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Youhe

    2015-04-07

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy serves as an important tool for analyzing chemicals and biological metabolites. However, its performance is subject to the magnetic-field homogeneity. Under inhomogeneous fields, peaks are broadened to overlap each other, introducing difficulties for assignments. Here, we propose a method termed as line broadening interference (LBI) to provide high-resolution information under inhomogeneous magnetic fields by employing certain gradients in the indirect dimension to interfere the magnetic-field inhomogeneity. The conventional spectral-line broadening is thus interfered to be non-diagonal, avoiding the overlapping among adjacent resonances. Furthermore, an inhomogeneity correction algorithm is developed based on pattern recognition to recover the high-resolution information from LBI spectra. Theoretical deductions are performed to offer systematic and detailed analyses on the proposed method. Moreover, experiments are conducted to prove the feasibility of the proposed method for yielding high-resolution spectra in inhomogeneous magnetic fields.

  7. High-Resolution Infrared and Electron-Diffraction Studies of Trimethylenecyclopropane ([3]-Radialene)

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Corey; Holmes, Joshua; Nibler, Joseph W.; Hedberg, Kenneth; White, James D.; Hedberg, Lise; Weber, Alfons; Blake, Thomas A.

    2013-05-16

    Combined high-resolution spectroscopic, electron-diffraction, and quantum theoretical methods are particularly advantageous for small molecules of high symmetry and can yield accurate structures that reveal subtle effects of electron delocalization on molecular bonds. The smallest of the radialene compounds, trimethylenecyclopropane, [3]-radialene, has been synthesized and examined in the gas phase by these methods. The first high-resolution infrared spectra have been obtained for this molecule of D3h symmetry, leading to an accurate B0 rotational constant value of 0.1378629(8) cm-1, within 0.5% of the value obtained from electronic structure calculations (density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP/cc-pVTZ). This result is employed in an analysis of electron-diffraction data to obtain the rz bond lengths (in Å): C-H = 1.072 (17), C-C = 1.437 (4), and C=C = 1.330 (4). The analysis does not lead to an accurate value of the HCH angle; however, from comparisons of theoretical and experimental angles for similar compounds, the theoretical prediction of 117.5° is believed to be reliable to within 2°. The effect of electron delocalization in radialene is to reduce the single C-C bond length by 0.07 Å compared to that in cyclopropane.

  8. Chemical abundances of 11 bulge stars from high-resolution, near-IR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryde, N.; Gustafsson, B.; Edvardsson, B.; Meléndez, J.; Alves-Brito, A.; Asplund, M.; Barbuy, B.; Hill, V.; Käufl, H. U.; Minniti, D.; Ortolani, S.; Renzini, A.; Zoccali, M.

    2010-01-01

    Context. It is debated whether the Milky Way bulge has characteristics more similar to those of a classical bulge than those of a pseudobulge. Detailed abundance studies of bulge stars are important when investigating the origin, history, and classification of the bulge. These studies provide constraints on the star-formation history, initial mass function, and differences between stellar populations. Not many similar studies have been completed because of the large distance and high variable visual extinction along the line-of-sight towards the bulge. Therefore, near-IR investigations can provide superior results. Aims: To investigate the origin of the bulge and study its chemical abundances determined from near-IR spectra for bulge giants that have already been investigated with optical spectra. The optical spectra also provide the stellar parameters that are very important to the present study. In particular, the important CNO elements are determined more accurately in the near-IR. Oxygen and other α elements are important for investigating the star-formation history. The C and N abundances are important for determining the evolutionary stage of the giants and the origin of C in the bulge. Methods: High-resolution, near-infrared spectra in the H band were recorded using the CRIRES spectrometer mounted on the Very Large Telescope. The CNO abundances are determined from the numerous molecular lines in the wavelength range observed. Abundances of the α elements Si, S, and Ti are also determined from the near-IR spectra. Results: The abundance ratios [O/Fe], [Si/Fe], and [S/Fe] are enhanced to metallicities of at least [Fe/H] = -0.3, after which they decline. This suggests that the Milky Way bulge experienced a rapid and early burst of star formation similar to that of a classical bulge. However, a similarity between the bulge trend and the trend of the local thick disk seems to be present. This similarity suggests that the bulge could have had a pseudobulge

  9. High resolution spectral analysis of oxygen. II. Rotational spectra of a(1)Δ(g)  O2 isotopologues.

    PubMed

    Drouin, Brian J; Gupta, Harshal; Yu, Shanshan; Miller, Charles E; Müller, Holger S P

    2012-07-14

    As part of a comprehensive review on molecular oxygen spectroscopy, we have measured rotational spectra of isotopic forms of molecular oxygen in its a(1)Δ(g) electronic state with high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy. The data are recorded in close proximity to predicted positions. Due to the high resolution and good signal-to-noise ratio, the fundamental hyperfine parameters eQq and C(I) are determinable for (17)O-substituted species for the first time. A refined nuclear spin orbit coupling constant, a = -211.9328(283) MHz, was determined, and is roughly two orders of magnitude more precise than values determined from near infrared spectroscopy or electron spin resonance studies. Vibrationally excited oxygen in the a(1)Δ(g) electronic state was also observable with small signal levels for many of the rotational transitions. PMID:22803534

  10. Intercomparison of three microwave/infrared high resolution line-by-line radiative transfer codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, F.; Garcia, S. Gimeno; Milz, M.; Kottayil, A.; Höpfner, M.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G.

    2013-05-01

    An intercomparison of three line-by-line (lbl) codes developed independently for atmospheric sounding - ARTS, GARLIC, and KOPRA - has been performed for a thermal infrared nadir sounding application assuming a HIRS-like (High resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder) setup. Radiances for the HIRS infrared channels and a set of 42 atmospheric profiles from the "Garand dataset" have been computed. Results of this intercomparison and a discussion of reasons of the observed differences are presented.

  11. Long-term trends in the concentrations of SF6, CHClF2, and COF2 in the lower stratosphere from analysis of high-resolution infrared solar occultation spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Kosters, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term trends in the concentrations of SF6, CHClF2 in the lower stratosphere are derived using results from analyses of the 1980 and of several more recently obtained IR solar occultation spectra. Results show that the increase rates of SF6 and CHClF2 were about 7.4/yr and 9.4/yr, respectively, which correspond to cumulative increases by factors of about 1.7 and 2.0 in the concentrations of these gases over the 7.2 yr measurement period. The average increase rate for COF2 was 10.3/yr over the same time period. The present results are compared with previously reported observations and trends and with one-dimensional model calculations.

  12. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Cubane, C_8H_8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudon, Vincent; Pirali, Olivier; Gruet, Sébastien; D'accolti, Lucia; Fusco, Caterina; Annese, Cosimo

    2014-06-01

    Carbon-cage molecules have generated a considerable interest from both experimental and theoretical point of views. We recently performed a high-resolution study of adamantane (C10H16), the smallest hydrocarbon cage belonging to the diamandoid family. There exist another family of hydrocarbon cages with additional interesting chemical properties: the so-called Platonic hydrocarbons that comprise dodecahedrane (C20H20) and cubane (C_8H_8). Both possess C-C bond angles that deviate from the tetrahedral angle (109.8°) of the sp^3 hybridized form of carbon. This generates a considerable strain in the molecule. Cubane itself has the highest density of all hydrocarbons (1.29 g/cm^3). This makes it able to store larges amounts of energy, although the molecule is fully stable. Up to now, only one high-resolution study of cubane has been performed on a few bands [2]. We report here a new wide-range high-resolution study of the infrared spectrum of cubane. The sample was synthesized in Bari upon decarboxylation of 1,4-cubanedicarboxylic acid thanks to the improved synthesis of literature [3]; its {}1H and 13C NMR, FTIR, and mass spectrometry agreed with reported data [4]. Several spectra have been recorded at the AILES beamline of the SOLEIL French synchrotron facility. They cover the 800 to 3100 cm-1 region. Besides the three infrared-active fundamentals (ν10, ν11 and ν12), we could record many combination bands, all of them displaying a well-resolved octahedral rotational structure. We present here a preliminary analysis of some of the recorded bands, performed thanks the SPVIEW and XTDS software, based on the tensrorial formalism developed in the Dijon group [5]. [1] O. Pirali, V. Boudon, J. Oomens, M. Vervloet, J. Chem. Phys., 136, 024310 (2012). [2] A. S. Pine, A. G. Maki, A. G. Robiette, B. J. Krohn, J. K. G. Watson, Th. Urbanek, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 106, 891-897 (1984). [3] P. E. Eaton, N. Nordari, J. Tsanaktsidis, P. S. Upadhyaya, Synthesis, 1, 501, (1995). [4] E

  13. Millimeter-Wave and High-Resolution Infrared Spectra of Monoisotopic SC 80Se: Equilibrium, Ground State, and ν 1, mν 2, and nν 3 Rovibrational Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, H.; Demaison, J.; Drean, P.; Litz, M.; Willner, H.

    1995-04-01

    The Fourier transform infrared spectrum of monoisotopic SC80Se has been investigated in the ν2, ν3, 2ν2, 2ν3, and ν1 regions with a resolution between 3 and 4 × 10-3 cm-1. In addition, the millimeter-wave spectrum has been studied in the region 150 to 320 GHz, and ground and ν2 = 1 excited state transitions have been measured. Ground state constants, B0 = 2043.285 4(4) MHz and D0 = 146.53(5) Hz, have been determined from a merge of millimeter-wave data and ground state combination differences spanning J values up to 77 and 143, respectively. The band centers ν2 = 352.341 075(9) cm-1 and ν3 = 505.480 06(5)cm-1 have been determined. The rovibrational parameters of numerous overtone and combination levels (ν1νl22ν3) = 0200, 0220, 0310, 0330, 0400, 0420, 0002, and 0003 have been obtained from polynomial analyses whose standard deviations ranged from 0.7 to 3.5 × 10-4 cm-1. The 1000 level, νeff 1435.840 cm-1, is anharmonically perturbed by the 0400 level, with an avoided crossing at J = 55, and W12222 = 0.963 09(1) cm-1. Transitions to both the upper (E+) and lower (E-) sublevels of the dyad were observed for 1 ≤ J‧ ≤ 117 and 4 ≤ J‧ ≤ 171, respectively, and the deperturbed wavenumbers ν1 = 1435.542 76(2) and 4ν02 = 1432.725 00(3) cm-1 were derived. Furthermore, a local crossing of the E- and 0420 levels involving l-type resonance was observed at J = 91.

  14. The Fundamental Quadrupole Band of (14)N2: Line Positions from High-Resolution Stratospheric Solar Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Zander, R.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Grunson, M. R.; Farmer, C. B.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to report accurate measurements of the positions of O- and S-branch lines of the (1-0) vibration-rotation quadrupole band of molecular nitrogen ((14)N2) and improved Dunham coefficients derived from a simultaneous least-squares analysis of these measurements and selected infrared and far infrared data taken from the literature. The new measurements have been derived from stratospheric solar occultation spectra recorded with Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) instruments operated at unapodized spectral resolutions of 0.002 and 0.01 /cm. The motivation for the present investigation is the need for improved N2 line parameters for use in IR atmospheric remote sensing investigations. The S branch of the N2 (1-0) quadrupole band is ideal for calibrating the line-of-sight airmasses of atmospheric spectra since the strongest lines are well placed in an atmospheric window, their absorption is relatively insensitive to temperature and is moderately strong (typical line center depths of 10 to 50% in high-resolution ground-based solar spectra and in lower stratospheric solar occultation spectra), and the volume mixing ratio of nitrogen is constant in the atmosphere and well known. However, a recent investigation has'shown the need to improve the accuracies of the N2 fine positions, intensities, air-broadened half-widths, and their temperature dependences to fully exploit this calibration capability (1). The present investigation addresses the problem of improving the accuracy of the N2 line positions.

  15. Physical Properties of Young Brown Dwarfs and Very Low Mass Stars Inferred from High-resolution Model Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Emily L.; Barman, T.; Mclean, Ian S.; Prato, L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2010-01-01

    By comparing near-infrared spectra with atmospheric models, we infer the effective temperature, surface gravity, projected rotational velocity, and radial velocity for 21 very low mass stars and brown dwarfs. The unique sample consists of two sequences in spectral type from M6-M9, one of 5-10 Myr objects and one of >1 Gyr field objects. A third sequence is comprised of only ~M6 objects with ages ranging from <1 Myr to >1 Gyr. Spectra were obtained in the J band at medium (R ~ 2000) and high (R ~ 20,000) resolutions with NIRSPEC on the Keck II telescope. Synthetic spectra were generated from atmospheric structures calculated with the PHOENIX model atmosphere code. Using multi-dimensional least-squares fitting and Monte Carlo routines we determine the best-fit model parameters for each observed spectrum and note which spectral regions provide consistent results. We identify successes in the reproduction of observed features by atmospheric models, including pressure-broadened K I lines, and investigate deficiencies in the models, particularly missing FeH opacity, that will need to be addressed in order to extend our analysis to cooler objects. The precision that can be obtained for each parameter using medium- and high-resolution near-infrared spectra is estimated and the implications for future studies of very low mass stars and brown dwarfs are discussed.

  16. High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) for the Nimbus F Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, E. W.

    1975-01-01

    Flown on Nimbus F in June 1975, the high resolution infrared radiation sounder (HIRS) scans with a geographical resolution of 23KM and samples radiance in seventeen selected spectral channels from visible (.7 micron) to far IR (15 micron). Vertical temperature profiles and atmospheric moisture content can be inferred from the output. System operation and test results are described.

  17. High-resolution photoelectron spectra of the pyrimidine-type nucleobases

    SciTech Connect

    Fulfer, K. D.; Hardy, D.; Poliakoff, E. D.; Aguilar, A. A.

    2015-06-14

    High-resolution photoelectron spectra of the gas phase pyrimidine-type nucleobases, thymine, uracil, and cytosine, were collected using synchrotron radiation over the photon energy range 17 ≤ hν ≤ 150 eV. These data provide the highest resolution photoelectron spectra of thymine, uracil, and cytosine published to date. By comparing integrated regions of the energy dependent photoelectron spectra of thymine, the ionization potentials of the first four ionic states of thymine were estimated to be 8.8, 9.8, 10.3, and 10.8 eV. The thymine data also show evidence for low energy shape resonances in three of the outermost valence electronic states. Comparing the uracil spectrum with the thymine spectrum, the four outermost valence electronic states of uracil likely begin at binding energies 9.3, 9.9, 10.5, and 11.0 eV. High-resolution spectra indicate only one tautomeric form of cytosine contributes significantly to the spectrum with the four outermost valence electronic states beginning at binding energies 8.9, 9.9, 10.4, and 10.85 eV.

  18. Genetic algorithm-based feature selection in high-resolution NMR spectra

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun-Woo; Jeong, Myong K.; Park, Youngja; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Jones, Dean P.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has provided a new means for detection and recognition of metabolic changes in biological systems in response to pathophysiological stimuli and to the intake of toxins or nutrition. To identify meaningful patterns from NMR spectra, various statistical pattern recognition methods have been applied to reduce their complexity and uncover implicit metabolic patterns. In this paper, we present a genetic algorithm (GA)-based feature selection method to determine major metabolite features to play a significant role in discrimination of samples among different conditions in high-resolution NMR spectra. In addition, an orthogonal signal filter was employed as a preprocessor of NMR spectra in order to remove any unwanted variation of the data that is unrelated to the discrimination of different conditions. The results of k-nearest neighbors and the partial least squares discriminant analysis of the experimental NMR spectra from human plasma showed the potential advantage of the features obtained from GA-based feature selection combined with an orthogonal signal filter. PMID:21472035

  19. kspectrum: an open-source code for high-resolution molecular absorption spectra production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eymet, V.; Coustet, C.; Piaud, B.

    2016-01-01

    We present the kspectrum, scientific code that produces high-resolution synthetic absorption spectra from public molecular transition parameters databases. This code was originally required by the atmospheric and astrophysics communities, and its evolution is now driven by new scientific projects among the user community. Since it was designed without any optimization that would be specific to any particular application field, its use could also be extended to other domains. kspectrum produces spectral data that can subsequently be used either for high-resolution radiative transfer simulations, or for producing statistic spectral model parameters using additional tools. This is a open project that aims at providing an up-to-date tool that takes advantage of modern computational hardware and recent parallelization libraries. It is currently provided by Méso-Star (http://www.meso-star.com) under the CeCILL license, and benefits from regular updates and improvements.

  20. High-resolution 6450-24500 A spectra of eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamann, Fred; Depoy, D. L.; Johansson, Sveneric; Elias, Jay

    1994-01-01

    We discuss high-resolution (Delta lambda/lambda approximately equals 3000-8600) spectra of the central knot or 'star' in eta Car between approximately 6450 and approximately 24,500 A, and of the Homunculus approximately 7 sec southeast of the knot between approximately 6450 and approximately 9250 A. A complete flux calibrated list of more than 170 emission lines is provided longward of approximately 8780 A, with additional measurements of the strongest forbidden lines and Fe II features down to approximately 6700 A. The continuum flux increased by a factor of approximately 1.6 to approximately 2.0 at 23,000 A compared to recent measurements, by remained the same at approximately 11,000 A. This brightening and reddening of the IR continuum was accompanied by stronger H I and He I lines, constant or slightly weaker Fe II and (Fe II) lines, and increased extinction to A(sub V) approximately 5 mag to 6 mag (from A(sub V) approximately less than 3.2 mag previously). The complex line profiles fall into two categories: (1) broad emission and sometimes blueshifted absorptions that form in a high-velocity wind reaching at least 700 km/s and (2) narrow emission cores that may be associated with a low-velocity (equatorial?) wind with speeds approximately less than 100 km/s. The broad lines in the Homunculus have profiles and equivalent widths similar to the broad components in the know, but they are redshifted by approximately greater than 250 km/s due to rapid expansion of the reflecting dust. The reflected light spectrum of the Homunculus offers a better 'view' of the high-velocity wind because it is free of the many strong narrow lines in the knot. The range of excitation in both the high- and low-velocity regions encompasses He I recombination and Fe II emission, but excludes the lower ionization required for Fe I, the CO band heads, and the infrared Ca II triplet, which are not detected. The narrow forbidden lines indicate densities in excess of the critical densities

  1. Understanding AGB evolution in Galactic bulge stars from high-resolution infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttenthaler, S.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Wood, P. R.; Lebzelter, T.; Aringer, B.; Schultheis, M.; Ryde, N.

    2015-08-01

    An analysis of high-resolution near-infrared spectra of a sample of 45 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars towards the Galactic bulge is presented. The sample consists of two subsamples, a larger one in the inner and intermediate bulge, and a smaller one in the outer bulge. The data are analysed with the help of hydrostatic model atmospheres and spectral synthesis. We derive the radial velocity of all stars, and the atmospheric chemical mix ([Fe/H], C/O, 12C/13C, Al, Si, Ti, and Y) where possible. Our ability to model the spectra is mainly limited by the (in)completeness of atomic and molecular line lists, at least for temperatures down to Teff ≈ 3100 K. We find that the subsample in the inner and intermediate bulge is quite homogeneous, with a slightly subsolar mean metallicity and only few stars with supersolar metallicity, in agreement with previous studies of non-variable M-type giants in the bulge. All sample stars are oxygen-rich, C/O < 1.0. The C/O and carbon isotopic ratios suggest that third dredge-up (3DUP) is absent among the sample stars, except for two stars in the outer bulge that are known to contain technetium. These stars are also more metal-poor than the stars in the intermediate or inner bulge. Current stellar masses are determined from linear pulsation models. The masses, metallicities and 3DUP behaviour are compared to AGB evolutionary models. We conclude that these models are partly in conflict with our observations. Furthermore, we conclude that the stars in the inner and intermediate bulge belong to a more metal-rich population that follows bar-like kinematics, whereas the stars in the outer bulge belong to the metal-poor, spheroidal bulge population.

  2. High-resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Starspots on RS CVn Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neal, D.; Neff, J. E.; Saar, S. H.

    1997-12-01

    We present results from a study of magnetically active stars using the PHOENIX infrared spectrograph at KPNO. We constrain starspot coverages on RS CVn stars using high-resolution observations of two temperature-sensitive OH lines near 1.563mu m (6397 cm(-1) ). The use of these features holds two advantages over the TiO bands that we have used previously: the OH lines are visible in spots up to ~ 4500 K; and spots are much brighter, relative to the unspotted photosphere, in the infrared than in the visible. These properties also make these OH lines excellent candidates for the first Doppler imaging study to use high-resolution observations of infrared spectral features. Using the OH lines, we also search for previously unknown secondary stars in ``single-lined'' RS CVn binary systems, including II Pegasi (HD 224085).

  3. Near-infrared spectra of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.

    1974-01-01

    Near infrared spectra of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus were measured at resolutions higher than previously available in the range from 6,000 to 10,750/cm. The resolution was 0.5/cm for Jupiter and Saturn, and 32/cm for Uranus. The spectra are presented both individually and as ratio spectra, in which the planetary spectra are divided by the solar spectrum. The Uranus spectrum is shown with Saturn, Jupiter, and Sun spectra reduced to the same resolution so that Uranus can be compared with the other outer planets. The high resolution Saturn, Jupiter, and Sun spectra are presented in parallel plots to simplify comparisons between them.

  4. Increased throughput of proteomics analysis by multiplexing high-resolution tandem mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Ledvina, A R; Savitski, M M; Zubarev, A R; Good, D M; Coon, J J; Zubarev, R A

    2011-10-15

    High-resolution and high-accuracy Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) is becoming increasingly attractive due to its specificity. However, the speed of tandem FTMS analysis severely limits the competitive advantage of this approach relative to faster low-resolution quadrupole ion trap MS/MS instruments. Here we demonstrate an entirely FTMS-based analysis method with a 2.5-3.0-fold greater throughput than a conventional FT MS/MS approach. The method consists of accumulating together the MS/MS fragments ions from multiple precursors, with subsequent high-resolution analysis of the mixture. Following acquisition, the multiplexed spectrum is deconvoluted into individual MS/MS spectra which are then combined into a single concatenated file and submitted for peptide identification to a search engine. The method is tested both in silico using a database of MS/MS spectra as well as in situ using a modified LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The performance of the method in the experiment was consistent with theoretical expectations. PMID:21913643

  5. Quantitative Infrared Spectra of Vapor Phase Chemical Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, Steven W.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Chu, P M.; Kleimeyer, J; Rowland, Brad; Gardner, Patrick J.

    2003-04-21

    Quantitative high resolution (0.1 cm -1) infrared spectra have been acquired for a number of pressure broadened (101.3 KPa N2), vapor phase chemicals including: Sarin (GB), Soman (GD), Tabun (GA), Cyclosarin (GF), VX, nitrogen mustard (HN3), sulfur mustard (HD) and Lewisite (L).

  6. Inversion of stellar fundamental parameters from ESPaDOnS and Narval high-resolution spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paletou, F.; Böhm, T.; Watson, V.; Trouilhet, J.-F.

    2015-01-01

    The general context of this study is the inversion of stellar fundamental parameters from high-resolution Echelle spectra. We aim at developing a fast and reliable tool for the post-processing of spectra produced by ESPaDOnS and Narval spectropolarimeters. Our inversion tool relies on principal component analysis. It allows reducing dimensionality and defining a specific metric for the search of nearest neighbours between an observed spectrum and a set of observed spectra taken from the Elodie stellar library. Effective temperature, surface gravity, total metallicity, and projected rotational velocity are derived. Various tests presented in this study that were based solely on information coming from a spectral band centred on the Mg i b-triplet and had spectra from FGK stars are very promising. Based on observations obtained at the Télescope Bernard Lyot (TBL, Pic du Midi, France), which is operated by the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France) and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, CNRS/INSU and the University of Hawaii (USA).

  7. Alignment of high resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectra using warping methods.

    PubMed

    Giskeødegård, Guro F; Bloemberg, Tom G; Postma, Geert; Sitter, Beathe; Tessem, May-Britt; Gribbestad, Ingrid S; Bathen, Tone F; Buydens, Lutgarde M C

    2010-12-17

    The peaks of magnetic resonance (MR) spectra can be shifted due to variations in physiological and experimental conditions, and correcting for misaligned peaks is an important part of data processing prior to multivariate analysis. In this paper, five warping algorithms (icoshift, COW, fastpa, VPdtw and PTW) are compared for their feasibility in aligning spectral peaks in three sets of high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) MR spectra with different degrees of misalignments, and their merits are discussed. In addition, extraction of information that might be present in the shifts is examined, both for simulated data and the real MR spectra. The generic evaluation methodology employs a number of frequently used quality criteria for evaluation of the alignments, together with PLS-DA to assess the influence of alignment on the classification outcome. Peak alignment greatly improved the internal similarity of the data sets. Especially icoshift and COW seem suitable for aligning HR-MAS MR spectra, possibly because they perform alignment segment-wise. The choice of reference spectrum can influence the alignment result, and it is advisable to test several references. Information from the peak shifts was extracted, and in one case cancer samples were successfully discriminated from normal tissue based on shift information only. Based on these findings, general recommendations for alignment of HR-MAS MRS data are presented. Where possible, observations are generalized to other data types (e.g. chromatographic data). PMID:21094376

  8. High resolution n = 3 to n = 2 spectra of neon-like silver

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.; Cohen, S.; Hill, K.W.; Timberlake, J.; Walling, R.S.; Chen, M.H.; Hagelstein, P.L.; Scofield, J.H.

    1986-04-01

    Spectra of the n = 3 to n = 2 transitions in neon-like silver emitted from the Princeton Large Torus have been recorded with a high-resolution Bragg-crystal spectrometer. The measurements cover the wavelength region 3.3 to 4.1 A and include the forbidden 3p ..-->.. 2p electric quadrupole lines. Transitions in the adjacent sodium-like, and aluminum-like charge states of silver have also been observed and identified. The Ly-..cap alpha.. spectra of hydrogen-like argon and iron, the K..cap alpha.. spectra of helium-like argon, potassium, manganese, and iron, and the K..beta.. spectrum of helium-like argon fall in the same wavelength region in first or second order and have been measured concurrently. These spectra provide a coherent set of wavelength reference data obtained with the same spectrometer and from the same tokamak. This set is used as a basis to compare wavelength predictions for one- and two-electron systems to each other and to determine the transition energies of the silver lines with great accuracy.

  9. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES IN FIELD RED GIANTS FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION H-BAND SPECTRA USING THE APOGEE SPECTRAL LINELIST

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Verne V.; Cunha, Katia; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Garcia Perez, Ana; Majewski, Steven R.; Schiavon, Ricardo; Holtzman, Jon; Johnson, Jennifer A.

    2013-03-01

    High-resolution H-band spectra of five bright field K, M, and MS giants, obtained from the archives of the Kitt Peak National Observatory Fourier transform spectrometer, are analyzed to determine chemical abundances of 16 elements. The abundances were derived via spectrum synthesis using the detailed linelist prepared for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Apache Point Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), which is a high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic survey to derive detailed chemical abundance distributions and precise radial velocities for 100,000 red giants sampling all Galactic stellar populations. The red giant sample studied here was chosen to probe which chemical elements can be derived reliably from the H-band APOGEE spectral region. These red giants consist of two K-giants ({alpha} Boo and {mu} Leo), two M-giants ({beta} And and {delta} Oph), and one thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) star of spectral type MS (HD 199799). Measured chemical abundances include the cosmochemically important isotopes {sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}N, and {sup 16}O, along with Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. The K and M giants exhibit the abundance signature of the first dredge-up of CN-cycle material, while the TP-AGB star shows clear evidence of the addition of {sup 12}C synthesized during {sup 4}He-burning thermal pulses and subsequent third dredge-up. A comparison of the abundances derived here with published values for these stars reveals consistent results to {approx}0.1 dex. The APOGEE spectral region and linelist is thus well suited for probing both Galactic chemical evolution, as well as internal nucleosynthesis and mixing in populations of red giants via high-resolution spectroscopy.

  10. High-resolution spectroscopy used to measure inertial confinement fusion neutron spectra on Omega (invited).

    PubMed

    Forrest, C J; Radha, P B; Glebov, V Yu; Goncharov, V N; Knauer, J P; Pruyne, A; Romanofsky, M; Sangster, T C; Shoup, M J; Stoeckl, C; Casey, D T; Gatu-Johnson, M; Gardner, S

    2012-10-01

    The areal density (ρR) of cryogenic DT implosions on Omega is inferred by measuring the spectrum of neutrons that elastically scatter off the dense deuterium (D) and tritium (T) fuel. Neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) techniques are used to measure the energy spectrum with high resolution. High signal-to-background data has been recorded on cryogenic DT implosions using a well-collimated 13.4-m line of sight and an nTOF detector with an advanced liquid scintillator compound. An innovative method to analyze the elastically scattered neutron spectra was developed using well-known cross sections of the DT nuclear reactions. The estimated areal densities are consistent with alternative ρR measurements and 1-D simulations. PMID:23126921

  11. High-resolution spectroscopy used to measure inertial confinement fusion neutron spectra on Omega (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, C. J.; Radha, P. B.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Knauer, J. P.; Pruyne, A.; Romanofsky, M.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M. J. III; Stoeckl, C.; Casey, D. T.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Gardner, S.

    2012-10-15

    The areal density ({rho}R) of cryogenic DT implosions on Omega is inferred by measuring the spectrum of neutrons that elastically scatter off the dense deuterium (D) and tritium (T) fuel. Neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) techniques are used to measure the energy spectrum with high resolution. High signal-to-background data has been recorded on cryogenic DT implosions using a well-collimated 13.4-m line of sight and an nTOF detector with an advanced liquid scintillator compound. An innovative method to analyze the elastically scattered neutron spectra was developed using well-known cross sections of the DT nuclear reactions. The estimated areal densities are consistent with alternative {rho}R measurements and 1-D simulations.

  12. Synthetic high-resolution near-IR spectra of the Sun for planetary data reductions made from ATMOS/Spacelab-3 and Atlas-3 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Haingja; Kim, Sang J.; Hwang, Sungwon; Jung, Aeran; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Joo Hyeon; Kim, Kap-Sung; Lee, Jinny; Jang, Minhwan

    2007-12-01

    We have constructed synthetic solar spectra for the 2302-4800 cm -1 (2.08-4.34 μm) range, a spectral range where planetary objects mainly emit reflected sunlight, using ATMOS (Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy)/Spacelab-3 and Atlas-3 spectra, of which resolution is 0.01 cm -1. We adopted Voigt line profiles for the modeling of line shapes based on an atlas of line identifications compiled by Geller [Geller, M., 1992. Key to Identification of Solar Features. A High-Resolution Atlas of the Infrared Spectrum of the Sun and the Earth Atmosphere from Space. NASA Reference Publ. 1224, vol. III. NASA, Washington, DC, pp. 1-22], who derived solar line positions and intensities from contaminated high-resolution solar spectra obtained by ATMOS/Spacelab-3. Because the ATMOS spectra in these wavelength ranges are compromised by absorption lines of molecules existing in Earth's high-altitude atmosphere and in the compartment of the spacecraft, the direct use of these high-resolution solar spectra has been inconvenient for the data reductions of planetary spectra. We compared the synthetic solar spectra with the ATMOS spectra, and obtained satisfactory fits for the majority of the solar lines with the exception of abnormal lines, which do not fit with Voigt line profiles. From the model fits, we were able to determine Voigt line parameters for the majority of solar lines; and we made a list of the abnormal lines. We also constructed telluric-line-free solar spectra by manually eliminating telluric lines from the ATMOS spectra and filling the gaps with adjacent continua. These synthetic solar spectra will be useful to eliminate solar continua from spectra of planetary objects to extract their own intrinsic spectral features.

  13. Cool stars: spectral library of high-resolution echelle spectra and database of stellar parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, D.

    2013-05-01

    During the last years our group have undertake several high resolution spectroscopic surveys of nearby FGKM stars with different spectrographs (FOCES, SARG, SOFIN, FIES, HERMES). A large number of stars have been already observed and we have already determined spectral types, rotational velocities as well as radial velocities, Lithium abundance and several chromospheric activity indicators. We are working now in a homogeneous determination of the fundamental stellar parameters (T_{eff}, log{g}, ξ and [Fe/H]) and chemical abundances of many elements of all these stars. Some fully reduced spectra in FITS format have been available via ftp and in the {http://www.ucm.es/info/Astrof/invest/actividad/spectra.html}{Worl Wide Web} (Montes et al. 1997, A&AS, 123, 473; Montes et al. 1998, A&AS, 128, 485; and Montes et al. 1999, ApJS, 123, 283) and some particular spectral regions of the echelle spectra are available at VizieR by López-Santiago et al. 2010, A&A, 514, A97. We are now working in made accessible all the spectra of our different surveys in a Virtual Observatory ({http://svo.cab.inta-csic.es/}{VO}) compliant library and database accessible using a common web interface following the standards of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance ({http://www.ivoa.net/}{IVOA}). The spectral library includes F, G, K and M field stars, from dwarfs to giants. The spectral coverage is from 3800 to 10000 Å, with spectral resolution ranging from 40000 to 80000. The database will provide in addition the stellar parameters determined for these spectra using {http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2012arXiv1205.4879T}{StePar} (Tabernero et al. 2012, A&A, 547, A13).

  14. Retrieval of upper atmosphere pressure-temperature profiles from high resolution solar occultation spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Russell, J. M., III; Park, J. H.; Namkung, J.

    1987-01-01

    Pressure-temperature profiles over the 18 to 75 km altitude range were retrieved from 0.01 cm(-1) resolution infrared solar absorption spectra recorded with the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the solar occultation mode during the Spacelab 3 shuttle mission (April 30 to May 1, 1985). The analysis method is described and preliminary results deduced for five occultation events are compared to correlative pressure-temperature measurments.

  15. Time variations of narrow absorption lines in high resolution quasar spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissé, P.; Bergeron, J.; Prochaska, J. X.; Péroux, C.; York, D. G.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: We have searched for temporal variations of narrow absorption lines in high resolution quasar spectra. A sample of five distant sources were assembled, for which two spectra are available, either VLT/UVES or Keck/HIRES, which were taken several years apart. Methods: We first investigate under which conditions variations in absorption line profiles can be detected reliably from high resolution spectra and discuss the implications of changes in terms of small-scale structure within the intervening gas or intrinsic origin. The targets selected allow us to investigate the time behaviour of a broad variety of absorption line systems by sampling diverse environments: the vicinity of active nuclei, galaxy halos, molecular-rich galaxy disks associated with damped Lyα systems, as well as neutral gas within our own Galaxy. Results: Intervening absorption lines from Mg ii, Fe ii, or proxy species with lines of lower opacity tracing the same kind of (moderately ionised) gas appear in general to be remarkably stable (1σ upper limits as low as 10% for some components on scales in the range 10-100 au), even for systems at zabs ≈ ze. Marginal variations are observed for Mg ii lines towards PKS 1229-021 at zabs = 0.83032; however, we detect no systems that display any change as large as those reported in low resolution SDSS spectra. The lack of clear variations for low β Mg ii systems does not support the existence of a specific population of absorbers made of swept-up gas towards blazars. In neutral or diffuse molecular media, clear changes are seen for Galactic Na i lines towards PKS 1229-02 (decrease in N by a factor of four for one of the five components over 9.7 yr), corresponding to structure on a scale of about 35 au, in good agreement with known properties of the Galactic interstellar medium. Tentative variations are detected for H2J = 3 lines towards FBQS J2340-0053 at zabs = 2.05454 (≃35% change in column density, N, over 0.7 yr in the rest frame), suggesting

  16. Determination of atmospheric moisture structure and infrared cooling rates from high resolution MAMS radiance data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzel, W. Paul; Moeller, Christopher C.; Smith, William L.

    1991-01-01

    This program has applied Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS) high resolution data to the problem of monitoring atmospheric quantities of moisture and radiative flux at small spatial scales. MAMS, with 100-m horizontal resolution in its four infrared channels, was developed to study small scale atmospheric moisture and surface thermal variability, especially as related to the development of clouds, precipitation, and severe storms. High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) data has been used to develop a high spectral resolution retrieval algorithm for producing vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature and moisture. The results of this program are summarized and a list of publications resulting from this contract is presented. Selected publications are attached as an appendix.

  17. An infrared high resolution silicon immersion grating spectrometer for airborne and space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; Zhao, Bo; Powell, Scott; Jiang, Peng; Uzakbaiuly, Berik; Tanner, David

    2014-08-01

    Broad-band infrared (IR) spectroscopy, especially at high spectral resolution, is a largely unexplored area for the far IR (FIR) and submm wavelength region due to the lack of proper grating technology to produce high resolution within the very constrained volume and weight required for space mission instruments. High resolution FIR spectroscopy is an essential tool to resolve many atomic and molecular lines to measure physical and chemical conditions and processes in the environments where galaxy, star and planets form. A silicon immersion grating (SIG), due to its over three times high dispersion over a traditional reflective grating, offers a compact and low cost design of new generation IR high resolution spectrographs for space missions. A prototype SIG high resolution spectrograph, called Florida IR Silicon immersion grating spectromeTer (FIRST), has been developed at UF and was commissioned at a 2 meter robotic telescope at Fairborn Observatory in Arizona. The SIG with 54.74 degree blaze angle, 16.1 l/mm groove density, and 50x86 mm2 grating area has produced R=50,000 in FIRST. The 1.4-1.8 um wavelength region is completely covered in a single exposure with a 2kx2k H2RG IR array. The on-sky performance meets the science requirements for ground-based high resolution spectroscopy. Further studies show that this kind of SIG spectrometer with an airborne 2m class telescope such as SOFIA can offer highly sensitive spectroscopy with R~20,000-30,000 at 20 to 55 microns. Details about the on-sky measurement performance of the FIRST prototype SIG spectrometer and its predicted performance with the SOFIA 2.4m telescope are introduced.

  18. High-resolution spectra of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousselot, P.; Decock, A.; Jehin, E.; Manfroid, J.; Hutsemékers, D.

    2014-07-01

    Comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) is a long-period comet discovered on 7 September 2013 by Terry Lovejoy with a 0.2-m telescope (Guido et al., 2013), it passed its perihelion (0.81 au) on 22 December 2013. It was a bright comet visible to the naked eye. We obtained high-resolution spectra of this comet immediately after its perihelion passage during 4 nights in the period 23-26 December 2013. These spectra have been obtained with the 3.5-m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) and the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher in North hemisphere (HARPS-N) echelle spectrograph. HARPS-N is an echelle spectrograph covering the spectral range from 383 to 693 nm, with a spectral resolution of R=115000 (Cosentino et al., 2012). It is designed to measure stellar radial velocities in view of detecting extrasolar planets. Our observations are the first successful cometary observations performed with this instrument. They demonstrate that this spectrograph can also be efficient for getting cometary spectra, even if the sensitivity of this instrument is low in the blue part of its spectral coverage. We will present the results of our data analysis for these spectra. This analysis is focused on isotopic ratios, mainly ^{12}C/^{13}C with C_2 emission lines (with the method described in Rousselot et al. 2012) and ^{14}N/^{15}N with ^{14}NH_2 and ^{15}NH_2 emission lines (with the line wavelengths given in Rousselot et al. 2014), atomic oxygen emission lines at 557.7, 630.0 and 636.4 nm (intensity ratios and widths, see Decock et al. 2013) and relative production rates of the detected species.

  19. High Resolution Observations of Magnetic Elements in the Visible and the Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmele, T.; Lin, H.

    1997-05-01

    High resolution observations of magnetic elements in the visible and infrared. We report on multi-wavelength observations of plage regions obtained at the Vacuum Tower Telescope at NSO/Sac-Peak . The data set includes high resolution images in the G-band (0.43 mu ), the visible (0.69 mu ) continuum and the infrared (1.6 mu ) continuum. In addition, deep integration full Stokes vector measurements in the FeI 1.56 mu lines, as well as, Ca-K slit jaw images were obtained. G-band bright points, which are observed mostly in supergranular lanes, are also visible as bright points in the visible continuum. Although the infrared observations are limited in spatial resolution to about 0."4 (the diffraction limit of the VTT/SP), the data indicates that G-band bright points are also bright in the infrared (1.6 mu ). We also discuss and compare properties of magnetic knots and small pores. Magnetic knots, which recently also have been referred to as azimuth centers (Lites et al. 1994), by definition show no darkening in individual continuum images. However, in the time-averaged imaging data, and in particular in the infrared, azimuth centers appear as dark features, which are clearly distinguishable from the quiet sun background. In the infrared most azimuth centers are visible as dark features even in individual snapshots. Many azimuth centers as well as some small pores are surrounded by a highly structured bright ring, which becomes more apparent with increasing height of formation. Results of the polarization analysis in the FeI 1.56 mu lines, including measurements of weak fields, are presented as well.

  20. N to K Uranium PIXE spectra obtained at the high resolution high energy PIXE setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, P. C.; Taborda, A.; Marques, J. P.; Reis, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    The CTN (previous ITN) high resolution high energy (HRHE) PIXE set-up facility was set in operation on July 2008 and upgrades were being implemented until late in 2011. The study of a pure UO2 sample and the mapping of geological sample are the first results where the whole range of possibilities has been exploited, namely the possibility of obtaining simultaneous spectra covering a very wide energy range of more than 100 keV. In this paper, the N-shell to K-shell spectra of Uranium is presented and discussed, as well as the details on the characteristics and capacities of the setup, including the automated X-Y positioning systems installed in the X-Y-Z sample support unit, which allows for the possibility of making macroscopic mappings of geological samples (Chaves et al. (2013) [1]). As for the N-shell lines in the X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS) spectrum, due to the lack of data (Zschornack (2007) [2]), transition energies were determined using ab initio calculations assuming a closed shell U4+ electronic structure for Uranium prior to the ionisation by proton impact.

  1. Abundance determinations for the F dwarfs members of the Hyades from SOPHIE high resolution spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıçǧlu, T.; Monier, R.; Gebran, M.

    2015-12-01

    The mean chemical composition of open clusters can be derived from the chemical abundance analysis of F-type main-sequence stars, as they have convective layers which homogenize the material in their outer layers and thus keep track of the initial composition of the cluster. We present a preliminary abundance analysis of 5 F-type members of the Hyades open cluster using the high resolution spectra retrieved from SOPHIE archive. Our aim is to derive the elemental abundances of these stars as well as the mean abundance distribution of the cluster. The analysis was carried out by iteratively adjusting LTE synthetic spectra for several chemical elements: C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd. This is the first abundance determination of the Lanthanides in the Hyades F dwarfs. Each element was found to be marginally/slightly overabundant relative to solar, except for Zn, Ga, Y, and Pr which are solar, and for Sr, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, and Gd which are overabundant. The mean iron abundance of the cluster is found to be [Fe/H] = 0.21 dex.

  2. High-resolution infrared detector and its electronic unit for space application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meftah, M.; Montmessin, F.; Korablev, O.; Trokhimovsky, A.; Poiet, G.; Bel, J.-B.

    2015-05-01

    High-resolution infrared detector is used extensively for military and civilian purposes. Military applications include target acquisition, surveillance, night vision, and tracking. Civilian applications include, among others, scientific observations. For our space systems, we want to use the products developed by SOFRADIR Company. Thus, we have developed a space electronic unit that is used to control the high-resolution SCORPIO-MW infrared detector, which has a format of 640×512 pixels with 15μm×15μm pixel pitch. The detector within microelectronics based on infrared mid-wave (MW) complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) uses a micro-cooler in order to keep its temperature around 100 K. The standard wavelength range (3 to 5μm) is adapted to the 2.2 to 4.3μm wavelength range thanks to adaptation of the optical interface of the detector and with an antireflection coating. With our electronic system, we can acquire 3 images per second. To increase the signal to noise ratio, we have the opportunity to make a summation of 15 frames per image. Through this article, we will describe the space electronic system that we have developed in order to achieve space observations (e.g. Atmospheric Chemistry Suite package for ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter).

  3. An abundance study of IC 418 using high-resolution, signal-to-noise emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpee, Brian David

    2003-11-01

    An on-going problem in astrophysics involves the large and varying disagreement between abundances measurements made in planetary nebulae (PNe), determined from the strengths of emission lines arising from the same source ion, but excited by differing mechanisms (recombination and collisional excitation) in planetary nebulae (PNe). We investigate the extent of this problem in IC 418, a PN chosen for its great surface brightness and perceived visually uncomplicated geometry, through the use of high resolution (R ≈ 30000 = 10 km sec-1 at 6500Å) echelle emission spectroscopy in the optical regime (3500 9850Å). These observations allow us to construct the most detailed list of atomic emission lines ever compiled for IC 418, and among the most detailed from among all PNe. Ionic abundances are calculated from the fluxes of numerous weak (1 × 10-5 Hβ) atomic emission lines from the ions of C,N,O, and Ne, using the most recent and accurate atomic transition information presently available. The high resolution of these spectra provides well-defined line profiles, which, coupled with the perceived simplicity of the object's expansion velocity distribution, allows us to better determine where in the nebula lines are formed, and where the ions that produce them are concentrated. Evidence for “non-conventional” line excitation mechanisms, such as continuum fluorescence from the ground state or enhanced dielectronic recombination, is sought in the profile morphologies and relative line strengths. Non-conventional excitation processes may influence the strengths of lines enough to significantly alter abundances calculated from them. Our calculations show that recombination line-derived abundances exceed those derived from collisionally excited lines, for those ions for which we observed lines of both types: O+, O+2, and Ne +2 by real and varying amounts. We find that both continuum fluorescence and dielectronic recombination excites numerous lines in IC 418, but that

  4. Atomic lines in infrared spectra for ultracool dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubchik, Y.; Jones, H. R. A.; Pavlenko, Y. V.; Viti, S.; Pickering, J. C.; Blackwell-Whitehead, R.

    2004-03-01

    We provide a set of atomic lines which are suitable for the description of ultracool dwarf spectra from 10 000 to 25 000 Å. This atomic linelist was made using both synthetic spectra calculations and existing atlases of infrared spectra of Arcturus and Sunspot umbra. We present plots which show the comparison of synthetic spectra and observed Arcturus and Sunspot umbral spectra for all atomic lines likely to be observable in high resolution infrared spectra. Figure 1 is only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/655

  5. Step-stare technique for airborne high-resolution infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, Valerie; Chevrette, Paul C.; Ricard, Benot; Zaccarin, Andre

    2004-08-01

    The Infrared Eye project was developed at DRDC Valcartier to improve the efficiency of airborne search and rescue operations. A high performance opto-mechanical pointing system was developed to allow fast positioning of a narrow field of view with high resolution, used for search and detection, over a wide field of view of lower resolution that optimizes area coverage. This system also enables the use of a step-stare technique, which rapidly builds a large area coverage image mosaic by step-staring a narrow field camera and properly tiling the resulting images. The resulting image mosaic covers the wide field of the current Infrared Eye, but with the high resolution of the narrow field. For the desired application, the camera will be fixed to an airborne platform using a stabilized mount and image positioning in the mosaic will be calculated using flight data provided by an altimeter, a GPS and an inertial unit. This paper presents a model of the complete system, a dynamic step-stare strategy that generates the image mosaic, a flight image taking simulator for strategy testing and some results obtained with this simulator.

  6. Forbidden lines of (O I) in the high-resolution optical spectra of planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, F. P.; Aller, L. H.; Hyung, S.; Brown, P. J. F.

    1995-02-01

    Electron impact excitation rates for transitions in O I, calculated with the R-matrix code, are used to derive the electron-temperature sensitive emission-line ratio R = I(2s22p4 (1D) -2s22p4 1S/2s22p4 (3P)1,2-2s22p4 1D = I(5577 A)/I(6300+6365 A), for a range of electron temperatures Te = 5000-20 000 K) and densities (ne = 104 - 106/cu cm) applicable to planetary nebulae. Experimental values of R for a number of planetaries have been measured from high-resolution (approximately 0.6 A FWHM) spectra obtained with the Hamilton Echelle spectrograph on the 3-m telescope at the Lick Observatory. These measurements should be particularly reliable, as the sample of planetaries was restricted to those with large enough radial velocities for the nebular (O I) 5577 A emission to be red- or blue-shifted from the atmospheric airglow feature by a sufficient amount for the former to be reliably determined. Electron temperatures deduced from the observed values of R are generally in good agreement with those derived from Te-sensitive line ratios in other species, providing observational support for the accuracy of the atomic data adopted in the calculations.

  7. Symmetry-Based Tunnelings in High-Resolution Rovibrational Spectra of Octahedral Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Justin; Harter, William

    2010-06-01

    High-resolution spectra of spherical-top molecules are known to demonstrate rotational level clustering. This clustering is well described as a rotational phase-space effect Multiple equivalent phase-space regions allow tunneling and thus splitting of the rotational clusters. So far this has been done with an ad hoc tunneling Hamiltonian. Similar splittings have been shown for low dimensional systems, also with an ad hoc parameterization. While ad hoc tunneling parameterization is simple to understand, it becomes extremely difficult to apply for higher symmetries and for locally low-symmetry clustering when many tunneling paths are possible. Symmetry-based parameterization mitigates this complication. This presentation will discuss how symmetry-based tunneling is applied for octahedral molecules and demonstrate how local-C1, C2, C3 or C4 clusters may be evaluated perturbatively. Connections to non-rotational systems, such as large amplitude motion, will be discussed as well. W.G. Harter and C.W. Patterson, Phys Rev Lett 38, 224 (1977) W.G. Harter and C.W. Patterson, J Chem Phys 66, 4872 (1977) J.T. Hougen J Mol Spect 123, 197 (1987)

  8. High-resolution Valence and Core Excitation Spectra via First-Principles Calculations and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, Eric; Fossard, F.; Gilmore, K.; Hug, G.; Kas, J. J.; Rehr, J. J.; Vila, F.

    We calculate the optical and C K-edge near edge spectra of crystalline and molecular C60 measured with high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy. The calculations are carried out using at least three different methods: Bethe-Salpeter calculations using the NIST Bethe-Salpeter Equation solver (NBSE) in the valence and OCEAN (Obtaining Core Excitation with Ab initio methods and NBSE) suite [Gilmore et al., Comp. Phys. Comm., (2015)]; excited-core-hole calculations using XCH [D. Prendergast and G. Galli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 215502 (2006)]; and constrained occupancy using StoBe (Stockholm-Berlin core-excitation code) [StoBe-deMon version 3.0, K. Hermann et al. (2009)]. They include self-energy effects, lifetime-damping, and Debye-Waller effects. A comparison of spectral features to those observed illustrates the sensitivity of certain features to computation details (e.g., self-energy corrections and core-hole screening). This may point to limitations of various approximations, e.g. in conventional BSE paradigm and/or the incomplete treatment of vibrational effects. Supported in part by DOE BES Grant DE-FG03-97ER45623 (JJR, JJK, FV).

  9. High-resolution vacuum-ultraviolet photoabsorption spectra of 1-butyne and 2-butyne

    SciTech Connect

    Jacovella, U.; Holland, D. M. P.; Boyé-Péronne, S.; Gans, B.; Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Archer, L. E.; Lucchese, R. R.; Xu, H.; Pratt, S. T.

    2015-07-21

    The absolute photoabsorption cross sections of 1- and 2-butyne have been recorded at high resolution by using the vacuum-ultraviolet Fourier-Transform spectrometer at the SOLEIL Synchrotron. Both spectra show more resolved structure than previously observed, especially in the case of 2-butyne. In this work, we assess the potential importance of Rydberg states with higher values of orbital angular momentum, l, than are typically observed in photoabsorption experiments from ground state molecules. We show how the character of the highest occupied molecular orbitals in 1- and 2-butyne suggests the potential importance of transitions to such high-l (l = 3 and 4) Rydberg states. Furthermore, we use theoretical calculations of the partial wave composition of the absorption cross section just above the ionization threshold and the principle of continuity of oscillator strength through an ionization threshold to support this conclusion. The new absolute photoabsorption cross sections are discussed in light of these arguments, and the results are consistent with the expectations. This type of argument should be valuable for assessing the potential importance of different Rydberg series when sufficiently accurate direct quantum chemical calculations are difficult, for example, in the n ≥ 5 manifolds of excited states of larger molecules.

  10. Vibrationally resolved high-resolution NEXAFS and XPS spectra of phenanthrene and coronene

    SciTech Connect

    Fronzoni, Giovanna; Baseggio, Oscar; Stener, Mauro; Hua, Weijie; Tian, Guangjun; Luo, Yi; Apicella, Barbara; Alfé, Michela; Simone, Monica de; Kivimäki, Antti; Coreno, Marcello

    2014-07-28

    We performed a combined experimental and theoretical study of the C1s Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine-Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy in the gas phase of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene and coronene), typically formed in combustion reactions. In the NEXAFS of both molecules, a double-peak structure appears in the C1s → LUMO region, which differ by less than 1 eV in transition energies. The vibronic coupling is found to play an important role in such systems. It leads to weakening of the lower-energy peak and strengthening of the higher-energy one because the 0 − n (n > 0) vibrational progressions of the lower-energy peak appear in nearly the same region of the higher-energy peak. Vibrationally resolved theoretical spectra computed within the Frank-Condon (FC) approximation and linear coupling model agree well with the high-resolution experimental results. We find that FC-active normal modes all correspond to in-plane vibrations.

  11. Determination of phosphorus using high-resolution diphosphorus molecular absorption spectra produced in the graphite furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mao Dong; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Okruss, Michael; Geisler, Sebastian; Florek, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Molecular absorption of diphosphorus was produced in a graphite furnace and evaluated in view of its suitability for phosphorus determination. Measurements were performed with two different high-resolution continuum source absorption spectrometers. The first system is a newly in-house developed simultaneous broad-range spectrograph, which was mainly used for recording overview absorption spectra of P2 between 193 nm and 245 nm. The region covers the main part of the C 1Σu+ ← X 1Σg+ electronic transition and shows a complex structure with many vibrational bands, each consisting of a multitude of sharp rotational lines. With the help of molecular data available for P2, an assignment of the vibrational bands was possible and the rotational structure could be compared with simulated spectra. The second system is a commercial sequential continuum source spectrometer, which was used for the basic analytical measurements. The P2 rotational line at 204.205 nm was selected and systematically evaluated with regard to phosphorus determination. The conditions for P2 generation were optimized and it was found that the combination of a ZrC modified graphite tube and borate as a chemical modifier were essential for a good production of P2. Serious interferences were found in the case of nitrate and sulfuric acid, although the nitrate interference can be eliminated by a higher pyrolysis temperature. The reliability of the method was proved by analysis of certified samples. Using standard tubes, a characteristic mass of 10 ng and a limit of detection of 7 ng were found. The values could further be improved by a factor of ten using a miniaturized tube with an internal diameter of 2 mm. Compared to the conventional method based on the phosphorus absorption line at 213.618 nm, the advantages of using P2 are the gentle temperature conditions and the potential of performing a simultaneous multi-line evaluation to further improve the limit of detection.

  12. Neural network radiative transfer solvers for the generation of high resolution solar irradiance spectra parameterized by cloud and aerosol parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M.; Kosmopoulos, P. G.; Kazadzis, S.; Keramitsoglou, I.; Kiranoudis, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a neural network (NN) model for instantaneous and accurate estimation of solar radiation spectra and budgets geared toward satellite cloud data using a ≈2.4 M record, high-spectral resolution look up table (LUT) generated with the radiative transfer model libRadtran. Two NN solvers, one for clear sky conditions dominated by aerosol and one for cloudy skies, were trained on a normally-distributed and multiparametric subset of the LUT that spans a very broad class of atmospheric and meteorological conditions as inputs with corresponding high resolution solar irradiance target spectra as outputs. The NN solvers were tested by feeding them with a large (10 K record) "off-grid" random subset of the LUT spanning the training data space, and then comparing simulated outputs with target values provided by the LUT. The NN solvers demonstrated a capability to interpolate accurately over the entire multiparametric space. Once trained, the NN solvers allow for high-speed estimation of solar radiation spectra with high spectral resolution (1 nm) and for a quantification of the effect of aerosol and cloud optical parameters on the solar radiation budget without the need for a massive database. The cloudy sky NN solver was applied to high spatial resolution (54 K pixel) cloud data extracted from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation 3 (MSG3) satellite and demonstrated that coherent maps of spectrally-integrated global horizontal irradiance at this resolution can be produced on the order of 1 min.

  13. Detailed chemical abundances of extragalactic globular clusters using high resolution, integrated light spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, Janet E.

    Globular clusters (GCs) are luminous, observationally accessible objects that are good tracers of the total star formation and evolutionary history of galaxies. We present the first detailed chemical abundances for GCs in M31 using a new abundance analysis technique designed for high resolution, integrated light (IL) spectra of GCs. This technique has recently been developed using a training set of old GCS in the Milky Way (MW), and makes possible detailed chemical evolution studies of distant galaxies, where high resolution abundance analysis of individual stars are not obtainable. For the 5 M31 GCs presented here, we measure abundances of 14 elements: Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Y, and Ba. We find the M31 GCs have ages (>10 Gyr) and chemical properties similar to MW GCs, including an enhancement in the alpha-elements Ca, Ti and Si of [alpha/Fe]˜ +0.4. In this thesis, we also further develop this IL abundance analysis method to include GCs of ages 10 Myr--12 Gyrs using GCs in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), which contains the necessary sample of clusters over this wide age range. This work demonstrates for the first time that this IL abundance analysis method can be used on clusters of all ages, and that ages can be constrained to within 1--2 Gyr for clusters with ages of ˜2 Gyr and within a few 100 Myr for clusters with ages <1 Gyr. We find that we can measure [Fe/H] in clusters with ages <12 Gyrs with similar or only slightly larger uncertainties (0.1--0.25 dex) than those obtained for old GCs; the slightly larger uncertainties are due to the rapid evolution in stellar populations at these ages. Using the LMC clusters, we also investigate the effects of statistical fluctuations in the theoretical cluster stellar populations used in our analysis. We also develop strategies to allow for statistical variations in these stellar populations, and find that the stability of the Fe line abundance solution can provide tight constraints on the

  14. High-Resolution FT-IR Spectra of CHF 2Cl in the Region between 335 and 450 cm -1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merke, I.; Graner, G.; Klee, S.; Mellau, G.; Polanz, O.

    1995-10-01

    The spectrum of chlorodifluoromethane (CFC-22) has been investigated in the infrared region. Spectra of CHF 2Cl were recorded at room temperature with high resolution (0.0017 cm -1, Bruker IFS 120 HR) in the region between 335 and 450 cm -1. The spectral analysis of CHF 235Cl (isotopically pure sample) allowed us to assign more than 5500 lines ( J ≤ 76) to the ν 9b-type band (ν 0 = 366.1972 cm -1) and more than 6100 lines ( J ≤ 74) to the ν 6a/ c-hybrid band (ν 0 = 412.9286 cm -1). These two bands interact through both c-type and a-type Coriolis couplings. The addition of microwave and millimeter-wave data (see accompanying paper by Z. Kisiel, L. Pszczółkowski, G. Cazzoli, and G. Cotti, J. Mol. Spectrosc.173, 477-487, 1995) to these IR transitions allowed a global fit to be performed. The resulting molecular parameters are much better defined than when each type of transition is fitted separately. It was also found, by simulating the spectrum, that the dipole moment ratio between the a and c components of ν 6 is about 1.5 and the corresponding ratio of ν 9 and ν 6a is about 2. Moreover, results will be given concerning CHF 237Cl, obtained from a natural abundance sample as well as approximate bandcenters for several hot bands, which were not analyzed in detail.

  15. A Spitzer High-resolution Mid-Infrared Spectral Atlas of Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard-Salas, J.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Charmandaris, V.; Lebouteiller, V.; Farrah, D.; Devost, D.; Brandl, B. R.; Wu, Yanling; Armus, L.; Hao, L.; Sloan, G. C.; Weedman, D.; Houck, J. R.

    2009-10-01

    We present an atlas of Spitzer/IRS high-resolution (R ~ 600) 10-37 μm spectra for 24 well known starburst galaxies. The spectra are dominated by fine-structure lines, molecular hydrogen lines, and emission bands of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Six out of the eight objects with a known active galactic nucleus (AGN) component show emission of the high excitation [Ne V] line. This line is also seen in one other object (NGC 4194) with, a priori, no known AGN component. In addition to strong PAH emission features in this wavelength range (11.3, 12.7, 16.4 μm), the spectra reveal other weak hydrocarbon features at 10.6, 13.5, 14.2 μm, and a previously unreported emission feature at 10.75 μm. An unidentified absorption feature at 13.7 μm is detected in many of the starbursts. We use the fine-structure lines to derive the abundance of neon and sulfur for 14 objects where the H I 7-6 line is detected. We further use the molecular hydrogen lines to sample the properties of the warm molecular gas. Several basic diagrams characterizing the properties of the sample are also shown. We have combined the spectra of all the pure starburst objects to create a high signal-to-noise ratio template, which is available to the community.

  16. A SPITZER HIGH-RESOLUTION MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL ATLAS OF STARBURST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard-Salas, J.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Lebouteiller, V.; Farrah, D.; Wu, Yanling; Hao, L.; Sloan, G. C.; Weedman, D.; Houck, J. R.; Charmandaris, V.; Devost, D.; Brandl, B. R.; Armus, L.

    2009-10-01

    We present an atlas of Spitzer/IRS high-resolution (R {approx} 600) 10-37 {mu}m spectra for 24 well known starburst galaxies. The spectra are dominated by fine-structure lines, molecular hydrogen lines, and emission bands of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Six out of the eight objects with a known active galactic nucleus (AGN) component show emission of the high excitation [Ne V] line. This line is also seen in one other object (NGC 4194) with, a priori, no known AGN component. In addition to strong PAH emission features in this wavelength range (11.3, 12.7, 16.4 {mu}m), the spectra reveal other weak hydrocarbon features at 10.6, 13.5, 14.2 {mu}m, and a previously unreported emission feature at 10.75 {mu}m. An unidentified absorption feature at 13.7 {mu}m is detected in many of the starbursts. We use the fine-structure lines to derive the abundance of neon and sulfur for 14 objects where the H I 7-6 line is detected. We further use the molecular hydrogen lines to sample the properties of the warm molecular gas. Several basic diagrams characterizing the properties of the sample are also shown. We have combined the spectra of all the pure starburst objects to create a high signal-to-noise ratio template, which is available to the community.

  17. High Resolution Optical/Near-Infrared Imaging of Cool Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surace, J.; Sanders, D.; Evans, A.

    1999-01-01

    We present here new multiwavelength observations with 1.5 and 4x the spatial resolution of previous ground-based observations at optical and near-infrared wavelengths; despite being ground-based, they allow us to isolate interesting features such as the star-forming knots detected in the warm ULIG sample.

  18. High-Resolution X-Ray Spectra of the Symbiotic Star SS73 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eze, R. N. C.; Luna, G. J. M.; Smith, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    SS73 17 was an innocuous Mira-type symbiotic star until the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory and Swift discovered its bright hard X-ray emission, adding it to the small class of "hard X-ray emitting symbiotics." Suzaku observations in 2006 then showed it emits three bright iron lines as well, with little to no emission in the 0.3-2.0 keV bandpass. We present here follow-up observations with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating and Suzaku that confirm the earlier detection of strong emission lines of Fe K(alpha) fluorescence, Fe XXV and Fe XXVI but also show significantly more soft X-ray emission. The high-resolution spectrum also shows emission lines of other highly ionized ions as Si xiv and possibly S XVI. In addition, a re-analysis of the 2006 Suzaku data using the latest calibration shows that the hard (15-50 keV) X-ray emission is brighter than previously thought and remains constant in both the 2006 and 2008 data. The G ratio calculated from the Fe xxv lines shows that these lines are thermal, not photoionized, in origin.With the exception of the hard X-ray emission, the spectra from both epochs can be fit using thermal radiation assuming a differential emission measure based on a cooling-flow model combined with a full and partial absorber. We show that acceptable fits can be obtained for all the data in the 1-10 keV band varying only the partial absorber. Based on the temperature and accretion rate, the thermal emission appears to be arising from the boundary layer between the accreting white dwarf and the accretion disk.

  19. High-Resolution X-ray Spectra of the Symbiotic Star SS73 17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eze, R. N. C.; Luna, G. J. M.; Smith, R. K.

    2010-02-01

    SS73 17 was an innocuous Mira-type symbiotic star until the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory and Swift discovered its bright hard X-ray emission, adding it to the small class of "hard X-ray emitting symbiotics." Suzaku observations in 2006 then showed it emits three bright iron lines as well, with little to no emission in the 0.3-2.0 keV bandpass. We present here follow-up observations with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating and Suzaku that confirm the earlier detection of strong emission lines of Fe Kα fluorescence, Fe XXV and Fe XXVI but also show significantly more soft X-ray emission. The high-resolution spectrum also shows emission lines of other highly ionized ions as Si XIV and possibly S XVI. In addition, a re-analysis of the 2006 Suzaku data using the latest calibration shows that the hard (15-50 keV) X-ray emission is brighter than previously thought and remains constant in both the 2006 and 2008 data. The G ratio calculated from the Fe XXV lines shows that these lines are thermal, not photoionized, in origin. With the exception of the hard X-ray emission, the spectra from both epochs can be fit using thermal radiation assuming a differential emission measure based on a cooling-flow model combined with a full and partial absorber. We show that acceptable fits can be obtained for all the data in the 1-10 keV band varying only the partial absorber. Based on the temperature and accretion rate, the thermal emission appears to be arising from the boundary layer between the accreting white dwarf and the accretion disk.

  20. High-Resolution Spectra and Analysis of the ν 8 Band of Methylene Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morone, A.; Snels, M.; Polanz, O.

    1995-09-01

    The infrared spectra of the ν 8 band of natural methylene chloride and isotopically pure CH 235Cl 2 have been recorded at a resolution of 0.0025 cm -1 in the range 1100-1400 cm -1 with a Bruker IFS 120 HR Fourier transform interferometer. The spectrum of the ν 8 fundamental band has been analyzed for the most abundant isotopic species CH 235Cl 2 and CH 235Cl 37Cl, as well as the ν 4 + ν 8 - ν 4 hot band of CH 235Cl 2. From a rotational analysis, excited state constants up to quartic terms have been obtained, using Watson's A-reduction Hamiltonian in the Ir representation. No perturbations have been observed. The standard deviations of the fits vary from 0.44 × 10 -3 to 0.62 × 10 -3 cm -1.

  1. Mitigating atmospheric effects in high-resolution infra-red surveillance imagery with bispectral speckle imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Carrano, C J

    2006-05-30

    Obtaining a high-resolution image of an object or scene from a long distance away can be very problematic, even with the best optical system. This is because atmospheric blurring and distortion will limit the resolution and contrast of high-resolution imaging systems with substantial sized apertures over horizontal and slant paths. Much of the horizontal and slant-path surveillance imagery we have previously collected and successfully enhanced has been collected at visible wavelengths where atmospheric effects are the strongest. Imaging at longer wavelengths has the benefit of seeing through obscurants or even at night, but even though the atmospheric effects are noticeably reduced, they are nevertheless present, especially near the ground. This paper will describe our recent work on enhanced infrared (IR) surveillance using bispectral speckle imaging. Bispectral speckle imaging in this context is an image postprocessing algorithm that aims to solve the atmospheric blurring and distortion problem of imaging through horizontal or slant path turbulence. A review of the algorithm as well as descriptions of the IR camera and optical systems used in our data collections will be given. Examples of horizontal and slant-path imagery before and after speckle processing will also be presented to demonstrate the resolution improvement gained by the processing. Comparisons of IR imagery to visible wavelength imagery of the same target under the same conditions will be shown to demonstrate the tradeoffs of going to longer wavelengths.

  2. Fusing electro-optic and infrared signals for high resolution night images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaopeng; Netravali, Ravi; Man, Hong; Lawrence, Victor

    2012-03-01

    Electro-optic (EO) images exhibit the properties of high resolution and low noise level, while it is a challenge to distinguish objects at night through infrared (IR) images, especially for objects with a similar temperature. Therefore, we will propose a novel framework of IR image enhancement based on the information (e.g., edge) from EO images, which will result in high resolution IR images and help us distinguish objects at night. Superimposing the detected edge of the EO image onto the corresponding transformed IR image is our principal idea for the proposed framework. In this framework, we will adopt the theoretical point spread function (PSF) proposed by Russell C. Hardie et al. for our IR image system, which is contributed by the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a uniform detector array and the incoherent optical transfer function (OTF) of diffraction-limited optics. In addition, we will design an inverse filter in terms of the proposed PSF to conduct the IR image transformation. The framework requires four main steps, which are inverse filter-based IR image transformation, EO image edge detection, registration and superimposing of the obtained image pair. Simulation results will show the superimposed IR images.

  3. Analysis of high resolution FTIR spectra from synchrotron sources using evolutionary algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijngaarden, Jennifer; Desmond, Durell; Leo Meerts, W.

    2015-09-01

    Room temperature Fourier transform infrared spectra of the four-membered heterocycle trimethylene sulfide were collected with a resolution of 0.00096 cm-1 using synchrotron radiation from the Canadian Light Source from 500 to 560 cm-1. The in-plane ring deformation mode (ν13) at ∼529 cm-1 exhibits dense rotational structure due to the presence of ring inversion tunneling and leads to a doubling of all transitions. Preliminary analysis of the experimental spectrum was pursued via traditional methods involving assignment of quantum numbers to individual transitions in order to conduct least squares fitting to determine the spectroscopic parameters. Following this approach, the assignment of 2358 transitions led to the experimental determination of an effective Hamiltonian. This model describes transitions in the P and R branches to J‧ = 60 and Ka‧ = 10 that connect the tunneling split ground and vibrationally excited states of the ν13 band although a small number of low intensity features remained unassigned. The use of evolutionary algorithms (EA) for automated assignment was explored in tandem and yielded a set of spectroscopic constants that re-create this complex experimental spectrum to a similar degree. The EA routine was also applied to the previously well-understood ring puckering vibration of another four-membered ring, azetidine (Zaporozan et al., 2010). This test provided further evidence of the robust nature of the EA method when applied to spectra for which the underlying physics is well understood.

  4. High resolution TE&TM near infrared compact spectrometer based on waveguide grating structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, G.; Thomas, F.; Heidmann, S.; de Mengin, M.; Courjal, N.; Ulliac, G.; Morand, A.; Benech, P.; Kern, P.; Le Coarer, E...

    2015-05-01

    Integrated optics spectrometers can be essentially classified into two main families: based on Fourier transform or dispersed modes. In the first case, an interferogram generated inside an optical waveguide is sampled using nanodetectors, these scatter light into the detector that is in contact with the waveguide. A dedicated FFT processing is needed in order to recover the spectrum with high resolution but limited spectral range. Another way is to extract the optical signal confined in a waveguide using a surface grating and directly obtain the spectrum by means of a relay optics that generates the spectrum on the Fourier plane of the lens, where the detector is placed. Following this second approach, we present a high-resolution compact dispersive spectrometer (δλ =1.5nm at λ=1050nm) based on guided optics technology. The propagating signal is dispersed out of a waveguide thanks to a surface grating that lays along it. Focused Ion Beam technique is used to etch nano-grooves that act as individual scattering centers and constitute the surface grating along the waveguide. The waveguide is realized using X-cut, Ypropagating Lithium Niobate substrate, where the effective index for TE and TM guided modes is different. This results in a strong angular separation of TE and TM diffracted modes, allowing simultaneous detection of spectra for both polarizations. A simple relay optics, with limited optical aberrations, reimages the diffracted signal on the focal plane array, leading to a robust, easy to align instrument.

  5. High resolution Michelson interferometer for airborne infrared astronomical observations. 2: System design.

    PubMed

    Langlet, A; Delage, C; Stefanovitch, D; Talureau, B; Tualy, J; Verveer, J; Fischer, W P; Gilles, J M; Scheper, R; Leblanc, J; Dambier, G

    1977-07-01

    A Michelson interferometer for high resolution (lambda/Deltalambda approximately 10(4)) spectroscopic observations of astronomical ir ionic line emission has been built and flown on the NASA 91-cm airborne ir telescope facility (G. P. Kuiper Airborne Observatory). In Part 1 of this paper the requirements for such a system were outlined, and the scientific basis for the choice of instrumental parameters and the rapid scan mode of operation were discussed. In this paper design details of the instrument are presented. These include the optics, control He-Ne laser interferometer, helium-cooled bolometer detector, and cooled passband filters. In addition, the on-line computer software which enables the operator to interact rapidly with the system to produce inflight spectra and control accordingly the observational parameters is described, as are elements of the electronics hardware developed specially for airborne observations. PMID:20168820

  6. High-resolution solar spectral irradiance from extreme ultraviolet to far infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontenla, J. M.; Harder, J.; Livingston, W.; Snow, M.; Woods, T.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents new extremely high-resolution solar spectral irradiance (SSI) calculations covering wavelengths from 0.12 nm to 100 micron obtained by the Solar Irradiance Physical Modeling (SRPM) system. Daily solar irradiance spectra were constructed for most of Solar Cycle 23 based on a set of physical models of the solar features and non-LTE calculations of their emitted spectra as function of viewing angle, and solar images specifying the distribution of features on the solar disk. Various observational tests are used to assess the quality of the spectra provided here. The present work emphasizes the effects on the SSI of the upper chromosphere and full-non-LTE radiative transfer calculation of level populations and ionizations that are essential for physically consistent results at UV wavelengths and for deep lines in the visible and IR. This paper also considers the photodissociation continuum opacity of molecular species, e.g., CH and OH, and proposes the consideration of NH photodissociation which can solve the puzzle of the missing near-UV opacity in the spectral range of the near-UV. Finally, this paper is based on physical models of the solar atmosphere and extends the previous lower-layer models into the upper-transition-region and coronal layers that are the dominant source of photons at wavelengths shorter than ˜50 nm (except for the He II 30.4 nm line, mainly formed in the lower-transition-region).

  7. First High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopic Measurements of Comet 2P/Encke: Unusual Organic Composition and Low Rotational Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radeva, Yana L.; Mumma, M. J.; Villanueva, G. L.; Bonev, B. P.; DiSanti, M. A.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Dello Russo, N.

    2012-10-01

    We present the first high-resolution infrared spectra of the ecliptic comet 2P/Encke, acquired on UT 4 - 6 Nov. 2003, with the Near Infrared Echelle Spectrograph (NIRSPEC) on the Keck II telescope. 2P/Encke is a dynamical end-member among comets. Its very short period of 3.3 years (with perihelion at 0.34 AU and aphelion at 4.09 AU) exposes the nucleus to unusually high insolation throughout its orbit, raising the prospect that native ices may have experienced significant fractionation over time. Here, we present flux-calibrated spectra, production rates, and mixing ratios for H2O, CH3OH, HCN, H2CO, C2H2, C2H6, CH4 and CO, and compare the abundance ratios with the “organics-normal” population. We also extracted very low rotational temperatures (20 - 30 K) for H2O, HCN, and CH3OH in the near-nucleus coma, which correlate with one of the lowest cometary gas production rates ( 1027 molecules s-1) measured thus far in the infrared. We determined that 2P/Encke is enriched in CH3OH, but depleted in C2H6, C2H2, HCN, CH4, H2CO and CO. We compared mixing ratios of these organic species measured on separate dates, and found no evidence of macroscopic chemical heterogeneity in this cometary nucleus, however, we are limited by sparse temporal sampling of our observations. The depleted abundances of most measured species but retention of the high temperature volatiles (H2O, CH3OH) are consistent with fractionation of 2P/Encke’s native ices by thermal processing while in its current orbit. 2P/Encke is unique in terms of its short period, unusual organic composition, low rotational temperatures and low production rates. The discovery of its unusual organic composition is an important contribution to the emerging chemical taxonomy of comets.

  8. Investigating Possible Departures from Maxwellian Energy Distributions in Nebulae using High-Resolution Emission Line Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turbyfill, Amanda; Dinerstein, H. L.; Sterling, N. C.

    2014-01-01

    The derivation of ionic abundance ratios from collisionally excited emission lines in gaseous nebulae requires knowledge of the physical state of the gas, particularly the electron kinetic temperature, Te, to which the resulting abundances are highly sensitive. A long-standing problem in nebular analyses has been pervasive discrepancies among values of Te obtained from different diagnostic ratios for a single nebula. Recently, Nicholls et al. (2012, ApJ, 752, 148) have suggested that the nebular electrons may not obey an equilibrium Maxwell-Boltzmann (M-B) energy distribution, but instead follow a “κ distribution” seen in many solar system plasmas, a family of distributions for which the M-B distribution is the limiting case where κ → ∞. The high-energy tail of supra-thermal electrons in κ distributions have a disproportionate effect on strongly energy dependent quantities, such as Te diagnostics, for even modest departures from M-B distributions. We apply prescriptions given by Nicholls et al. (2013, ApJS, 207, 21) to high-resolution (R=36,700) optical spectra of 10 planetary nebulae obtained with the 2d-coudé echelle spectrograph on the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. The advantages of these data include their broad spectral coverage and sufficiently high spectral resolution to separate blended lines and assess possible atmospheric absorption issues. The line fluxes were obtained using ROBOSPECT, an automated spectral line measurement package developed by Waters & Hollek (2013, PASP, 125, 1164). We solve both for Te under the assumption of M-B distributions, and the parameters of κ distributions consistent with the data. Our goal is to test whether the κ distribution hypothesis provides a better fit to the observed line ratios. Finally, we discuss effects on the derived ionic abundances under this alternate description of the particle energy distributions. This research was supported by NSF grant AST 0708245 and the John W

  9. Performance of the HIRS/2 instrument on TIROS-N. [High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, E. W.

    1980-01-01

    The High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS/2) was developed and flown on the TIROS-N satellite as one means of obtaining atmospheric vertical profile information. The HIRS/2 receives visible and infrared spectrum radiation through a single telescope and selects 20 narrow radiation channels by means of a rotating filter wheel. A passive radiant cooler provides an operating temperature of 106.7 K for the HgCdTe and InSb detectors while the visible detector operates at instrument frame temperature. Low noise amplifiers and digital processing provide 13 bit data for spacecraft data multiplexing and transmission. The qualities of system performance that determine sounding capability are the dynamic range of data collection, the noise equivalent radiance of the system, the registration of the air columns sampled in each channel and the ability to upgrade the calibration of the instrument to maintain the performance standard throughout life. The basic features, operating characteristics and performance of the instrument in test are described. Early orbital information from the TIROS-N launched on October 13, 1978 is given and some observations on system quality are made.

  10. A near-infrared high-resolution spectroscopic survey of Galactic bulge stars . - JASMINE prestudy -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, T.; Kobayashi, N.; Ikeda, Y.; Kondo, S.; Yasui, C.; Minami, A.; Motohara, K.; Gouda, N.

    We are developing a new near-infrared high-resolution (R_max= 100,000) and high-sensitive spectrograph WINERED, which is specifically customized for short NIR bands at 0.9-1.35 mu m. WINERED employs the novelty in the optical system; a portable design with a near-infrared immersion grating and warm optics without any cold stops. The planned astrometric space mission JASMINE will provide the exact positions, distances, and proper motions of the Galactic bulge stars. The missing components, the radial velocity and chemical compositions, will be measured by WINERED with high accuracies (delta V< 10km/s). These combined data brought by JASMINE and WINERED will certainly reveal the nature of the Galactic bulge. We plan to complete this instrument with a single slit by the end of 2008 and hope to attach it to various 4-10 m telescopes as a PI-type instrument. In succession, we plan to develop a similar spectrograph but with a simultaneous multi-object spectroscopic capability for full-fledged bulge survey.

  11. High-resolution microwave and infrared molecular-beam studies of the conformers of 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, S.C.; Philips, L.A.; Fraser, G.T.; Lovas, F.J.

    1996-12-31

    High-resolution microwave and infrared molecular-beam spectra have been measured for 1,1,2,2-tetrafluorethane (HFC134). For the higher-energy, polar, C{sub 1}-symmetry, gauche conformer, microwave spectra have been recorded for the normal and mono-{sup 13}C isotopomers and analyzed to determine a C-C bond length of 1.512(4) {Angstrom} and a CCF angle of 109.7(3){degrees}. A tunable microwave-sideband CO{sub 2} laser and electric-resonance optothermal spectrometer have been used to measure the infrared spectrum of the {nu}{sub 6}, C-C stretch of the gauche conformer near 906 cm{sup -1}. Microwave-infrared double resonance and precise ground-state combination-differences provided by the microwave measurements guide the assignment of the spectrum. A b- and c-type spectrum is observed and fit to a Watson asymmetric-top Hamiltonian to within the experimental uncertainty of 0.3 MHz. The high quality of the fit and the similarity of the centrifugal distortion constants to the ground-state values indicate that the band is effectively unperturbed. A number of strong unassigned lines are present in the spectrum. These transitions do not display any microwave-infrared double resonance effect. The attribution of these transitions to the nonpolar anti conformer is ruled out since the transition intensities are sensitive to the field strength of the inhomogeneous electric field used to focus the molecules. Pulsed slit-jet diode-laser spectra have been recorded for the {nu}{sub 16}, anti conformer near 1127 cm{sup -1}. An a- and c-type hybrid band is observed consistent with previous low-resolution assignments of this vibration to a B. mode. A total of 522 non-blended transitions were assigned and fit to determine ground- and excited-state constants. The ground-state constants of A = 5134.952(65), B = 3148.277(27), and C = 2067.106(43) MHz are the first experimental determination of rotational constants for this conformer.

  12. A high-resolution atlas of the infrared spectrum of the sun and the earth atmosphere from space. A compilation of ATMOS spectra of the region from 650 to 4800 cm-1 (2.3 to 16 μm). Vol. I. The sun.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, C. B.; Norton, R. H.

    1989-08-01

    During the period April 29 through May 2, 1985, the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment was operated as part of the Spacelab-3 payload of the Shuttle Challenger. The instrument, a modified Michelson interferometer covering the frequency range from 600 to 5000 cm-1 (2 to 16 μm) at a spectral resolution of 0.01 cm-1, recorded infrared spectra of the sun and of the earth's atmosphere at times close to entry into and exit from occultation by the earth's limb as seen from the Shuttle orbit of 360 km. Spectra were obtained that are free from absorptions due to constituents of the atmosphere (i.e., they are "pure solar" spectra).

  13. High Resolution Infrared Radiative Transfer of Earth-like planets Influenced by Multiple Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez, Mayte; Schreier, Franz; Trautmann, Thomas; Rauer, Heike; Kitzmann, Daniel; Patzer, A. B. C.; Gimeno Garc&ía, Sebastián.

    2012-07-01

    Background:, The emission spectrum of the modern Earth around different types of stars has been modeled in order to study the effects of different incident stellar radiation in the atmosphere. The Earth-like planetary spectra have also been studied in the presence of clouds. Clouds have an impact on the radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres by changing the spectra (intensities and shapes) due to extinction events (scattering and absorption). Thereby, they can influence the atmospheric and surface temperatures and can also generate false-negative biomarker signatures. Methods:, The spectra of Earth-like have been modeled using a line-by-line radiative transfer model coupled with a multiple scattering solver. The atmospheres of these planets were calculated using a convective climate model taking as reference the atmospheric profile from the modern Earth. All main molecular bands found in the thermal region (H2O, CO2, N2O, CH4 and O3) were analyzed at high resolution in order to assess their detectability in the presence of low (water) and high-level (ice) clouds for different percent coverage. Results:, The resulting calculations indicate that the modern Earth spectrum for a cloud-free atmosphere changes in the presence of different stellar types. The pressure-temperature profile and the molecular concentrations of the Earth were altered. In the presence of clouds, the atmospheric temperatures were modified as well. The water cloud cooled down the surface and tropospheric temperatures of the planets while the ice cloud warmed them up. The presence of clouds also decreased the depth of the absorption bands and modified their shapes, consequently producing a false-negative detection of some of the bands. Keywords:, radiation, planets, atmospheres, clouds, aerosols, molecules, scattering, habitability, modeling.

  14. A high-resolution near-infrared extraterrestrial solar spectrum derived from ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menang, Kaah P.; Coleman, Marc D.; Gardiner, Tom D.; Ptashnik, Igor V.; Shine, Keith P.

    2013-06-01

    A detailed spectrally resolved extraterrestrial solar spectrum (ESS) is important for line-by-line radiative transfer modeling in the near-IR. Very few observationally based high-resolution ESS are available in this spectral region. Consequently, the theoretically calculated ESS by Kurucz has been widely adopted. We present the CAVIAR (Continuum Absorption at Visible and Infrared Wavelengths and its Atmospheric Relevance) ESS, which is derived using the Langley technique applied to calibrated observations using a ground-based high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) in atmospheric windows from 2000 to 10,000 cm-1 (1-5 µm). There is good agreement between the strengths and positions of solar lines between the CAVIAR and the satellite-based Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-FTS ESS, in the spectral region where they overlap, and good agreement with other ground-based FTS measurements in two near-IR windows. However, there are significant differences in the structure between the CAVIAR ESS and spectra from semiempirical models. In addition, we found a difference of up to 8% in the absolute (and hence the wavelength-integrated) irradiance between the CAVIAR ESS and that of Thuillier et al., which was based on measurements from the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science satellite and other sources. In many spectral regions, this difference is significant, because the coverage factor k = 2 (or 95% confidence limit) uncertainties in the two sets of observations do not overlap. Because the total solar irradiance is relatively well constrained, if the CAVIAR ESS is correct, then this would indicate an integrated "loss" of solar irradiance of about 30 W m-2 in the near-IR that would have to be compensated by an increase at other wavelengths.

  15. Package for Interactive Analysis of Line Emission (Analysis of UV-X-Ray High-Resolution Emission Spectra)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Paul (Technical Monitor); Kashyap, Vinay

    2004-01-01

    The Package for Interactive Analysis of Line Emission (PINTofALE) is a suite of IDL routines designed to carry out spectroscopic analysis of high-resolution X-ray spectra. The current version is 1.5, and will shortly be upgraded to v2. A detailed description of the package, together with detailed documentation, example walk-throughs, science threads, and downloadable tar files, are available on-line.

  16. High-Resolution Microwave and Infrared Molecular-Beam Studies of the Conformers of 1,1,2,2-Tetrafluoroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Stephen C.; Philips, Laura A.; Fraser, G. T.; Lovas, F. J.; Xu, Li-Hong; Sharpe, S. W.

    1998-11-01

    High-resolution microwave and infrared molecular-beam spectra have been measured for 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC134). For the higher energy, polar,C2symmetry,gaucheconformer, microwave spectra have been recorded for the normal and mono-13C isotopomers and analyzed to determine a C-C bond length of 1.512(4) Å, in good agreement with a recentab initiovalue (MP2/6-31G**) of 1.515 Å [S. Papasavva, K. H. Illinger, and J. E. Kenny,J. Phys. Chem.100, 10100-10110 (1996)]. A tunable microwave-sideband CO2laser and electric-resonance optothermal spectrometer have been used to measure the infrared spectrum of the ν6, C-C stretch of thegaucheconformer near 906 cm-1. Microwave-infrared double resonance and precise ground state combination differences provided by the microwave measurements guide the assignment of the spectrum. The observation of ac-type spectrum definitively establishes that the upper state vibration is ofAsymmetry in theC2point group. The spectrum is fit to a Watson asymmetric-top Hamiltonian to a standard deviation of 0.24 MHz. A weak perturbation shifts the line positions for transitions nearJ = Kc= 20 by as much as 12 MHz. The identity of the perturber is unknown. Pulsed slit-jet diode-laser spectra have been recorded for the ν16vibration of theanticonformer near 1127 cm-1. Ana- andc-type hybrid band is observed, consistent with aBusymmetry mode. Previous low-resolution studies have attributed the 1127-cm-1mode to either aBuor anAusymmetry vibration. A total of 522 nonblended transitions were assigned and fit to determine ground and excited state constants. The ground state constants ofA= 5134.952(65) MHz,B= 3148.277(27) MHz, andC= 2067.106(43) MHz are the first experimental determinations of the rotational constants for this conformer. Here, typeAstandard uncertainties are given in the parentheses.

  17. High-Resolution Microwave and Infrared Molecular Beam Studies of the Conformers of 1, 1, 2, 2-Tetrafluoroethane

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Steven C.; Philips, Laura A.; Fraser, Gerry; Lovas, Fj; Xu, Li-Hong; Sharpe, Steven W.)

    1998-01-01

    High-resolution microwave and infrared molecular-beam spectra have been measure for 1,1,2,2-tetraflouroethane (HFC134). For the higher energy, polar, C2 symmetry, gauche conformer, microwave spectra have been recorded for the normal and mono-13C isotopomers and analyzed to determine a C-C bond length of 1.512(4)?, in good agreement with a recent ab initio value (MP2/6-31**) of 1.515?[S. Papasavva, K.H. Illinger, and J.E. Kenny, J. Phys. Chem 100 10100-10110(1996)]. A tunable microwave-sideband CO2 laser and electric-resonance optethermal spectrometer have been used to measure the infrared spectrum of the v6, C-C stretch of the gauche conformer near 906 cm-1. Microwave-infrared double resonance and precise ground state combination differences provided by the microwave measurements guide the assignment of the spectrum. The observation of a c-type spectrum definitively establishes that the upper state vibration is of A symmetry in the C2 point group. The spectrum is fit to a Watson asymmetric-top Hamiltonian to a standard deviation of 0.24 MHz. A weak perturbation shifts the line positions for transitions near J=Kc=20 by as much as 12 MHz. The identity of the perturber is unknown. Pulsed slit-jet diode-laser spectra have been recorded for the v16 vibration of the anti conformer near 1127 cm-1. An a- and c-type hybrid band is observed, consistent with a Bu symmetry mode. Previous low-resolution studies have attributed the 1127-cm-1 mode to either a Bu or an Au symmetry vibration. A total of 522 nonblended transitions were assigned and fit to determine ground and excited state constants. The ground state constants of A=52 5.952(65) MHz, B= 3148.277(27) MHz, and C= 2067.106(43) MHz are the first experimental determinations of the rotational constants for this conformer. Here, type A standard uncertainties are given in the parenthese.

  18. High-resolution infrared spectroscopy and ab initio studies of the cyclopropane-carbon dioxide interaction.

    PubMed

    Su, Zheng; Tam, Wai Shun; Xu, Yunjie

    2006-01-14

    A jet-cooled high-resolution infrared spectrum of the cyclopropane-carbon dioxide complex was detected for the first time, using a rapid scan infrared spectrometer with an astigmatic multipass sample cell. The spectrum was recorded in the vicinity of the CO2 asymmetric stretching band (nu3) and exhibits a b-dipole selection rule. Altogether, over 200 lines were observed, assigned, and fitted to Watson's S-reduction Hamiltonian. Rotational and quartic distortion constants were obtained. The band origin was located at 2347.6263(2) cm(-1), redshifted by 1.5230(2) cm(-1) from the corresponding frequency of the CO2 monomer. The experimentally determined structure shows that CO2 lies next to a C-C bond edge and is perpendicular to the C3 ring, indicating that the interaction is characterized by the bonding between the carbon atom of CO2 and the pseudo-pi system of cyclopropane. The intermolecular distance between the carbon atom of CO2 and the center of mass of cyclopropane was determined to be 3.667(2) A. Complete ab initio geometry optimizations and harmonic frequency calculations were carried out at the level of second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory with four different basis sets: cc-pVDZ, 6-311++G(d,p), aug-cc-pVDZ, and aug-cc-pVTZ. The lowest-energy structure identified with the three larger basis sets is in accord with the experimental finding. In addition, a transition state was identified and the tunneling barrier height was computed. PMID:16422587

  19. HIGH-RESOLUTION, DIFFERENTIAL, NEAR-INFRARED TRANSMISSION SPECTROSCOPY OF GJ 1214b

    SciTech Connect

    Crossfield, I. J. M.; Hansen, Brad M. S.; Barman, Travis

    2011-08-01

    The nearby star GJ 1214 hosts a planet intermediate in radius and mass between Earth and Neptune, resulting in some uncertainty as to its nature. We have observed this planet, GJ 1214b, during transit with the high-resolution, near-infrared NIRSPEC spectrograph on the Keck II telescope, in order to characterize the planet's atmosphere. By cross-correlating the spectral changes through transit with a suite of theoretical atmosphere models, we search for variations associated with absorption in the planet atmosphere. Our observations are sufficient to rule out tested model atmospheres with wavelength-dependent transit depth variations {approx}> 5 x 10{sup -4} over the wavelength range 2.1-2.4 {mu}m. Our sensitivity is limited by variable slit loss and telluric transmission effects. We find no positive signatures but successfully rule out a number of plausible atmospheric models, including the default assumption of a gaseous, H-dominated atmosphere in chemical equilibrium. Such an atmosphere can be made consistent if the absorption due to methane is reduced. Clouds can also render such an atmosphere consistent with our observations, but only if they lie higher in the atmosphere than indicated by recent optical and infrared measurements. When taken in concert with other observational constraints, our results support a model in which the atmosphere of GJ 1214b contains significant H and He, but where CH{sub 4} is depleted. If this depletion is the result of photochemical processes, it may also produce a haze that suppresses spectral features in the optical.

  20. A high-resolution atlas of the infrared spectrum of the sun and the earth atmosphere from space. A compilation of ATMOS spectra of the region from 650 to 4800 cm-1 (2.3 to 16 microns). Volume 2: Stratosphere and mesosphere, 650 to 3350 cm-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Crofton B.; Norton, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    During the period April 29 to May 2, 1985, the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment was operated for the first time, as part of the Spacelab-3 payload of the shuttle Challenger. The principal purpose of this experiment was to study the distributions of the atmosphere's minor and trace molecular constituents. The instrument, a modified Michelson interferometer covering the frequency range from 600 to 5000/cm-1 at a spectral resolution of 0.01/cm-1, recorded infrared absorption spectra of the sun and of the earth's atmosphere at times close to entry into and exit from occultation by the earth's limb. Spectra were obtained that are free from absorptions due to constituents of the atmosphere (i.e., they are pure solar spectra), as well as spectra of the atmosphere itself, covering line-of-sight tangent altitudes that span the range from the lower thermosphere to the bottom of the troposphere. This atlas presents a compilation of these spectra arranged in a hardcopy format suitable for quick-look reference purposes. Volume 2 covers the stratosphere and mesosphere (i.e., tangent altitudes from 20 to 80 km) for frequencies from 650 to 3350/cm-1.

  1. A high-resolution atlas of the infrared spectrum of the sun and the earth atmosphere from space. A compilation of ATMOS spectra of the region from 650 to 4800 cm-1 (2.3 to 16 microns). Volume 2: Stratosphere and mesosphere, 650 to 3350 cm-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, Crofton B.; Norton, Robert H.

    During the period April 29 to May 2, 1985, the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment was operated for the first time, as part of the Spacelab-3 payload of the shuttle Challenger. The principal purpose of this experiment was to study the distributions of the atmosphere's minor and trace molecular constituents. The instrument, a modified Michelson interferometer covering the frequency range from 600 to 5000/cm-1 at a spectral resolution of 0.01/cm-1, recorded infrared absorption spectra of the sun and of the earth's atmosphere at times close to entry into and exit from occultation by the earth's limb. Spectra were obtained that are free from absorptions due to constituents of the atmosphere (i.e., they are pure solar spectra), as well as spectra of the atmosphere itself, covering line-of-sight tangent altitudes that span the range from the lower thermosphere to the bottom of the troposphere. This atlas presents a compilation of these spectra arranged in a hardcopy format suitable for quick-look reference purposes. Volume 2 covers the stratosphere and mesosphere (i.e., tangent altitudes from 20 to 80 km) for frequencies from 650 to 3350/cm-1.

  2. TOWARD UNDERSTANDING THE ENVIRONMENT OF R MONOCEROTIS FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRIC OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Jolin, M.-A.; Bastien, P.; Denni, F.; Lafreniere, D.; Doyon, R.; Voyer, P.

    2010-10-01

    High-resolution H-band imaging polarimetric observations of R Mon obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope are presented. These data show a centrosymmetric pattern with elongated intensity contours mostly due to the presence of the companion R Mon B. We also consider published R-band data, which show an extended right-angle conical reflection nebula with an offset in the optical peak. We study the circumstellar environment of R Mon with a radiative transfer Monte Carlo code. The best-fitting model obtained succeeds in reproducing the characteristics seen in the data in the two bands simultaneously. The model indicates the presence of relatively small astronomical silicate grains ranging from 0.04 {mu}m to 0.15 {mu}m distributed into three structures: a small disk, an inner envelope, and an outer envelope. The cavity is modeled by a conical structure with a constant low density and we include a 'throat' to produce the offset of the optical peak. Our model predicts a polarization reversal by 90{sup 0} between the R and H bands. Observations show that position angles parallel, perpendicular, and also at other angles to the disk can occur over time in the near-infrared.

  3. A high-resolution study of near-infrared diffuse interstellar bands

    SciTech Connect

    Rawlings, M. G.; Adamson, A. J.; Kerr, T. H. E-mail: aadamson@gemini.edu

    2014-11-20

    We present high-resolution echelle spectroscopic observations of the two near-infrared (NIR) diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at 13175 Å and 11797.5 Å. The DIBs have been observed in a number of diffuse interstellar medium sightlines that exhibit a wide range of visual extinctions. Band profiles are similar to those seen in narrow DIBs, clearly asymmetric and can be closely fitted in most cases using two simple Gaussian components. Gaussian fits were generally found to be more successful than fits based on a multiple-cloud model using a template DIB profile. For a sample of nine objects in which both bands are observed, the strength of both NIR DIBs generally increases with A(V), and we report a correlation between the two observed bands over a large A(V) range and widely separated lines of sight. The strength of the two bands is also compared against those of two visual DIBs and the diffuse ISM aliphatic dust absorption feature at 3.4 μm previously detected in the same sightlines. We find that the NIR DIBs do not exhibit notable (anti)correlations with either. Implications of these observations on possible DIB carrier species are discussed.

  4. Multi-sensor fusion of infrared and electro-optic signals for high resolution night images.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaopeng; Netravali, Ravi; Man, Hong; Lawrence, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Electro-optic (EO) image sensors exhibit the properties of high resolution and low noise level at daytime, but they do not work in dark environments. Infrared (IR) image sensors exhibit poor resolution and cannot separate objects with similar temperature. Therefore, we propose a novel framework of IR image enhancement based on the information (e.g., edge) from EO images, which improves the resolution of IR images and helps us distinguish objects at night. Our framework superimposing/blending the edges of the EO image onto the corresponding transformed IR image improves their resolution. In this framework, we adopt the theoretical point spread function (PSF) proposed by Hardie et al. for the IR image, which has the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a uniform detector array and the incoherent optical transfer function (OTF) of diffraction-limited optics. In addition, we design an inverse filter for the proposed PSF and use it for the IR image transformation. The framework requires four main steps: (1) inverse filter-based IR image transformation; (2) EO image edge detection; (3) registration; and (4) blending/superimposing of the obtained image pair. Simulation results show both blended and superimposed IR images, and demonstrate that blended IR images have better quality over the superimposed images. Additionally, based on the same steps, simulation result shows a blended IR image of better quality when only the original IR image is available. PMID:23112602

  5. Improved fusing infrared and electro-optic signals for high-resolution night images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaopeng; Netravali, Ravi; Man, Hong; Lawrence, Victor

    2012-06-01

    Electro-optic (EO) images exhibit the properties of high resolution and low noise level, while it is a challenge to distinguish objects with infrared (IR), especially for objects with similar temperatures. In earlier work, we proposed a novel framework for IR image enhancement based on the information (e.g., edge) from EO images. Our framework superimposed the detected edges of the EO image with the corresponding transformed IR image. Obviously, this framework resulted in better resolution IR images that help distinguish objects at night. For our IR image system, we used the theoretical point spread function (PSF) proposed by Russell C. Hardie et al., which is composed of the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a uniform detector array and the incoherent optical transfer function (OTF) of diffraction-limited optics. In addition, we designed an inverse filter based on the proposed PSF to transform the IR image. In this paper, blending the detected edge of the EO image with the corresponding transformed IR image and the original IR image is the principal idea for improving the previous framework. This improved framework requires four main steps: (1) inverse filter-based IR image transformation, (2) image edge detection, (3) images registration, and (4) blending of the corresponding images. Simulation results show that blended IR images have better quality over the superimposed images that were generated under the previous framework. Based on the same steps, the simulation result shows a blended IR image of better quality when only the original IR image is available.

  6. Multi-Sensor Fusion of Infrared and Electro-Optic Signals for High Resolution Night Images

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaopeng; Netravali, Ravi; Man, Hong; Lawrence, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Electro-optic (EO) image sensors exhibit the properties of high resolution and low noise level at daytime, but they do not work in dark environments. Infrared (IR) image sensors exhibit poor resolution and cannot separate objects with similar temperature. Therefore, we propose a novel framework of IR image enhancement based on the information (e.g., edge) from EO images, which improves the resolution of IR images and helps us distinguish objects at night. Our framework superimposing/blending the edges of the EO image onto the corresponding transformed IR image improves their resolution. In this framework, we adopt the theoretical point spread function (PSF) proposed by Hardie et al. for the IR image, which has the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a uniform detector array and the incoherent optical transfer function (OTF) of diffraction-limited optics. In addition, we design an inverse filter for the proposed PSF and use it for the IR image transformation. The framework requires four main steps: (1) inverse filter-based IR image transformation; (2) EO image edge detection; (3) registration; and (4) blending/superimposing of the obtained image pair. Simulation results show both blended and superimposed IR images, and demonstrate that blended IR images have better quality over the superimposed images. Additionally, based on the same steps, simulation result shows a blended IR image of better quality when only the original IR image is available. PMID:23112602

  7. Exploring the transition to planetary nebula using high-resolution techniques at infrared wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendolyn Blanco Cárdenas, Mónica

    2015-08-01

    A planetary nebula (PN) is the ionised envelope surrounding a white dwarf, the final fate of low- and intermediate-mass stars. This stellar phase is also important for its contribution to the interstellar medium, when PNe drive out s-process elements, molecules as well as different dust species, the building blocks of life. One of the most discussed topics in the PNe research field is their huge variety of morphologies and how the more complex forms are sculpted. The theoretical models predict the existence of collimating agents such as disks (steady and/or rotating), jets, and binary systems to sculpt these perplexing morphologies. However, the observations able to detect these shaping engines are often quite difficult to accomplish. Furthermore, the transition to PN hides the clues of these process, that is, when the AGB, post-AGBs, proto-PN, and the circumstellar environments of young PNe are compact and embeded in dust. In this work, we present our results implementing observational techniques and different analysis to inspect and resolve these structures by means of high-resolution imaging, high- and low-resolution spectroscopy at infrared wavelengths and using two VLT instruments: CRIRES (near-IR) and VISIR (mid-IR).

  8. A near-infrared high-resolution spectroscopic survey of bulge stars - JASMINE prestudy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, T.; Gouda, N.; Kobayashi, N.; Yasui, C.; Kondo, S.; Minami, A.; Motohara, K.; Ikeda, Y.

    2006-08-01

    We are developing a new near-infrared high-resolution (R[max]= 100,000) and high-sensitive spectrograph WINERED, which is specifically customized for short NIR bands at 0.9-1.35 μm. WINERED employs the novelty in the optical system; a potable design and a warm optics without any cold stops. The planned astrometric space mission JASMINE will provide the exact positions, distances, and proper motions of the bulge stars. The missing components, the radial velocity and chemical compositions will be measured by WINERED with high accuracies (δV< 1km/s). These combined data brought by JASMINE and WINERED will certainly reveal the nature of the Galactic bulge. We plan to complete this instrument for the observation of a single object by the end of 2008 and hope to attach it to various 4-10m telescopes as a PI-type instrument. In succession, we will develop it to the design for a simultaneous multi-object spectroscopy.

  9. A modularized infrared light matrix system with high resolution for measuring animal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Young, M S; Li, Y C; Lin, M T

    1993-03-01

    The current study provides a new modularized infrared light matrix system (about $200 cost) which is designed to measure the horizontal gross or fine movements, vertical motion, clockwise or anticlockwise turnings, freezing time, and total distance traveled in rats. The system records the sequences of animal's activity in a computer-aided system with a resolution of 0.2 s in time or 1.6 cm in space, and permanently stores all the resulting data in file. The behavioral apparatus was tested for its sensitivity and usability by amphetamine-injected rats. It was found that intraperitoneal administration of amphetamine (1.25-2.50 mg/kg), but not normal saline, produced a dose-related increase in either the horizontal gross or fine movements, vertical motion, clockwise or anticlockwise turnings, or total distance traveled. However, amphetamine injections produced a dose-related decrease in freezing time. Apparently, most of the amphetamine-induced responses obtained by other detecting apparatus can be reproduced easily by the present apparatus. The current detection system possesses the following advantages: a) high resolution, b) high expansion potential, and c) precise and simplified algorithms for behavioral parameter analysis. PMID:8451322

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: High resolution spectra of 3 NGC104 member stars (Ferraro+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, F. R.; Lapenna, E.; Mucciarelli, A.; Lanzoni, B.; Dalessandro, E.; Pallanca, C.; Massari, D.

    2016-03-01

    In the context of the ESO Large Programme 193.D-0232 (PI: Ferraro) aimed at studying the internal kinematics of Galactic globular clusters, we have secured UVES-FLAMES high-resolution spectra of three stars in 47 Tuc (NGC 104). The (V,V-I) CMD is obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)-Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) photometric catalog of Sarajedini et al. (2007AJ....133.1658S). The target spectra have been acquired with the grating 580 Red Arm CD#3, which provides a spectral resolution R~40000 between 4800 and 6800Å. The three stars are all cluster members. (2 data files).

  11. High-resolution infrared spectrum of triacetylene: The ν5 state revisited and new vibrational states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doney, K. D.; Zhao, D.; Linnartz, H.

    2015-10-01

    New data are presented that follow from a high-resolution survey, from 3302 to 3352 cm-1, through expanding acetylene plasma, and covering the Csbnd H asymmetric (ν5) fundamental band of triacetylene (HC6H). Absorption signals are recorded using continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (cw-CRDS). A detailed analysis of the resulting spectra allows revisiting the molecular parameters of the ν5 fundamental band in terms of interactions with a perturbing state, which is observed for the first time. Moreover, four fully resolved hot bands (501 1011, 501 1111, 501 1311, and 101 801 1110), with band origins at 3328.5829(2), 3328.9994(2), 3328.2137(2) and 3310.8104(2) cm-1, respectively, are reported for the first time. These involve low lying bending vibrations that have been studied previously, which guarantees unambiguous identifications. Combining available data allows to derive accurate molecular parameters, both for the ground state as well as the excited states involved in the bands.

  12. High-resolution infrared studies of perdeutero-spiropentane, C5D8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, B. A.; Ju, X.; Nibler, J. W.; Beaudry, C. M.; Blake, T. A.

    2016-07-01

    Perdeutero-spiropentane (C5D8) has been synthesized, and infrared and Raman spectra are reported for the first time. Wavenumber assignments are made for most of the fundamental vibrational states. Gas phase infrared spectra were recorded at a resolution (0.002 cm-1) sufficient to resolve individual rovibrational lines and show evidence of strong Coriolis and/or Fermi resonance interactions for most bands. However a detailed rovibrational analysis of the fundamental ν15 (b2) parallel band proved possible, and a fit of more than 1600 lines yielded a band origin of 1053.84465(10) cm-1 and ground state constants (in units of cm-1): B0 = 0.1120700(9), DJ = 1.51(3) × 10-8, DJK = 3.42(15) × 10-8. We note that the B0 value is significantly less than a value of Ba = 0.1140 cm-1 calculated using structural parameters from an earlier electron diffraction (ED) study, whereas one expects Ba to be lower than B0 because of thermal averaging over higher vibrational levels. A similar discrepancy was noted in an earlier study of C5H8 (Price et al., 2011). The structural and spectroscopic results are in good accord with values computed at the anharmonic level using the B3LYP density functional method with a cc-pVTZ basis set.

  13. An in-depth look at the lunar crater Copernicus: Exposed mineralogy by high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugiolacchi, Roberto; Mall, Urs; Bhatt, Megha; McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; Brønstad, Kjell; Nathues, Andreas; Søraas, Finn; Ullaland, Kjetil; Pedersen, Rolf B.

    2011-05-01

    Newly acquired, sequentially spaced, high-resolution near-infrared spectra across the central section of crater Copernicus' interior have been analyzed using a range of complementary techniques and indexes. We have developed a new interpretative method based on a multiple stage normalization process that appears to both confirm and expand on previous mineralogical estimations and mapping. In broad terms, the interpreted distribution of the principle mafic species suggests an overall composition of surface materials dominated by calcium-poor pyroxenes and minor olivine but with notable exceptions: the southern rim displays strong ca-rich pyroxene absorption features and five other locations, the uppermost northern crater wall, opposite rim sections facing the crater floor, and the central peak Pk1 and at the foot of Pk3, show instead strong olivine signatures. We also propose impact glass an alternative interpretation to the source of the weak but widespread olivine-like spectral signature found in low-reflectance samples, since it probably represents a major regolith constituent and component in large craters such as Copernicus. The high quality and performance of the SIR-2 data allows for the detection of diagnostic key mineral species even when investigating spectral samples with very subdued absorption features, confirming the intrinsic high-quality value of the returned data.

  14. HIGH-RESOLUTION MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF NGC 7538 IRS 1: PROBING CHEMISTRY IN A MASSIVE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Knez, Claudia; Lacy, John H.; Evans, Neal J.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Richter, Matthew J.

    2009-05-01

    We present high-resolution (R = 75,000-100,000) mid-infrared spectra of the high-mass embedded young star IRS 1 in the NGC 7538 star-forming region. Absorption lines from many rotational states of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, {sup 13}C{sup 12}CH{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, HCN, HNCO, and CS are seen. The gas temperature, column density, covering factor, line width, and Doppler shift for each molecule are derived. All molecules were fit with two velocity components between -54 and -63 km s{sup -1}. We find high column densities ({approx}10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}) for all the observed molecules compared to values previously reported and present new results for CH{sub 3} and HNCO. Several physical and chemical models are considered. The favored model involves a nearly edge-on disk around a massive star. Radiation from dust in the inner disk passes through the disk atmosphere, where large molecular column densities can produce the observed absorption line spectrum.

  15. High Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) using WINERED at Koyama Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakita, Hideyo; Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Ogawa, Sayuri; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Kondo, Sohei; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Kawanishi, Takafumi; Nakaoka, Tetsuya; Otsubo, Shogo; Kinoshita, Masaomi; Ikeda, Yuji; Yamamoto, Ryo; Izumi, Natsuko; Fukue, Kei; Hamano, Satoshi; Yasui, Chikako; Mito, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Naoto

    2014-11-01

    High resolution near-infrared spectroscopic observations of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) using the WINERED ( 3x10^4) spectrometer on the 1.3-m Araki telescope at Koyama Astronomical Observatory were carried out on UT 2013 November 30. The comet was at 0.91 AU from the Sun and 0.49 AU from the Earth at the observations. This comet was considered to originate in the Oort cloud and became bright in visible from October to December 2013. The newly developed instrument, WINERED, was a cross-dispersed Echelle spectrometer that can cover the wavelength range from 0.9 to 1.3 microns simultaneously. Many emission lines were recorded in the high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of comet Lovejoy. We report the line assignment of the detected emission lines and present our preliminary analysis for CN Red-band system.This research program is supported by the MEXT --- Supported Program for the Strategic Research Foundation at Private Universities, 2014 - 2018.

  16. High Resolution Spectroscopy in the Non-thermal Infrared: Use of an Existing Coude System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basri, Gibor; Marcy, Geoffrey W.

    1993-05-01

    We describe a recent effort to use a NICMOS 3 chip as the detector on the 160" coude spectrograph camera at Lick Observatory. This new instrument (IRCS) has a useful spectral range of 1-2mu with spectral coverage in one exposure of about 25 Angstroms, and resolutions up to 75000. We have successfully obtained astronomical observations with essentially no modification of the (uncooled) spectrograph, using an existing grating blazed at 1.22mu , and a dewar without optics (but containing a filter) easily mounted at the position of the old photographic plates. The throughput of the system is very high. Its sensitivity is primarily limited by the background from the warm spectrograph. Using filters with 0.1mu bandwidth, the expected background is negligible below 1.5mu , but limits exposures to one minute near 2mu . With an optimized dewar, one can remain photon (rather than background) limited down to 10th magnitude even at 2mu . Our current system (using a test dewar and engineering grade chip) has been tested at 1.6mu . We have operated with and without an image slicer. We show spectra and discuss the current successes and problems. Our first application is to study the Zeeman--sensitive line at 1.56mu at high resolution. We expect to be able to achieve S/N of 200:1 in 10 minutes on 6th magnitude stars now, and eventually 100:1 in one hour on 10th magnitude stars using the 3-m telescope. This opens the possibility of measuring magnetic fields for large numbers of RS CVN and dM(e) stars (in addition to many G,K dwarfs), and even perhaps a few pre-main sequence stars. There is a lot of potential for science in the 1-2mu range at high resolution, which cannot be done as easily with any other type of instrument. This includes: (1) molecular lines in giants and winds, (2) lines from the ISM for abundances and kinematics, (3) detailed atmospheric analysis of embedded stars (and disks?).

  17. New Measurements of Doubly Ionized Iron Group Spectra by High Resolution Fourier Transform and Grating Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smillie, D. G.; Pickering, J. C.; Blackwell-Whitehead, R. J.; Smith, Peter L.; Nave, G.

    2006-01-01

    We report new measurements of doubly ionized iron group element spectra, important in the analysis of B-type (hot) stars whose spectra they dominate. These measurements include Co III and Cr III taken with the Imperial College VUV Fourier transform (FT) spectrometer and measurements of Co III taken with the normal incidence vacuum spectrograph at NIST, below 135 nm. We report new Fe III grating spectra measurements to complement our FT spectra. Work towards transition wavelengths, energy levels and branching ratios (which, combined with lifetimes, produce oscillator strengths) for these ions is underway.

  18. A high-resolution extraterrestrial solar spectrum and water vapour continuum at near infrared wavelengths from ground-based spectrometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menang, K. P.

    A high resolution extraterrestrial solar spectrum (CAVIAR solar spectrum) and water vapour continuum have been derived in near infrared windows from 2000-10000 cm-1 (105μm), by applying the Langley technique to calibrated ground-based high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer measurements, made under clear-sky conditions. The effect of the choice of an extraterrestrial solar spectrum for radiative transfer calculations of clear-sky absorption and heating rates in the near infrared was also studied. There is a good agreement between the solar lines strengths and positions of the CAVIAR solar spectrum and those from both high-resolution satellite and ground-based measurements in their regions of spectral overlap. However, there are significant differences between the structure of the CAVIAR solar spectrum and spectra from models. Many of the detected lines are missing from widely-used modelled extraterrestrial solar spectrum. The absolute level and hence wavenumber-integrated solar irradiance of the CAVIAR solar spectrum was also found to be 8% lower than the satellite-based Thuillier et al spectra from 5200-10000 cm-1. Using different extraterrestrial solar spectra for radiative transfer calculations in the near infrared led to differences of up to about 11 W m-2 (8.2%) in the absorbed solar irradiance while the tropospheric and stratospheric heating rates could respectively differ by up to about 0.13K day-1 (8.1%) and 0.19 K day-1 (7.6%) for an overhead Sun and mid-latitude summer atmosphere. This work has shown that the widely-used empirically modelled continuum may be underestimating the strength of the water vapour continuum from 2000-10000 cm-1, with the derived continuum up to more than 2 orders of magnitude stronger at some wavenumbers in the windows. The derived continuum is also stronger than that implied by laboratory measurements, by a factor of up to 40 in some spectral regions.

  19. High resolution hard X-ray spectra of solar and cosmic sources. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    High resolution hard X-ray observations of a large solar flare and the Crab Nebula were obtained during balloon flights using an array of cooled germanium planar detectors. In addition, high time resolution high sensitivity measurements were obtained with a 300 square cm NaI/CsI phoswich scintillator. The Crab spectrum from both flights was searched without finding evidence of line emission below 200 keV. In particular, for the 73 keV line previously reported a 3 sigma upper limit for a narrow (1 keV FWHM) line .0019 and .0014 ph square cm/sec for the 1979 and 1980 flights, respectively was obtained.

  20. Analysis of high-resolution spectra from a hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Phyllis; Scott, Jill R.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2015-12-01

    To more fully take advantage of a low-cost, small footprint hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer, a mathematical reconstruction technique was developed to accurately capture the high-resolution and relative peak intensities from complex spectral patterns. A Fabry-Perot etalon was coupled to a Czerny-Turner spectrometer, leading to increased spectral resolution by more than an order of magnitude without the commensurate increase in spectrometer size. Measurement of the industry standard Hg 313.1555/313.1844 nm doublet yielded a ratio of 0.682, which agreed well with an independent measurement and literature values. The doublet separation (29 pm) is similar to the U isotope shift (25 pm) at 424.437 nm that is of interest to monitoring nuclear nonproliferation activities. Additionally, the technique was applied to LIBS measurement of the mineral cinnabar (HgS) and resulted in a ratio of 0.682. This reconstruction method could enable significantly smaller, portable high-resolution instruments with isotopic specificity, benefiting a variety of spectroscopic applications.

  1. Analysis of high-resolution spectra from a hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Phyllis; Scott, Jill R.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2015-09-05

    To fully take advantage of a low-cost, small footprint hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer, a math- ematical reconstruction technique was developed to accurately capture the high-resolution and relative peak intensities from complex patterns. A Fabry-Perot etalon was coupled to a Czerny-Turner spectrometer, in- creasing spectral resolution by an order of magnitude without the commensurate increase in spectrometer size. Measurement of the industry standard Hg 313.1555/313.1844 nm doublet yielded a ratio of 0.682 with 1.8%error, which agreed well with an independent measurement and literature values. The doublet separation (29 pm), is similar to the U isotope shift (25 pm) at 424.437 nm that is of interest to monitoring nuclear nonpro-liferation activities. Additionally, the technique was applied to a LIBS measurement of the mineral cinnabar (HgS) and resulted in a ratio of 0.681. This reconstruction method could enable significantly smaller, portable high-resolution instruments with isotopic specificity, benefiting a variety of spectroscopic applications.

  2. Analysis of high-resolution spectra from a hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Phyllis; Scott, Jill R.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2015-09-05

    To fully take advantage of a low-cost, small footprint hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer, a math- ematical reconstruction technique was developed to accurately capture the high-resolution and relative peak intensities from complex patterns. A Fabry-Perot etalon was coupled to a Czerny-Turner spectrometer, in- creasing spectral resolution by an order of magnitude without the commensurate increase in spectrometer size. Measurement of the industry standard Hg 313.1555/313.1844 nm doublet yielded a ratio of 0.682 with 1.8%error, which agreed well with an independent measurement and literature values. The doublet separation (29 pm), is similar to the U isotope shift (25 pm) at 424.437 nm that is of interest to monitoring nuclear nonpro-liferation activities. Additionally, the technique was applied to a LIBS measurement of the mineral cinnabar (HgS) and resulted in a ratio of 0.681. In addition, this reconstruction method could enable significantly smaller, portable high-resolution instruments with isotopic specificity, benefiting a variety of spectroscopic applications.

  3. Analysis of high-resolution spectra from a hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ko, Phyllis; Scott, Jill R.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2015-09-05

    To fully take advantage of a low-cost, small footprint hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer, a math- ematical reconstruction technique was developed to accurately capture the high-resolution and relative peak intensities from complex patterns. A Fabry-Perot etalon was coupled to a Czerny-Turner spectrometer, in- creasing spectral resolution by an order of magnitude without the commensurate increase in spectrometer size. Measurement of the industry standard Hg 313.1555/313.1844 nm doublet yielded a ratio of 0.682 with 1.8%error, which agreed well with an independent measurement and literature values. The doublet separation (29 pm), is similar to the U isotope shift (25 pm) at 424.437 nm thatmore » is of interest to monitoring nuclear nonpro-liferation activities. Additionally, the technique was applied to a LIBS measurement of the mineral cinnabar (HgS) and resulted in a ratio of 0.681. In addition, this reconstruction method could enable significantly smaller, portable high-resolution instruments with isotopic specificity, benefiting a variety of spectroscopic applications.« less

  4. Analysis of several high-resolution infrared bands of spiropentane, C5H8

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, Arthur G.; Price, Joseph E.; Harzan, J.; Nibler, Joseph W.; Weber, Alfons; Masiello, Tony; Blake, Thomas A.

    2015-06-01

    he high-resolution infrared absorption spectrum of spiropentane (C5H8) has been measured from 200 to 4000 cm 1, and a detailed analysis is presented for eight bands in the region from 700 to 2200 cm 1. Two fundamental perpendicular bands were analyzed, m22 and m24 near 1050 and 780 cm 1, respectively, along with two fundamental parallel bands, m14 and m16 near 1540 and 990 cm1, respectively. Two other fundamentals, m17 and m23, are seen as intense overlapping bands near 880 cm*1 and are Coriolis-coupled, producing a complex mixture in which only P-branch transitions could be tentatively assigned for m17. In addition, three binary combination bands were fit at about 1570, 2082, and 2098 cm*1 which are assigned as either 2m24 or m5 + m16 in the first case, m4 + m22 in the second case, and 2m22 in the latter case. The two l-type resonance constants, q+ and q*, were determined for each of the two perpendicular fundamentals m22 and m24. Those two constants were also responsible for splittings observed in the K = 3 levels of m24. For the ground state the order of the split K = 2 B1/B2 levels has been reversed from that reported previously, based on the measurements and assignments for the m24 band. Rovibrational parameters deduced from the analyses are compared with those obtained from density functional Gaussian calculations at the anharmonic level.

  5. High Resolution Far Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the NH_2 Radical.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Pirali, O.; Balcon, D.; Vervloet, M.

    2011-06-01

    First identified toward Sgr B2, the NH_2 radical has recently been detected in the interstellar medium by the HIFI instrument on board of Herschel. Despite the fact that this radical has not been detected in brown dwarfs and exoplanets yet, it is already included in physical and chemical models of those environments (temperature higher than 2000 K expected in several objects). Its detection in those objects will depend on the existence of a reliable high temperature and high resolution spectroscopic database on the NH_2 radical.The absorption spectrum of NH_2 has been recorded between 15 and 700 Cm-1 at the highest resolution available using the Bruker IFS125HR Fourier transform interferometer connected to the far infrared AILES beamline at SOLEIL (R=0.001 Cm-1). The radical was produced by an electrical discharge (DC) through a continuous flow of NH_3 and He using the White-type discharge cell developped on the beamline (optical path: 24m). Thanks to the brilliance of the synchrotron radiation, more than 700 pure rotational transitions of NH_2 have been identified with high N values (NMax=25) in its fundamental and first excited vibrational modes. By comparison to the previous FT spectroscopic study on that radical in the FIR spectral range, asymmetric splitting as well as fine and hyperfine structure have been resolved for several transitions. E. F. Van Dishoeck, D. J. Jansen, P. Schilke, T. G. Phillips The Astrophysical Journal 416, L83-L86 (1993) C. M. Persson, J. H. Black, J. Cernicharo et al. Astronomy and Astrophysics 521, L45 (2010) K. Lodders and B. Fegley, Jr Icarus 155, 393-424 (2002) I. Morino and K. Kawaguchi Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 182, 428-438 (1997)

  6. Coriolis analysis of several high-resolution infrared bands of bicyclo[111]pentane-d0 and -d1

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, A.; Martin, M. A.; Nibler, J. W.; Maki, A.; Weber, A.; Blake, T. A.

    2012-06-01

    High resolution infrared absorption spectra have been analyzed for two bicyclo[1.1.1]pentane isotopologues, C5H8 (-d0) and C5H7D (-d1), where in the latter the D-atom replaces a hydrogen on the C3 symmetry axis such that the molecular symmetry is reduced from D3h to C3v. Two (a2") parallel bands, ν17 and ν18, of bicyclopentane-d0 were studied and the former was found to be profoundly affected by Coriolis coupling with the nearby (e') perpendicular band, ν11. Weaker coupling was observed between the ν18 band and the nearby ν13(e') band, for which fewer transitions could be assigned. For bicyclopentane-d1, the ν5 parallel band was also studied along with the nearby ν15(e') band to which it is coupled through a similar type of Coriolis resonance. For both isotopologues, quantum calculations (B3LYP/cc-pVTZ) done at the anharmonic level were very helpful in unraveling the complexities caused by the Coriolis interactions, provided that care is taken in identifying the effect of any Coriolis resonances in the theoretical values of aB and q rovibrational parameters. The ground state B0 constants were found to be 0.2399412(2) and 0.2267506(11) cm-1 for the -d0 and -d1 isotopologues. The difference yields an Rs substitution value of 2.0309(2) Å for the position of the axial H atom relative to the -d0 center of mass, a result in good accord with a corresponding Ra value of 2.044(6) Å from electron diffraction data. For both isotopologues, the theoretical results from the quantum calculations are in good agreement with all corresponding values determined from the spectra.

  7. High-Resolution Observations of the Infrared Spectrum of Neutral Neon

    PubMed Central

    Sansonetti, Craig J.; Blackwell, Marion M.; Saloman, E. B.

    2004-01-01

    We have observed the spectrum of neutral neon (Ne I) emitted by a microwave-excited electrodeless discharge lamp with the National Institute of Standards and Technology 2 m Fourier transform spectrometer. The spectra cover the regions 6929 Å to 11 000 Å with a resolution of 0.01 cm−1 and 11 000 Å to 47 589 Å with a resolution of 0.007 cm−1. We present a line list that includes more than 650 classified lines and provides an accurate and comprehensive description of the infrared spectrum. The response of the Fourier transform spectrometer was determined by using a radiometrically calibrated tungsten strip lamp, providing relative intensities that for moderate to strong lines are accurate to approximately 10 % over the entire range of the observations. The identities of many lines that were previously multiply classified are unambiguously resolved. PMID:27366619

  8. On-chip near-infrared spectroscopy of CO2 using high resolution plasmonic filter array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Xinyuan; Li, Erwen; Squire, Kenneth; Wang, Alan X.

    2016-05-01

    We report an ultra-compact, cost-effective on-chip near-infrared spectroscopy system for CO2 sensing using narrow-band optical filter array based on plasmonic gratings with a waveguide layer. By varying the periodicity of the gratings, the transmission spectra of the filters can be continuously tuned to cover the 2.0 μm sensing window with high spectral resolution around 10 nm. Our experimental results show that the on-chip spectroscopy system can resolve the two symmetric vibrational bands of CO2 at 2.0 μm wavelength, which proves its potential to replace the expensive commercial IR spectroscopy system for on-site gas sensing.

  9. Chemical Analysis of Exhaled Human Breath Using High Resolution Mm-Wave Rotational Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tianle; Branco, Daniela; Thomas, Jessica; Medvedev, Ivan; Dolson, David; Nam, Hyun-Joo; O, Kenneth

    2014-06-01

    High resolution rotational spectroscopy enables chemical sensors that are both sensitive and highly specific, which is well suited for analysis of expired human breath. We have previously reported on detection of breath ethanol, methanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde using THz sensors. This paper will outline our present efforts in this area, with specific focus on our ongoing quest to correlate levels of blood glucose with concentrations of a few breath chemicals known to be affected by elevated blood sugar levels. Prospects, challenges and future plans will be outlined and discussed. Fosnight, A.M., B.L. Moran, and I.R. Medvedev, Chemical analysis of exhaled human breath using a terahertz spectroscopic approach. Applied Physics Letters, 2013. 103(13): p. 133703-5.

  10. Measurement of magnetic field aligned potential differences using high resolution conjugate photoelectron energy spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, W. K.; Doering, J. P.; Potemra, T. A.; Bostrom, C. O.; Brace, L. H.; Heelis, R. A.; Hanson, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Simultaneous high-resolution observations of a distinctive feature in the energy spectrum of conjugate photoelectrons and spacecraft potential relative to the local ionosphere have allowed the net potential difference between magnetic conjugate points at latitudes below the region of low-energy (i.e., lower than 100 eV) auroral electron precipitation to be determined. Measurements made at 300 km from Atmosphere Explorer C show that there is normally no net potential difference between hemispheres in this region, which extended up to invariant latitudes as high as 74 deg. Two types of apparently related anomalous behavior were infrequently observed at high latitudes. During these periods the incident flux of conjugate photoelectrons was either decelerated by about 3 eV or was not detected.

  11. The deep atmosphere of Venus revealed by high-resolution nightside spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezard, Bruno; De Bergh, Catherine; Crisp, David; Maillard, Jean-Pierre

    1990-01-01

    The first high-resolution spectroscopic observations of the night side of Venus obtained in two narrow spectral windows centered at 1.74 and 2.3 microns, where the nightside is anomalously bright, are reported. Absorption features from CO2, CO, H2O, HDO, HCl, HF, and COS are detected, and there are a number of unidentified features. A preliminary analysis indicates that the observed radiation is thermal emission from atmospheric layers in the eight-bar pressure region for the 2.3 micron window and even deeper at 1.7 micron. The derived CO and H2O abundances agree with in situ Pioneer measurements in the deep troposphere and are consistent with the high deuterium enrichment inferred from Pioneer data. The first measurements of HCl and HF below the clouds are reported along with the first firm detection of COS.

  12. Simulation of High Resolution Vibrational and Electronic Spectra with a Multifrequency Virtual Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biczysko, Malgorzata; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo

    2013-06-01

    Moving from the common practice of extracting numerical data from experiment to be compared with quantum mechanical (QM) results toward a direct vis-à-vis} comparison of experimental and simulated spectra would strongly reduce any arbitrariness in analysis of complex experimental outcomes and allow a proper account of the information connected to both position and shape of spectral bands. The development of such ``virtual ab initio spectrometers'' for a wide range of wavelengths has been one of our major research goals in the last years [1,2]. Recent methodological advances from our group allow simulation of optical (IR, Raman, UV-vis, etc.) spectra line-shapes for medium-to-large closed- and open-shell molecular systems. Vibrational spectra are computed including anharmonicities through perturbative corrections while electronic spectra line-shapes are simulated accounting for the vibrational structure. Well resolved and accurate theoretical spectra provide data as close as possible to the results directly available from experiment allowing to avoid ambiguities in analysis of the latter. Several examples illustrating interpretation, assignment or revision of experimental spectra for prototypes of bio-molecular systems (phenyl radical, glycine, thymine, pyrimidine, anisole dimer) will be presented. 1. V. Barone, A. Baiardi, M. Biczysko, J. Bloino, C. Cappelli, F. Lipparini Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys, 14, 12404, 2012 2. M. Biczysko, J. Bloino, G. Brancato, et al. Theor. Chem. Acc. 113, 1201, 2012

  13. A high-resolution atlas of composite Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobos, László; Csabai, István.; Yip, Ching-Wa; Budavári, Tamás.; Wild, Vivienne; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2012-02-01

    In this work we present an atlas of composite spectra of galaxies based on the data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7). Galaxies are classified by colour, nuclear activity and star formation activity to calculate average spectra of high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and resolution (? at Δλ= 1 Å), using an algorithm that is robust against outliers. Besides composite spectra, we also compute the first five principal components of the distributions in each galaxy class to characterize the nature of variations of individual spectra around the averages. The continua of the composite spectra are fitted with BC03 stellar population synthesis models to extend the wavelength coverage beyond the coverage of the SDSS spectrographs. Common derived parameters of the composites are also calculated: integrated colours in the most popular filter systems, line-strength measurements and continuum absorption indices (including Lick indices). These derived parameters are compared with the distributions of parameters of individual galaxies, and it is shown on many examples that the composites of the atlas cover much of the parameter space spanned by SDSS galaxies. By co-adding thousands of spectra, a total integration time of several months can be reached, which results in extremely low noise composites. The variations in redshift not only allow for extending the spectral coverage bluewards to the original wavelength limit of the SDSS spectrographs, but also make higher spectral resolution achievable. The composite spectrum atlas is available online at .

  14. Leveraging High Resolution Spectra to Understand the Disk and Relativistic Iron Line of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, M.; Wilms, J.; Pottschmidt, K.; Grinberg, V.; Schulz, N.; Corrales, L.

    2016-06-01

    In April 2008 we conducted an observation of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1 that was performed simultaneously with every X-ray and gamma-ray satellite flying at that time, including Chandra-HETG. The HETG spectra are crucial for modeling the ionized absorbtion from the "focused-wind" of the secondary, which is present and must be accounted for in all of our spectra. These features, however, are unresolved in the non-gratings instruments (e.g., RXTE, Suzaku, Swift, XMM-EPIC, INTEGRAL). Similarly, we must account for differences in spatial resolution. The X-ray scattering dust halo, which is usually ignored in most analyses, is spatially resolved in the Chandra and XMM-Newton spectra, but is unresolved in the other instruments. Thus one must account for dust scattering loss in the high spatial resolution spectra, and the scattering back into our line of site for the low resolution spectra. In this work, we attempt to arrive at a joint model for these spectra, and further comment on the cross calibration of each of the X-ray instruments participating in this campaign.

  15. High resolution spectroscopy of six SOCl2 isotopologues from the microwave to the far-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Roucou, A.; Brown, G. G.; Thorwirth, S.; Pirali, O.; Mouret, G.; Hindle, F.; McCarthy, M. C.; Cuisset, A.

    2016-02-01

    Despite its potential role as an atmospheric pollutant, thionyl chloride, SOCl2, remains poorly characterized in the gas phase. In this study, the pure rotational and ro-vibrational spectra of six isotopologues of this molecule, all detected in natural abundance, have been extensively studied from the cm-wave band to the far-infrared region by means of three complementary techniques: chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy, sub-millimeter-wave spectroscopy using frequency multiplier chain, and synchrotron-based far-infrared spectroscopy. Owing to the complex line pattern which results from two nuclei with non-zero spins, new, high-level quantum-chemical calculations of the hyperfine structure played a crucial role in the spectroscopic analysis. From the combined experimental and theoretical work, an accurate semi-experimental equilibrium structure (reSE) of SOCl2 has been derived. With the present data, spectroscopy-based methods can now be applied with confidence to detect and monitor this species, either by remote sensing or in situ.

  16. Stellar parameters of M dwarfs from low and high-resolution spectra together with new model atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajpurohit, A. S.; Reylé, C.; Schultheis, M.; Allard, F.; Scholz, R.; Homeier, D.

    2012-12-01

    We present an optical spectral atlas of stars covering the whole M-dwarf sequence. It consists of 95 M dwarfs at solar metallicity observed at low-resolution with EMMI@NTT and 21 M-subdwarfs, extreme-subdwarfs and ultra-subdwarfs observed at high resolution with UVES@VLT. Using the most recent PHOENIX BT-Settl stellar model atmospheres we perform a detailed comparison with our observed spectra using χ^2 minimization technique. We confront the models with low-resolution spectra of M dwarfs at solar metallicity and we assign effective temperatures to the M dwarfs. We present temperature versus spectral type and colour relations and their comparison with others found in the literature. We also present our high-resolution spectra of the subdwarfs (sdM, esdM, usdM) and compare them to the newest grid of the BT Settl models which uses the revised solar abundances of Caffau et al (2011). This comparison allows us to study the spectral details of cool atmospheres, to determine precise [Fe/H] values for our objects, and to investigate the effect of metallicity on cool dwarf atmospheres. This study also helps to validate the atmosphere models and improve them by determining new constants on molecular opacities, dust cloud formation etc.

  17. Application of the Lucy–Richardson Deconvolution Procedure to High Resolution Photoemission Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Rameau, J.; Yang, H.-B.; Johnson, P.D.

    2010-07-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission has developed into one of the leading probes of the electronic structure and associated dynamics of condensed matter systems. As with any experimental technique the ability to resolve features in the spectra is ultimately limited by the resolution of the instrumentation used in the measurement. Previously developed for sharpening astronomical images, the Lucy-Richardson deconvolution technique proves to be a useful tool for improving the photoemission spectra obtained in modern hemispherical electron spectrometers where the photoelectron spectrum is displayed as a 2D image in energy and momentum space.

  18. High resolution infrared ``vision'' of dynamic electron processes in semiconductor devices (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyutenko, V. K.

    2003-01-01

    Infrared cameras have been traditionally used in semiconductor industry for noncontact measurements of printed circuit boards (PCBs) local overheating. While an effective way to prevent defective PCB application in a "find-problems-before-your-customer-do" manner, this conventional static (25-50 frames/s) and small spatial resolution (>100 μm) approach is incapable, in principle, of explaining the physical reason for the PCB failure. What follows in this report is the demonstration of an IR camera based new approach in high-resolution dynamic study of electron processes responsible for single device performance. More specifically, time resolved two-dimensional visualization of current carrier drift and diffusion processes across the device base that happen in microsecond scale is of prime concern in the work. Thus, contrary to the conventional visualization-through-heating measurements, objective is mapping of electron processes in a device base through negative and positive luminescence (provoked by band-to-band electron transitions) and nonequilibrium thermal emission (provoked by intraband electron transitions) studies inside the region in which current flows. Therefore, the parameters of interest are not only a device thermal mass and thermal conductance, but also free carrier lifetime, surface recombination velocity, diffusion length, and contact properties. The micro-mapping system developed consists of reflective type IR microscope coaxially attached to calibrated scanning IR thermal imaging cameras (3-5 and 8-12 μm spectral ranges, HgCdTe cooled photodetectors, scene spatial resolution of some 20 μm, minimum time resolved interval of 10 μs, and temperature resolution of about 0.5 °C at 30 °C). Data acquisition and image processing (emissivity equalization, noise reduction by image averaging, and external triggering) are computer controlled. Parallel video channel equipped with a CCD camera permits easy positioning and focusing of <1×1 mm2 object

  19. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopic Measurements of Comet 2PlEncke: Unusual Organic Composition and Low Rotational Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radeva, Yana L.; Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.; Bonev, Boncho P.; DiSanti, Michael A.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Dello Russo, Neil

    2013-01-01

    We present high-resolution infrared spectroscopic measurements of the ecliptic comet 2P/Encke, observed on 4-6 Nov. 2003 during its close approach to the Earth, using the Near Infrared Echelle Spectrograph on the Keck II telescope. We present flux-calibrated spectra, production rates, and mixing ratios for H2O, CH3OH, HCN, H2CO, C2H2, C2H6, CH4 and CO. Comet 2P/Encke is a dynamical end-member among comets because of its short period of 3.3 years. Relative to "organics-normal" comets, we determined that 2PlEncke is depleted in HCN, H2CO, C2H2, C2H6, CH4 and CO, but it is enriched in CH3OH. We compared mixing ratios of these organic species measured on separate dates, and we see no evidence of macroscopic chemical heterogeneity in the nucleus of 2P/Encke, however, this conclusion is limited by sparse temporal sampling. The depleted abundances of most measured species suggest that 2P/Encke may have formed closer to the young Sun, before its insertion to the Kuiper belt, compared with "organics-normal" comets - as was previously suggested for other depleted comets (e.g. C/1999 S4 (LINEAR)). We measured very low rotational temperatures of 20 - 30 K for H2O, CH3OH and HCN in the near nucleus region of 2P/Encke, which correlate with one of the lowest cometary gas production rates (approx. 2.6 x 10(exp 27) molecules/s) measured thus far in the infrared. This suggests that we are seeing the effects of more efficient radiative cooling, insufficient collisional excitation, and/or inefficient heating by fast H-atoms (and icy grains) in the observed region of the coma. Its extremely short orbital period, very low gas production rate, and classification as an ecliptic comet, make 2PlEncke an important addition to our growing database, and contribute significantly to the establishment of a chemical taxonomy of comets.

  20. Quantitative Infrared Spectra of Vapor Phase Chemical Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, Steven W.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Chu, P. M.; Kleimeyer, J.; Rowland, Brad

    2003-08-01

    Quantitative, moderately high resolution (0.1 cm-1) infrared spectra have been acquired for a number of nitrogen broadened (1 atm N2) vapor phase chemicals including: Sarin (GB), Soman (GD), Tabun (GA), Cyclosarin (GF), VX, Nitrogen Mustard (HN3), Sulfur Mustard (HD), and Lewisite (L). The spectra are acquired using a heated, flow-through White Cell1 of 5.6 meter optical path length. Each reported spectrum represents a statistical fit to Beer’s law, which allows for a rigorous calculation of uncertainty in the absorption coefficients. As part of an ongoing collaboration with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), cross-laboratory validation is a critical aspect of this work. In order to identify possible errors in the Dugway flow-through system, quantitative spectra of isopropyl alcohol from both NIST and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are compared to similar data taken at Dugway proving Grounds (DPG).

  1. Rapid probe of the nicotine spectra by high-resolution rotational spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Grabow, Jens-Uwe; Mata, S; Alonso, José L; Peña, I; Blanco, S; López, Juan C; Cabezas, C

    2011-12-21

    Nicotine has been investigated in the gas phase and two conformational forms were characterized through their rotational spectra. Two spectroscopic techniques have been used to obtain the spectra: a new design of broadband Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy with an in-phase/quadrature-phase-modulation passage-acquired-coherence technique (IMPACT) and narrowband FTMW spectroscopy with coaxially oriented beam-resonator arrangement (COBRA). The rotational, centrifugal distortion and hyperfine quadrupole coupling constants of two conformers of nicotine have been determined and found to be in N-methyl trans configurations with the pyridine and pyrrolidine rings perpendicular to one another. The quadrupole hyperfine structure originated by two (14)N nuclei has been completely resolved for both conformers and used for their unambiguous identification. PMID:22020263

  2. High resolution infrared spectroscopy from space: A preliminary report on the results of the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment on Spacelab 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Crofton B.; Raper, Odell F.

    1987-01-01

    The ATMOS (Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy) experiment has the broad purpose of investigating the physical structure, chemistry, and dynamics of the upper atmosphere through the study of the distributions of the neutral minor and trace constituents and their seasonal and long-term variations. The technique used is high-resolution infrared absorption spectroscopy using the Sun as the radiation source, observing the changes in the transmission of the atmosphere as the line-of-sight from the Sun to the spacecraft penetrates the atmosphere close to the Earth's limb at sunrise and sunset. During these periods, interferograms are generated at the rate of one each second which yield, when transformed, high resolution spectra covering the 2.2 to 16 micron region of the infrared. Twenty such occultations were recorded during the Spacelab 3 flight, which have produced concentration profiles for a large number of minor and trace upper atmospheric species in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Several of these species have not previously been observed in spectroscopic data. The data reduction and analysis procedures used following the flight are discussed; a number of examples of the spectra obtained are shown, and a bar graph of the species detected thus far in the analysis is given which shows the altitude ranges for which concentration profiles were retrieved.

  3. High-resolution J-resolved NMR spectra of dilute spins in solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terao, T.; Miura, H.; Saika, A.

    1981-08-01

    A technique for obtaining J-resolved NMR spectra of dilute spins in solids has been developed. It is based on the observation that a combination of magic-angle irradiation and magic-angle spinning removes dipolar broadening, but leaves indirect spin-spin coupling. A preliminary application of this technique to adamantane clearly reveals the AX (J = 121 Hz) and AX (J = 135 Hz) multiplets in the methylene and methyne 13C spectrum, respectively.

  4. Wavelength calibration of spectra measured by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment by use of a high-resolution reference spectrum.

    PubMed

    van Geffen, Jos H G M; van Oss, Roeland F

    2003-05-20

    Earthshine spectra measured by the nadir-viewing Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) spectrometer aboard the second European Remote Sensing (ERS-2) Satellite in the range of 240-790 nm are widely used for the retrieval of concentrations and vertical profiles of atmospheric trace gases. For the near-real-time delivery of ozone columns and profiles at the Royal Netherlands Meterological Institute, a tailor-made wavelength calibration method was developed. The method use a high-resolution (0.01-nm) solar spectrum as the reference spectrum and applies both a shift and a squeeze to the wavelengths in selected windows to find the optimal wavelength grid per window. This method provides a calibration accuracy of 0.002 nm below and 0.001 nm above 290 nm. The new wavelength calibration method can be used on any wavelength window, for example, to improve the calibration of spectra from the GOME Data Processor. A software package, GomeCal, which performs this recalibration, along with an improved polarization and radiometric correction, has been made and has been released via the World Wide Web. The method can be used for any high-resolution (ir)radiance spectrometer, such as the satellite instruments SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography), Ozone Monitoring Instrument, and GOME-2. PMID:12777012

  5. TSAR: a program for automatic resonance assignment using 2D cross-sections of high dimensionality, high-resolution spectra.

    PubMed

    Zawadzka-Kazimierczuk, Anna; Koźmiński, Wiktor; Billeter, Martin

    2012-09-01

    While NMR studies of proteins typically aim at structure, dynamics or interactions, resonance assignments represent in almost all cases the initial step of the analysis. With increasing complexity of the NMR spectra, for example due to decreasing extent of ordered structure, this task often becomes both difficult and time-consuming, and the recording of high-dimensional data with high-resolution may be essential. Random sampling of the evolution time space, combined with sparse multidimensional Fourier transform (SMFT), allows for efficient recording of very high dimensional spectra (≥4 dimensions) while maintaining high resolution. However, the nature of this data demands for automation of the assignment process. Here we present the program TSAR (Tool for SMFT-based Assignment of Resonances), which exploits all advantages of SMFT input. Moreover, its flexibility allows to process data from any type of experiments that provide sequential connectivities. The algorithm was tested on several protein samples, including a disordered 81-residue fragment of the δ subunit of RNA polymerase from Bacillus subtilis containing various repetitive sequences. For our test examples, TSAR achieves a high percentage of assigned residues without any erroneous assignments. PMID:22806130

  6. High resolution infrared spectrum of the CD2 wagging band of methanol-D2 (CHD2OH) for the lowest lying torsional vibrational state (e0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Indra

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the analysis of the high resolution (0.0019 cm-1) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum for asymmetrically deuterated methanol CHD2OH (methanol-D2) at a low temperature for the CD2 wagging band for the lowest lying trans-species (e0). In spite of the complexity and perturbation in the spectra, assignments were possible for the CD2 wagging band for a maximum K value of 10. In total, about 500 spectral lines have been assigned. Analysis of the spectral lines has been performed in terms of state dependent molecular parameters, Q-branch origins and asymmetry splitting. Assignments have been thoroughly confirmed using combination relations (see text). The catalogue of the assigned transition wavenumbers will help identification and prediction of far infrared (FIR) optically pumped CO2 lasers. The absorption lines close to the several 10R and 10P CO2 laser lines have also been identified. These should help experimentalists to optimize the power of the emission FIR laser lines and to predict new lines and should prove valuable as a laboratory support for interstellar detection in "Radio Astronomy". To our knowledge this is the first time such vibrational infrared (IR) high resolution study in CHD2OH is being performed.

  7. Deriving chlorophyll fluorescence emissions of vegetation canopies from high resolution field reflectance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Daughtry, Craig S.; Entcheva Campbell, Petya K.; Butcher, L. Maryn

    2005-11-01

    Fluorescence of foliage in the laboratory has proven more rigorous than reflectance for correlation to plant physiology. Especially useful are emissions produced from two stable red and far-red chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) peaks centered at 685 nm and 735 nm. Methods have been developed elsewhere to extract steady state solar induced fluorescence (SIF) from apparent reflectance of vegetation canopies/landscapes using the Fraunhofer Line Depth (FLD) principal. Our study utilized these methods in conjunction with field-acquired high spectral resolution canopy reflectance spectra obtained in 2004 and 2005 over corn crops and small tree plots of three deciduous species (red maple, tulip poplar, sweet gum). Leaf level measurements were also made of foliage which included ChlF, photosynthesis, and leaf constituents (photosynthetic pigment, carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) contents). As part of ongoing experiments, measurements were made on N application plots within corn (280, 140, 70, and 0 kg N/ha) and tree (0, 37.5, 75, 112.5, 150 kg N /ha) sites at the USDA/Agriculture Research Service in Beltsville, MD. SIF intensities for ChlF were derived directly from canopy reflectance spectra in specific narrow- band regions associated with atmospheric oxygen absorption features centered at 688 and 760 nm. The red/far-red SIF ratio (SIFratio) derived from these field reflectance spectra successfully discriminated foliar pigment ratios altered by N application rates in both corn crops. This ratio was also positively correlated to the C/N ratio at leaf and canopy levels, for the available corn data (e.g., 2004). No consistent N treatment or species differences in SIF were detected in the tree foliage, but additional 2005 data are forthcoming. This study has relevance to future passive satellite remote sensing approaches to monitoring C dynamics from space.

  8. High-resolution emission spectra of pulsed terahertz quantum-cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Ikonnikov, A. V. Antonov, A. V.; Lastovkin, A. A.; Gavrilenko, V. I.; Sadof'ev, Yu. G.; Samal, N.

    2010-11-15

    The spectra of pulsed terahertz quantum-cascade lasers were measured with high spectral resolution. The characteristic line width at half maximum was 0.01 cm{sup -1}; it is controlled by laser temperature variations during the supply voltage pulse. It was shown that an increase in the laser temperature leads to a decrease in the emission frequency, which is caused by an increase in the effective refractive index of the active region. It was also found that a decrease in the supply voltage results in a decrease in the emission frequency, which is caused by a change in the energy of diagonal transitions between lasing levels.

  9. Chlorophyll Fluorescence Emissions of Vegetation Canopies From High Resolution Field Reflectance Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, E. M.; Corp, L. A.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Campbell, P. K. Entcheva

    2006-01-01

    A two-year experiment was performed on corn (Zea mays L.) crops under nitrogen (N) fertilization regimes to examine the use of hyperspectral canopy reflectance information for estimating chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) and vegetation production. Fluorescence of foliage in the laboratory has proven more rigorous than reflectance for correlation to plant physiology. Especially useful are emissions produced from two stable red and far-red chlorophyll ChlF peaks centered at 685V10 nm and 735V5 nm. Methods have been developed elsewhere to extract steady state solar induced fluorescence (SF) from apparent reflectance of vegetation canopies/landscapes using the Fraunhofer Line Depth (FLD) principal. Our study utilized these methods in conjunction with field-acquired high spectral resolution canopy reflectance spectra obtained in 2004 and 2005 over corn crops, as part of an ongoing multi-year experiment at the USDA/Agriculture Research Service in Beltsville, MD. A spectroradiometer (ASD-FR Fieldspec Pro, Analytical Spectral Devices, Inc., Boulder, CO) was used to measure canopy radiances 1 m above plant canopies with a 22deg field of view and a 0deg nadir view zenith angle. Canopy and plant measurements were made at the R3 grain fill reproductive stage on 3-4 replicate N application plots provided seasonal inputs of 280, 140, 70, and 28 kg N/ha. Leaf level measurements were also made which included ChlF, photosynthesis, and leaf constituents (photosynthetic pigment, carbon (C), and N contents). Crop yields were determined at harvest. SIF intensities for ChlF were derived directly from canopy reflectance spectra in specific narrowband regions associated with atmospheric oxygen absorption features centered at 688 and 760 nm. The red/far-red S F ratio derived from these field reflectance spectra successfully discriminated foliar pigment levels (e.g., total chlorophyll, Chl) associated with N application rates in both corn crops. This canopy-level spectral ratio was also

  10. High-resolution spectra of the 3.29 micron interstellar emission feature - A summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokunaga, A. T.; Sellgren, K.; Smith, R. G.; Nagata, T.; Sakata, A.; Nakada, Y.

    1991-01-01

    High spectral resolution observations of the 3.29-micron interstellar emission feature show two types of profiles. Type 1 has a central wavelength of 3.289-micron and is observed in extended objects such as planetary nebulae and H II regions. Type 2 has a central wavelength of 3.296 microns and is observed around a small number of stellar sources. Type 2 has a full width at half-maximum of 0.020 micron; Type 1 has a broader FWHM, perhaps as much as 0.042 micron, but this is uncertain because of contamination by Pf(delta) emission. These profiles are tabulated for comparison to laboratory data. It is found that no proposed identification for the 3.29-micron emission feature definitely matches the observational spectra, although amorphous aromatic materials and heated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons tend to fit the best.

  11. High-Resolution Infrared Imaging and Spectroscopy of the Pistol Nebula: Evidence for Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figer, Donald F.; Morris, Mark; Geballe, T. R.; Rich, R. Michael; Serabyn, Eugene; McLean, Ian S.; Puetter, R. C.; Yahil, Amos

    1999-11-01

    We present new infrared images, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Near-Infrared Camera and Multiobject Spectrometer (NICMOS), and Brα (4.05 μm) spectroscopy, obtained using CGS4 on UKIRT, of the Pistol Star and its associated nebula. We find strong evidence to support the hypothesis that the Pistol Nebula was ejected from the Pistol Star. The Paα (1.87 μm) NICMOS image shows that the nebula completely surrounds the Pistol Star, although the line intensity is much stronger on its northern and western edges. The Brα CGS4 spectra show the classical ringlike signature of quasi-spherical expansion. The blueshifted emission (Vmax~-60 km s-1) is much weaker than the redshifted emission (Vmax~+10 km s-1), where the velocities are with respect to the velocity of the Pistol Star; further, the redshifted emission spans a very narrow range of velocities, i.e., it appears ``flattened'' in the position-velocity diagram. These data suggest that the nebula was ejected from the star several thousand years ago, with a velocity between the current terminal velocity of the stellar wind (95 km s-1) and the present expansion velocity of gas in the outer shell of the nebula (60 km s-1). The Paα image reveals several emission-line stars in the region, including two newly identified emission-line stars north of the Pistol Star, both of which are likely to be the hottest known stars in the Galactic center with spectral types earlier than WC8 and Teff>50,000 K). The presence of these stars, the morphology of the Paα emission, and the velocity field in the gas suggest that the side of the nebula farthest from us is approaching, and being ionized by, the hot stars of the Quintuplet and that the highest velocity redshifted gas has been decelerated by winds from the Quintuplet stars. We also discuss the possibility that the nebular gas might be magnetically confined by the ambient magnetic field delineated by the nearby nonthermal filaments. Based on observations with the

  12. Voigt profile introduces optical depth dependent systematic errors - Detected in high resolution laboratory spectra of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birk, Manfred; Wagner, Georg

    2016-02-01

    The Voigt profile commonly used in radiative transfer modeling of Earth's and planets' atmospheres for remote sensing/climate modeling produces systematic errors so far not accounted for. Saturated lines are systematically too narrow when calculated from pressure broadening parameters based on the analysis of laboratory data with the Voigt profile. This is caused by line narrowing effects leading to systematically too small fitted broadening parameters when applying the Voigt profile. These effective values are still valid to model non-saturated lines with sufficient accuracy. Saturated lines dominated by the wings of the line profile are sufficiently accurately modeled with a Voigt profile with the correct broadening parameters and are thus systematically too narrow when calculated with the effective values. The systematic error was quantified by mid infrared laboratory spectroscopy of the water ν2 fundamental. Correct Voigt profile based pressure broadening parameters for saturated lines were 3-4% larger than the effective ones in the spectroscopic database. Impacts on remote sensing and climate modeling are expected. Combination of saturated and non-saturated lines in the spectroscopic analysis will quantify line narrowing with unprecedented precision.

  13. Fundamental stellar parameters and metallicities from Bayesian spectroscopy: application to low- and high-resolution spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönrich, Ralph; Bergemann, Maria

    2014-09-01

    We present a unified framework to derive fundamental stellar parameters by combining all available observational and theoretical information for a star. The algorithm relies on the method of Bayesian inference, which for the first time directly integrates the spectroscopic analysis pipeline based on the global spectrum synthesis and allows for comprehensive and objective error calculations given the priors. Arbitrary input data sets can be included into our analysis and other stellar quantities, in addition to stellar age, effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity, can be computed on demand. We lay out the mathematical framework of the method and apply it to several observational data sets, including high- and low-resolution spectra (UVES, NARVAL, HARPS, SDSS/SEGUE). We find that simpler approximations for the spectroscopic probability distribution function, which are inherent to past Bayesian approaches, lead to deviations of several standard deviations and unreliable errors on the same data. By its flexibility and the simultaneous analysis of multiple independent measurements for a star, it will be ideal to analyse and cross-calibrate the large ongoing and forthcoming surveys, like Gaia-European Southern Observatory (ESO), SDSS, Gaia and LSST.

  14. Peak fitting and identification software library for high resolution gamma-ray spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uher, Josef; Roach, Greg; Tickner, James

    2010-07-01

    A new gamma-ray spectral analysis software package is under development in our laboratory. It can be operated as a stand-alone program or called as a software library from Java, C, C++ and MATLAB TM environments. It provides an advanced graphical user interface for data acquisition, spectral analysis and radioisotope identification. The code uses a peak-fitting function that includes peak asymmetry, Compton continuum and flexible background terms. Peak fitting function parameters can be calibrated as functions of energy. Each parameter can be constrained to improve fitting of overlapping peaks. All of these features can be adjusted by the user. To assist with peak identification, the code can automatically measure half-lives of single or multiple overlapping peaks from a time series of spectra. It implements library-based peak identification, with options for restricting the search based on radioisotope half-lives and reaction types. The software also improves the reliability of isotope identification by utilizing Monte-Carlo simulation results.

  15. New Measurement of Singly Ionized Selenium Spectra by High Resolution Fourier Transform and Grating Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hala, Noman; Nave, G.; Kramida, A.; Ahmad, T.; Nahar, S.; Pradhan, A.

    2015-05-01

    We report new measurements of singly ionised selenium, an element of the iron group detected in nearly twice as many planetary nebulae as any other trans-iron element. We use the NIST 2 m UV/Vis/IR and FT700 UV/Vis Fourier transform spectrometers over the wavelength range of 2000 Å-2.5 μm, supplemented in the lower wavelength region 300-2400 Å with grating spectra taken on a 3-m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph. The analysis of Se II is being extended, covering the wide spectral region from UV to IR. From our investigation, we found serious inconsistency and incompleteness in the previously published results, where several levels were reported without any designation. The analysis is being revised and extended with the help of semiempirical quasi-relativistic Hartree-Fock calculations, starting with the 4s24p3- [4s24p2(4d +5d +5s +6s) +4s4p4] transition array. Out of fifty-two previously reported levels, we rejected thirteen and found several new level values. With the new measurements, we expect to observe transitions between 4s24p2(4d +5s) and 4s24p2(5p +4f), lying in the visible and IR region. A complete interpretation of the level system of both parities will be assisted by least squares fitted parametric calculations. In all, we have already classified about 450 observed lines involving 89 energy levels.

  16. High-resolution spectra of distant compact narrow emission line galaxies: Progrenitors of spheroidal galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koo, David C.; Guzman, Rafael; Faber, S. M.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Kron, Richard G.; Takamiya, Marianne

    1995-01-01

    Emission-line velocity widths have been determined for 17 faint (B approximately 20-23) very blue, compact galaxies whose redshifts range from z = 0.095 to 0.66. The spectra have a resolution of 8 Km/s and were taken with the HIRES echelle spectrograph of the Keck 10 m telescope. The galaxies are luminous with all but two within 1 mag of M(sub B) approximately -21. Yet they exhibit narrow velocity widths between sigma = 28-157 km/s, more consistent with typical values of extreme star-forming galaxies than with those of nearby spiral galaxies of similar luminosity. In particular, objects with sigma is less than or equal to 65 km/s follow the same correlations between sigma and both blue and H beta luminosities as those of nearby H II galaxies. These results strengthen the identification of H II glaxies as thier local counterparts. The blue colors and strong emission lines suggest these compact galaxies are undergoing a recent, strong burst of star formation. Like those which characterize some H II galaxies, this burst could be a nuclear star-forming event within a much larger, older stellar population. If the burst is instead a major episode in the total star-forming history, these distant galaxies could fade enough to match the low luminosities and surface brightnesses typical of nearby spheroidals like NGC 185 or NGC 205. Together with evidence for recent star formation, exponential light profiles, and subsolar metallicities, the postfading correlations between luminosity and velocity width and bewtween luminosity and surface brightness suggest that among the low-sigma galaxies, we may be witnessing, in situ, the progenitors of today's spheroidal galaxies.

  17. Chemical evolution of fluorine in the bulge. High-resolution K-band spectra of giants in three fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jönsson, H.; Ryde, N.; Harper, G. M.; Cunha, K.; Schultheis, M.; Eriksson, K.; Kobayashi, C.; Smith, V. V.; Zoccali, M.

    2014-04-01

    Context. Possible main formation sites of fluorine in the Universe include asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, the ν-process in Type II supernova, and/or Wolf-Rayet stars. The importance of the Wolf-Rayet stars has theoretically been questioned and they are probably not needed in modeling the chemical evolution of fluorine in the solar neighborhood. It has, however, been suggested that Wolf-Rayet stars are indeed needed to explain the chemical evolution of fluorine in the bulge. The molecular spectral data, needed to determine the fluorine abundance, of the often used HF-molecule has not been presented in a complete and consistent way and has recently been debated in the literature. Aims: We intend to determine the trend of the fluorine-oxygen abundance ratio as a function of a metallicity indicator in the bulge to investigate the possible contribution from Wolf-Rayet stars. Additionally, we present here a consistent HF line list for the K- and L-bands including the often used 23 358.33 Å line. Methods: High-resolution near-infrared spectra of eight K giants were recorded using the spectrograph CRIRES mounted at the VLT. A standard setting was used that covered the HF molecular line at 23 358.33 Å. The fluorine abundances were determined using spectral fitting. We also re-analyzed five previously published bulge giants observed with the Phoenix spectrograph on Gemini using our new HF molecular data. Results: We find that the fluorine-oxygen abundance in the bulge probably cannot be explained with chemical evolution models that only include AGB stars and the ν-process in supernovae Type II, that is a significant amount of fluorine production in Wolf-Rayet stars is most likely needed to explain the fluorine abundance in the bulge. For the HF line data, we find that a possible reason for the inconsistencies in the literature, where two different excitation energies were used, is two different definitions of the zero-point energy for the HF molecule and therefore

  18. A High Resolution Hydrometer Phase Classifier Based on Analysis of Cloud Radar Doppler Spectra.

    SciTech Connect

    Luke,E.; Kollias, P.

    2007-08-06

    The lifecycle and radiative properties of clouds are highly sensitive to the phase of their hydrometeors (i.e., liquid or ice). Knowledge of cloud phase is essential for specifying the optical properties of clouds, or else, large errors can be introduced in the calculation of the cloud radiative fluxes. Current parameterizations of cloud water partition in liquid and ice based on temperature are characterized by large uncertainty (Curry et al., 1996; Hobbs and Rangno, 1998; Intriery et al., 2002). This is particularly important in high geographical latitudes and temperature ranges where both liquid droplets and ice crystal phases can exist (mixed-phase cloud). The mixture of phases has a large effect on cloud radiative properties, and the parameterization of mixed-phase clouds has a large impact on climate simulations (e.g., Gregory and Morris, 1996). Furthermore, the presence of both ice and liquid affects the macroscopic properties of clouds, including their propensity to precipitate. Despite their importance, mixed-phase clouds are severely understudied compared to the arguably simpler single-phase clouds. In-situ measurements in mixed-phase clouds are hindered due to aircraft icing, difficulties distinguishing hydrometeor phase, and discrepancies in methods for deriving physical quantities (Wendisch et al. 1996, Lawson et al. 2001). Satellite-based retrievals of cloud phase in high latitudes are often hindered by the highly reflecting ice-covered ground and persistent temperature inversions. From the ground, the retrieval of mixed-phase cloud properties has been the subject of extensive research over the past 20 years using polarization lidars (e.g., Sassen et al. 1990), dual radar wavelengths (e.g., Gosset and Sauvageot 1992; Sekelsky and McIntosh, 1996), and recently radar Doppler spectra (Shupe et al. 2004). Millimeter-wavelength radars have substantially improved our ability to observe non-precipitating clouds (Kollias et al., 2007) due to their excellent

  19. The 4 micron spectra of compact infrared sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, R.; Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution 5 arcsec spectra in the 4 micron region are presented of the central 5 arcsec of the compact near infrared sources K3-50, W51-IRS2 East, and G333.6-0.2. From measured Br-alpha/Pf-beta line ratios and previously published infrared and radio maps, it is concluded that standard recombination theory fails to explain our observations in at least two cases. It is demonstrated that the data are consistent with thermal excitation of the hydrogen lines in strong stellar winds. The Pf-beta Hu-epsilon line ratio, which is completely insensitive to differential extinction, confirms the need for the stellar wind model for the core of G333.6-0.2. From the (K III) line it is estimated that the potassium abundance in G333.6-0.2 is at least equal to the solar value, and possibly enhanced by a factor up to 10.

  20. Vibronic fine structure in high-resolution x-ray absorption spectra from ion-bombarded boron nitride nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Petravic, Mladen; Peter, Robert; Varasanec, Marijana; Li Luhua; Chen Ying; Cowie, Bruce C. C.

    2013-05-15

    The authors have applied high-resolution near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements around the nitrogen K-edge to study the effects of ion-bombardment on near-surface properties of boron nitride nanotubes. A notable difference has been observed between surface sensitive partial electron yield (PEY) and bulk sensitive total electron yield (TEY) fine-structure measurements. The authors assign the PEY fine structure to the coupling of excited molecular vibrational modes to electronic transitions in NO molecules trapped just below the surface. Oxidation resistance of the boron nitride nanotubes is significantly reduced by low energy ion bombardment, as broken B-N bonds are replaced by N-O bonds involving oxygen present in the surface region. In contrast to the PEY spectra, the bulk sensitive TEY measurements on as-grown samples do not exhibit any fine structure while the ion-bombarded samples show a clear vibronic signature of molecular nitrogen.

  1. High-resolution soft X-ray spectra of Scorpius X-1 - The structure of circumsource accreting material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, S. M.; Seward, F. D.; Chlebowski, T.

    1984-01-01

    Four observations of Scorpius X-1 with the Objective Grating Spectrometer of the Einstein Observatory have provided high-resolution spectra (lambda/Delta lambda = approximately 20-50) in the wavelength range 7-46 A. The spectra reveal the presence of absorption structure due to oxygen, nitrogen, and iron, and variable emission structure associated with ionized iron and nitrogen. The strengths of these features suggest that the N/O abundance ratio in the absorbing and line emitting gas is anomalously high, which might indicate that these spectral components are associated with processed material, probably accreting matter transferred from the surface of an evolved companion. Constraints on the inclination of the system, however, imply that this cool, dense, accreting material must be well out of the plane of the binary system. Possible models for the origin and nature of this circumsource medium are discussed. An extensive discussion of the calibration of the Objective Grating Spectrometer and of the analysis of spectra acquired by that instrument is also provided.

  2. Infrared spectra of thyroid tumor tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Butra, V. A.

    2010-07-01

    We used infrared spectroscopy methods to study thyroid tumor tissues removed during surgery. The IR spectra of the surgical material are compared with data from histological examination. We show that in malignant neoplasms, the spectra of proteins in the region of C=O vibrations are different from the spectra of these substances in benign tumors and in tissues outside the pathological focus at a distance >1 cm from the margin of the tumor. The differences in the spectra are due to changes in the supermolecular structure of the proteins, resulting from rearrangement of the system of hydrogen bonds. We identify the spectral signs of malignant pathologies.

  3. Improved Experimental and Theoretical Energy Levels of Carbon I from Solar Infrared Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Edward S.; Geller, Murray

    1997-01-01

    We have improved the energy levels in neutral carbon using high resolution infrared solar spectra. The main source is the ATMOS spectrum measured by the Fourier transaform spectroscopy technique from 600 to 4800 cm-1, supplemented by the MARK IV balloon data, covering from 4700 to 5700 cm-1.

  4. A high-resolution atlas of the infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth atmosphere from space. Volume 3: Key to identification of solar features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Murray

    1992-01-01

    During the period April 29 through May 2, 1985, the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment was operated as part of the Spacelab-3 (SL-3) payload on the shuttle Challenger. The instrument, a Fourier transform spectrometer, recorded over 2000 infrared solar spectra from an altitude of 360 km. Although the majority of the spectra were taken through the limb of the Earth's atmosphere in order to better understand its composition, several hundred of the 'high-sun' spectra were completely free from telluric absorption. These high-sun spectra recorded from space are, at the present time, the only high-resolution infrared spectra ever taken of the Sun free from absorptions due to constituents in the Earth's atmosphere. Volumes 1 and 2 of this series provide a compilation of these spectra arranged in a format suitable for quick-look reference purposes and are the first record of the continuous high-resolution infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere from space. In the Table of Identifications, which constitutes the main body of this volume, each block of eight wavenumbers is given a separate heading and corresponds to a page of two panels in Volume 1 of this series. In addition, three separate blocks of data available from ATMOS from 622-630 cm(exp -1), 630-638 cm(exp -1) and 638-646 cm(exp -1), excluded from Volume 1 because of the low signal-to-noise ratio, have been included due to the certain identification of several OH and NH transitions. In the first column of the table, the corrected frequency is given. The second column identifies the molecular species. The third and fourth columns represent the assigned transition. The fifth column gives the depth of the molecular line in millimeters. Also included in this column is a notation to indicate whether the line is a blend or lies on the shoulder(s) of another line(s). The final column repeats a question mark if the line is unidentified.

  5. A high-resolution far-infrared survey of the W31 region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. L.; Fazio, G. G.; Low, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    A 1-m balloon-borne telescope was used to conduct a far-infrared survey of the W31 region at an effective wavelength of 69 microns with a resolution of 1 arcmin. Within this region seven far-infrared sources were observed. Five of these sources were associated with thermal radio emission. For each of these sources the infrared luminosity is much greater than the Ly-alpha luminosity, a situation requiring either dust absorption of Lyman-continuum photons or a large nonionizing stellar luminosity. Two faint infrared sources had no radio counterparts. Far-infrared radiation was not detected from two known radio sources and from one midinfrared source in this region.

  6. High-resolution SO2 isotopologue spectra as evidence for sulfur MIF due to SO2 self-shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, J. R.; Stark, G.; Blackie, D.; Pickering, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    It is well known that photolysis of some gas-phase molecules can lead to isotopic mass-independent fractionation (MIF). Several mechanisms for photolytic MIF have been proposed including 1) self-shielding during photon absorption, 2) variations in band oscillator strengths, 3) hyperfine effects, and 4) resonant curve crossing. Self-shielding, a result of line saturation in molecules with line-type absorption spectra, is observed (and predicted) in CO and N2, both of which undergo predissociation. Here, we focus on the role of self-shielding in SO2, also a predissociating molecule. Photolysis of atmospheric SO2 is believed to be the source of sulfur isotope MIF measured in early Earth sedimentary rocks (Farquhar et al. 2000). Quantitative evaluation of this hypothesis requires accurate and high-resolution absorption cross section data. We have completed 1 cm-1 resolution measurements of 32SO2, 33SO2 and 34SO2 isotopologues using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at Imperial College (IC). A detailed description of the FTS measurements will be presented by D. Blackie et al. (this meeting). Here, we present a brief overview of the data, comparison with recently published lower resolution cross section data of Danielachet et al. (2008), and interpretation via atmospheric modeling. FTS measurements were obtained at 3 pressures (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 torr) on pure xSO2 gas (x = 32, 33 or 34) from 222 to 188 nm. Spectra were coadded to improve S/N. Visual comparison of our spectra with the lower resolution (~ 20 cm-1) spectra of Danielache et al. (2008) reveals good overall agreement for all 3 isotopologues, although the lower resolution data is unable to resolve the dense rotational structure. However, radiative transfer calculations utilizing the two sets of cross section data in a 1-D atmospheric chemistry code (assuming 10 ppb SO2) yield very different photolytic isotope fractionations. The IC cross sections yield increasing δ34S, δ33S and Δ33S values for

  7. Systematic trend of water vapour absorption in red giant atmospheres revealed by high resolution TEXES 12 μm spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryde, N.; Lambert, J.; Farzone, M.; Richter, M. J.; Josselin, E.; Harper, G. M.; Eriksson, K.; Greathouse, T. K.

    2015-01-01

    Context. The structures of the outer atmospheres of red giants are very complex. Recent interpretations of a range of different observations have led to contradictory views of these regions. It is clear, however, that classical model photospheres are inadequate to describe the nature of the outer atmospheres. The notion of large optically thick molecular spheres around the stars (MOLspheres) has been invoked in order to explain spectro-interferometric observations and low- and high-resolution spectra. On the other hand high-resolution spectra in the mid-IR do not easily fit into this picture because they rule out any large sphere of water vapour in LTE surrounding red giants. Aims: In order to approach a unified scenario for these outer regions of red giants, more empirical evidence from different diagnostics are needed. Our aim here is to investigate high-resolution, mid-IR spectra for a range of red giants, spanning spectral types from early K to mid M. We want to study how the pure rotational lines of water vapour change with effective temperature, and whether we can find common properties that can put new constraints on the modelling of these regions, so that we can gain new insights. Methods: We have recorded mid-IR spectra at 12.2 - 12.4 μm at high spectral resolution of ten well-studied bright red giants, with TEXES mounted on the IRTF on Mauna Kea. These stars span effective temperatures from 3450 K to 4850 K. Results: We find that all red giants in our study cooler than 4300 K, spanning a wide range of effective temperatures (down to 3450 K), show water absorption lines stronger than expected and none are detected in emission, in line with what has been previously observed for a few stars. The strengths of the lines vary smoothly with spectral type. We identify several spectral features in the wavelength region that are undoubtedly formed in the photosphere. From a study of water-line ratios of the stars, we find that the excitation temperatures, in the

  8. An Infrared High Resolution Spectroscopic Abundance Study of the Metal-Poor Giant HD 122563

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Christopher; Afsar, Melike; Jaffe, Daniel Thomas; Kim, Hwiyun; Mace, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    A high resolution, high signal-to-noise spectrum of the very metal-poor giant star HD 122563 has been obtained with the newly commissioned IGRINS H- and K-band high resolution (R = 40,000) spectrograph on the McDonald Observatory 2.7m Smith telescope. With complete spectral coverage in the range 1.5-1.8 and 1.9-2.4 microns and high signal-to-noise (S/N > 200) in the reduced spectrum, we have so far detected about 50neutral-species transitions of elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, and Fe, as well as many transitions of OH and CO.Assuming atmosphere parameters from the literature of this well-studied bright giant (Teff~4600K, log(g)~1.3) we have derived a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -2.8, in agreement with past results. The alpha-elements are enhanced: [(Mg,Si,Ca)/Fe] = +0.3 to +0.4. The OH lines yield an O abundance in good accord with past claims from analyses of the [O I] lines in the visible part of the spectrum. Study of other features in the IGRINSspectrum is ongoing.Support for this research from the US National Science Foundation (AST-1211585) and the The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBITAK, project No. 112T929) are acknowledged with thanks.

  9. Modelling the Emission And/or Absorption Features in the High Resolution Spectra of the Southern Binary System: HH Car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koseoglu, Dogan; Bakış, Hicran

    2016-07-01

    High-resolution spectra (R=48000) of the southern close binary system, HH Car, has been analyzed with modern analysis techniques. Precise absolute parameters were derived from the simultaneous solution of the radial velocity, produced in this study and the light curves, published. According to the results of these analyses, the primary component is an O9 type main sequence star while the secondary component is a giant/subgiant star with a spectral type of B0. Hα emissions can be seen explicitly in the spectra of HH Car. These features were modelled using the absolute parameters of the components. Since components of HH Car are massive early-type stars, mass loss through stellar winds can be expected. This study revealed that the components of HH Car have stellar winds and the secondary component loses mass to the primary. Stellar winds and the gas stream between the components were modelled as a hot shell around the system. It is determined that the interaction between the winds and the gas stream leads to formation of a high temperature impact region.

  10. Measurement of Short-Lived Fission-Product Yields of URANIUM-235 Using High-Resolution Gamma Spectra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipnis, Sameer Vijay

    Independent yields of short-lived fission products produced by the thermal neutron induced fission of ^{235}U were determined from the measurements of high resolution gamma spectra. Comparisons were made to the recommended yield values tabulated in the ENDF/B-VI evaluated fission-product data base. Measurements of the gamma spectra were made with a high purity germanium detector (HPGe) using a NaI(Tl) annulus for Compton suppression. Use of beta-gamma coincidence reduced the random background and also allowed a precise definition of the delay time. The experiment was carried out at the 5.5 MV Van de Graaff facility at the University of Massachusetts Lowell. Rapid transfer of the fission fragments to a low background counting environment, a crucial factor in determining the yields of short-lived fission products, was enabled by a helium -jet tape transport system. The recommended yields in the evaluated data file are a combination of experimental and model-predicted values. The latter source is used since data from many short-lived fission products is still missing or poorly known. The results presented here, especially the ones for the very short-lived isotopes may be used to reduce the uncertainties associated with some of the existing values or to replace model-predicted yields. Gaussian distributions of elemental yields, based on the set of experimentally determined independent yields were examined. The feasibility of predicting unmeasured yields on the basis of charge and mass complementarity was also addressed.

  11. Fast acquisition of high-resolution NMR spectra in inhomogeneous fields via intermolecular double-quantum coherences

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhong; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhiwei; Zhong, Jianhui

    2009-01-01

    A pulse sequence, IDEAL-II, is proposed based on the concept of intermolecular dipolar-interaction enhanced all lines [Z. Chen et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 446 (2004)] for obtaining one-dimensional (1D) high-resolution liquid NMR spectra in inhomogeneous fields via two-dimensional acquisitions. With the new acquisition scheme, the range of magnetic field inhomogeneity rather than chemical shift is sampled in the indirect dimension. This enables a great reduction in acquisition time and amount of data, much improved over the original IDEAL implementation. It is applicable to both isolated and J-coupled spin systems in liquid. For the latter, apparent J coupling constants are magnified threefold in spectra obtained with this sequence. This allows a more accurate measurement of J coupling constants in the cases of small J coupling constants or large inhomogeneous fields. Analytical expression was derived based on intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence treatments. Solution samples that were purposely deshimmed and biological samples with intrinsic field inhomogeneities were tested. Experimental results demonstrate that this sequence retains useful structural information including chemical shifts, relative peak areas, and multiplet patterns of J coupling even when the field inhomogeneity is severe enough to almost erase all spectroscopic information with conventional 1D single-quantum coherence techniques. This sequence is more applicable to weakly coupled and uncoupled spin systems, potentially useful for studying metabolites in in vivo NMR spectroscopy and for characterizing technologically important new materials in combinatorial chemistry. PMID:19256612

  12. Line shapes and satellites in high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectra of large pi-conjugated organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Schöll, A; Zou, Y; Jung, M; Schmidt, Th; Fink, R; Umbach, E

    2004-11-22

    We present a high-resolution C1s and O1 s x-ray photoemission (XPS) study for condensed films of pi-conjugated organic molecules, namely, of the anhydrides 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride, 1,4,5,8-naphthalene-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride, 1,8-naphthalene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, and benzoperylene-(1,8)-dicarboxylic acid anhydride as well as the quinoic acenaphthenequinone. Although the functional groups are identical for the anhydrides, the molecules show very different photoemission fine structure thus providing a detailed fingerprint. A simultaneous peak fit analysis of the XPS spectra of all molecules allows to consistently determine the ionization potentials of all chemically different carbon and oxygen atoms. Additional structures in the C1s and O1s spectra are interpreted as shakeup satellites and assigned with the help of singles and doubles configuration interaction calculations. These satellites provide further information on multielectron excitations and must be taken into account for quantitative investigations. PMID:15549902

  13. HIGH-RESOLUTION INFRARED IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPY OF THE Z CANIS MAJORIS SYSTEM DURING QUIESCENCE AND OUTBURST

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkley, Sasha; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Crepp, Justin R.; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Zimmerman, Neil; Brenner, Douglas; Rice, Emily L.; Pueyo, Laurent; Vasisht, Gautam; Roberts, Jennifer E.; Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Burruss, Rick; Wallace, J. Kent; Cady, Eric; Zhai, Chengxing; Kraus, Adam L.; Ireland, Michael J.; Beichman, Charles; Dekany, Richard; Parry, Ian R.; and others

    2013-01-20

    We present adaptive optics photometry and spectra in the JHKL bands along with high spectral resolution K-band spectroscopy for each component of the Z Canis Majoris system. Our high angular resolution photometry of this very young ({approx}<1 Myr) binary, comprised of an FU Ori object and a Herbig Ae/Be star, was gathered shortly after the 2008 outburst while our high-resolution spectroscopy was gathered during a quiescent phase. Our photometry conclusively determines that the outburst was due solely to the embedded Herbig Ae/Be member, supporting results from earlier works, and that the optically visible FU Ori component decreased slightly ({approx}30%) in luminosity during the same period, consistent with previous works on the variability of FU Ori type systems. Further, our high-resolution K-band spectra definitively demonstrate that the 2.294 {mu}m CO absorption feature seen in composite spectra of the system is due solely to the FU Ori component, while a prominent CO emission feature at the same wavelength, long suspected to be associated with the innermost regions of a circumstellar accretion disk, can be assigned to the Herbig Ae/Be member. These findings clarify previous analyses of the origin of the CO emission in this complex system.

  14. Infrared spectra of protostellar collapse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David J.; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Neufeld, David A.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1995-01-01

    Theoretical models of the formation of low mass stars by cloud collapse predict that OI(63 micrometers) and IR rotational lines of CO and H2O dominate the cooling in the freefalling region 10-1000 AU from the protostar. The freefalling gas supersonically hits the protoplanetary disk orbiting the protostar, forming an accretion shock with strong IR emission in rotational lines of H2O and OH, and OI(63 microns). The accretion shock spectra and line profiles depend on the mass flux through the shock and the typical distance r-bar at which the freefalling gas strikes the disk. The line widths are of order the Keplerian speed, or approx. 10(r-bar/10AU)(exp -0.5) km/s, for the accretion shock lines, and less for the lines from the infalling gas. Measurements of the IR line fluxes and profiles from the freefalling gas and the accretion shock diagnoses how a protostar and disk are formed and requires high sensitivity and high spectral and spatial resolving power. SOFIA will be the optimum observatory for many of these lines, although ISO will contribute and the KAO may make a few pioneering detections.

  15. IN-SYNC I: Homogeneous stellar parameters from high-resolution apogee spectra for thousands of pre-main sequence stars

    SciTech Connect

    Cottaar, Michiel; Meyer, Michael R.; Covey, Kevin R.; Nidever, David L.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Tan, Jonathan C.; Da Rio, Nicola; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Skrutskie, Michael; Majewski, Steven R.; Wilson, John C.; Zasowski, Gail; Flaherty, Kevin M.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.

    2014-10-20

    Over two years, 8859 high-resolution H-band spectra of 3493 young (1-10 Myr) stars were gathered by the multi-object spectrograph of the APOGEE project as part of the IN-SYNC ancillary program of the SDSS-III survey. Here we present the forward modeling approach used to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities, radial velocities, rotational velocities, and H-band veiling from these near-infrared spectra. We discuss in detail the statistical and systematic uncertainties in these stellar parameters. In addition, we present accurate extinctions by measuring the E(J – H) of these young stars with respect to the single-star photometric locus in the Pleiades. Finally, we identify an intrinsic stellar radius spread of about 25% for late-type stars in IC 348 using three (nearly) independent measures of stellar radius, namely, the extinction-corrected J-band magnitude, the surface gravity, and the Rsin i from the rotational velocities and literature rotation periods. We exclude that this spread is caused by uncertainties in the stellar parameters by showing that the three estimators of stellar radius are correlated, so that brighter stars tend to have lower surface gravities and larger Rsin i than fainter stars at the same effective temperature. Tables providing the spectral and photometric parameters for the Pleiades and IC 348 have been provided online.

  16. EpiProfile Quantifies Histone Peptides With Modifications by Extracting Retention Time and Intensity in High-resolution Mass Spectra*

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zuo-Fei; Lin, Shu; Molden, Rosalynn C.; Cao, Xing-Jun; Bhanu, Natarajan V.; Wang, Xiaoshi; Sidoli, Simone; Liu, Shichong; Garcia, Benjamin A.

    2015-01-01

    Histone post-translational modifications contribute to chromatin function through their chemical properties which influence chromatin structure and their ability to recruit chromatin interacting proteins. Nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS) has emerged as the most suitable technology for global histone modification analysis because of the high sensitivity and the high mass accuracy of this approach that provides confident identification. However, analysis of histones with this method is even more challenging because of the large number and variety of isobaric histone peptides and the high dynamic range of histone peptide abundances. Here, we introduce EpiProfile, a software tool that discriminates isobaric histone peptides using the distinguishing fragment ions in their tandem mass spectra and extracts the chromatographic area under the curve using previous knowledge about peptide retention time. The accuracy of EpiProfile was evaluated by analysis of mixtures containing different ratios of synthetic histone peptides. In addition to label-free quantification of histone peptides, EpiProfile is flexible and can quantify different types of isotopically labeled histone peptides. EpiProfile is unique in generating layouts (i.e. relative retention time) of histone peptides when compared with manual quantification of the data and other programs (such as Skyline), filling the need of an automatic and freely available tool to quantify labeled and non-labeled modified histone peptides. In summary, EpiProfile is a valuable nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution tandem mass spectrometry-based quantification tool for histone peptides, which can also be adapted to analyze nonhistone protein samples. PMID:25805797

  17. Collecting, analyzing and archiving of ground based infrared solar spectra obtained from several locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murcray, David G.; Murcray, Frank J.; Goldman, Aaron; Mcelroy, Charles T.; Chu, William P.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Woods, Peter; Matthews, W. A.; Johnston, P. V.

    1990-01-01

    The infrared solar spectrum as observed from the ground under high resolution contains thousands of absorption lines. The majority of these lines are due to compounds that are present in the Earth's atmosphere. Ground based infrared solar spectra contain information concerning the composition of the atmosphere at the time the spectra were obtained. The objective of this program is to record solar spectra from various ground locations, and to analyze and archive these spectra. The analysis consists of determining, for as many of the absorption lines as possible, the molecular species responsible for the absorption, and to verify that current models of infrared transmission match the observed spectra. Archiving is an important part of the program, since a number of the features in the spectra have not been identified. At some later time, when the features are identified, it will be possible to determine the amount of that compound that was present in the atmosphere at the time the spectrum was taken.

  18. Far Infrared High Resolution Synchrotron FTIR Spectroscopy of the Low Frequency Bending Modes of Dmso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Smirnova, Irina; Bocquet, Robin; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael; Sadovskii, Dmitrii A.; Pirali, Olivier; Roy, Pascale

    2010-06-01

    In addition to its importance for industrial and environmental studies, the monitoring of DiMethylSulfOxyde (DMSO, (CH_3)_2SO) concentrations is of considerable interest for civil protection. The existing high resolution gas phase spectroscopic data of DMSO only concerned the pure rotational transitions in the ground state. In the Far-IR domain, the low-frequency rovibrational transitions have never previously resolved. The high brightness of the AILES beamline of the synchrotron SOLEIL and the instrumental sensitivity provided by the multipass cell allowed to measure for the first time these transitions. 1581 A-type and C-type transitions in the ν11 band have been assigned and 25 molecular constants of Watson's s-form hamiltonian developed to degree 8 have been fitted within the experimental accuracy. The use of then synchrotron radiation has opened many possibilities for new spectroscopic studies. Together with several other recent studies, our successful measurement and analysis of DMSO convincingly demonstrates the potential of the AILES beamline for high resolution FIR spectroscopy. Thus our present work is just at the beginning of unraveling the rovibrational structure of low frequency bending and torsional vibrational states of DMSO and yielding important comprehensive structural and spectroscopic information on this molecule. L. Margules, R. A. Motienko, E. A. Alekseev, J. Demaison, J. Molec. Spectrosc., 260(23),2009 V. Typke, M. Dakkouri, J. Molec. Struct., 599(177),2001 A. Cuisset, L. Nanobashvili, I. Smirnova, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy, D. Sadovskii, Chem. Phys. Lett., accepted for publication

  19. Spectral Assignments and Analysis of the Ground State of Nitromethane in High-Resolution FTIR Synchrotron Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twagirayezu, Sylvestre; Billinghurst, Brant E.; May, Tim E.; Dawadi, Mahesh B.; Perry, David S.

    2014-06-01

    The Fourier Transform infrared spectra of CH3NO2, have been recorded, in the 400-950 wn spectral region, at a resolution of 0.00096 wn, using the Far-Infrared Beamline at Canadian Light Source. The observed spectra contain four fundamental vibrations: the NO2 in-plane rock (475.2 wn), the NO2 out-of-plane rock (604.9 wn), the NO2 symmetric bend (657.1 wn), and the CN-stretch (917.2 wn). For the lowest torsional state of CN-stretch and NO2 in-plane rock, transitions involving quantum numbers, " = 0; " {≤ 50} and {_a}" {≤ 10}, have been assigned with the aid of an automated ground state combination difference program together with a traditional Loomis Wood approach Ground state combination differences derived from more than 2100 infrared transitions have been fit with the six-fold torsion-rotation program developed by Ilyushin et al. Additional sextic and octic centrifugal distortion parameters are derived for the ground vibrational state. C. F. Neese., An Interactive Loomis-Wood Package, V2.0, {56th},OSU Interanational Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy (2001). V. V. Ilyushin, Z. Kisiel, L. Pszczolkowski, H. Mader, and J. T. Hougen, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 259, 26, (2010).

  20. High-resolution infrared study of AsH 2D: The stretching fundamental bands ν1/ ν5 and ν2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulenikov, O. N.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Yukhnik, Yu. B.; Vershinina, O. G.; Jerzembeck, W.; Bürger, H.

    2008-11-01

    High-resolution (ca. 0.0025 cm -1) Fourier transform infrared spectra of AsH 2D were recorded in the regions of the As-H and As-D stretching fundamental bands ν1/ ν5 and ν2, respectively, and analyzed. Strong resonance interactions between the bands ν1 and ν5, and also between the band ν2 and the bending overtone band 2 ν4 were established. From transitions observed in the ν1 and ν5 bands ground state rotational energies for larger values of rotational quantum numbers than previously available could be determined. Thereof improved ground state rotational parameters were derived. More than 3200 assigned transitions corresponding to 1059 upper state energy levels which were almost equally distributed over the three stretching states were fitted with an rms-deviation of 0.00031 cm -1, which corresponds to experimental precision.

  1. High-resolution 3-μm spectra of Jupiter: Latitudinal spectral variations influenced by molecules, clouds, and haze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang J.; Geballe, T. R.; Kim, J. H.; Jung, A.; Seo, H. J.; Minh, Y. C.

    2010-08-01

    We present latitudinally-resolved high-resolution ( R = 37,000) pole-to-pole spectra of Jupiter in various narrow longitudinal ranges, in spectral intervals covering roughly half of the spectral range 2.86-3.53 μm. We have analyzed the data with the aid of synthetic spectra generated from a model jovian atmosphere that included lines of CH 4, CH 3D, NH 3, C 2H 2, C 2H 6, PH 3, and HCN, as well as clouds and haze. Numerous spectral features of many of these molecular species are present and are individually identified for the first time, as are many lines of H3+ and a few unidentified spectral features. In both polar regions the 2.86-3.10-μm continuum is more than 10 times weaker than in spectra at lower latitudes, implying that in this wavelength range the single-scattering albedos of polar haze particles are very low. In contrast, the 3.24-3.53 μm the weak polar and equatorial continua are of comparable intensity. We derive vertical distributions of NH 3, C 2H 2 and C 2H 6, and find that the mixing ratios of NH 3 and C 2H 6 show little variation between equatorial and polar regions. However, the mixing ratios of C 2H 2 in the northern and southern polar regions are ˜6 and ˜3 times, respectively, less than those in the equatorial regions. The derived mixing ratio curves of C 2H 2 and C 2H 6 extend up to the 10 -6 bar level, a significantly higher altitude than most previous results in the literature. Further ground-based observations covering other longitudes are needed to test if these mixing ratios are representative values for the equatorial and polar regions.

  2. Fundamental M-dwarf parameters from high-resolution spectra using PHOENIX ACES models. I. Parameter accuracy and benchmark stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passegger, V. M.; Wende-von Berg, S.; Reiners, A.

    2016-03-01

    M-dwarf stars are the most numerous stars in the Universe; they span a wide range in mass and are in the focus of ongoing and planned exoplanet surveys. To investigate and understand their physical nature, detailed spectral information and accurate stellar models are needed. We use a new synthetic atmosphere model generation and compare model spectra to observations. To test the model accuracy, we compared the models to four benchmark stars with atmospheric parameters for which independent information from interferometric radius measurements is available. We used χ2-based methods to determine parameters from high-resolution spectroscopic observations. Our synthetic spectra are based on the new PHOENIX grid that uses the ACES description for the equation of state. This is a model generation expected to be especially suitable for the low-temperature atmospheres. We identified suitable spectral tracers of atmospheric parameters and determined the uncertainties in Teff, log g, and [Fe/H] resulting from degeneracies between parameters and from shortcomings of the model atmospheres. The inherent uncertainties we find are σTeff = 35 K, σlog g = 0.14, and σ[Fe/H] = 0.11. The new model spectra achieve a reliable match to our observed data; our results for Teff and log g are consistent with literature values to within 1σ. However, metallicities reported from earlier photometric and spectroscopic calibrations in some cases disagree with our results by more than 3σ. A possible explanation are systematic errors in earlier metallicity determinations that were based on insufficient descriptions of the cool atmospheres. At this point, however, we cannot definitely identify the reason for this discrepancy, but our analysis indicates that there is a large uncertainty in the accuracy of M-dwarf parameter estimates. Based on observations carried out with UVES at ESO VLT.

  3. High-resolution Fourier transform infrared synchrotron spectroscopy of the NO2 in-plane rock band of nitromethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawadi, Mahesh B.; Twagirayezu, Sylvestre; Perry, David S.; Billinghurst, Brant E.

    2015-09-01

    The high-resolution rotationally resolved Fourier-transform infrared spectrum of the NO2 in-plane rock band (440-510 cm-1) of nitromethane (CH3NO2) has been recorded using the Far-Infrared Beamline at the Canadian Light Source, with a resolution of 0.00096 cm-1. About 1773 transitions reaching the upper state levels m‧ = 0; Ka‧ ⩽ 7;J‧ ⩽ 50 have been assigned using an automated ground-state combination difference program together with the traditional Loomis-Wood approach. These data from the lowest torsional state, m‧ = 0, were fit using the six-fold torsion-rotation program developed by Ilyushin et al. (2010). The analysis reveals that the rotational energy level structure in the upper vibrational state is similar to that of the ground vibrational state, but the sign and magnitude of high-order constants are significantly changed suggesting the presence of multiple perturbations.

  4. Design inputs for a high-performance high-resolution near-infrared spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Joyce, Richard R.; Najita, Joan R.

    2010-07-01

    The combination of immersion grating and infrared array detector technologies allows the construction of highresolution spectrographs in the near-infrared that have capabilities similar to those of optical spectrographs. It is possible, for instance, to design multi-object spectrographs with very large wavelength coverage and high throughput. We explored the science and functional drivers for these spectrograph designs. Several key inputs into the design are reviewed including risk, mechanical-optical trades, and operations. We discuss a design for a fixed configuration spectrograph with either 1.1 - 2.5 or 3 - 5 μm simultaneous wavelength coverage.

  5. A Combined Synchrotron-Based High Resolution FTIR and Diode Laser Jet Infrared Spectroscopy Study of the Chiral Molecule CDBrClF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, S.; Albert, K. Keppler; Quack, M.; Lerch, Ph.; Boudon, V.

    2013-06-01

    The experimental detection of molecular parity violation Δ_{PV}E is of great interest because of its importance in the understanding of fundamental aspects of molecular dynamics and symmetries. One possible method for this is measuring rovibrational or rotational frequency shifts in the infrared or microwave spectra of enantiomers. For that reason we have measured and analysed the rotationally resolved infrared spectrum of CDBrClF as a prototype spectrum for a chiral molecule using three different techniques. The spectrum has been recorded at room temperature with the Zurich Bruker IFS spectrometer ZP 2001 and with the Bruker interferometer 2009 connected to the Swiss synchrotron using a resolution of 0.0007 cm^{-1}. In addition, the IR spectrum of CDBrClF has been measured at low temperature with our diode laser jet setup in the ν_5 region. The spectra of the two major isotopomers CD^{81}Br^{35}ClF and CD^{79}Br^{35}ClF have been analysed within the ν_5 (CCl-stretch), ν_4 (CF-stretch) and ν_3 (CDF-bend) regions. A detailed rovibrational analysis of these bands is presented. The role for possible experiments in the experimental detection of molecular parity violation shall be discussed. M. Quack, Fundamental symmetries and symmetry violations in Handbook of High Resolution Spectroscopy, Vol. 1(Eds. M. Quack and F. Merkt), Wiley, Chichester, New York 2011, 659-722, M. Quack, J. Stohner and M. Willeke, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 2008, 59, 741, A. Bakasov, T.K. Ha, and M. Quack, J. Chem. Phys. 1998, 109, 7263, R. Berger and M. Quack, J. Chem. Phys, 2000, 112, 3148. M. Quack and J. Stohner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 2000, 84, 3807, M. Quack and J. Stohner. J. Chem. Phys., 2003, 119, 11228. S. Albert, K. Keppler Albert and M. Quack, High Resolution Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy in Handbook of High Resolution Spectroscopy, Vol. 2 (Eds. M. Quack and F. Merkt), Wiley, Chichester, New York 2011, 965-1019, S. Albert and M. Quack, ChemPhysChem, 2007, 8, 1271-1281. S. Albert

  6. Surface Temperature Mapping of the University of Northern Iowa Campus Using High Resolution Thermal Infrared Aerial Imageries

    PubMed Central

    Savelyev, Alexander; Sugumaran, Ramanathan

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this project was to map the surface temperature of the University of Northern Iowa campus using high-resolution thermal infrared aerial imageries. A thermal camera with a spectral bandwidth of 3.0-5.0 μm was flown at the average altitude of 600 m, achieving ground resolution of 29 cm. Ground control data was used to construct the pixel- to-temperature conversion model, which was later used to produce temperature maps of the entire campus and also for validation of the model. The temperature map then was used to assess the building rooftop conditions and steam line faults in the study area. Assessment of the temperature map revealed a number of building structures that may be subject to insulation improvement due to their high surface temperatures leaks. Several hot spots were also identified on the campus for steam pipelines faults. High-resolution thermal infrared imagery proved highly effective tool for precise heat anomaly detection on the campus, and it can be used by university facility services for effective future maintenance of buildings and grounds.

  7. High-resolution infrared spectroscopy of Io and possible surface materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Robert R.; Nash, Douglas B.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1989-01-01

    A comparison of new spectra of Io with laboratory-simulated frosts confirms that the dominant materials on Io are SO2 frost in conjunction with a spectrally neutral material presumed to be sulfur. While the 4-micron region spectra are largely explainable in these terms, attention is drawn to a shoulder in the spectrum at 4.04 microns that is suggestive of adsorbed SO2 gas; two shallow, unidentified bands are also noted at 3.85 and 3.91 microns. The isotopic ratios of oxygen and sulfur appear to be normal. The absence of distinct bands in the new spectra in the 5-micron region limits the abundance of sulfate and sulfite compounds.

  8. First far-infrared high resolution analysis of the ν3 band of phosgene 35Cl2CO and 35Cl37ClCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndao, M.; Perrin, A.; Kwabia Tchana, F.; Manceron, L.; Flaud, J. M.

    2016-08-01

    The high-resolution absorption spectra of phosgene (Cl2CO) has been recorded at 0.001 cm-1 resolution in the 250-350 cm-1 region by Fourier transform spectroscopy at synchrotron SOLEIL. To reduce the spectral congestion, the spectra have been recorded at low temperature (197 K) using a 93.14 m optical path length cryogenic cell. This enables the first detailed infrared analysis of the ν3 bands of the 35Cl2CO and 35Cl37ClCO isotopologues of phosgene. Using a Watson-type Hamiltonian, it was possible to reproduce the upper state rovibrational infrared energy levels, together with, for 35Cl2CO, the available microwave data in the 31 excited state (Yamamoto et al. 1984) to within their experimental accuracy. In this way, accurate rotational and centrifugal distortion constants together with the following band centers: ν0(ν3, 35Cl2CO) = 301.545622(17) cm-1 and ν0(ν3, 35Cl37ClCO) = 298.199194(81) cm-1, were derived for the ν3 bands of 35Cl2CO and 35Cl37ClCO.

  9. Phase closure retrieval in an infrared-to-visible upconversion interferometer for high resolution astronomical imaging.

    PubMed

    Ceus, Damien; Tonello, Alessandro; Grossard, Ludovic; Delage, Laurent; Reynaud, François; Herrmann, Harald; Sohler, Wolfgang

    2011-04-25

    This paper demonstrates the use of a nonlinear upconversion process to observe an infrared source through a telescope array detecting the interferometric signal in the visible domain. We experimentally demonstrate the possibility to retrieve information on the phase of the object spectrum of an infrared source by using a three-arm upconversion interferometer. We focus our study on the acquisition of phase information of the complex visibility by means of the phase closure technique. In our experimental demonstration, a laboratory binary star with an adjustable photometric ratio is used as a test source. A real time comparison between a standard three-arm interferometer and our new concept using upconversion by sum-frequency generation demonstrates the preservation of phase information which is essential for image reconstruction. PMID:21643113

  10. High resolution infrared spectroscopy: Some new approaches and applications to planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The principles of spectral line formation and of techniques for retrieval of atmospheric temperature and constituent profiles are discussed. Applications to the atmospheres of Earth, Mars, Venus, and Jupiter are illustrated by results obtained with Fourier transform and infrared heterodyne spectrometers at resolving powers (lambda/delta hyperon lambda of approximately 10,000 and approximately 10 to the seventh power), respectively, showing the high complementarity of spectroscopy at these two widely different resolving powers. The principles of heterodyne spectroscopy are presented and its applications to atmospheric probing and to laboratory spectroscopy are discussed. Direct absorption spectroscopy with tuneable semiconductor lasers is discussed in terms of precision frequency-and line strength-measurements, showing substantial advances in laboratory infrared spectroscopy.