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Sample records for high-resolution magnetic tweezer

  1. A high-resolution magnetic tweezer for single-molecule measurements

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kipom; Saleh, Omar A.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic tweezers (MT) are single-molecule manipulation instruments that utilize a magnetic field to apply force to a biomolecule-tethered magnetic bead while using optical bead tracking to measure the biomolecule’s extension. While relatively simple to set up, prior MT implementations have lacked the resolution necessary to observe sub-nanometer biomolecular configuration changes. Here, we demonstrate a reflection-interference technique for bead tracking, and show that it has much better resolution than traditional diffraction-based systems. We enhance the resolution by fabricating optical coatings on all reflecting surfaces that optimize the intensity and contrast of the interference image, and we implement feedback control of the focal position to remove drift. To test the system, we measure the length change of a DNA hairpin as it undergoes a folding/unfolding transition. PMID:19729511

  2. High-Resolution Optical Tweezers for Single-Molecule Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinming; Ma, Lu; Zhang, Yongli

    2013-01-01

    Forces hold everything together and determine its structure and dynamics. In particular, tiny forces of 1-100 piconewtons govern the structures and dynamics of biomacromolecules. These forces enable folding, assembly, conformational fluctuations, or directional movements of biomacromolecules over sub-nanometer to micron distances. Optical tweezers have become a revolutionary tool to probe the forces, structures, and dynamics associated with biomacromolecules at a single-molecule level with unprecedented resolution. In this review, we introduce the basic principles of optical tweezers and their latest applications in studies of protein folding and molecular motors. We describe the folding dynamics of two strong coiled coil proteins, the GCN4-derived protein pIL and the SNARE complex. Both complexes show multiple folding intermediates and pathways. ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes translocate DNA to remodel chromatin structures. The detailed DNA translocation properties of such molecular motors have recently been characterized by optical tweezers, which are reviewed here. Finally, several future developments and applications of optical tweezers are discussed. These past and future applications demonstrate the unique advantages of high-resolution optical tweezers in quantitatively characterizing complex multi-scale dynamics of biomacromolecules. PMID:24058311

  3. Magnetic tweezers microscope for cellular manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chen-Yuan; Huang, Hayden; Sutin, Jason D. B.; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Cragg, George E.; Gilbert, R.; Lee, Richard T.; Gratton, Enrico; Kamm, Roger D.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; So, Peter T. C.

    2000-04-01

    We present the design of a magnetic tweezers microscope for cellular manipulation. Our design allows versatile and significant 3D stress application over a large sample region. For linear force application, forces up to 250 pN per 4.5 micrometers magnetic bead can be applied. Finite element analysis shows that variance in force level is around 10 percent within an area of 300 X 300 micrometers 2. Our eight-pole design potentially allows 3D liner force application and exertion of torsional stress. Furthermore, our design allows high resolution imaging using high numerical aperture objective. Both finite element analysis of magnetic field distribution and force calibration of our design are presented. As a feasibility study, we incubated fibronectin coated 4.5 micrometers polystyrene beads with Swiss 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. Under application around 250 pN of force per magnetic particle, we observed relative movement between attached magnetic and polystyrene beads to be on the order of 1 micrometers . Elastic, viscoelastic, and creeping responses of cell surfaces were observed. Our results are consistent with previous observations using similar magnetic techniques.

  4. High-resolution dual-trap optical tweezers with differential detection: alignment of instrument components.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Carlos; Chemla, Yann R; Moffitt, Jeffrey R

    2009-10-01

    Optical traps or "optical tweezers" have become an indispensable tool in understanding fundamental biological processes. Using our design, a dual-trap optical tweezers with differential detection, we can detect length changes to a DNA molecule tethering the trapped beads of 1 bp. By forming two traps from the same laser and maximizing the common optical paths of the two trapping beams, we decouple the instrument from many sources of environmental and instrumental noise that typically limit spatial resolution. The performance of a high-resolution instrument--the formation of strong traps, the minimization of background signals from trap movements, or the mitigation of the axial coupling, for example--can be greatly improved through careful alignment. This procedure, which is described in this article, starts from the laser and advances through the instrument, component by component. Alignment is complicated by the fact that the trapping light is in the near infrared (NIR) spectrum. Standard infrared viewing cards are commonly used to locate the beam, but unfortunately, bleach quickly. As an alternative, we use an IR-viewing charge-coupled device (CCD) camera equipped with a C-mount telephoto lens and display its image on a monitor. By visualizing the scattered light on a pair of irises of identical height separated by >12 in., the beam direction can be set very accurately along a fixed axis. PMID:20147041

  5. Magnetic Tweezers for the Measurement of Twist and Torque

    PubMed Central

    Lipfert, Jan; Lee, Mina; Ordu, Orkide; Kerssemakers, Jacob W. J.; Dekker, Nynke H.

    2014-01-01

    Single-molecule techniques make it possible to investigate the behavior of individual biological molecules in solution in real time. These techniques include so-called force spectroscopy approaches such as atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers, flow stretching, and magnetic tweezers. Amongst these approaches, magnetic tweezers have distinguished themselves by their ability to apply torque while maintaining a constant stretching force. Here, it is illustrated how such a “conventional” magnetic tweezers experimental configuration can, through a straightforward modification of its field configuration to minimize the magnitude of the transverse field, be adapted to measure the degree of twist in a biological molecule. The resulting configuration is termed the freely-orbiting magnetic tweezers. Additionally, it is shown how further modification of the field configuration can yield a transverse field with a magnitude intermediate between that of the “conventional” magnetic tweezers and the freely-orbiting magnetic tweezers, which makes it possible to directly measure the torque stored in a biological molecule. This configuration is termed the magnetic torque tweezers. The accompanying video explains in detail how the conversion of conventional magnetic tweezers into freely-orbiting magnetic tweezers and magnetic torque tweezers can be accomplished, and demonstrates the use of these techniques. These adaptations maintain all the strengths of conventional magnetic tweezers while greatly expanding the versatility of this powerful instrument. PMID:24894412

  6. Probing Protein Folding Kinetics with High-resolution, Stabilized Optical Tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Wesley; Halvorsen, Ken

    2009-03-01

    Single-molecule techniques provide a powerful means of exploring molecular transitions such as the unfolding and refolding of a protein. However, the quantification of bi-directional transitions and near-equilibrium phenomena poses unique challenges, and is often limited by the detection resolution and long-term stability of the instrument. We have developed unique optical tweezers methods that address these problems, including an interference-based method for high-resolution 3D bead tracking (˜1 nm laterally, ˜0.3 nm vertically, at > 100 Hz), and a continuous autofocus system that stabilizes the trap height to within 1-2 nm longterm [1,2]. We have used our instruments to quantify the force-dependent unfolding and refolding kinetics of single protein domains (e.g. spectrin in collaboration with E. Evans). These single-molecule studies are presented, together with the accompanying probabilistic analysis that we have developed. References: 1. W.P. Wong, V. Heinrich, E. Evans, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 790, P5.1-P5.10 (2004). 2. V. Heinrich, W.P. Wong, K. Halvorsen, E. Evans, Langmuir, 24, 1194-1203 (2008).

  7. A force calibration standard for magnetic tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhongbo; Dulin, David; Cnossen, Jelmer; Köber, Mariana; van Oene, Maarten M.; Ordu, Orkide; Berghuis, Bojk A.; Hensgens, Toivo; Lipfert, Jan; Dekker, Nynke H.

    2014-12-01

    To study the behavior of biological macromolecules and enzymatic reactions under force, advances in single-molecule force spectroscopy have proven instrumental. Magnetic tweezers form one of the most powerful of these techniques, due to their overall simplicity, non-invasive character, potential for high throughput measurements, and large force range. Drawbacks of magnetic tweezers, however, are that accurate determination of the applied forces can be challenging for short biomolecules at high forces and very time-consuming for long tethers at low forces below ˜1 piconewton. Here, we address these drawbacks by presenting a calibration standard for magnetic tweezers consisting of measured forces for four magnet configurations. Each such configuration is calibrated for two commonly employed commercially available magnetic microspheres. We calculate forces in both time and spectral domains by analyzing bead fluctuations. The resulting calibration curves, validated through the use of different algorithms that yield close agreement in their determination of the applied forces, span a range from 100 piconewtons down to tens of femtonewtons. These generalized force calibrations will serve as a convenient resource for magnetic tweezers users and diminish variations between different experimental configurations or laboratories.

  8. Single molecule studies of helicases with magnetic tweezers.

    PubMed

    Hodeib, Samar; Raj, Saurabh; Manosas, M; Zhang, Weiting; Bagchi, Debjani; Ducos, Bertrand; Allemand, Jean-François; Bensimon, David; Croquette, Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Helicases are a broad family of enzymes that perform crucial functions in DNA replication and in the maintenance of DNA and RNA integrity. A detailed mechanical study of helicases on DNA and RNA is possible using single molecule manipulation methods. Among those, magnetic tweezers (or traps) present a convenient, moderate throughput assay (tens of enzymes can be monitored simultaneously) that allow for high resolution (single base-pair) studies of these enzymes in various conditions and on various substrates (double and single stranded DNA and RNA). Here we discuss various implementation of the basic assay relevant for these studies. PMID:27371121

  9. Quantitative Modeling and Optimization of Magnetic Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Lipfert, Jan; Hao, Xiaomin; Dekker, Nynke H.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Magnetic tweezers are a powerful tool to manipulate single DNA or RNA molecules and to study nucleic acid-protein interactions in real time. Here, we have modeled the magnetic fields of permanent magnets in magnetic tweezers and computed the forces exerted on superparamagnetic beads from first principles. For simple, symmetric geometries the magnetic fields can be calculated semianalytically using the Biot-Savart law. For complicated geometries and in the presence of an iron yoke, we employ a finite-element three-dimensional PDE solver to numerically solve the magnetostatic problem. The theoretical predictions are in quantitative agreement with direct Hall-probe measurements of the magnetic field and with measurements of the force exerted on DNA-tethered beads. Using these predictive theories, we systematically explore the effects of magnet alignment, magnet spacing, magnet size, and of adding an iron yoke to the magnets on the forces that can be exerted on tethered particles. We find that the optimal configuration for maximal stretching forces is a vertically aligned pair of magnets, with a minimal gap between the magnets and minimal flow cell thickness. Following these principles, we present a configuration that allows one to apply ≥40 pN stretching forces on ≈1-μm tethered beads. PMID:19527664

  10. Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Keir C.; Nagy, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate the forces and motions associated with biological molecules and enzymatic activity. The most common force spectroscopy techniques are optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy. These techniques are described and illustrated with examples highlighting current capabilities and limitations. PMID:18511917

  11. Magnetic tweezers for manipulation of magnetic particles in single cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimian, H.; Giesguth, M.; Dietz, K.-J.; Reiss, G.; Herth, S.

    2014-02-01

    Magnetic tweezers gain increasing interest for applications in biology. Here, a setup of magnetic tweezers is introduced using micropatterned conducting lines on transparent glass slides. Magnetic particles of 1 μm diameter were injected in barley cell vacuoles using a microinject system under microscopic control. Time dependent tracking of the particles after application of a magnetic field was used to determine the viscosity of vacuolar sap in vivo relative to water and isolated vacuolar fluid. The viscosity of vacuolar sap in cells was about 2-fold higher than that of extracted vacuolar fluid and 5 times higher than that of water.

  12. Extending the Range for Force Calibration in Magnetic Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Daldrop, Peter; Brutzer, Hergen; Huhle, Alexander; Kauert, Dominik J.; Seidel, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic tweezers are a wide-spread tool used to study the mechanics and the function of a large variety of biomolecules and biomolecular machines. This tool uses a magnetic particle and a strong magnetic field gradient to apply defined forces to the molecule of interest. Forces are typically quantified by analyzing the lateral fluctuations of the biomolecule-tethered particle in the direction perpendicular to the applied force. Since the magnetic field pins the anisotropy axis of the particle, the lateral fluctuations follow the geometry of a pendulum with a short pendulum length along and a long pendulum length perpendicular to the field lines. Typically, the short pendulum geometry is used for force calibration by power-spectral-density (PSD) analysis, because the movement of the bead in this direction can be approximated by a simple translational motion. Here, we provide a detailed analysis of the fluctuations according to the long pendulum geometry and show that for this direction, both the translational and the rotational motions of the particle have to be considered. We provide analytical formulas for the PSD of this coupled system that agree well with PSDs obtained in experiments and simulations and that finally allow a faithful quantification of the magnetic force for the long pendulum geometry. We furthermore demonstrate that this methodology allows the calibration of much larger forces than the short pendulum geometry in a tether-length-dependent manner. In addition, the accuracy of determination of the absolute force is improved. Our force calibration based on the long pendulum geometry will facilitate high-resolution magnetic-tweezers experiments that rely on short molecules and large forces, as well as highly parallelized measurements that use low frame rates. PMID:25992733

  13. Extending the range for force calibration in magnetic tweezers.

    PubMed

    Daldrop, Peter; Brutzer, Hergen; Huhle, Alexander; Kauert, Dominik J; Seidel, Ralf

    2015-05-19

    Magnetic tweezers are a wide-spread tool used to study the mechanics and the function of a large variety of biomolecules and biomolecular machines. This tool uses a magnetic particle and a strong magnetic field gradient to apply defined forces to the molecule of interest. Forces are typically quantified by analyzing the lateral fluctuations of the biomolecule-tethered particle in the direction perpendicular to the applied force. Since the magnetic field pins the anisotropy axis of the particle, the lateral fluctuations follow the geometry of a pendulum with a short pendulum length along and a long pendulum length perpendicular to the field lines. Typically, the short pendulum geometry is used for force calibration by power-spectral-density (PSD) analysis, because the movement of the bead in this direction can be approximated by a simple translational motion. Here, we provide a detailed analysis of the fluctuations according to the long pendulum geometry and show that for this direction, both the translational and the rotational motions of the particle have to be considered. We provide analytical formulas for the PSD of this coupled system that agree well with PSDs obtained in experiments and simulations and that finally allow a faithful quantification of the magnetic force for the long pendulum geometry. We furthermore demonstrate that this methodology allows the calibration of much larger forces than the short pendulum geometry in a tether-length-dependent manner. In addition, the accuracy of determination of the absolute force is improved. Our force calibration based on the long pendulum geometry will facilitate high-resolution magnetic-tweezers experiments that rely on short molecules and large forces, as well as highly parallelized measurements that use low frame rates. PMID:25992733

  14. Combined versatile high-resolution optical tweezers and single-molecule fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sirinakis, George; Ren, Yuxuan; Gao, Ying; Xi, Zhiqun; Zhang, Yongli

    2012-01-01

    Optical trapping and single-molecule fluorescence are two major single-molecule approaches. Their combination has begun to show greater capability to study more complex systems than either method alone, but met many fundamental and technical challenges. We built an instrument that combines base-pair resolution dual-trap optical tweezers with single-molecule fluorescence microscopy. The instrument has complementary design and functionalities compared with similar microscopes previously described. The optical tweezers can be operated in constant force mode for easy data interpretation or in variable force mode for maximum spatiotemporal resolution. The single-molecule fluorescence detection can be implemented in either wide-field or confocal imaging configuration. To demonstrate the capabilities of the new instrument, we imaged a single stretched λ DNA molecule and investigated the dynamics of a DNA hairpin molecule in the presence of fluorophore-labeled complementary oligonucleotide. We simultaneously observed changes in the fluorescence signal and pauses in fast extension hopping of the hairpin due to association and dissociation of individual oligonucleotides. The combined versatile microscopy allows for greater flexibility to study molecular machines or assemblies at a single-molecule level. PMID:23020384

  15. Magnetic Forces and DNA Mechanics in Multiplexed Magnetic Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    van Loenhout, Marijn T. J.; Burnham, Daniel R.; Dekker, Cees

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic tweezers (MT) are a powerful tool for the study of DNA-enzyme interactions. Both the magnet-based manipulation and the camera-based detection used in MT are well suited for multiplexed measurements. Here, we systematically address challenges related to scaling of multiplexed magnetic tweezers (MMT) towards high levels of parallelization where large numbers of molecules (say 103) are addressed in the same amount of time required by a single-molecule measurement. We apply offline analysis of recorded images and show that this approach provides a scalable solution for parallel tracking of the xyz-positions of many beads simultaneously. We employ a large field-of-view imaging system to address many DNA-bead tethers in parallel. We model the 3D magnetic field generated by the magnets and derive the magnetic force experienced by DNA-bead tethers across the large field of view from first principles. We furthermore experimentally demonstrate that a DNA-bead tether subject to a rotating magnetic field describes a bicircular, Limaçon rotation pattern and that an analysis of this pattern simultaneously yields information about the force angle and the position of attachment of the DNA on the bead. Finally, we apply MMT in the high-throughput investigation of the distribution of the induced magnetic moment, the position of attachment of DNA on the beads, and DNA flexibility. The methods described herein pave the way to kilo-molecule level magnetic tweezers experiments. PMID:22870220

  16. High-resolution detection of Brownian motion for quantitative optical tweezers experiments.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Matthias; Franosch, Thomas; Jeney, Sylvia

    2012-08-01

    We have developed an in situ method to calibrate optical tweezers experiments and simultaneously measure the size of the trapped particle or the viscosity of the surrounding fluid. The positional fluctuations of the trapped particle are recorded with a high-bandwidth photodetector. We compute the mean-square displacement, as well as the velocity autocorrelation function of the sphere, and compare it to the theory of Brownian motion including hydrodynamic memory effects. A careful measurement and analysis of the time scales characterizing the dynamics of the harmonically bound sphere fluctuating in a viscous medium directly yields all relevant parameters. Finally, we test the method for different optical trap strengths, with different bead sizes and in different fluids, and we find excellent agreement with the values provided by the manufacturers. The proposed approach overcomes the most commonly encountered limitations in precision when analyzing the power spectrum of position fluctuations in the region around the corner frequency. These low frequencies are usually prone to errors due to drift, limitations in the detection, and trap linearity as well as short acquisition times resulting in poor statistics. Furthermore, the strategy can be generalized to Brownian motion in more complex environments, provided the adequate theories are available. PMID:23005790

  17. High Spatiotemporal-Resolution Magnetic Tweezers: Calibration and Applications for DNA Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Dulin, David; Cui, Tao Ju; Cnossen, Jelmer; Docter, Margreet W; Lipfert, Jan; Dekker, Nynke H

    2015-11-17

    The observation of biological processes at the molecular scale in real time requires high spatial and temporal resolution. Magnetic tweezers are straightforward to implement, free of radiation or photodamage, and provide ample multiplexing capability, but their spatiotemporal resolution has lagged behind that of other single-molecule manipulation techniques, notably optical tweezers and AFM. Here, we present, to our knowledge, a new high-resolution magnetic tweezers apparatus. We systematically characterize the achievable spatiotemporal resolution for both incoherent and coherent light sources, different types and sizes of beads, and different types and lengths of tethered molecules. Using a bright coherent laser source for illumination and tracking at 6 kHz, we resolve 3 Å steps with a 1 s period for surface-melted beads and 5 Å steps with a 0.5 s period for double-stranded-dsDNA-tethered beads, in good agreement with a model of stochastic bead motion in the magnetic tweezers. We demonstrate how this instrument can be used to monitor the opening and closing of a DNA hairpin on millisecond timescales in real time, together with attendant changes in the hairpin dynamics upon the addition of deoxythymidine triphosphate. Our approach opens up the possibility of observing biological events at submillisecond timescales with subnanometer resolution using camera-based detection. PMID:26588570

  18. High-Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Solids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maciel, Gary E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines recent developments in techniques for obtaining high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra on solid samples, discussing the kinds of applications for which these techniques are well suited. Also discusses the characteristics of NMR of solids and generating magnetization for NMR in solids. (JN)

  19. Partial homogeneity based high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra under inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Zhiliang; Lin, Liangjie; Lin, Yanqin E-mail: chenz@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Zhong E-mail: chenz@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Youhe

    2014-09-29

    In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, it is of great necessity and importance to obtain high-resolution spectra, especially under inhomogeneous magnetic fields. In this study, a method based on partial homogeneity is proposed for retrieving high-resolution one-dimensional NMR spectra under inhomogeneous fields. Signals from series of small voxels, which characterize high resolution due to small sizes, are recorded simultaneously. Then, an inhomogeneity correction algorithm is developed based on pattern recognition to correct the influence brought by field inhomogeneity automatically, thus yielding high-resolution information. Experiments on chemical solutions and fish spawn were carried out to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. The proposed method serves as a single radiofrequency pulse high-resolution NMR spectroscopy under inhomogeneous fields and may provide an alternative of obtaining high-resolution spectra of in vivo living systems or chemical-reaction systems, where performances of conventional techniques are usually degenerated by field inhomogeneity.

  20. Clinical applications of high-resolution ocular magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Tanitame, Keizo; Sone, Takashi; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Awai, Kazuo

    2012-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using fast sequences with subjects staring at a target can provide motion-free ocular images, and small receiver surface coils make it possible to produce ocular images with high spatial resolution. MRI using half-Fourier single-shot rapid acquisition with a relaxation enhancement sequence as a fast T2-weighted imaging yields useful images for the morphologic diagnosis of ocular diseases, and MRI using a fast spoiled gradient-recalled-echo sequence as a T1-weighted imaging yields additional information by the administration of gadolinium-based contrast material for assessing the vascularity of intraocular tumors. These ocular imaging techniques are useful for the evaluation of patients with angle closure glaucoma, congenital abnormality of ocular globes, intraocular tumors and several types of detachments, as well as patients after ocular surgery. In this pictorial essay, we demonstrate the clinical applications of fast high-resolution ocular MRI with fixation of the subjects' visual foci. PMID:22923185

  1. High-resolution breath-hold cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yu.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation work is composed of investigations of three methods for fast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These methods include (1) 2D breath-hold magnetization prepared gradient echo and fast spin-echo (FSE) cardiac imaging, (2) 3D breath-hold magnetization prepared gradient echo cardiac imaging, and (3) real-time monitoring, feedback, and triggering for breath-hold MRI. The hypothesis of this work is that high resolution 2D and 3D magnetic resonance data sets for the heart can be acquired with the combination of magnetization prepared blood suppression for gradient echo techniques and accurate breath-holding methods. The 2D method included development of magnetic resonance data acquisition for cardiac imaging. The acquisition time is within a single breath-hold of 16 seconds (assuming heart 60/min). The data acquisition is synchronized with the electrocardiogram signal. Based on consistent observations of specific small cardiac structures like the papillary muscle, trabeculae, moderator band, and coronary vessels in studies of normal volunteers, the image quality represents a significant improvement over that obtained with fast imaging methods previously. To further improve the image quality provided by the 2D method, the first 3D cardiac MRI technique was developed. This method provides even better spatial resolution for cardiac images, with a voxel size of 1.09 [times] 2.19 [times] 4 mm[sup 3]. A 3D acquisition is completed in 8 breath-holds. The data acquisition for 3D cardiac imaging requires a consistent breath-hold position to avoid respiratory artifacts. To improve the reliability of the 3DFT acquisition, a new technique called MR breath-hold feedback was developed to provide reproducible breathholding. The diaphragm location is used as the index for breath-hold reproducibility measurement. The range of the diaphragm displacement in different breath-hold is reduced from 8.3 mm without the technique, to 1.3 mm with the technique.

  2. Near-field-magnetic-tweezer manipulation of single DNA molecules.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jie; Skoko, Dunja; Marko, John F

    2004-07-01

    We have developed an instrument for micromanipulation of single DNA molecules end labeled with 3-microm-diameter paramagnetic particles. A small, permanent magnet that can be moved as close as 10 microm to the particle being manipulated can generate forces in excess of 200 pN, significantly larger than obtained in other recent "magnetic-tweezer" studies. Our instrument generates these forces in the focal plane of a microscope objective, allowing straightforward real-time observation of molecule extension with a position resolution of approximately 30 nm. We show how our magnetic manipulation system can be combined with manipulation and force measurement using glass micropipettes to allow rapid switching between measurements in fixed-force and fixed-extension ensembles. We demonstrate the use of our system to study formation of DNA loops by an enzyme which strongly binds two copies of a specific 6-base-pair sequence. PMID:15324086

  3. Skewed Brownian Fluctuations in Single-Molecule Magnetic Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Daniel R.; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Henighan, Thomas; Dekker, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Measurements in magnetic tweezers rely upon precise determination of the position of a magnetic microsphere. Fluctuations in the position due to Brownian motion allows calculation of the applied force, enabling deduction of the force-extension response function for a single DNA molecule that is attached to the microsphere. The standard approach relies upon using the mean of position fluctuations, which is valid when the microsphere axial position fluctuations obey a normal distribution. However, here we demonstrate that nearby surfaces and the non-linear elasticity of DNA can skew the distribution. Through experiment and simulations, we show that such a skewing leads to inaccurate position measurements which significantly affect the extracted DNA extension and mechanical properties, leading to up to two-fold errors in measured DNA persistence length. We develop a simple, robust and easily implemented method to correct for such mismeasurements. PMID:25265383

  4. Line broadening interference for high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra under inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Zhiliang; Yang, Jian; Lin, Yanqin E-mail: chenz@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Zhong E-mail: chenz@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Youhe

    2015-04-07

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy serves as an important tool for analyzing chemicals and biological metabolites. However, its performance is subject to the magnetic-field homogeneity. Under inhomogeneous fields, peaks are broadened to overlap each other, introducing difficulties for assignments. Here, we propose a method termed as line broadening interference (LBI) to provide high-resolution information under inhomogeneous magnetic fields by employing certain gradients in the indirect dimension to interfere the magnetic-field inhomogeneity. The conventional spectral-line broadening is thus interfered to be non-diagonal, avoiding the overlapping among adjacent resonances. Furthermore, an inhomogeneity correction algorithm is developed based on pattern recognition to recover the high-resolution information from LBI spectra. Theoretical deductions are performed to offer systematic and detailed analyses on the proposed method. Moreover, experiments are conducted to prove the feasibility of the proposed method for yielding high-resolution spectra in inhomogeneous magnetic fields.

  5. Structure and dynamics of single DNA molecules manipulated by magnetic tweezers and or flow

    PubMed Central

    Leuba, Sanford H.; Wheeler, Travis B.; Cheng, Chao-Min; LeDuc, Philip R.; Fernández-Sierra, Mónica; Quiñones, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    Here we describe experiments which employ magnetic tweezers and or microfluidics to manipulate single DNA molecules. We describe the use of magnetic tweezers coupled to an inverted microscope as well as the use of a magnetic tweezers setup with an upright microscope. Using a chamber prepared via soft lithography, we also describe a microfluidic device for the manipulation of individual DNA molecules. Finally, we present some past successful examples of using these approaches to elucidate unique information about protein-nucleic acid interactions. PMID:19015032

  6. Design and optimization of arrays of neodymium iron boron-based magnets for magnetic tweezers applications.

    PubMed

    Zacchia, Nicholas A; Valentine, Megan T

    2015-05-01

    We present the design methodology for arrays of neodymium iron boron (NdFeB)-based magnets for use in magnetic tweezers devices. Using finite element analysis (FEA), we optimized the geometry of the NdFeB magnet as well as the geometry of iron yokes designed to focus the magnetic fields toward the sample plane. Together, the magnets and yokes form a magnetic array which is the basis of the magnetic tweezers device. By systematically varying 15 distinct shape parameters, we determined those features that maximize the magnitude of the magnetic field gradient as well as the length scale over which the magnetic force operates. Additionally, we demonstrated that magnetic saturation of the yoke material leads to intrinsic limitations in any geometric design. Using this approach, we generated a compact and light-weight magnetic tweezers device that produces a high field gradient at the image plane in order to apply large forces to magnetic beads. We then fabricated the optimized yoke and validated the FEA by experimentally mapping the magnetic field of the device. The optimization data and iterative FEA approach outlined here will enable the streamlined design and construction of specialized instrumentation for force-sensitive microscopy. PMID:26026529

  7. Design and optimization of arrays of neodymium iron boron-based magnets for magnetic tweezers applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zacchia, Nicholas A.; Valentine, Megan T.

    2015-05-15

    We present the design methodology for arrays of neodymium iron boron (NdFeB)-based magnets for use in magnetic tweezers devices. Using finite element analysis (FEA), we optimized the geometry of the NdFeB magnet as well as the geometry of iron yokes designed to focus the magnetic fields toward the sample plane. Together, the magnets and yokes form a magnetic array which is the basis of the magnetic tweezers device. By systematically varying 15 distinct shape parameters, we determined those features that maximize the magnitude of the magnetic field gradient as well as the length scale over which the magnetic force operates. Additionally, we demonstrated that magnetic saturation of the yoke material leads to intrinsic limitations in any geometric design. Using this approach, we generated a compact and light-weight magnetic tweezers device that produces a high field gradient at the image plane in order to apply large forces to magnetic beads. We then fabricated the optimized yoke and validated the FEA by experimentally mapping the magnetic field of the device. The optimization data and iterative FEA approach outlined here will enable the streamlined design and construction of specialized instrumentation for force-sensitive microscopy.

  8. High-Resolution Vertical Observation of Intracellular Structure Using Magnetically Responsive Microplates.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Tetsuhiko; Onoe, Hiroaki; Tottori, Soichiro; Aonuma, Hiroka; Mizutani, Takeomi; Kamiya, Koki; Ishihara, Hirotaka; Kanuka, Hirotaka; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2016-07-01

    A vertical confocal observation system capable of high-resolution observation of intracellular structure is demonstrated. The system consists of magnet-active microplates to rotate, incline, and translate single adherent cells in the applied magnetic field. Appended to conventional confocal microscopes, this system enables high-resolution cross-sectional imaging with single-molecule sensitivity in single scanning. PMID:27185344

  9. Simple horizontal magnetic tweezers for micromanipulation of single DNA molecules and DNA-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    McAndrew, Christopher P; Tyson, Christopher; Zischkau, Joseph; Mehl, Patrick; Tuma, Pamela L; Pegg, Ian L; Sarkar, Abhijit

    2016-01-01

    We report the development of a simple-to-implement magnetic force transducer that can apply a wide range of piconewton (pN) scale forces on single DNA molecules and DNA-protein complexes in the horizontal plane. The resulting low-noise force-extension data enable very high-resolution detection of changes in the DNA tether's extension: ~0.05 pN in force and <10 nm change in extension. We have also verified that we can manipulate DNA in near equilibrium conditions through the wide range of forces by ramping the force from low to high and back again, and observing minimal hysteresis in the molecule's force response. Using a calibration technique based on Stokes' drag law, we have confirmed our force measurements from DNA force-extension experiments obtained using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem applied to transverse fluctuations of the magnetic microsphere. We present data on the force-distance characteristics of a DNA molecule complexed with histones. The results illustrate how the tweezers can be used to study DNA binding proteins at the single molecule level. PMID:26757808

  10. Simple horizontal magnetic tweezers for micromanipulation of single DNA molecules and DNA–protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    McAndrew, Christopher P.; Tyson, Christopher; Zischkau, Joseph; Mehl, Patrick; Tuma, Pamela L.; Pegg, Ian L.; Sarkar, Abhijit

    2016-01-01

    We report the development of a simple-to-implement magnetic force transducer that can apply a wide range of piconewton (pN) scale forces on single DNA molecules and DNA–protein complexes in the horizontal plane. The resulting low-noise force-extension data enable very high-resolution detection of changes in the DNA tether’s extension: ~0.05 pN in force and <10 nm change in extension. We have also verified that we can manipulate DNA in near equilibrium conditions through the wide range of forces by ramping the force from low to high and back again, and observing minimal hysteresis in the molecule’s force response. Using a calibration technique based on Stokes’ drag law, we have confirmed our force measurements from DNA force-extension experiments obtained using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem applied to transverse fluctuations of the magnetic microsphere. We present data on the force-distance characteristics of a DNA molecule complexed with histones. The results illustrate how the tweezers can be used to study DNA binding proteins at the single molecule level. PMID:26757808

  11. High resolution imaging of tunnels by magnetic resonance neurography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kenneth C.; Thawait, Shrey K.; Williams, Eric H.; Hashemi, Shahreyar Shar; Machado, Antonio J.; Carrino, John A.; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral nerves often traverse confined fibro-osseous and fibro-muscular tunnels in the extremities, where they are particularly vulnerable to entrapment and compressive neuropathy. This gives rise to various tunnel syndromes, characterized by distinct patterns of muscular weakness and sensory deficits. This article focuses on several upper and lower extremity tunnels, in which direct visualization of the normal and abnormal nerve in question is possible with high resolution 3T MR neurography (MRN). MRN can also serve as a useful adjunct to clinical and electrophysiologic exams by discriminating adhesive lesions (perineural scar) from compressive lesions (such as tumor, ganglion, hypertrophic callous, or anomalous muscles) responsible for symptoms, thereby guiding appropriate treatment. PMID:21479520

  12. Torsional sensing of small-molecule binding using magnetic tweezers.

    PubMed

    Lipfert, Jan; Klijnhout, Sven; Dekker, Nynke H

    2010-11-01

    DNA-binding small molecules are widespread in the cell and heavily used in biological applications. Here, we use magnetic tweezers, which control the force and torque applied to single DNAs, to study three small molecules: ethidium bromide (EtBr), a well-known intercalator; netropsin, a minor-groove binding anti-microbial drug; and topotecan, a clinically used anti-tumor drug. In the low-force limit in which biologically relevant torques can be accessed (<10 pN), we show that ethidium intercalation lengthens DNA ∼1.5-fold and decreases the persistence length, from which we extract binding constants. Using our control of supercoiling, we measure the decrease in DNA twist per intercalation to be 27.3±1° and demonstrate that ethidium binding delays the accumulation of torsional stress in DNA, likely via direct reduction of the torsional modulus and torque-dependent binding. Furthermore, we observe that EtBr stabilizes the DNA duplex in regimes where bare DNA undergoes structural transitions. In contrast, minor groove binding by netropsin affects neither the contour nor persistence length significantly, yet increases the twist per base of DNA. Finally, we show that topotecan binding has consequences similar to those of EtBr, providing evidence for an intercalative binding mode. These insights into the torsional consequences of ligand binding can help elucidate the effects of small-molecule drugs in the cellular environment. PMID:20624816

  13. Probing DNA Helicase Kinetics with Temperature‐Controlled Magnetic Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Gollnick, Benjamin; Carrasco, Carolina; Zuttion, Francesca; Gilhooly, Neville S.; Dillingham, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Motor protein functions like adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis or translocation along molecular substrates take place at nanometric scales and consequently depend on the amount of available thermal energy. The associated rates can hence be investigated by actively varying the temperature conditions. In this article, a thermally controlled magnetic tweezers (MT) system for single‐molecule experiments at up to 40 °C is presented. Its compact thermostat module yields a precision of 0.1 °C and can in principle be tailored to any other surface‐coupled microscopy technique, such as tethered particle motion (TPM), nanopore‐based sensing of biomolecules, or super‐resolution fluorescence imaging. The instrument is used to examine the temperature dependence of translocation along double‐stranded (ds)DNA by individual copies of the protein complex AddAB, a helicase‐nuclease motor involved in dsDNA break repair. Despite moderately lower mean velocities measured at sub‐saturating ATP concentrations, almost identical estimates of the enzymatic reaction barrier (around 21–24 k B T) are obtained by comparing results from MT and stopped‐flow bulk assays. Single‐molecule rates approach ensemble values at optimized chemical energy conditions near the motor, which can withstand opposing loads of up to 14 piconewtons (pN). Having proven its reliability, the temperature‐controlled MT described herein will eventually represent a routinely applied method within the toolbox for nano‐biotechnology. PMID:25400244

  14. MOURA Martian magnetometer potential for high resolution magnetic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Kilian, Rolf

    2013-04-01

    Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission mapped the magnetic signature all along the Martian globe during its operation between 1996 and 2006. These data shows that Mars does not present an active global magnetic field as the Earth. However, the Martian crust has an overall magnetic signature stronger than the Earth which was inherited from the active magnetic field of the Martian core during its early cooling history. The MGS survey shows plenty of magnetic anomalies located in particular within high lands of its Southern Hemisphere. Several magnetic models have been derived to explain the MGS data considering magnetic dipoles distribution in the Martian crust with moderate to high magnetic intensities and pronounced regional anomalies. However, the origin of major magnetic anomalies remains highly disputed [1]. From the magnetic investigation point of view it would be of major importance to perform near-surface magnetic measurements [2] to compare both surface and in orbit (between 100 and 440 km) data. This would help to comprehend not only the distribution of the magnetic dipoles but also to make progress in the identification of different rock types and understanding of their degree of alteration which could have modified superficial magnetic signatures. In the frame of Finnish-Russian and Spanish MetNet mission, to perform meteorological studies on Martian surface, a miniaturized magnetometer and gradiometer named MOURA was developed with the objective to improve the interpretation of the magnetic anomalies and their origin. In order to test this magnetometer, comparative on Earth magnetic measurements were performed with MOURA and a reference absolute scalar magnetometer (Geometrics 853) in areas with a representative and large variation of magmatic rocks compositions. The final goal is to test the appropriateness of the developed magnetometer for the in situ measurements on Mars. The active continental margin of the Patagonian Andes was used for this case study

  15. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    DOEpatents

    Bonanos, Peter

    1992-01-01

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity.

  16. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    DOEpatents

    Bonanos, P.

    1992-01-07

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity. 4 figs.

  17. Magnetic tweezers with high permeability electromagnets for fast actuation of magnetic beads

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, La; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Krause, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-15

    As a powerful and versatile scientific instrument, magnetic tweezers have been widely used in biophysical research areas, such as mechanical cell properties and single molecule manipulation. If one wants to steer bead position, the nonlinearity of magnetic properties and the strong position dependence of the magnetic field in most magnetic tweezers lead to quite a challenge in their control. In this article, we report multi-pole electromagnetic tweezers with high permeability cores yielding high force output, good maneuverability, and flexible design. For modeling, we adopted a piece-wise linear dependence of magnetization on field to characterize the magnetic beads. We implemented a bi-linear interpolation of magnetic field in the work space, based on a lookup table obtained from finite element simulation. The electronics and software were custom-made to achieve high performance. In addition, the effects of dimension and defect on structure of magnetic tips also were inspected. In a workspace with size of 0.1 × 0.1 mm{sup 2}, a force of up to 400 pN can be applied on a 2.8 μm superparamagnetic bead in any direction within the plane. Because the magnetic particle is always pulled towards a tip, the pulling forces from the pole tips have to be well balanced in order to achieve control of the particle’s position. Active video tracking based feedback control is implemented, which is able to work at a speed of up to 1 kHz, yielding good maneuverability of the magnetic beads.

  18. Magnetic tweezers with high permeability electromagnets for fast actuation of magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Chen, La; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Krause, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    As a powerful and versatile scientific instrument, magnetic tweezers have been widely used in biophysical research areas, such as mechanical cell properties and single molecule manipulation. If one wants to steer bead position, the nonlinearity of magnetic properties and the strong position dependence of the magnetic field in most magnetic tweezers lead to quite a challenge in their control. In this article, we report multi-pole electromagnetic tweezers with high permeability cores yielding high force output, good maneuverability, and flexible design. For modeling, we adopted a piece-wise linear dependence of magnetization on field to characterize the magnetic beads. We implemented a bi-linear interpolation of magnetic field in the work space, based on a lookup table obtained from finite element simulation. The electronics and software were custom-made to achieve high performance. In addition, the effects of dimension and defect on structure of magnetic tips also were inspected. In a workspace with size of 0.1 × 0.1 mm(2), a force of up to 400 pN can be applied on a 2.8 μm superparamagnetic bead in any direction within the plane. Because the magnetic particle is always pulled towards a tip, the pulling forces from the pole tips have to be well balanced in order to achieve control of the particle's position. Active video tracking based feedback control is implemented, which is able to work at a speed of up to 1 kHz, yielding good maneuverability of the magnetic beads. PMID:25933874

  19. A high-speed magnetic tweezer beyond 10,000 frames per second.

    PubMed

    Lansdorp, Bob M; Tabrizi, Shawn J; Dittmore, Andrew; Saleh, Omar A

    2013-04-01

    The magnetic tweezer is a single-molecule instrument that can apply a constant force to a biomolecule over a range of extensions, and is therefore an ideal tool to study biomolecules and their interactions. However, the video-based tracking inherent to most magnetic single-molecule instruments has traditionally limited the instrumental resolution to a few nanometers, above the length scale of single DNA base-pairs. Here we have introduced superluminescent diode illumination and high-speed camera detection to the magnetic tweezer, with graphics processing unit-accelerated particle tracking for high-speed analysis of video files. We have demonstrated the ability of the high-speed magnetic tweezer to resolve particle position to within 1 Å at 100 Hz, and to measure the extension of a 1566 bp DNA with 1 nm precision at 100 Hz in the presence of thermal noise. PMID:23635212

  20. High Resolution Marine Magnetic Survey of Shallow Water Littoral Area

    PubMed Central

    Ginzburg, Boris; Cohen, Tsuriel Ram; Zafrir, Hovav; Alimi, Roger; Salomonski, Nizan; Sharvit, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a system developed for detection and accurate mapping of ferro-metallic objects buried below the seabed in shallow waters. The system comprises a precise magnetic gradiometer and navigation subsystem, both installed on a non-magnetic catamaran towed by a low-magnetic interfering boat. In addition we present the results of a marine survey of a near-shore area in the vicinity of Atlit, a town situated on the Mediterranean coast of Israel, about 15 km south of Haifa. The primary purpose of the survey was to search for a Harvard airplane that crashed into the sea in 1960. A magnetic map of the survey area (3.5 km2 on a 0.5 m grid) was created revealing the anomalies at sub-meter accuracy. For each investigated target location a corresponding ferro-metallic item was dug out, one of which turned to be very similar to a part of the crashed airplane. The accuracy of location was confirmed by matching the position of the actual dug artifacts with the magnetic map within a range of ± 1 m, in a water depth of 9 m.

  1. Microfabrication of High Resolution X-ray Magnetic Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, W.-T.; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Bandler, Simon R.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Porst, Jan P.; Rotzinger, Hannes; Seidel, George M.

    2009-12-16

    Metallic magnetic calorimeter (MMC) is one of the most promising x-ray detector technologies for providing the very high energy resolution needed for future astronomical x-ray imaging spectroscopy. For this purpose, we have developed micro-fabricated 5x5 arrays of MMC of which each individual pixel has excellent energy resolution as good as 3.4 eV at 6 keV x-ray. Here we report on the fabrication techniques developed to achieve good resolution and high efficiency. These include: processing of a thin insulation layer for strong magnetic coupling between the AuEr sensor film and the niobium pick-up coil; production of overhanging absorbers for enhanced efficiency of x-ray absorption; fabrication on SiN membranes to minimize the effects on energy resolution from athermal phonon loss. We have also improved the deposition of the magnetic sensor film such that the film magnetization is nearly completely that is expected from the AuEr sputter target bulk material. In addition, we have included a study of a positional sensitive design, the Hydra design, which allows thermal coupling of four absorbers to a common MMC sensor and circuit.

  2. Microfabrication of High Resolution X-ray Magnetic Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Bandler, Simon R.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Porst, Jan P.; Rotzinger, Hannes; Seidel, George M.; Stevenson, Thomas R.

    2009-12-01

    Metallic magnetic calorimeter (MMC) is one of the most promising x-ray detector technologies for providing the very high energy resolution needed for future astronomical x-ray imaging spectroscopy. For this purpose, we have developed micro-fabricated 5×5 arrays of MMC of which each individual pixel has excellent energy resolution as good as 3.4 eV at 6 keV x-ray. Here we report on the fabrication techniques developed to achieve good resolution and high efficiency. These include: processing of a thin insulation layer for strong magnetic coupling between the AuEr sensor film and the niobium pick-up coil; production of overhanging absorbers for enhanced efficiency of x-ray absorption; fabrication on SiN membranes to minimize the effects on energy resolution from athermal phonon loss. We have also improved the deposition of the magnetic sensor film such that the film magnetization is nearly completely that is expected from the AuEr sputter target bulk material. In addition, we have included a study of a positional sensitive design, the Hydra design, which allows thermal coupling of four absorbers to a common MMC sensor and circuit.

  3. High-Resolution and Frequency, Printed Miniature Magnetic Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prager, James; Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth; Picard, Julian

    2013-10-01

    Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc. (EHT) is developing a technique to significantly reduce the cost and development time of producing magnetic field diagnostics. EHT is designing probes that can be printed on flexible PCBs thereby allowing for extremely small coils to be produced while essentially eliminating the time to wind the coils. The coil size can be extremely small when coupled with the EHT Hybrid Integrator, which is capable of high bandwidth measurements over short and long pulse durations. This integrator is currently being commercialized with the support of a DOE SBIR. Additionally, the flexible PCBs allow probes to be attached to complex surface and/or probes that have a complex 3D structure to be designed and fabricated. During the Phase I, EHT will design and construct magnetic field probes on flexible PCBs, which will be tested at the University of Washington's HIT-SI experiment and in EHT's material science plasma reactor. Funding provided by DOE SBIR/STTR Program.

  4. Finding the Magnetic Center of a Quadrupole to High Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, G.E.; Cobb, J.K.; Jenson, D.R.; /SLAC

    2005-08-12

    In a companion pro, collposal it is proposed to align quadrupoles of a transport line to within transverse tolerances of 5 to 10 micrometers. Such a proposal is meaningful only if the effective magnetic center of such lenses can in fact be repeatably located with respect to some external mechanical tooling to comparable accuracy. It is the purpose of this note to describe some new methods and procedures that will accomplish this aim. It will be shown that these methods are capable of yielding greater sensitivity than the more traditional methods used in the past. The notion of the ''nodal'' point is exploited.

  5. Improved High-Force Magnetic Tweezers for Stretching and Refolding of Proteins and Short DNA

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hu; Fu, Hongxia; Zhu, Xiaoying; Cong, Peiwen; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Yan, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Although magnetic tweezers have many unique advantages in terms of specificity, throughput, and force stability, this tool has had limited application on short tethers because accurate measurement of force has been difficult for short tethers under large tension. Here, we report a method that allows us to apply magnetic tweezers to stretch short biomolecules with accurate force calibration over a wide range of up to 100 pN. We demonstrate the use of the method by overstretching of a short DNA and unfolding/refolding a protein of filamin A immunoglobulin domains 1–8. Other potential applications of this method are also discussed. PMID:21244848

  6. High-Resolution Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis of Metastatic Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountford, Carolyn E.; Wright, Lesley C.; Holmes, Kerry T.; MacKinnon, Wanda B.; Gregory, Patricia; Fox, Richard M.

    1984-12-01

    High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of intact cancer cells revealed differences between cells with the capacity to metastasize and those that produce locally invasive tumors. The NMR resonances that characterize the metastatic cells were associated with an increased ratio of cholesterol to phospholipid and an increased amount of plasma membrane--bound cholesterol ester. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy could therefore be used to assess the metastatic potential of primary tumors.

  7. High-resolution heteronuclear multi-dimensional NMR spectroscopy in magnetic fields with unknown spatial variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Huang, Yuqing; Smith, Pieter E. S.; Wang, Kaiyu; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    Heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy is an extremely powerful tool for determining the structures of organic molecules and is of particular significance in the structural analysis of proteins. In order to leverage the method’s potential for structural investigations, obtaining high-resolution NMR spectra is essential and this is generally accomplished by using very homogeneous magnetic fields. However, there are several situations where magnetic field distortions and thus line broadening is unavoidable, for example, the samples under investigation may be inherently heterogeneous, and the magnet’s homogeneity may be poor. This line broadening can hinder resonance assignment or even render it impossible. We put forth a new class of pulse sequences for obtaining high-resolution heteronuclear spectra in magnetic fields with unknown spatial variations based on distant dipolar field modulations. This strategy’s capabilities are demonstrated with the acquisition of high-resolution 2D gHSQC and gHMBC spectra. These sequences’ performances are evaluated on the basis of their sensitivities and acquisition efficiencies. Moreover, we show that by encoding and decoding NMR observables spatially, as is done in ultrafast NMR, an extra dimension containing J-coupling information can be obtained without increasing the time necessary to acquire a heteronuclear correlation spectrum. Since the new sequences relax magnetic field homogeneity constraints imposed upon high-resolution NMR, they may be applied in portable NMR sensors and studies of heterogeneous chemical and biological materials.

  8. Scanning magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) microscopy: High-resolution magnetic imaging of geologic samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascu, I.; Harrison, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    characterised by spatial heterogeneity. In addition, the high-resolution capability of the MTJ microscope makes it extremely useful for investigating sedimentary archives formed under low accumulation conditions (e.g., speleothems, stromatolites, Fe-Mn nodules) that hold a detectable environmental magnetic signal.

  9. Fast acquisition of high-resolution 2D NMR spectroscopy in inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liangjie; Wei, Zhiliang; Zeng, Qing; Yang, Jian; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy plays an important role in chemical and biological analyses. In this study, we combine the J-coupling coherence transfer module with the echo-train acquisition technique for fast acquisition of high-resolution 2D NMR spectra in magnetic fields with unknown spatial variations. The proposed method shows satisfactory performance on a 5 mM ethyl 3-bromopropionate sample, under a 5-kHz (10 ppm at 11.7 T) B0 inhomogeneous field, as well as under varying degrees of pulse-flip-angle deviations. Moreover, a simulative ex situ NMR measurement is also conducted to show the effectiveness of the proposed pulse sequence.

  10. Scanning a DNA molecule for bound proteins using hybrid magnetic and optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    van Loenhout, Marijn T J; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Flebus, Benedetta; den Blanken, Johan F; Zweifel, Ludovit P; Hooning, Koen M; Kerssemakers, Jacob W J; Dekker, Cees

    2013-01-01

    The functional state of the genome is determined by its interactions with proteins that bind, modify, and move along the DNA. To determine the positions and binding strength of proteins localized on DNA we have developed a combined magnetic and optical tweezers apparatus that allows for both sensitive and label-free detection. A DNA loop, that acts as a scanning probe, is created by looping an optically trapped DNA tether around a DNA molecule that is held with magnetic tweezers. Upon scanning the loop along the λ-DNA molecule, EcoRI proteins were detected with ~17 nm spatial resolution. An offset of 33 ± 5 nm for the detected protein positions was found between back and forwards scans, corresponding to the size of the DNA loop and in agreement with theoretical estimates. At higher applied stretching forces, the scanning loop was able to remove bound proteins from the DNA, showing that the method is in principle also capable of measuring the binding strength of proteins to DNA with a force resolution of 0.1 pN/[Formula: see text]. The use of magnetic tweezers in this assay allows the facile preparation of many single-molecule tethers, which can be scanned one after the other, while it also allows for direct control of the supercoiling state of the DNA molecule, making it uniquely suitable to address the effects of torque on protein-DNA interactions. PMID:23755219

  11. High-Resolution Vessel Wall Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Varicella-Zoster Virus Vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Lachanis, Stefanos; Magoufis, Georgios; Safouris, Apostolos; Kargiotis, Odysseas; Stamboulis, Elefterios

    2016-06-01

    Varicella-zoster virus vasculopathy is a rare but potentially treatable condition. Diagnosis has been based on angiography, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. High-resolution vessel wall MRI may aid to the diagnosis by differentiating inflammation from other vessel wall pathologies. We present the characteristic MRI findings of this condition in a young patient presenting with ischemic stroke. PMID:27067878

  12. Partial-Homogeneity-Based Two-Dimensional High-Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy under Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wenqi; Wei, Zhiliang; Ding, Nan; Yang, Yu; Ye, Qimiao; Lin, Yulan; Chen, Zhong

    2016-05-18

    High-resolution multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy serves as an irreplaceable and versatile tool in various chemical investigations. In this study, a method based on the concept of partial homogeneity is developed to offer two-dimensional (2D) high-resolution NMR spectra under inhomogeneous fields. Oscillating gradients are exerted to encode the high-resolution information, and a field-inhomogeneity correction algorithm based on pattern recognition is designed to recover high-resolution spectra. Under fields where inhomogeneity primarily distributes along a single orientation, the proposed method will improve performances of 2D NMR spectroscopy without increasing the experimental duration or significant loss in sensitivity, and thus may open important perspectives for studies of inhomogeneous chemical systems. PMID:26891886

  13. Magnetic lens apparatus for a low-voltage high-resolution electron microscope

    DOEpatents

    Crewe, Albert V.

    1996-01-01

    A lens apparatus in which a beam of charged particles of low accelerating voltage is brought to a focus by a magnetic field, the lens being situated behind the target position. The lens comprises an electrically-conducting coil arranged around the axis of the beam and a magnetic pole piece extending along the axis of the beam at least within the space surrounded by the coil. The lens apparatus comprises the sole focusing lens for high-resolution imaging in a low-voltage scanning electron microscope.

  14. An Analytical Approach towards Passive Ferromagnetic Shimming Design for a High-Resolution NMR Magnet

    PubMed Central

    Li, Frank X.; Voccio, John P.; Cheol Ahn, Min; Hahn, Seungyong; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a warm bore ferromagnetic shimming design for a high resolution NMR magnet based on spherical harmonic coefficient reduction techniques. The passive ferromagnetic shimming along with the active shimming is a critically important step to improve magnetic field homogeneity for an NMR Magnet. Here, the technique is applied to an NMR magnet already designed and built at the MIT's Francis Bitter Magnet Lab. Based on the actual magnetic field measurement data, a total of twenty-two low order spherical harmonic coefficients is derived. Another set of spherical harmonic coefficients was calculated for iron pieces attached to a 54 mm diameter and 72 mm high tube. To improve the homogeneity of the magnet, a multiple objective linear programming method was applied to minimize unwanted spherical harmonic coefficients. A ferromagnetic shimming set with seventy-four iron pieces was presented. Analytical comparisons are made for the expected magnetic field after Ferromagnetic shimming. The theoretically reconstructed magnetic field plot after ferromagnetic shimming has shown that the magnetic field homogeneity was significantly improved. PMID:26516300

  15. Observation of thermomagnetically recorded domains with high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunashima, S.; Takagi, Nayuki; Yamaguchi, Atushi; Kume, Minoru; Fischer, P.; Kumazawa, M.

    2003-04-01

    Magnetic domains were thermomagnetically recorded on TbFeCo films using laser pulsed magnetic field modulation (LP-MFM) and light intensity modulation (LIM). The domains were observed with high resolution magnetic transmission X-ray microscopy (M-TXM) before and after the heat treatment in order to clarify the recording characteristics and the thermal stability of recorded domains. From the results of M-TXM images, it was found that isolated single marks whose lengths are much smaller than 100 nm can be recorded by LP-MFM but their mark lengths become often longer than designed. It was further confirmed that the heat treatment at 120 degree C for 50 hours does not influence significantly the crescent-shaped magnetic domains of 100 nm in width recorded using LP-MFM method and circular domains of 150 nm in diameter recorded using LIM method.

  16. The Need for High-Resolution Crustal Magnetic Field Data on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.; Purucker, M. E.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetometer observations from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft (MAG/ER on MGS) have confirmed that Mars does not presently have an internally-generated dipole magnetic field, and have also revealed intense remanent magnetism in the Martian crust. The remanent magnetic anomalies, most prevalent in the southern highlands region, are a record of the past history of the internal Mars dipole field. The MAG/ER data constitute a valuable data set for constraining the early thermal evolution of Mars and the history of the planetary magnetic field. However, the data lack the resolution needed to draw definite conclusions regarding the time history of the field. High-resolution magnetometer observations, obtained at low-altitude, are needed to complement and extend the MGS/ER data set and allow a definitive time history of the internal Mars dynamo to be constructed.

  17. High Resolution Observations and Modeling of Small-Scale Solar Magnetic Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Thomas E.

    2001-01-01

    This research contract investigating the radiative transfer and dynamic physics of the smallest observable magnetic structures in the solar photosphere. Due to the lack of a high-resolution visible light satellite instrument for solar studies, all data were acquired using ground-based instrumentation. The primary goal of the investigation was to understand the formation and evolution of "G-band bright points" in relation to the associated magnetic elements. G-band bright points are small (on the order of 100 kin or less in diameter) bright signatures associated with magnetic flux elements in the photosphere. They are seen in the A2A-X2 4308 A molecular bandhead of the CH radical ill the solar spectrum and offer the highest spatial resolution and highest contrast "tracers" of small magnetic structure on the Sun.

  18. Detection of single mammalian cells by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, S J; Williams, M; Suhan, J P; Williams, D S; Koretsky, A P; Ho, C

    1999-01-01

    This study reports the detection of single mammalian cells, specifically T cells (T lymphocytes) labeled with dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide particles, using magnetic resonance microscopy. Size amplification due to sequestration of the superparamagnetic particles in vacuoles enhances contrast in localized areas in high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic resonance images of samples containing differing concentrations of T cells embedded in 3% gelatin show a number of dark regions due to the superparamagnetic iron oxide particles, consistent with the number predicted by transmission electron microscopy. Colabeling of T cell samples with a fluorescent dye leads to strong correlations between magnetic resonance and fluorescence microscopic images, showing the presence of the superparamagnetic iron oxide particles at the cell site. This result lays the foundation for our approach to tracking the movement of a specific cell type in live animals and humans. PMID:9876127

  19. High-Resolution SQUID imaging of Magnetic Fields Generated by Propagating Cardiac Action Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, Jenny R.; Sidorov, Veniamin; Fong, Luis; Peters, Nicholas; Baudenbacher, Petra; Baudenbacher, Franz

    2004-03-01

    The heart's magnetic field is exquisitely sensitive to anisotropy ratios in the cardiac bidomain model; Therefore, magnetic imaging of cardiac action currents is an ideally suited technique for testing the accuracy of cardiac models and elucidating the effects of anisotropy in the spread of stimulus and action currents. We mapped the magnetocardiogram (MCG) as a function of position over a 10mm x 10mm area of the left ventricle of a Langendorff perfused isolated rabbit heart using high-resolution scanning SQUID microscopy and epi-fluorescent imaging with a high speed CCD camera and the transmembrane voltage sensitive dye di-4-ANEPPS. The combination of these two methods allowed us to map the transmembrane potential, the magnetic field, and consequently the total current, over the same area. The MCGs were combined to produce a time series of 2D field maps that show a clear octupolar pattern during the cathodal current injection, a similar pattern with a reversal of currents immediately after terminating the stimulus, and the generation and propagation of an elliptical action current wave front. The observed patterns are in agreement with predictions using a bidomain model. Our high-resolution SQUID images have confirmed that unequal anisotropies in the intra- and extracellular spaces must be considered to explain the magnetic field associated with action current propagation However, a realistic cardiac bidomain model incorporating fiber rotation, cleavage planes, and tissue heterogeneities are required to reproduce the complete experimental observations.

  20. High resolution in-operando microimaging of solar cells with pulsed electrically-detected magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Katz, Itai; Fehr, Matthias; Schnegg, Alexander; Lips, Klaus; Blank, Aharon

    2015-02-01

    The in-operando detection and high resolution spatial imaging of paramagnetic defects, impurities, and states becomes increasingly important for understanding loss mechanisms in solid-state electronic devices. Electron spin resonance (ESR), commonly employed for observing these species, cannot meet this challenge since it suffers from limited sensitivity and spatial resolution. An alternative and much more sensitive method, called electrically-detected magnetic resonance (EDMR), detects the species through their magnetic fingerprint, which can be traced in the device's electrical current. However, until now it could not obtain high resolution images in operating electronic devices. In this work, the first spatially-resolved electrically-detected magnetic resonance images (EDMRI) of paramagnetic states in an operating real-world electronic device are provided. The presented method is based on a novel microwave pulse sequence allowing for the coherent electrical detection of spin echoes in combination with powerful pulsed magnetic-field gradients. The applicability of the method is demonstrated on a device-grade 1-μm-thick amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cell and an identical device that was degraded locally by an electron beam. The degraded areas with increased concentrations of paramagnetic defects lead to a local increase in recombination that is mapped by EDMRI with ∼20-μm-scale pixel resolution. The novel approach presented here can be widely used in the nondestructive in-operando three-dimensional characterization of solid-state electronic devices with a resolution potential of less than 100 nm. PMID:25557860

  1. High resolution in-operando microimaging of solar cells with pulsed electrically-detected magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Itai; Fehr, Matthias; Schnegg, Alexander; Lips, Klaus; Blank, Aharon

    2015-02-01

    The in-operando detection and high resolution spatial imaging of paramagnetic defects, impurities, and states becomes increasingly important for understanding loss mechanisms in solid-state electronic devices. Electron spin resonance (ESR), commonly employed for observing these species, cannot meet this challenge since it suffers from limited sensitivity and spatial resolution. An alternative and much more sensitive method, called electrically-detected magnetic resonance (EDMR), detects the species through their magnetic fingerprint, which can be traced in the device's electrical current. However, until now it could not obtain high resolution images in operating electronic devices. In this work, the first spatially-resolved electrically-detected magnetic resonance images (EDMRI) of paramagnetic states in an operating real-world electronic device are provided. The presented method is based on a novel microwave pulse sequence allowing for the coherent electrical detection of spin echoes in combination with powerful pulsed magnetic-field gradients. The applicability of the method is demonstrated on a device-grade 1-μm-thick amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cell and an identical device that was degraded locally by an electron beam. The degraded areas with increased concentrations of paramagnetic defects lead to a local increase in recombination that is mapped by EDMRI with ∼20-μm-scale pixel resolution. The novel approach presented here can be widely used in the nondestructive in-operando three-dimensional characterization of solid-state electronic devices with a resolution potential of less than 100 nm.

  2. Simultaneous Single-Molecule Force and Fluorescence Sampling of DNA Nanostructure Conformations Using Magnetic Tweezers.

    PubMed

    Kemmerich, Felix E; Swoboda, Marko; Kauert, Dominik J; Grieb, M Svea; Hahn, Steffen; Schwarz, Friedrich W; Seidel, Ralf; Schlierf, Michael

    2016-01-13

    We present a hybrid single-molecule technique combining magnetic tweezers and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. Through applying external forces to a paramagnetic sphere, we induce conformational changes in DNA nanostructures, which are detected in two output channels simultaneously. First, by tracking a magnetic bead with high spatial and temporal resolution, we observe overall DNA length changes along the force axis. Second, the measured FRET efficiency between two fluorescent probes monitors local conformational changes. The synchronized orthogonal readout in different observation channels will facilitate deciphering the complex mechanisms of biomolecular machines. PMID:26632021

  3. Distribution of buried hydrothermal alteration deduced from high-resolution magnetic surveys in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouligand, Claire; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Blakely, Richard J.

    2014-04-01

    Yellowstone National Park (YNP) displays numerous and extensive hydrothermal features. Although hydrothermal alteration in YNP has been extensively studied, the volume, geometry, and type of rock alteration at depth remain poorly constrained. In this study, we use high-resolution airborne and ground magnetic surveys and measurements of remanent and induced magnetization of field and drill core samples to provide constraints on the geometry of hydrothermal alteration within the subsurface of three thermal areas in YNP (Firehole River, Smoke Jumper Hot Springs, and Norris Geyser Basin). We observe that hydrothermal zones from both liquid- and vapor-dominated systems coincide with magnetic lows observed in aeromagnetic surveys and with a decrease of the amplitude of short-wavelength anomalies seen in ground magnetic surveys. This suggests a strong demagnetization of both the shallow and deep substratum within these areas associated with the removal of magnetic minerals by hydrothermal alteration processes. Such demagnetization is confirmed by measurements of rock samples from hydrothermal areas which display significantly decreased total magnetization. A pronounced negative anomaly is observed over the Lone Star Geyser and suggests a significant demagnetization of the substratum associated with areas displaying large-scale fluid flow. The ground and airborne magnetic surveys are used to evaluate the distribution of magnetization in the subsurface. This study shows that significant demagnetization occurs over a thickness of at least a few hundred meters in hydrothermal areas at YNP and that the maximum degree or maximum thickness of demagnetization correlates closely with the location of hydrothermal activity and mapped alteration.

  4. Quasi-static high-resolution magnetic-field detection based on dielectric optical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioppolo, Tindaro; Rubino, Edoardo

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we present a high resolution magnetic field sensor that is based on the perturbation of the optical modes (whispering gallery mode, WGM) of a spherical dielectric resonator. The optical resonator is side coupled to a tapered single mode optical fiber. One side of the optical fiber is coupled to a distribute feedback diode laser, while the other end is connected to a photodiode. The optical modes of the dielectric cavity are perturbed using a metglas sheet that is in contact with the resonator. When the metglas sheet is exposed to an external magnetic field it elongates perturbing the optical modes of the dielectric cavity. This in turn leads to a shift in the optical resonances. By measuring the induced WGM shift the magnetic field can be measured. Preliminary results show sensor resolution of a few nanoteslas.

  5. Development of a High Resolution Analyzing Magnet System for Heavy Molecular Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazaly, Mohamed O. A. El; Dehnel, Morgan; Defrance, Pierre

    At the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST, Saudi Arabia), a versatile ion-beam injector was constructed to provide the electrostatic storage ring with the required high-quality ion beams. In order to remove the ambiguity over the ion mass due to the exclusive application of electric fields in the set-up, the injector is being equipped with a high resolution mass analyzing magnet. A high resolution Analyzing Magnet System has been designed to provide a singly-charged ion beam of kinetic energy up to 50 keV, mass up to 1500 Amu, and with the mass resolution fixed to Δm/m =1:1500. The system includes specific entrance and exit slits, designed to sustain the required mass resolution. Furthermore, specific focusing and shaping optics have been added upstream and downstream the system, in order to monitor and adapt the shape of the ion beam at the entrance and exit of the system, respectively. The present paper gives an overview on the design of this mass analyzing magnet system together with the upstream/downstream adapting optics.

  6. High resolution magnetostriction measurements in pulsed magnetic fields using fiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daou, Ramzy; Weickert, Franziska; Nicklas, Michael; Steglich, Frank; Haase, Ariane; Doerr, Mathias

    2010-03-01

    We report on a new high resolution apparatus for measuring magnetostriction suitable for use at cryogenic temperatures in pulsed high magnetic fields which we have developed at the Hochfeld-Magnetlabor Dresden. Optical fiber strain gauges based on fiber Bragg gratings are used to measure the strain in small (˜1 mm) samples. We describe the implementation of a fast measurement system capable of resolving strains in the order of 10-7 with a full bandwidth of 47 kHz, and demonstrate its use on single crystal samples of GdSb and GdSi.

  7. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the lower extremity nerves.

    PubMed

    Burge, Alissa J; Gold, Stephanie L; Kuong, Sharon; Potter, Hollis G

    2014-02-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the nerves, commonly known as MR neurography is increasingly being used as noninvasive means of diagnosing peripheral nerve disease. High-resolution imaging protocols aimed at imaging the nerves of the hip, thigh, knee, leg, ankle, and foot can demonstrate traumatic or iatrogenic injury, tumorlike lesions, or entrapment of the nerves, causing a potential loss of motor and sensory function in the affected area. A thorough understanding of normal MR imaging and gross anatomy, as well as MR findings in the presence of peripheral neuropathies will aid in accurate diagnosis and ultimately help guide clinical management. PMID:24210318

  8. High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of seminolipid from bovine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J G; Storey, B T; Hemling, M L; Grob, R L

    1990-06-01

    The high-resolution one- and two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) characterization of seminolipid from bovine spermatozoa is presented. The 1H-NMR data was confirmed by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of the partially methylated alditol acetates of the sugar unit, mild alkaline methanolysis of the glyceryl ester, mobility on normal phase and diphasic thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS). The structure of the molecule corresponds to 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-hexadecanoyl-3-O-beta-D-(3'-sulfo)-galactopyranosyl- sn-glycerol. PMID:2373957

  9. First high-resolution near-seafloor survey of magnetic anomalies of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Xu, X.; Li, C.; Sun, Z.; Zhu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Qiu, N.

    2013-12-01

    We successfully conducted the first high-resolution near-seafloor magnetic survey of the Central, Southwest, and Northern Central Basins of the South China Sea (SCS) during two cruises on board Chinese R/V HaiYangLiuHao in October-November 2012 and March-April 2013, respectively. Measurements of magnetic field were made along four long survey lines, including (1) a NW-SE across-isochron profile transecting the Southwest Basin and covering all ages of the oceanic crust (Line CD); (2) a N-S across-isochron profile transecting the Central Basin (Line AB); and (3) two sub-parallel NE-SW across-isochron profiles transecting the Northern Central Basin of the SCS (Lines D and E). A three-axis magnetometer was mounted on a deep-tow vehicle, flying within 0.6 km above the seafloor. The position of the tow vehicle was provided by an ultra-short baseline navigation system along Lines D and E, while was estimated using shipboard GPS along Lines AB and CD. To investigate crustal magnetization, we first removed the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) of 2010 from the measured magnetic data, and then downward continued the resultant magnetic field data to a horizontal plane at a water depth of 4.5 km to correct for variation due to the fishing depth of the deep-tow vehicle. Finally, we calculated magnetic anomalies at various water depths after reduction-to-the-pole corrections. We also constructed polarity reversal block (PRB) models of crustal magnetization by matching peaks and troughs of the observed magnetic field anomaly. Our analysis yielded the following results: (1) The near-bottom magnetic anomaly showed peak-to-trough amplitudes of more than 2,500 nT, which are several times of the anomaly amplitudes at the sea surface, illustrating that deep-tow measurements acquired much higher spatial resolutions. (2) The deep-tow data revealed several distinctive magnetic anomalies with wavelengths of 5-15 km and amplitudes of several hundred nT. These short

  10. High-resolution Magnetic Resonance Vessel Wall Imaging for Intracranial Arterial Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xian-Jin; Wang, Wu; Liu, Zun-Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the feasibility and clinical value of high-resolution magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging (HRMR VWI) for intracranial arterial stenosis. Date Sources: We retrieved information from PubMed database up to December 2015, using various search terms including vessel wall imaging (VWI), high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, intracranial arterial stenosis, black blood, and intracranial atherosclerosis. Study Selection: We reviewed peer-reviewed articles printed in English on imaging technique of VWI and characteristic findings of various intracranial vasculopathies on VWI. We organized this data to explain the value of VWI in clinical application. Results: VWI with black blood technique could provide high-quality images with submillimeter voxel size, and display both the vessel wall and lumen of intracranial artery simultaneously. Various intracranial vasculopathies (atherosclerotic or nonatherosclerotic) had differentiating features including pattern of wall thickening, enhancement, and vessel remodeling on VWI. This technique could be used for determining causes of stenosis, identification of stroke mechanism, risk-stratifying patients, and directing therapeutic management in clinical practice. In addition, a new morphological classification based on VWI could be established for predicting the efficacy of endovascular therapy. Conclusions: This review highlights the value of HRMR VWI for discrimination of different intracranial vasculopathies and directing therapeutic management. PMID:27231176

  11. High resolution neurography of the brachial plexus by 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Cejas, C; Rollán, C; Michelin, G; Nogués, M

    2016-01-01

    The study of the structures that make up the brachial plexus has benefited particularly from the high resolution images provided by 3T magnetic resonance scanners. The brachial plexus can have mononeuropathies or polyneuropathies. The mononeuropathies include traumatic injuries and trapping, such as occurs in thoracic outlet syndrome due to cervical ribs, prominent transverse apophyses, or tumors. The polyneuropathies include inflammatory processes, in particular chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, Parsonage-Turner syndrome, granulomatous diseases, and radiation neuropathy. Vascular processes affecting the brachial plexus include diabetic polyneuropathy and the vasculitides. This article reviews the anatomy of the brachial plexus and describes the technique for magnetic resonance neurography and the most common pathologic conditions that can affect the brachial plexus. PMID:26860655

  12. High-Resolution Observations of Flare Precursors and Their Relationship with Magnetic Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haimin; Xu, Yan; Ahn, Kwangsu; Jing, Ju; Liu, Chang; Deng, Na; Huang, Nengyi; Gary, Dale E.; Cao, Wenda

    2016-05-01

    The study of precursors of flares is important for understanding the basic magnetic instability leading to solar flares, which can aid the forecasting of eruptions potentially related to severe space weather effects. Although literatures reported many important clues, high-resolution observations of pre-flare activities before a well-observed solar flare have been rare. Even rarely, the associated magnetic structures in fine scale (below 1") were also observed. In this study we take advantage of multiwavelength high-resolution observations completely covering the 2015 June 22 M6.6 flare, which were obtained under excellent seeing condition with the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) at Big Bear Solar Observatory. The NST data includes observations of the H-alpha line in five spectral positions at a spatial resolution of 0.1" and magnetograms at a resolution of 0.25". These are complemented by IRIS UV observations with a resolution of 0.25". We find that there are two episodes of pre-flare brightenings (precursors), which are spatially associated with magnetic channels, i.e., elongated structures comprising alternating magnetic polarity inversion lines (Zirin & Wang, 1993, Nature, 363, 426). The pre-flare chromospheric and coronal features reflect an extremely sheared magnetic topology, while the initiation of main flare brightenings correspond to a much less sheared configuration. RHESSI HXR observations reveal that the precursors have both thermal and nonthermal components, and the latter is further evidenced by the microwave observations of the newly expanded Solar Radio Array at Owens Valley.We further investigate the electric current system above the magnetic channels using NLFFF extrapolations, which show strong current sheets above the channel structure. This is consistent with the MHD modeling of Kusano et al (2012, Ap.J., 760, 31), who noted the importance of localized small-scale magnetic structure in triggering the eruption of the whole active region. We

  13. Magnetic tweezers-based force clamp reveals mechanically distinct apCAM domain interactions.

    PubMed

    Kilinc, Devrim; Blasiak, Agata; O'Mahony, James J; Suter, Daniel M; Lee, Gil U

    2012-09-19

    Cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgCAMs) play a crucial role in cell-cell interactions during nervous system development and function. The Aplysia CAM (apCAM), an invertebrate IgCAM, shares structural and functional similarities with vertebrate NCAM and therefore has been considered as the Aplysia homolog of NCAM. Despite these similarities, the binding properties of apCAM have not been investigated thus far. Using magnetic tweezers, we applied physiologically relevant, constant forces to apCAM-coated magnetic particles interacting with apCAM-coated model surfaces and characterized the kinetics of bond rupture. The average bond lifetime decreased with increasing external force, as predicted by theoretical considerations. Mathematical simulations suggest that the apCAM homophilic interaction is mediated by two distinct bonds, one involving all five immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains in an antiparallel alignment and the other involving only two Ig domains. In summary, this study provides biophysical evidence that apCAM undergoes homophilic interactions, and that magnetic tweezers-based, force-clamp measurements provide a rapid and reliable method for characterizing relatively weak CAM interactions. PMID:22995484

  14. Improved determination of seafloor absolute magnetization from uneven, near-seafloor magnetic measurements and high-resolution bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szitkar, F.; Dyment, J.; Choi, Y.; Fouquet, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Vector magnetometers installed on deep-sea submersibles offer a unique opportunity to achieve high resolution magnetic investigations at the scale of hundred to thousand meters. Once corrected for the vehicle induced and remanent magnetization, the measurements mostly reflect variations of the topography and the submersible path - i.e. the distance between the sources and the observation points. The interesting parameter, however, is the seafloor magnetization that can be interpreted in terms of geological processes. Here we present methods to compute absolute magnetization of the seafloor by taking advantage of the uneven track of the submersible. In these methods, synthetic anomalies are computed for a unit magnetization assuming the geometry of the experiment, i.e. the source and the submersible path. The absolute magnetization is determined by a comparison between the observed anomalies and the synthetic ones along sliding windows. The coherency between the two signals gives an estimation of the quality of the determination, and the phase provides information on the magnetic polarity, and therefore the age of volcanic features. Such a method has been developed by Honsho et al. (JGR, 2009) using deep-sea submersible data only, i.e. magnetic anomaly, depth and altitude of the submersible. The synthetic anomalies are computed using 2D forward modeling, i.e. assuming the structures to be infinite in the direction perpendicular to the submersible path. The method has been applied with success to linear profiles crossing elongated structures such as mid-ocean ridges, but may fail for structures departing from the 2D assumption. The adaptation of improving multibeam systems to autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) has opened the way to the collection of very high resolution bathymetric data (around 2m between each measurement). This development has triggered a new strategy to explore the seafloor using manned submersibles: an AUV is operated during night time to

  15. High-resolution observations of the polar magnetic fields of the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, H.; Varsik, J.; Zirin, H.

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution magnetograms of the solar polar region were used for the study of the polar magnetic field. In contrast to low-resolution magnetograph observations which measure the polar magnetic field averaged over a large area, we focused our efforts on the properties of the small magnetic elements in the polar region. Evolution of the filling factor (the ratio of the area occupied by the magnetic elements to the total area) of these magnetic elements, as well as the average magnetic field strength, were studied during the maximum and declining phase of solar cycle 22, from early 1991 to mid-1993. We found that during the sunspot maximum period, the polar regions were occupied by about equal numbers of positive and negative magnetic elements, with equal average field strength. As the solar cycle progresses toward sunspot minimum, the magnetic field elements in the polar region become predominantly of one polarity. The average magnetic field of the dominant polarity elements also increases with the filling factor. In the meanwhile, both the filling factor and the average field strength of the non-dominant polarity elements decrease. The combined effects of the changing filling factors and average field strength produce the observed evolution of the integrated polar flux over the solar cycle. We compared the evolutionary histories of both filling factor and average field strength, for regions of high (70-80 deg) and low (60-70 deg) latitudes. For the south pole, we found no significant evidence of difference in the time of reversal. However, the low-latitude region of the north pole did reverse polarity much earlier than the high-latitude region. It later showed an oscillatory behavior. We suggest this may be caused by the poleward migration of flux from a large active region in 1989 with highly imbalanced flux.

  16. High resolution dating of young magmatic oceanic crust using near-seafloor magnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyment, J.; Kitazawa, M.; Hemond, C.; Guillou, H.; Chauvin, A.; Ravilly, M.; Honsho, C.

    2015-12-01

    We compare two independent dating methods on a section of oceanic crust created within the last million year on the Central Indian Ridge axis at 19°10'S, an area affected by the Reunion hotspot. First, near-seafloor magnetic anomalies display characteristic sequences of magnetic intensity variations that we confidently identified by comparison with published paleointensity curves for the Brunhes period and used as a dating tool. This approach is further confirmed by the linear trend relating the NRM (Natural Remanent Magnetization) and paleointensity measured on rock samples along the same section. Second, valid K-Ar and Ar-Ar ages are determined on enriched basalt samples collected by deep-sea submersible. They show an excellent coincidence with the magnetic ages and support the use of high-resolution, near-seafloor marine magnetic anomalies as an efficient tool to date the young magmatic oceanic crust, where radiometric methods are generally unpractical, with unprecedented resolution. The ages obtained on the CIR reveal a 150-200 kyr cyclicity in the magmatic and tectonic processes of seafloor formation, two ridge jumps of 2.5 km and 1.2 km, respectively, and a systematic spreading asymmetry in favor to the Indian flank which may result from the interaction of the CIR with the Reunion hotspot.

  17. Magnetic lens apparatus for use in high-resolution scanning electron microscopes and lithographic processes

    DOEpatents

    Crewe, Albert V.

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed are lens apparatus in which a beam of charged particlesis brought to a focus by means of a magnetic field, the lens being situated behind the target position. In illustrative embodiments, a lens apparatus is employed in a scanning electron microscopeas the sole lens for high-resolution focusing of an electron beam, and in particular, an electron beam having an accelerating voltage of from about 10 to about 30,000 V. In one embodiment, the lens apparatus comprises an electrically-conducting coil arranged around the axis of the beam and a magnetic pole piece extending along the axis of the beam at least within the space surrounded by the coil. In other embodiments, the lens apparatus comprises a magnetic dipole or virtual magnetic monopole fabricated from a variety of materials, including permanent magnets, superconducting coils, and magnetizable spheres and needles contained within an energy-conducting coil. Multiple-array lens apparatus are also disclosed for simultaneous and/or consecutive imaging of multiple images on single or multiple specimens. The invention further provides apparatus, methods, and devices useful in focusing charged particle beams for lithographic processes.

  18. High Resolution Observations of Magnetic Elements in the Visible and the Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmele, T.; Lin, H.

    1997-05-01

    High resolution observations of magnetic elements in the visible and infrared. We report on multi-wavelength observations of plage regions obtained at the Vacuum Tower Telescope at NSO/Sac-Peak . The data set includes high resolution images in the G-band (0.43 mu ), the visible (0.69 mu ) continuum and the infrared (1.6 mu ) continuum. In addition, deep integration full Stokes vector measurements in the FeI 1.56 mu lines, as well as, Ca-K slit jaw images were obtained. G-band bright points, which are observed mostly in supergranular lanes, are also visible as bright points in the visible continuum. Although the infrared observations are limited in spatial resolution to about 0."4 (the diffraction limit of the VTT/SP), the data indicates that G-band bright points are also bright in the infrared (1.6 mu ). We also discuss and compare properties of magnetic knots and small pores. Magnetic knots, which recently also have been referred to as azimuth centers (Lites et al. 1994), by definition show no darkening in individual continuum images. However, in the time-averaged imaging data, and in particular in the infrared, azimuth centers appear as dark features, which are clearly distinguishable from the quiet sun background. In the infrared most azimuth centers are visible as dark features even in individual snapshots. Many azimuth centers as well as some small pores are surrounded by a highly structured bright ring, which becomes more apparent with increasing height of formation. Results of the polarization analysis in the FeI 1.56 mu lines, including measurements of weak fields, are presented as well.

  19. Reverse DNA translocation through a solid-state nanopore by magnetic tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hongbo; Ling, Xinsheng Sean

    2009-01-01

    Voltage-driven DNA translocation through nanopores has attracted wide interest for many potential applications in molecular biology and biotechnology. However, it is intrinsically difficult to control the DNA motion in standard DNA translocation processes in which a strong electric field is required in drawing DNA into the pore, but it also leads to uncontrollable fast DNA translocation. Here we explore a new type of DNA translocation. We dub it ‘reverse DNA translocation’, in which the DNA is pulled through a nanopore mechanically by a magnetic bead, driven by a magnetic-field gradient. This technique is compatible with simultaneous ionic current measurements and is suitable for multiple nanopores, paving the way for large scale applications. We report the first experiment of reverse DNA translocation through a solid-state nanopore using magnetic tweezers. PMID:19420602

  20. High-force NdFeB-based magnetic tweezers device optimized for microrheology experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Jun; Valentine, Megan T.

    2012-05-15

    We present the design, calibration, and testing of a magnetic tweezers device that employs two pairs of permanent neodymium iron boron magnets surrounded by low-carbon steel focusing tips to apply large forces to soft materials for microrheology experiments. Our design enables the application of forces in the range of 1-1800 pN to {approx}4.5 {mu}m paramagnetic beads using magnet-bead separations in the range of 0.3-20 mm. This allows the use of standard coverslips and sample geometries. A high speed camera, custom LED-based illumination scheme, and mechanically stabilized measurement platform are employed to enable the measurement of materials with viscoelastic moduli as high as {approx}1 kPa.

  1. High-resolution Observations of Siphon Flows in a Solar Magnetic Pore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmino, Salvo L.; Zuccarello, Francesca

    2011-12-01

    We investigate signatures of siphon flows in a region around a solar magnetic pore, observed in the photosphere at μ = 0.6, during its decay phase. We analyze high-resolution Stokes spectra acquired by Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope along the Fe I pair at 630.2 nm. We determine the vector magnetic field and the line-of-sight velocity by an inversion of the full Stokes vector using the SIR code. We also analyze photospheric G-band filtergrams. We find evidence of a transient siphon (counter)flow at the edge of the pore. An arch-shaped structure is found to have upflow motions of 4 km s-1 in the footpoint with a stronger magnetic field and positive polarity, and downflows of the same order of magnitude in the footpoint with opposite polarity and a weaker magnetic field. The event is different from those reported in previous observations of the Sun's atmosphere and may represent a physical constraint for numerical models.

  2. High-Resolution Magnetic Analyzer MAVR for the Study of Exotic Weakly-Bound Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, V. A.; Kazacha, V. I.; Kolesov, I. V.; Lukyanov, S. M.; Melnikov, V. N.; Osipov, N. F.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Skobelev, N. K.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Voskoboinik, E. I.

    2015-11-01

    A project of the high-resolution magnetic analyzer MAVR is proposed. The analyzer will comprise new magnetic optical and detecting systems for separation and identification of reaction products in a wide range of masses (5-150) and charges (1-60). The magnetic optical system consists of the MSP-144 magnet and a doublet of quadrupole lenses. This will allow the solid angle of the spectrometer to be increased by an order of magnitude up to 30 msr. The magnetic analyzer will have a high momentum resolution (10-4) and high focal-plane dispersion (1.9 m). It will allow products of nuclear reactions at energies up to 30 MeV/nucleon to be detected with the charge resolution ~1/60. Implementation of the project is divided into two stages: conversion of the magnetic analyzer proper and construction of the nuclear reaction products identification system. The MULTI detecting system is being developed for the MAVR magnetic analyzer to allow detection of nuclear reaction products and their identification by charge Q, atomic number Z, and mass A with a high absolute accuracy. The identification will be performed by measuring the energy loss (ΔE), time of flight (TOF), and total kinetic energy (TKE) of reaction products. The particle trajectories in the analyzer will also be determined using the drift chamber developed jointly with GANIL. The MAVR analyzer will operate in both primary beams of heavy ions and beams of radioactive nuclei produced by the U400-U400M acceleration complex. It will also be used for measuring energy spectra of nuclear reaction products and as an energy monochromator.

  3. Analysis of cell mechanics in single vinculin-deficient cells using a magnetic tweezer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alenghat, F. J.; Fabry, B.; Tsai, K. Y.; Goldmann, W. H.; Ingber, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    A magnetic tweezer was constructed to apply controlled tensional forces (10 pN to greater than 1 nN) to transmembrane receptors via bound ligand-coated microbeadswhile optically measuring lateral bead displacements within individual cells. Use of this system with wild-type F9 embryonic carcinoma cells and cells from a vinculin knockout mouse F9 Vin (-/-) revealed much larger differences in the stiffness of the transmembrane integrin linkages to the cytoskeleton than previously reported using related techniques that measured average mechanical properties of large cell populations. The mechanical properties measured varied widely among cells, exhibiting an approximately log-normal distribution. The median lateral bead displacement was 2-fold larger in F9 Vin (-/-) cells compared to wild-type cells whereas the arithmetic mean displacement only increased by 37%. We conclude that vinculin serves a greater mechanical role in cells than previously reported and that this magnetic tweezer device may be useful for probing the molecular basis of cell mechanics within single cells. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. Measurement of magnetic field aligned potential differences using high resolution conjugate photoelectron energy spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, W. K.; Doering, J. P.; Potemra, T. A.; Bostrom, C. O.; Brace, L. H.; Heelis, R. A.; Hanson, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Simultaneous high-resolution observations of a distinctive feature in the energy spectrum of conjugate photoelectrons and spacecraft potential relative to the local ionosphere have allowed the net potential difference between magnetic conjugate points at latitudes below the region of low-energy (i.e., lower than 100 eV) auroral electron precipitation to be determined. Measurements made at 300 km from Atmosphere Explorer C show that there is normally no net potential difference between hemispheres in this region, which extended up to invariant latitudes as high as 74 deg. Two types of apparently related anomalous behavior were infrequently observed at high latitudes. During these periods the incident flux of conjugate photoelectrons was either decelerated by about 3 eV or was not detected.

  5. The magnetic fields of Ap stars from high resolution Stokes IQUV spectropolarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvester, James

    In this thesis we describe the acquisition of high resolution time resolved spectropolarimetric observations of 7 (bright and well understood) Ap stars in Stokes IQUV using the ESPaDOnS and Narval spectropolarimeters at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and the 2m Telescope Bernard Lyot at Pic du Midi Observatory. We compare these observations with those obtained a decade earlier using the MuSiCoS spectropolarimeter to confirm consistency with the older data and provide evidence that both ESPaDOnS and Narval perform as expected in all Stokes parameters. We demonstrate that our refined longitudinal magnetic field and linear polarisation measurements for these 7 stars are of much greater quality than was previously obtained with MuSiCoS and that the global magnetic properties of these stars are stable over a long timescale. The ultimate aim of these new data is to provide a basis from which mapping of both the magnetic field and abundance structures can be performed on our target stars. We then describe magnetic field mapping of the Ap star alpha 2 CVn using these data. This mapping is achieved with the use of tomographic inversion of Doppler-broadened Stokes IQUV profiles of a large variety of spectral lines using the INVERS10 Magnetic Doppler imaging code. We show that not only are the new magnetic field maps of alpha 2 CVn consistent with a previous generation of maps of alpha 2 CVn, but that the same magnetic field topology can be derived from a variety of atomic line sets. This indicates that the magnetic field we derive for alpha2 CVn is a realistic representation of the star's true magnetic topology. Finally we investigate surface abundance structures for alpha 2 CVn for various chemical elements. We investigate the correlation between the location of these abundance features and the magnetic field of alpha 2 CVn. We will demonstrate that whilst the magnetic field plays a role in the formation of abundance structures, the current theoretical framework does

  6. Crocus sativus Petals: Waste or Valuable Resource? The Answer of High-Resolution and High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Righi, Valeria; Parenti, Francesca; Tugnoli, Vitaliano; Schenetti, Luisa; Mucci, Adele

    2015-09-30

    Intact Crocus sativus petals were studied for the first time by high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) spectroscopy, revealing the presence of kinsenoside (2) and goodyeroside A (3), together with 3-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone (4). These findings were confirmed by HR-NMR analysis of the ethanol extract of fresh petals and showed that, even though carried out rapidly, partial hydrolysis of glucopyranosyloxybutanolides occurs during extraction. On the other hand, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside (1), which is "NMR-silent" in intact petals, is present in extracts. These results suggest to evaluate the utilization of saffron petals for phytopharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes to exploit a waste product of massive production of commercial saffron and point to the application of HR-MAS NMR for monitoring bioactive compounds directly on intact petals, avoiding the extraction procedure and the consequent hydrolysis reaction. PMID:26367873

  7. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of mouse brain using high-resolution anatomical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowther, L. J.; Hadimani, R. L.; Kanthasamy, A. G.; Jiles, D. C.

    2014-05-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) offers the possibility of non-invasive treatment of brain disorders in humans. Studies on animals can allow rapid progress of the research including exploring a variety of different treatment conditions. Numerical calculations using animal models are needed to help design suitable TMS coils for use in animal experiments, in particular, to estimate the electric field induced in animal brains. In this paper, we have implemented a high-resolution anatomical MRI-derived mouse model consisting of 50 tissue types to accurately calculate induced electric field in the mouse brain. Magnetic field measurements have been performed on the surface of the coil and compared with the calculations in order to validate the calculated magnetic and induced electric fields in the brain. Results show how the induced electric field is distributed in a mouse brain and allow investigation of how this could be improved for TMS studies using mice. The findings have important implications in further preclinical development of TMS for treatment of human diseases.

  8. High Resolution Magnetic Anomaly Imaging of Southern McMurdo Sound (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiappini, M.; Gaya Pique, L. R.; Pignatelli, A.; Wilson, T.

    2004-12-01

    During the 2003-04 austral summer season, a low-altitude, high-resolution airborne magnetic survey was conducted in the area of Southern McMurdo Sound, western Ross Sea, in the framework of the joint Italian-US initiative called GEOIMAG (GEOphysical IMAGing of Antarctic tectonic and volcanic units in the Transantarctic Mountains and Ross Sea area). The survey was flown by helicopter from McMurdo Station, at a constant terrain clearance of 70 m. Profile spacing was 350 m. The resolution of the survey, the accuracy of the data acquisition, and a preliminary digital enhancement of the processed magnetic data have contributed to highlight the short-wavelength component of the regional magnetic anomaly field, resolving volcanic bodies and faults. A broad positive anomaly tapers northward from the volcanic Brown Peninsula. The breadth and low amplitude of the anomaly suggests this may mark relatively thin deposits of volcanic material on or near the seafloor. High-frequency and high-amplitude anomalies are associated with the volcanic Daily Islands at the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. Anomalies of similar amplitude and size in adjacent areas indicate additional volcanic cones occur on the seafloor and beneath the ice sheet. Low-amplitude, curvilinear anomalies with a convex shape toward McMurdo Sound occur offshore of the outlet of Ferrar Glacier and extending southward parallel to the coastline. The new data are being integrated with a multi-source database (magnetic, digital terrain data, bathymetry, regional structural trends) to obtain an unprecedented view of the magnetic signature of the major tectonic elements in the area. The structural and volcanic framework resulting from this investigation will provide important site survey information for the proposed ANDRILL drill sites in southern McMurdo Sound.

  9. Characterization of the mechanical properties of HL-1 cardiomyocytes with high throughput magnetic tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, La; Maybeck, Vanessa; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Krause, Hans-Joachim

    2015-08-03

    We characterized the mechanical properties of cardiomyocyte-like HL-1 cells using our recently developed multi-pole magnetic tweezers. With the optimized design, both high force and high throughput are achieved at the same time. Force up to 100 pN can be applied on a 1 μm diameter superparamagnetic bead in a workspace with 60 μm radius, which is encircled symmetrically by 3 sharp magnetic tips. By adjusting the coil currents, both the strength and direction of force can be controlled. The result shows that both viscosity and shear elastic modulus of HL-1 cells exhibit an approximately log-normal distribution. The cells became stiffer as they matured, consistent with a transition from proliferating cells to contractile muscle tissue. Moreover, the mechanical properties of HL-1 cells show high heterogeneity, which agrees well with their physiological structure.

  10. High-Resolution Mechanical Imaging of Glioblastoma by Multifrequency Magnetic Resonance Elastography

    PubMed Central

    Freimann, Florian Baptist; Bayerl, Simon; Guo, Jing; Arlt, Felix; Wuerfel, Jens; Braun, Jürgen; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Sack, Ingolf

    2014-01-01

    Objective To generate high-resolution maps of the viscoelastic properties of human brain parenchyma for presurgical quantitative assessment in glioblastoma (GB). Methods Twenty-two GB patients underwent routine presurgical work-up supplemented by additional multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography. Two three-dimensional viscoelastic parameter maps, magnitude |G*|, and phase angle φ of the complex shear modulus were reconstructed by inversion of full wave field data in 2-mm isotropic resolution at seven harmonic drive frequencies ranging from 30 to 60 Hz. Results Mechanical brain maps confirmed that GB are composed of stiff and soft compartments, resulting in high intratumor heterogeneity. GB could be easily differentiated from healthy reference tissue by their reduced viscous behavior quantified by φ (0.37±0.08 vs. 0.58±0.07). |G*|, which in solids more relates to the material's stiffness, was significantly reduced in GB with a mean value of 1.32±0.26 kPa compared to 1.54±0.27 kPa in healthy tissue (P = 0.001). However, some GB (5 of 22) showed increased stiffness. Conclusion GB are generally less viscous and softer than healthy brain parenchyma. Unrelated to the morphology-based contrast of standard magnetic resonance imaging, elastography provides an entirely new neuroradiological marker and contrast related to the biomechanical properties of tumors. PMID:25338072

  11. High-resolution dichroic imaging of magnetic flux distributions in superconductors with scanning x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ruoß, S. Stahl, C.; Weigand, M.; Schütz, G.; Albrecht, J.

    2015-01-12

    The penetration of magnetic flux into high-temperature superconductors has been observed using a high-resolution technique based on x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Superconductors coated with thin soft-magnetic layers are observed in a scanning x-ray microscope under the influence of external magnetic fields. Resulting electric currents in the superconductor create an inhomogeneous magnetic field distribution above the superconductor and lead to a local reorientation of the ferromagnetic layer. Measuring the local magnetization of the ferromagnet by x-ray absorption microscopy with circular-polarized radiation allows the analysis of the magnetic flux distribution in the superconductor with a spatial resolution on the nanoscale.

  12. Scanning magnetic tunnel junction microscope for high-resolution imaging of remanent magnetization fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, E. A.; Bruno, A. C.; Carvalho, H. R.; Weiss, B. P.

    2014-10-01

    Scanning magnetic microscopy is a new methodology for mapping magnetic fields with high spatial resolution and field sensitivity. An important goal has been to develop high-performance instruments that do not require cryogenic technology due to its high cost, complexity, and limitation on sensor-to-sample distance. Here we report the development of a low-cost scanning magnetic microscope based on commercial room-temperature magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors that typically achieves spatial resolution better than 7 µm. By comparing different bias and detection schemes, optimal performance was obtained when biasing the MTJ sensor with a modulated current at 1.0 kHz in a Wheatstone bridge configuration while using a lock-in amplifier in conjunction with a low-noise custom-made preamplifier. A precision horizontal (x-y) scanning stage comprising two coupled nanopositioners controls the position of the sample and a linear actuator adjusts the sensor-to-sample distance. We obtained magnetic field sensitivities better than 150 nT/Hz1/2 between 0.1 and 10 Hz, which is a critical frequency range for scanning magnetic microscopy. This corresponds to a magnetic moment sensitivity of 10-14 A m2, a factor of 100 better than achievable with typical commercial superconducting moment magnetometers. It also represents an improvement in sensitivity by a factor between 10 and 30 compared to similar scanning MTJ microscopes based on conventional bias-detection schemes. To demonstrate the capabilities of the instrument, two polished thin sections of representative geological samples were scanned along with a synthetic sample containing magnetic microparticles. The instrument is usable for a diversity of applications that require mapping of samples at room temperature to preserve magnetic properties or viability, including paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, nondestructive evaluation of materials, and biological assays.

  13. High Resolution Environmental Magnetic Study of a Holocene Sedimentary Record from Zaca Lake, Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platzman, E. S.; Lund, S.; Kirby, M. E.; Feakins, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic studies of Holocene lake sediments recovered from Zaca lake have yielded a 3000-year high resolution record of environmental variability and paleolimnology. Zaca lake is a small oligomictic lake ~12m deep situated 730 m above sea level in the steep canyons of the San Rafael mountains, NW of Santa Barbara. Throughout much of the year Zaca lake is anaerobic below 7m. Hydrogen sulfide, fed into the lake via runoff and local sulphur springs, is present throughout the hypolimnion with concentrations sometime exceeding 30 mg/ l. During the summer months when the lake is stratified, light colored carbonate rich microlaminae are formed; and often during the winter months when the lake overturns, killing the anaerobic bacteria, black microlamina rich in iron sulfide are deposited on the lake floor, creating a stratigraphy reflecting patterns of environmental variability on annual to millennial scales. Samples for magnetic analysis were obtained from 8.5 m of core recovered from the central region of Zaca lake. Ages, constrained using radiocarbon chronostratigraphy, yielded sedimentation rates of 2-10 mm/yr with an average rate of 3 mm per yr over the 3000 yr interval. Parameters reflecting decadal scale variability in magnetic concentration (susceptibility, ARM, SIRM) and grainsize (ARM/Chi) were measured every 2 cm. Additional rock magnetic tests, including thermal demagnetization of three component IRM, were applied at selected intervals to constrain the magnetic mineralogy. These data were combined with analyses of clastic grain size, % calcium carbonate and % organics to create a multiproxy record of environmental variability. Results show that Zaca lake has had a complex depositional history. Anthropogenic effects associated with European colonization are present in the upper meters. Most notable, however, is a dramatic shift in the magnetic parameters and mineralogy between the upper and lower half of the core (circa 1300 ybp) indicating a shift in regime

  14. 3-Dimensional modelling of chick embryo eye development and growth using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Goodall, Nicola; Kisiswa, Lilian; Prashar, Ankush; Faulkner, Stuart; Tokarczuk, Paweł; Singh, Krish; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Guggenheim, Jez; Halfter, Willi; Wride, Michael A

    2009-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for generating 3-dimensional structural and functional image data. MRI has already proven valuable in creating atlases of mouse and quail development. Here, we have exploited high resolution MRI to determine the parameters necessary to acquire images of the chick embryo eye. Using a 9.4 Tesla (400 MHz) high field ultra-shielded and refrigerated magnet (Bruker), MRI was carried out on paraformaldehyde-fixed chick embryos or heads at E4, E6, E8, and E10. Image data were processed using established and custom packages (MRICro, ImageJ, ParaVision, Bruker and mri3dX). Voxel dimensions ranged from 62.5 microm to 117.2 microm. We subsequently used the images obtained from the MRI data in order to make precise measurements of chick embryo eye surface area, volume and axial length from E4 to E10. MRI was validated for accurate sizing of ocular tissue features by direct comparison with previously published literature. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of high resolution MRI for making accurate measurements of morphological changes due to experimental manipulation of chick eye development, thereby facilitating a better understanding of the effects on chick embryo eye development and growth of such manipulations. Chondroitin sulphate or heparin were microinjected into the vitreous cavity of the right eyes of each of 3 embryos at E5. At E10, embryos were fixed and various eye parameters (volume, surface area, axial length and equatorial diameter) were determined using MRI and normalised with respect to the un-injected left eyes. Statistically significant alterations in eye volume (p < 0.05; increases with chondroitin sulphate and decreases with heparin) and changes in vitreous homogeneity were observed in embryos following microinjection of glycosaminoglycans. Furthermore, in the heparin-injected eyes, significant disturbances at the vitreo-retinal boundary were observed as well as retinal folding and detachment

  15. Interrogating the activities of conformational deformed enzyme by single-molecule fluorescence-magnetic tweezers microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing; He, Yufan; Lu, H Peter

    2015-11-10

    Characterizing the impact of fluctuating enzyme conformation on enzymatic activity is critical in understanding the structure-function relationship and enzymatic reaction dynamics. Different from studying enzyme conformations under a denaturing condition, it is highly informative to manipulate the conformation of an enzyme under an enzymatic reaction condition while monitoring the real-time enzymatic activity changes simultaneously. By perturbing conformation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) molecules using our home-developed single-molecule total internal reflection magnetic tweezers, we successfully manipulated the enzymatic conformation and probed the enzymatic activity changes of HRP in a catalyzed H2O2-amplex red reaction. We also observed a significant tolerance of the enzyme activity to the enzyme conformational perturbation. Our results provide a further understanding of the relation between enzyme behavior and enzymatic conformational fluctuation, enzyme-substrate interactions, enzyme-substrate active complex formation, and protein folding-binding interactions. PMID:26512103

  16. Microfluidic platform combining droplets and magnetic tweezers: application to HER2 expression in cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Davide; Champ, Jérôme; Teste, Bruno; Serra, Marco; Malaquin, Laurent; Viovy, Jean-Louis; de Cremoux, Patricia; Descroix, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The development of precision medicine, together with the multiplication of targeted therapies and associated molecular biomarkers, call for major progress in genetic analysis methods, allowing increased multiplexing and the implementation of more complex decision trees, without cost increase or loss of robustness. We present a platform combining droplet microfluidics and magnetic tweezers, performing RNA purification, reverse transcription and amplification in a fully automated and programmable way, in droplets of 250nL directly sampled from a microtiter-plate. This platform decreases sample consumption about 100 fold as compared to current robotized platforms and it reduces human manipulations and contamination risk. The platform’s performance was first evaluated on cell lines, showing robust operation on RNA quantities corresponding to less than one cell, and then clinically validated with a cohort of 21 breast cancer samples, for the determination of their HER2 expression status, in a blind comparison with an established routine clinical analysis. PMID:27157697

  17. Interrogating the activities of conformational deformed enzyme by single-molecule fluorescence-magnetic tweezers microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qing; He, Yufan; Lu, H. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the impact of fluctuating enzyme conformation on enzymatic activity is critical in understanding the structure–function relationship and enzymatic reaction dynamics. Different from studying enzyme conformations under a denaturing condition, it is highly informative to manipulate the conformation of an enzyme under an enzymatic reaction condition while monitoring the real-time enzymatic activity changes simultaneously. By perturbing conformation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) molecules using our home-developed single-molecule total internal reflection magnetic tweezers, we successfully manipulated the enzymatic conformation and probed the enzymatic activity changes of HRP in a catalyzed H2O2–amplex red reaction. We also observed a significant tolerance of the enzyme activity to the enzyme conformational perturbation. Our results provide a further understanding of the relation between enzyme behavior and enzymatic conformational fluctuation, enzyme–substrate interactions, enzyme–substrate active complex formation, and protein folding–binding interactions. PMID:26512103

  18. Microfluidic platform combining droplets and magnetic tweezers: application to HER2 expression in cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Davide; Champ, Jérôme; Teste, Bruno; Serra, Marco; Malaquin, Laurent; Viovy, Jean-Louis; de Cremoux, Patricia; Descroix, Stephanie

    2016-05-01

    The development of precision medicine, together with the multiplication of targeted therapies and associated molecular biomarkers, call for major progress in genetic analysis methods, allowing increased multiplexing and the implementation of more complex decision trees, without cost increase or loss of robustness. We present a platform combining droplet microfluidics and magnetic tweezers, performing RNA purification, reverse transcription and amplification in a fully automated and programmable way, in droplets of 250nL directly sampled from a microtiter-plate. This platform decreases sample consumption about 100 fold as compared to current robotized platforms and it reduces human manipulations and contamination risk. The platform’s performance was first evaluated on cell lines, showing robust operation on RNA quantities corresponding to less than one cell, and then clinically validated with a cohort of 21 breast cancer samples, for the determination of their HER2 expression status, in a blind comparison with an established routine clinical analysis.

  19. Microfluidic platform combining droplets and magnetic tweezers: application to HER2 expression in cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Davide; Champ, Jérôme; Teste, Bruno; Serra, Marco; Malaquin, Laurent; Viovy, Jean-Louis; de Cremoux, Patricia; Descroix, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The development of precision medicine, together with the multiplication of targeted therapies and associated molecular biomarkers, call for major progress in genetic analysis methods, allowing increased multiplexing and the implementation of more complex decision trees, without cost increase or loss of robustness. We present a platform combining droplet microfluidics and magnetic tweezers, performing RNA purification, reverse transcription and amplification in a fully automated and programmable way, in droplets of 250nL directly sampled from a microtiter-plate. This platform decreases sample consumption about 100 fold as compared to current robotized platforms and it reduces human manipulations and contamination risk. The platform's performance was first evaluated on cell lines, showing robust operation on RNA quantities corresponding to less than one cell, and then clinically validated with a cohort of 21 breast cancer samples, for the determination of their HER2 expression status, in a blind comparison with an established routine clinical analysis. PMID:27157697

  20. Design of High Resolution Soft X-Ray Microcalorimeters Using Magnetic Penetration Thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch. Sarah; Balvin, Manuel; Bandler, Simon; Denis, Kevin; Finkbeiner, Fred; Porst, Jan-Patrick; Sadlier, Jack; Smith, Stephen; Stevenson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We have designed high-resolution soft x-ray microcalorimeters using magnetic penetration thermometers (MPTs) in an array of pixels covering a total of 2 square centimeters to have a resolving power of 300 at energies around 300 eV. This performance is desirable for studying the soft x-ray background from the warm hot intergalactic medium. MPT devices have small sensor heat capacity and high responsivities, which makes them excellent detector technology for attempting to attain sub-eV resolution. We are investigating the feasibility of pixels with absorbers that are 625 x 625 square micrometers, up to 1 x 1 square millimeters in area and 0.35 micrometer thick and thinner. Our tests have shown that suspended gold absorbers 0.35 micrometers thick (RRR = 6.7) are feasible to fabricate. We modeled the thermal diffusion from such thin gold over the size of a 625 x 625 square micrometer absorber, and conclude that the effect of the thermalization on the resolution of a 300 eV photon is an additional approximately 0.2 eV FWHM of broadening. We discuss the thermal effects of small absorber attachment sterns on solid substrate, as well as considerations for multiplexed readout. We will present the progress we have made towards building and testing this soft x-ray detector.

  1. Surface-based analysis methods for high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Rez; Zhang, Qin; Darayan, Shayan; Dhandapani, Sankari; Katyal, Sucharit; Greene, Clint; Bajaj, Chandra; Ress, David

    2011-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become a popular technique for studies of human brain activity. Typically, fMRI is performed with >3-mm sampling, so that the imaging data can be regarded as two-dimensional samples that average through the 1.5—4-mm thickness of cerebral cortex. The increasing use of higher spatial resolutions, <1.5-mm sampling, complicates the analysis of fMRI, as one must now consider activity variations within the depth of the brain tissue. We present a set of surface-based methods to exploit the use of high-resolution fMRI for depth analysis. These methods utilize white-matter segmentations coupled with deformable-surface algorithms to create a smooth surface representation at the gray-white interface and pial membrane. These surfaces provide vertex positions and normals for depth calculations, enabling averaging schemes that can increase contrast-to-noise ratio, as well as permitting the direct analysis of depth profiles of functional activity in the human brain. PMID:22125419

  2. A full range detector for the HIRRBS high resolution RBS magnetic spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Skala, Wayne G.; Haberl, Arthur W.; Bakhru, Hassaram; Lanford, William

    2013-04-19

    The UAlbany HIRRBS (High Resolution RBS) system has been updated for better use in rapid analysis. The focal plane detector now covers the full range from U down to O using a linear stepper motor to translate the 1-cm detector across the 30-cm range. Input is implemented with zero-back-angle operation in all cases. The chamber has been modified to allow for quick swapping of sample holders, including a channeling goniometer. A fixed standard surface-barrier detector allows for normal RBS simultaneously with use of the magnetic spectrometer. The user can select a region on the standard spectrum or can select an element edge or an energy point for collection of the expanded spectrum portion. The best resolution currently obtained is about 2-to-3 keV, probably representing the energy width of the incoming beam. Calibration is maintained automatically for any spectrum portion and any beam energy from 1.0 to 3.5 MeV. Element resolving power, sensitivity and depth resolution are shown using several examples. Examples also show the value of simultaneous conventional RBS.

  3. Alignment of high resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectra using warping methods.

    PubMed

    Giskeødegård, Guro F; Bloemberg, Tom G; Postma, Geert; Sitter, Beathe; Tessem, May-Britt; Gribbestad, Ingrid S; Bathen, Tone F; Buydens, Lutgarde M C

    2010-12-17

    The peaks of magnetic resonance (MR) spectra can be shifted due to variations in physiological and experimental conditions, and correcting for misaligned peaks is an important part of data processing prior to multivariate analysis. In this paper, five warping algorithms (icoshift, COW, fastpa, VPdtw and PTW) are compared for their feasibility in aligning spectral peaks in three sets of high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) MR spectra with different degrees of misalignments, and their merits are discussed. In addition, extraction of information that might be present in the shifts is examined, both for simulated data and the real MR spectra. The generic evaluation methodology employs a number of frequently used quality criteria for evaluation of the alignments, together with PLS-DA to assess the influence of alignment on the classification outcome. Peak alignment greatly improved the internal similarity of the data sets. Especially icoshift and COW seem suitable for aligning HR-MAS MR spectra, possibly because they perform alignment segment-wise. The choice of reference spectrum can influence the alignment result, and it is advisable to test several references. Information from the peak shifts was extracted, and in one case cancer samples were successfully discriminated from normal tissue based on shift information only. Based on these findings, general recommendations for alignment of HR-MAS MRS data are presented. Where possible, observations are generalized to other data types (e.g. chromatographic data). PMID:21094376

  4. A full range detector for the HIRRBS high resolution RBS magnetic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skala, Wayne G.; Haberl, Arthur W.; Bakhru, Hassaram; Lanford, William

    2013-04-01

    The UAlbany HIRRBS (High Resolution RBS) system has been updated for better use in rapid analysis. The focal plane detector now covers the full range from U down to O using a linear stepper motor to translate the 1-cm detector across the 30-cm range. Input is implemented with zero-back-angle operation in all cases. The chamber has been modified to allow for quick swapping of sample holders, including a channeling goniometer. A fixed standard surface-barrier detector allows for normal RBS simultaneously with use of the magnetic spectrometer. The user can select a region on the standard spectrum or can select an element edge or an energy point for collection of the expanded spectrum portion. The best resolution currently obtained is about 2-to-3 keV, probably representing the energy width of the incoming beam. Calibration is maintained automatically for any spectrum portion and any beam energy from 1.0 to 3.5 MeV. Element resolving power, sensitivity and depth resolution are shown using several examples. Examples also show the value of simultaneous conventional RBS.

  5. Relating speech production to tongue muscle compressions using tagged and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Fangxu; Ye, Chuyang; Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry

    2015-03-01

    The human tongue is composed of multiple internal muscles that work collaboratively during the production of speech. Assessment of muscle mechanics can help understand the creation of tongue motion, interpret clinical observations, and predict surgical outcomes. Although various methods have been proposed for computing the tongue's motion, associating motion with muscle activity in an interdigitated fiber framework has not been studied. In this work, we aim to develop a method that reveals different tongue muscles' activities in different time phases during speech. We use fourdimensional tagged magnetic resonance (MR) images and static high-resolution MR images to obtain tongue motion and muscle anatomy, respectively. Then we compute strain tensors and local tissue compression along the muscle fiber directions in order to reveal their shortening pattern. This process relies on the support from multiple image analysis methods, including super-resolution volume reconstruction from MR image slices, segmentation of internal muscles, tracking the incompressible motion of tissue points using tagged images, propagation of muscle fiber directions over time, and calculation of strain in the line of action, etc. We evaluated the method on a control subject and two postglossectomy patients in a controlled speech task. The normal subject's tongue muscle activity shows high correspondence with the production of speech in different time instants, while both patients' muscle activities show different patterns from the control due to their resected tongues. This method shows potential for relating overall tongue motion to particular muscle activity, which may provide novel information for future clinical and scientific studies.

  6. Inductively-overcoupled coil design for high resolution magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bilgen, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    Background Maintaining the quality of magnetic resonance images acquired with the current implantable coil technology is challenging in longitudinal studies. To overcome this challenge, the principle of 'inductive overcoupling' is introduced as a method to tune and match a dual coil system. This system consists of an imaging coil built with fixed electrical elements and a matching coil equipped with tuning and matching capabilities. Overcoupling here refers to the condition beyond which the peak of the current in the imaging coil splits. Methods The combined coils are coupled inductively to operate like a transformer. Each coil circuit is electrically represented by equivalent lumped-elements. A theoretical analysis is given to identify the frequency response characteristics of the currents in each coil. The predictions from this analysis are translated into experiments and applied to locally image rat spinal cord at 9.4 T using an implantable coil as the imaging coil and an external volume coil as the matching coil. Results The theoretical analysis indicated that strong coupling between the coils divides the resonance peaks on the response curves of the currents. Once these newly generated peaks were tuned and matched to the desired frequency and impedance of operation, in vivo images were acquired from the rat spinal cord at high quality and high resolution. Conclusion After proper implementation, inductive overcoupling provides a unique opportunity for tuning and matching the coil system, and allows reliable and repeatable acquisitions of magnetic resonance data. This feature is likely to be useful in experimental studies, such as those aimed at longitudinally imaging the rat following spinal cord injury. PMID:16401343

  7. Effect of Low-Pass Filtering in Force Calibration of Magnetic Tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hai-Zi; Nong, Da-Guan; Li, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In typical experiments where magnetic tweezers are involved, precise measurement of the magnetic forces is of crucial importance. To achieve this, a widely applied method is to track the bead's Brownian motion trajectory and to calculate the force from its mean-squared-displacement. However, this method does not take into account the fact that the bead-tracking device always has a finite bandwidth, acting effectively as a low-pass filter. The result could be subjected to significant system errors, which overestimates the magnetic force. We analyze the power spectrum of the bead's Brownian motion, and provide a corrected formula to calculate the magnetic force, which is free of system errors induced by limited detection bandwidth. A dsDNA force-extension curve is experimentally measured. The curve is consistent with the WLC model, exhibiting correctness of the new formula. On the other hand, the force given by the traditional method shows significant deviation from the WLC model, which is 3 times larger at most.

  8. High-resolution Measurement Of Magnetic Anomalies With An Unmanned Airship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzke, M.; Hofmeister, P.; Auster, H.; Hoerdt, A.; Glassmeier, K.

    2011-12-01

    High-resolution magnetic mapping of areas is a suitable way to determine location, geometry and physical parameters of disturbing objects that cause magnetic anomalies. Areas are often difficult to walk and handheld measurements can become costly. It can also be dangerous to enter areas where ordnance is suspected. In these cases it may be advantageous to use an aircraft to perform the measurement. We use a 6.5 m long unmanned airship. Compared to helicopters or gyrocopters, an advantage is that the damage in case of hazards is almost negligible. We made considerable efforts to construct a system that is easy to control without intense training under moderate wind conditions (up to 2 m/s wind speed). The airship has a mass of 10 kg and is powered by four electric motors with a maximum total power of 4.8 kW. Two of the rotors are used to control the altitude of the ship; the other two can be used to control direction and speed. The required energy is provided by four 4S1P Lithium-Polymer battery packs. Batteries are designed to provide a maximum of 125 A at 14.8 V. They have a capacity of 0.3 kWh and can be recharged in 20 minutes. The airship carries a differential GPS receiver that measures the position of the airship at 100 Hz with a precision of 10 cm. The distance to the ground is measured with ultrasonic sensors. A fluxgate magnetometer measures the magnetic field with an accuracy of 1 nT, also at 100 Hz. The flight path does not follow a rigid measuring grid but is a random walk, with roughly constant altitude to achieve a mean sensor position of 2 m above the ground. Thus, near-surface disturbing bodies are well resolved if their distance from each other is greater than 4 m. First measurements demonstrate the feasibility of the system. Future applications will be mid-scale measurements which are too large or too cumbersome for handheld measurements, and too small to justify the use of a manned helicopter.

  9. Lymphedematous skin and subcutis: in vivo high resolution magnetic resonance imaging evaluation.

    PubMed

    Idy-Peretti, I; Bittoun, J; Alliot, F A; Richard, S B; Querleux, B G; Cluzan, R V

    1998-05-01

    Physico-chemical and morphologic parameters of skin layers and subcutaneous tissue in lymphedematous limb were studied in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging. High resolution images were obtained with a depth resolution of about 70 microm, using a specific surface gradient coil specially designed for skin imaging and connected to a standard whole-body imager at 1.5 T. Twenty-one patients with unilateral lower extremity lymphedema (11 primary and 10 secondary) were examined. Skin thickness, relaxation times, and relative proton density were calculated in lymphedematous limbs and in contralateral extremities. In diseased limbs, the average skin thickness (2.17 mm) was significantly larger (p = 1.5 x 10(-4)) than that of contralateral limb (1.14 mm). Major cutaneous alterations due to lymphedema took place in dermis. In lymphedematous dermis, the significant increase of relaxation time values could be due to a shift in the equilibrium of water inside this tissue in relation to the interactions between macromolecules and water molecules. In lymphedematous epidermis our results showed an increase in the number of free water protons. Information about water and fat distribution in lymphedema was also obtained using chemical shift weighted images. Our results demonstrated a water retention diffusely spread over the entire dermis, and an important fluid retention located in the interlobular spacing and beside the superficial fascia. Inside the subcutis, the mean thickness of the superficial fat lobules was increased more than that of the deep fat lobules. From all the various measurements we could not distinguish primary from secondary lymphedema. PMID:9579546

  10. Portable magnetic tweezers device enables visualization of the three-dimensional microscale deformation of soft biological materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yali; Lin, Jun; Meschewski, Ryan; Watson, Erin; Valentine, Megan T

    2011-07-01

    We have designed and built a magnetic tweezers device that enables the application of calibrated stresses to soft materials while simultaneously measuring their microscale deformation using confocal microscopy. Unlike previous magnetic tweezers designs, our device is entirely portable, allowing easy use on microscopes in core imaging facilities or in collaborators' laboratories. The imaging capabilities of the microscope are unimpaired, enabling the 3-D structures of fluorescently labeled materials to be precisely determined under applied load. With this device, we can apply a large range of forces (~1-1200 pN) over micron-scale contact areas to beads that are either embedded within 3-D matrices or attached to the surface of thin slab gels. To demonstrate the usefulness of this instrument, we have studied two important and biologically relevant materials: polyacrylamide-based hydrogel films typical of those used in cell traction force microscopy, and reconstituted networks of microtubules, essential cytoskeletal filaments. PMID:21781050

  11. High resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance of a transmembrane peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J. H.; Auger, M.; Hodges, R. S.

    1995-01-01

    Although the strong 1H-1H dipolar interaction is known to result in severe homogeneous broadening of the 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of ordered systems, in the fluid phase of biological and model membranes the rapid, axially symmetric reorientation of the molecules about the local bilayer normal projects the dipolar interaction onto the motional symmetry axis. Because the linewidth then scales as (3 cos2 theta-1)/2, where theta is the angle between the local bilayer normal and the magnetic field, the dipolar broadening has been reduced to an "inhomogeneous" broadening by the rapid axial reorientation. It is then possible to obtain high resolution 1H-NMR spectra of membrane components by using magic angle spinning (MAS). Although the rapid axial reorientation effectively eliminates the homogeneous dipolar broadening, including that due to n = 0 rotational resonances, the linewidths observed in both lipids and peptides are dominated by low frequency motions. For small peptides the most likely slow motions are either a "wobble" or reorientation of the molecular diffusion axis relative to the local bilayer normal, or the reorientation of the local bilayer normal itself through surface undulations or lateral diffusion over the curved surface. These motions render the peptide 1H-NMR lines too broad to be observed at low spinning speeds. However, the linewidths due to these slow motions are very sensitive to spinning rate, so that at higher speeds the lines become readily visible. The synthetic amphiphilic peptide K2GL20K2A-amide (peptide-20) has been incorporated into bilayers of 1,2-di-d 27-myristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC-d54) and studied by high speed 1H-MAS-NMR. The linewidths observed for this transbilayer peptide, although too broad to be observable at spinning rates below -5 kHz, are reduced to 68 Hz at a spinning speed of 14 kHz (at 500C). Further improvements in spinning speed and modifications in sample composition designed to reduce

  12. The potential of 3T high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis, staging, and follow-up of retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Marcus C; de Graaf, Pim; Brisse, Hervé J; Galluzzi, Paolo; Göricke, Sophia L; Moll, Annette C; Munier, Francis L; Popovic, Maja Beck; Moulin, Alexandre P; Binaghi, Stefano; Castelijns, Jonas A; Maeder, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the value of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing, staging, and follow-up of retinoblastoma during eye-saving treatment. We have included informative retinoblastoma cases scanned on a 3T MRI system from a retrospective retinoblastoma cohort from 2009 through 2013. We show that high-resolution MRI has the potential to detect small intraocular seeds, hemorrhage, and metastatic risk factors not visible with fundoscopy (e.g., optic nerve invasion and choroidal invasion), and treatment response. Unfortunately, however, the diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution MRI is not perfect, especially for subtle intraocular seeds or minimal postlaminar optic nerve invasion. The most important application of MRI is the detection of metastatic risk factors, as these cannot be found by fundoscopy and ultrasound. PMID:25891031

  13. High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance measurements in inhomogeneous magnetic fields: A fast two-dimensional J-resolved experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuqing; Lin, Yung-Ya; Cai, Shuhui; Yang, Yu; Sun, Huijun; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong

    2016-03-01

    High spectral resolution in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a prerequisite for achieving accurate information relevant to molecular structures and composition assignments. The continuous development of superconducting magnets guarantees strong and homogeneous static magnetic fields for satisfactory spectral resolution. However, there exist circumstances, such as measurements on biological tissues and heterogeneous chemical samples, where the field homogeneity is degraded and spectral line broadening seems inevitable. Here we propose an NMR method, named intermolecular zero-quantum coherence J-resolved spectroscopy (iZQC-JRES), to face the challenge of field inhomogeneity and obtain desired high-resolution two-dimensional J-resolved spectra with fast acquisition. Theoretical analyses for this method are given according to the intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence treatment. Experiments on (a) a simple chemical solution and (b) an aqueous solution of mixed metabolites under externally deshimmed fields, and on (c) a table grape sample with intrinsic field inhomogeneity from magnetic susceptibility variations demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of the iZQC-JRES method. The application of this method to inhomogeneous chemical and biological samples, maybe in vivo samples, appears promising.

  14. High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance measurements in inhomogeneous magnetic fields: A fast two-dimensional J-resolved experiment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuqing; Lin, Yung-Ya; Cai, Shuhui; Yang, Yu; Sun, Huijun; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong

    2016-03-14

    High spectral resolution in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a prerequisite for achieving accurate information relevant to molecular structures and composition assignments. The continuous development of superconducting magnets guarantees strong and homogeneous static magnetic fields for satisfactory spectral resolution. However, there exist circumstances, such as measurements on biological tissues and heterogeneous chemical samples, where the field homogeneity is degraded and spectral line broadening seems inevitable. Here we propose an NMR method, named intermolecular zero-quantum coherence J-resolved spectroscopy (iZQC-JRES), to face the challenge of field inhomogeneity and obtain desired high-resolution two-dimensional J-resolved spectra with fast acquisition. Theoretical analyses for this method are given according to the intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence treatment. Experiments on (a) a simple chemical solution and (b) an aqueous solution of mixed metabolites under externally deshimmed fields, and on (c) a table grape sample with intrinsic field inhomogeneity from magnetic susceptibility variations demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of the iZQC-JRES method. The application of this method to inhomogeneous chemical and biological samples, maybe in vivo samples, appears promising. PMID:26979686

  15. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging: three-dimensional trabecular bone architecture and biomechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, S; Kothari, M; Augat, P; Newitt, D C; Link, T M; Lin, J C; Lang, T; Lu, Y; Genant, H K

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to use high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging combined with image analysis to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) trabecular structure, anisotropy, and connectivity of human vertebral, femoral, and calcaneal specimens. The goal was to determine whether: (a) MR-derived measures depict known skeletal-site-specific differences in architecture and orientation of trabeculae; (b) 3D architectural parameters combined with bone mineral density (BMD) improve the prediction of the elastic modulus using a fabric tensor formulation; (c) MR-derived 3D architectural parameters combined with BMD improve the prediction of strength using a multiple regression model, and whether these results corresponded to the results obtained using higher resolution depictions of trabecular architecture. A total of 94 specimens (12 x 12 x 12 mm cubes) consisting of trabecular bone only were obtained, of which there were 7 from the calcaneus, 15 from distal femur, 47 from the proximal femur, and 25 from the vertebral bodies. MR images were obtained using a 1.5 Tesla MR scanner at a spatial resolution of 117 x 117 x 300 microm. Additionally, BMD was determined using quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and the specimens were nondestructively tested and the elastic modulus (YM) was measured along three orthogonal axes corresponding to the anatomic superior-inferior (axial), medial-lateral (sagittal), and anterior-posterior (coronal) directions. A subset of the specimens (n=67) was then destructively tested in the superior-inferior (axial) direction to measure the ultimate compressive strength. The MR images were segmented into bone and marrow phases and then analyzed in 3D. Ellipsoids were fitted to the mean intercept lengths, using single value decomposition and the primary orientation of the trabeculae and used to calculate the anisotropy of trabecular architecture. Stereological measures were derived using a previously developed model and measures such

  16. Improved dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy using high resolution contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Morancy, Tye; Kaplan, Irving; Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Hirsch, Ariel E.; Rofksy, Neil M.; Holupka, Edward; Oismueller, Renee; Hawliczek, Robert; Helbich, Thomas H.; Bloch, B. Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess detailed dosimetry data for prostate and clinical relevant intra- and peri-prostatic structures including neurovascular bundles (NVB), urethra, and penile bulb (PB) from postbrachytherapy computed tomography (CT) versus high resolution contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (HR-CEMRI). Material and methods Eleven postbrachytherapy prostate cancer patients underwent HR-CEMRI and CT imaging. Computed tomography and HR-CEMRI images were randomized and 2 independent expert readers created contours of prostate, intra- and peri-prostatic structures on each CT and HR-CEMRI scan for all 11 patients. Dosimetry data including V100, D90, and D100 was calculated from these contours. Results Mean V100 values from CT and HR-CEMRI contours were as follows: prostate (98.5% and 96.2%, p = 0.003), urethra (81.0% and 88.7%, p = 0.027), anterior rectal wall (ARW) (8.9% and 2.8%, p < 0.001), left NVB (77.9% and 51.5%, p = 0.002), right NVB (69.2% and 43.1%, p = 0.001), and PB (0.09% and 11.4%, p = 0.005). Mean D90 (Gy) derived from CT and HR-CEMRI contours were: prostate (167.6 and 150.3, p = 0.012), urethra (81.6 and 109.4, p = 0.041), ARW (2.5 and 0.11, p = 0.003), left NVB (98.2 and 58.6, p = 0.001), right NVB (87.5 and 55.5, p = 0.001), and PB (11.2 and 12.4, p = 0.554). Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that HR-CEMRI facilitates accurate and meaningful dosimetric assessment of prostate and clinically relevant structures, which is not possible with CT. Significant differences were seen between CT and HR-CEMRI, with volume overestimation of CT derived contours compared to HR-CEMRI. PMID:25834576

  17. Integrated magnetic tweezers and single-molecule FRET for investigating the mechanical properties of nucleic acid.

    PubMed

    Long, Xi; Parks, Joseph W; Stone, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    Many enzymes promote structural changes in their nucleic acid substrates via application of piconewton forces over nanometer length scales. Magnetic tweezers (MT) is a single molecule force spectroscopy method widely used for studying the energetics of such mechanical processes. MT permits stable application of a wide range of forces and torques over long time scales with nanometer spatial resolution. However, in any force spectroscopy experiment, the ability to monitor structural changes in nucleic acids with nanometer sensitivity requires the system of interest to be held under high degrees of tension to improve signal to noise. This limitation prohibits measurement of structural changes within nucleic acids under physiologically relevant conditions of low stretching forces. To overcome this challenge, researchers have integrated a spatially sensitive fluorescence spectroscopy method, single molecule-FRET, with MT to allow simultaneous observation and manipulation of nanoscale structural transitions over a wide range of forces. Here, we describe a method for using this hybrid instrument to analyze the mechanical properties of nucleic acids. We expect that this method for analysis of nucleic acid structure will be easily adapted for experiments aiming to interrogate the mechanical responses of other biological macromolecules. PMID:27320203

  18. Disturbance-free rapid solution exchange for magnetic tweezers single-molecule studies

    PubMed Central

    Le, Shimin; Yao, Mingxi; Chen, Jin; Efremov, Artem K.; Azimi, Sara; Yan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule manipulation technologies have been extensively applied to studies of the structures and interactions of DNA and proteins. An important aspect of such studies is to obtain the dynamics of interactions; however the initial binding is often difficult to obtain due to large mechanical perturbation during solution introduction. Here, we report a simple disturbance-free rapid solution exchange method for magnetic tweezers single-molecule manipulation experiments, which is achieved by tethering the molecules inside microwells (typical dimensions–diameter (D): 40–50 μm, height (H): 100 μm; H:D∼2:1). Our simulations and experiments show that the flow speed can be reduced by several orders of magnitude near the bottom of the microwells from that in the flow chamber, effectively eliminating the flow disturbance to molecules tethered in the microwells. We demonstrate a wide scope of applications of this method by measuring the force dependent DNA structural transitions in response to solution condition change, and polymerization dynamics of RecA on ssDNA/SSB-coated ssDNA/dsDNA of various tether lengths under constant forces, as well as the dynamics of vinculin binding to α-catenin at a constant force (< 5 pN) applied to the α-catenin protein. PMID:26007651

  19. Disturbance-free rapid solution exchange for magnetic tweezers single-molecule studies.

    PubMed

    Le, Shimin; Yao, Mingxi; Chen, Jin; Efremov, Artem K; Azimi, Sara; Yan, Jie

    2015-09-30

    Single-molecule manipulation technologies have been extensively applied to studies of the structures and interactions of DNA and proteins. An important aspect of such studies is to obtain the dynamics of interactions; however the initial binding is often difficult to obtain due to large mechanical perturbation during solution introduction. Here, we report a simple disturbance-free rapid solution exchange method for magnetic tweezers single-molecule manipulation experiments, which is achieved by tethering the molecules inside microwells (typical dimensions-diameter (D): 40-50 μm, height (H): 100 μm; H:D∼2:1). Our simulations and experiments show that the flow speed can be reduced by several orders of magnitude near the bottom of the microwells from that in the flow chamber, effectively eliminating the flow disturbance to molecules tethered in the microwells. We demonstrate a wide scope of applications of this method by measuring the force dependent DNA structural transitions in response to solution condition change, and polymerization dynamics of RecA on ssDNA/SSB-coated ssDNA/dsDNA of various tether lengths under constant forces, as well as the dynamics of vinculin binding to α-catenin at a constant force (< 5 pN) applied to the α-catenin protein. PMID:26007651

  20. Grooved multi-pole magnetic gratings for high-resolution positioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhi-Hao; Tseng, Bin-Hui; Chang, Ching; Wang, Sheng-Ching; Chin, Tsung-Shune; Sung, Cheng-Kuo

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic encoders are much advantageous for precision positioning specifically under harsh environments. The finer the magnetic pole-pitches of the magnetic scale in a magnetic encoder the higher the resolution of the encoder. In this paper, a grooved multi-pole magnetic grating (MPMG) is substituted for conventional non-structured magnetic scale. A MPMG with pole-pitch of 200 µm was prepared by photo-lithography and electro-deposition. Simulation was first done to attain the relationship among magnetic flux density, magnetic properties of electrodeposited alloy layers, magnetizing directions and the grating dimensions. The MPMG can be fully magnetized for use by just a single pulse in a solenoid coil. Magnetic properties were investigated in which CoNiP layers were electrodeposited under various current densities. Measured magnetic flux densities versus grating heights, magnetizing directions and detection gaps on magnetized MPMG validate the applicability of ultra-fine pitched MPMG.

  1. Stem cell implantation in ischemic mouse heart: a high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging investigation.

    PubMed

    Küstermann, Ekkehard; Roell, Wilhelm; Breitbach, Martin; Wecker, Stefan; Wiedermann, Dirk; Buehrle, Christian; Welz, Armin; Hescheler, Juergen; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Hoehn, Mathias

    2005-10-01

    Advances in the biology of stem cells have evoked great interest in cell replacement therapies for the regeneration of heart tissue after myocardial infarction. However, results from human trials are controversial, since the destination of the injected cells, their engraftment and their long-term fate have remained unclear. Here we investigate whether transplanted cells can be identified in the intact and lesioned murine myocardium employing high-resolution MRI. Cardiac progenitor cells, expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), were labeled with ultra-small paramagnetic iron-oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles and transplanted into the intact or injured myocardium of mice. Their precise location was determined with high-resolution MRI and compared with histological tissue sections, stained with Prussian blue for iron content. These experiments showed that iron nanoparticle-loaded cells could be identified at high resolution in the mouse heart. However, ischemic myocardium (after cryoinjury or left coronary artery ligation) was characterized by a signal attenuation similar to that induced by USPIO-labeled cells in T2*-weighted MR images, making detection of labeled stem cells in this area by T2*-sensitive contrast rather difficult. In animals with myocardial injury only, the signal attenuated areas were of the same size in proton density- and T2*-weighted MR images. In injured animals also receiving labeled cells the lesioned area appeared larger in T2*--than in proton density-weighted MR images. This sequence-dependent lesion size change is due to the increased signal loss caused by the iron oxide nanoparticles, most sensitively detectable in the T2*-sensitive images. Thus, using the novel combination of these two parameter weightings, USPIO-labeled cells can be detected at high resolution in ischemic myocardium. PMID:15948224

  2. High-precision three-dimensional field mapping of a high resolution magnetic spectrometer for hypernuclear spectroscopy at JLab

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yuu; Hashimoto, Osamu; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Nakamura, Satoshi N.; Ohtani, Atsushi; Okayasu, Yuichi; Oyamada, Masamichi; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Kato, Seigo; Matsui, Jumei; Sako, Katsuhisa; Brindza, Paul

    2015-09-01

    The High Resolution Kaon Spectrometer (HKS), which consists of two quadrupole magnets and one dipole magnet, was designed and constructed for high-resolution spectroscopy of hypernuclei using the (e,e'K+) reaction in Hall C, Jefferson Lab (JLab). It was used to analyze momenta of around 1.2 GeV/c K^+ s with a resolution of 2 ×10^-4 (FWHM). To achieve the target resolution, a full three-dimensional magnetic field measurement of each magnet was successfully performed, and a full three-dimensional magnetic field map of the HKS magnets was reconstructed. Using the measured field map, the initial reconstruction function was generated. The target resolution would be achieved via careful tuning of the reconstruction function of HKS with the p(e,e'K+)Lambda,Sigma^0 and C-12 (e,e'K+)12_Lambda B_g.s. reactions. After tuning of the initial reconstruction function generated from the measured map, the estimated HKS momentum resolution was 2.2×10^-4 (FWHM).

  3. High resolution T2(*)-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3 Tesla using PROPELLER-EPI.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Martin; Reichenbach, Jürgen R

    2014-05-01

    We report the application of PROPELLER-EPI for high resolution T2(*)-weighted imaging with sub-millimeter in-plane resolution on a clinical 3 Tesla scanner. Periodically rotated blades of a long-axis PROPELLER-EPI sequence were acquired with fast gradient echo readout and acquisition matrix of 320 × 50 per blade. Images were reconstructed by using 2D-gridding, phase and geometric distortion correction and compensation of resonance frequency drifts that occurred during extended measurements. To characterize these resonance frequency offsets, short FID calibration measurements were added to the PROPELLER-EPI sequence. Functional PROPELLER-EPI was performed with volunteers using a simple block design of right handed finger tapping. Results indicate that PROPELLER-EPI can be employed for fast, high resolution T2(*)-weighted imaging provided geometric distortions and possible resonance frequency drifts are properly corrected. Even small resonance frequency drifts below 10 Hz as well as non-corrected geometric distortions degraded image quality substantially. In the initial fMRI experiment image quality and signal-to-noise ratio was sufficient for obtaining high resolution functional activation maps. PMID:24439698

  4. Spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectroscopy for magnetically confined fusion plasmas (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Ince-Cushman, A.; Rice, J. E.; Reinke, M. L.; Podpaly, Y.; Marmar, E. S.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Scott, S.; Gu, M. F.; Eikenberry, E.; Broennimann, Ch.; Lee, S. G.

    2008-10-15

    The use of high resolution x-ray crystal spectrometers to diagnose fusion plasmas has been limited by the poor spatial localization associated with chord integrated measurements. Taking advantage of a new x-ray imaging spectrometer concept [M. Bitter et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3660 (2004)], and improvements in x-ray detector technology [Ch. Broennimann et al., J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13, 120 (2006)], a spatially resolving high resolution x-ray spectrometer has been built and installed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. This instrument utilizes a spherically bent quartz crystal and a set of two dimensional x-ray detectors arranged in the Johann configuration [H. H. Johann, Z. Phys. 69, 185 (1931)] to image the entire plasma cross section with a spatial resolution of about 1 cm. The spectrometer was designed to measure line emission from H-like and He-like argon in the wavelength range 3.7 and 4.0 A with a resolving power of approximately 10 000 at frame rates up to 200 Hz. Using spectral tomographic techniques [I. Condrea, Phys. Plasmas 11, 2427 (2004)] the line integrated spectra can be inverted to infer profiles of impurity emissivity, velocity, and temperature. From these quantities it is then possible to calculate impurity density and electron temperature profiles. An overview of the instrument, analysis techniques, and example profiles are presented.

  5. Radiation-Induced Damage to Microstructure of Parotid Gland: Evaluation Using High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, Tomoko; Kodani, Kazuhiko; Michimoto, Koichi; Fujii, Shinya; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To elucidate the radiation-induced damage to the microstructure of the parotid gland using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Methods and Materials: High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the parotid gland was performed before radiotherapy (RT) and during the RT period or {<=}3 weeks after RT completion for 12 head-and-neck cancer patients using a 1.5-T scanner with a microscopy coil. The maximal cross-sectional area of the gland was evaluated, and changes in the internal architecture of the gland were assessed both visually and quantitatively. Results: Magnetic resonance images were obtained at a median parotid gland dose of 36 Gy (range, 11-64). According to the quantitative analysis, the maximal cross-sectional area of the gland was reduced, the width of the main duct was narrowed, and the intensity ratio of the main duct lumen to background was significantly decreased after RT (p <.0001). According to the visual assessment, the width of the main duct tended to narrow and the contrast of the duct lumen tended to be decreased, but no significant differences were noted. The visibility of the duct branches was unclear in 10 patients (p = .039), and the septum became dense in 11 patients (p = .006) after RT. Conclusion: High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging is a noninvasive method of evaluating radiation-induced changes to the internal architecture of the parotid gland. Morphologic changes in the irradiated parotid gland were demonstrated during the RT course even when a relatively small dose was delivered to the gland.

  6. Optical Tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Philip H.; Maragò, Onofrio M.; Volpe, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    1. Introduction; Part I. Theory: 2. Ray optics; 3. Dipole approximation; 4. Optical beams and focusing; 5. Electromagnetic theory; 6. Computational methods; 7. Brownian motion; Part II. Practice: 8. Building an optical tweezers; 9. Data acquisition and optical tweezers calibration; 10. Photonic force microscope; 11. Wavefront engineering and holographic optical tweezers; 12. Advanced techniques; Part III. Applications: 13. Single molecule biophysics; 14. Cell biology; 15. Spectroscopy; 16. Optofluidics and lab on a chip; 17. Colloid science; 18. Microchemistry; 19. Aerosol science; 20. Statistical physics; 21. Nanothermodynamics; 22. Plasmonics; 23. Nanostructures; 24. Laser cooling and trapping of atoms; 25. Towards the quantum regime at the mesoscale; Index.

  7. Experimental phase diagram of negatively supercoiled DNA measured by magnetic tweezers and fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlijm, Rifka; Mashaghi, Alireza; Bernard, Stéphanie; Modesti, Mauro; Dekker, Cees

    2015-02-01

    The most common form of DNA is the well-known B-structure of double-helix DNA. Many processes in the cell, however, exert force and torque, inducing structural changes to the DNA that are vital to biological function. Virtually all DNA in cells is in a state of negative supercoiling, with a DNA structure that is complex. Using magnetic tweezers combined with fluorescence imaging, we here study DNA structure as a function of negative supercoiling at the single-molecule level. We classify DNA phases based on DNA length as a function of supercoiling, down to a very high negative supercoiling density σ of -2.5, and forces up to 4.5 pN. We characterize plectonemes using fluorescence imaging. DNA bubbles are visualized by the binding of fluorescently labelled RPA, a eukaryotic single-strand-binding protein. The presence of Z-DNA, a left-handed form of DNA, is probed by the binding of Zα77, the minimal binding domain of a Z-DNA-binding protein. Without supercoiling, DNA is in the relaxed B-form. Upon going toward negative supercoiling, plectonemic B-DNA is being formed below 0.6 pN. At higher forces and supercoiling densities down to about -1.9, a mixed state occurs with plectonemes, multiple bubbles and left-handed L-DNA. Around σ = -1.9, a buckling transition occurs after which the DNA end-to-end length linearly decreases when applying more negative turns, into a state that we interpret as plectonemic L-DNA. By measuring DNA length, Zα77 binding, plectoneme and ssDNA visualisation, we thus have mapped the co-existence of many DNA structures and experimentally determined the DNA phase diagram at (extreme) negative supercoiling.The most common form of DNA is the well-known B-structure of double-helix DNA. Many processes in the cell, however, exert force and torque, inducing structural changes to the DNA that are vital to biological function. Virtually all DNA in cells is in a state of negative supercoiling, with a DNA structure that is complex. Using magnetic tweezers

  8. High-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance experiments on highly radioactive ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnan, Ian; Cho, Herman; Weber, William J.; Scheele, Randall D.; Johnson, Nigel R.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2004-12-01

    A triple-containment magic-angle spinning rotor insert system has been developed and a sample handling procedure formulated for safely analyzing highly radioactive solids by high-resolution solid-state NMR. The protocol and containment system have been demonstrated for magic-angle spinning (MAS) experiments on ceramic samples containing 5-10 wt % 239Pu and 238Pu at rotation speeds of 3500 Hz. The technique has been used to demonstrate that MAS NMR experiments can be used to measure amorphous atomic number fractions produced by accelerated internal radiation damage. This will allow incorporated α-emitters with short half-lives to be used to model the long-term radiation tolerance of potential ceramic radioactive waste forms. This is an example of MAS NMR spectroscopy on samples containing fissionable isotopes.

  9. Plasma-assisted synthesis and high-resolution characterization of anisotropic elemental and bimetallic core–shell magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lotnyk, A

    2014-01-01

    Summary Magnetically anisotropic as well as magnetic core–shell nanoparticles (CS-NPs) with controllable properties are highly desirable in a broad range of applications. With this background, a setup for the synthesis of heterostructured magnetic core–shell nanoparticles, which relies on (optionally pulsed) DC plasma gas condensation has been developed. We demonstrate the synthesis of elemental nickel nanoparticles with highly tunable sizes and shapes and Ni@Cu CS-NPs with an average shell thickness of 10 nm as determined with scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements. An analytical model that relies on classical kinetic gas theory is used to describe the deposition of Cu shell atoms on top of existing Ni cores. Its predictive power and possible implications for the growth of heterostructured NP in gas condensation processes are discussed. PMID:24778973

  10. Simulation of High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Images on the IBM Blue Gene/L Supercomputer Using SIMRI

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Baum, K. G.; Menezes, G.; Helguera, M.

    2011-01-01

    Medical imaging system simulators are tools that provide a means to evaluate system architecture and create artificial image sets that are appropriate for specific applications. We have modified SIMRI, a Bloch equation-based magnetic resonance image simulator, in order to successfully generate high-resolution 3D MR images of the Montreal brain phantom using Blue Gene/L systems. Results show that redistribution of the workload allows an anatomically accurate 256 3 voxel spin-echo simulation in less than 5 hours when executed on an 8192-node partition of a Blue Gene/L system.

  11. High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning 1H-NMR Metabolic Profiling of Nanoliter Biological Tissues at High Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Ju; Hu, Jian Z.; Burton, Sarah D.; Hoyt, David W.

    2013-03-05

    It is demonstrated that a high resolution magic angle spinning 1H-NMR spectrum of biological tissue samples with volumes as small as 150 nanoliters, or 0.15 mg in weight, can be acquired in a few minutes at 21.1 T magnetic field using a commercial 1.6 mm fast-MAS probe with minor modification of the MAS rotor. The strategies of sealing the samples inside the MAS rotor to avoid fluid leakage as well as the ways of optimizing the signal to noise are discussed.

  12. The Spokane fault, Washington, Imaged with High-Resolution Airborne Magnetic Data—Implications for the 2001 Spokane Earthquake Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, R. J.; Sherrod, B. L.; Weaver, C. S.; Stephenson, W. J.

    2015-12-01

    A newly acquired, high-resolution aeromagnetic survey provides insights into the near-surface lithology and tectonic structure throughout the greater Spokane area of northeastern Washington and northwestern Idaho. The region has a diverse array of magnetic lithologies, ranging from highly magnetic flood basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) to weakly magnetic Mesozoic plutonic and metamorphic rocks. Faults within these magnetic lithologies produce linear magnetic anomalies that permit mapping of geologic structures over tens of kilometers. A high-amplitude, linear magnetic anomaly overlies the NW- striking Cheney fracture zone 37 km southwest of Spokane and is interpreted as a basaltic dike swarm intruded during the extensional event that opened the fractures, possibly feeder dikes for overlying CRBG flows. A sub-parallel anomaly near the town of Cheney reflects another dike swarm, likely formed during the same extensional event. The Latah fault is seen as a discontinuous alignment of magnetic anomalies extending north-northwestward from south of Spokane to the northern edge of the magnetic survey, a distance of 44 km. An arcuate, north-striking magnetic lineament ~20 km northeast of Spokane may mark the Newport fault, the detachment that promoted exhumation of the Priest River metamorphic complex. A subtle northeast-striking magnetic lineament passes through downtown Spokane and may indicate the trace of the Spokane fault, suspected of producing more than 105 small (M≤4), shallow earthquakes within Spokane city limits in 2001, accompanied by 15 mm of vertical uplift. This magnetic lineament extends 22 km and, to the northwest, merges with the lineament interpreted as the Newport fault. The Spokane fault may represent a reactivated section of the Newport fault that otherwise is not known to be active today. New LiDAR data from the Spokane area does not show distinct fault scarps associated with these magnetic anomalies, but a more comprehensive

  13. Magnetic tweezers measurement of the bond lifetime-force behavior of the IgG-protein A specific molecular interaction.

    PubMed

    Shang, Hao; Lee, Gil U

    2007-05-23

    The bond lifetime-force behavior of the immunoglobulin G (IgG)-protein A interaction has been studied with magnetic tweezers to characterize the physical properties of the bond under nonequilibrium conditions. Super-paramagnetic microparticles were developed that have a high and uniform magnetization to simultaneously apply a piconewton-scale tensile force to many thousands of IgG-protein A bonds. A strong and a weak slip bond were detected with an effective bond length that is characteristic of short-range, stiff intermolecular interactions. These bonds are attributed to the interaction of protein A with the constant region (Fc) and heavy chain variable domain (VH) of IgG, respectively. The IgG-VH interaction appears to be one of the weakest specific molecular interactions that has been identified with a single molecule force measurement technique. This study demonstrates that magnetic tweezers can be used to rapidly characterize very weak biomolecular interactions as well as strong biomolecular interactions with a high degree of accuracy. PMID:17465553

  14. High-Resolution Local Crustal Magnetic Field Modeling of the Martian South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plattner, A.; Simons, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) satellite mission has brought us a wealth of information about the Martian magnetic field. Besides determining that Mars currently does not possess an active core field, MGS revealed that Mars contains an unexpectedly wide crustal magnetic field intensity range. In its orbit insertion, MGS performed a series of low altitude passes down to around 100 km above surface. During this mission phase the magnetic field measurements were active. In particular the nighttime low-altitude data are of high interest because they contain minimal noise from solar wind. Since these data only cover a small portion of the planet's surface, to date all Martian crustal magnetic field models blend the highest-quality data with lower quality measurements collected either at higher satellite altitudes or during daytime. In this contribution we present a locally inverted crustal magnetic field model for the Martian South Polar region calculated from only the highest-quality MGS data using locally constructed altitude vector Slepian functions. The South Polar region of Mars contains the southern part of the strongly magnetized Terra Sirenum and the area south of the Tharsis volcanic highland. Besides parts of planetary scale features our area of data coverage also contains local features such as the presumably volcanic Australe Montes and the Prometheus impact crater. These ingredients compose a highly heterogeneous crustal magnetic field. We show that even for our dense low-altitude low-noise data set the inversion for the crustal magnetic field of a weakly magnetized region adjacent to a region containing a strong magnetic field leads to artifacts in the weak region. With our local method we can avoid these artifacts by selecting subregions of roughly homogeneous field intensity and individually invert for crustal magnetic fields from data within only these subregions. This regional and subregional modeling allows us to reveal previously obscured crustal

  15. Method for high resolution magnetic resonance analysis using magic angle technique

    DOEpatents

    Wind, Robert A.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2004-12-28

    A method of performing a magnetic resonance analysis of a biological object that includes placing the object in a main magnetic field (that has a static field direction) and in a radio frequency field; rotating the object at a frequency of less than about 100 Hz around an axis positioned at an angle of about 54.degree.44' relative to the main magnetic static field direction; pulsing the radio frequency to provide a sequence that includes a phase-corrected magic angle turning pulse segment; and collecting data generated by the pulsed radio frequency. The object may be reoriented about the magic angle axis between three predetermined positions that are related to each other by 120.degree.. The main magnetic field may be rotated mechanically or electronically. Methods for magnetic resonance imaging of the object are also described.

  16. Method for high resolution magnetic resonance analysis using magic angle technique

    DOEpatents

    Wind, Robert A.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2003-12-30

    A method of performing a magnetic resonance analysis of a biological object that includes placing the object in a main magnetic field (that has a static field direction) and in a radio frequency field; rotating the object at a frequency of less than about 100 Hz around an axis positioned at an angle of about 54.degree.44' relative to the main magnetic static field direction; pulsing the radio frequency to provide a sequence that includes a phase-corrected magic angle turning pulse segment; and collecting data generated by the pulsed radio frequency. The object may be reoriented about the magic angle axis between three predetermined positions that are related to each other by 120.degree.. The main magnetic field may be rotated mechanically or electronically. Methods for magnetic resonance imaging of the object are also described.

  17. Ultra-High-Resolution Observations of MHD Waves in Photospheric Magnetic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jess, D. B.; Verth, G.

    2016-02-01

    This chapter reviews the recent observations of waves and oscillations manifesting in fine-scale magnetic structures in the solar photosphere, which are often interpreted as the "building blocks' of the magnetic Sun. The authors found, through phase relationships between the various waveforms, that small-scale magnetic bright points (MBPs) in the photosphere demonstrated signatures of specific magnetoacoustic waves, in particular the sausage and kink modes. Modern magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the lower solar atmosphere clearly show how torsional motions can easily be induced in magnetic elements in the photosphere through the processes of vortical motions and/or buffeting by neighboring granules. The authors detected significant power associated with high-frequency horizontal motions, and suggested that these cases may be especially important in the creation of a turbulent environment that efficiently promotes Alfvén wave dissipation.

  18. Method for high resolution magnetic resonance analysis using magic angle technique

    DOEpatents

    Wind, Robert A.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2003-11-25

    A method of performing a magnetic resonance analysis of a biological object that includes placing the biological object in a main magnetic field and in a radio frequency field, the main magnetic field having a static field direction; rotating the biological object at a rotational frequency of less than about 100 Hz around an axis positioned at an angle of about 54.degree.44' relative to the main magnetic static field direction; pulsing the radio frequency to provide a sequence that includes a magic angle turning pulse segment; and collecting data generated by the pulsed radio frequency. According to another embodiment, the radio frequency is pulsed to provide a sequence capable of producing a spectrum that is substantially free of spinning sideband peaks.

  19. Structure and dynamics of small scale magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere Results of high resolution polarimetry and image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, K.

    2003-07-01

    Two-dimensional spectrograms were obtained at the Vacuum Tower Telescope, Tenerife, in order to study the structure of small scale magnetic fields on the Sun. The speckle reconstruction method that is used for data processing gives high resolution images and wavelength scans in left and right circular polarized light, from which magnetic field maps are calculated using the center of gravity method. The geometric similarity of magnetic structures is studied via the area- perimeter-relation, from which the Hausdorff-dimension of the rim of a structure is determined. The investigation shows that the actual value of the fractal dimension depends on the threshold that is used to determine the borders of the magnetic areas. Higher treshold values lead to smaller fractal dimensions. This can be explained by the concentration of strong magnetic fields while weak fields spread out in more complex structures. With a treshold of 80 Gauss a fractal dimension of D=1,40(5) is obtained. Furthermore, the dimension obtained by observed data is compared to the fractal dimension gained from MHD simulations. It is found that if the measurement scales are adjusted correctly the dimensions for both datasets match quite well. In a second part the dynamics of the mass motions were analysed and a coarse estimate of the energy conveyed by these movements to the magnetic field is given. The energy flux is strong enough to participate in the heating of the solar chromosphere and corona over active regions.

  20. High-Resolution Seismic-Reflection and Marine Magnetic Data Along the Hosgri Fault Zone, Central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sliter, Ray W.; Triezenberg, Peter J.; Hart, Patrick E.; Watt, Janet T.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Scheirer, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected high-resolution shallow seismic-reflection and marine magnetic data in June 2008 in the offshore areas between the towns of Cayucos and Pismo Beach, Calif., from the nearshore (~6-m depth) to just west of the Hosgri Fault Zone (~200-m depth). These data are in support of the California State Waters Mapping Program and the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Pacific Gas & Electric Co. and the U.S. Geological Survey. Seismic-reflection and marine magnetic data were acquired aboard the R/V Parke Snavely, using a SIG 2Mille minisparker seismic source and a Geometrics G882 cesium-vapor marine magnetometer. More than 550 km of seismic and marine magnetic data was collected simultaneously along shore-perpendicular transects spaced 800 m apart, with an additional 220 km of marine magnetometer data collected across the Hosgri Fault Zone, resulting in spacing locally as smallas 400 m. This report includes maps of the seismic-survey sections, linked to Google Earth software, and digital data files showing images of each transect in SEG-Y, JPEG, and TIFF formats, as well as preliminary gridded marine-magnetic-anomaly and residual-magnetic-anomaly (shallow magnetic source) maps.

  1. High-Resolution B Dot Probe for Measuring 3D Magnetic Fields in the MOCHI Labjet Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuara Rosales, Manuel; von der Linden, Jens; You, Setthivoine

    2014-10-01

    The MOCHI Labjet experiment will use a triple electrode planar plasma gun to explore canonical helicity transport in laboratory astrophysical jets. Canonical helicity transport suggests that destabilizing magnetic energy can be converted into stabilizing shear flows at two-fluid spatial scales li ~c/wpi . A high-resolution . B probe array, capable of measuring magnetic field dynamics at length and time scales important to canonical helicity transport is being built. The probe array consists of three tridents, made of 5 . 13 mm OD and 4 . 32 mm ID stainless steel tubes of 102 cm length, enclosing a total of 1215 commercial inductor chips with a three axis spatial resolution of 11 mm. The average value for the effective NA of each inductor chip is 1 . 21 .10-4 m2. The probe array lays in a plane perpendicular to the jet, and is axially translatable. This work is supported by US DOE Grant DE-SC0010340.

  2. Local high-resolution crustal magnetic field analysis from satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plattner, Alain; Simons, Frederik J.

    2016-04-01

    Planetary crustal magnetic fields are key to understanding a planet or moon's structure and history. Due to satellite orbit parameters such as aerobraking (Mars) or only partial coverage (Mercury), or simply because of the strongly heterogeneous crustal field strength, satellite data of planetary magnetic fields vary regionally in their signal-to noise ratio and data coverage. To take full advantage of data quality within one region of a planet or moon without diluting the data with lower quality measurements outside of that region we resort to local methods. Slepian functions are linear combinations of spherical harmonics that provide local sensitivity to structure. Here we present a selection of crustal magnetic field models obtained from vector-valued variable-altitude satellite observations using an altitude-cognizant gradient-vector Slepian approach. This method is based on locally maximizing energy concentration within the region of data availability while simultaneously bandlimiting the model in terms of its spherical-harmonic degree and minimizing noise amplification due to downward continuation. For simple regions such as spherical caps, our method is computationally efficient and allows us to calculate local crustal magnetic field solutions beyond spherical harmonic degree 800, if the data permit. We furthermore discuss extensions of the method that are optimized for the analysis and separation of internal and external magnetic fields.

  3. Single molecule measurements of DNA helicase activity with magnetic tweezers and t-test based step-finding analysis.

    PubMed

    Seol, Yeonee; Strub, Marie-Paule; Neuman, Keir C

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic tweezers is a versatile and easy to implement single-molecule technique that has become increasingly prevalent in the study of nucleic acid based molecular motors. Here, we provide a description of the magnetic tweezers instrument and guidelines for measuring and analyzing DNA helicase activity. Along with experimental methods, we describe a robust method of single-molecule trajectory analysis based on the Student's t-test that accommodates continuous transitions in addition to the discrete transitions assumed in most widely employed analysis routines. To illustrate the single-molecule unwinding assay and the analysis routine, we provide DNA unwinding measurements of Escherichia coli RecQ helicase under a variety of conditions (Na+, ATP, temperature, and DNA substrate geometry). These examples reveal that DNA unwinding measurements under various conditions can aid in elucidating the unwinding mechanism of DNA helicase but also emphasize that environmental effects on DNA helicase activity must be considered in relation to in vivo activity and mechanism. PMID:27131595

  4. High Resolution Magnetic Images of Planar Wave Fronts Reveal Bidomain Properties of Cardiac Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Jenny R.; Fong, Luis E.; Sidorov, Veniamin Y.; Wikswo, John P.; Baudenbacher, Franz

    2004-01-01

    We magnetically imaged the magnetic action field and optically imaged the transmembrane potentials generated by planar wavefronts on the surface of the left ventricular wall of Langendorff-perfused isolated rabbit hearts. The magnetic action field images were used to produce a time series of two-dimensional action current maps. Overlaying epifluorescent images allowed us to identify a net current along the wavefront and perpendicular to gradients in the transmembrane potential. This is in contrast to a traditional uniform double-layer model where the net current flows along the gradient in the transmembrane potential. Our findings are supported by numerical simulations that treat cardiac tissue as a bidomain with unequal anisotropies in the intra- and extracellular spaces. Our measurements reveal the anisotropic bidomain nature of cardiac tissue during plane wave propagation. These bidomain effects play an important role in the generation of the whole-heart magnetocardiogram and cannot be ignored. PMID:15377521

  5. High Resolution Phase-Sensitive Magnetomotive Optical Coherence Microscopy for Tracking Magnetic Microbeads and Cellular Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Crecea, Vasilica; Graf, Benedikt W.; Kim, Taewoo; Popescu, Gabriel; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a real-time multimodal near-infrared imaging technology that tracks externally induced axial motion of magnetic microbeads in single cells in culture. The integrated multimodal imaging technique consists of phase-sensitive magnetomotive optical coherence microscopy (MM-OCM) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM).MPMis utilized for the visualization of multifunctional fluorescent and magnetic microbeads, while MM-OCM detects, with nanometer-scale sensitivity, periodic displacements of the microbeads induced by the modulation of an external magnetic field. Magnetomotive signals are measured from mouse macrophages, human breast primary ductal carcinoma cells, and human breast epithelial cells in culture, and validated with full-field phase-sensitive microscopy. This methodology demonstrates the capability for imaging controlled cell dynamics and has the potential for measuring cell biomechanical properties, which are important in assessing the health and pathological state of cells. PMID:25400496

  6. High-resolution near-bottom vector magnetic anomalies over Raven Hydrothermal Field, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tivey, Maurice A.; Johnson, H. Paul; Salmi, Marie S.; Hutnak, Michael

    2014-10-01

    High-resolution, near-bottom vector magnetic data were collected by remotely operated vehicle Jason over the Raven hydrothermal vent field (47°57.3'N 129°5.75'W) located north of Main Endeavour vent field on the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The survey was part of a comprehensive heat flow study of the Raven site using innovative thermal blanket technology to map the heat flux and crustal fluid pathways around a solitary hydrothermal vent field. Raven hydrothermal activity is presently located along the western axial valley wall, while additional inactive hydrothermal deposits are found to the NW on the upper rift valley wall. Magnetic inversion results show discrete areas of reduced magnetization associated with both active and inactive hydrothermal vent deposits that also show high conductive heat flow. Higher spatial variability in the heat flow patterns compared to the magnetization is consistent with the heat flow reflecting the currently active but ephemeral thermal environment of fluid flow, while crustal magnetization is representative of the static time-averaged effect of hydrothermal alteration. A general NW to SE trend in reduced magnetization across the Raven area correlates closely with the distribution of hydrothermal deposits and heat flux patterns and suggests that the fluid circulation system at depth is likely controlled by local crustal structure and magma chamber geometry. Magnetic gradient tensor components computed from vector magnetic data improve the resolution of the magnetic anomaly source and indicate that the hydrothermally altered zone directly beneath the Raven site is approximately 15 × 106 m3 in volume.

  7. Concept for a high-resolution thermometer utilizing the temperature dependence of the magnetic penetration depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirron, P. J.; Dipirro, M. J.

    1993-03-01

    A thermometer using the temperature dependence of the magnetic penetration depth in superconductors is described which has the potential for temperature resolution, when using a dc SQUID readout, on the order of 1 pK. One such device has been fabricated and characterized to demonstrate proof of concept. It consists of primary and secondary coils of NbTi wire wound on a copper toroidal core on which a thin layer of In (Tc = 3.4 K) has been deposited. The temperature dependence of the mutual inductance, M(T), or self-inductance, is used to detect changes in temperature. Measurements of M(T) have been made with an ac excitation of the primary for various frequencies and peak magnetic field strengths. Estimates of ultimate temperature resolution are given.

  8. Concept for a high-resolution thermometer utilizing the temperature dependence of the magnetic penetration depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, P. J.; Dipirro, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    A thermometer using the temperature dependence of the magnetic penetration depth in superconductors is described which has the potential for temperature resolution, when using a dc SQUID readout, on the order of 1 pK. One such device has been fabricated and characterized to demonstrate proof of concept. It consists of primary and secondary coils of NbTi wire wound on a copper toroidal core on which a thin layer of In (Tc = 3.4 K) has been deposited. The temperature dependence of the mutual inductance, M(T), or self-inductance, is used to detect changes in temperature. Measurements of M(T) have been made with an ac excitation of the primary for various frequencies and peak magnetic field strengths. Estimates of ultimate temperature resolution are given.

  9. High Resolution Magnetic and Gravity Surveys to Constrain Maar Geometry and Eruption Mechanisms, Rattlesnake Crater, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. M.; Kruse, S. E.; Connor, C.; Connor, L.; Abdollahzadeh, M.; Harburger, A.; Richardson, J. A.; Courtland, L. M.; Farrell, A. K.; Kiflu, H. G.; Malservisi, R.; McNiff, C. M.; Njoroge, M.; Nushart, N.; Rookey, K.

    2013-12-01

    Located 25 kilometers east of Flagstaff, Arizona, Rattlesnake Crater is an oblong phreatomagmatic feature in the San Francisco Volcanic Field. The shallow crater is approximately 1.4 kilometers at its widest point, and surrounded by an uneven tuff ring which is overlapped by a scoria cone volcano on the southeastern side. Improved understanding of its formation and evolution requires geophysical study because there are very few outcrops, and no digging is permitted on site. Geologic features related to the crater are further obscured by deposits from the overlapping scoria cone, as well as tephra from eruptions at nearby Sunset Crater. We present the results of a detailed magnetic and gravity survey in and around Rattlesnake Crater. A substantial NW-SE trending elongate magnetic anomaly (1400 nT) and a smaller similarly trending anomaly are observed inside the crater, as well as a longer wavelength positive gravitational anomaly (+1.0-1.5 mGal) across the crater. The magnetic survey was completed on foot with a 50 meter line spacing inside the crater, and 100 meter line spacing across a portion of the surrounding area outside the crater. The gravity survey was done on two intersecting survey lines - one running west to east, and another roughly north to south, with recordings every 100 meters extending at least 1000 meters outside the crater in all four directions. 2D models of the magnetic and gravity data are presented illustrating the possible geometry of the diatreme, and the approximate size and shape of the major intrusive features. Eruption estimates based on the models are calculated, and the models are favorably compared to the size and depth estimates given in a recent publication (Valentine 2012) that used xenolith content to estimate the size and depth of the diatreme.

  10. High resolution neurography of the lumbosacral plexus on 3T magneteic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Cejas, C; Escobar, I; Serra, M; Barroso, F

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance neurography is a technique that complements clinical and electrophysiological study of the peripheral nerves and brachial and lumbosacral plexuses. Numerous focal processes (inflammatory, traumatic, primary tumors, secondary tumors) and diffuse processes (diabetic polyneuropathy, chronic idiopathic demyelinating polyneuropathy due to amyloidosis or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease) can involve the lumbosacral plexus. This article reviews the anatomy of the lumbosacral plexus, describes the technique for neurography of the plexus at our institution, and shows the diverse diseases that affect it. PMID:25447367

  11. New Developments at the XMaS Beamline For Magnetic and High Resolution Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.B.J.; Bouchenoire, L.; Brown, S.D.; Mannix, D.; Paul, D.F.; Lucas, C.; Kervin, J.; Cooper, M.J.; Arakawa, P.; Laughon, G.

    2004-05-12

    We report here on a number of developments that include enhancements of the sample environment on the XMaS beamline and the flux available at low energy. A 4 Tesla superconducting magnet has been designed to fit within the Euler cradle of a six circle Huber diffractometer, allowing scattering in both horizontal and vertical planes. The geometry of the magnet allows the application of longitudinal, transverse horizontal, and vertical fields. A further conventional magnet ({approx} 0.1 T) to minimize air absorption at low energies ({approx} 3KeV) has been designed for two circle applications, such as reflectivity. A novel in-vacuum slit screen has been developed, also minimizing absorption at low energies. New equipment for performing in-situ studies of surfaces in the electrochemical environment has been developed to allow control of the solution and sample temperature over the region of -5C to 80C. Preliminary experiments on the surface reconstructions of Au(111) in an electrolyte have been performed, whilst commissioning at the same time a MAR CCD detector for the beamline.

  12. CONNECTING THE SUN'S HIGH-RESOLUTION MAGNETIC CARPET TO THE TURBULENT HELIOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Cranmer, Steven R.; Van Ballegooijen, Adriaan A.; Woolsey, Lauren N.

    2013-04-20

    The solar wind is connected to the Sun's atmosphere by flux tubes that are rooted in an ever-changing pattern of positive and negative magnetic polarities on the surface. Observations indicate that the magnetic field is filamentary and intermittent across a wide range of spatial scales. However, we do not know to what extent the complex flux-tube topology seen near the Sun survives as the wind expands into interplanetary space. In order to study the possible long-distance connections between the corona and the heliosphere, we developed new models of turbulence-driven solar wind acceleration along empirically constrained field lines. We used a potential field model of the quiet Sun to trace field lines into the ecliptic plane with unprecedented spatial resolution at their footpoints. For each flux tube, a one-dimensional model was created with an existing wave/turbulence code that solves equations of mass, momentum, and energy conservation from the photosphere to 4 AU. To take account of stream-stream interactions between flux tubes, we used those models as inner boundary conditions for a time-steady magnetohydrodynamic description of radial and longitudinal structure in the ecliptic. Corotating stream interactions smear out much of the smallest-scale variability, making it difficult to see how individual flux tubes on granular or supergranular scales can survive out to 1 AU. However, our models help clarify the level of ''background'' variability with which waves and turbulent eddies should be expected to interact. Also, the modeled fluctuations in magnetic field magnitude were seen to match measured power spectra quite well.

  13. Magnetic dynamics studied by high-resolution electron spectroscopy and time-resolved electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, Rajeswari

    Future information technology requires an increased magnetically encoded data density and novel electromagnetic modes of data transfer. While to date magnetic properties are observed and characterized mostly statically, the need emerges to monitor and capture their fast dynamics. In this talk, I will focus on the spin dynamics i.e. spin wave excitations and the dynamics of a new topological distribution of spins termed ``skyrmions''. Wave packets of spin waves offer the unique capability to transport a quantum bit, the spin, without the transport of charge or mass. Here, large wave-vector spin waves are of particular interest as they admit spin localization within a few nanometers. By using our recently developed electron energy loss spectrometer, we could study such spin waves in ultrathin films with an unprecedented energy resolution of 4 meV. By virtue of the finite penetration depth of low energy electrons, spin waves localized at interfaces between a substrate and a thin capping layer can be been studied yielding information about the exchange coupling between atoms at the interface. The quantization of spin waves with wave vectors perpendicular to the film gives rise to standing modes to which EELS has likewise access. Such studies when carried out as function of the film thickness again yield information on the layer dependence of the exchange coupling. Magnetic skyrmions are promising candidates as information carriers in logic or storage devices. Currently, little is known about the influence of disorder, defects, or external stimuli on the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the skyrmion lattice. In this talk, I will describe the dynamical role of disorder in a large and flat thin film of Cu2OSeO3, exhibiting a skyrmion phase in an insulating material. We image up to 70,000 skyrmions by means of cryo-Lorentz Transmission Electron Microscopy as a function of the applied magnetic field. In the skyrmion phase, dislocations are shown to cause the

  14. A scanning Hall probe microscope for high resolution magnetic imaging down to 300 mK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khotkevych, V. V.; Milošević, M. V.; Bending, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    We present the design, construction, and performance of a low-temperature scanning Hall probe microscope with submicron lateral resolution and a large scanning range. The detachable microscope head is mounted on the cold flange of a commercial H3e-refrigerator (Oxford Instruments, Heliox VT-50) and operates between room temperature and 300 mK. It is fitted with a three-axis slip-stick nanopositioner that enables precise in situ adjustment of the probe location within a 6×6×7 mm3 space. The local magnetic induction at the sample surface is mapped with an easily changeable microfabricated Hall probe [typically GsAs/AlGaAs or AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs Hall sensors with integrated scanning tunnel microscopy (STM) tunneling tips] and can achieve minimum detectable fields ⩾10 mG/Hz1/2. The Hall probe is brought into very close proximity to the sample surface by sensing and controlling tunnel currents at the integrated STM tip. The instrument is capable of simultaneous tunneling and Hall signal acquisition in surface-tracking mode. We illustrate the potential of the system with images of superconducting vortices at the surface of a Nb thin film down to 372 mK, and also of labyrinth magnetic-domain patterns of an yttrium iron garnet film captured at room temperature.

  15. A scanning Hall probe microscope for high resolution magnetic imaging down to 300 mK

    SciTech Connect

    Khotkevych, V. V.; Bending, S. J.; Milosevic, M. V.

    2008-12-15

    We present the design, construction, and performance of a low-temperature scanning Hall probe microscope with submicron lateral resolution and a large scanning range. The detachable microscope head is mounted on the cold flange of a commercial {sup 3}He-refrigerator (Oxford Instruments, Heliox VT-50) and operates between room temperature and 300 mK. It is fitted with a three-axis slip-stick nanopositioner that enables precise in situ adjustment of the probe location within a 6x6x7 mm{sup 3} space. The local magnetic induction at the sample surface is mapped with an easily changeable microfabricated Hall probe [typically GsAs/AlGaAs or AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs Hall sensors with integrated scanning tunnel microscopy (STM) tunneling tips] and can achieve minimum detectable fields {>=}10 mG/Hz{sup 1/2}. The Hall probe is brought into very close proximity to the sample surface by sensing and controlling tunnel currents at the integrated STM tip. The instrument is capable of simultaneous tunneling and Hall signal acquisition in surface-tracking mode. We illustrate the potential of the system with images of superconducting vortices at the surface of a Nb thin film down to 372 mK, and also of labyrinth magnetic-domain patterns of an yttrium iron garnet film captured at room temperature.

  16. SOLAR MAGNETIC TRACKING. III. APPARENT UNIPOLAR FLUX EMERGENCE IN HIGH-RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, D. A.; DeForest, C. E.; Hagenaar, H. J.; Parnell, C. E.; Welsch, B. T.

    2010-09-10

    Understanding the behavior of weak magnetic fields near the detection limit of current instrumentation is important for determining the flux budget of the solar photosphere at small spatial scales. Using 0.''3-resolution magnetograms from the Solar Optical Telescope's Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) on the Hinode spacecraft, we confirm that the previously reported apparent unipolar magnetic flux emergence seen in intermediate-resolution magnetograms is indeed the coalescence of previously existing flux. We demonstrate that similar but smaller events seen in NFI magnetograms are also likely to correspond to the coalescence of previously existing weak fields. The uncoalesced flux, detectable only in the ensemble average of hundreds of these events, accounts for 50% of the total flux within 3 Mm of the detected features. The spatial scale at which apparent unipolar emergence can be directly observed as coalescence remains unknown. The polarity of the coalescing flux is more balanced than would be expected given the imbalance of the data set, however without further study we cannot speculate whether this implies that the flux in the apparent unipolar emergence events is produced by a granulation-scale dynamo or is recycled from existing field.

  17. High-resolution low-field molecular magnetic resonance imaging of hyperpolarized liquids.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Aaron M; Kovtunov, Kirill V; Barskiy, Danila A; Koptyug, Igor V; Shchepin, Roman V; Waddell, Kevin W; He, Ping; Groome, Kirsten A; Best, Quinn A; Shi, Fan; Goodson, Boyd M; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-09-16

    We demonstrate the feasibility of microscale molecular imaging using hyperpolarized proton and carbon-13 MRI contrast media and low-field (47.5 mT) preclinical scale (38 mm i.d.) 2D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Hyperpolarized proton images with 94 × 94 μm(2) spatial resolution and hyperpolarized carbon-13 images with 250 × 250 μm(2) in-plane spatial resolution were recorded in 4-8 s (largely limited by the electronics response), surpassing the in-plane spatial resolution (i.e., pixel size) achievable with micro-positron emission tomography (PET). These hyperpolarized proton and (13)C images were recorded using large imaging matrices of up to 256 × 256 pixels and relatively large fields of view of up to 6.4 × 6.4 cm(2). (13)C images were recorded using hyperpolarized 1-(13)C-succinate-d2 (30 mM in water, %P(13C) = 25.8 ± 5.1% (when produced) and %P(13C) = 14.2 ± 0.7% (when imaged), T1 = 74 ± 3 s), and proton images were recorded using (1)H hyperpolarized pyridine (100 mM in methanol-d4, %P(H) = 0.1 ± 0.02% (when imaged), T1 = 11 ± 0.1 s). Both contrast agents were hyperpolarized using parahydrogen (>90% para-fraction) in an automated 5.75 mT parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) hyperpolarizer. A magnetized path was demonstrated for successful transportation of a (13)C hyperpolarized contrast agent (1-(13)C-succinate-d2, sensitive to fast depolarization when at the Earth's magnetic field) from the PHIP polarizer to the 47.5 mT low-field MRI. While future polarizing and low-field MRI hardware and imaging sequence developments can further improve the low-field detection sensitivity, the current results demonstrate that microscale molecular imaging in vivo is already feasible at low (<50 mT) fields and potentially at low (~1 mM) metabolite concentrations. PMID:25162371

  18. High-Resolution Low-Field Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Hyperpolarized Liquids

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of microscale molecular imaging using hyperpolarized proton and carbon-13 MRI contrast media and low-field (47.5 mT) preclinical scale (38 mm i.d.) 2D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Hyperpolarized proton images with 94 × 94 μm2 spatial resolution and hyperpolarized carbon-13 images with 250 × 250 μm2 in-plane spatial resolution were recorded in 4–8 s (largely limited by the electronics response), surpassing the in-plane spatial resolution (i.e., pixel size) achievable with micro-positron emission tomography (PET). These hyperpolarized proton and 13C images were recorded using large imaging matrices of up to 256 × 256 pixels and relatively large fields of view of up to 6.4 × 6.4 cm2. 13C images were recorded using hyperpolarized 1-13C-succinate-d2 (30 mM in water, %P13C = 25.8 ± 5.1% (when produced) and %P13C = 14.2 ± 0.7% (when imaged), T1 = 74 ± 3 s), and proton images were recorded using 1H hyperpolarized pyridine (100 mM in methanol-d4, %PH = 0.1 ± 0.02% (when imaged), T1 = 11 ± 0.1 s). Both contrast agents were hyperpolarized using parahydrogen (>90% para-fraction) in an automated 5.75 mT parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) hyperpolarizer. A magnetized path was demonstrated for successful transportation of a 13C hyperpolarized contrast agent (1-13C-succinate-d2, sensitive to fast depolarization when at the Earth’s magnetic field) from the PHIP polarizer to the 47.5 mT low-field MRI. While future polarizing and low-field MRI hardware and imaging sequence developments can further improve the low-field detection sensitivity, the current results demonstrate that microscale molecular imaging in vivo is already feasible at low (<50 mT) fields and potentially at low (∼1 mM) metabolite concentrations. PMID:25162371

  19. Construction of hydrodynamic bead models from high-resolution X-ray crystallographic or nuclear magnetic resonance data.

    PubMed Central

    Byron, O

    1997-01-01

    Computer software such as HYDRO, based upon a comprehensive body of theoretical work, permits the hydrodynamic modeling of macromolecules in solution, which are represented to the computer interface as an assembly of spheres. The uniqueness of any satisfactory resultant model is optimized by incorporating into the modeling procedure the maximal possible number of criteria to which the bead model must conform. An algorithm (AtoB, for atoms to beads) that permits the direct construction of bead models from high resolution x-ray crystallographic or nuclear magnetic resonance data has now been formulated and tested. Models so generated then act as informed starting estimates for the subsequent iterative modeling procedure, thereby hastening the convergence to reasonable representations of solution conformation. Successful application of this algorithm to several proteins shows that predictions of hydrodynamic parameters, including those concerning solvation, can be confirmed. PMID:8994627

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution computed tomography in tumors of the lung and the mediastinum.

    PubMed

    Casamassima, F; Villari, N; Fargnoli, R; Di Lollo, S; Cellerini, A; Ruggiero, C

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and high resolution computed tomography (CT) have been compared in 37 patients who had expansive processes of the lung and the mediastinum. MR imaging and CT scanning gave identical results in 32 patients; in 5 patients, CT scanning has proved more useful in evaluating the stag e of primary lung tumors. MR imaging often gives more information about the actual size of the tumor, and the involvement of close structures, although it does not modify staging of the tumor. MR imaging has the advantage to differentiate hilar adenopathy from blood vessel structures. Evaluation of T2 relaxing time (that we have performed in the same location of thin-needle biopsy aspiration), however, did not prove to be of diagnostic significance; this indicates that MR imaging at the moment is not suitable for tissue typification. PMID:3344352

  1. High-resolution (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy pattern recognition of fish oil capsules.

    PubMed

    Aursand, Marit; Standal, Inger B; Axelson, David E

    2007-01-10

    13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy, in conjunction with multivariate analysis of commercial fish oil-related health food products, have been used to provide discrimination concerning the nature, composition, refinement, and/or adulteration or authentication of the products. Supervised (probabilistic neural networks, PNN) and unsupervised (principal component analysis, PCA; Kohonen neural networks; generative topographic mapping, GTM) pattern recognition techniques were used to visualize and classify samples. Simple PCA score plots demonstrated excellent, but not totally unambiguous, class distinctions, whereas Kohonen and GTM visualization provided better results. Quantitative class predictions with accuracies >95% were achieved with PNN analysis. Trout, salmon, and cod oils were completely and correctly classified. Samples reported to be salmon oils and cod liver oils did not cluster with true salmon and cod liver oil samples, indicating mislabeling or adulteration. PMID:17199311

  2. A novel high-resolution optical imaging modality: photo-magnetic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luk, Alex T.; Thayer, David; Lin, Yuting; Nouizi, Farouk; Gao, Hao; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2013-03-01

    We introduce an entirely new technique, termed Photo-Magnetic Imaging (PMI), which overcomes the limitation of pure optical imaging and provides optical absorption at MRI spatial resolution. PMI uses laser light to heat the medium under investigation and employs MR thermometry for the determination of spatially resolved optical absorption in the probed medium. A FEM-based PMI forward solver has been developed by modeling photon migration and heat diffusion in tissue to compare simulation results with measured MRI maps. We have successfully performed PMI using 2.5 cm diameter agar phantom with two low optical absorption contrast (x 4) inclusions under the ANSI limit. Currently, we are developing the PMI inverse solver and undertaking further phantom and in vivo experiments.

  3. Study of hydrogen in coals, polymers, oxides, and muscle water by nuclear magnetic resonance; extension of solid-state high-resolution techniques. [Hydrogen molybdenum bronze

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, L.M.

    1981-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been an important analytical and physical research tool for several decades. One area of NMR which has undergone considerable development in recent years is high resolution NMR of solids. In particular, high resolution solid state /sup 13/C NMR spectra exhibiting features similar to those observed in liquids are currently achievable using sophisticated pulse techniques. The work described in this thesis develops analogous methods for high resolution /sup 1/H NMR of rigid solids. Applications include characterization of hydrogen aromaticities in fossil fuels, and studies of hydrogen in oxides and bound water in muscle.

  4. Cardiac dysfunction in the diabetic rat: quantitative evaluation using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Loganathan, Rajprasad; Bilgen, Mehmet; Al-Hafez, Baraa; Alenezy, Mohammed D; Smirnova, Irina V

    2006-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In particular, type 1 diabetes compromises the cardiac function of individuals at a relatively early age due to the protracted course of abnormal glucose homeostasis. The functional abnormalities of diabetic myocardium have been attributed to the pathological changes of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Methods In this study, we used high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the left ventricular functional characteristics of streptozotocin treated diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks disease duration) in comparison with age/sex matched controls. Results Our analyses of EKG gated cardiac MRI scans of the left ventricle showed a 28% decrease in the end-diastolic volume and 10% increase in the end-systolic volume of diabetic hearts compared to controls. Mean stroke volume and ejection fraction in diabetic rats were decreased (48% and 28%, respectively) compared to controls. Further, dV/dt changes were suggestive of phase sensitive differences in left ventricular kinetics across the cardiac cycle between diabetic and control rats. Conclusion Thus, the MRI analyses of diabetic left ventricle suggest impairment of diastolic and systolic hemodynamics in this rat model of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Our studies also show that in vivo MRI could be used in the evaluation of cardiac dysfunction in this rat model of type 1 diabetes. PMID:16595006

  5. A moving hum filter to suppress rotor noise in high-resolution airborne magnetic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Doll, W.E.; Miller, R.D.; Gamey, T.J.; Emond, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A unique filtering approach is developed to eliminate helicopter rotor noise. It is designed to suppress harmonic noise from a rotor that varies slightly in amplitude, phase, and frequency and that contaminates aero-magnetic data. The filter provides a powerful harmonic noise-suppression tool for data acquired with modern large-dynamic-range recording systems. This three-step approach - polynomial fitting, bandpass filtering, and rotor-noise synthesis - significantly reduces rotor noise without altering the spectra of signals of interest. Two steps before hum filtering - polynomial fitting and bandpass filtering - are critical to accurately model the weak rotor noise. During rotor-noise synthesis, amplitude, phase, and frequency are determined. Data are processed segment by segment so that there is no limit on the length of data. The segment length changes dynamically along a line based on modeling results. Modeling the rotor noise is stable and efficient. Real-world data examples demonstrate that this method can suppress rotor noise by more than 95% when implemented in an aeromagnetic data-processing flow. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring gold nanoparticle distribution with high resolution using photo-magnetic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luk, Alex T.; Nouizi, Farouk; Marks, Michael; Kart, Turkay; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2016-03-01

    One major advantage of using gold nanoparticles is the possibility of tuning their absorption peak by modifying their surface plasma resonance. They are proven to be a promising multi-functional platform that can be used for many imaging and therapeutic applications. As a true multi-modality imaging technique, Photo-Magnetic Imaging (PMI) has a great potential to monitor the distribution of gold nanoparticles non-invasively with MR resolution. With a simple addon of a continuous wave laser to an MRI system, PMI uses the laser induced temperature increase, measured by MR Thermometry (MRT), to provide tissue optical absorption maps at MR resolution. PMI utilizes a Finite Element Method (FEM) based algorithm to solve the combined diffusion and bio-heat equations. This system of combined equations models the photon distribution in the tissue and heat generation due to the absorption of the light and consequent heat diffusion. The key characteristic of PMI is that its spatial resolution is preserved at any depth as long as the temperature change within the imaged medium is detectable by MRT. Agar phantoms containing gold nanoparticles are used to validate the ability of PMI in monitoring their distribution. To make PMI suitable for diagnostic purposes, the laser powers has been kept under the American National Standard Institute maximum skin exposure limits in this study.

  7. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations on textured rapidly quenched NdFeB permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Luzzi, D. E.; Graham, C. D., Jr.

    1991-11-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has been used to examine the microstructures of NdFeB magnets made by rapid solidification. The samples were General Motors MQ-3 magnets, and also MQ-3 magnets that had been recompressed perpendicular to the original compression axis. A major finding is that the Nd-rich grain-boundary phase is not uniformly distributed on all grain boundaries of the Nd2Fe14B phase. Some boundaries are completely clean, and where the Nd-rich phase does appear, its thickness varies widely. The grain-boundary phase (whose structure has been variously identified) is partially ordered at room temperature after slow cooling. Ordered domains and antiphase boundaries have been observed in this phase by HRTEM. Using the Nd2Fe14B fringe spacing as calibration, the lattice parameter of the grain-boundary phase is found to be 5.58 Å. In the completely ordered state, this phase is neither bcc nor fcc; it is simple cubic with a lower-symmetry space group Pm3m.

  8. GLOBAL TWIST OF SUNSPOT MAGNETIC FIELDS OBTAINED FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION VECTOR MAGNETOGRAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar; Venkatakrishnan, P.; Sankarasubramanian, K. E-mail: pvk@prl.res.in

    2009-09-10

    The presence of fine structures in sunspot vector magnetic fields has been confirmed from Hinode as well as other earlier observations. We studied 43 sunspots based on the data sets taken from ASP/DLSP, Hinode (SOT/SP), and SVM (USO). In this Letter, (1) we introduce the concept of signed shear angle (SSA) for sunspots and establish its importance for non-force-free fields. (2) We find that the sign of global {alpha} (force-free parameter) is well correlated with that of the global SSA and the photospheric chirality of sunspots. (3) Local {alpha} patches of opposite signs are present in the umbra of each sunspot. The amplitude of the spatial variation of local {alpha} in the umbra is typically of the order of the global {alpha} of the sunspot. (4) We find that the local {alpha} is distributed as alternately positive and negative filaments in the penumbra. The amplitude of azimuthal variation of the local {alpha} in the penumbra is approximately an order of magnitude larger than that in the umbra. The contributions of the local positive and negative currents and {alpha} in the penumbra cancel each other giving almost no contribution for their global values for the whole sunspot. (5) Arc-like structures (partial rings) with a sign opposite to that of the dominant sign of {alpha} of the umbral region are seen at the umbral-penumbral boundaries of some sunspots. (6) Most of the sunspots studied belong to the minimum epoch of the 23rd solar cycle and do not follow the so-called hemispheric helicity rule.

  9. High resolution magnetic field mapping of complex magmatic rock suites and associated tectonic structures in the Southern Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Kilian, Rolf

    2013-04-01

    Magmatic and metamorphic rocks of the southernmost Andes (50 to 55°S) document a complex magmatic and tectonic history of an active continental margin during the past >140 Ma [1]. However, the regional distribution of the multiple magmatic intrusive rock suites and younger systems of basaltic dykes as well as the tectonic control of associated hydrothermal systems are widely unexplored. Since the rocks are often bare exposed they represent an ideal test site for a magnetic field investigation with significant implication for future aeromagnetic mapping. Thus we performed a high resolution near-surface grid of measurements with a scalar and vector magnetometer at selected sites which include different intrusive rocks, tectonic lineaments and hydrothermal alteration with an associated mineralization. The magnetic signature corresponding to the Natural Remanent Magnetisation (NRM) was measured on Mesozoic and Cenozoic gabbroid to granitic plutons with large range chemical and mineralogical variations [1], on distinct basaltic dykes, as well as on mylonites, gneisses and hornfels rocks. The whole-rock chemistry of the selected rock types was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and X-ray Fluorescence. The analysed and mapped rocks include the SiO2 range from 45 to 76 wt.%, FeO (tot) contents from 2 to 18 wt.% and Ti2O contents from 0.2 to 2.5 wt.%. The mineral assemblages were analysed by polarization microscopy, with an electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction. In the plutonic rocks the whole rock chemistry often is related to the amount of magnetite and NRM intensities [2]. However, measured magnetic intensities let us estimate the degree of chloritization and associated demagnetisation by magnetite alteration and transformation to maghemite and/or iron-hydroxides. For Miocene basaltic dyke systems of decimetre to several meters extension within granitic plutons, a high resolution magnetic mapping has been also performed. We expected a relationship of

  10. Beamline 9.3.2 - a high-resolution, bend-magnet beamline with circular polarization capability

    SciTech Connect

    Moler, E.J.; Hussain, Z.; Howells, M.R.

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.2 is a high resolution, SGM beamline on an ALS bending magnet with access to photon energies from 30-1500 eV. Features include circular polarization capability, a rotating chamber platform that allows switching between experiments without breaking vacuum, an active feedback system that keeps the beam centered on the entrance slit of the monochromator, and a bendable refocusing mirror. The beamline optics consist of horizontally and vertically focussing mirrors, a Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) with movable entrance and exit slits, and a bendable refocussing mirror. In addition, a movable aperature has been installed just upstream of the vertically focussing mirror which can select the x-rays above or below the plane of the synchrotron storage ring, allowing the user to select circularly or linearly polarized light. Circularly polarized x-rays are used to study the magnetic properties of materials. Beamline 9.3.2 can supply left and right circularly polarized x-rays by a computer controlled aperture which may be placed above or below the plane of the synchrotron storage ring. The degree of linear and circular polarization has been measured and calibrated.

  11. High-Resolution Ground-Based Magnetic Survey of a Buried Volcano: Anomaly B, Amargosa Desert, NV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlrath, J.; George, O.; Farrell, A. K.; Gallant, E.; Tavarez, S.; Downs, C. M.; Njoroge, M. W.; Wilson, J. A.; Connor, C.; Connor, L.; Kruse, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aeromagnetic surveys over the Amargosa Desert, Nevada, have revealed the presence of several magnetic anomalies that have been interpreted to be caused by buried volcanoes; many of these anomalies have been confirmed by drilling. We present data collected from a high-resolution, ground-based magnetic survey over Anomaly B, the largest of these anomalies, that reveal details about a buried crater and its associated lava flow, not previously observed in the aeromagnetic surveys. These details provide insight into the nature of the eruption and the volume of this buried volcano. Results from non-linear inversion demarcate a crater with a diameter of approximately 700 m and a base approximately 150 m below the ground surface. Coupled with well log data, the inversion results suggest a total volume for the Anomaly B crater area and associated lava flows of approximately 1.0 ± 0.4 km3, based on an estimated lava flow field area of 24 km2 and a lava thickness of 42 ± 15 m.

  12. [Connection of magnetic antisense probe with SK-Br-3 oncocyte mRNA nucleotide detected by high resolution atomic force microscope].

    PubMed

    Tan, Shude; Ouyang, Yu; Li, Xinyou; Wen, Ming; Li, Shaolin

    2011-06-01

    The present paper is aimed to detect superparamagnetic iron oxide labeled c-erbB2 oncogene antisense oligonucleotide probe (magnetic antisense probe) connected with SK-Br-3 oncocyte mRNA nucleotide by high resolution atomic force microscope (AFM). We transfected SK-Br-3 oncocyte with magnetic antisense probe, then observed the cells by AFM with high resolution and detected protein expression and magnetic resonance imagine (MRI). The high resolution AFM clearly showed the connection of the oligonucleotide remote end of magnetic antisense probe with the mRNA nucleotide of oncocyte. The expression of e-erbB2 protein in SK-Br3 cells were highly inhibited by using magnetic antisense probe. We then obtained the lowest signal to noise ratio (SNR) of SK-Br-3 oncocyte transfected with magnetic antisense probe by MRI (P<0.05). These experiments demonstrated that the high resolution AFM could be used to show the binding of magnetic antisense probe and SK-Br-3 mRNA of tumor cell nuclear. PMID:21774198

  13. Very-high-resolution seismic and magnetic investigations of a chemical munition dumpsite in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missiaen, Tine; Feller, Pascal

    2008-09-01

    Very-high-resolution (VHR) seismic and magnetic investigations were carried out over a chemical munition dumpsite in the Bornholm Basin, south-western Baltic Sea. The main goal of the investigations was to image the shallow internal structure of the dumpsite and to map the lateral and vertical distribution of the dumped war material. The shallow geology was imaged in great detail on the seismic data. Seven seismic-stratigraphic units were identified, related to different stages in the Holocene and late-glacial history. A large number of diapir-like features were observed that most likely represent fluid expulsion phenomena. Four shipwrecks were identified in the dumpsite area. The wrecks have partly sunk into the soft upper sediments, their height above the sea floor reaching no more than 2 m. Seismic and magnetic data indicate the presence of a large number of buried objects. In most cases there is a good correlation between the seismic and magnetic data sets. The objects are generally buried no deeper than 1 to 2 m. Their size varies between 1.5 and 5 m, occasionally up to 10 m. Shallow pits in the sea bed are likely due to the impact of dumping. The data confirm the wide variety of dumped war material ranging from bombs and shells to encasements and containers. The distribution of the buried objects seems rather heterogeneous, with locally high object concentrations surrounded by areas of lower object density. The results of this case study demonstrate the benefit of complementary, concurrent geophysical investigations for munition dumpsite research. Finally this will yield a better assessment of the current status of the dumpsite and the possible ecological risks related to the dumped war material.

  14. High-resolution AUV-based near bottom magnetic surveys at Palinuro volcanic complex (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocchi, L.; Plunkett, S.; Augustin, N.; Petersen, S.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present the preliminary results of new near bottom magnetic datasets collected during the recent POS442 cruise using the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) Abyss. The Southern Tyrrhenian basin is characterized by deep seafloor interspersed with huge volcanic seamounts (e.g Vavilov and Marsili and those associated to the Aeolian volcanic arc), which were formed during eastward roll back of the Apennine subduction system. These submarine edifices often are affected by significant hydrothermal activity and associated mineral deposits such as those observed at Marsili, Palinuro and Panarea. The western part of the Palinuro volcanic complex is characterized by a half rim of a caldera-like structure and hosts hydrothermal barite-pyrite deposits. Until recently, the full extent of the hydrothermal system remained poorly defined, as exploration has been limited to a few specific sites. In November 2012, a set of high resolution near seafloor geophysical surveys were carried out using GEOMAR's AUV Abyss to attempt to better define the hydrothermal mineralization at Palinuro. Five AUV dives were performed, mapping a total area of 3.7 km2 over the western part of Palinuro. Geomar's Abyss AUV (a Remus6000 class vehicle) was equipped with an Applied Physics Systems flux gate magnetometer, writing to a stand alone data logger, powered by the AUV's main batteries. The 5 dives were performed within the same area but with different primary geophysical sensors (multibeam, sidescan sonar, subbottom profiler), survey altitudes above seafloor (100m, 40m) and line spacing (150m, 100m, 20m). Magnetic data was collect on all five dives. At the beginning of each dive, the AUV performed a set of calibration manoeuvres, involving a 360 degree heading variation, a set of three upwards/downwards pitches, and three port and starboard yaws. This magnetic data reveals the magnetization features of the seafloor in unprecedented detail, highlighting a complex pattern mostly due to

  15. Evaluation of Cancer Metabolomics Using ex vivo High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS)

    PubMed Central

    Fuss, Taylor L.; Cheng, Leo L.

    2016-01-01

    According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, cancer is responsible for more deaths than all coronary heart disease or stroke worldwide, serving as a major public health threat around the world. High resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has demonstrated its usefulness in the identification of cancer metabolic markers with the potential to improve diagnosis and prognosis for the oncology clinic, due partially to its ability to preserve tissue architecture for subsequent histological and molecular pathology analysis. Capable of the quantification of individual metabolites, ratios of metabolites, and entire metabolomic profiles, HRMAS MRS is one of the major techniques now used in cancer metabolomic research. This article reviews and discusses literature reports of HRMAS MRS studies of cancer metabolomics published between 2010 and 2015 according to anatomical origins, including brain, breast, prostate, lung, gastrointestinal, and neuroendocrine cancers. These studies focused on improving diagnosis and understanding patient prognostication, monitoring treatment effects, as well as correlating with the use of in vivo MRS in cancer clinics. PMID:27011205

  16. High-resolution numerical simulation of Left Ventricular Hemodynamics Guided by in-vivo Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Trung; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Mirabella, Lucia; Chaffins, Brandon; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Oshinski, John; Yoganathan, Ajit; University of Minnesota Collaboration; Georgia Institute of Technology Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    We study the fluid dynamics within a patient-specific left ventricle (LV) during diastole using both numerical simulations and in-vivo data. The kinematics of the LV is reconstructed from high-resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data acquired on a healthy volunteer, using image segmentation and a surface registration process. The flow velocity is acquired using phase-contrast MRI at the mitral orifice and at an additional parallel plane inside the ventricle. Numerical simulations are carried out using the CURVIB method (Ge et al., JCP, 2007) with the MRI reconstructed LV wall motion imposed as boundary condition. The numerical simulations show the highly dynamic environment of the flow field. The mitral vortex ring is formed during early diastolic filling and breaks down into small scale structures. The simulated hemodynamics are compared with phase-contrast MRI measurements and previous simulations in which the LV wall motion was obtained from a lumped parameter model (Le and Sotiropoulos, Eur. J. Mechanics B - Fluids, 2012). We acknowlege NIH Grant RO1-HL-07262 and the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute support.

  17. The Thermal and Magnetic Structure of Umbral Dots from the Inversion of High-Resolution Full Stokes Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socas-Navarro, H.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Sobotka, M.; Vázquez, M.

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents the analysis of high-resolution Stokes observations of eight different umbral dots in a sunspot. The spectra were recorded with the La Palma Stokes Polarimeter, attached to the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope. The observed line profiles have been inverted to yield the height stratifications of temperature, magnetic field, and line-of-sight velocity, as well as their respective Wilson depressions. We report on systematic differences in the properties of umbral dots with respect to the nearby umbra, including small upflows (~100 m s-1), higher temperatures (~1 kK), and weaker fields (~500 G) with more horizontal orientations (~10°). The field weakening is strongly correlated with the Wilson depression, suggesting that it may be due to an opacity effect (as one is looking at higher layers). The inclination excess, on the other hand, is real and cannot be ascribed to formation height issues. The results obtained from our semiempirical modeling are discussed within the context of the currently existing scenarios for the subsurface structure of sunspots. The observational signatures revealed by our analysis fit well within both the ``spaghetti'' and the monolithic models.

  18. High resolution 23Na-nuclear magnetic resonance study of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kwan, C Y; Seo, Y; Ito, H; Murakami, M; Watari, H

    1987-06-01

    The intracellular Na+ content of washed erythrocytes from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and Wistar-Kyoto normotensive rats (WKY) was measured by a high resolution 23Na-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique using a non-permeant aqueous shift reagent, dysprosium triethylenetetramine hexaacetic acid, Dy(TTHA)3-. The initial intracellular Na+ of freshly isolated and washed erythrocytes was very low (approximately 5 mmol/l) and increased progressively with prolonged incubation in isotonic salt solution at 37 degrees C. There was no significant difference in the erythrocyte Na+ concentration between SHRSP and WKY over the entire period of measurement, nor was any difference detected in their osmotic fragility or total cellular volume, although the osmotic fragility decreased with incubation time. The high energy phosphate metabolites were also studied in the same erythrocytes by 31P-NMR. The level of intracellular ATP decreased with incubation at 37 degrees C but showed no difference between the SHRSP and WKY samples. Inclusion of 1 mmol/l ouabain in the incubation medium substantially retarded the breakdown of intracellular ATP and resulted in a concomitant increase in intracellular Na+. However, neither the ouabain-sensitive nor the ouabain-insensitive component of Na+ influx altered in SHRSP erythrocytes compared with WKY erythrocytes in paired experiments. Our results do not support the hypothesis that altered Na+ transport, resulting in an increase in erythrocyte Na+ concentration, is associated with spontaneous hypertension. PMID:3611783

  19. Calcium silicate hydrates investigated by solid-state high resolution {sup 1}H and {sup 29}Si nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Meducin, Fabienne . E-mail: meducin@cnrs-orleans.fr; Bresson, Bruno; Lequeux, Nicolas; Noirfontaine, Marie-Noelle de; Zanni, Helene

    2007-05-15

    This work focuses on phases formed during cement hydration under high pressure and temperature: portlandite Ca(OH){sub 2} (CH); hillebrandite Ca{sub 2}(SiO{sub 3})(OH){sub 2} ({beta}-dicalcium silicate hydrate); calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H); jaffeite Ca{sub 6}(Si{sub 2}O{sub 7})(OH){sub 6} (tricalcium silicate hydrate); {alpha}-C{sub 2}SH Ca{sub 2}(SiO{sub 3})(OH){sub 2} ({alpha}-dicalcium silicate hydrate); xonotlite Ca{sub 6}(Si{sub 6}O{sub 17})(OH){sub 2} and kilchoanite Ca{sub 6}(SiO{sub 4})(Si{sub 3}O{sub 10}). Portlandite and hillebrandite were synthesized and characterised by high resolution solid-state {sup 1}H and {sup 29}Si Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. In addition, information from the literature concerning the last five phases was gathered. In certain cases, a schematic 3D-structure could be determined. These data allow identification of the other phases present in a mixture. Their morphology was also observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy.

  20. Investigation of high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging by means of surface and array radiofrequency coils at 7 T.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaag, Wietske; Marques, José P; Hergt, Martin; Gruetter, Rolf

    2009-10-01

    In this investigation, high-resolution, 1x1x1-mm(3) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 7 T is performed using a multichannel array head coil and a surface coil approach. Scan geometry was optimized for each coil separately to exploit the strengths of both coils. Acquisitions with the surface coil focused on partial brain coverage, while whole-brain coverage fMRI experiments were performed with the array head coil. BOLD sensitivity in the occipital lobe was found to be higher with the surface coil than with the head array, suggesting that restriction of signal detection to the area of interest may be beneficial for localized activation studies. Performing independent component analysis (ICA) decomposition of the fMRI data, we consistently detected BOLD signal changes and resting state networks. In the surface coil data, a small negative BOLD response could be detected in these resting state network areas. Also in the data acquired with the surface coil, two distinct components of the positive BOLD signal were consistently observed. These two components were tentatively assigned to tissue and venous signal changes. PMID:19261421

  1. High-Resolution, Single-Molecule Measurements of Biomolecular Motion

    PubMed Central

    Greenleaf, William J.; Woodside, Michael T.; Block, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    Many biologically important macromolecules undergo motions that are essential to their function. Biophysical techniques can now resolve the motions of single molecules down to the nanometer scale or even below, providing new insights into the mechanisms that drive molecular movements. This review outlines the principal approaches that have been used for high-resolution measurements of single-molecule motion, including centroid tracking, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, magnetic tweezers, atomic force microscopy, and optical traps. For each technique, the principles of operation are outlined, the capabilities and typical applications are examined, and various practical issues for implementation are considered. Extensions to these methods are also discussed, with an eye toward future application to outstanding biological problems. PMID:17328679

  2. Combined use of high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition profiling and high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for investigation of antidiabetic principles in crude plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kongstad, Kenneth T; Özdemir, Ceylan; Barzak, Asmah; Wubshet, Sileshi G; Staerk, Dan

    2015-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder affecting millions of people worldwide, and new drug leads or functional foods containing selective α-glucosidase inhibitors are needed. Crude extract of 24 plants were assessed for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Methanol extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark, Rheum rhabarbarum peel, and Rheum palmatum root and ethyl acetate extracts of C. zeylanicum bark, Allium ascalonicum peel, and R. palmatum root showed IC50 values below 20 μg/mL. Subsequently, high-resolution α-glucosidase profiling was used in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for identification of metabolites responsible for the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Quercetin (1) and its dimer (2), trimer (3), and tetramer (4) were identified as main α-glucosidase inhibitors in A. ascalonicum peel, whereas (E)-piceatannol 3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), (E)-rhapontigenin 3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), (E)-piceatannol (8), and emodin (12) were identified as main α-glucosidase inhibitors in R. palmatum root. PMID:25652946

  3. Magnetic Tweezers-based 3D Microchannel Electroporation for High-Throughput Gene Transfection in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wei-Ching; Chiang, Chi-Ling; Gallego-Perez, Daniel; Yang, Zhaogang; Lu, Wu; Byrd, John C.; Muthusamy, Natarajan; Lee, L. James.; Sooryakumar, Ratnasingham

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel, high throughput magnetic-tweezers based 3D microchannel electroporation system capable of transfecting 40,000 cells/cm2 on a single-chip for gene therapy, regenerative medicine and intracellular detection of target mRNA for screening cellular heterogeneity. A single cell or an ordered array of individual cells are remotely guided by programmable magnetic fields to poration sites with high (> 90%) cell alignment efficiency to enable various transfection reagents to be delivered simultaneously into the cells. The present technique, in contrast to the conventional vacuum based approach, is significantly gentler on the cellular membrane yielding > 90% cell viability and, moreover, allows transfected cells to be transported for further analysis. Illustrating the versatility of the system, the GATA2 molecular beacon was delivered into leukemia cells to detect the regulation level of the GATA2 gene that is associated with the initiation of leukemia. The uniform delivery and a sharp contrast of fluorescence intensity between GATA2 positive and negative cells demonstrate key aspects of the platform for gene transfer, screening and detection of targeted intracellular markers in living cells. PMID:25469659

  4. NAP1-Assisted Nucleosome Assembly on DNA Measured in Real Time by Single-Molecule Magnetic Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Vlijm, Rifka; Smitshuijzen, Jeremy S. J.; Lusser, Alexandra; Dekker, Cees

    2012-01-01

    While many proteins are involved in the assembly and (re)positioning of nucleosomes, the dynamics of protein-assisted nucleosome formation are not well understood. We study NAP1 (nucleosome assembly protein 1) assisted nucleosome formation at the single-molecule level using magnetic tweezers. This method allows to apply a well-defined stretching force and supercoiling density to a single DNA molecule, and to study in real time the change in linking number, stiffness and length of the DNA during nucleosome formation. We observe a decrease in end-to-end length when NAP1 and core histones (CH) are added to the dsDNA. We characterize the formation of complete nucleosomes by measuring the change in linking number of DNA, which is induced by the NAP1-assisted nucleosome assembly, and which does not occur for non-nucleosomal bound histones H3 and H4. By rotating the magnets, the supercoils formed upon nucleosome assembly are removed and the number of assembled nucleosomes can be counted. We find that the compaction of DNA at low force is about 56 nm per assembled nucleosome. The number of compaction steps and associated change in linking number indicate that NAP1-assisted nucleosome assembly is a two-step process. PMID:23050009

  5. Live-cell high resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy for in vivo analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Righi, Valeria; Constantinou, Caterina; Kesarwani, Meenu; Rahme, Laurence G; Tzika, Aria A

    2013-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is a pathogenic gram-negative bacterium that is widespread in nature, inhabiting soil, water, plants and animals. PA is a prevalent cause of deleterious human infections, particularly in patients whose host defense mechanisms have been compromised. Metabolomics is an important tool used to study host-pathogen interactions and to identify novel therapeutic targets and corresponding compounds. The aim of the present study was to report the metabolic profile of live PA bacteria using in vivo high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), in combination with 1- and 2-dimensional HRMAS NMR. This methodology provides a new and powerful technique to rapidly interrogate the metabolome of intact bacterial cells and has several advantages over traditional techniques that identify metabolome components from disrupted cells. Furthermore, application of multidimensional HRMAS NMR, in combination with the novel technique total through-Bond correlation Spectroscopy (TOBSY), is a promising approach that may be used to obtain in vivo metabolomics information from intact live bacterial cells and can mediate such analyses in a short period of time. Moreover, HRMAS (1)H NMR enables the investigation of the associations between metabolites and cell processes. In the present study, we detected and quantified several informative metabolic molecules in live PA cells, including N-acetyl, betaine, citrulline, alanine and glycine, which are important in peptidoglycan synthesis. The results provided a complete metabolic profile of PA for future studies of PA clinical isolates and mutants. In addition, this in vivo NMR biomedical approach might have clinical utility and should prove useful in gene function validation, the study of pathogenetic mechanisms, the classification of microbial strains into functional/clinical groups, the testing of anti-bacterial agents and the determination of metabolic profiles of bacterial

  6. Intratumoral Agreement of High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Profiles in the Metabolic Characterization of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Vivian Youngjean; Yoon, Dahye; Koo, Ja Seung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Seung Il; Choi, Ji Soo; Park, Seho; Park, Hyung Seok; Kim, Suhkmann; Kim, Min Jung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract High-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy data may serve as a biomarker for breast cancer, with only a small volume of tissue sample required for assessment. However, previous studies utilized only a single tissue sample from each patient. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intratumoral location and biospecimen type affected the metabolic characterization of breast cancer assessed by HR-MAS MR spectroscopy This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and informed consent was obtained. Preoperative core-needle biopsies (CNBs), central, and peripheral surgical tumor specimens were prospectively collected under ultrasound (US) guidance in 31 patients with invasive breast cancer. Specimens were assessed with HR-MAS MR spectroscopy. The reliability of metabolite concentrations was evaluated and multivariate analysis was performed according to intratumoral location and biospecimen type. There was a moderate or higher agreement between the relative concentrations of 94.3% (33 of 35) of metabolites in the center and periphery, 80.0% (28 of 35) of metabolites in the CNB and central surgical specimens, and 82.9% (29 of 35) of metabolites between all 3 specimen types. However, there was no significant agreement between the concentrations of phosphocholine (PC) and phosphoethanolamine (PE) in the center and periphery. The concentrations of several metabolites (adipate, arginine, fumarate, glutamate, PC, and PE) had no significant agreement between the CNB and central surgical specimens. In conclusion, most HR-MAS MR spectroscopic data do not differ based on intratumoral location or biospecimen type. However, some metabolites may be affected by specimen-related variables, and caution is recommended in decision-making based solely on metabolite concentrations, particularly PC and PE. Further validation through future studies is needed for the clinical implementation of these biomarkers based

  7. Optical tweezers study life under tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazal, Furqan M.; Block, Steven M.

    2011-06-01

    Optical tweezers have become one of the primary weapons in the arsenal of biophysicists, and have revolutionized the new field of single-molecule biophysics. Today's techniques allow high-resolution experiments on biological macromolecules that were mere pipe dreams only a decade ago.

  8. Cryogenic phased-array for high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); assessment of clinical and research applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, Flora S.

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging is one of the most powerful tools in diagnostic medicine for soft tissue imaging. Image acquisition techniques and hardware receivers are very important in achieving high contrast and high resolution MR images. An aim of this dissertation is to design single and multi-element room and cryogenic temperature arrays and make assessments of their signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and SNR gain. In this dissertation, four sets of MR receiver coils are built. They are the receiver-only cryo-coils that are not commercially available. A tuning and matching circuit is attached to each coil. The tuning and matching circuits are simple; however, each device component has to operate at a high magnetic field and cryogenic temperature environment. Remote DC bias of the varactor controls the tuning and matching outside the scanner room. Active detuning of the resonator is done by two p-i-n junction (PIN) diodes. Cooling of the receiver is done by a customized liquid nitrogen cryostat. The first application is to build a 3-Tesla 2x1 horseshoe counter-rotating current (CRC) cryogenic array to image the tibia in a human body. With significant increase in SNR, the surface coil should deliver high contrast and resolution images that can show the trabecular bone and bone marrow structure. This structural image will be used to model the mechanical strength of the bone as well as bone density and chance of fracture. The planar CRC is a unique design of this surface array. The second application is to modify the coil design to 7-Tesla to study the growth of infant rhesus monkey eyes. Fast scan MR images of the infant monkey heads are taken for monitoring shapes of their eyeballs. The monkeys are induced with shortsightedness by eye lenses, and they are scanned periodically to get images of their eyeballs. The field-of-view (FOV) of these images is about five centimeters and the area of interest is two centimeters deep from the surface. Because of these reasons

  9. High-Resolution Mapping of Lunar Crustal Magnetic Fields: Correlations with Albedo Markings of the Reiner Gamma Class

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Yingst, A.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Acuna, M.; Binder, A.

    1999-01-01

    During the last eight months of the Lunar Prospector mission (December 1999-July 1999), the spacecraft was placed in a relatively low-altitude (15-30-km perapsis), near-polar orbit that allowed high-resolution mapping of crustal magnetic fields. We report here initial studies of the correlation of locally strong magnetic anomalies with unusual, swirl-like albedo markings of the Reiner Gamma class. Based on this correlation, which is known from earlier studies of Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data, it has been proposed that the swirls represent regions whose higher albedos have been preserved via deflection of the solar-wind ion bombardment by strong crustal fields. This model in turn depends on the hypothesis that solar-wind implanted H is at least one component of the process that optically matures exposed silicate surfaces in the inner solar system . Specifically, it is hypothesized that implanted H acts as an effective reducing agent to enhance the rate of production of nanophase metallic Fe particles from preexisting silicates during micrometeoroid impacts. According to the model, the curvilinear shapes of these albedo markings are caused, at least in part, by the geometry of ion deflections in a magnetic field. The improved resolution and coverage of the Prospector data allow more detailed mapping of the fields, especially on the lunar farside. This permits a more quantitative test of whether all albedo markings of this class are associated with strong local magnetic fields.Only if the latter condition is met can the solar-wind deflection hypothesis he valid. The basic procedure for mapping crustal magnetic fields using Lunar Prospector magnetometer data follows that developed for analysis of Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data. The specific mapping steps are (1) selection of mission time intervals suitable for mapping crustal fields; these are limited essentially either to times when the Moon is in a lobe of the geomagnetic tail or to times when the Moon

  10. Observing dynamics of chromatin fibers in Xenopus egg extracts by single DNA manipulation using a transverse magnetic tweezer setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jie; Skoko, Dunja; Marko, John; Maresca, Tom; Heald, Rebecca

    2005-03-01

    We have studied assembly of chromatin on single DNAs using Xenopus egg extracts and a specially designed magnetic tweezer setup which generates controlled force in the focal plane of the objective, allowing us to visualize and measure DNA extension under a wide range of constant tensions. We found, in the absence of ATP, interphase extracts assembled nucleosomes against DNA tensions of up to 3.5 piconewtons (pN). We observed force-induced disassembly and opening-closing fluctuations indicating our experiments were in mechano-chemical equilibrium. We found that the ATP-depleted reaction can do mechanical work of 27 kcal/mol per nucleosome, providing a measurement of the free energy difference between core histone octamers on and off DNA. Addition of ATP leads to highly dynamic behavior: time courses show processive runs of assembly and disassembly of not observed in the -ATP case, with forces of 2 pN leading to nearly complete fiber disassembly. Our study shows that ATP hydrolysis plays a major role in nucleosome rearrangement and removal, and suggests that chromatin in vivo may be subject to continual assembly and disassembly.

  11. Mechanical unfolding of human telomere G-quadruplex DNA probed by integrated fluorescence and magnetic tweezers spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Long, Xi; Parks, Joseph W; Bagshaw, Clive R; Stone, Michael D

    2013-02-01

    Single-molecule techniques facilitate analysis of mechanical transitions within nucleic acids and proteins. Here, we describe an integrated fluorescence and magnetic tweezers instrument that permits detection of nanometer-scale DNA structural rearrangements together with the application of a wide range of stretching forces to individual DNA molecules. We have analyzed the force-dependent equilibrium and rate constants for telomere DNA G-quadruplex (GQ) folding and unfolding, and have determined the location of the transition state barrier along the well-defined DNA-stretching reaction coordinate. Our results reveal the mechanical unfolding pathway of the telomere DNA GQ is characterized by a short distance (<1 nm) to the transition state for the unfolding reaction. This mechanical unfolding response reflects a critical contribution of long-range interactions to the global stability of the GQ fold, and suggests that telomere-associated proteins need only disrupt a few base pairs to destabilize GQ structures. Comparison of the GQ unfolded state with a single-stranded polyT DNA revealed the unfolded GQ exhibits a compacted non-native conformation reminiscent of the protein molten globule. We expect the capacity to interrogate macromolecular structural transitions with high spatial resolution under conditions of low forces will have broad application in analyses of nucleic acid and protein folding. PMID:23303789

  12. High-Resolution Mapping of Lunar Crustal Magnetic Fields: Correlations with Albedo Markings of the Reiner Gamma Class

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Yingst, A.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Acuna, M.; Binder, A.

    1999-01-01

    During the last eight months of the Lunar Prospector mission (December 1999-July 1999), the spacecraft was placed in a relatively low-altitude (15-30-km perapsis), near-polar orbit that allowed high-resolution mapping of crustal magnetic fields. We report here initial studies of the correlation of locally strong magnetic anomalies with unusual, swirl-like albedo markings of the Reiner Gamma class. Based on this correlation, which is known from earlier studies of Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data, it has been proposed that the swirls represent regions whose higher albedos have been preserved via deflection of the solar-wind ion bombardment by strong crustal fields. This model in turn depends on the hypothesis that solar-wind implanted H is at least one component of the process that optically matures exposed silicate surfaces in the inner solar system . Specifically, it is hypothesized that implanted H acts as an effective reducing agent to enhance the rate of production of nanophase metallic Fe particles from preexisting silicates during micrometeoroid impacts. According to the model, the curvilinear shapes of these albedo markings are caused, at least in part, by the geometry of ion deflections in a magnetic field. The improved resolution and coverage of the Prospector data allow more detailed mapping of the fields, especially on the lunar farside. This permits a more quantitative test of whether all albedo markings of this class are associated with strong local magnetic fields.Only if the latter condition is met can the solar-wind deflection hypothesis he valid. The basic procedure for mapping crustal magnetic fields using Lunar Prospector magnetometer data follows that developed for analysis of Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data. The specific mapping steps are (1) selection of mission time intervals suitable for mapping crustal fields; these are limited essentially either to times when the Moon is in a lobe of the geomagnetic tail or to times when the Moon

  13. Detection of tannins in modern and fossil barks and in plant residues by high-resolution solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Bark samples isolated from brown coal deposits in Victoria, Australia, and buried wood from Rhizophora mangle have been studies by high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Dipolar dephasing 13C NMR appears to be a useful method of detecting the presence of tannins in geochemical samples including barks, buried woods, peats and leaf litter. It is shown that tannins are selectively preserved in bark during coalification to the brown coal stage. ?? 1988.

  14. A high-resolution field-emission-gun, scanning electron microscope investigation of anisotropic hydrogen decrepitation in Nd-Fe-B-based sintered magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Soderznik, Marko; McGuiness, Paul; Zuzek-Rozman, Kristina; Kobe, Spomenka; Skulj, Irena; Yan Gaolin

    2010-05-15

    In this investigation commercial magnets based on (Nd,Dy){sub 14}(Fe,Co){sub 79}B{sub 7} were prepared by a conventional powder-metallurgy route with a degree of alignment equal to {approx}90% and then exposed to hydrogen at a pressure of 1 bar. The magnets, in the form of cylinders, were observed to decrepitate exclusively from the ends. High-resolution electron microscopy was able to identify the presence of crack formation within the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains, with the cracks running parallel to the c axis of these grains. Based on the concentration profile for hydrogen in a rare-earth transition-metal material, it is clear that the presence of hydrogen-induced cracks running perpendicular to the ends of the magnet provides for a much more rapidly progressing hydrogen front in this direction than from the sides of the magnet. This results in the magnet exhibiting a macroscopic tendency to decrepitate from the poles of the magnet toward the center. This combination of microstructural modification via particle alignment as part of the sintering process and direct observation via high-resolution electron microscopy has led to a satisfying explanation for the anisotropic hydrogen-decrepitation effect.

  15. High-resolution magnetic signature of active hydrothermal systems in the back-arc spreading region of the southern Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Masakazu; Okino, Kyoko; Honsho, Chie; Dyment, Jerome; Szitkar, Florent; Mochizuki, Nobutatsu; Asada, Miho

    2015-05-01

    High-resolution vector magnetic measurements were performed on five hydrothermal vent fields of the back-arc spreading region of the southern Mariana Trough using Shinkai 6500, a deep-sea manned submersible. A new 3-D forward scheme was applied that exploits the surrounding bathymetry and varying altitudes of the submersible to estimate absolute crustal magnetization. The results revealed that magnetic-anomaly-derived absolute magnetizations show a reasonable correlation with natural remanent magnetizations of rock samples collected from the seafloor of the same region. The distribution of magnetic-anomaly-derived absolute magnetization suggests that all five andesite-hosted hydrothermal fields are associated with a lack of magnetization, as is generally observed at basalt-hosted hydrothermal sites. Furthermore, both the Pika and Urashima sites were found to have their own distinct low-magnetization zones, which could not be distinguished in magnetic anomaly data collected at higher altitudes by autonomous underwater vehicle due to their limited extension. The spatial extent of the resulting low magnetization is approximately 10 times wider at off-axis sites than at on-axis sites, possibly reflecting larger accumulations of nonmagnetic sulfides, stockwork zones, and/or alteration zones at the off-axis sites.

  16. Experimental Fusion of Contrast Enhanced High-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging and High-Resolution Micro-Computed Tomography in Imaging the Mouse Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Counter, S. Allen; Damberg, Peter; Aski, Sahar Nikkhou; Nagy, Kálmán; Berglin, Cecilia Engmér; Laurell, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Imaging cochlear, vestibular, and 8th cranial nerve abnormalities remains a challenge. In this study, the membranous and osseous labyrinths of the wild type mouse inner ear were examined using volumetric data from ultra high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium contrast at 9.4 Tesla and high-resolution micro-computed tomography (µCT) to visualize the scalae and vestibular apparatus, and to establish imaging protocols and parameters for comparative analysis of the normal and mutant mouse inner ear. Methods: For in vivo MRI acquisition, animals were placed in a Milleped coil situated in the isocenter of a horizontal 9.4 T Varian magnet. For µCT examination, cone beam scans were performed ex vivo following MRI using the µCT component of a nanoScan PET/CT in vivo scanner. Results: The fusion of Gd enhanced high field MRI and high-resolution µCT scans revealed the dynamic membranous labyrinth of the perilymphatic fluid filled scala tympani and scala vestibule of the cochlea, and semicircular canals of the vestibular apparatus, within the µCT visualized contours of the contiguous osseous labyrinth. The ex vivo µCT segmentation revealed the surface contours and structural morphology of each cochlea turn and the semicircular canals in 3 planes. Conclusions: The fusion of ultra high-field MRI and high-resolution µCT imaging techniques were complementary, and provided high-resolution dynamic and static visualization of the complex morphological features of the normal mouse inner ear structures, which may offer a valuable approach for the investigation of cochlear and vestibular abnormalities that are associated with birth defects related to genetic inner ear disorders in humans. PMID:26401173

  17. Magnetic domain wall tweezers: a new tool for mechanobiology studies on individual target cells.

    PubMed

    Monticelli, M; Conca, D V; Albisetti, E; Torti, A; Sharma, P P; Kidiyoor, G; Barozzi, S; Parazzoli, D; Ciarletta, P; Lupi, M; Petti, D; Bertacco, R

    2016-08-01

    In vitro tests are of fundamental importance for investigating cell mechanisms in response to mechanical stimuli or the impact of the genotype on cell mechanical properties. In particular, the application of controlled forces to activate specific bio-pathways and investigate their effects, mimicking the role of the cellular environment, is becoming a prominent approach in the emerging field of mechanobiology. Here, we present an on-chip device based on magnetic domain wall manipulators, which allows the application of finely controlled and localized forces on target living cells. In particular, we demonstrate the application of a magnetic force in the order of hundreds of pN on the membrane of HeLa cells cultured on-chip, via manipulation of 1 μm superparamagnetic beads. Such a mechanical stimulus produces a sizable local indentation of the cellular membrane of about 2 μm. Upon evaluation of the beads' position within the magnetic field originated by the domain wall, the force applied during the experiments is accurately quantified via micromagnetic simulations. The obtained value is in good agreement with that calculated by the application of an elastic model to the cellular membrane. PMID:27364187

  18. Magnetic field induced enlargement of the regime of critical fluctuations in the classical superconductor V3Si from high-resolution specific heat experiments.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y; Liu, Y; Toyota, N; Lortz, R

    2015-02-25

    We present high-resolution specific heat data from a high-purity single crystal of the classical superconductor V(3)Si, which reveal tiny lambda-shape anomalies at the superconducting transition superimposed onto the BCS specific heat jump in magnetic fields of 2 T and higher. The appearance of these anomalies is accompanied by a magnetic-field-induced broadening of the superconducting transition. We demonstrate, using scaling relations predicted by the fluctuation models of the 3d-XY and the 3d-lowest-Landau-level (3d-LLL) universality class that the effect of critical fluctuations becomes experimentally observable due to of a magnetic field-induced enlargement of the regime of critical fluctuations. The scaling indicates that a reduction of the effective dimensionality due to the confinement of quasiparticles into low Landau levels is responsible for this effect. PMID:25640214

  19. High-resolution magnetics reveal the deep structure of a volcanic-arc-related basalt-hosted hydrothermal site (Palinuro, Tyrrhenian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szitkar, Florent; Petersen, Sven; Caratori Tontini, Fabio; Cocchi, Luca

    2015-06-01

    High-resolution magnetic surveys have been acquired over the partially sedimented Palinuro massive sulfide deposits in the Aeolian volcanic arc, Tyrrhenian Sea. Surveys flown close to the seafloor using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) show that the volcanic-arc-related basalt-hosted hydrothermal site is associated with zones of lower magnetization. This observation reflects the alteration of basalt affected by hydrothermal circulation and/or the progressive accumulation of a nonmagnetic deposit made of hydrothermal and volcaniclastic material and/or a thermal demagnetization of titanomagnetite due to the upwelling of hot fluids. To discriminate among these inferences, estimate the shape of the nonmagnetic deposit and the characteristics of the underlying altered area—the stockwork—we use high-resolution vector magnetic data acquired by the AUV Abyss (GEOMAR) above a crater-shaped depression hosting a weakly active hydrothermal site. Our study unveils a relatively small nonmagnetic deposit accumulated at the bottom of the depression and locked between the surrounding volcanic cones. Thermal demagnetization is unlikely but the stockwork extends beyond the limits of the nonmagnetic deposit, forming lobe-shaped zones believed to be a consequence of older volcanic episodes having contributed in generating the cones.

  20. High resolution NMR study of T{sub 1} magnetic relaxation dispersion. IV. Proton relaxation in amino acids and Met-enkephalin pentapeptide

    SciTech Connect

    Pravdivtsev, Andrey N.; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V.; Ivanov, Konstantin L.; Vieth, Hans-Martin

    2014-10-21

    Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation Dispersion (NMRD) of protons was studied in the pentapeptide Met-enkephalin and the amino acids, which constitute it. Experiments were run by using high-resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) in combination with fast field-cycling, thus enabling measuring NMRD curves for all individual protons. As in earlier works, Papers I–III, pronounced effects of intramolecular scalar spin-spin interactions, J-couplings, on spin relaxation were found. Notably, at low fields J-couplings tend to equalize the apparent relaxation rates within networks of coupled protons. In Met-enkephalin, in contrast to the free amino acids, there is a sharp increase in the proton T{sub 1}-relaxation times at high fields due to the changes in the regime of molecular motion. The experimental data are in good agreement with theory. From modelling the relaxation experiments we were able to determine motional correlation times of different residues in Met-enkephalin with atomic resolution. This allows us to draw conclusions about preferential conformation of the pentapeptide in solution, which is also in agreement with data from two-dimensional NMR experiments (rotating frame Overhauser effect spectroscopy). Altogether, our study demonstrates that high-resolution NMR studies of magnetic field-dependent relaxation allow one to probe molecular mobility in biomolecules with atomic resolution.

  1. High-Resolution Geophysical 3D Imaging for Archaeology by Magnetic and EM data: The Case of the Iron Age Settlement of Torre Galli, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cella, Federico; Fedi, Maurizio

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic and electromagnetic surveying are effective techniques frequently used in archaeology because the susceptibility and the electric resistivity contrast between the cover soil and several buried finds often lead to detectable anomalies. Significant advances were recently achieved by 3D imaging methods of potential field data that provide an estimate of the magnetization distribution within the subsurface. They provide a high-resolution image of the source distribution, thanks to the differentiation of the field and to the stability of the process. These techniques are fast and quite effective in the case of a compact, isolated, and depth-limited source, i.e., just the kind of source generally occurring in archaeological investigations. We illustrate the high-resolution imaging process for a geophysical study carried out at Torre Galli ( Vibo Valentia, Calabria, Italy), one of the most significant sites of the early Iron Age in Italy. Multi-scale derivative analysis of magnetic data revealed the trends of anomalies shaped and aligned with a regular geometry. This allowed us to make an outline of the buried structures, and then to characterize them in terms of size, shape, and depth by means of the imaging technique. Targeted excavations were therefore addressed to the locations selected by our analysis, revealing structures showing exactly the predicted features and confirming the archaeological hypothesis concerning the settlement organization partitioned in terms of functional differentiation: an intermediate area occupied mostly by defensive structures placed between the village, westward, and the necropolis, eastward.

  2. High-resolution {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance evidence of phase transition of Rb,Cs-intercalated single-walled nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Bouhrara, M.; Saih, Y.; Waagberg, T.; Goze-Bac, C.; Abou-Hamad, E.

    2011-09-01

    We present 13 C high-resolution magic-angle-turning (MAT) and magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance data of Cs and Rb intercalated single walled carbon nanotubes. We find two distinct phases at different intercalation levels. A simple charge transfer is applicable at low intercalation level. The new phase at high intercalation level is accompanied by a hybridization of alkali (s) orbitals with the carbon (sp2) orbitals of the single walled nanotubes, which indicate bundle surface sites is the most probable alkali site.

  3. Measurement of local viscoelasticity and forces in living cells by magnetic tweezers.

    PubMed

    Bausch, A R; Möller, W; Sackmann, E

    1999-01-01

    We measured the viscoelastic properties of the cytoplasm of J774 macrophages with a recently developed microrheometer. Ferromagnetic beads (1.3 microm in diameter) were used to determine the local viscoelastic moduli. Step-force pulses were applied to the magnetic beads and the displacement was observed by single particle tracking. By analyzing the creep response curves in terms of a triphasic mechanical equivalent circuit, we measured the shear elastic modulus, the effective viscosities, and the strain relaxation time. The values of the shear modulus vary by more than an order of magnitude within the cell population (range, 20-735 Pa; average, 343 Pa) and by a factor of 2 within single cells. The effective viscosity of the cytoplasm exhibits a relatively sharp distribution about an average of eta = 210 Pa s (+/- 143 Pa s). We measured the displacement field generated by the local forces by observing the induced motion of nonmagnetic beads. Even at distances of the order of 1 microm, no induced motion was seen, suggesting that the cytoplasm is composed of clusters of densely packed and cross-linked filaments separated by soft regions. In another series of experiments we analyzed the magnetophoretic motion of the ferromagnetic beads at a constant magnetic force. Measuring the bead velocity parallel and perpendicular to the applied force showed that local active forces on the beads varied from 50 to 900 pN. PMID:9876170

  4. Advanced field shimming technology to reduce the influence of a screening current in a REBCO coil for a high-resolution NMR magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, S.; Piao, R.; Hamada, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Suematsu, H.; Takao, T.; Saito, A. T.; Li, J.; Nakagome, H.; Jin, X.; Takahashi, M.; Maeda, H.; Yanagisawa, Y.

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a field shimming technology to obtain a spatially homogeneous magnetic field required for a high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnet under the influence of a screening current in a (RE)Ba2Cu3O7-x (REBCO) coil. Use of REBCO inner coils is one solution to realize a super-high field (>23.5 T, 1 GHz) NMR magnet. However, a REBCO coil generates a large amount of field error harmonics due to the inhomogeneous coil winding introduced by a thin tape conductor. In addition, the performance of a field correction coil and outer superconducting (SC) shim coils are significantly reduced due to the shielding effect of the screening current in the REBCO coil. Therefore, conventional shimming technology using SC shim coils and room temperature shim coils cannot adequately compensate those field error harmonics and high-resolution NMR measurements are not possible. In the present paper, an advanced field shimming technology including an inner SC shim coil and a novel type of ferromagnetic shim were installed in a 400 MHz low-temperature SC/REBCO NMR magnet. The inner SC shim coil and the ferromagnetic shim compensated for the reduction in the performances of the field correction coil and the SC shim coils, respectively. The field error harmonics were greatly compensated with the technology and a high NMR resolution <0.01 ppm was obtained. The results from the present work suggest an optimal shimming procedure for a super-high field NMR magnet with high-temperature superconductors inner coils, i.e. the best mix of shims.

  5. A new 3D parallel high resolution electromagnetic nonlinear inversion based on new global magnetic integral and local differential decomposition (GILD)

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, G.; Li, J.

    1997-05-01

    A new 3D electromagnetic modeling and nonlinear inversion algorithm is presented based on global integral and local differential equations decomposition (GILD). The GILD parallel nonlinear inversion algorithm consists of five parts: (1) the domain is decomposed into subdomain SI and subdomain SII; (2) a new global magnetic integral equation in SI and the local magnetic differential equations IN SII will be used together to obtain the magnetic field in the modeling step; (3) the new global magnetic integral Jacobian equation in SI and the local magnetic differential Jacobian equations in SII will be used together to update the electric conductivity and permittivity from the magnetic field data in the inversion step; (4) the subdomain SII can naturally and uniformly be decomposed into 2{sup n} smaller sub-cubic-domains; the sparse matrix in each sub-cubic-domain can be eliminated separately, in parallel; (5) a new parallel multiple hierarchy substructure algorithm will be used to solve the smaller full matrices in SI, in parallel. The applications of the new 3D parallel GILD EM modeling and nonlinear inversion algorithm and software are: (1) to create high resolution controlled-source electric conductivity and permittivity imaging for interpreting electromagnetic field data acquired from cross hole, surface to borehole, surface to surface, single hole, and multiple holes; (2) to create the magnetotelluric high resolution imaging from the surface impedance and field data. The new GILD parallel nonlinear inversion will be a 3D/2.5D powerful imaging tool for the oil geophysical exploration and environmental remediation and monitoring.

  6. Oxygen Nanodistributions in Cobalt-Iron Electrodeposited Thin Films: Some Effects on Magnetic Properties High Resolution Analytical Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhalawaty, Shereen

    Soft magnetic alloys play a significant role for magnetic recording applications and highly sensitivity magnetic field sensors. In order to sustain the magnetic areal density growth, development of new synthesis techniques and materials is necessary. In this work, the effect of oxygen incorporation during electrodeposition of CoFe alloys on magnetic properties, magnetoresistance and structural properties has been studied. Understanding the magnetic properties often required knowledge of oxygen distribution and structural properties of the grown films. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was a powerful tool in this study to correlate the oxygen-distribution nanostructure to the magnetic properties of deposited films. Off-axis electron holography in TEM was used to measure magnetic domain wall width in the deposited films. Elemental depth profiles of Fe, Co, O were investigated by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Magnetic properties have been determined by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements. Oxygen content in the CoFe deposited films was controlled by electrolyte composition. Films were deposited on Si 100 substrates and on other substrates such as Cu and Al. However, a good film quality was achieved on Si substrate. Electron energy loss and x-ray spectroscopies showed that the low oxygen films contained intragranular Fe2+ oxide (FeO) particles and that the high oxygen films contained intergranular Fe 3+ (Fe2O3) along grain boundaries. The films with oxide present at the grain boundary had significantly increased coercivity, magnetoresistance and reduced saturation magnetization relative to the lower oxygen content films with intragranular oxide. The differences in magnetic properties between low oxygen and high oxygen concentration films were attributed to stronger mobile domain wall interactions with the grain boundary oxide layers. The very high magnetoresistance values were achieved for magnetic devices with nanocontact

  7. The Relationship Between Solar Coronal X-Ray Brightness and Active Region Magnetic Fields: A Study Using High-Resolution Hinode Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Soumitra; Nandy, Dibyendu; Ravindra, B.

    2015-03-01

    By using high-resolution observations of nearly co-temporal and co-spatial Solar Optical Telescope spectropolarimeter and X-Ray Telescope coronal X-ray data onboard Hinode, we revisit the problematic relationship between global magnetic quantities and coronal X-ray brightness. Co-aligned vector magnetogram and X-ray data were used for this study. The total X-ray brightness over active regions is well correlated with integrated magnetic quantities such as the total unsigned magnetic flux, the total unsigned vertical current, and the area-integrated square of the vertical and horizontal magnetic fields. On accounting for the inter-dependence of the magnetic quantities, we inferred that the total magnetic flux is the primary determinant of the observed integrated X-ray brightness. Our observations indicate that a stronger coronal X-ray flux is not related to a higher non-potentiality of active-region magnetic fields. The data even suggest a slightly negative correlation between X-ray brightness and a proxy of active-region non-potentiality. Although there are small numerical differences in the established correlations, the main conclusions are qualitatively consistent over two different X-ray filters, the Al-poly and Ti-poly filters, which confirms the strength of our conclusions and validate and extend earlier studies that used low-resolution data. We discuss the implications of our results and the constraints they set on theories of solar coronal heating.

  8. Quantification of magnetic nanoparticles with broadband-frequency magnetic susceptibility measurements: High-resolution climatic records from an upper loess-paleosol succession at Luochuan, Chinese Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, K.; An, Z.; Chang, H.; Qiang, X.

    2013-12-01

    magnetic nanoparticles in soils and sediments. In addition, the loess and weak paleosols in the Chinese Loess Plateau, as well as the paleosols, have high potential as high-resolution climatic archives.

  9. The Potential of High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Microscopy in the Pathologic Analysis of Resected Breast and Lymph Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Dashevsky, Brittany Z.; D'Alfonso, Timothy; Sutton, Elizabeth J.; Giambrone, Ashley; Aronowitz, Eric; Morris, Elizabeth A.; Juluru, Krishna; Ballon, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    Pathologic evaluation of breast specimens requires a fixation and staining procedure of at least 12 hours duration, delaying diagnosis and post-operative planning. Here we introduce an MRI technique with a custom-designed radiofrequency resonator for imaging breast and lymph tissue with sufficient spatial resolution and speed to guide pathologic interpretation and offer value in clinical decision making. In this study, we demonstrate the ability to image breast and lymphatic tissue using 7.0 Tesla MRI, achieving a spatial resolution of 59 × 59 × 94 μm3 with a signal-to-noise ratio of 15–20, in an imaging time of 56 to 70 minutes. These are the first MR images to reveal characteristic pathologic features of both benign and malignant breast and lymph tissue, some of which were discernible by blinded pathologists who had no prior training in high resolution MRI interpretation. PMID:26639673

  10. Echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging (EPI) with high-resolution matrix in intra-axial brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Brüning, R; Seelos, K; Yousry, T; Scheidler, J; Exner, H; Porn, U; Reiser, M; Rosen, B R

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of high-speed interleaved echo-planar imaging (EPI) to achieve diagnostic image quality comparable to T2-weighted imaging in patients with brain tumors. Seventeen patients with intra-axial, supratentorial tumors (10 untreated gliomas, 7 radiated gliomas) were investigated on a 1. 5-T scanner. The conventional scan (SE, TR/TE = 2200/80 ms, 18 slices) was acquired in 8 min, 4 s, and EPI (TR/TE = 3000/80 ms, 18 slices) was completed in 25 s. The films were compared in a blinded trail by three radiologists. On the general impression and anatomic display, both sequences were rated to be of similar quality. Artifacts were slightly more pronounced at the skull base and around surgical clips using EPI. Tumor delineation was nearly equivalent using EPI, compared with the T2-weighted sequence. Echo-planar imaging reached diagnostic quality in all patients. Interleaved high-resolution EPI yielded sufficient quality to depict intra-axial, supratentorial brain tumors. Since EPI can be obtained in a small fraction of the time needed for conventional spin echo, in addition to other indications it could be considered to study patients unable to cooperate. PMID:10460380

  11. The Potential of High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Microscopy in the Pathologic Analysis of Resected Breast and Lymph Tissue.

    PubMed

    Dashevsky, Brittany Z; D'Alfonso, Timothy; Sutton, Elizabeth J; Giambrone, Ashley; Aronowitz, Eric; Morris, Elizabeth A; Juluru, Krishna; Ballon, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Pathologic evaluation of breast specimens requires a fixation and staining procedure of at least 12 hours duration, delaying diagnosis and post-operative planning. Here we introduce an MRI technique with a custom-designed radiofrequency resonator for imaging breast and lymph tissue with sufficient spatial resolution and speed to guide pathologic interpretation and offer value in clinical decision making. In this study, we demonstrate the ability to image breast and lymphatic tissue using 7.0 Tesla MRI, achieving a spatial resolution of 59 × 59 × 94 μm(3) with a signal-to-noise ratio of 15-20, in an imaging time of 56 to 70 minutes. These are the first MR images to reveal characteristic pathologic features of both benign and malignant breast and lymph tissue, some of which were discernible by blinded pathologists who had no prior training in high resolution MRI interpretation. PMID:26639673

  12. Magnetic investigations along selected high-resolution seismic traverses in the central block of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, D.A.; Sikora, R.F.; Roberts, C.W.; Morin, R.L.; Halvorson, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    Ground magnetic data collected along several traverses across the central block of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada are interpreted. These data were collected as part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Magnetic data and models along traverses across the central block of Yucca Mountain reveal anomalies associated with known faults and indicate a number of possible concealed faults beneath the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain. The central part of the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain is characterized by numerous small-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect small-scale faulting. Magnetic modeling of the terrain along the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain indicates that terrain induced magnetic anomalies of about 100 to 150 nT are present along some profiles where steep terrain exists above the magnetometer.

  13. Ultra-wide bore 900 MHz high-resolution NMR at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, R.; Brey, W. W.; Shetty, K.; Gor'kov, P.; Saha, S.; Long, J. R.; Grant, S. C.; Chekmenev, E. Y.; Hu, J.; Gan, Z.; Sharma, M.; Zhang, F.; Logan, T. M.; Brüschweller, R.; Edison, A.; Blue, A.; Dixon, I. R.; Markiewicz, W. D.; Cross, T. A.

    2005-11-01

    Access to an ultra-wide bore (105 mm) 21.1 T magnet makes possible numerous advances in NMR spectroscopy and MR imaging, as well as novel applications. This magnet was developed, designed, manufactured and tested at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and on July 21, 2004 it was energized to 21.1 T. Commercial and unique homebuilt probes, along with a standard commercial NMR console have been installed and tested with many science applications to develop this spectrometer as a user facility. Solution NMR of membrane proteins with enhanced resolution, new pulse sequences for solid state NMR taking advantage of narrowed proton linewidths, and enhanced spatial resolution and contrast leading to improved animal imaging have been documented. In addition, it is demonstrated that spectroscopy of single site 17O labeled macromolecules in a hydrated lipid bilayer environment can be recorded in a remarkably short period of time. 17O spectra of aligned samples show the potential for using this data for orientational restraints and for characterizing unique details of cation binding properties to ion channels. The success of this NHMFL magnet illustrates the potential for using a similar magnet design as an outsert for high temperature superconducting insert coils to achieve an NMR magnet with a field >25 T.

  14. Slow Magic Angle Sample Spinning: A Non- or Minimally Invasive Method for High- Resolution 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Metabolic Profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian Z.

    2011-05-01

    High resolution 1H magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), using a sample spinning rate of several kHz or more (i.e., high resolution-magic angle spinning (hr-MAS)), is a well established method for metabolic profiling in intact tissues without the need for sample extraction. The only shortcoming with hr-MAS is that it is invasive and is thus unusable for non-destructive detections. Recently, a method called slow-MAS, using the concept of two dimensional NMR spectroscopy, has emerged as an alternative method for non- or minimal invasive metabolomics in intact tissues, including live animals, due to the slow or ultra-slow-sample spinning used. Although slow-MAS is a powerful method, its applications are hindered by experimental challenges. Correctly designing the experiment and choosing the appropriate slow-MAS method both require a fundamental understanding of the operation principles, in particular the details of line narrowing due to the presence of molecular diffusion. However, these fundamental principles have not yet been fully disclosed in previous publications. The goal of this chapter is to provide an in depth evaluation of the principles associated with slow-MAS techniques by emphasizing the challenges associated with a phantom sample consisting of glass beads and H2O, where an unusually large magnetic susceptibility field gradient is obtained.

  15. Computer-assisted superimposition of magnetic resonance and high-resolution technetium-99m-HMPAO and thallium-201 SPECT images of the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, B.L.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Johnson, K.A.; Carvalho, P.A.; Schwartz, R.B.; Loeffler, J.S.; Alexander, E.; Pelizzari, C.A.; Chen, G.T. )

    1991-08-01

    A method for registering three-dimensional CT, MR, and PET data sets that require no special patient immobilization or other precise positioning measures was adapted to high-resolution SPECT and MRI and was applied in 14 subjects (five normal volunteers, four patients with dementia (Alzheimer's disease), two patients with recurrent glioblastoma, and three patients with focal lesions (stroke, arachnoid cyst and head trauma)). T2-weighted axial magnetic resonance images and transaxial 99mTc-HMPAO and 201Tl images acquired with an annular gamma camera were merged using an objective registration (translation, rotation and rescaling) program. In the normal subjects and patients with dementia and focal lesions, focal areas of high uptake corresponded to gray matter structures. Focal lesions observed on MRI corresponded to perfusion defects on SPECT. In the patients who had undergone surgical resection of glioblastoma followed by interstitial brachytherapy, increased 201Tl corresponding to recurrent tumor could be localized from the superimposed images. The method was evaluated by measuring the residuals in all subjects and translational errors due to superimposition of deep structures in the 12 subjects with normal thalamic anatomy and 99mTc-HMPAO uptake. This method for superimposing magnetic resonance and high-resolution SPECT images of the brain is a useful technique for correlating regional function with brain anatomy.

  16. A new high resolution total magnetic intensity data set of the Laacher See Volcano in the East-Eifel volcanic field, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goepel, A.; Queitsch, M.; Lonschinski, M.; Eitner, A.; Meisel, M.; Reißig, S.; Engelhardt, J.; Büchel, G.; Kukowski, N.

    2012-04-01

    The Laacher See Volcano (LSV) is part of the Quaternary East-Eifel volcanic field (EVF) located in the western part of Germany, where at least 103 eruptive centers have been identified. The Laacher See volcano explosively erupted about 6.3 km3 of phonolitic magma during a dominantly phreato-plinian eruption at about 12,900 BP. Despite numerous previous studies the eruptive history of LSV is not fully unveiled. For a better understanding of the eruptive history of LSV several geophysical methods, including magnetic, gravimetric and bathymetric surveys have been applied on and around Laacher See Volcano. Here we focus on the magnetic and bathymetric data. The presented high resolution magnetic data covering an area of about 25 km2 (20,000 sample points) and were collected using ground based proton magnetometers (GEM Systems GSM-19TGW, Geometrics G856) during several field campaigns. In addition, a magnetic survey on the lake was done using a non-magnetic boat as platform. The bathymetric survey was conducted on profiles (total length of 235 km) using an echo sounder GARMIN GPSMap 421. Depth data were computed to a bathymetric model on a 10 m spaced regular grid. A joint interpretation of magnetic, morphologic and bathymetric data allows us to search for common patterns which can be associated with typical volcanic features. From our data at least one new eruptive center and lava flow could be identified. Furthermore, the new data suggest that previously identified lava flows have not been accurately located.

  17. The use of high resolution ground and airborne magnetic surveys to evaluate the geometry of hydrothermal alteration zones over volcanic provinces (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouligand, C.; Glen, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Geophysical methods can provide critical constraints on the distribution and volume of hydrothermal alteration, important parameters in understanding the evolution of geothermal systems. Because hydrothermal alteration modifies the magnetic properties of the volcanic substratum, magnetic surveys can be used to provide constraints on the distribution of hydrothermal alteration at depth. Using Yellowstone caldera as an example, we show that both ground and airborne magnetic surveys can be used to map and assess the volume of hydrothermal alteration. Ground magnetic surveys over unaltered volcanic terranes display high-amplitude, short-wavelength anomalies, in contrast to smooth, subdued magnetic anomalies over volcanic substrata demagnetized by hydrothermal alteration. We use this contrast to map areas of hydrothermal alteration in detail. Inverse methods applied to high-resolution airborne and ground magnetic data can be used to create three-dimensional models of the distribution of magnetization and thus illuminate the geometry of hydrothermal alteration. Because of the non-uniqueness of potential fields, the construction of inverse models requires simplifying assumptions on the distribution of magnetization, knowledge of induced and remanent magnetization of fresh and altered geological units, and detailed geological and geophysical data. Within the three hydrothermal sites that we investigated in Yellowstone National Park, subdued short-wavelength signal indicates pervasive demagnetization (alteration) of the shallow substratum that extends over larger areas than initially mapped by geology. These data also reveal that the largest degree of demagnetization (alteration) and maximum thicknesses of demagnetized (altered) substratum, reaching a few hundred meters, are associated with hydrothermal vents and with superficial hydrothermal alteration. Our three dimensional models of magnetization provide estimates of the volume of buried hydrothermal alteration ranging

  18. Unilateral symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis and myopathy in an adolescent with Graves disease: a case report of an high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jia; Zhu, Jiajia; Huang, Dongling; Shi, Changzheng; Guan, Yuqing; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Suyue

    2015-01-01

    Vascular and muscular involvements in Graves disease (GD) are rare. Here, we report a case of a 17-year-old patient with unilateral symptomatic middle cerebral artery stenosis concurrent with GD and myopathy. He presented with a 1-day history of acute severe right-sided hemiparesis and aphasia and a 3-week history of high metabolic syndrome. The pathogenesis of the stenosis is most likely vasculitis rather than atherosclerosis, based on contrast-enhanced high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging showing concentric wall enhancement. We suggest that lipid storage myopathy is secondary to GD, and it is likely mitochondrial dysfunction or immune dysfunction induced by GD responsible for the myopathy and that magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is capable of establishing the diagnosis of myopathy. Thus, MRS can be used for follow-up evaluations of the myopathy along with the pathology biopsy. PMID:25444029

  19. Estimation of Basal Depth of Magnetic Sources from High Resolution Aeromagnetic Data of Middle Niger Basin, Nigeria using Adapted Centroid Technique for Fractal Distribution of Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwankwo, L.

    2015-12-01

    An estimate of depths to the bottom of magnetic sources in the Middle Niger Basin, north-central Nigeria has been made from a recently acquired high-resolution aeromagnetic data using adapted centroid technique for fractal distribution of sources. The result shows that the depth varies between 11.71 and 26.53 km. Deeper values are found in northern and central regions while values as low as 12 km were observed in the southern part. The shallower depths to the bottom of magnetic sources may be representing the thermal/petrological boundaries in the basin. This study is therefore crucial for quantitative understanding of the geo-processes and geothermal parameters in the study area.

  20. Witnessing magnetic twist with high-resolution observation from the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haimin; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Liu, Rui; Zeng, Zhicheng; Chae, Jongchul; Ji, Haisheng

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic flux ropes are highly twisted, current-carrying magnetic fields. They are crucial for the instability of plasma involved in solar eruptions, which may lead to adverse space weather effects. Here we present observations of a flaring using the highest resolution chromospheric images from the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, supplemented by a magnetic field extrapolation model. A set of loops initially appear to peel off from an overall inverse S-shaped flux bundle, and then develop into a multi-stranded twisted flux rope, producing a two-ribbon flare. We show evidence that the flux rope is embedded in sheared arcades and becomes unstable following the enhancement of its twists. The subsequent motion of the flux rope is confined due to the strong strapping effect of the overlying field. These results provide a first opportunity to witness the detailed structure and evolution of flux ropes in the low solar atmosphere. PMID:25919706

  1. Witnessing magnetic twist with high-resolution observation from the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haimin; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Liu, Rui; Zeng, Zhicheng; Chae, Jongchul; Ji, Haisheng

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic flux ropes are highly twisted, current-carrying magnetic fields. They are crucial for the instability of plasma involved in solar eruptions, which may lead to adverse space weather effects. Here we present observations of a flaring using the highest resolution chromospheric images from the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, supplemented by a magnetic field extrapolation model. A set of loops initially appear to peel off from an overall inverse S-shaped flux bundle, and then develop into a multi-stranded twisted flux rope, producing a two-ribbon flare. We show evidence that the flux rope is embedded in sheared arcades and becomes unstable following the enhancement of its twists. The subsequent motion of the flux rope is confined due to the strong strapping effect of the overlying field. These results provide a first opportunity to witness the detailed structure and evolution of flux ropes in the low solar atmosphere. PMID:25919706

  2. Using magnetic coupling to implement 1H, 19F, 13C experiments in routine high resolution NMR probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowyer, Paul; Finnigan, Jim; Marsden, Brian; Taber, Bob; Zens, Albert

    2015-12-01

    We report in this paper the design of 1H, 19F, 13C circuitry using magnetic coupling which can do on demand experiments where one of the three nuclei is observed and the other two are decoupled. The implementation of this circuitry in routine NMR probes is compared with capacitive coupling methods where it was found that by using magnetic coupling the performance of the routine NMR probe was not impacted by the addition of this circuitry. It is surmised that using this type of circuitry would be highly desirable for those chemists doing routine 19F NMR.

  3. Identification of unknown microcontaminants in Dutch river water by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    van Leerdam, J A; Vervoort, J; Stroomberg, G; de Voogt, P

    2014-11-01

    In the past decade during automated surface water monitoring in the river Meuse at border station Eijsden in The Netherlands, a set of unknown compounds were repeatedly detected by online liquid chromatography-diode-array detection in a relatively high signal intensity. Because of the unknown nature of the compounds, the consequently unknown fate of this mixture in water treatment processes, the location being close to the water inlet of a drinking water supply company and their possible adverse public health effects, it was deemed necessary to elucidate the identity of the compounds. No data are available for the occurrence of these unknowns at downstream locations. After concentration and fractionation of a sample by preparative Liquid Chromatography, identification experiments were performed using Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HR-MS) combined with High Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (HR-NMR). Accurate mass determination of the unknown parent compound and its fragments obtained in MS/MS provided relevant information on the elemental composition of the unknown compounds. With the use of NMR techniques and the information about the elemental composition, the identity of the compounds in the different sample fractions was determined. Beside some regularly detected compounds in surface water, like caffeine and bisphenol-S, five dihydroxydiphenylmethane isomers were identified. The major unknown compound was identified as 4,4'-dihydroxy-3,5,3',5'-tetra(hydroxymethyl)diphenylmethane. This compound was confirmed by analysis of the pure reference compound. This is one of the first studies that employs the combination of high resolution MS with NMR for identification of truly unknown compounds in surface waters at the μg/L level. Five of the seven identified compounds are unexpected and not contained in the CAS database, while they can be presumed to be products generated during the production of resins. PMID:25296128

  4. The last frontier? High-resolution, near-bottom measurements of the Hawaiian Jurassic magnetic anomaly sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tivey, M.; Tominaga, M.; Sager, W. W.

    2012-12-01

    The Jurassic sequence of marine magnetic anomalies i.e. older than M29 remain the last part of the marine magnetic anomaly sequence of the geomagnetic polarity timescale (GPTS) that can be gleaned from the ocean crustal record. While Jurassic crust is present in several areas of the world's ocean basins, the oldest and arguably best preserved sequence is in the western Pacific where three lineations sets (Japanese, Hawaiian and Phoenix) converge on the oldest remaining ocean crust on the planet (i.e. crust that has not been subducted). The magnetic anomalies in these 3 lineation sets are marked by low amplitude, relatively indistinct anomalies (tiny wiggles) that collectively have been called the Jurassic quiet Zone (JQZ). Over the past 20 years we have been working on resolving the character and origin of these anomalies with various technologies to improve our resolution of this period. Following an aeromagnetic survey that revealed the possible presence of lineated anomalies older than M29 in the Japanese lineations, we conducted a deeptow magnetometer survey of the Japanese sequence in 1992. In 2002/03 we extended and confirmed this deeptow record with a deeptowed sidescan and magnetometer survey of the Japanese lineation sequence by tying in ODP Hole 801C and extending the anomaly sequence between M29 and M44. These surveys reveal remarkably fast reversals that are lineated and decrease in intensity back in time until M38, prior to which the sequence becomes somewhat confused (the LAZ or low amplitude zone) before recovering in both amplitude and lineated character around Hole 801C (M42). These results are partially supported by recently reported terrestrial magnetostratigraphy records that show the existence of reversals back to M38. A Jurassic GPTS was constructed from this Japanese anomaly sequence, but the overall global significance of the reversal sequence and systematic field intensity changes require confirmation from crustal records created at

  5. Magnetic susceptibility as a high-resolution climate proxy in lacustrine sediments of the Qaidam paleolake (NE Tibetan Plateau) throughout the Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herb, Christian; Appel, Erwin; Koutsodendris, Andreas; Voigt, Silke; Pross, Jörg; Zhang, Weilin; Fang, Xiaomin

    2014-05-01

    Magnetic proxies in lacustrine archives play an important role as they are acquirable in high resolution due to short measurement times. One premise for building a link between magnetic properties and climate variation is to investigate what is controlling their changes. The magnetic record of drill core SG-1 (940-m-long) in the Qaidam Basin, in particular magnetic susceptibility (Ξ), is a good example for the value of magnetic properties concerning climate change. SG-1 was obtained from the Chahansilatu sub-basin in the western, presently hyper-arid Qaidam Basin and contains late Pliocene-Quaternary lacustrine sediments. Potential humidity sources in that region during the past were primarily the Westerlies but also the East Asian monsoon. Time markers for depth-time transformation of drill core SG-1 were previously acquired by magnetostratigraphic and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, indicating a time span from 2.8 to 0.1 Ma. Relating the high-amplitude variation of the Ξ record to orbital forcing and applying extensive time series analysis, a more detailed depth to time transformation is achieved. To assess the climate sensitivity of Ξ, the Ξ record is compared with other magnetic parameters and with palynological results. The pollen ratio Artemisia/Chenopodiaceae (A/C) shows a good anti-correlation with Ξ values, except of the interval around ~1.5 Ma. Thus, for core SG-1 high and low Ξ values predominantly document dryer and less dry conditions, respectively. Our observations reduce the possible mechanisms leading to the observed Ξ variation to two interfering scenarios: low-temperature oxidation (LTO) in the sedimentary source area and a change of the catchment area. As a bottom line of this study, the updated time frame of drill core SG-1 and the comparison of Ξ with other magnetic properties and palynological results lead to a well-dated, high-resolution record of humidity fluctuations during the late Pliocene-Quaternary on the NE fringe

  6. Interpenetration and deflection phenomena in collisions between supersonic, magnetized, tungsten plasma flows diagnosed using high resolution optical Thomson scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swadling, G. F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Rozmus, W.; Burdiak, G.; Suttle, L.; Patankar, S.; Smith, R. A.; Bennett, M.; Hall, G. N.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Bland, S.; Yuan, J.

    2015-07-01

    An optical Thomson scattering diagnostic has been used to investigate collisions between supersonic, magnetized plasma flows, in particular the transition from collisionless to collisional interaction dynamics. These flows were produced using tungsten wire array z-pinches, driven by the 1.4 MA 240 ns Magpie generator at Imperial College London. Measurements of the collective-mode Thomson scattering ion-feature clearly indicate that the ablation flows are interpenetrating at 100 ns (after current start), and this interpenetration continues until at least 140 ns. The Thomson spectrum at 150 ns shows a clear change in the dynamics of the stream interactions, transitioning towards a collisional, shock-like interaction of the streams near the axis. The Thomson scattering data also provide indirect evidence of the presence of a significant toroidal magnetic field embedded in the "precursor" plasma near the axis of the array over the period 100-140 ns; these observations are in agreement with previous measurements [Swadling et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 035003 (2014)]. The Thomson scattering measurements at 150 ns suggest that this magnetic field must collapse at around the time the dense precursor column begins to form.

  7. Interpenetration and deflection phenomena in collisions between supersonic, magnetized, tungsten plasma flows diagnosed using high resolution optical Thomson scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Swadling, G. F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Burdiak, G.; Suttle, L.; Patankar, S.; Smith, R. A.; Bennett, M.; Hall, G. N.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Bland, S.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Rozmus, W.; Yuan, J.

    2015-07-15

    An optical Thomson scattering diagnostic has been used to investigate collisions between supersonic, magnetized plasma flows, in particular the transition from collisionless to collisional interaction dynamics. These flows were produced using tungsten wire array z-pinches, driven by the 1.4 MA 240 ns Magpie generator at Imperial College London. Measurements of the collective-mode Thomson scattering ion-feature clearly indicate that the ablation flows are interpenetrating at 100 ns (after current start), and this interpenetration continues until at least 140 ns. The Thomson spectrum at 150 ns shows a clear change in the dynamics of the stream interactions, transitioning towards a collisional, shock-like interaction of the streams near the axis. The Thomson scattering data also provide indirect evidence of the presence of a significant toroidal magnetic field embedded in the “precursor” plasma near the axis of the array over the period 100–140 ns; these observations are in agreement with previous measurements [Swadling et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 035003 (2014)]. The Thomson scattering measurements at 150 ns suggest that this magnetic field must collapse at around the time the dense precursor column begins to form.

  8. Feasibility of high-resolution one-dimensional relaxation imaging at low magnetic field using a single-sided NMR scanner applied to articular cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rössler, Erik; Mattea, Carlos; Stapf, Siegfried

    2015-02-01

    Low field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance increases the contrast of the longitudinal relaxation rate in many biological tissues; one prominent example is hyaline articular cartilage. In order to take advantage of this increased contrast and to profile the depth-dependent variations, high resolution parameter measurements are carried out which can be of critical importance in an early diagnosis of cartilage diseases such as osteoarthritis. However, the maximum achievable spatial resolution of parameter profiles is limited by factors such as sensor geometry, sample curvature, and diffusion limitation. In this work, we report on high-resolution single-sided NMR scanner measurements with a commercial device, and quantify these limitations. The highest achievable spatial resolution on the used profiler, and the lateral dimension of the sensitive volume were determined. Since articular cartilage samples are usually bent, we also focus on averaging effects inside the horizontally aligned sensitive volume and their impact on the relaxation profiles. Taking these critical parameters into consideration, depth-dependent relaxation time profiles with the maximum achievable vertical resolution of 20 μm are discussed, and are correlated with diffusion coefficient profiles in hyaline articular cartilage in order to reconstruct T2 maps from the diffusion-weighted CPMG decays of apparent relaxation rates.

  9. High-Resolution Magnetic Susceptibility Stratigraphy Spanning Late Devonian Global Change from a New Scientific Drillcore in Canning Basin, Northwest Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamond, M. R.; Raub, T. D.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Playton, T. E.; Hocking, R. M.; Haines, P.; Tulipani, S.

    2010-12-01

    New shallow scientific drillcore has been recovered through the Frasnian-Famennian extinction boundary in northwest Australia’s Canning Basin. Previous work in the McWhae Ridge outcrop belt has identified patterns of turnover in trilobites and other fauna, change from sponge- and coral-dominated reefs to post-extinction microbial-dominated reefs, apparent sea level changes, and carbon isotopic evidence of late Devonian crisis. Continuous magnetic susceptibility (MS) stratigraphy yields highly structured oscillations spanning ~42 m of reef-slope carbonate. These oscillations appear to identify late Frasnian “Kellwasser” events and they may record sedimentary response to orbital variations, establishing a high-resolution relative chronostratigraphy of late Devonian global change. Magnetic susceptibility stratigraphy has been proposed as a generally useful chronometer for late Devonian time. Most of fifteen published MS stratigraphies crossing the Frasnian-Famennian boundary appear to share major excursions with the new McWhae Ridge result. Although upland tectonism in Canning Basin may be a caveat to straightforward eustatic interpretation of magnetic susceptibility variations, we suggest the higher-resolution and fresh drillcore context of this result prioritizes it as a standard for Frasnian-Famennian magnetic susceptibility variation.

  10. Magnetic ordering in double perovskites R2CoMnO6 (R = Y, Tb) investigated by high resolution neutron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, Tapan; Frick, Bernhard; Nair, Harikrishnan S

    2012-07-01

    We have investigated low energy nuclear spin excitations in double perovskite compounds R(2)CoMnO(6) (R=Y, Tb) by inelastic neutron scattering with a high resolution back-scattering spectrometer. We observed inelastic signals at about 2.1 μeV for Y(2)CoMnO(6) and also for Tb(2)CoMnO(6) at T = 2 K in both energy-loss and energy-gain sides. We interpret these inelastic peaks to be due to the transitions between the hyperfine split nuclear levels of the (59)Co nucleus. The inelastic peaks move towards the central elastic peak and finally merge with it at the magnetic ordering temperature T(C). The energy of the low energy excitations decreases continuously and becomes zero at T(C) ≈ 75 K for Y(2)CoMnO(6) and T(C) ≈ 100 K for Tb(2)CoMnO(6). For Tb(2)CoMnO(6), which contains magnetic rare earth ions, additional quasielastic scattering due presumably to the fluctuations of large Tb magnetic moments was observed. The present study reveals the magnetic ordering of the Co sublattice. The results of this investigation along with that obtained by us for other compounds indicate the presence of unquenched orbital moments in some of the Co compounds. PMID:22691537

  11. Domain wall transformations and hopping in La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO(3) nanostructures imaged with high resolution x-ray magnetic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Finizio, S; Foerster, M; Krüger, B; Vaz, C A F; Miyawaki, T; Mawass, M A; Peña, L; Méchin, L; Hühn, S; Moshnyaga, V; Büttner, F; Bisig, A; Le Guyader, L; El Moussaoui, S; Valencia, S; Kronast, F; Eisebitt, S; Kläui, M

    2014-11-12

    We investigate the effect of electric current pulse injection on domain walls in La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO(3) (LSMO) half-ring nanostructures by high resolution x-ray magnetic microscopy at room temperature. Due to the easily accessible Curie temperature of LSMO, we can employ reasonable current densities to induce the Joule heating necessary to observe effects such as hopping of the domain walls between different pinning sites and nucleation/annihilation events. Such effects are the dominant features close to the Curie temperature, while spin torque is found to play a small role close to room temperature. We are also able to observe thermally activated domain wall transformations and we find that, for the analyzed geometries, the vortex domain wall configuration is energetically favored, in agreement with micromagnetic simulations. PMID:25336527

  12. Coronal extension of flaring region magnetic fields inferred from high-resolution microwave and type III burst observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lantos, P.; Pick, M.; Kundu, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of three solar radio bursts, obtained with the Very Large Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory at 6 cm wavelength, have been combined with meter observations from the Mark III Nancay Radioheliograph. There is a good correlation between solar activity observed at the two wavelength domains. A small change by about 10 sec in the centimetric burst location corresponds to a large change, by about 0.5 solar radius, in the related metric type III burst location. This indicates discrete injection/acceleration regions and the presence of very divergent magnetic fields. The bursts come from two distinct active regions. With two-dimensional spatial resolution, it is shown that, in this sample, each active region possesses a coronal extension that is separated from that of the neighboring active region.

  13. Direct high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance studies of cation transport in vivo. Na/sup +/ transport in yeast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Balschi, J.A.; Cirillo, V.P.; Springer, C.S. Jr.

    1982-06-01

    A new nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for monitoring transmembrane metal cation transport is reported. It is illustrated with a study of Na/sup +/ efflux from Na/sup +/-rich yeast cells. The technique involves the use of an anionic paramagnetic shift reagent, present only outside the cells, to induce a splitting of the sodium-23 NMR peak, in this case, into components representing intra- and extracellular Na/sup +/. The time course of the efflux is in good agreement with the literature and can be well fitted with a double exponential decay expression. Splitting of the lithium-7 NMR signal from a suspension of Li/sup +/-rich respiratory-deficient, petite yeasts is also reported.

  14. Mechanisms of HCV NS3 Helicase Monitored by Optical Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    As one of the essential enzymes for viral genome replication, the hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase is one of the best characterized RNA helicases to date in understanding the mechanistic cycles in a helicase-catalyzed strand separation reaction. Recently, single-molecule studies on NS3, in particular the use of optical tweezers with sub-base pair spatial resolution, have allowed people to examine the potential elementary steps of NS3 in unwinding the double-stranded RNA fueled by ATP binding and hydrolysis. In this chapter, I detail the essential technical elements involved in conducting a high-resolution optical tweezers study of NS3 helicase, starting from the purification of the recombinant helicase protein from E. coli to setting up a high-resolution single-molecule experiment using optical tweezers. PMID:25579590

  15. Crustal architecture of the Faroe-Shetland Margin: insights from a newly merged high resolution gravity and magnetic dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rippington, Stephen; Mazur, Stan; Anderson, Chris

    2014-05-01

    The Faroe-Shetland region is geologically complex; it has undergone several phases of extension and rifting since the middle Palaeozoic (Ritchie et al., 2011; Coward et al., 2003), culminating in the Eocene with continental breakup between Northwest Europe and Greenland (Gernigon et al., 2012). Final breakup may have been facilitated by the presence of the Iceland Plume and was accompanied by the emplacement of voluminous basaltic rocks, attributed to the North Atlantic Igneous Province (White and McKenzie, 1989). It is difficult to image beneath the thick Paleogene basalts in the region using conventional seismic methods, because the high impedance contrast between the sediments and shallow basalts causes strong reflections. These mask deeper and weaker reflections and cause prominent inter-bed multiples (White et al., 1999). Consequently, determining the location and shape of basins and basement highs, and elucidating the timing and manner of their formation, remains a major cause of uncertainty in the appraisal of the hydrocarbon potential of the region. Gravity and magnetic data record variations in the density and susceptibility of the entire crust. Consequently, the thick basalt piles that are shallow in the section do not hinder the ability to detect deeper features. Instead, the principal challenge is distinguishing superposed bodies, with different densities and susceptibilities, from the combined gravity and magnetic anomalies. In this study, seismic data and horizons from the shallow section are used in combination with gravity and magnetic data to produce map view interpretations, and 2D and 3D models of the crust in the Faroe-Shetland region. These models help distinguish important variations in timing of rifting in different basins, and reveal the crustal architecture of the Faroe-Shetland Basin from the seabed to the Moho. We present a new structural and kinematic interpretation of the geology of the region, and propose an asymmetric simple shear

  16. The effects of magnetic fields exposure on relative permittivity of saline solutions measured by a high resolution SPR system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Zhao, Xinyuan; Fei, Yue; Yu, Dongdong; Qian, Jun; Tong, Jinguang; Chen, Guangdi; He, Sailing

    2016-01-01

    A measurement system for the relative permittivity of a physiological solution under 50 Hz magnetic fields (MF) is presented. It is based on a phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) system. Relative permittivity was analyzed for different solute concentrations of sodium chloride under various MF exposure parameters. We found that MF exposure at 0.2-4.0 mT step-wise decreased significantly the SPR phase signal of a 0.9% sodium chloride solution while 0.1 mT of MF exposure did not. The decreases in the SPR phase signal depended on the duration of MF exposure, and the signal reached a plateau after 15 min of exposure. Interestingly, the decreased SPR phase signal showed a gradual increase and approached the background level when the exposure was drawn off. In addition, we found that the response of the sodium chloride solution to MF also depended on its concentration. In brief, the relative permittivity of sodium chloride in solutions appears to be practically affected by 50 Hz MF exposure. Our data indicates that the relative permittivity of the saline solution influenced by MF exposure should be considered when investigating the biological effects of MF exposure on organisms in experimental study. PMID:27121618

  17. The effects of magnetic fields exposure on relative permittivity of saline solutions measured by a high resolution SPR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Li; Zhao, Xinyuan; Fei, Yue; Yu, Dongdong; Qian, Jun; Tong, Jinguang; Chen, Guangdi; He, Sailing

    2016-04-01

    A measurement system for the relative permittivity of a physiological solution under 50 Hz magnetic fields (MF) is presented. It is based on a phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) system. Relative permittivity was analyzed for different solute concentrations of sodium chloride under various MF exposure parameters. We found that MF exposure at 0.2–4.0 mT step-wise decreased significantly the SPR phase signal of a 0.9% sodium chloride solution while 0.1 mT of MF exposure did not. The decreases in the SPR phase signal depended on the duration of MF exposure, and the signal reached a plateau after 15 min of exposure. Interestingly, the decreased SPR phase signal showed a gradual increase and approached the background level when the exposure was drawn off. In addition, we found that the response of the sodium chloride solution to MF also depended on its concentration. In brief, the relative permittivity of sodium chloride in solutions appears to be practically affected by 50 Hz MF exposure. Our data indicates that the relative permittivity of the saline solution influenced by MF exposure should be considered when investigating the biological effects of MF exposure on organisms in experimental study.

  18. The effects of magnetic fields exposure on relative permittivity of saline solutions measured by a high resolution SPR system

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li; Zhao, Xinyuan; Fei, Yue; Yu, Dongdong; Qian, Jun; Tong, Jinguang; Chen, Guangdi; He, Sailing

    2016-01-01

    A measurement system for the relative permittivity of a physiological solution under 50 Hz magnetic fields (MF) is presented. It is based on a phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) system. Relative permittivity was analyzed for different solute concentrations of sodium chloride under various MF exposure parameters. We found that MF exposure at 0.2–4.0 mT step-wise decreased significantly the SPR phase signal of a 0.9% sodium chloride solution while 0.1 mT of MF exposure did not. The decreases in the SPR phase signal depended on the duration of MF exposure, and the signal reached a plateau after 15 min of exposure. Interestingly, the decreased SPR phase signal showed a gradual increase and approached the background level when the exposure was drawn off. In addition, we found that the response of the sodium chloride solution to MF also depended on its concentration. In brief, the relative permittivity of sodium chloride in solutions appears to be practically affected by 50 Hz MF exposure. Our data indicates that the relative permittivity of the saline solution influenced by MF exposure should be considered when investigating the biological effects of MF exposure on organisms in experimental study. PMID:27121618

  19. Low- and high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) characterisation of hyaluronan-based native and sulfated hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Barbucci, Rolando; Leone, Gemma; Chiumiento, Antonio; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; D'Orazio, Giovanni; Gianferri, Raffaella; Delfini, Maurizio

    2006-08-14

    Hyaluronan-based hydrogels were synthesised using different crosslinking agents, such as 1,3-diaminopropane (1,3-DAP) and 1,6-diaminohexane (1,6-DAE). The hydrogels were sulfated to provide materials (Hyal-1,3-DAP, Hyal-1,6-DAE, HyalS-1,3-DAP and HyalS-1,6-DAE) that were characterised by both high- and low-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The (13)C NMR spectra of the materials were analysed to identify, characterise and study the crosslinking degree of the hydrogels. The crosslinking degree was also determined by potentiometric titration and the effectiveness of the two techniques was compared. Measurements of longitudinal relaxation times (spin-lattice) and of NOE enhancement were used to study the mobility of the hydrogels. Low-resolution NMR studies allowed the determination of the water transport properties in the hydrogels. In addition, the swelling degree for the various hydrogels was calculated as a function of the longitudinal and transversal relaxation times of the water molecules. Lastly, the self-diffusion coefficients of the water in interaction with the four polysaccharides were measured by the pulsed field gradient spin echo (PFGSE) sequence. PMID:16716277

  20. A high-resolution global Vlasov simulation of a small dielectric body with a weak intrinsic magnetic field on the K computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Takayuki; Fukazawa, Keiichiro

    2015-04-01

    The interaction between the solar wind and solar system bodies, such as planets, satellites, and asteroids, is one of the fundamental global-scale phenomena in space plasma physics. In the present study, the electromagnetic environment around a small dielectric body with a weak intrinsic magnetic field is studied by means of a first-principle kinetic plasma simulation, which is a challenging task in space plasma physics as well as high-performance computing. Due to several computational limitations, five-dimensional full electromagnetic Vlasov simulations with two configuration space and three velocity space coordinates are performed with two different spatial resolutions. The Debye-scale charge separation is not solved correctly in the simulation run with a low spatial resolution, while all the physical processes in collisionless plasma are included in the simulation run with a high spatial resolution. The direction comparison of electromagnetic fields between the two runs shows that there is small difference in the structure of magnetic field lines. On the other hand, small-scale fine structures of electrostatic fields are enhanced by the electric charge separation and the charge accumulation on the surface of the body in the high-resolution run, while these structures are absent in the low-resolution runs. These results are consistent with the conventional understanding of plasma physics that the structure and dynamics of global magnetic fields, which are generally described by the magneto-hydro-dynamics (MHD) equations, are not affected by electron-scale microphysics.

  1. Multi-wavelength High-resolution Observations of a Small-scale Emerging Magnetic Flux Event and the Chromospheric and Coronal Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas Domínguez, Santiago; Kosovichev, Alexander; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2014-10-01

    State-of-the-art solar instrumentation is now revealing magnetic activity of the Sun with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolutions. Observations with the 1.6 m aperture New Solar Telescope (NST) of the Big Bear Solar Observatory are making next steps in our understanding of the solar surface structure. Granular-scale magnetic flux emergence and the response of the solar atmosphere are among the key research topics of high-resolution solar physics. As part of a joint observing program with NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) mission on 2013 August 7, the NST observed active region NOAA 11,810 in the photospheric TiO 7057 Å band with a resolution of pixel size of 0.''034 and chromospheric He I 10830 Å and Hα 6563 Å wavelengths. Complementary data are provided by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Hinode space-based telescopes. The region displayed a group of solar pores, in the vicinity of which we detect a small-scale buoyant horizontal magnetic flux tube causing granular alignments and interacting with the preexisting ambient field in the upper atmospheric layers. Following the expansion of distorted granules at the emergence site, we observed a sudden appearance of an extended surge in the He I 10830 Å data (bandpass of 0.05 Å). The IRIS transition region imaging caught ejection of a hot plasma jet associated with the He I surge. The SDO/HMI data used to study the evolution of the magnetic and Doppler velocity fields reveal emerging magnetic loop-like structures. Hinode/Ca II H and IRIS filtergrams detail the connectivities of the newly emerged magnetic field in the lower solar chromosphere. From these data, we find that the orientation of the emerging magnetic field lines from a twisted flux tube formed an angle of ~45° with the overlying ambient field. Nevertheless, the interaction of emerging magnetic field lines with the pre-existing overlying field generates high-temperature emission regions and boosts the surge

  2. Multi-wavelength high-resolution observations of a small-scale emerging magnetic flux event and the chromospheric and coronal response

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas Domínguez, Santiago; Kosovichev, Alexander; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2014-10-20

    State-of-the-art solar instrumentation is now revealing magnetic activity of the Sun with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolutions. Observations with the 1.6 m aperture New Solar Telescope (NST) of the Big Bear Solar Observatory are making next steps in our understanding of the solar surface structure. Granular-scale magnetic flux emergence and the response of the solar atmosphere are among the key research topics of high-resolution solar physics. As part of a joint observing program with NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) mission on 2013 August 7, the NST observed active region NOAA 11,810 in the photospheric TiO 7057 Å band with a resolution of pixel size of 0.''034 and chromospheric He I 10830 Å and Hα 6563 Å wavelengths. Complementary data are provided by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Hinode space-based telescopes. The region displayed a group of solar pores, in the vicinity of which we detect a small-scale buoyant horizontal magnetic flux tube causing granular alignments and interacting with the preexisting ambient field in the upper atmospheric layers. Following the expansion of distorted granules at the emergence site, we observed a sudden appearance of an extended surge in the He I 10830 Å data (bandpass of 0.05 Å). The IRIS transition region imaging caught ejection of a hot plasma jet associated with the He I surge. The SDO/HMI data used to study the evolution of the magnetic and Doppler velocity fields reveal emerging magnetic loop-like structures. Hinode/Ca II H and IRIS filtergrams detail the connectivities of the newly emerged magnetic field in the lower solar chromosphere. From these data, we find that the orientation of the emerging magnetic field lines from a twisted flux tube formed an angle of ∼45° with the overlying ambient field. Nevertheless, the interaction of emerging magnetic field lines with the pre-existing overlying field generates high-temperature emission regions and boosts the surge

  3. High-resolution In Vivo Manual Segmentation Protocol for Human Hippocampal Subfields Using 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Winterburn, Julie; Pruessner, Jens C; Sofia, Chavez; Schira, Mark M; Lobaugh, Nancy J; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Chakravarty, M Mallar

    2015-01-01

    The human hippocampus has been broadly studied in the context of memory and normal brain function and its role in different neuropsychiatric disorders has been heavily studied. While many imaging studies treat the hippocampus as a single unitary neuroanatomical structure, it is, in fact, composed of several subfields that have a complex three-dimensional geometry. As such, it is known that these subfields perform specialized functions and are differentially affected through the course of different disease states. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used as a powerful tool to interrogate the morphology of the hippocampus and its subfields. Many groups use advanced imaging software and hardware (>3T) to image the subfields; however this type of technology may not be readily available in most research and clinical imaging centers. To address this need, this manuscript provides a detailed step-by-step protocol for segmenting the full anterior-posterior length of the hippocampus and its subfields: cornu ammonis (CA) 1, CA2/CA3, CA4/dentate gyrus (DG), strata radiatum/lacunosum/moleculare (SR/SL/SM), and subiculum. This protocol has been applied to five subjects (3F, 2M; age 29-57, avg. 37). Protocol reliability is assessed by resegmenting either the right or left hippocampus of each subject and computing the overlap using the Dice's kappa metric. Mean Dice's kappa (range) across the five subjects are: whole hippocampus, 0.91 (0.90-0.92); CA1, 0.78 (0.77-0.79); CA2/CA3, 0.64 (0.56-0.73); CA4/dentate gyrus, 0.83 (0.81-0.85); strata radiatum/lacunosum/moleculare, 0.71 (0.68-0.73); and subiculum 0.75 (0.72-0.78). The segmentation protocol presented here provides other laboratories with a reliable method to study the hippocampus and hippocampal subfields in vivo using commonly available MR tools. PMID:26575133

  4. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study of IODP Site U1408 in the Northwest Atlantic - toward the high-resolution relative paleointensity estimate during the middle Eocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Yamazaki, T.; Oda, H.

    2015-12-01

    We have conducted paleomagnetic and rock magnetic measurements on the sedimentary sections recovered from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1408 in the Northwest Atlantic, off Newfoundland. The measurements were done on u-channel samples using a pass-through superconducting rock magnetometer in a manner that remanent magnetizations (natural, anhysteretic and isothermal remanent magnetizations: NRM, ARM and IRM) were subjected to stepwise alternating field (AF) demagnetizations up to 80 mT and are measured with 1 cm spacing at each step.The characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) was resolved after AF demagnetization of 20-30 mT for most of the studied interval. As a result, we could identify several polarity reversals which were able to be correlated with the geomagnetic polarity time scale by Gradstein et al. (2012) (Geologic Time Scale 2012), with referring the shipboard biostratigraphy (Norris et al., 2014). The interval at ~ 33-157 mcd (meter composite depth) was interpreted to cover the Chrons C18n.1n to C20n with missing Chron C19n because of the somewhat ambiguous magnetic signals at the interval at ~ 70-110 mcd. The correlation provided an age model inferring sedimentation rate of about 2-4 cm/kyr during these chrons.There is the interval that shows relatively constant ARM and IRM intensities as well as ratios of ARM to IRM (ARM/IRM): the interval at ~ 37-90 mcd resulted in ARM intensity of 0.2-0.4 A/m, IRM intensity of 1-2 A/m and ARM/IRM of 0.17-0.20. This interval corresponds to the Chron C18 and the estimated sedimentation rate of the interval is ~ 2 cm/kyr. It is expected that high-resolution relative paleointensity estimate during the middle Eocene is potentially possible. We will report a preliminary estimate.

  5. Iron in the Fire: Searching for Fire's Magnetic Fingerprint using Controlled Heating Experiments, High-Resolution FORCs, IRM Coercivity Spectra, and Low-Temperature Remanence Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippert, P. C.; Reiners, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    Evidence for recent climate-wildfire linkages underscores the need for better understanding of relationships between wildfire and major climate shifts in Earth history, which in turn offers the potential for prognoses for wildfire and human adaptations to it. In particular, what are the links between seasonality and wildfire frequency and severity, and what are the feedbacks between wildfire, landscape evolution, and biogeochemical cycles, particularly the carbon and iron cycles? A key first step in addressing these questions is recovering well-described wildfire records from a variety of paleolandscapes and paleoclimate regimes. Although charcoal and organic biomarkers are commonly used indicators of fire, taphonomic processes and time-consuming analytical preparations often preclude their routine use in some environments and in high-stratigraphic resolution paleowildfire surveying. The phenomenological relationship between fire and magnetic susceptibility can make it a useful surveying tool, but increased magnetic susceptibility in sediments is not unique to fire, and thus limits its diagnostic power. Here we utilize component-specific rock magnetic methods and analytical techniques to identify the rock magnetic fingerprint of wildfire. We use a custom-designed air furnace, a series of iron-free laboratory soils, natural saprolites and soils, and fuels from Arizona Ponderosa pine forests and grasslands to simulate wildfire in a controlled and monitored environment. Soil-ash residues and soil and fuel controls were then characterized using First Order Reversal Curve (FORC) patterns, DC backfield IRM coercivity spectra, low-temperature SIRM demagnetization behavior, and low-temperature cycling of room-temperature SIRM behavior. We will complement these magnetic analyses with high-resolution TEM of magnetic extracts. Here we summarize the systematic changes to sediment magnetism as pyrolitized organic matter is incorporated into artificial and natural soils. These

  6. High resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the calcaneus: age-related changes in trabecular structure and comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouyang, X.; Selby, K.; Lang, P.; Engelke, K.; Klifa, C.; Fan, B.; Zucconi, F.; Hottya, G.; Chen, M.; Majumdar, S.; Genant, H. K.

    1997-01-01

    A high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol, together with specialized image processing techniques, was applied to the quantitative measurement of age-related changes in calcaneal trabecular structure. The reproducibility of the technique was assessed and the annual rates of change for several trabecular structure parameters were measured. The MR-derived trabecular parameters were compared with calcaneal bone mineral density (BMD), measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the same subjects. Sagittal MR images were acquired at 1.5 T in 23 healthy women (mean age: 49.3 +/- 16.6 [SD]), using a three-dimensional gradient echo sequence. Image analysis procedures included internal gray-scale calibration, bone and marrow segmentation, and run-length methods. Three trabecular structure parameters, apparent bone volume (ABV/TV), intercept thickness (I.Th), and intercept separation (I.Sp) were calculated from the MR images. The short- and long-term precision errors (mean %CV) of these measured parameters were in the ranges 1-2% and 3-6%, respectively. Linear regression of the trabecular structure parameters vs. age showed significant correlation: ABV/TV (r2 = 33.7%, P < 0.0037), I.Th (r2 = 26.6%, P < 0.0118), I.Sp (r2 = 28.9%, P < 0.0081). These trends with age were also expressed as annual rates of change: ABV/TV (-0.52%/year), I.Th (-0.33%/year), and I.Sp (0.59%/year). Linear regression analysis also showed significant correlation between the MR-derived trabecular structure parameters and calcaneal BMD values. Although a larger group of subjects is needed to better define the age-related changes in trabecular structure parameters and their relation to BMD, these preliminary results demonstrate that high-resolution MRI may potentially be useful for the quantitative assessment of trabecular structure.

  7. High-resolution echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, R.

    1979-01-01

    High resolution computer aided ultrasound system provides two-and three-dimensional images of beating heart from many angles. System provides means for determining whether small blood vessels around the heart are blocked or if heart wall is moving normally without interference of dead and noncontracting muscle tissue.

  8. High-resolution headlamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gut, Carsten; Cristea, Iulia; Neumann, Cornelius

    2016-04-01

    The following article shall describe how human vision by night can be influenced. At first, front lighting systems that are already available on the market will be described, followed by their analysis with respect to the positive effects on traffic safety. Furthermore, how traffic safety by night can be increased since the introduction of high resolution headlamps shall be discussed.

  9. High resolution data acquisition

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  10. High resolution data acquisition

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.

    1993-04-06

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock, pulse train, and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train (as seen in diagram on patent). The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  11. Ultra high resolution tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  12. High-Resolution Autoradiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towe, George C; Gomberg, Henry J; Freemen, J W

    1955-01-01

    This investigation was made to adapt wet-process autoradiography to metallurgical samples to obtain high resolution of segregated radioactive elements in microstructures. Results are confined to development of the technique, which was perfected to a resolution of less than 10 microns. The radioactive samples included carbon-14 carburized iron and steel, nickel-63 electroplated samples, a powder product containing nickel-63, and tungsten-185 in N-155 alloy.

  13. The Precambrian Singo Igneous Complex (SIC), Uganda Revealed As a Mineralized Nested Ring Complex Using High Resolution Airborne Radiometric and Magnetic Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atekwana, E. A.; LePera, A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Katumwehe, A. B.; Achang, M.

    2014-12-01

    We used high-resolution radiometrics and aeromagnetic data to investigate the Precambrian Singo Igneous Complex (SIC) in Uganda. The SIC covers an area of about 700 km² and is host to hydrothermally formed economic minerals such as Gold and Tungsten. The distribution of the ore deposits is not well known and current mine workings are limited to the western margins of the complex. Our objectives were to (1) provide a detailed geological map of the SIC and surrounding, (2) investigate relationships between preserved intrusive bodies and Precambrian tectonic structures to provide insight into emplacement of the complex, (3) examine links between magma emplacement, discontinuities and hydrothermal alteration (4) generate two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) models of the complex to understand its subsurface geometry, (5) investigate the relationship between the structure of the SIC and mineral occurrences as an aid to future exploration programs. Edge enhancement filters such as the analytical signal, vertical and tilt derivatives were applied to the magnetic data. In addition, 2-D and 3-D models were produced using Geosoft's GM-SYS 2-D and Voxi modules. The filtered data provided unprecedented structural details of the complex and revealed the following: (1) the edge of the SIC is characterized by higher magnetic susceptibility and Thorium content than its interior, (2) the SIC is characterized by eight to nine nested ring complexes with diameters ranging from 2.5 to 14 km, (3) the 3-D inversion suggests near vertical walls for the ring complexes extending to a depth of about 7 km, (4) the SIC was emplaced within a Precambrian folded basement and was traversed by numerous NW-trending dykes and (5) present day mining activities are concentrated within the folded basement units although occurrences of Tungsten and Gold are found associated with the highly magnetized edge of the ring complexes. We interpret the highly magnetized edges of the nested ring

  14. Metabolomics by Proton High-Resolution Magic-Angle-Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Tomato Plants Treated with Two Secondary Metabolites Isolated from Trichoderma.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, Pierluigi; Vinale, Francesco; Woo, Sheridan Lois; Pascale, Alberto; Lorito, Matteo; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2016-05-11

    Trichoderma fungi release 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (1) and harzianic acid (2) secondary metabolites to improve plant growth and health protection. We isolated metabolites 1 and 2 from Trichoderma strains, whose different concentrations were used to treat seeds of Solanum lycopersicum. The metabolic profile in the resulting 15 day old tomato leaves was studied by high-resolution magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HRMAS NMR) spectroscopy directly on the whole samples without any preliminary extraction. Principal component analysis (PCA) of HRMAS NMR showed significantly enhanced acetylcholine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content accompanied by variable amount of amino acids in samples treated with both Trichoderma secondary metabolites. Seed germination rates, seedling fresh weight, and the metabolome of tomato leaves were also dependent upon doses of metabolites 1 and 2 treatments. HRMAS NMR spectroscopy was proven to represent a rapid and reliable technique for evaluating specific changes in the metabolome of plant leaves and calibrating the best concentration of bioactive compounds required to stimulate plant growth. PMID:27088924

  15. Quantification of microheterogeneity in glioblastoma multiforme with ex vivo high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HRMAS) proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, L. L.; Anthony, D. C.; Comite, A. R.; Black, P. M.; Tzika, A. A.; Gonzalez, R. G.

    2000-01-01

    Microheterogeneity is a routinely observed neuropathologic characteristic in brain tumor pathology. Although microheterogeneity is readily documented by routine histologic techniques, these techniques only measure tumor status at the time of biopsy or surgery and do not indicate likely tumor progression. A biochemical screening technique calibrated against pathologic standards would greatly assist in predicting tumor progression from its biological activity. Here we demonstrate for the first time that proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) with high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HRMAS), a technique introduced in 1997, can preserve tissue histopathologic features while producing well-resolved spectra of cellular metabolites in the identical intact tissue specimens. Observed biochemical alterations and tumor histopathologic characteristics can thus be correlated for the same surgical specimen, obviating the problems caused by tumor microheterogeneity. We analyzed multiple specimens of a single human glioblastoma multiforme surgically removed from a 44-year-old patient. Each specimen was first measured with HRMAS 1H MRS to determine tumor metabolites, then evaluated by quantitative histopathology. The concentrations of lactate and mobile lipids measured with HRMAS linearly reflected the percentage of tumor necrosis. Moreover, metabolic ratios of phosphorylcholine to choline correlated linearly with the percentage of the highly cellular malignant glioma. The quantification of tumor metabolic changes with HRMAS 1H MRS, in conjunction with subsequent histopathology of the same tumor specimen, has the potential to further our knowledge of the biochemistry of tumor heterogeneity during development, and thus ultimately to improve our accuracy in diagnosing, characterizing, and evaluating tumor progression. PMID:11303625

  16. A high-resolution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic method for the non-phosphorus markers of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Avik; Kumar, Ajeet; Purohit, Ajay K; Dubey, Devendra K

    2012-02-01

    A high-resolution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic method has been developed for detection, identification and quantification of non-phosphorus markers of toxic nerve agents (soman and V-class), vesicants (HD, HN-2, HN-3), and incapacitating agent (Bz). These analytes were converted to phosphorus-containing derivatives via phosphitylation reaction of their hydroxyl and sulfhydryl functions (using 2-chloro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane). This was followed by (31)P{(1)H} and (31)P NMR analysis of these derivatives. The chemical shifts (δ) and coupling constants ((3)J(P-H)) of derivatives were used for their specific detection and identification. The method allowed clear distinction between the alcohols and thiols. The lower limits of detection of these analytes were found to be between 12 and 28 μg obtained from 128 transients of (31)P{(1)H} quantitative NMR experiments. Utility of the method was ensured by the detection and identification of triethanolamine present (at an original concentration of 5 μg/mL) in an aqueous sample from 28th OPCW Official Proficiency Tests. PMID:22160203

  17. Analysis of the Thermal Degradation of the Individual Anthocyanin Compounds of Black Carrot (Daucus carota L.): A New Approach Using High-Resolution Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Iliopoulou, Ioanna; Thaeron, Delphine; Baker, Ashley; Jones, Anita; Robertson, Neil

    2015-08-12

    The black carrot dye is a mixture of cyanidin molecules, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of which shows a highly overlapped aromatic region. In this study, the (1)H NMR (800 MHz) aromatic chemical shifts of the mixture were fully assigned by overlaying them with the characterized (1)H NMR chemical shifts of the separated compounds. The latter were isolated using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and their chemical shifts were identified using (1)H and two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy (COSY) NMR spectroscopy. The stability of the black carrot mixture to heat exposure was investigated at pH 3.6, 6.8, and 8.0 by heat-treating aqueous solutions at 100 °C and the powdered material at 180 °C. From integration of high-resolution (1)H NMR spectra, it was possible to follow the relative degradation of each compound, offering advantages over the commonly used ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis) and HPLC approaches. UV/vis spectroscopy and CIE color measurements were used to determine thermally induced color changes, under normal cooking conditions. PMID:26160425

  18. High-resolution seismic-reflection and marine-magnetic data from offshore central California--San Gregorio to Point Sur

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sliter, Ray W.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Watt, Janet T.; Scheirer, Daniel S.; Allwardt, Parker; Triezenberg, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected high-resolution seismic-reflection data on four surveys (S-N1-09-MB, S-15-10-NC, S-06-11-MB, and S-04-12-MB) and marine-magnetic data on one survey (S-06-11-MB) between 2009 and 2012, offshore of central California between San Gregorio and Point Sur. This work was supported in part by the California Seafloor Mapping Program. The survey areas span about 120 km of California's coast (including Monterey Bay). Most data were collected aboard the U.S. Geological Survey R/V Parke Snavely. Cumulatively, approximately 1,410 km of single-channel seismic-reflection data were acquired, mainly using a SIG 2mille minisparker. About 44 km of data were collected simultaneously using an EdgeTech Chirp 512. Subbottom acoustic penetration spanned tens to several hundreds of meters, variable by location. Marine magnetic data were collected on approximately 460 km of track lines (mainly in southern Monterey Bay) using a Geometrics G882 cesium-vapor marine magnetometer. This report includes maps and navigation files of the surveyed transects, linked to Google Earth™ software, as well as digital data files showing images of each transect in SEG-Y and JPEG formats. The images of bedrock, sediment deposits, and tectonic structure provide geologic information that is essential to hazard assessment, regional sediment management, and coastal and marine spatial planning at Federal, State and local levels, as well as to future research on the geomorphic, sedimentary, tectonic, and climatic record of central California.

  19. High resolution infrared measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, B.; Cawley, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Sample ground based cloud radiance data from a high resolution infrared sensor are shown and the sensor characteristics are presented in detail. The purpose of the Infrared Analysis Measurement and Modeling Program (IRAMMP) is to establish a deterministic radiometric data base of cloud, sea, and littoral terrain clutter to be used to advance the design and development of Infrared Search and Track (IRST) systems as well as other infrared devices. The sensor is a dual band radiometric sensor and its description, together with that of the Data Acquisition System (DAS), are given. A schematic diagram of the sensor optics is shown.

  20. High Resolution Neutral Atom Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucay, Igal; Castillo-Garza, Rodrigo; Stratis, Georgios; Raizen, Mark

    2015-03-01

    We are developing a high resolution neutral atom microscope based on metastable atom electron spectroscopy (MAES). When a metastable atom of a noble gas is near a solid, a surface electron will tunnel to an empty energy level of the metastable atom, thereby ejecting the excited electron from the atom. The emitted electrons carry information regarding the local topography and electronic, magnetic, and chemical structures of most hard materials. Furthermore, using a chromatic aberration corrected magnetic hexapole lens we expect to attain a spatial resolution below 10 nm. We will use this microscope to investigate how local phenomena can give rise to macroscopic effects in materials that cannot be probed using a scanning tunneling microscope, namely insulating transition metal oxides.

  1. Analysis of metabolic characteristics in a rat model of chronic pancreatitis using high-resolution magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bing; Ma, Chao; Wang, Jian; Pan, Chun-Shu; Yang, Gen-Jin; Lu, Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Pathological and metabolic alterations co-exist and co-develop in the progression of chronic pancreatitis (CP). The aim of the present study was to investigate the metabolic characteristics and disease severity of a rat model of CP in order to determine associations in the observed pathology and the metabolites of CP using high-resolution magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS NMR). Wistar rats (n=36) were randomly assigned into 6 groups (n=6 per group). CP was established by administering dibutyltin dichloride solution into the tail vein. After 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days, the pancreatic tissues were collected for pathological scoring or for HR-MAS NMR. Correlation analyses between the major pathological scores and the integral areas of the major metabolites were determined. The most representative metabolites, aspartate, betaine and fatty acids, were identified as possessing the greatest discriminatory significance. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between the pathology and metabolites of the pancreatic tissues were as follows: Betaine and fibrosis, 0.454 (P=0.044); betaine and inflammatory cell infiltration, 0.716 (P=0.0001); aspartate and fibrosis, -0.768 (P=0.0001); aspartate and inflammatory cell infiltration, -0.394 (P=0.085); fatty acid and fibrosis, -0.764 (P=0.0001); and fatty acid and inflammatory cell infiltration, -0.619 (P=0.004). The metabolite betaine positively correlated with fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration in CP. In addition, aspartate negatively correlated with fibrosis, but exhibited no significant correlation with inflammatory cell infiltration. Furthermore, the presence of fatty acids negatively correlated with fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration in CP. HR-MAS NMR may be used to analyze metabolic characteristics in a rat model of different degrees of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:25338744

  2. High-resolution magic angle spinning and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveal significantly altered neuronal metabolite profiles in CLN1 but not in CLN3.

    PubMed

    Sitter, Beathe; Autti, Taina; Tyynelä, Jaana; Sonnewald, Ursula; Bathen, Tone F; Puranen, Johanna; Santavuori, Pirkko; Haltia, Matti J; Paetau, Anders; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Gribbestad, Ingrid S; Häkkinen, Anna-Maija

    2004-09-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are among the most severe inherited progressive neurodegenerative disorders of children. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vivo 1.5-T 1H magnetic resonance (MR) and ex vivo 14.3-T high-resolution (HR) magic angle spinning (MAS) 1H MR brain spectra of patients with infantile (CLN1) and juvenile (CLN3) types of NCL, to obtain detailed information about the alterations in the neuronal metabolite profiles in these diseases and to test the suitability of the ex vivo HR MAS (1)H MRS technique in analysis of autopsy brain tissue. Ex vivo spectra from CLN1 autopsy brain tissue (n = 9) significantly differed from those of the control (n = 9) and CLN3 (n = 5) groups, although no differences were found between the CLN3 and the control groups. Principal component analysis of ex vivo data showed that decreased levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamine, and glutamate as well as increased levels of inositols characterized the CLN1 spectra. Also, the intensity ratio of lipid methylene/methyl protons was decreased in spectra of CLN1 brain tissue compared with CLN3 and control brain tissue. In concordance with the ex vivo data, the in vivo spectra of late-stage patients with CLN1 (n = 3) revealed a dramatic decrease of NAA and a proportional increase of myo-inositol and lipids compared with control subjects. Again, the spectra of patients with CLN3 (n = 13) did not differ from those of controls (n = 15). In conclusion, the ex vivo and in vivo spectroscopic findings were in good agreement within all analyzed groups and revealed significant alterations in metabolite profiles in CLN1 brain tissue but not in CLN3 compared with controls. Furthermore, HR MAS 1H MR spectra facilitated refined detection of neuronal metabolites, including GABA, and composition of lipids in the autopsy brain tissue of NCL patients. PMID:15352223

  3. Comparison and combination of scaling index method and Minkowski functionals in the analysis of high resolution magnetic resonance images of the distal radius in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorenko, Irina N.; Bauer, Jan; Monetti, Roberto; Mueller, Dirk; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Eckstein, Felix; Raeth, Christoph W.

    2008-03-01

    High resolution magnetic resonance (HRMR) imaging can reveal major characteristics of trabecular bone. The quantification of this trabecular micro architecture can be useful for better understanding the progression of osteoporosis and improve its diagnosis. In the present work we applied the scaling index method (SIM) and Minkowski Functionals (MF) for analysing tomographic images of distal radius specimens in vitro. For both methods, the correlation with the maximum compressive strength (MCS) as determined in a biomechanical test and the diagnostic performance with regard to the spine fracture status were calculated. Both local SIM and global MF methods showed significantly better results compared to bone mineral density measured by quantitative computed tomography. The receiver operating characteristic analysis for differentiating fractured and non-fractured subjects revealed area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.716 for BMD, 0.897 for SIM and 0.911 for MF. The correlation coefficients with MCS were 0.6771 for BMD, 0.843 for SIM and 0.772 for MF. We simulated the effect of perturbations, namely noise effects and intensity variations. Overall, MF method was more sensitive to noise than SIM. A combination of SIM and MF methods could, however, increase AUC values from 0.85 to 0.89 and correlation coefficients from 0.71 to 0.82. In conclusion, local SIM and global MF techniques can successfully be applied for analysing HRMR image data. Since these methods are complementary, their combination offers a new possibility of describing MR images of the trabecular bone, especially noisy ones.

  4. Rigid DNA beams for high-resolution single-molecule mechanics.

    PubMed

    Pfitzner, Emanuel; Wachauf, Christian; Kilchherr, Fabian; Pelz, Benjamin; Shih, William M; Rief, Matthias; Dietz, Hendrik

    2013-07-22

    Bridging the gap: Rigid DNA linkers (blue, see picture) between microspheres (green) for high-resolution single-molecule mechanical experiments were constructed using DNA origami. The resulting DNA helical bundles greatly reduce the noise generated in studies of conformation changes using optical tweezers and were applied to study small DNA secondary structures. PMID:23794413

  5. High resolution Doppler lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abreu, Vincent J.; Hays, Paul B.; Barnes, John E.

    1989-01-01

    A high resolution lidar system was implemented to measure winds in the lower atmosphere. The wind speed along the line of sight was determined by measuring the Doppler shift of the aerosol backscattered laser signal. The system in its present configuration is stable, and behaves as indicated by theoretical simulations. This system was built to demonstrate the capabilities of the detector system as a prototype for a spaceborne lidar. The detector system investigated consisted of a plane Fabry-Perot etalon, and a 12-ring anode detector. This system is generically similar to the Fabry-Perot interferometer developed for passive wind measurements on board the Dynamics Explorer satellite. That this detector system performs well in a lidar configuration was demonstrated.

  6. Very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronson, A. I.

    1974-01-01

    A primary sensor used in environmental and earth-resource observation, the Very High Resolution Radiometer (VHRR) was designed for use on the ITOS D series spacecraft. The VHRR provides a 0.47 mile resolution made possible with a mercury-cadmium-telluride detector cooled to approximately 105 K by a passive radiator cooler. The components of this system are described. The optical subsystem of the VHRR consists of a scanning mirror, a Dall-Kirkham telescope, a dichroic beam splitter, relay lenses, spectral filters, and an IR detector. Signal electronics amplify and condition the signals from the infrared and visible light detector. Sync generator electronics provides the necessary time signals. Scan-drive electronics is used for commutation of the motor winding, velocity, and phase control. A table lists the performance parameters of the VHRR.

  7. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks.

  8. Magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction for high-resolution bioimepedance imaging through vector source reconstruction under the static field of MRI magnet

    PubMed Central

    Mariappan, Leo; Hu, Gang; He, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) is an imaging modality to reconstruct the electrical conductivity of biological tissue based on the acoustic measurements of Lorentz force induced tissue vibration. This study presents the feasibility of the authors' new MAT-MI system and vector source imaging algorithm to perform a complete reconstruction of the conductivity distribution of real biological tissues with ultrasound spatial resolution. Methods: In the present study, using ultrasound beamformation, imaging point spread functions are designed to reconstruct the induced vector source in the object which is used to estimate the object conductivity distribution. Both numerical studies and phantom experiments are performed to demonstrate the merits of the proposed method. Also, through the numerical simulations, the full width half maximum of the imaging point spread function is calculated to estimate of the spatial resolution. The tissue phantom experiments are performed with a MAT-MI imaging system in the static field of a 9.4 T magnetic resonance imaging magnet. Results: The image reconstruction through vector beamformation in the numerical and experimental studies gives a reliable estimate of the conductivity distribution in the object with a ∼1.5 mm spatial resolution corresponding to the imaging system frequency of 500 kHz ultrasound. In addition, the experiment results suggest that MAT-MI under high static magnetic field environment is able to reconstruct images of tissue-mimicking gel phantoms and real tissue samples with reliable conductivity contrast. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that MAT-MI is able to image the electrical conductivity properties of biological tissues with better than 2 mm spatial resolution at 500 kHz, and the imaging with MAT-MI under a high static magnetic field environment is able to provide improved imaging contrast for biological tissue conductivity reconstruction. PMID:24506649

  9. Magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction for high-resolution bioimepedance imaging through vector source reconstruction under the static field of MRI magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Mariappan, Leo; Hu, Gang; He, Bin

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) is an imaging modality to reconstruct the electrical conductivity of biological tissue based on the acoustic measurements of Lorentz force induced tissue vibration. This study presents the feasibility of the authors' new MAT-MI system and vector source imaging algorithm to perform a complete reconstruction of the conductivity distribution of real biological tissues with ultrasound spatial resolution. Methods: In the present study, using ultrasound beamformation, imaging point spread functions are designed to reconstruct the induced vector source in the object which is used to estimate the object conductivity distribution. Both numerical studies and phantom experiments are performed to demonstrate the merits of the proposed method. Also, through the numerical simulations, the full width half maximum of the imaging point spread function is calculated to estimate of the spatial resolution. The tissue phantom experiments are performed with a MAT-MI imaging system in the static field of a 9.4 T magnetic resonance imaging magnet. Results: The image reconstruction through vector beamformation in the numerical and experimental studies gives a reliable estimate of the conductivity distribution in the object with a ∼1.5 mm spatial resolution corresponding to the imaging system frequency of 500 kHz ultrasound. In addition, the experiment results suggest that MAT-MI under high static magnetic field environment is able to reconstruct images of tissue-mimicking gel phantoms and real tissue samples with reliable conductivity contrast. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that MAT-MI is able to image the electrical conductivity properties of biological tissues with better than 2 mm spatial resolution at 500 kHz, and the imaging with MAT-MI under a high static magnetic field environment is able to provide improved imaging contrast for biological tissue conductivity reconstruction.

  10. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M.

    2011-06-01

    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 A ring TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron registered accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  11. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M.

    2011-06-01

    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 Å TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron® accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  12. High Resolution Thermometry for EXACT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, J. S.; Nash, A. E.; Larson, M.; Mulders, N.

    2000-01-01

    High Resolution Thermometers (HRTs) based on SQUID detection of the magnetization of a paramagnetic salt or a metal alloy has been commonly used for sub-nano Kelvin temperature resolution in low temperature physics experiments. The main applications to date have been for temperature ranges near the lambda point of He-4 (2.177 K). These thermometers made use of materials such as Cu(NH4)2Br4 *2H2O, GdCl3, or PdFe. None of these materials are suitable for EXACT, which will explore the region of the He-3/He-4 tricritical point at 0.87 K. The experiment requirements and properties of several candidate paramagnetic materials will be presented, as well as preliminary test results.

  13. High Resolution Laboratory Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brünken, S.; Schlemmer, S.

    2016-05-01

    In this short review we will highlight some of the recent advancements in the field of high-resolution laboratory spectroscopy that meet the needs dictated by the advent of highly sensitive and broadband telescopes like ALMA and SOFIA. Among these is the development of broadband techniques for the study of complex organic molecules, like fast scanning conventional absorption spectroscopy based on multiplier chains, chirped pulse instrumentation, or the use of synchrotron facilities. Of similar importance is the extension of the accessible frequency range to THz frequencies, where many light hydrides have their ground state rotational transitions. Another key experimental challenge is the production of sufficiently high number densities of refractory and transient species in the laboratory, where discharges have proven to be efficient sources that can also be coupled to molecular jets. For ionic molecular species sensitive action spectroscopic schemes have recently been developed to overcome some of the limitations of conventional absorption spectroscopy. Throughout this review examples demonstrating the strong interplay between laboratory and observational studies will be given.

  14. High Resolution Doppler Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Paul B.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on UARS spacecraft during the period 4/l/96 - 3/31/99. During this period, HRDI operation, data processing, and data analysis continued, and there was a high level of vitality in the HRDI project. The HRDI has been collecting data from the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere since instrument activation on October 1, 1991. The HRDI team has stressed three areas since operations commenced: 1) operation of the instrument in a manner which maximizes the quality and versatility of the collected data; 2) algorithm development and validation to produce a high-quality data product; and 3) scientific studies, primarily of the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. There has been no significant degradation in the HRDI instrument since operations began nearly 8 years ago. HRDI operations are fairly routine, although we have continued to look for ways to improve the quality of the scientific product, either by improving existing modes, or by designing new ones. The HRDI instrument has been programmed to collect data for new scientific studies, such as measurements of fluorescence from plants, measuring cloud top heights, and lower atmosphere H2O.

  15. Accuracy of High-Resolution In Vivo Micro Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Measurements of Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Human Distal Tibial Bone

    PubMed Central

    Liu, X. Sherry; Zhang, X. Henry; Rajapakse, Chamith S.; Wald, Michael J.; Magland, Jeremy; Sekhon, Kiranjit K.; Adam, Mark F.; Sajda, Paul; Wehrli, Felix W.; Guo, X. Edward

    2011-01-01

    Micro magnetic resonance imaging (µMRI) is an in vivo imaging method which permits three dimensional (3D) quantification of cortical and trabecular bone microstructure. µMR images can also be used for building microstructural finite element (µFE) models to assess bone stiffness, which highly correlates with bone’s resistance to fractures. In order for µMR image-based microstructural and µFE analyses to become standard clinical tools for assessing bone quality, validation with a current gold standard, namely the high-resolution micro computed tomography (µCT) is required. Microstructural measurements of 25 human cadaveric distal tibiae were performed for the registered µMR and µCT images, respectively. Next, whole bone stiffness, trabecular bone stiffness, and elastic moduli of cubic sub-volumes of trabecular bone in both µMR and µCT images were determined by voxel-based µFE analysis. The bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N*), trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp*), cortical thickness (Ct.Th), and structure model index (SMI) of µMRI showed strong correlations with µCT measurements (r2=0.67~0.97), and bone surface to volume ratio (BS/BV), connectivity density (Conn.D), and degree of anisotropy (DA) had significant but moderate correlations (r2=0.33~0.51). Each of these measurements also contributed to one or many of the µFE-predicted mechanical properties. However, model-independent trabecular thickness (Tb.Th*) of µMRI had no correlation with the µCT measurement and did not contribute to any mechanical measurement. Furthermore, the whole bone and trabecular bone stiffness of µMR images were highly correlated to those of µCT images (r2=0.86 and 0.96), suggesting that µMRI-based µFE analyses can directly and accurately quantify whole bone mechanical competence. In contrast, the elastic moduli of the µMRI trabecular bone sub-volume had significant but only moderate correlations with their gold standards (r2=0.40~0.58). We conclude that

  16. Linking contemporary high resolution magnetic resonance imaging to the von Economo legacy: A study on the comparison of MRI cortical thickness and histological measurements of cortical structure.

    PubMed

    Scholtens, Lianne H; de Reus, Marcel A; van den Heuvel, Martijn P

    2015-08-01

    The cerebral cortex is a distinctive part of the mammalian nervous system, displaying a spatial variety in cyto-, chemico-, and myelinoarchitecture. As part of a rich history of histological findings, pioneering anatomists von Economo and Koskinas provided detailed mappings on the cellular structure of the human cortex, reporting on quantitative aspects of cytoarchitecture of cortical areas. Current day investigations into the structure of human cortex have embraced technological advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to assess macroscale thickness and organization of the cortical mantle in vivo. However, direct comparisons between current day MRI estimates and the quantitative measurements of early anatomists have been limited. Here, we report on a simple, but nevertheless important cross-analysis between the histological reports of von Economo and Koskinas on variation in thickness of the cortical mantle and MRI derived measurements of cortical thickness. We translated the von Economo cortical atlas to a subdivision of the commonly used Desikan-Killiany atlas (as part of the FreeSurfer Software package and a commonly used parcellation atlas in studies examining MRI cortical thickness). Next, values of "width of the cortical mantle" as provided by the measurements of von Economo and Koskinas were correlated to cortical thickness measurements derived from high-resolution anatomical MRI T1 data of 200+ subjects of the Human Connectome Project (HCP). Cross-correlation revealed a significant association between group-averaged MRI measurements of cortical thickness and histological recordings (r = 0.54, P < 0.001). Further validating such a correlation, we manually segmented the von Economo parcellation atlas on the standardized Colin27 brain dataset and applied the obtained three-dimensional von Economo segmentation atlas to the T1 data of each of the HCP subjects. Highly consistent with our findings for the mapping to the Desikan-Killiany regions, cross

  17. High Resolution Formaldehyde Photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernest, C. T.; Bauer, D.; Hynes, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most abundant and most important organic carbonyl compound in the atmosphere. The sources of formaldehyde are the oxidation of methane, isoprene, acetone, and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs); fossil fuel combustion; and biomass burning. The dominant loss mechanism for formaldehyde is photolysis which occurs via two pathways: (R1) HCHO + hv → HCO + H (R2) HCHO + hv → H2 + CO The first pathway (R1) is referred to as the radical channel, while the second pathway (R2) is referred to as the molecular channel. The products of both pathways play a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. The CO that is produced in the molecular channel undergoes further oxidation to produce CO2. Under atmospheric conditions, the H atom and formyl radical that are produced in the radical channel undergo rapid reactions with O2 to produce the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) via (R3) and (R4). (R3) HCO + O2 → HO2 + CO (R4) H + O2 → HO2 Thus, for every photon absorbed, the photolysis of formaldehyde can contribute one CO2 molecule to the global greenhouse budget or two HO2 radicals to the tropospheric HOx (OH + HO2) cycle. The HO2 radicals produced during formaldehyde photolysis have also been implicated in the formation of photochemical smog. The HO2 radicals act as radical chain carriers and convert NO to NO2, which ultimately results in the catalytic production of O3. Constraining the yield of HO2 produced via HCHO photolysis is essential for improving tropospheric chemistry models. In this study, both the absorption cross section and the quantum yield of the radical channel (R1) were measured at high resolution over the tropospherically relevant wavelength range 304-330 nm. For the cross section measurements a narrow linewidth Nd:YAG pumped dye laser was used with a multi-pass cell. Partial pressures of HCHO were kept below 0.3 torr. Simultaneous measurement of OH LIF in a flame allowed absolute calibration of the wavelength scale. Pressure

  18. High resolution time interval meter

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  19. Optoelectronic integrated tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGreehin, Simon J.; O'Faolin, Liam; Roberts, John; Krauss, Thomas; Dholakia, Kishan

    2004-10-01

    We demonstrate the optical manipulation of microscopic particles within a single optoelectronic device, whose footprint measures 2mm by 3mm, and which is realised entirely in planar technology. The device is fabricated in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure, and consists of two facing banks of lasers that are separated by an etched channel. Particles within this channel experience the simple trapping force of two counter-propagating beams. The lasers operate at a wavelength of 980nm, and each gives up to 10mW of power in a single transverse optical mode. This power is sufficient to deflect, decelerate and hold a variety of micron-scale particles, including fluorescent polymer spheres, and cells in solution. The first results were obtained using planar etched facets, giving highly divergent beams. More elegant beam shapes can be produced by etching curved facets. The main attractions of this technology are its size and self-alignment properties: Many devices can fit into a fraction of the space occupied by a traditional tweezer set-up. Using photo-lithography, the alignment of the lasers is 'perfect', avoiding the difficulties experienced in traditional tweezers. The concept we demonstrate is a truly integrated optical tweezer that is mass-producible and does not require any complex instrumentation to operate.

  20. High resolution MR microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobanu, Luisa

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) microscopy [1] has the potential to bring the full capabilities of NMR to arbitrarily specified localized positions within small samples. The most interesting target of study is the living biological cell, with typical dimensions ˜100 mum, but with substructures that are much smaller, such as the cell nucleus (typically ˜10 mu m) and mitochondria (1--10 mum). One anticipates that the development of MR microscopy with resolution at the level of these substructures or better and with a wide, three dimensional field-of-view could open a new avenue of investigation into the biology of the living cell. Although the first MR image of a single biological cell was reported in 1987 [2], the cell imaged had quite large (˜1 mm diameter) spatial dimensions and the resolution obtained (on the order of 10 mu m) was not adequate for meaningful imaging of more typically sized cells. The quest for higher resolution has continued. In 1989 Zhou et al. [3] obtained fully three dimensional images with spatial resolution of (6.37 mum)3, or 260 femtoliters. While better "in-plane" resolutions (i.e., the resolution in 2 of the 3 spatial dimensions) have since been obtained, [4, 5] this volume resolution was not exceeded until quite recently by Lee et al., [6] who report 2D images having volume resolution of 75 mum 3 and in-plane resolution of 1 mum. In parallel with these advances in raw resolution several investigators [7, 8, 9] have focused on localized spectroscopy and/or chemical shift imaging. The key obstacles to overcome in MR microscopy are (1) the loss of signal to noise that occurs when observing small volumes and (2) molecular diffusion during the measurement or encoding. To date the problem of sensitivity has typically been addressed by employing small micro-coil receivers. [10] The problem of molecular diffusion can only be defeated with strong magnetic field gradients that can encode spatial information quickly. We report MR microscopy

  1. High-resolution PTP1B inhibition profiling combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Proof-of-concept and antidiabetic constituents in crude extract of Eremophila lucida.

    PubMed

    Tahtah, Yousof; Wubshet, Sileshi G; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Heskes, Allison Maree; Pateraki, Irini; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jäger, Anna K; Staerk, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) constituted 90% of the global 387 million diabetes cases in 2014. The enzyme protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has been recognized as a therapeutic target for treatment of T2D and its adverse complications. With the aim of accelerating the investigation of complex natural sources, such as crude plant extracts, for potential PTP1B inhibitors, we have developed a bio-analytical platform combining high-resolution PTP1B inhibition profiling and high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, i.e., HR-bioassay/HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR. Human recombinant PTP1B enzyme was used for the microplate-based PTP1B inhibition assay, which was optimized for pH and substrate concentration to be compatible with rate measurements within the 10 min incubation time. Subsequently, analytical-scale HPLC-based microfractionation followed by colorimetric microplate-based PTP1B bioassaying enabled construction of a high-resolution inhibition profile corresponding to the HPLC profile. The high-resolution PTP1B inhibition profiling was validated using an artificial mixture of known PTP1B inhibitors and non-inhibiting compounds as negative controls. Finally, a proof-of-concept study with a real sample was performed using crude ethyl acetate extract of the phytochemically hitherto unexplored plant Eremophila lucida. This led to the identification of the first viscidane type diterpene, i.e., 5-hydroxyviscida-3,14-dien-20-oic acid (9) as PTP1B inhibitor with an IC50 value of 42.0 ± 5.9 μM. In addition, a series of flavonoids, i.e., luteolin (1), dinatin (3a), tricin (3b), 3,6-dimethoxyapigenin (4), jaceidin (5), and cirsimaritin (6) as well as a cembrene diterpene, (3Z, 7E, 11Z)-15-hydroxycembra-3,7,11-trien-19-oic acid (8), were also identified for the first time from E. lucida. PMID:26882973

  2. ELECTRONICS UPGRADE OF HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mcintosh, J; Joe Cordaro, J

    2008-03-10

    High resolution mass spectrometers are specialized systems that allow researchers to determine the exact mass of samples to four significant digits by using magnetic and electronic sector mass analyzers. Many of the systems in use today at research laboratories and universities were designed and built more than two decades ago. The manufacturers of these systems have abandoned the support for some of the mass spectrometers and parts to power and control them have become scarce or obsolete. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been involved in the upgrade of the electronics and software for these legacy machines. The Electronics Upgrade of High Resolution Mass Spectrometers consists of assembling high-end commercial instrumentation from reputable manufacturers with a minimal amount of customization to replace the electronics for the older systems. By taking advantage of advances in instrumentation, precise magnet control can be achieved using high resolution current sources and continuous feedback from a high resolution hall-effect probe. The custom equipment include a precision voltage divider/summing amplifier chassis, high voltage power supply chassis and a chassis for controlling the voltage emission for the mass spectrometer source tube. The upgrade package is versatile enough to interface with valve control, vacuum and other instrumentation. Instrument communication is via a combination of Ethernet and traditional IEEE-488 GPIB protocols. The system software upgrades include precision control, feedback and spectral waveform analysis tools.

  3. Interferometer Control of Optical Tweezers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses progress in using spatial light modulators and interferometry to control the beam profile of an optical tweezers. The approach being developed is to use a spatial light modulator (SLM) to control the phase profile of the tweezers beam and to use a combination of the SLM and interferometry to control the intensity profile. The objective is to perform fine and calculable control of the moments and forces on a tip or tool to be used to manipulate and interrogate nanostructures. The performance of the SLM in generating multiple and independently controllable tweezers beams is also reported. Concurrent supporting research projects are mentioned and include tweezers beam scattering and neural-net processing of the interference patterns for control of the tweezers beams.

  4. High resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the anterior visual pathway in patients with optic neuropathies using fast spin echo and phased array local coils.

    PubMed Central

    Gass, A; Barker, G J; MacManus, D; Sanders, M; Riordan-Eva, P; Tofts, P S; Thorpe, J; McDonald, W I; Moseley, I F; Miller, D H

    1995-01-01

    High resolution MRI of the anterior visual pathways was evaluated using frequency selective fat suppressed fast spin echo (FSE) sequences in conjunction with phased array local coils in patients with optic neuropathies. Fifteen normal controls and 57 patients were examined. Coronal T2 weighted fat suppressed FSE images were obtained in 11 minutes with an in plane resolution of 0.39 x 0.39 mm. The optic nerve and its sheath containing CSF were clearly differentiated. Central retinal vessels were often visible. In demyelinating optic neuritis and in anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy high signal within the nerve was readily delineated. Meningiomas and gliomas involving the optic nerve were precisely visualised both in the orbit and intracranially. Extrinsic compression of the optic nerves was readily visualised in carotid artery ectasia and dysthyroid eye disease. Enlarged subarachnoid spaces around the optic nerves were demonstrated in benign intracranial hypertension. High resolution MRI of the anterior visual pathway represents an advance in the diagnosis and management of patients presenting with optic neuropathy. Images PMID:7745403

  5. Devil's lens optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Pu, Jixiong; Jones, P H

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate an optical tweezers using a laser beam on which is imprinted a focusing phase profile generated by a Devil's staircase fractal structure (Cantor set). We show that a beam shaped in this way is capable of stably trapping a variety of micron- and submicron-sized particles and calibrate the optical trap as a function of the control parameters of the fractal structure, and explain the observed variation as arising from radiation pressure exerted by unfocused parts of the beam in the region of the optical trap. Experimental results are complemented by calculation of the structure of the focus in the regime of high numerical aperture. PMID:25968658

  6. Magnetization reversal of the domain structure in the anti-perovskite nitride Co3FeN investigated by high-resolution X-ray microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajiri, T.; Finizio, S.; Vafaee, M.; Kuroki, Y.; Ando, H.; Sakakibara, H.; Kleibert, A.; Howald, L.; Kronast, F.; Ueda, K.; Asano, H.; Kläui, M.

    2016-05-01

    We performed X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) photoemission electron microscopy imaging to reveal the magnetic domain structure of anti-perovskite nitride Co3FeN exhibiting a negative spin polarization. In square and disc patterns, we systematically and quantitatively determined the statistics of the stable states as a function of geometry. By direct imaging during the application of a magnetic field, we revealed the magnetic reversal process in a spatially resolved manner. We compared the hysteresis on the continuous area and the square patterns from the magnetic field-dependent XMCD ratio, which can be explained as resulting from the effect of the shape anisotropy, present in nanostructured thin films.

  7. Magnetic studies of archaeological obsidian: Variability of eruptive conditions within obsidian flows is key to high-resolution artifact sourcing (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, J. M.; Frahm, E.; Muth, M.

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have endeavored to use petrophysical traits of obsidian, particularly its magnetic properties, as an alternative to conventional geochemical sourcing, one of the greatest successes in archaeological science. Magnetic approaches, however, have not seen widespread application due to their mixed success. In a time when geochemical analyses can be conducted non-destructively, in the field, and in a minute or two, magnetic measurements of obsidian must offer novel archaeological insights to be worthwhile, not merely act as a less successful version of geochemistry. To this end, we report the findings of a large-scale study of obsidian magnetism, which includes 912 geological obsidian specimens and 97 artifacts measured for six simple magnetic parameters. Based on these results, we propose, rather than using magnetic properties to source artifacts to a particular obsidian flow (inter-flow sourcing), these properties are best used to differentiate quarrying sites within an individual flow (intra-flow sourcing). The magnetic properties within an individual flow are highly variable, due to the fact that a single flow experiences a wide array of cooling rates, absolute temperatures, viscosities, deformation, and oxidation. These conditions affect the concentrations, compositions, size distributions, shapes, and spatial arrangements of magnetic grains within an obsidian specimen and, thus, its intrinsic magnetic properties. This variability decreases dramatically at spatial scales of individual outcrops, and decreases even further at scales of hand samples. Thus, magnetic data appear to shift the scale of obsidian sourcing from flows to quarries and, in turn, enable new insights into raw-material procurement strategies, group mobility, lithic technology, and the organization of space and production. From a geologic perspective, the magnetic variability of obsidian can be broadly interpreted within the context of the igneous processes that were active during

  8. Optical tweezers on biaxial crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelsky, Oleg V.; Maksimyak, Andrew P.; Maksimyak, Peter P.

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we propose optical tweezers based on a biaxial crystal. To control the movement of opaque particles, we use the shift polarization interferometer. The results of experimental study of laser tweezers are shown. We demonstrates movement of a microparticle of toner using singular-optical trap, rotate a particle due to orbital momentum, conversion of two traps when changing the plane of polarizer transmission and converging of two traps.

  9. Determination of 16 Selected Trace Elements in Children Plasma from China Economical Developed Rural Areas Using High Resolution Magnetic Sector Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaobing; Piao, Jianhua; Huang, Zhenwu; Zhang, Shuang-Qing; Li, Weidong; Tian, Yuan; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    A rapid, accurate, and high performance method of high resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) combined with a small-size sample (0.1 mL) preparation was established. The method was validated and applied for the determination of 16 selected plasma trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, B, Al, Se, Sr, V, Cr, Mn, Co, As, Mo, Cd, and Pb). The linear working ranges were over three intervals, 0-1 μg/L, 0–10 μg/L and 0–100 μg/L. Correlation coefficients (R2) ranged from 0.9957 to 0.9999 and the limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.02 μg/L (Rb) to 1.89 μg/L (Se). The trueness (or recovery) spanned from 89.82% (Al) to 119.15% (Se) and precision expressed by the relative standard deviation (RSD %) for intra-day ranging from 1.1% (Zn) to 9.0% (Se), while ranged from 3.7% (Fe) to 12.7% (Al) for interday. A total of 440 plasma samples were collected from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey Project 2002 (CNNHS 2002), which represented the status of plasma trace elements for the children aged 3–12 years from China economical developed rural areas. The concentrations of 16 trace elements were summarized and compared by age groups and gender, which can be used as one of the basic components for the formulation of the baseline reference values of trace elements for the children in 2002. PMID:24701366

  10. High-resolution laser spectroscopy and magnetic effect of the B̃2E' ← X̃2A2' transition of 14NO3 radical.

    PubMed

    Tada, Kohei; Kashihara, Wataru; Baba, Masaaki; Ishiwata, Takashi; Hirota, Eizi; Kasahara, Shunji

    2014-11-14

    Rotationally resolved high-resolution fluorescence excitation spectra of (14)NO3 radical have been observed for the 662 nm band, which is assigned as the 0-0 band of the B̃(2)E' ←X̃(2)A2' transition, by crossing a single-mode laser beam perpendicularly to a collimated molecular beam. More than 3000 rotational lines were detected in 15,070-15,145 cm(-1) region, but it is difficult to find the rotational line series. Remarkable rotational line pairs, whose interval is about 0.0246 cm(-1), were found in the observed spectrum. This interval is the same amount with the spin-rotation splitting of the X̃(2)A2' (υ = 0, k = 0, N = 1) level. From this interval and the observed Zeeman splitting up to 360 G, seven line pairs were assigned as the transitions to the (2)E'(3/2) (J' = 1.5) levels and 15 line pairs were assigned as the transitions to the (2)E'(1/2) (J' = 0.5) levels. From the rotational analysis, we recognized that the (2)E' state splits into (2)E'(3/2) and (2)E'(1/2) by the spin-orbit interaction and the effective spin-orbit interaction constant was roughly estimated as -21 cm(-1). From the number of the rotational line pairs, we concluded that the complicated rotational structure of this 662 nm band of (14)NO3 mainly owes to the vibronic interaction between the B̃(2)E' state and the dark Ã(2)E″ state through the a2″ symmetry vibrational mode. PMID:25399147

  11. High-resolution three-dimensional 19F-magnetic resonance imaging of rat lung in situ: evaluation of airway strain in the perfluorocarbon-filled lung.

    PubMed

    Weigel, Julia K; Steinmann, Daniel; Emerich, Philipp; Stahl, Claudius A; v Elverfeldt, Dominik; Guttmann, Josef

    2011-02-01

    Perfluorocarbons (PFC) are biologically and chemically inert fluids with high oxygen and CO(2) carrying capacities. Their use as liquid intrapulmonary gas carriers during liquid ventilation has been investigated. We established a method of high resolution 3D-(19)F-MRI of the totally PFC-filled lung. The goal of this study was to investigate longitudinal and circumferential airway strain in the setting of increasing airway pressures on 3D-(19)F-MR images of the PFC-filled lung. Sixteen female Wistar rats were euthanized and the liquid perfluorocarbon FC-84 instilled into their lungs. 3D-(19)F-MRI was performed at various intrapulmonary pressures. Measurements of bronchial length and cross-sectional area were obtained from transversal 2D images for each pressure range. Changes in bronchial area were used to determine circumferential strain, while longitudinal strain was calculated from changes in bronchial length. Our method of 3D-(19)F-MRI allowed clear visualization of the great bronchi. Longitudinal strain increased significantly up to 31.1 cmH(2)O. The greatest strain could be found in the range of low airway pressures. Circumferential strain increased strongly with the initial pressure rise, but showed no significant changes above 10.4 cmH(2)O. Longitudinal strain was generally higher in distal airways, while circumferential strain showed no difference. Analysis of mechanical characteristics showed that longitudinal and circumferential airway expansion occurred in an anisotropic fashion. Whereas longitudinal strain still increased with higher pressures, circumferential strain quickly reached a 'strain limit'. Longitudinal strain was higher in distal bronchi, as dense PFCs gravitate to dependent, in this case to dorso-basal parts of the lung, acting as liquid positive end expiratory pressure. PMID:21193813

  12. High-resolution measurements of the spatial and temporal evolution of megagauss magnetic fields created in intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Gourab Singh, Prashant Kumar; Adak, Amitava; Lad, Amit D.; Kumar, G. Ravindra

    2014-01-15

    A pump-probe polarimetric technique is demonstrated, which provides a complete, temporally and spatially resolved mapping of the megagauss magnetic fields generated in intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions. A normally incident time-delayed probe pulse reflected from its critical surface undergoes a change in its ellipticity according to the magneto-optic Cotton-Mouton effect due to the azimuthal nature of the ambient self-generated megagauss magnetic fields. The temporal resolution of the magnetic field mapping is typically of the order of the pulsewidth, limited by the laser intensity contrast, whereas a spatial resolution of a few μm is achieved by this optical technique. High-harmonics of the probe can be employed to penetrate deeper into the plasma to even near-solid densities. The spatial and temporal evolution of the megagauss magnetic fields at the target front as well as at the target rear are presented. The μm-scale resolution of the magnetic field mapping provides valuable information on the filamentary instabilities at the target front, whereas probing the target rear mirrors the highly complex fast electron transport in intense laser-plasma interactions.

  13. Investigation of CoPt and CoPt + ZrO{sub x} thin films for magnetic storage media using high-resolution analytical electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ristau, R.A.; Barmak, K.

    1996-12-31

    Materials for very high density magnetic storage media, with capacities of 10 Gbits/in{sup 2} and beyond, require high coercivity and high signal to noise ratio. To achieve storage densities of this level engineering of the material to produce very fine, magnetically decoupled domains is necessary. We have characterized the microstructure and microchemistry of 10 nm thick CoPt and CoPt + ZrO{sub x} thin films, as deposited and annealed, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanometer-scale energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS).

  14. Cluster formation in ferrofluids induced by holographic optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Masajada, Jan; Bacia, Marcin; Drobczyński, Sławomir

    2013-10-01

    Holographic optical tweezers were used to show the interaction between a strongly focused laser beam and magnetic nanoparticles in ferrofluid. When the light intensity was high enough, magnetic nanoparticles were removed from the beam center and formed a dark ring. The same behavior was observed when focusing vortex or Bessel beams. The interactions between two or more separated rings of magnetic nanoparticles created by independent optical traps were also observed. PMID:24081086

  15. Advanced very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The advanced very high resolution radiometer development program is considered. The program covered the design, construction, and test of a breadboard model, engineering model, protoflight model, mechanical structural model, and a life test model. Special bench test and calibration equipment was also developed for use on the program.

  16. High resolution digital delay timer

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Albert D.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  17. High-resolution laser spectroscopy and magnetic effect of the B̃(2)E(')←X̃(2)A2(') transition of the (15)N substituted nitrate radical.

    PubMed

    Tada, Kohei; Teramoto, Kanon; Ishiwata, Takashi; Hirota, Eizi; Kasahara, Shunji

    2015-03-21

    Rotationally resolved high-resolution fluorescence excitation spectra of the 0-0 band of the B̃(2)E(')←X̃(2)A2(') transition of the (15)N substituted nitrate radical were observed for the first time, by crossing a jet-cooled molecular beam and a single-mode dye laser beam at right angles. Several thousand rotational lines were detected in the 15 080-15 103 cm(-1) region. We observed the Zeeman splitting of intense lines up to 360 G in order to obtain secure rotational assignment. Two, nine, and seven rotational line pairs with 0.0248 cm(-1) spacing were assigned to the transitions from the X̃(2)A2(') (υ″ = 0, k″ = 0, N″ = 1, J″ = 0.5 and 1.5) to the (2)E3/2(') (J' = 1.5), (2)E1/2(') (J' = 0.5), and (2)E1/2(') (J' = 1.5) levels, respectively, based on the ground state combination differences and the Zeeman splitting patterns. The observed spectrum was complicated due to the vibronic coupling between the bright B̃(2)E(') (υ = 0) state and surrounding dark vibronic states. Some series of rotational lines other than those from the X̃(2)A2(') (J = 0.5 and 1.5) levels were also assigned by the ground state combination differences and the observed Zeeman splitting. The rotational branch structures were identified, and the molecular constants of the B̃(2)E1/2(') (υ = 0) state were estimated by a deperturbed analysis to be T0 = 15 098.20(4) cm(-1), B = 0.4282(7) cm(-1), and DJ = 4 × 10(-4) cm(-1). In the observed region, both the (2)E1/2(') and (2)E3/2(') spin-orbit components were identified, and the spin-orbit interaction constant of the B̃(2)E(') (υ = 0) state was estimated to be -12 cm(-1) as the lower limit. PMID:25796244

  18. High-Resolution US of Rheumatologic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Taljanovic, Mihra S; Melville, David M; Gimber, Lana H; Scalcione, Luke R; Miller, Margaret D; Kwoh, C Kent; Klauser, Andrea S

    2015-01-01

    For the past 15 years, high-resolution ultrasonography (US) is being routinely and increasingly used for initial evaluation and treatment follow-up of rheumatologic diseases. This imaging technique is performed by using high-frequency linear transducers and has proved to be a powerful diagnostic tool in evaluation of articular erosions, simple and complex joint and bursal effusions, tendon sheath effusions, and synovitis, with results comparable to those of magnetic resonance imaging, excluding detection of bone marrow edema. Crystal deposition diseases including gouty arthropathy and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) have characteristic appearances at US, enabling differentiation between these two diseases and from inflammatory arthropathies. Enthesopathy, which frequently accompanies psoriatic and reactive arthritis, also has a characteristic appearance at high-resolution US, distinguishing these two entities from other inflammatory and metabolic arthropathies. The presence of Doppler signal in examined joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths indicates active synovitis. Microbubble echo contrast agents augment detection of tissue vascularity and may act in the future as a drug delivery vehicle. Frequently, joint, tendon sheath, and bursal fluid aspirations and therapeutic injections are performed under US guidance. The authors describe the high-resolution US technique including gray-scale, color or power Doppler, and contrast agent-enhanced US that is used in evaluation of rheumatologic diseases of the wrist and hand and the ankle and foot in their routine clinical practice. This article demonstrates imaging findings of normal joints, rheumatoid arthritis, gouty arthritis, CPPD, psoriatic and reactive arthritis, and osteoarthritis. PMID:26562235

  19. High-resolution measurements of the DT neutron spectrum using new CD foils in the Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Bionta, R. M.; Casey, D. T.; Eckart, M. J.; Farrell, M. P.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hoppe, M.; et al

    2016-08-09

    The Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility measures the DT neutron spectrum from cryogenically layered inertial confinement fusion implosions. Yield, areal density, apparent ion temperature, and directional fluid flow are inferred from the MRS data. Here, this paper describes recent advances in MRS measurements of the primary peak using new, thinner, reduced-area deuterated plastic (CD) conversion foils. The new foils allow operation of MRS at yields 2 orders of magnitude higher than previously possible, at a resolution down to ~200 keV FWHM.

  20. High-resolution scanning hall probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Clifford; Luan, Lan; Hendrik Bluhm, J.; Moler, Kathryn; Guikema, Janice; Zeldov, Eli; Shtrikman, Hadas

    2006-03-01

    Scanning hall sensors can be used to directly image magnetic fields at surfaces. They offer high resolution, high sensitivity, operability over a broad temperature range, and linearity. We have fabricated hall sensors on GaAs / Al0.35Ga0.65As and GaAs / Al0.3Ga0.7As heterostructures containing 2D electron gases 40, 39 and 140nm beneath the surface. The sensitive areas of our probes range from microns to 85nm on a side. We report on the field sensitivities of probes of various sizes and their spatial resolution in a scanning configuration.

  1. Optical Tweezer Assembly and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Timothy M.

    2004-01-01

    An Optical Tweezer, as the name implies, is a useful tool for precision manipulation of micro and nano scale objects. Using the principle of electromagnetic radiation pressure, an optical tweezer employs a tightly focused laser beam to trap and position objects of various shapes and sizes. These devices can trap micrometer and nanometer sized objects. An exciting possibility for optical tweezers is its future potential to manipulate and assemble micro and nano sized sensors. A typical optical tweezer makes use of the following components: laser, mirrors, lenses, a high quality microscope, stage, Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera, TV monitor and Position Sensitive Detectors (PSDs). The laser wavelength employed is typically in the visible or infrared spectrum. The laser beam is directed via mirrors and lenses into the microscope. It is then tightly focused by a high magnification, high numerical aperture microscope objective into the sample slide, which is mounted on a translating stage. The sample slide contains a sealed, small volume of fluid that the objects are suspended in. The most common objects trapped by optical tweezers are dielectric spheres. When trapped, a sphere will literally snap into and center itself in the laser beam. The PSD s are mounted in such a way to receive the backscatter after the beam has passed through the trap. PSD s used with the Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) technique provide highly precise data. Most optical tweezers employ lasers with power levels ranging from 10 to 100 miliwatts. Typical forces exerted on trapped objects are in the pico-newton range. When PSDs are employed, object movement can be resolved on a nanometer scale in a time range of milliseconds. Such accuracy, however, can only by utilized by calibrating the optical tweezer. Fortunately, an optical tweezer can be modeled accurately as a simple spring. This allows Hook s Law to be used. My goal this summer at NASA Glenn Research Center is the assembly and

  2. Undergraduate Construction of Optical Tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbell, Lawrence

    2012-10-01

    I will present a poster on the construction of optical tweezers. This will demonstrate the full process one must go through when working on a research project. First I sifted through the internet for papers and information pertaining to the tweezers. Afterwards I discussed the budget with the lab manager. Next I made purchases, however some items, such as the sample mount, needed to be custom made. These I built in the machine shop. Once the tweezers were operational I spent some time ensuring that the mirrors and lenses were adjusted just right, so that the trap performed at full strength. Finally, I used video data of the Brownian motion of trapped silica microspheres to get a reasonable estimate of the trapping stiffness with such particles. As a general note, all of this was done with the intent of leaving the tweezers for future use by other undergraduates. Because of this extra effort was taken to ensure the tweezers were as safe to use as possible. For this reason a visible LASER was chosen over an infrared LASER, in addition, the LASER was oriented parallel to the surface of the table in order to avoid stray upwards beams.

  3. Cerebral metabolic changes in a depression-like rat model of chronic forced swimming studied by ex vivo high resolution 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Xia; Wang, Yaqiang; Gao, Hongchang; Pan, Wen-Ju; Xiang, Yun; Huang, Mingming; Lei, Hao

    2008-11-01

    Many previous in vivo (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies have shown that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are associated with perturbations of cerebral metabolism of neurotransmitters glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In this study, we investigated the changes of cerebral metabolism in a depression-like rat model of chronic forced swimming stress (CFSS). The aims are to further understand the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying CFSS treatment, and to further establish the face and predictive validity of the CFSS model. The results showed that, relative to control, the CFSS rats had significantly reduced Glu, taurine and glutamate + glutamine (Glx) levels in the PFC, and significantly reduced N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) level, Glu level and Glu/GABA ratio in the hippocampus. Taking together, these results suggest that CFSS treatment can induce region-specific changes in the metabolism of Glu. The CFSS model might be used to study antidepressants specifically targeting the central glutamatergic system. PMID:18473166

  4. Characterization of skin abnormalities in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging and Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Canuto, H C; Fishbein, K W; Huang, A; Doty, S B; Herbert, R A; Peckham, J; Pleshko, N; Spencer, R G

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the skin phenotype in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) typically involves biochemical measurements, such as histologic or biochemical assessment of the collagen produced from biopsy-derived dermal fibroblasts. As an alternative, the current study utilized non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) microscopy and optical spectroscopy to define biophysical characteristics of skin in an animal model of OI. MRI of skin harvested from control, homozygous oim/oim and heterozygous oim/+ mice demonstrated several differences in anatomic and biophysical properties. Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS) was used to interpret observed MRI signal characteristics in terms of chemical composition. Differences between wild-type and OI mouse skin included the appearance of a collagen-depleted lower dermal layer containing prominent hair follicles in the oim/oim mice, accounting for 55% of skin thickness in these. The MRI magnetization transfer rate was lower by 50% in this layer as compared to the upper dermis, consistent with lower collagen content. The MRI transverse relaxation time, T2, was greater by 30% in the dermis of the oim/oim mice compared to controls, consistent with a more highly hydrated collagen network. Similarly, an FT-IRIS-defined measure of collagen integrity was 30% lower in the oim/oim mice. We conclude that characterization of phenotypic differences between the skin of OI and wild-type mice by MRI and FT-IRIS is feasible, and that these techniques provide powerful complementary approaches for the analysis of the skin phenotype in animal models of disease. PMID:21845737

  5. Storm-scale ring current morphology inferred from high-resolution empirical magnetic field modeling: storms driven by CMEs, CIRs, and those containing sawtooth and SMC events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, G. K.; Sitnov, M. I.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Ohtani, S.; Vandegriff, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    In spite of several decades of intense investigations, the detailed structure and dynamics of the magnetospheric currents remains unclear especially during disturbed periods associated with magnetic storms and substorms. Until recently, empirical magnetic field models were strongly limited because they were built using predefined, hand-made current structures. New capabilities in the empirical reconstruction of the storm-scale current morphology and its evolution have become possible in the new-generation empirical model, TS07D, where the distribution of storm-scale equatorial currents is determined by regular basis function expansions and is largely dictated by data. We discuss the results of TS07D-based empirical reconstruction of the magnetospheric currents for differing global conditions. Firstly, we examine storms produced by two different drivers, Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIR), and secondly, we examine storms containing two different magnetospheric convection states, those containing quasi-periodic sawtooth events and Steady Magnetospheric Convection (SMC) intervals. A distinctive feature of CME-driven storms is the hook-shaped current developing in the main phase, which combines features of ring and tail currents, while CIR-driven storms are featured by the belt-shaped current and strong reduction of the strength of field-aligned currents. Storms containing sawtooth injections are characterized by the formation of the equatorial storm-time current with an unusually broad radial extension, far beyond geosynchronous orbit across all local times. SMC periods are distinguished by a higher total pressure in the inner magnetosphere extending to larger distances with the appropriate changes in the equatorial currents and their closure paths. New data analysis opportunities offered by the APL-hosted model interface, including run-on-request case studies, the database of pre-processed model coefficients and radiation belt

  6. Prostate Postbrachytherapy Seed Distribution: Comparison of High-Resolution, Contrast-Enhanced, T1- and T2-Weighted Endorectal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Versus Computed Tomography: Initial Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, B. Nicolas Lenkinski, Robert E.; Helbich, Thomas H.; Ngo, Long; Oismueller, Renee; Jaromi, Silvia; Kubin, Klaus; Hawliczek, Robert; Kaplan, Irving D.; Rofsky, Neil M.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To compare contrast-enhanced, T1-weighted, three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (CEMR) and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2MR) with computed tomography (CT) for prostate brachytherapy seed location for dosimetric calculations. Methods and Materials: Postbrachytherapy prostate MRI was performed on a 1.5 Tesla unit with combined surface and endorectal coils in 13 patients. Both CEMR and T2MR used a section thickness of 3 mm. Spiral CT used a section thickness of 5 mm with a pitch factor of 1.5. All images were obtained in the transverse plane. Two readers using CT and MR imaging assessed brachytherapy seed distribution independently. The dependency of data read by both readers for a specific subject was assessed with a linear mixed effects model. Results: The mean percentage ({+-} standard deviation) values of the readers for seed detection and location are presented. Of 1205 implanted seeds, CEMR, T2MR, and CT detected 91.5% {+-} 4.8%, 78.5% {+-} 8.5%, and 96.1% {+-} 2.3%, respectively, with 11.8% {+-} 4.5%, 8.5% {+-} 3.5%, 1.9% {+-} 1.0% extracapsular, respectively. Assignment to periprostatic structures was not possible with CT. Periprostatic seed assignments for CEMR and T2MR, respectively, were as follows: neurovascular bundle, 3.5% {+-} 1.6% and 2.1% {+-} 0.9%; seminal vesicles, 0.9% {+-} 1.8% and 0.3% {+-} 0.7%; periurethral, 7.1% {+-} 3.3% and 5.8% {+-} 2.9%; penile bulb, 0.6% {+-} 0.8% and 0.3% {+-} 0.6%; Denonvillier's Fascia/rectal wall, 0.5% {+-} 0.6% and 0%; and urinary bladder, 0.1% {+-} 0.3% and 0%. Data dependency analysis showed statistical significance for the type of imaging but not for reader identification. Conclusion: Both enumeration and localization of implanted seeds are readily accomplished with CEMR. Calculations with MRI dosimetry do not require CT data. Dose determinations to specific extracapsular sites can be obtained with MRI but not with CT.

  7. High resolution airborne geophysics at hazardous waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, L.P.; Nyquist, J.E.; Doll, W.E.; Chong Foo, M.; Gamey, T.J.

    1995-06-01

    In 1994, a high resolution helicopter geophysical survey was conducted over portions of the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. The 1800 line kilometer survey included multi-frequency electromagnetic and magnetic sensors. The areas covered by the high resolution portion of the survey were selected on the basis of their importance to the environmental restoration effort and on data obtained from the reconnaissance phase of the airborne survey in which electromagnetic, magnetic, and radiometric data were collected over the entire Oak Ridge Reservation in 1992--1993. The high resolution phase had lower sensor heights, more and higher EM frequencies, and tighter line spacings than did the reconnaissance survey. When flying over exceptionally clear areas, the high resolution bird came within a few meters of the ground surface. Unfortunately, even sparse trees and power or phone lines could prevent the bird from being towed safely at low altitude, and over such areas it was more usual for it to be flown at about the same altitude as the bird in the reconnaissance survey, about 30m. Even so, the magnetometers used in the high resolution phase were 20m closer to the ground than in the reconnaissance phase because they were mounted on the tail of the bird rather than on the tow cable above the bird. The EM frequencies used in the high resolution survey ranged from 7400Hz to 67000Hz. Only the horizontal coplanar loop configuration was used in the high resolution flyovers.

  8. Plasmon nano-optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Mathieu L.; Righini, Maurizio; Quidant, Romain

    2011-06-01

    Conventional optical tweezers, formed at the diffraction-limited focus of a laser beam, have become a powerful and flexible tool for manipulating micrometre-sized objects. Extending optical trapping down to the nanometre scale would open unprecedented opportunities in many fields of science, where such nano-optical tweezers would allow the ultra-accurate positioning of single nano-objects. Among the possible strategies, the ability of metallic nanostructures to control light at the subwavelength scale can be exploited to engineer such nano-optical traps. This Review summarizes the recent advances in the emerging field of plasmon-based optical trapping and discusses the details of plasmon tweezers along with their potential applications to bioscience and quantum optics.

  9. High-resolution aluminum-27 solid-state magic-angle sample-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of AlCl sub 3 -tetrahydrofuran complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Oc Hee; Oldfield, E. )

    1990-09-19

    The authors have obtained {sup 27}Al solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of several AlCl{sub 3}-THF complexes, using magic-angle sample-spinning (MASS) NMR at high field. The authors results suggest that the isotropic chemical shifts ({delta}{sub i}) occur in relatively well defined regions for 4-, 5-, and 6-coordinate species (AlCl{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, {approximately} 103 ppm; AlCl{sub 3}{center dot}THF, {approximately} 99 ppm; trans-AlCl{sub 3}{center dot}2THF, {approximately} 60 ppM; trans-(AlCl{sub 2}(THF){sub 4}){sup +}, {approximately} 14 ppM), as found previously with aluminum oxo compounds. They also find that theoretically calculated average nuclear quadrupole coupling constants (e{sup 2}qQ/h) (trans-(AlCl{sub 2}(THF){sub 4}){sup +}, {approximately} 6.3 MHz; trans-AlCl{sub 3}{center dot}2THF, {approximately} 4.6 MHz; AlCl{sub 3}{center dot}THF, {approximately} 3.0 MHz; AlCl{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, 0 MHz) are in good accord with experimentally determined nuclear quadrupole coupling constants, determined from computer simulations of the MASS NMR spectra (trans-(AlCl{sub 2}(THF){sub 4}){sup +}, 6.4 MHz; trans-AlCl{sub 3}{center dot}2THF, 4.9 MHz; AlCl{sub 3}{center dot}THF, 4.7 MHz; AlCl{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, 0.3 MHz). Both {sup 27}Al {delta}{sub i} and e{sup 2}qQ/h determinations appear to be useful as probes of structure in these systems, and thus offer a facile means of monitoring various solid-state reactions. 14 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Coaxial atomic force microscope tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, K. A.; Aguilar, J. A.; Westervelt, R. M.

    2010-03-01

    We demonstrate coaxial atomic force microscope (AFM) tweezers that can trap and place small objects using dielectrophoresis (DEP). An attractive force is generated at the tip of a coaxial AFM probe by applying a radio frequency voltage between the center conductor and a grounded shield; the origin of the force is found to be DEP by measuring the pull-off force versus applied voltage. We show that the coaxial AFM tweezers can perform three-dimensional assembly by picking up a specified silica microsphere, imaging with the microsphere at the end of the tip, and placing it at a target destination.

  11. High-resolution structural studies of ultra-thin magnetic, transition metal overlayers and two-dimensional transition metal oxides using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kellar, S.A. |

    1997-05-01

    This thesis report the surface-structure determination of three, ultra-thin magnetic transition-metal films, Fe/Au(100), Mn/Ni(100), and Mn/Cu(100) using Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) and photoelectron holography. These structural studies are the first to use non-s initial states in the ARPEFS procedure. This thesis also reports an ARPEFS surface-structure determination of a two-dimensional transition-metal oxide, [(1 x 1)O/W(110)] x 12. The authors have analyzed the ARPFES signal from the Au 4f{sub 7/5} core level of the Au(1 ML)/Fe(15 ML)/Au(100) system. The analysis shows that the Fe grows layer by layer with one monolayer of gold, acting as a surfactant, remaining on top of the growing Fe layers. These surface gold atoms sit in the four-fold hollow site, 1.67 {+-} 0.02 A above the iron surface. The grown Fe layer is very much like the bulk, bcc iron, with an interlayer spacing of 1.43 {+-} 0.03 A. Analysis of the Mn 3p ARPEFS signals from c(2 x 2)Mn/Ni(100) and c(2 x 2)Mn/Cu(100) shows that the Mn forms highly corrugated surface alloys. The corrugation of the Mn/Ni(100) and Mn/Cu(100) systems are 0.24 {+-} 0.02 A and 0.30 {+-} 0.04 A respectively. In both cases the Mn is sticking above the plane of the surface substrate atoms. For the Mn/Ni(100) system the first layer Ni is contracted 4% from the bulk value. The Mn/Cu(100) system shows bulk spacing for the substrate Cu. Photoelectron holography shows that the Mn/Ni interface is very abrupt with very little Mn leaking into the second layer, while the Mn/Cu(100) case has a significant amount of Mn leaking into the second layer. A new, five-element electrostatic electron lens was developed for hemispherical electron-energy analyzers. This lens system can be operated at constant transverse or constants angular magnification, and has been optimized for use with the very small photon-spot sizes. Improvements to the hemispherical electron-energy analyzer are also discussed.

  12. Switching fields of high-resolution magnetic force microscope tips coated with Co, Co75Pt10Cr15, Co75Pt25, and Co50Pt50 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Shinji; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic force microscope (MFM) tips are prepared by coating Si tips of 4 nm radius with Co, Co75Pt10Cr15, Co75Pt25, and Co50Pt50 (at. %) films of 20 nm thickness at 300 °C. The effects of coating film material on the spatial resolution and the switching field are investigated. Higher resolutions are observed in the order of Co75Pt10Cr15 < (Co50Pt50, Co75Pt25) < Co. The Co-coated tip shows the highest resolution of 7.3 nm, which seems to be depending on a high detection sensitivity related with the magnetic moment of Co material. The saturation magnetization increases in the order of Co75Pt10Cr15 < Co50Pt50 < Co75Pt25 < Co. Higher switching fields are observed in the order of Co < Co75Pt10Cr15 < Co75Pt25 < Co50Pt50. The Co50Pt50-coated tip shows the highest switching field of 1.675±0.025 kOe, which is due to a high coercive field of the magnetic film involving L11 ordered phase with high magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy. The coercive field is recognized in the order of Co < Co75Pt10Cr15 < Co75Pt25 < Co50Pt50. A tip prepared by coating Co50Pt50 film which has high resolution and high switching field is useful for MFM observations of high-density recording media and permanent magnets.

  13. High Resolution Scanning Reflectarray Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a High Resolution Scanning Reflectarray Antenna (HRSRA) for the purpose of tracking ground terminals and space craft communication applications. The present invention provides an alternative to using gimbaled parabolic dish antennas and direct radiating phased arrays. When compared to a gimbaled parabolic dish, the HRSRA offers the advantages of vibration free steering without incurring appreciable cost or prime power penalties. In addition, it offers full beam steering at a fraction of the cost of direct radiating arrays and is more efficient.

  14. High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, Jeff; Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    1990-01-01

    Earth resources observed in greater detail. High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, undergoing development for use in NASA's Earth Observing System, measures reflectance of Earth's surface in visible and near-infrared wavelengths. From an orbit around Earth, instrument scans surface of Earth in 200 wavelength bands simultaneously. Produces images enabling identification of minerals in rocks and soils, important algal pigments in oceans and inland waters, changes in spectra associated with biochemistry of plant canopies, compositions of atmospheric aerosols, sizes of grains in snow, and contamination of snow by impurities that absorb visible light.

  15. Optical tweezers calibration with Bayesian inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türkcan, Silvan; Richly, Maximilian U.; Le Gall, Antoine; Fiszman, Nicolas; Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Westbrook, Nathalie; Perronet, Karen; Alexandrou, Antigoni

    2014-09-01

    We present a new method for calibrating an optical-tweezer setup that is based on Bayesian inference1. This method employs an algorithm previously used to analyze the confined trajectories of receptors within lipid rafts2,3. The main advantages of this method are that it does not require input parameters and is insensitive to systematic errors like the drift of the setup. Additionally, it exploits a much larger amount of the information stored in the recorded bead trajectory than standard calibration approaches. The additional information can be used to detect deviations from the perfect harmonic potential or detect environmental influences on the bead. The algorithm infers the diffusion coefficient and the potential felt by a trapped bead, and only requires the bead trajectory as input. We demonstrate that this method outperforms the equipartition method and the power-spectrum method in input information required (bead radius and trajectory length) and in output accuracy. Furthermore, by inferring a higher order potential our method can reveal deviations from the assumed second-order potential. More generally, this method can also be used for magnetic-tweezer calibration.

  16. Ultrasmall Magnetically Engineered Ag2Se Quantum Dots for Instant Efficient Labeling and Whole-Body High-Resolution Multimodal Real-Time Tracking of Cell-Derived Microvesicles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing-Ya; Chen, Gang; Gu, Yi-Ping; Cui, Ran; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Yu, Zi-Li; Tang, Bo; Zhao, Yi-Fang; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2016-02-17

    Cell-derived microvesicles (MVs) are natural carriers that can transport biological molecules between cells, which are expected to be promising delivery vehicles for therapeutic purposes. Strategies to label MVs are very important for investigation and application of MVs. Herein, ultrasmall Mn-magnetofunctionalized Ag2Se quantum dots (Ag2Se@Mn QDs) integrated with excellent near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging capabilities have been developed for instant efficient labeling of MVs for their in vivo high-resolution dual-mode tracking. The Ag2Se@Mn QDs were fabricated by controlling the reaction of Mn(2+) with the Ag2Se nanocrystals having been pretreated in 80 °C NaOH solution, with an ultrasmall size of ca. 1.8 nm, water dispersibility, high NIR fluorescence quantum yield of 13.2%, and high longitudinal relaxivity of 12.87 mM(-1) s(-1) (almost four times that of the commercial contrast agent Gd-DTPA). The ultrasmall size of the Ag2Se@Mn QDs enables them to be directly and efficiently loaded into MVs by electroporation, instantly and reliably conferring both NIR fluorescence and MR traceability on MVs. Our method for labeling MVs of different origins is universal and free of unfavorable influence on intrinsic behaviors of MVs. The complementary imaging capabilities of the Ag2Se@Mn QDs have made the long-term noninvasive whole-body high-resolution dual-mode tracking of MVs in vivo realized, by which the dynamic biodistribution of MVs has been revealed in a real-time and in situ quantitative manner. This work not only opens a new window for labeling with QDs, but also facilitates greatly the investigation and application of MVs. PMID:26804745

  17. The High Resolution Hurricane Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripoli, G. J.

    2009-09-01

    It has been suggested that an answer to the hurricane intensity forecast problem is to use very high cloud-resolving resolution in operational forecast models. In consideration of this hypothesis, the United States National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration commissioned a major study to take place over the past 1.5 years whereby the hypothesis would be tested with 6 different hurricane models featuring different dynamics cores and different physics. These models included the GFDL hurricane, Navy COAMPS, the WRF-ARW, WRF-AHW, WRF-NMM, and the UW-NMS. The experiment design was to choose and optimal mix of historic hurricanes where good observations of intensity at land fall existed and run 5 day model forecasts with 3 different resolutions of about 9-12 km (low resolution), 3-4 km (medium resolution) and 1-1.5 km (high resolution) and document how much the forecast improved in each case. The project focused on 10 storms over 2-12, 1-5 day forecast periods, for a total of 67 simulations. Not all groups completed all 67 simulations, but there were sufficient results to reach a stunning conclusion. The results of these tests suggested that little or no improvement in intensity prediction was achieved with high resolution.

  18. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  19. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  20. HRSC: High resolution stereo camera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neukum, G.; Jaumann, R.; Basilevsky, A.T.; Dumke, A.; Van Gasselt, S.; Giese, B.; Hauber, E.; Head, J. W., III; Heipke, C.; Hoekzema, N.; Hoffmann, H.; Greeley, R.; Gwinner, K.; Kirk, R.; Markiewicz, W.; McCord, T.B.; Michael, G.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Murray, J.B.; Oberst, J.; Pinet, P.; Pischel, R.; Roatsch, T.; Scholten, F.; Willner, K.

    2009-01-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on Mars Express has delivered a wealth of image data, amounting to over 2.5 TB from the start of the mapping phase in January 2004 to September 2008. In that time, more than a third of Mars was covered at a resolution of 10-20 m/pixel in stereo and colour. After five years in orbit, HRSC is still in excellent shape, and it could continue to operate for many more years. HRSC has proven its ability to close the gap between the low-resolution Viking image data and the high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera images, leading to a global picture of the geological evolution of Mars that is now much clearer than ever before. Derived highest-resolution terrain model data have closed major gaps and provided an unprecedented insight into the shape of the surface, which is paramount not only for surface analysis and geological interpretation, but also for combination with and analysis of data from other instruments, as well as in planning for future missions. This chapter presents the scientific output from data analysis and highlevel data processing, complemented by a summary of how the experiment is conducted by the HRSC team members working in geoscience, atmospheric science, photogrammetry and spectrophotometry. Many of these contributions have been or will be published in peer-reviewed journals and special issues. They form a cross-section of the scientific output, either by summarising the new geoscientific picture of Mars provided by HRSC or by detailing some of the topics of data analysis concerning photogrammetry, cartography and spectral data analysis.

  1. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefitted greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  2. Fiber optical tweezers for microscale and nanoscale particle manipulation and force sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuxiang

    2011-12-01

    system parameters on the trapping performance has been carefully investigated through both experimental and numerical studies. ii) Multiple traps have been created and carefully studied with the inclined DFOTs for the first time. Three traps, one 3D trap and two 2D traps, have been experimentally created at different vertical levels with adjustable separations and positions. iii) Multiple functionalities have been achieved and studied for the first time with the inclined DFOTs. Particle separation, grouping, stacking, rod alignment, rod rotation, and optical binding have been experimentally demonstrated. The multiple functionalities allow the inclined DFOTs to find applications in the study of interaction forces in colloidal systems as well as parallel particle manipulation in drug delivery systems. iv) Far-field superfocusing effect has been investigated and successfully demonstrated with a fiber-based surface plasmonic (SP) lens for the first time. A planar SP lens with a set of concentric nanoscale rings on a fiber endface has been developed. For the first time, a focus size that is comparable to the smallest achievable focus size of high NA objective lenses has been achieved with the fiber-based SP lens. The fiber-based SP lens can bridge the nanoscale particles/systems and the macroscale power sources/detectors, which has been a long standing challenge for nanophotonics. In addition to optical trapping, the fiber-based SP lens will impact many applications including high-resolution lithography, high-resolution fluorescence detection, and sub-wavelength imaging. v) Trapping ability enhanced with the fiber-based SP lens has been successfully demonstrated. With the help of the fiber-based SP lens, the trapping efficiency of fiber optical tweezers has been significantly enhanced, which is comparable with that of objective-based optical tweezers. A submicron-sized bacterium has been successfully trapped in three dimensions for the first time with optical tweezers based

  3. High-resolution scanning hall probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, C. W.; Guikema, J. W.; Zeldov, E.

    2005-03-01

    Scanning hall sensors can be used to directly image magnetic fields at surfaces. They offer high resolution, high sensitivity, operability from cryogenic to room temperature, and linearity. We have fabricated hall sensors on GaAs / Al0.35Ga0.65As and GaAs / Al0.3Ga0.7As heterostructures, one containing a 2D electron gas 40 nanometers below the surface and another 140nm below the surface, as well as an In0.5Al0.5As / GaSb / AlSb / InAs heterostructure containing a 2DEG 21nm below the surface. The sensitive areas of our probes range from microns to 60nm on a side. We report on the field sensitivities of the probes and their spatial resolution in a scanning configuration.

  4. In vivo high-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy of Drosophila melanogaster at 14.1 T shows trauma in aging and in innate immune-deficiency is linked to reduced insulin signaling

    PubMed Central

    RIGHI, VALERIA; APIDIANAKIS, YIORGOS; MINTZOPOULOS, DIONYSSIOS; ASTRAKAS, LOUKAS; RAHME, LAURENCE G.; TZIKA, A. ARIA

    2010-01-01

    In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), a non-destructive biochemical tool for investigating live organisms, has yet to be used in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, a useful model organism for investigating genetics and physiology. We developed and implemented a high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HRMAS) MRS method to investigate live Drosophila at 14.1 T. We demonstrated, for the first time, the feasibility of using HRMAS MRS for molecular characterization of Drosophila with a conventional MR spectrometer equipped with an HRMAS probe. We showed that the metabolic HRMAS MRS profiles of injured, aged wild-type (wt) flies and of immune deficient (imd) flies were more similar to chico flies mutated at the chico gene in the insulin signaling pathway, which is analogous to insulin receptor substrate 1–4 (IRS1–4) in mammals and less to those of adipokinetic hormone receptor (akhr) mutant flies, which have an obese phenotype. We thus provide evidence for the hypothesis that trauma in aging and in innate immune-deficiency is linked to insulin signaling. This link may explain the mitochondrial dysfunction that accompanies insulin resistance and muscle wasting that occurs in trauma, aging and immune system deficiencies, leading to higher susceptibility to infection. Our approach advances the development of novel in vivo non-destructive research approaches in Drosophila, suggests biomarkers for investigation of biomedical paradigms, and thus may contribute to novel therapeutic development. PMID:20596596

  5. High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and single photon emission computerized tomography--cerebral blood flow in a case of pure sensory stroke and mild dementia owing to subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (Binswanger's disease)

    SciTech Connect

    De Chiara, S.; Lassen, N.A.; Andersen, A.R.; Gade, A.; Lester, J.; Thomsen, C.; Henriksen, O.

    1987-01-01

    Pure sensory stroke (PSS) is typically caused by a lacunar infarct located in the ventral-posterior (VP) thalamic nucleus contralateral to the paresthetic symptoms. The lesion is usually so small that it cannot be seen on computerized tomography (CT), as illustrated by our case. In our moderately hypertensive, 72-year-old patient with PSS, CT scanning and conventional nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) scanning using a 7-mm-thick slice on a 1.5 Tesla instrument all failed to visualize the thalamic infarct. Using the high-resolution mode with 2-mm slice thickness it was, however, clearly seen. In addition, NMRI unexpectedly showed diffuse periventricular demyelinization as well as three other lacunar infarcts, i.e., findings characteristic of subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE). This prompted psychometric testing, which revealed signs of mild (subclinical) dementia, in particular involving visiospatial apraxia; this pointed to decreased function of the right parietal cortex, which was structurally intact on CT and NMRI. Single photon emission computerized tomography by Xenon-133 injection and by hexamethyl-propyleneamine-oxim labeled with Technetium-99m showed asymmetric distribution of cerebral blood flow (CBF), with an 18% lower value in the right parietal cortex compared to the left side; this indicated asymmetric disconnection of the cortex by the SAE. Thus, the tomograms of the functional parameter, CBF, correlated better with the deficits revealed by neuropsychological testing than by CT or NMRI.

  6. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  7. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  8. High resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudin, Jim; Dinyari, Rostam; Huie, Phil; Butterwick, Alex; Peumans, Peter; Palanker, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Electronic retinal prostheses seek to restore sight in patients with retinal degeneration by delivering pulsed electric currents to retinal neurons via an array of microelectrodes. Most implants use inductive or optical transmission of information and power to an intraocular receiver, with decoded signals subsequently distributed to retinal electrodes through an intraocular cable. Surgical complexity could be minimized by an "integrated" prosthesis, in which both power and data are delivered directly to the stimulating array without any discrete components or cables. We present here an integrated retinal prosthesis system based on a photodiode array implant. Video frames are processed and imaged onto the retinal implant by a video goggle projection system operating at near-infrared wavelengths (~ 900 nm). Photodiodes convert light into pulsed electric current, with charge injection maximized by specially optimized series photodiode circuits. Prostheses of three different pixel densities (16 pix/mm2, 64 pix/mm2, and 256 pix/mm2) have been designed, simulated, and prototyped. Retinal tissue response to subretinal implants made of various materials has been investigated in RCS rats. The resulting prosthesis can provide sufficient charge injection for high resolution retinal stimulation without the need for implantation of any bulky discrete elements such as coils or tethers. In addition, since every pixel functions independently, pixel arrays may be placed separately in the subretinal space, providing visual stimulation to a larger field of view.

  9. High resolution auditory perception system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Iftekhar; Ghatol, Ashok

    2005-04-01

    Blindness is a sensory disability which is difficult to treat but can to some extent be helped by artificial aids. The paper describes the design aspects of a high resolution auditory perception system, which is designed on the principle of air sonar with binaural perception. This system is a vision substitution aid for enabling blind persons. The blind person wears ultrasonic eyeglasses which has ultrasonic sensor array embedded on it. The system has been designed to operate in multiresolution modes. The ultrasonic sound from the transmitter array is reflected back by the objects, falling in the beam of the array and is received. The received signal is converted to a sound signal, which is presented stereophonically for auditory perception. A detailed study has been done as the background work required for the system implementation; the appropriate range analysis procedure, analysis of space-time signals, the acoustic sensors study, amplification methods and study of the removal of noise using filters. Finally the system implementation including both the hardware and the software part of it has been described. Experimental results on actual blind subjects and inferences obtained during the study have also been included.

  10. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  11. Single-sided sensor for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlo, J.; Casanova, F.; Blümich, B.

    2006-06-01

    The unavoidable spatial inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field generated by open sensors has precluded their use for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. In fact, this application was deemed impossible because these field variations are usually orders of magnitude larger than those created by the microscopic structure of the molecules to be detected. Recently, chemical shift resolved NMR spectra were observed for the first time outside a portable single-sided magnet by implementing a method that exploits inhomogeneities in the rf field designed to reproduce variations of the static magnetic field [J. Perlo, V. Demas, F. Casanova, C.A. Meriles, J. Reimer, A. Pines, B. Blümich, High-resolution spectroscopy with a portable single-sided sensor, Science 308 (2005) 1279]. In this communication, we describe in detail the magnet system built from permanent magnets as well as the rf coil geometry used to compensate the static field variations.

  12. Optical tweezers technique and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, HongLian; Li, ZhiYuan

    2013-12-01

    Since their advent in the 1980s, optical tweezers have attracted more and more attention due to their unique non-contact and non-invasion characteristics and their wide applications in physics, biology, chemistry, medical science and nanoscience. In this paper, we introduce the basic principle, the history and typical applications of optical tweezers and review our recent experimental works on the development and application of optical tweezers technique. We will discuss in detail several technological issues, including high precision displacement and force measurement in single-trap and dual-trap optical tweezers, multi-trap optical tweezers with each trap independently and freely controlled by means of space light modulator, and incorporation of cylindrical vector optical beams to build diversified optical tweezers beyond the conventional Gaussian-beam optical tweezers. We will address the application of these optical tweezers techniques to study biophysical problems such as mechanical deformation of cell membrane and binding energy between plant microtubule and microtubule associated proteins. Finally we present application of the optical tweezers technique for trapping, transporting, and patterning of metallic nanoparticles, which can be harnessed to manipulate surface plasmon resonance properties of these nanoparticles.

  13. High-resolution slug testing.

    PubMed

    Zemansky, G M; McElwee, C D

    2005-01-01

    The hydraulic conductivity (K) variation has important ramifications for ground water flow and the transport of contaminants in ground water. The delineation of the nature of that variation can be critical to complete characterization of a site and the planning of effective and efficient remedial measures. Site-specific features (such as high-conductivity zones) need to be quantified. Our alluvial field site in the Kansas River valley exhibits spatial variability, very high conductivities, and nonlinear behavior for slug tests in the sand and gravel aquifer. High-resolution, multilevel slug tests have been performed in a number of wells that are fully screened. A general nonlinear model based on the Navier-Stokes equation, nonlinear frictional loss, non-Darcian flow, acceleration effects, radius changes in the wellbore, and a Hvorslev model for the aquifer has been used to analyze the data, employing an automated processing system that runs within the Excel spreadsheet program. It is concluded that slug tests can provide the necessary data to identify the nature of both horizontal and vertical K variation in an aquifer and that improved delineation or higher resolution of K structure is possible with shorter test intervals. The gradation into zones of higher conductivity is sharper than seen previously, and the maximum conductivity observed is greater than previously measured. However, data from this project indicate that well development, the presence of fines, and the antecedent history of the well are important interrelated factors in regard to slug-test response and can prevent obtaining consistent results in some cases. PMID:15819943

  14. Global high resolution climate reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert-Frisius, Martina; Feser, Frauke; Zahn, Matthias; von Storch, Hans; Rast, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Long-term reanalysis products represent an important data source for numerous climate studies. However, their coarse spatial resolution for data sets spanning the last more than 50 years and well known inhomogeneities in space and time make it difficult to derive changes in meteorological variables over time. We therefore use spectral nudging technique to down-scale the global reanalysis data to a finer resolution with a general global circulation model. With this technique the new calculated higher resolved global model fields are attracted to the large-scale state of the coarse resolution reanalysis. Besides the conservation of large-scale atmospheric information and the resulting finer topography, a surplus in contents of information in meteorological phenomena of small spatial extensions is expected. Following this strategy a simulation with the global high-resolution atmospheric model ECHAM6 (T255L95), developed by MPI-M Hamburg, will be started by spectrally nudging NCEP1 reanalysis for the time period from 1948 until 2013. Selected wavelengths of more than 1000 km of vorticity, divergence, temperature and the logarithm of the surface pressure will be imposed onto the simulated GCM counterparts at levels above 750 hPa. SST and sea ice distribution are taken from the NCEP1 data set. These simulations enable the investigation of long-term changes in meteorological phenomena; the focus is put here on intense storms. Various horizontal wavelength selections and associated vertical profiles in the strength of nudging were tested. The temporarily best configuration resulted in large time correlations for 2m-temperature and 10m wind speed at several selected locations in Germany in comparison to observations. Correlations were highest for extra-tropical regions, while over the western part of the Pacific and Indian Ocean relative low time correlations were found. In a continuing study meteorological quantities at different levels and the influences of the nudging

  15. Practising high-resolution anoscopy.

    PubMed

    Palefsky, Joel M

    2012-12-01

    The incidence of anal cancer is increasing in the general population among both men and women. The incidence is particularly high among men who have sex with men and HIV-infected men and women. Anal cancer is similar to cervical cancer and is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). Anal cancer is potentially preventable through primary prevention with HPV vaccination or secondary prevention. Secondary prevention is modelled after cervical cancer, where cytology is used as a screening tool to identify women who need colposcopy. Colposcopy includes magnification of the cervix, which, along with acetic acid and Lugol's solution, is used to visualise and biopsy potentially precancerous lesions, enabling treatment before progression to cervical cancer. Anal cancer is likely preceded by high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), and a colposcope with acetic acid and Lugol's solution may similarly be used to visualise HGAIN to permit biopsy and treatment in an effort to prevent anal cancer. To distinguish it from cervical colposcopy, this technique is called high-resolution anoscopy (HRA). Many of the features that distinguish low-grade AIN from HGAIN are similar to those of the cervix, but HRA poses several additional challenges compared with cervical colposcopy. These include uneven topography; obscuring of lesions due to haemorrhoids, folds, stool or mucus; or lesions being located at the base of folds and anal glands. Consequently, a long learning curve is typically required before becoming fully competent in this technique. The technique of HRA, its uses and challenges in prevention of anal cancer are described in this article. PMID:23380236

  16. High-Resolution Intravital Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Volker; Pollok, Karolin; Rinnenthal, Jan-Leo; Oehme, Laura; Günther, Robert; Spiecker, Heinrich; Radbruch, Helena; Gerhard, Jenny; Sporbert, Anje; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Hauser, Anja E.; Niesner, Raluca

    2012-01-01

    Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy - the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning) while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs) of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and developmental biology

  17. Electromagnetic tweezers with independent force and torque control.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chang; Lionberger, Troy A; Wiener, Diane M; Meyhofer, Edgar

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic tweezers are powerful tools to manipulate and study the mechanical properties of biological molecules and living cells. In this paper we present a novel, bona fide electromagnetic tweezer (EMT) setup that allows independent control of the force and torque applied via micrometer-sized magnetic beads to a molecule under study. We implemented this EMT by combining a single solenoid that generates force (f-EMT) with a set of four solenoids arranged into a symmetric quadrupole to generate torque (τ-EMT). To demonstrate the capability of the tweezers, we attached optically asymmetric Janus beads to single, tethered DNA molecules. We show that tension in the piconewton force range can be applied to single DNA molecules and the molecule can simultaneously be twisted with torques in the piconewton-nanometer range. Furthermore, the EMT allows the two components to be independently controlled. At various force levels applied to the Janus bead, the trap torsional stiffness can be continuously changed simply by varying the current magnitude applied to the τ-EMT. The flexible and independent control of force and torque by the EMT makes it an ideal tool for a range of measurements where tensional and torsional properties need to be studied simultaneously on a molecular or cellular level. PMID:27587135

  18. High resolution quantum metrology via quantum interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajoy, Ashok; Liu, Yixiang; Saha, Kasturi; Marseglia, Luca; Jaskula, Jean-Christophe; Cappellaro, Paola

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are a promising platform for quantum metrology - in particular for nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging to determine high resolution structures of single molecules placed outside the diamond. The conventional technique for sensing of external nuclear spins involves monitoring the effects of the target nuclear spins on the NV center coherence under dynamical decoupling (the CPMG/XY8 pulse sequence). However, the nuclear spin affects the NV coherence only at precise free evolution times - and finite timing resolution set by hardware often severely limits the sensitivity and resolution of the method. In this work, we overcome this timing resolution barrier by developing a technique to supersample the metrology signal by effectively implementing a quantum interpolation of the spin system dynamics. This method will enable spin sensing at high magnetic fields and high repetition rate, allowing significant improvements in sensitivity and spectral resolution. We experimentally demonstrate a resolution boost by over a factor of 100 for spin sensing and AC magnetometry. The method is shown to be robust, versatile to sensing normal and spurious signal harmonics, and ultimately limited in resolution only by the number of pulses that can be applied.

  19. Real-time high-resolution X-ray imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance study of the hydration of pure and Na-doped C3A in the presence of sulfates

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchheim,, A. P.; Dal Molin, D.C.; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid; Provis, J.L.; Fischer, P.; Monteiro, P.J.M.

    2010-12-01

    This study details the differences in real-time hydration between pure tricalcium aluminate (cubic C{sub 3}A or 3CaO {center_dot} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and Na-doped tricalcium aluminate (orthorhombic C{sub 3}A or Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 8}Al{sub 6}O{sub 18}), in aqueous solutions containing sulfate ions. Pure phases were synthesized in the laboratory to develop an independent benchmark for the reactions, meaning that their reactions during hydration in a simulated early age cement pore solution (saturated with respect to gypsum and lime) were able to be isolated. Because the rate of this reaction is extremely rapid, most microscopy methods are not adequate to study the early phases of the reactions in the early stages. Here, a high-resolution full-field soft X-ray imaging technique operating in the X-ray water window, combined with solution analysis by {sup 27}Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was used to capture information regarding the mechanism of C{sub 3}A hydration during the early stages. There are differences in the hydration mechanism between the two types of C{sub 3}A, which are also dependent on the concentration of sulfate ions in the solution. The reactions with cubic C{sub 3}A (pure) seem to be more influenced by higher concentrations of sulfate ions, forming smaller ettringite needles at a slower pace than the orthorhombic C{sub 3}A (Na-doped) sample. The rate of release of aluminate species into the solution phase is also accelerated by Na doping.

  20. High-resolution calculations of the solar global convection with the reduced speed of sound technique. I. The structure of the convection and the magnetic field without the rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Hotta, H.; Yokoyama, T.; Rempel, M.

    2014-05-01

    We carry out non-rotating high-resolution calculations of the solar global convection, which resolve convective scales of less than 10 Mm. To cope with the low Mach number conditions in the lower convection zone, we use the reduced speed of sound technique (RSST), which is simple to implement and requires only local communication in the parallel computation. In addition, the RSST allows us to expand the computational domain upward to about 0.99 R {sub ☉}, as it can also handle compressible flows. Using this approach, we study the solar convection zone on the global scale, including small-scale near-surface convection. In particular, we investigate the influence of the top boundary condition on the convective structure throughout the convection zone as well as on small-scale dynamo action. Our main conclusions are as follows. (1) The small-scale downflows generated in the near-surface layer penetrate into deeper layers to some extent and excite small-scale turbulence in the region >0.9 R {sub ☉}, where R {sub ☉} is the solar radius. (2) In the deeper convection zone (<0.9 R {sub ☉}), the convection is not influenced by the location of the upper boundary. (3) Using a large eddy simulation approach, we can achieve small-scale dynamo action and maintain a field of about 0.15B {sub eq}-0.25B {sub eq} throughout the convection zone, where B {sub eq} is the equipartition magnetic field to the kinetic energy. (4) The overall dynamo efficiency varies significantly in the convection zone as a consequence of the downward directed Poynting flux and the depth variation of the intrinsic convective scales.

  1. The Role of High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Predicting the Invasive Component in Patients with Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Diagnosed on Preoperative Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Chae, Eun Young; Shin, Hee Jung; Kim, Suhkmann; Baek, Hyeon-Man; Yoon, Dahye; Kim, Siwon; Shim, Ye Eun; Kim, Hak Hee; Cha, Joo Hee; Choi, Woo Jung; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Shin, Ji Hoon; Lee, Hee Jin; Gong, Gyungyub

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) diagnosed on preoperative biopsy. We investigated whether the metabolic profiling of tissue samples using HR-MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy could be used to distinguish between DCIS lesions with or without an invasive component. Our institutional review board approved this combined retrospective and prospective study. Tissue samples were collected from 30 patients with pure DCIS and from 30 with DCIS accompanying invasive carcinoma. All patients were diagnosed with DCIS by preoperative core-needle biopsy and underwent surgical resection. The metabolic profiling of tissue samples was performed by HR-MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy. All observable metabolite signals were identified and quantified in all tissue samples. Metabolite intensity normalized by total spectral intensities was compared according to the tumor type using the Mann-Whitney test. Multivariate analysis was performed with orthogonal projections to latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). By univariate analysis, the metabolite concentrations of choline-containing compounds obtained with HR-MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy did not differ significantly between the pure DCIS and DCIS accompanying invasive carcinoma groups. However, the GPC/PC ratio was higher in the pure DCIS group than in the DCIS accompanying invasive carcinoma group (p = 0.004, Bonferroni-corrected p = 0.064), as well as the concentration of myo-inositol and succinate. By multivariate analysis, the OPLS-DA models built with HR-MAS MR metabolic profiles could clearly discriminate between pure DCIS and DCIS accompanying invasive carcinoma. Our preliminary results suggest that HR-MAS MR metabolomics on breast tissue may be able to distinguish between DCIS lesions with or without an invasive component. PMID:27560937

  2. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid levels in the auditory pathway of rats with chronic tinnitus: a direct determination using high resolution point-resolved proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS)

    PubMed Central

    Brozoski, Thomas; Odintsov, Boris; Bauer, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Damage to the auditory system following high-level sound exposure reduces afferent input. Homeostatic mechanisms appear to compensate for the loss. Overcompensation may produce the sensation of sound without an objective physical correlate, i.e., tinnitus. Several potential compensatory neural processes have been identified, such as increased spontaneous activity. The cellular mechanisms enabling such compensatory processes may involve down-regulation of inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), and/or up-regulation of excitatory neurotransmission, mediated by glutamic acid (Glu). Because central processing systems are integrated and well-regulated, compensatory changes in one system may produce reactive changes in others. Some or all may be relevant to tinnitus. To examine the roles of GABA and Glu in tinnitus, high resolution point-resolved proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was used to quantify their levels in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), inferior colliculus (IC), medial geniculate body (MGB), and primary auditory cortex (A1) of rats. Chronic tinnitus was produced by a single high-level unilateral exposure to noise, and was measured using a psychophysical procedure sensitive to tinnitus. Decreased GABA levels were evident only in the MGB, with the greatest decrease, relative to unexposed controls, obtained in the contralateral MGB. Small GABA increases may have been present bilaterally in A1 and in the contralateral DCN. Although Glu levels showed considerable variation, Glu was moderately and bilaterally elevated both in the DCN and in A1. In the MGB Glu was increased ipsilaterally but decreased contralaterally. These bidirectional and region-specific alterations in GABA and Glu may reflect large-scale changes in inhibitory and excitatory equilibrium accompanying chronic tinnitus. The present results also suggest that targeting both neurotransmitter systems may be optimal in developing more effective therapeutics

  3. The Role of High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Predicting the Invasive Component in Patients with Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Diagnosed on Preoperative Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Eun Young; Kim, Suhkmann; Baek, Hyeon-Man; Yoon, Dahye; Kim, Siwon; Shim, Ye Eun; Kim, Hak Hee; Cha, Joo Hee; Choi, Woo Jung; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Shin, Ji Hoon; Lee, Hee Jin; Gong, Gyungyub

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) diagnosed on preoperative biopsy. We investigated whether the metabolic profiling of tissue samples using HR-MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy could be used to distinguish between DCIS lesions with or without an invasive component. Our institutional review board approved this combined retrospective and prospective study. Tissue samples were collected from 30 patients with pure DCIS and from 30 with DCIS accompanying invasive carcinoma. All patients were diagnosed with DCIS by preoperative core-needle biopsy and underwent surgical resection. The metabolic profiling of tissue samples was performed by HR-MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy. All observable metabolite signals were identified and quantified in all tissue samples. Metabolite intensity normalized by total spectral intensities was compared according to the tumor type using the Mann-Whitney test. Multivariate analysis was performed with orthogonal projections to latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). By univariate analysis, the metabolite concentrations of choline-containing compounds obtained with HR-MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy did not differ significantly between the pure DCIS and DCIS accompanying invasive carcinoma groups. However, the GPC/PC ratio was higher in the pure DCIS group than in the DCIS accompanying invasive carcinoma group (p = 0.004, Bonferroni-corrected p = 0.064), as well as the concentration of myo-inositol and succinate. By multivariate analysis, the OPLS-DA models built with HR-MAS MR metabolic profiles could clearly discriminate between pure DCIS and DCIS accompanying invasive carcinoma. Our preliminary results suggest that HR-MAS MR metabolomics on breast tissue may be able to distinguish between DCIS lesions with or without an invasive component. PMID:27560937

  4. New vacuum solar telescope and observations with high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhong; Xu, Jun; Gu, Bo-Zhong; Wang, Sen; You, Jian-Qi; Shen, Long-Xiang; Lu, Ru-Wei; Jin, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Lin-Fei; Lou, Ke; Li, Zhi; Liu, Guang-Qian; Xu, Zhi; Rao, Chang-Hui; Hu, Qi-Qian; Li, Ru-Feng; Fu, Hao-Wen; Wang, Feng; Bao, Men-Xian; Wu, Ming-Chan; Zhang, Bo-Rong

    2014-06-01

    The New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) is a one meter vacuum solar telescope that aims to observe fine structures on the Sun. The main goals of NVST are high resolution imaging and spectral observations, including measurements of the solar magnetic field. NVST is the primary ground-based facility used by the Chinese solar research community in this solar cycle. It is located by Fuxian Lake in southwest China, where the seeing is good enough to perform high resolution observations. We first introduce the general conditions at the Fuxian Solar Observatory and the primary science cases of NVST. Then, the basic structures of this telescope and instruments are described in detail. Finally, some typical high resolution data of the solar photosphere and chromosphere are also shown.

  5. Fluorescence support in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Animas, J. G.; Arronte, M.; Flores, T.; Ponce, L.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the development of an installation for proves for characterization by fluorescence of micrometer and nanometer particles supported on the trapping and manipulation by optical trapping technique (optical tweezers). The system features an laser operating at 480 nm, CCD camera for image acquisition, Thor Labs micrometric table X, Y, Z for the movement of the sample and the trap in the visual field. The design includes the use of intensity modulated optical trap, with the option of being used in pulsed, opening up possibilities for the use of resonant phenomena optomechanical type for particle capture.

  6. Dynamical stabilisation in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Philip H.; Richards, Christopher J.; Smart, Thomas J.; Cubero, David

    2015-03-01

    We present a study of dynamical stabilisation of an overdamped, microscopic pendulum realised using optical tweezers. We first derive an analytical expression for the equilibrium dynamically stabilised pendulum position in a regime of high damping and high modulation frequency of the pendulum pivot. This model implies a threshold behavior for stabilisation to occur, and a continuous evolution of the angular position which, unlike the underdamped case, does not reach the fully inverted position. We then test the theoretical predictions using an optically trapped microparticle subject to fluid drag force, finding reasonable agreement with the threshold and equilibrium behavior at high modulation amplitude. Analytical theory and experiments are complemented by Brownian motion simulations.

  7. Cell rotation using optoelectronic tweezers.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuan-Li; Huang, Yuan-Peng; Lu, Yen-Sheng; Hou, Max T; Yeh, J Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A cell rotation method by using optoelectronic tweezers (OET) is reported. The binary image of a typical OET device, whose light and dark sides act as two sets of parallel plates with different ac voltages, was used to create a rotating electric field. Its feasibility for application to electrorotation of cells was demonstrated by rotating Ramos and yeast cells in their pitch axes. The electrorotation by using OET devices is dependent on the medium and cells' electrical properties, the cells' positions, and the OET device's geometrical dimension, as well as the frequency of the electric field. PMID:21267435

  8. Optoelectronic tweezers for medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Clemens; Neale, Steven; Menachery, Anoop; Barrett, Mike; Cooper, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Optoelectronic tweezers (OET) allows the spatial patterning of electric fields through selected illumination of a photoconductive surface. This enables the manipulation of micro particles and cells by creating non-uniform electrical fields that then produce dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces. The DEP responses of cells differ and can produce negative or positive (repelled or attracted to areas of high electric field) forces. Therefore OET can be used to manipulate individual cells and separate different cell types from each other. Thus OET has many applications for medical diagnostics, demonstrated here with work towards diagnosing Human African Trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness.

  9. High Resolution PDF Measurements on Ag Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Tulio C. R.; Martin, Chris; Kycia, Stefan; Zanchet, Daniela

    2009-01-29

    The quantitative analysis of structural defects in Ag nanoparticles was addressed in this work. We performed atomic scale structural characterization by a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Pair Distribution Function analysis (PDF) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The XRD measurements were performed using an innovative instrumentation setup to provide high resolution PDF patterns.

  10. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Craig S.; Hoffman, Edward J.

    2000-01-01

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  11. Metabolomics of Breast Cancer Using High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Correlations with 18F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging MRI

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Haesung; Yoon, Dahye; Yun, Mijin; Choi, Ji Soo; Park, Vivian Youngjean; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Jeong, Joon; Koo, Ja Seung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Suhkmann; Kim, Min Jung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Our goal in this study was to find correlations between breast cancer metabolites and conventional quantitative imaging parameters using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and to find breast cancer subgroups that show high correlations between metabolites and imaging parameters. Materials and methods Between August 2010 and December 2013, we included 53 female patients (mean age 49.6 years; age range 32–75 years) with a total of 53 breast lesions assessed by the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. They were enrolled under the following criteria: breast lesions larger than 1 cm in diameter which 1) were suspicious for malignancy on mammography or ultrasound (US), 2) were pathologically confirmed to be breast cancer with US-guided core-needle biopsy (CNB) 3) underwent 3 Tesla MRI with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), and 4) had an attainable immunohistochemistry profile from CNB. We acquired spectral data by HR-MAS MRS with CNB specimens and expressed the data as relative metabolite concentrations. We compared the metabolites with the signal enhancement ratio (SER), maximum standardized FDG uptake value (SUV max), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and histopathologic prognostic factors for correlation. We calculated Spearman correlations and performed a partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to further classify patient groups into subgroups to find correlation differences between HR-MAS spectroscopic values and conventional imaging parameters. Results In a multivariate analysis, the PLS-DA models built with HR-MAS MRS metabolic profiles showed visible discrimination between high and low SER, SUV, and ADC. In luminal subtype breast cancer, compared to all cases, high SER, ADV, and SUV were more closely clustered by visual assessment. Multiple metabolites were correlated with SER and SUV in

  12. Structural characterization, magnetic behavior and high-resolution EELS study of new perovskites Sr{sub 2}Ru{sub 2-} {sub x} Co {sub x} O{sub 6-} {sub {delta}} (0.5{<=}x{<=}1.5)

    SciTech Connect

    Lozano-Gorrin, A.D. Greedan, J.E.; Nunez, P.; Gonzalez-Silgo, C.; Botton, G.A.; Radtke, G.

    2007-04-15

    New oxides of general formula Sr{sub 2}Ru{sub 2-} {sub x} Co {sub x} O{sub 6-} {sub {delta}} (0.5{<=}x{<=}1.5) have been synthesized as polycrystalline materials and characterized structurally by X-ray diffraction. For 0.5{<=}x<0.67 the orthorhombic, Pnma, perovskite structure of the end member, SrRuO{sub 3}, is found. At x=0.67 a phase separation into an Ru-rich Pnma phase and a Co-rich I2/c phase occurs. The I2/c form is also found for x=1.0 but another orthorhombic phase, Imma, obtains for x=1.33 and 1.5. Reductive weight losses indicate negligible oxygen non-stoichiometry, i.e., {delta}{approx}0, for all compositions even those rich in Co. High-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) indicates that cobalt is high-spin Co{sup 3+} or high-spin Co{sup 4+} for all x. Appropriate combinations of Ru{sup 4+}, Ru{sup 5+}, HS Co{sup 3+} and HS Co{sup 4+} are proposed for each x which are consistent with the observed Ru(Co)-O distances. Significant amounts of Co{sup 4+} must be present for large x values to explain the short observed distances. Broad maxima in the d.c. susceptibilities are found between 78 and 97 K with increasing x, along with zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) divergences suggesting glassy magnetic freezing. A feature near 155 K for all samples indicates a residual amount of ferromagnetic SrRuO{sub 3} not detected by X-ray diffraction. - Graphical abstract: Correlation between the average B-site radius, the Goldschmidt tolerance factor and the sequence of space groups and Glazer tilt systems found for the perovskite solid solution Sr{sub 2}Ru{sub 2-} {sub x} Co {sub x} O{sub 6}.

  13. Optical tweezers to study viruses.

    PubMed

    Arias-Gonzalez, J Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    A virus is a complex molecular machine that propagates by channeling its genetic information from cell to cell. Unlike macroscopic engines, it operates in a nanoscopic world under continuous thermal agitation. Viruses have developed efficient passive and active strategies to pack and release nucleic acids. Some aspects of the dynamic behavior of viruses and their substrates can be studied using structural and biochemical techniques. Recently, physical techniques have been applied to dynamic studies of viruses in which their intrinsic mechanical activity can be measured directly. Optical tweezers are a technology that can be used to measure the force, torque and strain produced by molecular motors, as a function of time and at the single-molecule level. Thanks to this technique, some bacteriophages are now known to be powerful nanomachines; they exert force in the piconewton range and their motors work in a highly coordinated fashion for packaging the viral nucleic acid genome. Nucleic acids, whose elasticity and condensation behavior are inherently coupled to the viral packaging mechanisms, are also amenable to examination with optical tweezers. In this chapter, we provide a comprehensive analysis of this laser-based tool, its combination with imaging methods and its application to the study of viruses and viral molecules. PMID:23737055

  14. Quantum limited particle sensing in optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, J.W.; Hsu, Magnus T. L.; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2009-12-15

    Particle sensing in optical tweezers systems provides information on the position, velocity, and force of the specimen particles. The conventional quadrant detection scheme is applied ubiquitously in optical tweezers experiments to quantify these parameters. In this paper, we show that quadrant detection is nonoptimal for particle sensing in optical tweezers and propose an alternative optimal particle sensing scheme based on spatial homodyne detection. A formalism for particle sensing in terms of transverse spatial modes is developed and numerical simulations of the efficacies of both quadrant and spatial homodyne detection are shown. We demonstrate that 1 order of magnitude improvement in particle sensing sensitivity can be achieved using spatial homodyne over quadrant detection.

  15. Miniature high-resolution thermometer for low-temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welander, Paul B.; Hahn, Inseob

    2001-09-01

    We report on a new miniature, high-resolution, susceptibility thermometer that employs LaxGd1-xCl3 as the paramagnetic material for temperature measurement below 4 K. The thermometer utilizes small permanent disk magnets to provide the required magnetic field, and has a total mass of only 2 g. The thermometer shows a resolution of 0.2 nK in a 1 Hz bandwidth and an absolute drift rate less than 50 fK/s at 2.2 K. In this article, we describe the thermometer design, assembly procedure, and experimental test results, including its thermal time constant and susceptibility to external magnetic fields.

  16. NOAA's Use of High-Resolution Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hund, Erik

    2007-01-01

    NOAA's use of high-resolution imagery consists of: a) Shoreline mapping and nautical chart revision; b) Coastal land cover mapping; c) Benthic habitat mapping; d) Disaster response; and e) Imagery collection and support for coastal programs.

  17. High-Resolution Plots of Trigonometric Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stick, Marvin E.; Stick, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Provides computer programs (for Apple microcomputers) for drawing (in high resolution graphics) a three-leaved rose, concentric circles, circumscribed and inscribed astroids. Sample output and discussions of the mathematics involved in the programs are included. (JN)

  18. Characterizing conical refraction optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    McDonald, C; McDougall, C; Rafailov, E; McGloin, D

    2014-12-01

    Conical refraction occurs when a beam of light travels through an appropriately cut biaxial crystal. By focusing the conically refracted beam through a high numerical aperture microscope objective, conical refraction optical tweezers can be created, allowing for particle manipulation in both Raman spots, and in the Lloyd/Poggendorff rings. We present a thorough quantification of the trapping properties of such a beam, focusing on the trap stiffness, and how this varies with trap power and trapped particle location. We show that the lower Raman spot can be thought of as a single-beam optical gradient force trap, while radiation pressure dominates in the upper Raman spot, leading to optical levitation rather than trapping. Particles in the Lloyd/Poggendorff rings experience a lower trap stiffness than particles in the lower Raman spot, but benefit from rotational control. PMID:25490654

  19. Optical tweezers based on polarization interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelsky, Oleg V.; Maksimyak, Andrew P.; Maksimyak, Peter P.; Dominikov, Mykola M.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we propose optical tweezers based on a biaxial crystal. To control the movement of opaque particles, we use the shift polarization interferometer. The results of experimental study of laser tweezers are shown. We demonstrates movement of a microparticle of toner using singular-optical trap, rotate a particle due to orbital momentum, conversion of two traps when changing the plane of polarizer transmission and converging of two traps.

  20. High Resolution Global View of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Io, the most volcanic body in the solar system is seen in the highest resolution obtained to date by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The smallest features that can be discerned are 2.5 kilometers in size. There are rugged mountains several kilometers high, layered materials forming plateaus, and many irregular depressions called volcanic calderas. Several of the dark, flow-like features correspond to hot spots, and may be active lava flows. There are no landforms resembling impact craters, as the volcanism covers the surface with new deposits much more rapidly than the flux of comets and asteroids can create large impact craters. The picture is centered on the side of Io that always faces away from Jupiter; north is to the top.

    Color images acquired on September 7, 1996 have been merged with higher resolution images acquired on November 6, 1996 by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The color is composed of data taken, at a range of 487,000 kilometers, in the near-infrared, green, and violet filters and has been enhanced to emphasize the extraordinary variations in color and brightness that characterize Io's face. The high resolution images were obtained at ranges which varied from 245,719 kilometers to 403,100 kilometers.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  1. Progress on LAMOST High Resolution Spectrograph Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, KaI

    2015-08-01

    To explore more science case, LAMOST doesn't only has strong power on celestial spectral survey but also reserves an access to high resolution spectrograph with a few optional fibers. This commissioned spectrograph gets high resolution of R=30,000 - 60,000 at a broad visible band from 370nm to 760nm. With the consideration about site seeing variation in future, single science fiber covers wider field on sky of 4.5arcsec instead of the present 3.3arcsec. An oversize Echelle R4 grating and a pre-slit image slicer are adopted to relieve the spectrograph resolution pressure. High resolution observation will parallel to the low resolution spectral survey at a small cost of losing a few fibers (10 - 20) on telescope focal plane. These science fibers will locate at the different sky areas for more approciate choice. The presentation will give the detailed design introduction and the current project status.

  2. 21 CFR 878.5360 - Tweezer-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. The tweezer-type epilator is an electrical device intended to remove hair. The energy provided at the tip of the tweezer used to remove hair may be radio frequency, galvanic...

  3. 21 CFR 878.5360 - Tweezer-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. The tweezer-type epilator is an electrical device intended to remove hair. The energy provided at the tip of the tweezer used to remove hair may be radio frequency, galvanic...

  4. 21 CFR 878.5360 - Tweezer-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. The tweezer-type epilator is an electrical device intended to remove hair. The energy provided at the tip of the tweezer used to remove hair may be radio frequency, galvanic...

  5. 21 CFR 878.5360 - Tweezer-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. The tweezer-type epilator is an electrical device intended to remove hair. The energy provided at the tip of the tweezer used to remove hair may be radio frequency, galvanic...

  6. 21 CFR 878.5360 - Tweezer-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. The tweezer-type epilator is an electrical device intended to remove hair. The energy provided at the tip of the tweezer used to remove hair may be radio frequency, galvanic...

  7. High-resolution ultrasound imaging of cutaneous lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mandava, Anitha; Ravuri, Prabhakar Rao; Konathan, Rajyalaxmi

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution variable frequency ultrasound imaging is increasingly being used in the noninvasive evaluation of various cutaneous diseases. It plays a complimentary role to physical examination in the assessment of cutaneous lesions. It is the only imaging modality useful in the evaluation of superficial cutaneous lesions that are too small to be evaluated on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and is helpful in reducing invasive procedures like biopsies and fine needle aspirations. In this article, we seek to describe the relevance and basic principles of cutaneous ultrasound, imaging findings of normal skin, current applications of high-resolution ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of various dermatological conditions, along with the features of some commonly encountered lesions. PMID:24347861

  8. Development of a high resolution and high dispersion Thomson parabola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, D.; Hörlein, R.; Kiefer, D.; Letzring, S.; Gautier, D. C.; Schramm, U.; Hübsch, C.; Öhm, R.; Albright, B. J.; Fernandez, J. C.; Habs, D.; Hegelich, B. M.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report on the development of a novel high resolution and high dispersion Thomson parabola for simultaneously resolving protons and low-Z ions of more than 100 MeV/nucleon necessary to explore novel laser ion acceleration schemes. High electric and magnetic fields enable energy resolutions of ΔE/E < 5% at 100 MeV/nucleon and impede premature merging of different ion species at low energies on the detector plane. First results from laser driven ion acceleration experiments performed at the Trident Laser Facility demonstrate high resolution and superior species and charge state separation of this novel Thomson parabola for ion energies of more than 30 MeV/nucleon.

  9. Development of a high resolution and high dispersion Thomson parabola.

    PubMed

    Jung, D; Hörlein, R; Kiefer, D; Letzring, S; Gautier, D C; Schramm, U; Hübsch, C; Öhm, R; Albright, B J; Fernandez, J C; Habs, D; Hegelich, B M

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report on the development of a novel high resolution and high dispersion Thomson parabola for simultaneously resolving protons and low-Z ions of more than 100 MeV/nucleon necessary to explore novel laser ion acceleration schemes. High electric and magnetic fields enable energy resolutions of ΔE∕E < 5% at 100 MeV/nucleon and impede premature merging of different ion species at low energies on the detector plane. First results from laser driven ion acceleration experiments performed at the Trident Laser Facility demonstrate high resolution and superior species and charge state separation of this novel Thomson parabola for ion energies of more than 30 MeV/nucleon. PMID:21280824

  10. A High-Resolution Stopwatch for Cents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingl, Z.; Kopasz, K.

    2011-01-01

    A very low-cost, easy-to-make stopwatch is presented to support various experiments in mechanics. The high-resolution stopwatch is based on two photodetectors connected directly to the microphone input of a sound card. Dedicated free open-source software has been developed and made available to download. The efficiency is demonstrated by a free…

  11. Tomographic phase microscopy using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habaza, Mor; Gilboa, Barak; Roichman, Yael; Shaked, Natan T.

    2015-07-01

    We review our technique for tomographic phase microscopy with optical tweezers [1]. This tomographic phase microscopy approach enables full 3-D refractive-index reconstruction. Tomographic phase microscopy measures quantitatively the 3- D distribution of refractive-index in biological cells. We integrated our external interferometric module with holographic optical tweezers for obtaining quantitative phase maps of biological samples from a wide range of angles. The close-tocommon- path, off-axis interferometric system enables a full-rotation tomographic acquisition of a single cell using holographic optical tweezers for trapping and manipulating with a desired array of traps, while acquiring phase information of a single cell from all different angles and maintaining the native surrounding medium. We experimentally demonstrated two reconstruction algorithms: the filtered back-projection method and the Fourier diffraction method for 3-D refractive index imaging of yeast cells.

  12. Designing single-beam multitrapping acoustical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Silva, Glauber T; Baggio, André L

    2015-02-01

    The concept of a single-beam acoustical tweezer device which can simultaneously trap microparticles at different points is proposed and demonstrated through computational simulations. The device employs an ultrasound beam produced by a circular focused transducer operating at 1 MHz in water medium. The ultrasound beam exerts a radiation force that may tweeze suspended microparticles in the medium. Simulations show that the acoustical tweezer can simultaneously trap microparticles in the pre-focal zone along the beam axis, i.e. between the transducer surface and its geometric focus. As acoustical tweezers are fast becoming a key instrument in microparticle handling, the development of acoustic multitrapping concept may turn into a useful tool in engineering these devices. PMID:25304994

  13. High-resolution display system for mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskowitz, Michael J.; Huang, H. K.; Wang, Jun; Allen, Jeffrey; Sickles, Edward A.; Giles, Anthony

    1995-04-01

    A high resolution mammographic display station is implemented for clinical diagnosis and for a digital teaching file. The display consists of a specially designed, high resolution mammographic station which contains a connection to a 50 micron (variable spot size) laser film digitizer, two 2 K X 2.5 K display monitors, an image processor, a host computer, and a disk array for high speed image transfer to the display monitors. After digitization on a separate host computer, the files are immediately transferred to the display station and post- processed for viewing. The algorithm for post-processing of the digitized image applies a non- linear LUT to mimic the original film characteristics while taking into account the luminosity of the display monitors in an attempt to produce the highest digital image quality possible. Image processing functions for enhancing calcification and soft tissue are also available to assist the human observer in classification of objects within the image. Windowing and level controls are seamlessly integrated for each monitor, as well as magnification capabilities. For an image display at its full resolution (e.g., digitized at 100 microns), the magnification is accomplished with a roaming window utilizing simple 2X pixel replication. This has been found to be acceptable in preliminary tests with clinicians. Measurements of features on the 2 k displays are possible, as well. The display format accurately simulates mammographic viewing arrangements with automatic side-by-side historical, current, left and right craniocaudal, mediolateral, etc., view comparisons. This high resolution mammographic display is found to be essential for fast and accurate display of high resolution digitized mammograms. A digital mammographic teaching file has been designed and tested using this display architecture. The teaching file presents the case questions on the host display monitor, and the related images for each question are presented on the high

  14. Fully dynamic multiple-beam optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Rene; Daria, Vincent; Gluckstad, Jesper

    2002-07-15

    We demonstrate a technique for obtaining fully dynamic multiple-beam optical tweezers using the generalized phase contrast (GPC) method and a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM). The GPC method facilitates the direct transformation of an input phase pattern to an array of high-intensity beams, which can function as efficient multiple optical traps. This straightforward process enables an adjustable number of traps and realtime control of the position, size, shape and intensity of each individual tweezer-beam in arbitrary arrays by encoding the appropriate phase pattern on the SLM. Experimental results show trapping and dynamic manipulation of multiple micro-spheres in a liquid solution. PMID:19436404

  15. High-Resolution Polarimetry of Supernova Remnant Kesteven 69

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, C. A.; Mufson, S. L.; Dickel, J. R.

    2008-06-01

    Reported here are high-resolution 6 cm measurements of the adolescent supernova remnant (SNR) Kesteven 69 made with the hybrid BnC configuration of the Very Large Array. Several three-field mosaics of the polarized and total intensity have been used to study this SNR. These investigations lead to a coherent picture of this region. The expanding shock defines an outer rim of high total intensity, suggesting the front is running into large dense clouds with random magnetic field directions. The SNR consists of predominantly of two types of regions, those with high total and relatively weak polarized emission and those with relatively weak total and strong polarized emission. This morphology can be generally explained by the number of clouds with organized magnetic field along the line of sight. Within this SNR there are regions where the field is varying from radial to tangential. As the SN shock encounters clouds, magnetic fields within clouds will strongly affect cloud dynamics.

  16. High resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Wang, Xuben; Li, Zhirong; Li, Qiong; Li, Zhengwen

    2009-06-01

    The high resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion method is based on nonlinear theory. Under layer control, the log data from several wells (or all wells) in the study area and seismic trace data adjacent to the wells are input to a network with multiple inputs and outputs and are integratedly trained to obtain an adaptive weight function of the entire study area. Integrated nonlinear mapping relationships are built and updated by the lateral and vertical geologic variations of the reservoirs. Therefore, the inversion process and its inversion results can be constrained and controlled and a stable seismic inversion section with high resolution with velocity inversion, impedance inversion, and density inversion sections, can be gained. Good geologic effects have been obtained in model computation tests and real data processing, which verified that this method has high precision, good practicality, and can be used for quantitative reservoir analysis.

  17. High-resolution Visible Spectra of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Chae Kyung; Kim, S.

    2006-09-01

    We have obtained high-resolution (R 30,000) spectra of Titan between 4,000 and 10,000 A on Feb. 23, 2005 (UT) using an optical echelle spectrograph (BOES) on the 1.8-m telescope at Bohyunsan Observatory, Korea. The raw Titan spectra contain telluric and solar absorption/emission lines. We used Kitt Peak solar atlases to remove the solar lines effectively. We also constructed synthetic spectra for the atmosphere of Titan including haze layers and utilizing laboratory spectra of CH4 available in literature. Preliminary results on the identifications of weak CH4 lines and on the derived opacities of the haze layers will be presented. Since the observations were carried out near the activities of Cassini observations of Titan, these high-resolution visible spectra are complementary to Cassini/VIMS imagery.

  18. Petrous apex mucocele: high resolution CT.

    PubMed

    Memis, A; Memis, A; Alper, H; Calli, C; Ozer, H; Ozdamar, N

    1994-11-01

    Mucocele of the petrous apex is very rare, only three cases having been reported. Since this area is inaccessible to direct examination, imaging, preferably high resolution computed tomography (HR CT) is essential. We report a case showing an eroding, non enhancing mass with sharp, lobulated contours, within the petrous apex. The presence of a large air cell on the opposite side suggested a mucocele. PMID:7862284

  19. High resolution schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harten, A.

    1983-01-01

    A class of new explicit second order accurate finite difference schemes for the computation of weak solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws is presented. These highly nonlinear schemes are obtained by applying a nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme to an appropriately modified flux function. The so-derived second order accurate schemes achieve high resolution while preserving the robustness of the original nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the performance of these new schemes.

  20. Star formation seen with high resolution spectroscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnewisser, G.

    1990-03-01

    More than 90 anorganic and organic molecules have been detected by high resolution spectroscopy in interstellar molecular clouds or in the envelopes of stars. The detected wavelengths of the lines - predominantly located in the millimeter- and submillimeter wavelength region - unequivocally identify the molecules and give precise knowledge of the physical and chemical conditions of molecular clouds from which the radiation emanates. The line intensities and line profiles contain information about the densities, temperatures and dynamics prevailing in molecular clouds.

  1. High resolution imaging of boron carbide microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, I.D.R.; Aselage, T.; Van Deusen, S.B.

    1985-08-01

    Two samples of boron carbide have been examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A hot-pressed B/sub 13/C/sub 2/ sample shows a high density of variable width twins normal to (10*1). Subtle shifts or offsets of lattice fringes along the twin plane and normal to approx.(10*5) were also observed. A B/sub 4/C powder showed little evidence of stacking disorder in crystalline regions.

  2. High resolution imaging of boron carbide microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    MacKinnon, I.D.R.; Aselage, T.; Van Deusen, S.B.

    1986-04-15

    Two samples of boron carbide have been examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A hot-pressed B/sub 13/C/sub 2/ sample shows a high density of variable width twins normal to (10*1). Subtle shifts or offsets of lattice fringes along the twin plane and normal to approx.(10*5) were also observed. A B/sub 4/C powder showed little evidence of stacking disorder in crystalline regions.

  3. High-Resolution X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODell, Stephen L.; Brissenden, Roger J.; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald F.; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terry; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental needs for future x-ray telescopes: a) Sharp images => excellent angular resolution. b) High throughput => large aperture areas. Generation-X optics technical challenges: a) High resolution => precision mirrors & alignment. b) Large apertures => lots of lightweight mirrors. Innovation needed for technical readiness: a) 4 top-level error terms contribute to image size. b) There are approaches to controlling those errors. Innovation needed for manufacturing readiness. Programmatic issues are comparably challenging.

  4. Conversational high resolution mass spectrographic data reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romiez, M. P.

    1973-01-01

    A FORTRAN 4 program is described which reduces the data obtained from a high resolution mass spectrograph. The program (1) calculates an accurate mass for each line on the photoplate, and (2) assigns elemental compositions to each accurate mass. The program is intended for use in a time-shared computing environment and makes use of the conversational aspects of time-sharing operating systems.

  5. High-Resolution Traction Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Plotnikov, Sergey V.; Sabass, Benedikt; Schwarz, Ulrich S.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton and transmitted to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through discrete, integrin-based protein assemblies, that is, focal adhesions, are critical to developmental morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis, as well as disease progression in cancer. However, quantitative mapping of these forces has been difficult since there has been no experimental technique to visualize nanonewton forces at submicrometer spatial resolution. Here, we provide detailed protocols for measuring cellular forces exerted on two-dimensional elastic substrates with a high-resolution traction force microscopy (TFM) method. We describe fabrication of polyacrylamide substrates labeled with multiple colors of fiducial markers, functionalization of the substrates with ECM proteins, setting up the experiment, and imaging procedures. In addition, we provide the theoretical background of traction reconstruction and experimental considerations important to design a high-resolution TFM experiment. We describe the implementation of a new algorithm for processing of images of fiducial markers that are taken below the surface of the substrate, which significantly improves data quality. We demonstrate the application of the algorithm and explain how to choose a regularization parameter for suppression of the measurement error. A brief discussion of different ways to visualize and analyze the results serves to illustrate possible uses of high-resolution TFM in biomedical research. PMID:24974038

  6. High-resolution fully vectorial scanning Kerr magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Flajšman, Lukáš; Urbánek, Michal; Křižáková, Viola; Vaňatka, Marek; Turčan, Igor; Šikola, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    We report on the development of a high-resolution scanning magnetometer, which fully exploits the vectorial nature of the magneto-optical Kerr effect. The three-dimensional nature of magnetization is at the basis of many micromagnetic phenomena and from these data, we can fully characterize magnetization processes of nanostructures in static and dynamic regimes. Our scanning Kerr magnetometer uses a high numerical aperture microscope objective where the incident light beam can be deterministically deviated from the objective symmetry axis, therefore, both in-plane (via the longitudinal Kerr effect) and out-of-plane (via the polar Kerr effect) components of the magnetization vector may be detected. These components are then separated by exploiting the symmetries of the polar and longitudinal Kerr effects. From four consecutive measurements, we are able to directly obtain the three orthogonal components of the magnetization vector with a resolution of 600 nm. Performance of the apparatus is demonstrated by a measurement of 3D magnetization vector maps showing out-of-plane domains and in-plane domain walls in an yttrium-iron-garnet film and on a study of magnetization reversal in a 4-μm-wide magnetic disk. PMID:27250432

  7. High-resolution fully vectorial scanning Kerr magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flajšman, Lukáš; Urbánek, Michal; Křižáková, Viola; VaÅatka, Marek; Turčan, Igor; Šikola, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    We report on the development of a high-resolution scanning magnetometer, which fully exploits the vectorial nature of the magneto-optical Kerr effect. The three-dimensional nature of magnetization is at the basis of many micromagnetic phenomena and from these data, we can fully characterize magnetization processes of nanostructures in static and dynamic regimes. Our scanning Kerr magnetometer uses a high numerical aperture microscope objective where the incident light beam can be deterministically deviated from the objective symmetry axis, therefore, both in-plane (via the longitudinal Kerr effect) and out-of-plane (via the polar Kerr effect) components of the magnetization vector may be detected. These components are then separated by exploiting the symmetries of the polar and longitudinal Kerr effects. From four consecutive measurements, we are able to directly obtain the three orthogonal components of the magnetization vector with a resolution of 600 nm. Performance of the apparatus is demonstrated by a measurement of 3D magnetization vector maps showing out-of-plane domains and in-plane domain walls in an yttrium-iron-garnet film and on a study of magnetization reversal in a 4-μm-wide magnetic disk.

  8. Separate effects of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on brain structure and function revealed by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and spatial navigation assessment of the Four Core Genotype mouse model.

    PubMed

    Corre, Christina; Friedel, Miriam; Vousden, Dulcie A; Metcalf, Ariane; Spring, Shoshana; Qiu, Lily R; Lerch, Jason P; Palmert, Mark R

    2016-03-01

    Males and females exhibit several differences in brain structure and function. To examine the basis for these sex differences, we investigated the influences of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on brain structure and function in mice. We used the Four Core Genotype (4CG) mice, which can generate both male and female mice with XX or XY sex chromosome complement, allowing the decoupling of sex chromosomes from hormonal milieu. To examine whole brain structure, high-resolution ex vivo MRI was performed, and to assess differences in cognitive function, mice were trained on a radial arm maze. Voxel-wise and volumetric analyses of MRI data uncovered a striking independence of hormonal versus chromosomal influences in 30 sexually dimorphic brain regions. For example, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the parieto-temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex displayed steroid-dependence while the cerebellar cortex, corpus callosum, and olfactory bulbs were influenced by sex chromosomes. Spatial learning and memory demonstrated strict hormone-dependency with no apparent influence of sex chromosomes. Understanding the influences of chromosomes and hormones on brain structure and function is important for understanding sex differences in brain structure and function, an endeavor that has eventual implications for understanding sex biases observed in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. PMID:25445841

  9. Adhesion of nanoparticles to polymer brushes studied with the ghost tweezers method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jianli; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and polymer brushes (PBs) are explored using dissipative particle dynamics simulations and an original "ghost tweezers" method that emulates lab experiments performed with optical or magnetic tweezers. The ghost tweezers method is employed to calculate the free energy of adhesion. Ghost tweezers represents a virtual harmonic potential, which tethers NP with a spring to a given anchor point. The average spring force represents the effective force of NP-PB interaction as a function of the NP coordinate. The free energy landscape of NP-PB interactions is calculated as the mechanical work needed to transfer NP from the solvent bulk to a particular distance from the substrate surface. With this technique, we explore the adhesion of bare and ligand-functionalized spherical NPs to polyisoprene natural rubber brush in acetone-benzene binary solvent. We examine two basic mechanisms of NP-PB interactions, NP adhesion at PB exterior and NP immersion into PB, which are governed by interplay between entropic repulsive forces and enthalpic attractive forces caused by polymer adsorption at the NP surface and ligand adsorption at the substrate. The relative free energies of the equilibrium adhesion states and the potential barriers separating these states are calculated at varying grafting density, NP size, and solvent composition.

  10. Adhesion of nanoparticles to polymer brushes studied with the ghost tweezers method.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jianli; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

    2015-01-21

    Mechanisms of interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and polymer brushes (PBs) are explored using dissipative particle dynamics simulations and an original "ghost tweezers" method that emulates lab experiments performed with optical or magnetic tweezers. The ghost tweezers method is employed to calculate the free energy of adhesion. Ghost tweezers represents a virtual harmonic potential, which tethers NP with a spring to a given anchor point. The average spring force represents the effective force of NP-PB interaction as a function of the NP coordinate. The free energy landscape of NP-PB interactions is calculated as the mechanical work needed to transfer NP from the solvent bulk to a particular distance from the substrate surface. With this technique, we explore the adhesion of bare and ligand-functionalized spherical NPs to polyisoprene natural rubber brush in acetone-benzene binary solvent. We examine two basic mechanisms of NP-PB interactions, NP adhesion at PB exterior and NP immersion into PB, which are governed by interplay between entropic repulsive forces and enthalpic attractive forces caused by polymer adsorption at the NP surface and ligand adsorption at the substrate. The relative free energies of the equilibrium adhesion states and the potential barriers separating these states are calculated at varying grafting density, NP size, and solvent composition. PMID:25612723

  11. Hydrogen depth profiling with sub-nm resolution in high-resolution ERD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Kenji; Nakajima, Kaoru; Imura, Hideki

    1998-05-01

    A depth resolution of 0.28 nm is obtained in a depth profile of hydrogen in silicon using a newly developed high-resolution elastic recoil detection (ERD) system. The system consists of a standard 90° sector magnetic spectrometer (energy resolution ˜0.1%) for high-resolution measurement and an electrostatic deflector for blocking scattered incident ions without disturbing the energy resolution. The system is very simple as compared with other high-resolution ERD systems and the data acquisition time is reasonably short.

  12. High-resolution laser spectroscopy and magnetic effect of the B{sup ~2}E′ ← X{sup ~2}A{sub 2}′ transition of {sup 14}NO{sub 3} radical

    SciTech Connect

    Tada, Kohei; Kashihara, Wataru; Baba, Masaaki; Ishiwata, Takashi; Hirota, Eizi; Kasahara, Shunji

    2014-11-14

    Rotationally resolved high-resolution fluorescence excitation spectra of {sup 14}NO{sub 3} radical have been observed for the 662 nm band, which is assigned as the 0–0 band of the B{sup ~2}E′ ←X{sup ~2}A{sub 2}′ transition, by crossing a single-mode laser beam perpendicularly to a collimated molecular beam. More than 3000 rotational lines were detected in 15 070–15 145 cm{sup −1} region, but it is difficult to find the rotational line series. Remarkable rotational line pairs, whose interval is about 0.0246 cm{sup −1}, were found in the observed spectrum. This interval is the same amount with the spin-rotation splitting of the X{sup ~2}A{sub 2}′ (υ = 0, k = 0, N = 1) level. From this interval and the observed Zeeman splitting up to 360 G, seven line pairs were assigned as the transitions to the {sup 2}E′{sub 3/2} (J′ = 1.5) levels and 15 line pairs were assigned as the transitions to the {sup 2}E′{sub 1/2} (J′ = 0.5) levels. From the rotational analysis, we recognized that the {sup 2}E′ state splits into {sup 2}E′{sub 3/2} and {sup 2}E′{sub 1/2} by the spin-orbit interaction and the effective spin-orbit interaction constant was roughly estimated as –21 cm{sup −1}. From the number of the rotational line pairs, we concluded that the complicated rotational structure of this 662 nm band of {sup 14}NO{sub 3} mainly owes to the vibronic interaction between the B{sup ~2}E′ state and the dark A{sup ~2}E″ state through the a{sub 2}″ symmetry vibrational mode.

  13. High-resolution nitrogen-15 nuclear magnetic resonance studies of alpha-lytic protease in solid state. Direct comparison of enzyme structure in solution and in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Huang, T H; Bachovchin, W W; Griffin, R G; Dobson, C M

    1984-12-01

    Histidine enriched in 15N in the imidazole nitrogens was incorporated into the catalytic triad of alpha-lytic protease, and high-resolution solid-state 15N NMR spectra of lyophilized enzyme powders were recorded. The lyophilized powders were prepared from aqueous solutions with pH values ranging from 4.9 to 9.3. The behavior of the 15N resonances as a function of "pH" in these solid samples closely parallels that observed previously in the corresponding solution-state study, with the exception that in the powders proton exchange at His-57 is slow on the NMR time scale whereas in solutions it is fast. Thus, the 15N isotropic shifts demonstrate that the N pi-H tautomer of His-57 predominates in powders prepared at high pH and that N pi(H) participates in a strong hydrogen bond, as the hydrogen-bond donor, in powders prepared at both high pH and low pH. The simplest interpretation of these results is that the active site catalytic triad structure of Asp-His-Ser is maintained in these lyophilized powders. Because Asp-102 and His-57 are sequentially separated, their interaction in these lyophilized powders suggests that the tertiary structures of alpha-lytic protease in the powder and in solution are very similar. The 15N isotropic shifts further indicate that His-57 located within the intact triad in lyophilized enzyme powders has what can be taken as a normal "pKa" for a histidyl residue, undergoing a transition from the protonated to the neutral state with a midpoint between pH 6.0 and 7.0. PMID:6395886

  14. High resolution SAR applications and instrument design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dionisio, C.; Torre, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has viewed, in the last two years, a huge increment of interest from many preset and potential users. The good spatial resolution associated to the all weather capability lead to considering SAR not only a scientific instrument but a tool for verifying and controlling the daily human relationships with the Earth Environment. New missions were identified for SAR as spatial resolution became lower than three meters: disasters, pollution, ships traffic, volcanic eruptions, earthquake effect are only a few of the possible objects which can be effectively detected, controlled and monitored by SAR mounted on satellites. High resolution radar design constraints and dimensioning are discussed.

  15. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-09-23

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling.

  16. High Resolution Sapphire Bragg Backscattering Monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, P. van der; Wille, H.-C.; Shvyd'ko, Yu. V.

    2007-01-19

    We present a temperature stabilised high resolution sapphire backscattering monochromator. The device consists of a sapphire crystal inside a cold nitrogen gas cooled, temperature stabilised chamber with a passively temperature stabilised screen. The achieved temperature stability of {+-}2mK allows for an energy resolution of {delta}E/E {<=} 10-7 at energies in the range of 30-70 keV. The device was developed for nuclear resonant scattering above 30 keV, where appropriate solutions did not exist until now.

  17. A High Resolution Scale-of-four

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Fitch, V.

    1949-08-25

    A high resolution scale-of-four has been developed to be used in conjunction with the nuclear particle detection devices in applications where the counting rate is unusually high. Specifically, it is intended to precede the commercially available medium resolution scaling circuits and so decrease the resolving time of the counting system. The circuit will function reliably on continuously recurring pulses separated by less than 0.1 microseconds. It will resolve two pulses (occurring at a moderate repetition rate) which are spaced at 0.04 microseconds. A five-volt input signal is sufficient to actuate the device.

  18. High-Resolution Manometry in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Pandolfino, John E.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution manometry (HRM) is the primary method used to evaluate esophageal motor function. Displayed and interpreted by esophageal pressure topography (EPT), HRM/ EPT provides a detailed assessment of esophageal function that is useful in the evaluation of patients with nonobstructive dysphagia and before foregut surgery. Esophageal motility diagnoses are determined systematically by applying objective metrics of esophageal sphincter and peristaltic function to the Chicago Classification of esophageal motility disorders. This article discusses HRM study, EPT interpretation, and the translation of EPT findings into clinical practice. Examples are provided to illustrate several clinical challenges. PMID:27118931

  19. High resolution interferometry of cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of results obtained in a program of infrared high resolution spectroscopy of cool stars. The nature of infrared stellar spectra is considered along with questions regarding astrophysics and stellar infrared spectroscopy. An abundance analysis for alpha Ori (Betelgeuse) is conducted. The C-12/C-13 abundance ratio is examined and attention is given to the O-16/O-18 and O-16/O-17 abundance ratios. M stars and SiO vibration-rotation bands are discussed and questions regarding the characteristics of the molecular hydrogen quadrupole vibration-rotation lines are explored.

  20. A Portable, High Resolution, Surface Measurement Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Burns, Bradley M.; Youngquist, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution, portable, surface measurement device has been demonstrated to provide micron-resolution topographical plots. This device was specifically developed to allow in-situ measurements of defects on the Space Shuttle Orbiter windows, but is versatile enough to be used on a wide variety of surfaces. This paper discusses the choice of an optical sensor and then the decisions required to convert a lab bench optical measurement device into an ergonomic portable system. The necessary trade-offs between performance and portability are presented along with a description of the device developed to measure Orbiter window defects.

  1. High-resolution color photographic reproductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, John J.

    1997-04-01

    This paper will describe a fine-art reproduction process that: captures painting information with high-resolution color photographs; scans the information into a 300 megabyte digital file; performs a 3D color calibration in a dedicated hardware color-transform circuit; makes a master positive color transparency and makes a reproduction on polaroid color print film. The master transparency can be used to expose a large number of images. This combines the efficiency of instant photography with the color fidelity of digital color transforms.

  2. High-resolution Observation of the Smallest Ellerman Bombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Cheng; Tang, Yu-hua; Li, Zhen; Xu, Zhi; Cao, Wenda; Guo, Yang

    By use of the high-resolution spectral data obtained with the largest solar telescope NST/BBSO in 2013 June, the characteristics of 3 well-observed smallest EBs have been analyzed. Their sizes are less than 0.5 are second and their durations are only 2-3 minutes. The most obvious characteristic of the EB spectra is the two emission bumps at the two wings of both Hα and CaII 8542 Å lines. They are located near the longitudinal magnetic polarity inversion lines and accompanied by mass motions. The semi-empirical atmospheric models for the EBs are computed. The common characteristic is the heating in the upper photosphere. The temperature enhancement is about 400-500 K. These imply that the EBs can probably be produced by the magnetic reconnection in the solar lower atmosphere. The radiative and kinetic energies of the EBs are estimated, and the possible mechanism of triggering the EBs is discussed.

  3. A high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer for planetary spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Sinton, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The employment of a high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) is described for planetary and other astronomical spectroscopy in conjunction with the 88-inch telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The FTS system is designed for a broad range of uses, including double-beam laboratory spectroscopy, infrared gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The data system is well-suited to astronomical applications because of its great speed in acquiring and transforming data, and because of the enormous storage capability of the magnetic tape unit supplied with the system. The basic instrument is outlined 2nd some of the initial results from the first attempted use on the Mauna Kea 88-inch telescope are reported.

  4. Optical tweezers as manufacturing and characterization tool in microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, J.; Ghadiri, R.; Ksouri, S. I.; Gurevich, E. L.; Ostendorf, A.

    2014-09-01

    Pumping and mixing of small volumes of liquid samples are basic processes in microfluidic applications. Among the number of different principles for active transportation of the fluids microrotors have been investigated from the beginning. The main challenge in microrotors, however, has been the driving principle. In this work a new approach for a very simple magnetic driving principle has been realized. More precisely, we take advantage of optical grippers to fabricate various microrotors and introduce an optical force method to characterize the fluid flow generated by rotating the structures through magnetic actuation. The microrotors are built of silica and magnetic microspheres which are initially coated with Streptavidin or Biotin molecules. Holographic optical tweezers (HOT) are used to trap, to position, and to assemble the microspheres with the chemical interaction of the biomolecules leading to a stable binding. Using this technique, complex designs of microrotors can be realized. The magnetic response of the magnetic microspheres enables the rotation and control of the structures through an external magnetic field. The generated fluid flow around the microrotor is measured optically by inserting a probe particle next to the rotor. While the probe particle is trapped by optical forces the flow force leads to a displacement of the particle from the trapping position. This displacement is directly related to the flow velocity and can be measured and calibrated. Variations of the microrotor design and rotating speed lead to characteristic flow fields.

  5. Common high-resolution MMW scene generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, Annie V.; McPherson, Dwight A.; Satterfield, H. DeWayne; Sholes, William J.; Mobley, Scott B.

    2001-08-01

    The development of a modularized millimeter wave (MMW) target and background high resolution scene generator is reported. The scene generator's underlying algorithms are applicable to both digital and real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulations. The scene generator will be configurable for a variety of MMW and multi-mode sensors employing state of the art signal processing techniques. At present, digital simulations for MMW and multi-mode sensor development and testing are custom-designed by the seeker vendor and are verified, validated, and operated by both the vendor and government in simulation-based acquisition. A typical competition may involve several vendors, each requiring high resolution target and background models for proper exercise of seeker algorithms. There is a need and desire by both the government and sensor vendors to eliminate costly re-design and re-development of digital simulations. Additional efficiencies are realized by assuring commonality between digital and HWIL simulation MMW scene generators, eliminating duplication of verification and validation efforts.

  6. High Resolution Acoustoelastic Measurements of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Mark; Guy, Samuel; Heyman, Joseph

    2006-11-01

    As materials become more complex, there is an increasing need for high resolution measurements to characterize strength and damage in the materials. Typically, the criterion for rejecting a part is based on the detection of a flaw of a specific size in a critical location. Interestingly, if a low stress field exists at the flaw site, the flaw may not grow over time. Similarly, in a part that shows no unacceptable indications, a high stress state may cause the flaw to quickly grow through the part leading to failure. In other cases, a controlled amount of stress (in a specific direction or type) is purposely added to the material to prevent flaw growth. Inspection time intervals are based knowing and controlling the stress environment to predict the flaw growth. Luna Innovations Incorporated has developed a high resolution ultrasonic instrument that can enhance the integrity of critical hardware by measuring changes in the stress state in a material. Knowledge of the stress state plus knowledge of crack sizes greatly improves structural engineers' capability of life prediction. System data will be shown for tests to stresses near holes in laboratory fabricated aircraft metal samples. Scans of the spatial distribution of stresses will be compared with finite element models of the structure.

  7. High-Resolution Shadowing of Transfer RNA

    PubMed Central

    Abermann, Reinhard J.; Yoshikami, Doju

    1972-01-01

    High-resolution shadowing with metals that melt at high temperatures was used to study macromolecules. Molecules of transfer RNA shadowed with tantalum-tungsten are readily visualized in an electron microscope. Mounting procedures for tRNA were perfected that reproducibly gave uniform distributions of both monomeric and dimeric tRNA particles, and allowed a statistical assessment of their gross shapes and sizes. Monomeric tRNA yielded a fairly homogeneous population of rod-shaped particles, with axial dimensions of about 40 × 85 Å. Dimers of yeast alanine tRNA held together by hydrogen bonds and dimers constructed by covalent linkage of the amino-acid acceptor (3′-) termini of monomers both gave slightly more heterogeneous populations of particles. Yet, their structures were also basically rod shaped, with their lengths ranging to about twice that of the monomer; this result indicates an end-to-end arrangement of the monomeric units within both dimers. These results suggest that the amino-acid acceptor terminus and the anticodon region are at the ends of the rod-shaped, dehydrated tRNA monomer visible by electron microscopy, consistent with the generally accepted view of tRNA structure in solution suggested by other workers using other methods. This study demonstrates that high-resolution shadowing with tantalum-tungsten provides a means to examine the three-dimensional structures of relatively small biological macromolecules. Images PMID:4504373

  8. Limiting liability via high resolution image processing

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwade, L.E.; Overlin, T.K.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as `evidence ready`, even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  9. High resolution guided wave pipe inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velichko, Alexander; Wilcox, Paul D.

    2009-03-01

    Commercial guided wave inspection systems provide rapid screening of pipes, but limited sizing capability for small defects. However, accurate detection and sizing of small defects is essential for assessing the integrity of inaccessible pipe regions where guided waves provide the only possible inspection mechanism. In this paper an array-based approach is presented that allows guided waves to be focused on both transmission and reception to produce a high resolution image of a length of pipe. In the image, it is shown that a signal to coherent noise ratio of over 40 dB with respect to the reflected signal from a free end of pipe can be obtained, even taking into account typical levels of experimental uncertainty in terms of transducer positioning, wave velocity etc. The combination of an image with high resolution and a 40 dB dynamic range enables the detection of very small defects. It also allows the in-plane shape of defects over a certain size to be observed directly. Simulations are used to estimate the detection and sizing capability of the system for crack-like defects. Results are presented from a prototype system that uses EMATs to fully focus pipe guided wave modes on both transmission and reception in a 12 inch diameter stainless steel pipe. The 40 dB signal to coherent noise ratio is obtained experimentally and a 2 mm diameter (0.08 wavelengths) half-thickness hole is shown to be detectable.

  10. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2003-01-01

    Spectroscopic parameters (such as line position, intensity, broadening and shifting coefficients and their temperature dependences, line mixing coefficients etc.) for various molecular species of atmospheric interest are determined. In order to achieve these results, infrared spectra of several molecular bands are obtained using high-resolution recording instruments such as tunable diode laser spectrometer and Fourier transform spectrometers. Using sophisticated analysis routines (Multispectrum nonlinear least squares technique) these high-resolution infrared spectra are processed to determine the various spectral line parameters that are cited above. Spectra were taken using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak, Arizona as well as the Bruker FTS at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) at Richland, Washington. Most of the spectra are acquired not only at room temperature, but also at several different cold temperatures. This procedure is necessary to study the variation of the spectral line parameters as a function of temperature in order to simulate the Earth's and other planetary atmospheric environments. Depending upon the strength or weakness of the various bands recorded and analyzed, the length(s) of the absorption cells in which the gas samples under study are kept varied from a few centimeters up to several meters and the sample temperatures varied from approximately +30 C to -63 C. Research on several infrared bands of various molecular species and their isotopomers are undertaken. Those studies are briefly described.

  11. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, D. Chris; Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2000-01-01

    The major research activities performed during the cooperative agreement enhanced our spectroscopic knowledge of molecules of atmospheric interest such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, ozone, methane, and carbon monoxide, to name a few. Measurements were made using the NASA Langley Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer System (TDL) and several Fourier Transform Spectrometer Systems (FTS) around the globe. The results from these studies made remarkable improvements in the line positions and intensities for several molecules, particularly ozone and carbon dioxide in the 2 to 17-micrometer spectral region. Measurements of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients and the temperature dependence of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients for infrared transitions of ozone, methane, and water vapor were also performed. Results from these studies have been used for retrievals of stratospheric gas concentration profiles from data collected by several Upper Atmospheric Research satellite (UARS) infrared instruments as well as in the analysis of high resolution atmospheric spectra such as those acquired by space-based, ground-based, and various balloon- and aircraft-borne experiments. Our results made significant contributions in several updates of the HITRAN (HIgh resolution TRANsmission) spectral line parameters database. This database enjoys worldwide recognition in research involving diversified scientific fields.

  12. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, Joel

    2014-03-26

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface.

  13. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, D. Chris; Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2000-01-01

    The major research activities performed during the cooperative agreement enhanced our spectroscopic knowledge of molecules of atmospheric interest such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, ozone, methane, and carbon monoxide, to name a few. Measurements were made using the NASA Langley Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer System (TDL) and several Fourier Transform Spectrometer Systems (FTS) around the globe. The results from these studies made remarkable improvements in the line positions and intensities for several molecules, particularly ozone and carbon dioxide in the 2 to 17-micrometer spectral region. Measurements of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients and the temperature dependence of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients for infrared transitions of ozone, methane, and water vapor were also performed. Results from these studies have been used for retrievals of stratospheric gas concentration profiles from data collected by several Upper Atmospheric Research satellite (UARS) infrared instruments as well as in the analysis of high resolution atmospheric spectra such as those acquired by space-based, ground-based, and various balloon-and aircraft-borne experiments. Our results made significant contributions in several updates of the HITRAN (HIgh resolution TRANsmission) spectral line parameters database. This database enjoys worldwide recognition in research involving diversified scientific fields.

  14. High Resolution Camera for Mapping Titan Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, Bianca

    2011-01-01

    Titan, Saturn's largest moon, has a dense atmosphere and is the only object besides Earth to have stable liquids at its surface. The Cassini/Huygens mission has revealed the extraordinary breadth of geological processes shaping its surface. Further study requires high resolution imaging of the surface, which is restrained by light absorption by methane and scattering from aerosols. The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft has demonstrated that Titan's surface can be observed within several windows in the near infrared, allowing us to process several regions in order to create a geological map and to determine the morphology. Specular reflections monitored on the lakes of the North Pole show little scattering at 5 microns, which, combined with the present study of Titan's northern pole area, refutes the paradigm that only radar can achieve high resolution mapping of the surface. The present data allowed us to monitor the evolution of lakes, to identify additional lakes at the Northern Pole, to examine Titan's hypothesis of non-synchronous rotation and to analyze the albedo of the North Pole surface. Future missions to Titan could carry a camera with 5 micron detectors and a carbon fiber radiator for weight reduction.

  15. High-Resolution Scintimammography: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel F. Brem; Joelle M. Schoonjans; Douglas A. Kieper; Stan Majewski; Steven Goodman; Cahid Civelek

    2002-07-01

    This study evaluated a novel high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suggestive breast lesions. Methods: Fifty patients (with 58 breast lesions) for whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a novel HRBGC prototype. The results of conventional and high-resolution nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal or benign) or positive (suggestive or malignant) by 2 radiologists who were unaware of the mammographic and histologic results. All of the included lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: There were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection of breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. The specificity with both systems was 93.3% (28/30). For the 18 nonpalpable lesions, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and the HRBGC, respectively. For lesions 1 cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four lesions (median size, 8.5 mm) were detected only with the HRBGC and were missed by the conventional camera. Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breast lesions with an HRBGC results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer, with greater improvement shown for nonpalpable and 1-cm lesions.

  16. High-resolution laser spectroscopy and magnetic effect of the B{sup ~2}E{sup ′}←X{sup ~2}A{sub 2}{sup ′} transition of the {sup 15}N substituted nitrate radical

    SciTech Connect

    Tada, Kohei; Teramoto, Kanon; Ishiwata, Takashi; Hirota, Eizi; Kasahara, Shunji

    2015-03-21

    Rotationally resolved high-resolution fluorescence excitation spectra of the 0–0 band of the B{sup ~2}E{sup ′}←X{sup ~2}A{sub 2}{sup ′} transition of the {sup 15}N substituted nitrate radical were observed for the first time, by crossing a jet-cooled molecular beam and a single-mode dye laser beam at right angles. Several thousand rotational lines were detected in the 15 080–15 103 cm{sup −1} region. We observed the Zeeman splitting of intense lines up to 360 G in order to obtain secure rotational assignment. Two, nine, and seven rotational line pairs with 0.0248 cm{sup −1} spacing were assigned to the transitions from the X{sup ~2}A{sub 2}{sup ′} (υ″ = 0, k″ = 0, N″ = 1, J″ = 0.5 and 1.5) to the {sup 2}E{sub 3/2}{sup ′} (J′ = 1.5), {sup 2}E{sub 1/2}{sup ′} (J′ = 0.5), and {sup 2}E{sub 1/2}{sup ′} (J′ = 1.5) levels, respectively, based on the ground state combination differences and the Zeeman splitting patterns. The observed spectrum was complicated due to the vibronic coupling between the bright B{sup ~2}E{sup ′} (υ = 0) state and surrounding dark vibronic states. Some series of rotational lines other than those from the X{sup ~2}A{sub 2}{sup ′} (J = 0.5 and 1.5) levels were also assigned by the ground state combination differences and the observed Zeeman splitting. The rotational branch structures were identified, and the molecular constants of the B{sup ~2}E{sub 1/2}{sup ′} (υ = 0) state were estimated by a deperturbed analysis to be T{sub 0} = 15 098.20(4) cm{sup −1}, B = 0.4282(7) cm{sup −1}, and D{sub J} = 4 × 10{sup −4} cm{sup −1}. In the observed region, both the {sup 2}E{sub 1/2}{sup ′} and {sup 2}E{sub 3/2}{sup ′} spin-orbit components were identified, and the spin-orbit interaction constant of the B{sup ~2}E{sup ′} (υ = 0) state was estimated to be −12 cm{sup −1} as the lower limit.

  17. Communications: Nanomagnetic shielding: High-resolution NMR in carbon allotropes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y; Abou-Hamad, E; Rubio, A; Wågberg, T; Talyzin, A V; Boesch, D; Aloni, S; Zettl, A; Luzzi, D E; Goze-Bac, C

    2010-01-14

    The understanding and control of the magnetic properties of carbon-based materials is of fundamental relevance in applications in nano- and biosciences. Ring currents do play a basic role in those systems. In particular the inner cavities of nanotubes offer an ideal environment to investigate the magnetism of synthetic materials at the nanoscale. Here, by means of (13)C high resolution NMR of encapsulated molecules in peapod hybrid materials, we report the largest diamagnetic shifts (down to -68.3 ppm) ever observed in carbon allotropes, which is connected to the enhancement of the aromaticity of the nanotube envelope upon doping. This diamagnetic shift can be externally controlled by in situ modifications such as doping or electrostatic charging. Moreover, defects such as C-vacancies, pentagons, and chemical functionalization of the outer nanotube quench this diamagnetic effect and restore NMR signatures to slightly paramagnetic shifts compared to nonencapsulated molecules. The magnetic interactions reported here are robust phenomena independent of temperature and proportional to the applied magnetic field. The magnitude, tunability, and stability of the magnetic effects make the peapod nanomaterials potentially valuable for nanomagnetic shielding in nanoelectronics and nanobiomedical engineering. PMID:20095656

  18. High-resolution MR venography of cerebral arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Essig, M; Reichenbach, J R; Schad, L R; Schoenberg, S O; Debus, J; Kaiser, W A

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of a high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) venography technique in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). A high-resolution 3D gradient echo sequence was used with a long echo time TE to obtain venous information down to sub-pixel sized vessel diameters of several hundred microns. The method is based on the paramagnetic property of deoxyhemoglobin, and the resulting developing phase difference between veins and brain parenchyma at long echo times which leads to signal cancellation. The reconstructed venograms were compared with time-of-flight (TOF)-MR angiography using qualitative and quantitative criteria with the conventional digital subtraction angiography serving as the reference gold standard. In 17 patients with angiographically proven cerebral AVMs, the method indicates its potential in clinical applications. Venography was able to detect all AVMs whereas TOF-MRA failed in three patients. In the delineation of venous drainage patterns MR venography was superior to TOF-MRA, however, the method failed in the detection of about half of the main feeding arteries, as expected. Due to susceptibility artifacts at air/tissue boundaries and interference with paramagnetic hemosiderin, venography was limited with respect to the delineation of the exact nidus sizes and shapes in ten patients with AVMs located close to the skull base or having suffered from previous bleeding. Although the visualization of draining veins represents an important prerequisite in the surgical and radiosurgical treatment planning of cerebral AVMs, application of high resolution MR venography may be limited in the diagnostic work-up in some of these patients. On the other hand, it may be of special importance in the early detection and assessment of small AVMs that are difficult to diagnose with other MR methods. PMID:10609990

  19. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This report constitutes the final report for NASA Contract NASW-5054. This project processed Clementine I high resolution images of the Moon, mosaicked these images together, and created a 22-disk set of compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM) volumes. The mosaics were produced through semi-automated registration and calibration of the high resolution (HiRes) camera's data against the geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS). The HiRes mosaics were compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution nadir-looking observations. The images were spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel for sub-polar mosaics (below 80 deg. latitude) and using the stereographic projection at a scale of 30 m/pixel for polar mosaics. Only images with emission angles less than approximately 50 were used. Images from non-mapping cross-track slews, which tended to have large SPICE errors, were generally omitted. The locations of the resulting image population were found to be offset from the UV/Vis basemap by up to 13 km (0.4 deg.). Geometric control was taken from the 100 m/pixel global and 150 m/pixel polar USGS Clementine Basemap Mosaics compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Radiometric calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity dominated by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap, that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The sub-polar mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 deg. of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. Polar mosaics are tiled into squares 2250 pixels on a

  20. High Resolution Powder Diffraction and Structure Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, D. E.

    1999-04-23

    It is clear that high-resolution synchrotrons X-ray powder diffraction is a very powerful and convenient tool for material characterization and structure determination. Most investigations to date have been carried out under ambient conditions and have focused on structure solution and refinement. The application of high-resolution techniques to increasingly complex structures will certainly represent an important part of future studies, and it has been seen how ab initio solution of structures with perhaps 100 atoms in the asymmetric unit is within the realms of possibility. However, the ease with which temperature-dependence measurements can be made combined with improvements in the technology of position-sensitive detectors will undoubtedly stimulate precise in situ structural studies of phase transitions and related phenomena. One challenge in this area will be to develop high-resolution techniques for ultra-high pressure investigations in diamond anvil cells. This will require highly focused beams and very precise collimation in front of the cell down to dimensions of 50 {micro}m or less. Anomalous scattering offers many interesting possibilities as well. As a means of enhancing scattering contrast it has applications not only to the determination of cation distribution in mixed systems such as the superconducting oxides discussed in Section 9.5.3, but also to the location of specific cations in partially occupied sites, such as the extra-framework positions in zeolites, for example. Another possible application is to provide phasing information for ab initio structure solution. Finally, the precise determination of f as a function of energy through an absorption edge can provide useful information about cation oxidation states, particularly in conjunction with XANES data. In contrast to many experiments at a synchrotron facility, powder diffraction is a relatively simple and user-friendly technique, and most of the procedures and software for data analysis

  1. High resolution electron crystallography of protein molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Glaeser, R.M. |; Downing, K.H.

    1993-06-01

    Electron diffraction data and high resolution images can now be used to obtain accurate, three-dimensional density maps of biological macromolecules. These density maps can be interpreted by building an atomic-resolution model of the structure into the experimental density. The Cowley-Moodie formalism of dynamical diffraction theory has been used to validate the use of kinematic diffraction theory, strictly the weak phase object approximation, in producing such 3-D density maps. Further improvements in the preparation of very flat specimens and in the retention of diffraction to a resolution of 0.2 nm or better could result in electron crystallography becoming as important a technique as x-ray crystallography currently is for the field of structural molecular biology.

  2. Computer synthesis of high resolution electron micrographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, R.

    1976-01-01

    Specimen damage, spherical aberration, low contrast and noisy sensors combine to prevent direct atomic viewing in a conventional electron microscope. The paper describes two methods for obtaining ultra-high resolution in biological specimens under the electron microscope. The first method assumes the physical limits of the electron objective lens and uses a series of dark field images of biological crystals to obtain direct information on the phases of the Fourier diffraction maxima; this information is used in an appropriate computer to synthesize a large aperture lens for a 1-A resolution. The second method assumes there is sufficient amplitude scatter from images recorded in focus which can be utilized with a sensitive densitometer and computer contrast stretching to yield fine structure image details. Cancer virus characterization is discussed as an illustrative example. Numerous photographs supplement the text.

  3. High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Papers and working group summaries presented at the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video (HHV) Workshop are compiled. HHV system is intended for future use on the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The Workshop was held for the dual purpose of: (1) allowing potential scientific users to assess the utility of the proposed system for monitoring microgravity science experiments; and (2) letting technical experts from industry recommend improvements to the proposed near-term HHV system. The following topics are covered: (1) State of the art in the video system performance; (2) Development plan for the HHV system; (3) Advanced technology for image gathering, coding, and processing; (4) Data compression applied to HHV; (5) Data transmission networks; and (6) Results of the users' requirements survey conducted by NASA.

  4. A simple, high efficiency, high resolution spectropolarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barden, Samuel C.

    2012-09-01

    A simple concept is described that uses volume phase holographic gratings as polarizing dispersers for a high efficiency, high resolution spectropolarimeter. Although the idea has previously been mentioned in the literature as possible, such a concept has not been explored in detail. Performance analysis is presented for a VPHG spectropolarimeter concept that could be utilized for both solar and night-time astronomy. Instrumental peak efficiency can approach 100% with spectral dispersions permitting R~200,000 spectral resolution with diffraction limited telescopes. The instrument has 3-channels: two dispersed image planes with orthogonal polarization and an undispersed image plane. The concept has a range of versatility where it could be configured (with appropriate half-wave plates) for slit-fed spectroscopy or without slits for snapshot/hyperspectral/tomographic spectroscopic imaging. Multiplex gratings could also be used for the simultaneous recording of two separate spectral bands or multiple instruments could be daisy chained with beam splitters for further spectral coverage.

  5. High-resolution spectrometer for atmospheric studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Carlo, Piero; Barone, Massimiliano; D'Altorio, Alfonso; Dari-Salisburgo, Cesare; Pietropaolo, Ermanno

    2009-08-01

    A high-resolution spectrometer (0.0014 nm at 313 nm) has been developed at the University of L'Aquila (Italy) for atmospheric spectroscopic studies. The layout, optics and software for the instrument control are described. Measurements of the mercury low-pressure lamp lines from 200 to 600 nm show the high performances of the spectrometer. Laboratory measurements of OH and NO2 spectrums demonstrate that the system could be used for cross-section measurements and to detect these species in the atmosphere. The first atmospheric application of the system was the observation of direct solar and sky spectrums that shows a filling-in of the sky lines due to rotational Raman scattering. The measurements have been done with clear and cloudy sky and in both there was a strong dependence of the filling-in from the solar zenith angle whereas no dependence from the wavelengths was evident at low solar zenith angles (less than 85°).

  6. Characterization of a high resolution transmission grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desauté, P.; Merdji, H.; Greiner, V.; Missalla, T.; Chenais-Popovics, C.; Troussel, P.

    2000-01-01

    Three 5000 lines/mm gold transmission gratings have been tested with the radiation from the Super-ACO synchrotron in the range 250 eV< E<850 eV. Typical results for the spectral dependence of the grating efficiency at different diffraction orders are presented. This grating theoretically built to have no second order exhibits second order as high as 15-20% of first order. The very thin 5000 L/mm gratings are supported by a larger grid which perturbs the recorded data by separating each order in three peaks. Fraunhofer diffraction of the support grid has been modelled and can explain this effect. The high resolution gratings were used to measure the harmonics of the beamline monochromator grating (550 L/mm) and to measure the emission and absorption of laser-produced plasmas in the XUV range.

  7. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C44H90 paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol.

  8. High resolution solar X-ray studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Two high resolution solar X-ray payloads and their launches on Aerobee rockets with pointing system are described. The payloads included 5 to 25A X-ray spectrometers, multiaperture X-ray cameras, and command box attitude control inflight by means of a television image radioed to ground. Spatial resolution ranged from five arc minutes to ten arc seconds and spectral resolution ranged from 500 to 3000. Several laboratory tasks were completed in order to achieve the desired resolution. These included (1) development of techniques to align grid collimators, (2) studies of the spectrometric properties of crystals, (3) measurements of the absorption coefficients of various materials used in X-ray spectrometers, (4) evaluation of the performance of multiaperture cameras, and (5) development of facilities.

  9. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

    DOEpatents

    Paulus, Michael J.; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Gleason, Shaun S.; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2002-01-01

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  10. High-resolution adaptive spiking sonar.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Fernando J; Kuc, Roman

    2009-05-01

    A new sonar system based on the conventional 6500 ranging module is presented that generates a sequence of spikes whose temporal density is related to the strength of the received echo. This system notably improves the resolution of a previous system by shortening the discharge cycle of the integrator included in the module. The operation is controlled by a PIC18F452 device, which can adapt the duration of the discharge to changing features of the echo, providing the system with a novel adaptive behavior. The performance of the new sensor is characterized and compared with that of the previous system by performing rotational scans of simple objects with different reflecting strengths. Some applications are suggested that exploit the high resolution and adaptability of this sensor. PMID:19473919

  11. High resolution analysis of satellite gradiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, O. L.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite gravity gradiometry is a technique now under development which, by the middle of the next decade, may be used for the high resolution charting from space of the gravity field of the earth and, afterwards, of other planets. Some data analysis schemes are reviewed for getting detailed gravity maps from gradiometry on both a global and a local basis. It also presents estimates of the likely accuracies of such maps, in terms of normalized spherical harmonics expansions, both using gradiometry alone and in combination with data from a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver carried on the same spacecraft. It compares these accuracies with those of current and future maps obtained from other data (conventional tracking, satellite-satellite tracking, etc.), and also with the spectra of various signals of geophysical interest.

  12. High-Resolution Broadband Spectral Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D J; Edelstein, J

    2002-08-09

    We demonstrate solar spectra from a novel interferometric method for compact broadband high-resolution spectroscopy. The spectral interferometer (SI) is a hybrid instrument that uses a spectrometer to externally disperse the output of a fixed-delay interferometer. It also has been called an externally dispersed interferometer (EDI). The interferometer can be used with linear spectrometers for imaging spectroscopy or with echelle spectrometers for very broad-band coverage. EDI's heterodyning technique enhances the spectrometer's response to high spectral-density features, increasing the effective resolution by factors of several while retaining its bandwidth. The method is extremely robust to instrumental insults such as focal spot size or displacement. The EDI uses no moving parts, such as purely interferometric FTS spectrometers, and can cover a much wider simultaneous bandpass than other internally dispersed interferometers (e.g. HHS or SHS).

  13. Limits of simulation based high resolution EBSD.

    PubMed

    Alkorta, Jon

    2013-08-01

    High resolution electron backscattered diffraction (HREBSD) is a novel technique for a relative determination of both orientation and stress state in crystals through digital image correlation techniques. Recent works have tried to use simulated EBSD patterns as reference patterns to achieve the absolute orientation and stress state of crystals. However, a precise calibration of the pattern centre location is needed to avoid the occurrence of phantom stresses. A careful analysis of the projective transformation involved in the formation of EBSD patterns has permitted to understand these phantom stresses. This geometrical analysis has been confirmed by numerical simulations. The results indicate that certain combinations of crystal strain states and sample locations (pattern centre locations) lead to virtually identical EBSD patterns. This ambiguity makes the problem of solving the absolute stress state of a crystal unfeasible in a single-detector configuration. PMID:23676453

  14. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; Eisenhardt, P.; Fowler, J.; Koribalski, B.; Lake, S.; Neill, James D.; Seibert, M.; Stanford, S.; Wright, E.

    2012-01-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 micron, 4.6 micron, 12 micron, and 22 micron. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  15. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C/sub 44/H/sub 90/ paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol. 53 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Information extraction from high resolution satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haiping; Luo, Jiancheng; Shen, Zhanfeng; Xia, Liegang

    2014-11-01

    Information extracted from high resolution satellite images, such as roads, buildings, water and vegetation, has a wide range of applications in disaster assessment and environmental monitoring. At present, object oriented supervised learning is usually used in the objects identification from the high spatial resolution satellite images. In classical ways, we have to label some regions of interests from every image to be classified at first, which is labor intensive. In this paper, we build a feature base for information extraction in order to reduce the labeling efforts. The features stored are regulated and labeled. The labeled samples for a new coming image can be selected from the feature base. And the experiments are taken on GF-1 and ZY-3 images. The results show the feasibility of the feature base for image interpretation.

  17. Pyramidal fractal dimension for high resolution images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Ahammer, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Fractal analysis (FA) should be able to yield reliable and fast results for high-resolution digital images to be applicable in fields that require immediate outcomes. Triggered by an efficient implementation of FA for binary images, we present three new approaches for fractal dimension (D) estimation of images that utilize image pyramids, namely, the pyramid triangular prism, the pyramid gradient, and the pyramid differences method (PTPM, PGM, PDM). We evaluated the performance of the three new and five standard techniques when applied to images with sizes up to 8192 × 8192 pixels. By using artificial fractal images created by three different generator models as ground truth, we determined the scale ranges with minimum deviations between estimation and theory. All pyramidal methods (PM) resulted in reasonable D values for images of all generator models. Especially, for images with sizes ≥1024 ×1024 pixels, the PMs are superior to the investigated standard approaches in terms of accuracy and computation time. A measure for the possibility to differentiate images with different intrinsic D values did show not only that the PMs are well suited for all investigated image sizes, and preferable to standard methods especially for larger images, but also that results of standard D estimation techniques are strongly influenced by the image size. Fastest results were obtained with the PDM and PGM, followed by the PTPM. In terms of absolute D values best performing standard methods were magnitudes slower than the PMs. Concluding, the new PMs yield high quality results in short computation times and are therefore eligible methods for fast FA of high-resolution images.

  18. High resolution multimodal clinical ophthalmic imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Mujat, Mircea; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Patel, Ankit H.; Iftimia, Nicusor; Lue, Niyom; Hammer, Daniel X.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a multimodal adaptive optics (AO) retinal imager which is the first to combine high performance AO-corrected scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and swept source Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) imaging modes in a single compact clinical prototype platform. Such systems are becoming ever more essential to vision research and are expected to prove their clinical value for diagnosis of retinal diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and retinitis pigmentosa. The SSOCT channel operates at a wavelength of 1 µm for increased penetration and visualization of the choriocapillaris and choroid, sites of major disease activity for DR and wet AMD. This AO system is designed for use in clinical populations; a dual deformable mirror (DM) configuration allows simultaneous low- and high-order aberration correction over a large range of refractions and ocular media quality. The system also includes a wide field (33 deg.) line scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) for initial screening, target identification, and global orientation, an integrated retinal tracker (RT) to stabilize the SLO, OCT, and LSO imaging fields in the presence of lateral eye motion, and a high-resolution LCD-based fixation target for presentation of visual cues. The system was tested in human subjects without retinal disease for performance optimization and validation. We were able to resolve and quantify cone photoreceptors across the macula to within ~0.5 deg (~100-150 µm) of the fovea, image and delineate ten retinal layers, and penetrate to resolve features deep into the choroid. The prototype presented here is the first of a new class of powerful flexible imaging platforms that will provide clinicians and researchers with high-resolution, high performance adaptive optics imaging to help guide therapies, develop new drugs, and improve patient outcomes. PMID:20589021

  19. High-resolution simulation of field emission

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. ); Becker, R. ); Brodie, I.; Rosengreen, A.; Spindt, C.A. )

    1990-03-01

    High-resolution simulations of field emission electron sources have been made using the electron optics program EGN2. Electron emission distributions are made using the Fowler-Nordheim equation. Mesh resolution in the range of 1-5 {angstrom} is required to adequately model surface details that can result in emission currents in the range found experimentally. A typical problem starts with mechanical details with dimensions of about 1{mu}. To achieve high resolution a new boundary is defined by the tip, a nearby equipotential line, and a pair of field lines. The field lines (one of which is normally the axis of symmetry) define Neumann boundaries. This new boundary is then used by the boundary preprocessor POLYGON to create an enlarged version of the problem, typically by a factor of ten. This process can be repeated until adequate resolution is obtained to simulate surface details, such as microprotusion, that could sufficiently enhance the surface electric fields and cause field emission. When simulating experimental conditions under which emission of several microamperes per tip were observed, it was found that both a locally reduced work function and a surface protrusion were needed to duplicate the experimental results. If only a local region of reduced work function is used, the area involved and the extent of the reduction both need to be very large to reproduce the emission. If only a surface protrusion is used, it is possible to get the observed emission current with a reasonable protrusion of length a few times radius, but then the resulting beam spreads over a very large solid angle due to the strong local radial electric fields. 8 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  20. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2006-01-01

    The major research activities performed during the cooperative agreement enhanced our spectroscopic knowledge of molecules of atmospheric interest such as H2O (water vapor), O3 (ozone), HCN (hydrogen cyanide), CH4 (methane), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) and CO (carbon monoxide). The data required for the analyses were obtained from two different Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS); one of which is located at the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on Kitt Peak, Arizona and the other instrument is located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) at Richland, Washington. The data were analyzed using a modified multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm developed by Dr. D. Chris Benner of the College of William and Mary. The results from these studies made significant improvements in the line positons and intensities for these molecules. The measurements of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients and the temperature dependence of pressure broadening and pressure induced shift coefficients for hundreds of infrared transitions of HCN, CO3 CH4 and H2O were also performed during this period. Results from these studies have been used for retrievals of stratospheric gas concentration profiles from data collected by several Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) infrared instruments as well as in the analysis of high resolution atmospheric spectra such as those acquired by space-based, ground-based, and various balloon- and aircraft-borne experiments. Our results made significant contributions in several updates of the HITRAN (HIgh resolution TRANsmission) spectral line parameters database. This database enjoys worldwide recognition in research involving diversified scientific fields. The research conducted during the period 2003-2006 has resulted in publications given in this paper. In addition to Journal publications, several oral and poster presentations were given at various Scientific conferences within the United States

  1. Pyramidal fractal dimension for high resolution images.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Ahammer, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Fractal analysis (FA) should be able to yield reliable and fast results for high-resolution digital images to be applicable in fields that require immediate outcomes. Triggered by an efficient implementation of FA for binary images, we present three new approaches for fractal dimension (D) estimation of images that utilize image pyramids, namely, the pyramid triangular prism, the pyramid gradient, and the pyramid differences method (PTPM, PGM, PDM). We evaluated the performance of the three new and five standard techniques when applied to images with sizes up to 8192 × 8192 pixels. By using artificial fractal images created by three different generator models as ground truth, we determined the scale ranges with minimum deviations between estimation and theory. All pyramidal methods (PM) resulted in reasonable D values for images of all generator models. Especially, for images with sizes ≥1024×1024 pixels, the PMs are superior to the investigated standard approaches in terms of accuracy and computation time. A measure for the possibility to differentiate images with different intrinsic D values did show not only that the PMs are well suited for all investigated image sizes, and preferable to standard methods especially for larger images, but also that results of standard D estimation techniques are strongly influenced by the image size. Fastest results were obtained with the PDM and PGM, followed by the PTPM. In terms of absolute D values best performing standard methods were magnitudes slower than the PMs. Concluding, the new PMs yield high quality results in short computation times and are therefore eligible methods for fast FA of high-resolution images. PMID:27475069

  2. Ecological applications of high resolution spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, William T.

    1989-01-01

    Future directions of NASA's space program plans include a significant effort at studying the Earth as a system of interrelated ecosystems. As part of NASA's Earth Observing System (Eos) Program a series of space platforms will be launched and operated to study the Earth with a variety of active and passive instruments. Several of the Eos instruments will be capable of imaging the planet's surface reflectance on a large number of very narrow portions of the solar spectrum. After the development of appropriate algorithms, this reflectance information will be used to determine key parameters about the structure and function of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and the pattern and processes of those systems across large areas of the globe. Algorithm development applicable to terrestrial systems will permit the inference of ecological processes from high resolution spectrometry data, similar to that to be forthcoming from the Eos mission. The first summer was spent working with tropical soils and relating their reflectance characteristics to particle size, iron content, and color. This summer the emphasis is on vegetation and work was begun with the Forest Ecosystems Dynamics Project in the Earth Resources Branch where both optical and radar characteristics of a mixed conifer/hardwood forest in Maine are being studied for use in a ecological modeling effort. A major series of aircraft overflights will take place throughout the summer. Laboratory and field spectrometers are used to measure the spectral reflectance of a hierarchy of vegetation from individual leaves to whole canopies for eventual modeling of their nutrient content using reflectance data. Key leaf/canopy parameters are being approximated including chlorophyll, nitrogen, phosphorus, water content, and leaf specific weight using high resolution spectrometry alone. Measurements are made of carbon exchange across the landscape for input to a spatial modeling effort to gauge production within the forest. A

  3. Independent trapping and manipulation of microparticles using dexterous acoustic tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney, Charles R. P.; Demore, Christine E. M.; Wu, Hongxiao; Cochran, Sandy; Grinenko, Alon; Wilcox, Paul D.; Drinkwater, Bruce W.

    2014-04-14

    An electronically controlled acoustic tweezer was used to demonstrate two acoustic manipulation phenomena: superposition of Bessel functions to allow independent manipulation of multiple particles and the use of higher-order Bessel functions to trap particles in larger regions than is possible with first-order traps. The acoustic tweezers consist of a circular 64-element ultrasonic array operating at 2.35 MHz which generates ultrasonic pressure fields in a millimeter-scale fluid-filled chamber. The manipulation capabilities were demonstrated experimentally with 45 and 90-μm-diameter polystyrene spheres. These capabilities bring the dexterity of acoustic tweezers substantially closer to that of optical tweezers.

  4. Optoelectronic Tweezers for Microparticle and Cell Manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Ming Chiang (Inventor); Chiou, Pei-Yu (Inventor); Ohta, Aaron T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An optical image-driven light induced dielectrophoresis (DEP) apparatus and method are described which provide for the manipulation of particles or cells with a diameter on the order of 100 micromillimeters or less. The apparatus is referred to as optoelectric tweezers (OET) and provides a number of advantages over conventional optical tweezers, in particular the ability to perform operations in parallel and over a large area without damage to living cells. The OET device generally comprises a planar liquid-filled structure having one or more portions which are photoconductive to convert incoming light to a change in the electric field pattern. The light patterns are dynamically generated to provide a number of manipulation structures that can manipulate single particles and cells or group of particles/cells. The OET preferably includes a microscopic imaging means to provide feedback for the optical manipulation, such as detecting position and characteristics wherein the light patterns are modulated accordingly.

  5. Optoelectronic tweezers for microparticle and cell manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Ming Chiang (Inventor); Chiou, Pei Yu (Inventor); Ohta, Aaron T. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An optical image-driven light induced dielectrophoresis (DEP) apparatus and method are described which provide for the manipulation of particles or cells with a diameter on the order of 100 .mu.m or less. The apparatus is referred to as optoelectric tweezers (OET) and provides a number of advantages over conventional optical tweezers, in particular the ability to perform operations in parallel and over a large area without damage to living cells. The OET device generally comprises a planar liquid-filled structure having one or more portions which are photoconductive to convert incoming light to a change in the electric field pattern. The light patterns are dynamically generated to provide a number of manipulation structures that can manipulate single particles and cells or groups of particles/cells. The OET preferably includes a microscopic imaging means to provide feedback for the optical manipulation, such as detecting position and characteristics wherein the light patterns are modulated accordingly.

  6. Exploring unconventional capabilities of holographic tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, R. J.; Pagliusi, P.; Provenzano, C.; Cipparrone, G.

    2011-06-01

    We report an investigation of manipulation and trapping capabilities of polarization holographic tweezers. A polarization gradient connected with a modulation of the ellipticity shows an optical force related to the polarization of the light that can influence optically isotropic particles. While in the case of birefringent particles an unconventional trapping in circularly polarized fringes is observed. A liquid crystal emulsion has been adopted to investigate the capabilities of the holographic tweezers. The unusual trapping observed for rotating bipolar nematic droplets has suggested the involvement of the lift hydrodynamic force responsible of the Magnus effect, originating from the peculiar optical force field. We show that the Magnus force which is ignored in the common approach can contribute to unconventional optohydrodynamic trapping and manipulation.

  7. High-resolution Imaging Techniques for the Assessment of Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Roland; Burghardt, Andrew J.; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis The importance of assessing the bone’s microarchitectural make-up in addition to its mineral density in the context of osteoporosis has been emphasized in a number of publications. The high spatial resolution required to resolve the bone’s microstructure in a clinically feasible scan time is challenging. Currently, the best suited modalities meeting these requirements in vivo are high-resolution peripheral quantitative imaging (HR-pQCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Whereas HR-pQCT is limited to peripheral skeleton regions like the wrist and ankle, MRI can also image other sites like the proximal femur but usually with lower spatial resolution. In addition Multidetector-CT has been used for high-resolution imaging of trabecular bone structure, however, the radiation dose is a limiting factor. This article provides an overview of the different modalities, technical requirements and recent developments in this emerging field. Details regarding imaging protocols as well as image post-processing methods for bone structure quantification are discussed. PMID:20609895

  8. Tweezers for Chimeras in Small Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omelchenko, Iryna; Omel'chenko, Oleh E.; Zakharova, Anna; Wolfrum, Matthias; Schöll, Eckehard

    2016-03-01

    We propose a control scheme which can stabilize and fix the position of chimera states in small networks. Chimeras consist of coexisting domains of spatially coherent and incoherent dynamics in systems of nonlocally coupled identical oscillators. Chimera states are generally difficult to observe in small networks due to their short lifetime and erratic drifting of the spatial position of the incoherent domain. The control scheme, like a tweezer, might be useful in experiments, where usually only small networks can be realized.

  9. The Smallest Tweezers in the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewalle, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    A pair of fine tweezers and a steady hand may well be enough to pick up a grain of sand, but what would you use to hold something hundreds of times smaller still, the size of only one micron? The answer is to use a device that is not mechanical in nature but that relies instead on the tiny forces that light exerts on small particles: "optical…

  10. Diagnostics of Ellerman bombs with high-resolution spectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Fang, Cheng; Guo, Yang; Chen, Peng-Fei; Xu, Zhi; Cao, Wen-Da

    2015-09-01

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) are tiny brightenings often observed near sunspots. The most impressive characteristic of EB spectra is the two emission bumps in both wings of the Hα and Ca II 8542Å lines. High-resolution spectral data of three small EBs were obtained on 2013 June 6 with the largest solar telescope, the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The characteristics of these EBs are analyzed. The sizes of the EBs are in the range of 0.3‧ - 0.8‧ and their durations are only 3-5 min. Our semi-empirical atmospheric models indicate that the heating occurs around the temperature minimum region with a temperature increase of 2700-3000 K, which is surprisingly higher than previously thought. The radiative and kinetic energies are estimated to be as high as 5 × 1025 - 3.0 × 1026 erg despite the small size of these EBs. Observations of the magnetic field show that the EBs just appeared in a parasitic region with mixed polarities and were accompanied by mass motions. Nonlinear force-free field extrapolation reveals that the three EBs are connected with a series of magnetic field lines associated with bald patches, which strongly implies that these EBs should be produced by magnetic reconnection in the solar lower atmosphere. According to the lightcurves and the estimated magnetic reconnection rate, we propose that there is a three phase process in EBs: pre-heating, flaring and cooling phases.

  11. Digital holographic microscopy combined with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, Nelson; Yu, Lingfeng; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2011-02-01

    While optical tweezers have been widely used for the manipulation and organization of microscopic objects in three dimensions, observing the manipulated objects along axial direction has been quite challenging. In order to visualize organization and orientation of objects along axial direction, we report development of a Digital holographic microscopy combined with optical tweezers. Digital holography is achieved by use of a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer with digital recording of interference pattern of the reference and sample laser beams by use of a single CCD camera. In this method, quantitative phase information is retrieved dynamically with high temporal resolution, only limited by frame rate of the CCD. Digital focusing, phase-unwrapping as well as online analysis and display of the quantitative phase images was performed on a software developed on LabView platform. Since phase changes observed in DHOT is very sensitive to optical thickness of trapped volume, estimation of number of particles trapped in the axial direction as well as orientation of non-spherical objects could be achieved with high precision. Since in diseases such as malaria and diabetics, change in refractive index of red blood cells occurs, this system can be employed to map such disease-specific changes in biological samples upon immobilization with optical tweezers.

  12. Probing the Casimir force with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ether, D. S., Jr.; Pires, L. B.; Umrath, S.; Martinez, D.; Ayala, Y.; Pontes, B.; Araújo, G. R. de S.; Frases, S.; Ingold, G.-L.; Rosa, F. S. S.; Viana, N. B.; Nussenzveig, H. M.; Neto, P. A. Maia

    2015-11-01

    We propose to use optical tweezers to probe the Casimir interaction between microspheres inside a liquid medium for geometric aspect ratios far beyond the validity of the widely employed proximity force approximation. This setup has the potential for revealing unprecedented features associated to the non-trivial role of the spherical curvatures. For a proof of concept, we measure femtonewton double-layer forces between polystyrene microspheres at distances above 400 nm by employing very soft optical tweezers, with stiffness of the order of fractions of a fN/nm. As a future application, we propose to tune the Casimir interaction between a metallic and a polystyrene microsphere in saline solution from attraction to repulsion by varying the salt concentration. With those materials, the screened Casimir interaction may have a larger magnitude than the unscreened one. This line of investigation has the potential for bringing together different fields including classical and quantum optics, statistical physics and colloid science, while paving the way for novel quantitative applications of optical tweezers in cell and molecular biology.

  13. The Smallest Tweezers in the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewalle, Alexandre

    2008-11-01

    A pair of fine tweezers and a steady hand may well be enough to pick up a grain of sand, but what would you use to hold something hundreds of times smaller still, the size of only one micron? The answer is to use a device that is not mechanical in nature but that relies instead on the tiny forces that light exerts on small particles: "optical tweezers." In recent years, this technique has become central to nanotechnology for the manipulation of small particles, even individual molecules. It is also an ideal illustration of how classroom physics is applied to cutting-edge research, combining concepts such as the vector nature of momentum and force, Newton's laws, optics, the wave-particle duality of light, and thermodynamics. The physics behind optical tweezers has many layers of complexity, but it can be reduced to a basic principle: the conservation of momentum. This paper guides the reader through a much simplified demonstration of this "tweezing effect" using a question-answer approach, leaving the reader with the choice to treat each step as a problem exercise.

  14. Nanoprobes with optical tweezers for biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, Mark; McIntyre, David; Ostroverkhova, Oksana; Bychkova, Valeriya; Shvarev, Alexey

    2010-03-01

    We explore the use of sub-micron sized particles in optical tweezer traps as nanoprobes in microfluidic devices and biological cells. For applications that require high spatial resolution, the ability to suppress the particle's natural Brownian motion down to the nanometer or sub-nanometer scales is essential. However, the optical tweezer force scales with the volume of the particle making it difficult to confine and manipulate nanometer sized particles with high precision. To overcome this difficulty, we explore the possibility of using optically resonant particles as nanoprobes. The resonant particles should experience an increase in the optical tweezer force at wavelengths on the red side of the absorption resonance, resulting in a tighter confinement. We explore this phenomenon by measuring the trapping force acting on resonant particles (dye-filled polymeric and metallic particles) as a function of trapping laser wavelength and discuss the feasibility of using them as a high spatial resolution probe. In addition, we use similar particles as optically trapped nanoprobes to monitor temporal and spatial differences in an inhomogeneous environment; for example, we have developed pH-sensitive fluorescent nanoprobes for biological applications.

  15. Collisions of Biological Objects Using Optical Tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmerson, K.; Davies, B. J.; Kishore, R.; Phillips, W. D.; Mammen, M.; Choi, S.-K.; Whitesides, G. M.

    1997-04-01

    We have developed a new functional assay in which two mesoscale particles are caused to collide using two independently controlled optical tweezers. This assay involved measurement of the probability of adhesion on collision. Since the components of the solution, the orientation, and the relative collision velocity are all under the user's control, this assay can mimic closely a range of types of collisions involving biological objects. We illustrate the utility of our assay by evaluating the probability of adhesion of a single erythrocyte to a virus-coated microsphere, in the presence of a sialic acid-bearing inhibitor(M. Mammen, et al., Chemistry and Biology 3: 757-63 (1996).). This probability as a function of the concentration of the inhibitor is a measure of the effectiveness of the inhibitor; most of the inhibition constants obtained using optical tweezers agree well with those obtained from other techniques. Inhibition constants for the most effective inhibitors could not be measured using other types of assays; however, they were readily obtained using our optical tweezers based assay. The best inhibitor is the most potent inhibitor of attachment of influenza virus to erythrocytes ever measured.

  16. High-resolution imaging of solar system objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    The strategy of this investigation has been to develop new high-resolution imaging capabilities and to apply them to extended observing programs. These programs have included Io's neutral sodium cloud and comets. The Io observing program was carried out at Table Mountain Observatory (1976 to 1981), providing a framework interpreting Voyager measurements of the Io torus, and serving as an important reference for studying asymmetries and time variabilities in the Jovian magnetosphere. Comet observations made with the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and 1.6 m AMOS telescope (1984 to 1987) provide basis for studying early coma development in Halley, the kinematics of its nucleus, and the internal and external structure of the nucleus. Images of GZ from the ICE encounter period form the basis for unique comparisons with in situ magnetic field and dust impact measurements to determine the ion tail and dust coma structure, respectively.

  17. High-resolution dynamic speech imaging with deformation estimation.

    PubMed

    Maojing Fu; Barlaz, Marissa S; Shosted, Ryan K; Zhi-Pei Liang; Sutton, Bradley P

    2015-08-01

    Dynamic speech magnetic resonance imaging (DSMRI) is a promising technique for visualizing articulatory motion in real time. However, many existing applications of DSMRI have been limited by slow imaging speed and the lack of quantitative motion analysis. In this paper, we present a novel DS-MRI technique to simultaneously estimate dynamic image sequence of speech and the associated deformation field. Extending on our previous Partial Separability (PS) model-based methods, the proposed technique visualizes both speech motion and deformation with a spatial resolution of 2.2 × 2.2 mm(2) and a nominal frame rate of 100 fps. Also, the technique enables direct analysis of articulatory motion through the deformation fields. Effectiveness of the method is systematically examined via in vivo experiments. Utilizing the obtained high-resolution images and deformation fields, we also performed a phonetics study on Brazilian Portuguese to show the method's practical utility. PMID:26736572

  18. High resolution spectroscopic study of Be10Lambda;

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogami, T.; Chen, C.; Kawama, D.; Achenbach, P.; Ahmidouch, A.; Albayrak, I.; Androic, D.; Asaturyan, A.; Asaturyan, R.; Ates, O.; Baturin, P.; Badui, R.; Boeglin, W.; Bono, J.; Brash, E.; Carter, P.; Chiba, A.; Christy, E.; Danagoulian, S.; de Leo, R.; Doi, D.; Elaasar, M.; Ent, R.; Fujii, Y.; Fujita, M.; Furic, M.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gan, L.; Garibaldi, F.; Gaskell, D.; Gasparian, A.; Han, Y.; Hashimoto, O.; Horn, T.; Hu, B.; Hungerford, Ed. V.; Jones, M.; Kanda, H.; Kaneta, M.; Kato, S.; Kawai, M.; Khanal, H.; Kohl, M.; Liyanage, A.; Luo, W.; Maeda, K.; Margaryan, A.; Markowitz, P.; Maruta, T.; Matsumura, A.; Maxwell, V.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Nagao, S.; Nakamura, S. N.; Narayan, A.; Neville, C.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, M. I.; Nunez, A.; Nuruzzaman, Okayasu, Y.; Petkovic, T.; Pochodzalla, J.; Qiu, X.; Reinhold, J.; Rodriguez, V. M.; Samanta, C.; Sawatzky, B.; Seva, T.; Shichijo, A.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tang, L.; Taniya, N.; Tsukada, K.; Veilleux, M.; Vulcan, W.; Wesselmann, F. R.; Wood, S. A.; Yamamoto, T.; Ya, L.; Ye, Z.; Yokota, K.; Yuan, L.; Zhamkochyan, S.; Zhu, L.; Hksjlab E05-115 Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Spectroscopy of a Be10Lambda; hypernucleus was carried out at JLab Hall C using the (e ,e'K+) reaction. A new magnetic spectrometer system (SPL+HES+HKS), specifically designed for high resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy, was used to obtain an energy spectrum with a resolution of ˜0.78 MeV (FWHM). The well-calibrated spectrometer system of the present experiment using p (e ,e'K+)Λ ,Σ0 reactions allowed us to determine the energy levels; and the binding energy of the ground-state peak (mixture of 1- and 2- states) was found to be BΛ=8.55 ±0.07 (stat . ) ±0.11 (sys . ) MeV. The result indicates that the ground-state energy is shallower than that of an emulsion study by about 0.5 MeV which provides valuable experimental information on the charge symmetry breaking effect in the Λ N interaction.

  19. High-resolution spectroscopy of a giant solar filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuckein, Christoph; Denker, Carsten; Verma, Meetu

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution spectra of a giant solar quiescent filament were taken with the Echelle spectrograph at the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT; Tenerife, Spain). A mosaic of various spectroheliograms (Hα, Hα+/-0.5 Å and Na D2) were chosen to examine the filament at different heights in the solar atmosphere. In addition, full-disk images (He i 10830 Å and Ca ii K) of the Chromspheric Telescope and full-disk magnetograms of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager were used to complement the spectra. Preliminary results are shown of this filament, which had extremely large linear dimensions (~740'') and was observed in November 2011 while it traversed the northern solar hemisphere.

  20. Crusta: Visualizing High-resolution Global Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardin, T. S.; Kreylos, O.; Bowles, C. J.; Cowgill, E.; Hamann, B.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2009-12-01

    Virtual globes have become indispensable tools for visualizing, understanding and presenting data from Earth and other planetary bodies. The scientific community has invested much effort into exploiting existing globes to their fullest potential by refining and adapting their capabilities to better satisfy specific needs. For example, Google Earth provides users with the ability to view hillshade images derived from airborne LiDAR data such as the 2007 Northern California GeoEarthScope data. However, because most available globes were not designed with the specific needs of geoscientists in mind, shortcomings are becoming increasingly evident in geoscience applications such as terrain visualization. In particular, earth scientists struggle to visualize digital elevation models with both high spatial resolution (0.5 - 1 square meters per sample) and large extent (>2000 square kilometers), such as those obtained with airborne LiDAR. To address the specific earth science need of real-time terrain visualization of LiDAR data, we are developing Crusta as part of a close collaboration involving earth and computer scientists. Crusta is a new virtual globe that differs from widely used globes by both providing accurate global data representation and the ability to easily visualize custom topographic and image data. As a result, Crusta enables real-time, interactive visualization of high resolution digital elevation data spanning thousands of square kilometers, such as the complete 2007 Northern California GeoEarthScope airborne LiDAR data set. To implement an accurate data representation and avoid distortion of the display at the poles, where other projections have singularities, Crusta represents the globe as a thirty-sided polyhedron. Each side of this polyhedron can be subdivided to an arbitrarily fine grid on the surface of the globe, which allows Crusta to accommodate input data of arbitrary resolution ranging from global (e.g., Blue Marble) to local (e.g., a tripod

  1. Efficient Compression of High Resolution Climate Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.; Schuchardt, K. L.

    2011-12-01

    resolution climate data can be massive. Those data can consume a huge amount of disk space for storage, incur significant overhead for outputting data during simulation, introduce high latency for visualization and analysis, and may even make interactive visualization and analysis impossible given the limit of the data that a conventional cluster can handle. These problems can be alleviated by with effective and efficient data compression techniques. Even though HDF5 format supports compression, previous work has mainly focused on employ traditional general purpose compression schemes such as dictionary coder and block sorting based compression scheme. Those compression schemes mainly focus on encoding repeated byte sequences efficiently and are not well suitable for compressing climate data consist mainly of distinguished float point numbers. We plan to select and customize our compression schemes according to the characteristics of high-resolution climate data. One observation on high resolution climate data is that as the resolution become higher, values of various climate variables such as temperature and pressure, become closer in nearby cells. This provides excellent opportunities for predication-based compression schemes. We have performed a preliminary estimation of compression ratios of a very simple minded predication-based compression ratio in which we compute the difference between current float point number with previous float point number and then encoding the exponent and significance part of the float point number with entropy-based compression scheme. Our results show that we can achieve higher compression ratios between 2 and 3 in lossless compression, which is significantly higher than traditional compression algorithms. We have also developed lossy compression with our techniques. We can achive orders of magnitude data reduction while ensure error bounds. Moreover, our compression scheme is much more efficient and introduces much less overhead

  2. Superconducting High Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Hau, I D

    2006-05-25

    Superconducting high resolution fast-neutron calorimetric spectrometers based on {sup 6}LiF and TiB{sub 2} absorbers have been developed. These novel cryogenic spectrometers measure the temperature rise produced in exothermal (n, {alpha}) reactions with fast neutrons in {sup 6}Li and {sup 10}B-loaded materials with heat capacity C operating at temperatures T close to 0.1 K. Temperature variations on the order of 0.5 mK are measured with a Mo/Cu thin film multilayer operated in the transition region between its superconducting and its normal state. The advantage of calorimetry for high resolution spectroscopy is due to the small phonon excitation energies k{sub B}T on the order of {mu}eV that serve as signal carriers, resulting in an energy resolution {Delta}E {approx} (k{sub B}T{sup 2}C){sup 1/2}, which can be well below 10 keV. An energy resolution of 5.5 keV has been obtained with a Mo/Cu superconducting sensor and a TiB{sub 2} absorber using thermal neutrons from a {sup 252}Cf neutron source. This resolution is sufficient to observe the effect of recoil nuclei broadening in neutron spectra, which has been related to the lifetime of the first excited state in {sup 7}Li. Fast-neutron spectra obtained with a {sup 6}Li-enriched LiF absorber show an energy resolution of 16 keV FWHM, and a response in agreement with the {sup 6}Li(n, {alpha}){sup 3}H reaction cross section and Monte Carlo simulations for energies up to several MeV. The energy resolution of order of a few keV makes this novel instrument applicable to fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy based on the unique elemental signature provided by the neutron absorption and scattering resonances. The optimization of the energy resolution based on analytical and numerical models of the detector response is discussed in the context of these applications.

  3. High resolution studies of complex solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Na

    Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are energetic events, which can even impact the near-Earth environment and are the principal source of space weather. Most of them originate in solar active regions. The most violent events are produced in sunspots with a complex magnetic field topology. Studying their morphology and dynamics is helpful in understanding the energy accumulation and release mechanisms for flares and CMEs, which are intriguing problems in solar physics. The study of complex active regions is based on high-resolution observations from space missions and new instruments at the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). Adaptive optics (AO) in combination with image restoration techniques (speckle masking imaging) can achieve improved image quality and a spatial resolution (about 100 km on the solar surface) close to the diffraction limit of BBSO's 65 cm vacuum telescope. Dopplergrams obtained with a two-dimensional imaging spectrometer combined with horizontal flow maps derived with Local Correlation Tracking (LCT) provide precise measurements of the three-dimensional velocity field in sunspots. Magnetic field measurements from ground- and space-based instruments complement these data. At the outset of this study, the evolution and morphology of a typical round sunspot are described in some detail. The sunspot was followed from disk center to the limb, thus providing some insight into the geometry of the magnetic flux system. Having established a benchmark for a stable sunspot, the attention is turned to changes of the sunspot structure associated with flares and CMEs. Rapid penumbral decay and the strengthening of sunspot umbrae are manifestations of photospheric magnetic field changes after a flare. These sudden intensity changes are interpreted as a result of magnetic reconnection during the flare, which causes the magnetic field lines to be turned from more inclined to more vertical. Strong photospheric shear flows along the flaring magnetic

  4. High resolution spectrograph for the Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Boggess, A.; Heap, S. R.; Maran, S. P.; Smith, A. M.; Beaver, E. A.; Bottema, M.; Hutchings, J. B.; Jura, M. A.; Linsky, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    The high resolution spectrograph (HRS) for ultraviolet astronomy with the Space Telescope will provide a spectral resolution of approximately 120,000 over a nominal wavelength range of 110-320 nm, together with a spatial resolution of about 0.25 arc seconds. The two detectors will consist of 512-element Digicons with cesium telluride and cesium iodide photocathodes, respectively. Photoelectrons in transit between the photocathodes and the diodes within the Digicons can be deflected in two axes with 12-bit resolution. This feature facilitates a design that emphasizes reliability since (once a hermetic seal is opened in orbit), only two moving parts, a grating carrousel and a shutter, are required for regular operation of the HRS. The instrument will be controlled by a computer in the spacecraft. The scientific objectives of the HRS investigation relate to interstellar matter in our own and nearby galaxies, physical processes of stellar mass loss and mass transfer, chemical abundances, bright quasars and Seyfert galaxy nuclei, and solar system phenomena.

  5. High Resolution BPM for Linear Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, C.; Chel, S.; Luong, M.; Napoly, O.; Novo, J.; Roudier, D.; Baboi, N.; Noelle, D.; Mildner, N.; Zapfe, K.; Rouvière, N.

    2006-11-01

    A high resolution Beam Position Monitor (BPM) is necessary for the beam-based alignment systems of high energy and low emittance electron linacs. Such a monitor is developed in the framework of the European CARE/SRF programme, in a close collaboration between DESY and CEA/DSM/DAPNIA. This monitor is a radiofrequency re-entrant cavity, which can be used either at room or cryogenic temperature, in an environment where dust particle contamination has to be avoided, such as superconducting cavities in a cryomodule. A first prototype of a re-entrant BPM has already delivered measurements at 2K. inside the first cryomodule (ACC1) on the TESLA Test Facility 2 (TTF2). The performances of this BPM are analyzed both experimentally and theoretically, and the limitations of this existing system clearly identified. A new cavity and new electronics have been designed in order to improve the position resolution down to 1 μm and the damping time down to 10 ns.

  6. High-resolution microwave images of saturn.

    PubMed

    Grossman, A W; Muhleman, D O; Berge, G L

    1989-09-15

    An analysis of high-resolution microwave images of Saturn and Saturn's individual rings is presented. Radio interferometric observations of Saturn taken at the Very Large Array in New Mexico at wavelengths of 2 and 6 centimeters reveal interesting new features in both the atmosphere and rings. The resulting maps show an increase in brightness temperature of about 3 K from equator to pole at both wavelengths, while the 6-centimeter map shows a bright band at northern mid-latitudes. The data are consistent with a radiative transfer model of the atmosphere that constrains the well-mixed, fully saturated, NH(3) mixing ratio to be 1.2 x 10(-4) in a region just below the NH(3) clouds, while the observed bright band indicates a 25 percent relative decrease of NH(3) in northern mid-latitudes. Brightness temperatures for the classical rings are presented. Ring brightness shows a variation with azimuth and is linearly polarized at an average value of about 5 percent. The variations in ring polarization suggest that at least 20 percent of the ring brightness is the result of a single scattering process. PMID:17747882

  7. High-resolution x-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Brissenden, Roger J.; Davis, William N.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Elvis, Martin S.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gaetz, Terrance; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Jerius, Diab; Juda, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Murray, Stephen S.; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Saha, Timo; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Wolk, Scott; Zhang, William W.

    2010-08-01

    High-energy astrophysics is a relatively young scientific field, made possible by space-borne telescopes. During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, the sensitivity of focusing x-ray telescopes-through finer angular resolution and increased effective area-has improved by a factor of a 100 million. This technological advance has enabled numerous exciting discoveries and increasingly detailed study of the high-energy universe-including accreting (stellarmass and super-massive) black holes, accreting and isolated neutron stars, pulsar-wind nebulae, shocked plasma in supernova remnants, and hot thermal plasma in clusters of galaxies. As the largest structures in the universe, galaxy clusters constitute a unique laboratory for measuring the gravitational effects of dark matter and of dark energy. Here, we review the history of high-resolution x-ray telescopes and highlight some of the scientific results enabled by these telescopes. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility-the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility-Generation X. The scientific objectives of such a mission will require very large areas (about 10000 m2) of highly-nested lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsecond) angular resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure.

  8. Future trends in high-resolution lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawes, R. A.

    2000-02-01

    A perennial question is "what is the future of high-resolution lithography, a key technology that drives the semiconductor industry"? The dominant technology over the last 30 years has been optical lithography, which by lowering wavelengths to 193 nm (ArF) and 157 nm (F 2) and by using optical "tricks" such as phase shift masks, off-axis illumination and phase filters, should be capable of 100 nm CMOS technology. So where does this leave the competition? The 100-nm lithography used to be the domain of electron beam lithography but only in research laboratories. Significant efforts are being made to increase throughput by electron projection (scattering with angular limitation projection electron beam lithography or SCALPEL). X-ray lithography remains a demonstrated R&D tool waiting to be commercially exploited but the initial expenditure to do so is very high. Ion beam lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) ( λ<12 nm) have also received attention in recent years. This paper will concentrate on some of the key issues and speculate on how and when an alternative to optical lithography will be embraced by industry.

  9. Holographic high-resolution endoscopic image recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1991-03-01

    Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help

  10. High-resolution imaging using endoscopic holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1990-08-01

    Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help to their control. 1.

  11. High resolution Fourier interferometer-spectrophotopolarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fymat, A. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A high-resolution Fourier interferometer-spectrophotopolarimeter is provided using a single linear polarizer-analyzer the transmission axis azimuth of which is positioned successively in the three orientations of 0 deg, 45 deg, and 90 deg, in front of a detector; four flat mirrors, three of which are switchable to either of two positions to direct an incoming beam from an interferometer to the polarizer-analyzer around a sample cell transmitted through a medium in a cell and reflected by medium in the cell; and four fixed focussing lenses, all located in a sample chamber attached at the exit side of the interferometer. This arrangement can provide the distribution of energy and complete polarization state across the spectrum of the reference light entering from the interferometer; the same light after a fixed-angle reflection from the sample cell containing a medium to be analyzed; and the same light after direct transmission through the same sample cell, with the spectral resolution provided by the interferometer.

  12. In vivo high-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis of mitochondria-targeted peptide in Drosophila melanogaster with trauma-induced thoracic injury

    PubMed Central

    CONSTANTINOU, CATERINA; APIDIANAKIS, YIORGOS; PSYCHOGIOS, NIKOLAOS; RIGHI, VALERIA; MINDRINOS, MICHAEL N.; KHAN, NADEEM; SWARTZ, HAROLD M.; SZETO, HAZEL H.; TOMPKINS, RONALD G.; RAHME, LAURENCE G.; TZIKA, A. ARIA

    2016-01-01

    Trauma is the most common cause of mortality among individuals aged between 1 and 44 years and the third leading cause of mortality overall in the US. In this study, we examined the effects of trauma on the expression of genes in Drosophila melanogaster, a useful model for investigating genetics and physiology. After trauma was induced by a non-lethal needle puncture of the thorax, we observed the differential expression of genes encoding for mitochondrial uncoupling proteins, as well as those encoding for apoptosis-related and insulin signaling-related proteins, thus indicating muscle functional dysregulation. These results prompted us to examine the link between insulin signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction using in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with complementary electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Trauma significantly increased insulin resistance biomarkers, and the NMR spectral profile of the aged flies with trauma-induced thoracic injury resembled that of insulin-resistant chico mutant flies. In addition, the mitochondrial redox status, as measured by EPR, was significantly altered following trauma, indicating mitochondrial uncoupling. A mitochondria-targeted compound, Szeto-Schiller (SS)-31 that promotes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis normalized the NMR spectral profile, as well as the mitochondrial redox status of the flies with trauma-induced thoracic injury, as assessed by EPR. Based on these findings, we propose a molecular mechanism responsible for trauma-related mortality and also propose that trauma sequelae in aging are linked to insulin signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our findings further suggest that SS-31 attenuates trauma-associated pathological changes. PMID:26648055

  13. New design studies for TRIUMF's ARIEL High Resolution Separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, J. A.; Baartman, R.; Marchetto, M.

    2016-06-01

    As part of its new Advanced Rare IsotopE Laboratory (ARIEL), TRIUMF is designing a novel High Resolution Separator (HRS) (Maloney et al., 2015) to separate rare isotopes. The HRS has a 180° bend, separated into two 90° magnetic dipoles, bend radius 1.2 m, with an electrostatic multipole corrector between them. Second order correction comes mainly from the dipole edge curvatures, but is intended to be fine-tuned with a sextupole component and a small octupole component in the multipole. This combination is designed to achieve 1:20,000 resolution for a 3 μm (horizontal) and 6 μm (vertical) emittance. A design for the HRS dipole magnets achieves both radial and integral flatness goals of <10-5. A review of the optical design for the HRS is presented, including the study of limiting factors affecting separation, matching and aberration correction. Field simulations from the OPERA-3D (OPERA) [2] models of the dipole magnets are used in COSY Infinity (COSY) (Berz and Makino, 2005) [3] to find and optimize the transfer maps to 3rd order and study residual nonlinearities to 8th order.

  14. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy under the fume hood.

    PubMed

    Küster, Simon K; Danieli, Ernesto; Blümich, Bernhard; Casanova, Federico

    2011-08-01

    This work reports the possibility to acquire high-resolution (1)H NMR spectra with a fist-sized NMR magnet directly installed under the fume hood. The small NMR sensor based on permanent magnets was used to monitor the trimerization of propionaldehyde catalyzed by indium trichloride in real time by continuously circulating the reaction mixture through the magnet bore in a closed loop with the help of a peristaltic pump. Thanks to the chemical selectivity of NMR spectroscopy the progress of the reaction can be monitored on-line by determining the concentrations of both reactant and product from the area under their respective lines in the NMR spectra as a function of time. This in situ measurement demonstrates that NMR probes can be used in chemistry laboratories, e.g. for reaction optimization, or installed at specific points of interest along industrial process lines. Therefore, it will open the door for the implementation of feedback control based on spectroscopic NMR data. PMID:21698335

  15. High-Resolution Observations of Sympathetic Filament Eruptions by NVST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yingna; Li, Shangwei; Zhou, Tuanhui; Ji, Haisheng

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the sympathetic eruptions of two solar filaments side by side as observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) on 2015 October 15. These two filaments start from the complex active region NOAA 12434 (north) and end in a large quiescent region (south). The corresponding SDO/HMI magnetic field observations suggest that the two small filaments are located above two different polarity inversion lines in the northern part. The SDO/AIA observations of the eruption show that these two filaments appear to merge into one in the southern quiescent region. The north-eastern filament starts eruption firstly, which is followed by the north-western filament eruption about 20 minutes later. Clear untwisting motions (i.e., signature of flux ropes) are observed in both filaments during the eruption. After the lifts off of the north-western filament, mini filaments are observed to emerge from the surface and rise up multiple times. The high-resolution observations reveal the fact that the filament is composed of multiple sections and multiple layers. The filament in the lower layer can merge into the upper layer, which leads to the increase of non-potentiality of the upper layer. Magnetic field models using the flux rope insertion method are also constructed in order to understand the complex magnetic configuration as well as the initiation and dynamics of the eruptions.

  16. The dynamic solar chromosphere: recent advances from high resolution telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Tsiropoula, Georgia

    This review focuses on the solar chromosphere, a very inhomogeneous and dynamic layer that exhibits phenomena on a large range of spatial and temporal scales. High-resolution observa-tions from existing telescopes (DST, SST, DOT), as well as long-duration observations with Hinode's SOT employing lines such as the Ca II infrared lines, the Ca II HK and above all the Hα line reveal an incredibly rich, dynamic and highly structured environment, both in quiet and active regions. The fine-structure chromosphere, is mainly constituted by fibrilar features that connect various parts of active regions or span across network cell interiors. We discuss this highly dynamical solar chromosphere, especially below the magnetic canopy, which is gov-erned by flows reflecting both the complex geometry and dynamics of the magnetic field and the propagation and dissipation of waves in the different atmospheric layers. A comprehensive view of the fine-structure chromosphere requires deep understanding of the physical processes involved, investigation of the intricate link with structures/processes at lower photospheric lev-els and analysis of its impact on the mass and energy transport to higher atmospheric layers through flows resulting from different physical processes such as magnetic reconnection and waves. Furthermore, we assess the challenges facing theory and numerical modelling which require the inclusion of several physical ingredients, such as non-LTE and three-dimensional numerical simulations.

  17. Use of a novel high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography protocol to detect abnormal dorsal root Ganglia in Sjögren patients with neuropathic pain: case series of 10 patients and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Julius; Duncan, Trisha; Owoyemi, Kristie; Wang, Kenneth C; Carrino, John; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-05-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS) with neuropathic pain pose several challenges. Patients with SS may experience unorthodox patterns of burning pain not conforming to a traditional "stocking-and-glove" distribution, which can affect the face, torso, and proximal extremities. This distribution of neuropathic pain may reflect mechanisms targeting the proximal-most element of the peripheral nervous system-the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Skin biopsy can diagnose such a small-fiber neuropathy and is a surrogate marker of DRG neuronal cell loss. However, SS patients have been reported who have similar patterns of proximal neuropathic pain, despite having normal skin biopsy studies. In such cases, DRGs may be targeted by mechanisms not associated with neuronal cell loss. Therefore, alternative approaches are warranted to help characterize abnormal DRGs in SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain.We performed a systematic review of the literature to define the frequency and spectrum of SS peripheral neuropathies, and to better understand the attribution of SS neuropathic pain to peripheral neuropathies. We found that the frequency of SS neuropathic pain exceeded the prevalence of peripheral neuropathies, and that painful peripheral neuropathies occurred less frequently than neuropathies not always associated with pain. We developed a novel magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) protocol to evaluate DRG abnormalities. Ten SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain were evaluated by this MRN protocol, as well as by punch skin biopsies evaluating for intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) of unmyelinated nerves. Five patients had radiographic evidence of DRG abnormalities. Patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had increased IENFD of unmyelinated nerves compared to patients without MRN DRG abnormalities (30.2 [interquartile range, 4.4] fibers/mm vs. 11.0 [4.1] fibers/mm, respectively; p = 0.03). Two of these 5 SS patients whose neuropathic

  18. Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.; Petasecca, M.; Akselrod, M.; Sykora, J.; Bartz, J.; Ptaszkiewicz, M.; Olko, P.; Berg, A.; Wieland, M.; Doran, S.; Brochard, T.; Kamlowski, A.; Cellere, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Siegbahn, E. A.; Prezado, Y.; Martinez-Rovira, I.; Bravin, A.; Dusseau, L.; Berkvens, P.

    2010-07-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of the microbeams by cardiosynchronous movement of the tissues. A small beam divergence and a filtered white beam spectrum in the energy range between 30 and 250 keV results in the advantage of steep dose gradients with a sharper penumbra than that produced in conventional radiotherapy. MRT research over the past 20 years has allowed a vast number of results from preclinical trials on different animal models, including mice, rats, piglets and rabbits. Microbeams in the range between 10 and 100 micron width show an unprecedented sparing of normal radiosensitive tissues as well as preferential damage to malignant tumor tissues. Typically, MRT uses arrays of narrow (˜25-100 micron-wide) microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns centre-to-centre, c-t-c) microplanar spaces. We note that thicker microbeams of 0.1-0.68 mm used by investigators at the NSLS are still called microbeams, although some invesigators in the community prefer to call them minibeams. This report, however, limits it discussion to 25-100 μm microbeams. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are surprisingly well tolerated by normal tissues. High resolution dosimetry has been developed over the last two decades, but typical dose ranges are adapted to dose delivery in conventional Radiation Therapy (RT). Spatial resolution in the sub-millimetric range has been achieved, which is currently required for quality assurance measurements in Gamma-knife RT. Most typical commercially available detectors are not suitable for MRT applications at a dose rate of 16000 Gy/s, micron

  19. Large Scale, High Resolution, Mantle Dynamics Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geenen, T.; Berg, A. V.; Spakman, W.

    2007-12-01

    To model the geodynamic evolution of plate convergence, subduction and collision and to allow for a connection to various types of observational data, geophysical, geodetical and geological, we developed a 4D (space-time) numerical mantle convection code. The model is based on a spherical 3D Eulerian fem model, with quadratic elements, on top of which we constructed a 3D Lagrangian particle in cell(PIC) method. We use the PIC method to transport material properties and to incorporate a viscoelastic rheology. Since capturing small scale processes associated with localization phenomena require a high resolution, we spend a considerable effort on implementing solvers suitable to solve for models with over 100 million degrees of freedom. We implemented Additive Schwartz type ILU based methods in combination with a Krylov solver, GMRES. However we found that for problems with over 500 thousend degrees of freedom the convergence of the solver degraded severely. This observation is known from the literature [Saad, 2003] and results from the local character of the ILU preconditioner resulting in a poor approximation of the inverse of A for large A. The size of A for which ILU is no longer usable depends on the condition of A and on the amount of fill in allowed for the ILU preconditioner. We found that for our problems with over 5×105 degrees of freedom convergence became to slow to solve the system within an acceptable amount of walltime, one minute, even when allowing for considerable amount of fill in. We also implemented MUMPS and found good scaling results for problems up to 107 degrees of freedom for up to 32 CPU¡¯s. For problems with over 100 million degrees of freedom we implemented Algebraic Multigrid type methods (AMG) from the ML library [Sala, 2006]. Since multigrid methods are most effective for single parameter problems, we rebuild our model to use the SIMPLE method in the Stokes solver [Patankar, 1980]. We present scaling results from these solvers for 3D

  20. Wavefront metrology for high resolution optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Ryan H.

    Next generation extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical systems are moving to higher resolution optics to accommodate smaller length scales targeted by the semiconductor industry. As the numerical apertures (NA) of the optics become larger, it becomes increasingly difficult to characterize aberrations due to experimental challenges associated with high-resolution spatial filters and geometrical effects caused by large incident angles of the test wavefront. This dissertation focuses on two methods of wavefront metrology for high resolution optical systems. The first method, lateral shearing interferometry (LSI), is a self-referencing interferometry where the test wavefront is incident on a low spatial frequency grating, and the resulting interference between the diffracted orders is used to reconstruct the wavefront aberrations. LSI has many advantages over other interferometric tests such as phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry (PS/PDI) due to its experimental simplicity, stability, relaxed coherence requirements, and its ability to scale to high numerical apertures. While LSI has historically been a qualitative test, this dissertation presents a novel quantitative investigation of the LSI interferogram. The analysis reveals the existence of systematic aberrations due to the nonlinear angular response from the diffraction grating that compromises the accuracy of LSI at medium to high NAs. In the medium NA regime (0.15 < NA < 0.35), a holographic model is presented that derives the systematic aberrations in closed form, which demonstrates an astigmatism term that scales as the square of the grating defocus. In the high NA regime (0.35 < NA), a geometrical model is introduced that describes the aberrations as a system of transcendental equations that can be solved numerically. The characterization and removal of these systematic errors is a necessary step that unlocks LSI as a viable candidate for high NA EUV optical testing. The second method is a novel image

  1. Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT

    SciTech Connect

    Braeuer-Krisch, E.; Brochard, T.; Prezado, Y.; Bravin, A.; Berkvens, P.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.; Petasecca, M.; Akselrod, M.; Sykora, J.; Bartz, J.; Ptaszkiewicz, M.; Olko, P.; Berg, A.; Wieland, M.; Doran, S.; Kamlowski, A.; Cellere, G.

    2010-07-23

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of the microbeams by cardiosynchronous movement of the tissues. A small beam divergence and a filtered white beam spectrum in the energy range between 30 and 250 keV results in the advantage of steep dose gradients with a sharper penumbra than that produced in conventional radiotherapy. MRT research over the past 20 years has allowed a vast number of results from preclinical trials on different animal models, including mice, rats, piglets and rabbits. Microbeams in the range between 10 and 100 micron width show an unprecedented sparing of normal radiosensitive tissues as well as preferential damage to malignant tumor tissues. Typically, MRT uses arrays of narrow ({approx}25-100 micron-wide) microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns centre-to-centre, c-t-c) microplanar spaces. We note that thicker microbeams of 0.1-0.68 mm used by investigators at the NSLS are still called microbeams, although some invesigators in the community prefer to call them minibeams. This report, however, limits it discussion to 25-100 {mu}m microbeams. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are surprisingly well tolerated by normal tissues. High resolution dosimetry has been developed over the last two decades, but typical dose ranges are adapted to dose delivery in conventional Radiation Therapy (RT). Spatial resolution in the sub-millimetric range has been achieved, which is currently required for quality assurance measurements in Gamma-knife RT. Most typical commercially available detectors are not suitable for MRT applications at a dose rate of 16000 Gy

  2. High-Resolution Radar Imagery of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, John K.; Nolan, M. C.

    2009-09-01

    We present high-resolution radar images of Mars obtained during the 2005 and 2007 oppositions. The images were constructed from long-code delay-Doppler observations made with the Arecibo S-band (13-cm) radar. The average image resolution of 3 km represented a better than order-of-magnitude improvement over pre-upgrade Arecibo imagery of the planet. Images of depolarized reflectivity (an indicator primarily of wavelength-scale surface roughness) show the same bright volcanic flow features seen in earlier imagery, but with much finer detail. A new image of the Elysium region shows fine detail in the radar-bright channels of Athabasca Vallis, Marte Vallis, and Grjota Vallis. The new images of Tharsis and Olympus Mons also show a complex array of radar-bright and radar-dark features. Southern Amazonis exhibits some of the most complex and puzzling radar-bright structure on the planet. Another curiosity is the Chryse/Xanthe/Channels region, where we find some radar-bright features in or adjacent to fluvial chaos structures. Chryse/Xanthe is also the only region of Mars showing radar-bright craters (which are rare on Mars but common on the Moon and Mercury). We also obtained the first delay-Doppler image showing the enhanced backscatter from the residual south polar ice cap. In addition to the depolarized imagery, we were able to make the first delay-Doppler images of the circular polarization ratio (an important diagnostic for surface roughness texture). We find that vast areas of the radar-bright volcanic regions have polarization ratios close to unity. Such high ratios are rare for terrestrial lava flows and only seen for extremely blocky surfaces giving high levels of multiple scattering.

  3. Decadal prediction with a high resolution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monerie, Paul-Arthur; Valcke, Sophie; Terray, Laurent; Moine, Marie-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The ability of a high resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (with a horizontal resolution of the quarter degree in the ocean and of about 50 km in the atmosphere) to predict the annual means of temperature, precipitation, sea-ice volume and extent is assessed. Reasonable skill in predicting sea surface temperatures and surface air temperature is obtained, especially over the North Atlantic, the tropical Atlantic and the Indian Ocean. The skill in predicting precipitations is weaker and not significant. The Sea Ice Extent and volume are also reasonably predicted in winter (March) and summer (September). It is however argued that the skill is mainly due to the atmosphere feeding in well-mixed GHGs. The mid-90's subpolar gyre warming is assessed. The model simulates a warming of the North Atlantic Ocean, associated with an increase of the meridional heat transport, a strengthening of the North Atlantic current and a deepening of the mixed layer over the Labrador Sea. The atmosphere plays a role in the warming through a modulation of the North Atlantic Oscillation and a shrinking of the subpolar gyre. At the 3-8 years lead-time, a negative anomaly of pressure, located south of the subpolar gyre is associated with the wind speed decrease over the subpolar gyre. It prevents oceanic heat-loss and favors the northward move, from the subtropical to the subpolar gyre, of anomalously warm and salty water, leading to its warming. We finally argued that the subpolar gyre warming is triggered by the ocean dynamic but the atmosphere can contributes to its sustaining. This work is realised in the framework of the EU FP7 SPECS Project.

  4. Toward high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanker, Daniel; Huie, Philip; Vankov, Alexander; Asher, Alon; Baccus, Steven

    2005-04-01

    It has been already demonstrated that electrical stimulation of retina can produce visual percepts in blind patients suffering from macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Current retinal implants provide very low resolution (just a few electrodes), while several thousand pixels are required for functional restoration of sight. We present a design of the optoelectronic retinal prosthetic system that can activate a retinal stimulating array with pixel density up to 2,500 pix/mm2 (geometrically corresponding to a visual acuity of 20/80), and allows for natural eye scanning rather than scanning with a head-mounted camera. The system operates similarly to "virtual reality" imaging devices used in military and medical applications. An image from a video camera is projected by a goggle-mounted infrared LED-LCD display onto the retina, activating an array of powered photodiodes in the retinal implant. Such a system provides a broad field of vision by allowing for natural eye scanning. The goggles are transparent to visible light, thus allowing for simultaneous utilization of remaining natural vision along with prosthetic stimulation. Optical control of the implant allows for simple adjustment of image processing algorithms and for learning. A major prerequisite for high resolution stimulation is the proximity of neural cells to the stimulation sites. This can be achieved with sub-retinal implants constructed in a manner that directs migration of retinal cells to target areas. Two basic implant geometries are described: perforated membranes and protruding electrode arrays. Possibility of the tactile neural stimulation is also examined.

  5. The NASA High Resolution Microwave Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarter, J. C.; Gulkis, S.

    1993-05-01

    The NASA High Resolution Microwave Survey (HRMS) began a decade of planned observations to search for signals of extraterrestrial intelligent origin with inaugural ceremonies at two sites on October 12, 1992. At Goldstone, California the Sky Survey began executing precisely controlled scanning patterns on the celestial sphere using a new beam waveguide 34m antenna operating at a frequency near 8500 MHz (X-band). At Arecibo, Puerto Rico the Targeted Search began tracking GL615.1A, one of 24 solar-type stars selected for these inaugural observations, using the NAIC 300m radio telescope operating in a band of frequencies centered at 1406 MHz. Since the initiation of the search, the Sky Survey has completed X-band observations of several dozen sky-frames measuring 30(deg) times 1.5(deg) . In addition, observations of selected areas of the galactic plane have been observed in several frequency bands (1400 MHz and 1600 MHz) using a 26m antenna located near the 34m antenna. The Targeted Search has completed the first 200 hours of observations at Arecibo covering some 300 MHz of bandwidth. This paper summarizes the results of the observations to date, including a synopsis of the interference observed at the Goldstone and Arecibo sites, and a discussion of techniques that will be used to improve future observations. The HRMS program is managed by the Ames Research Center in collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The results presented in this paper represent the efforts of a team of scientists and engineers at these two institutions as well as the SETI Institute, Silicon Engines Inc., John C. Reykjalin Inc., Sverdrup Technology, Sterling Federal Systems, Cornell University, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the American Astronomical Society, Arecibo Observatory, UC Santa Cruz, the University of Washington, UC Berkeley, California Institute of Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Innovative Systems, and the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  6. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Esther; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett; Schwientek, Patrick; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Gies, Esther; Hallam, Steve; Tringe, Susannah; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-03-17

    The representation of bacterial and archaeal genome sequences is strongly biased towards cultivated organisms, which belong to merely four phylogenetic groups. Functional information and inter-phylum level relationships are still largely underexplored for candidate phyla, which are often referred to as microbial dark matter. Furthermore, a large portion of the 16S rRNA gene records in the GenBank database are labeled as environmental samples and unclassified, which is in part due to low read accuracy, potential chimeric sequences produced during PCR amplifications and the low resolution of short amplicons. In order to improve the phylogenetic classification of novel species and advance our knowledge of the ecosystem function of uncultivated microorganisms, high-throughput full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing methodologies with reduced biases are needed. We evaluated the performance of PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing in high-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling. For this purpose, we compared PacBio and Illumina metagenomic shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of a mock community as well as of an environmental sample from Sakinaw Lake, British Columbia. Sakinaw Lake is known to contain a large age of microbial species from candidate phyla. Sequencing results show that community structure based on PacBio shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequences is highly similar in both the mock and the environmental communities. Resolution power and community representation accuracy from SMRT sequencing data appeared to be independent of GC content of microbial genomes and was higher when compared to Illumina-based metagenome shotgun and 16S rRNA gene (iTag) sequences, e.g. full-length sequencing resolved all 23 OTUs in the mock community, while iTags did not resolve closely related species. SMRT sequencing hence offers various potential benefits when characterizing uncharted microbial communities.

  7. Counter-propagating dual-trap optical tweezers based on linear momentum conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Ribezzi-Crivellari, M.; Huguet, J. M.; Ritort, F.

    2013-04-15

    We present a dual-trap optical tweezers setup which directly measures forces using linear momentum conservation. The setup uses a counter-propagating geometry, which allows momentum measurement on each beam separately. The experimental advantages of this setup include low drift due to all-optical manipulation, and a robust calibration (independent of the features of the trapped object or buffer medium) due to the force measurement method. Although this design does not attain the high-resolution of some co-propagating setups, we show that it can be used to perform different single molecule measurements: fluctuation-based molecular stiffness characterization at different forces and hopping experiments on molecular hairpins. Remarkably, in our setup it is possible to manipulate very short tethers (such as molecular hairpins with short handles) down to the limit where beads are almost in contact. The setup is used to illustrate a novel method for measuring the stiffness of optical traps and tethers on the basis of equilibrium force fluctuations, i.e., without the need of measuring the force vs molecular extension curve. This method is of general interest for dual trap optical tweezers setups and can be extended to setups which do not directly measure forces.

  8. A High-Resolution Thermometer for the Range 0.75-1.0 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, J.; Nash, A.; Larson, M.; Mulders, N.

    1999-01-01

    We report on a new high-resolution thermometer (HRT) for use near the tricritical point in 3He-4He mixtures. It is based on an existing HRT design that uses a DC-SQUID to detect the magnetization of a paramagnetic sensing element.

  9. Active laser tweezers microrheometry of microbial biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterman, N.; Slapar, V.; Boric, M.; Stopar, D.; Babič, D.; Poberaj, I.

    2010-08-01

    Microbial biofilms are present on biotic and abiotic surfaces and have a significant impact on many fields in industry, health care and technology. Thus, a better understanding of processes that lead to development of biofilms and their chemical and mechanical properties is needed. In the following paper we report the results of active laser tweezers microrheology study of optically inhomogeneous extracellular matrix secreted by Visbrio sp. bacteria. One particle and two particle active microrheology were used in experiments. Both methods exhibited high enough sensitivity to detect viscosity changes at early stages of bacterial growth. We also showed that both methods can be used in mature samples where optical inhomogeneity becomes significant.

  10. Reusable acoustic tweezers for disposable devices

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Feng; Xie, Yuliang; Li, Sixing; Lata, James; Ren, Liqiang; Mao, Zhangming; Ren, Baiyang; Wu, Mengxi; Ozcelik, Adem

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate acoustic tweezers used for disposable devices. Rather than forming an acoustic resonance, we locally transmitted standing surface acoustic waves into a removable, independent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-glass hybridized microfluidic superstrate device for micromanipulation. By configuring and regulating the displacement nodes on a piezoelectric substrate, cells and particles were effectively patterned and transported into said superstrate, accordingly. With the label-free and contactless nature of acoustic waves, the presented technology could offer a simple, accurate, low-cost, biocompatible, and disposable method for applications in the fields of point-of-care diagnostics and fundamental biomedical studies. PMID:26507411

  11. High-resolution mechanical imaging of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Streitberger, Kaspar-Josche; Guo, Jing; Tzschätzsch, Heiko; Hirsch, Sebastian; Fischer, Thomas; Braun, Jürgen; Sack, Ingolf

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test the feasibility and reproducibility of in vivo high-resolution mechanical imaging of the asymptomatic human kidney. Hereby nine volunteers were examined at three different physiological states of urinary bladder filling (a normal state, urinary urgency, and immediately after urinary relief). Mechanical imaging was performed of the in vivo kidney using three-dimensional multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography combined with multifrequency dual elastovisco inversion. Other than in classical elastography, where the storage and loss shear moduli are evaluated, we analyzed the magnitude |G(⁎)| and the phase angle φ of the complex shear modulus reconstructed by simultaneous inversion of full wave field data corresponding to 7 harmonic drive frequencies from 30 to 60Hz and a resolution of 2.5mm cubic voxel size. Mechanical parameter maps were derived with a spatial resolution superior to that in previous work. The group-averaged values of |G(⁎)| were 2.67±0.52kPa in the renal medulla, 1.64±0.17kPa in the cortex, and 1.17±0.21kPa in the hilus. The phase angle φ (in radians) was 0.89±0.12 in the medulla, 0.83±0.09 in the cortex, and 0.72±0.06 in the hilus. All regional differences were significant (P<0.001), while no significant variation was found in relation to different stages of bladder filling. In summary our study provides first high-resolution maps of viscoelastic parameters of the three anatomical regions of the kidney. |G(⁎)| and φ provide novel information on the viscoelastic properties of the kidney, which is potentially useful for the detection of renal lesions or fibrosis. PMID:24355382

  12. The Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): A High Resolution Spectroscopic Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, M P; Cruddace, R G; Wood, K S; Yentis, D J; Gursky, H; Barbee, T W; Goldstein, W H; Kordas, J F; Fritz, G G; Hunter, W R; Barstow, M A; Bannister, N P; Culhane, J L; Lapington, J S

    2002-07-18

    EUVE and the ROSAT WFC have left a tremendous legacy in astrophysics at EUV wavelengths. More recently, Chandra and XMM-Newton have demonstrated at X-ray wavelengths the power of high-resolution astronomical spectroscopy, which allows the identification of weak emission lines, the measurement of Doppler shifts and line profiles, and the detection of narrow absorption features. This leads to a complete understanding of the density, temperature, abundance, magnetic, and dynamic structure of astrophysical plasmas. However, the termination of the EUVE mission has left a gaping hole in spectral coverage at crucial EUV wavelengths ({approx}100-300 {angstrom}), where hot (10{sup 5}-10{sup 8} K) plasmas radiate most strongly and produce critical spectral diagnostics. CHIPS will fill this hole only partially as it is optimized for diffuse emission and has only moderate resolution (R {approx} 150). For discrete sources, we have successfully flown a follow-on instrument to the EUVE spectrometer (A{sub eff} {approx} 1 cm{sup 2}, R {approx} 400), the high-resolution spectrometer J-PEX(A{sub eff} {approx} 3 cm{sup 2}, R {approx} 3000). Here we build on the J-PEX prototype and present a strawman design for an orbiting spectroscopic observatory, APEX, a SMEX-class instrument containing a suite of 8 spectrometers that together achieve both high effective area (A{sub eff} > 20 cm{sup 2}) and high spectral resolution (R {approx} 10,000) over the range 100-300 {angstrom}. We also discuss alternate configurations for shorter and longer wavelengths.

  13. High Resolution LTS-SQUID Microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudenbacher, Franz; Peters, Nicholas; Wikswo, John

    2000-03-01

    We have developed a scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope for imaging magnetic fields of room-temperature samples with sub-millimeter resolution. In our design, hand wound niobium pickup coils were coupled to commercially available low-temperature SQUID sensors. The SQUID sensor and the pickup coil are in the vacuum space of the cryostat separated typically less than 50μm by a thin sapphire window from the room-temperature sample. A computerized non-magnetic scanning stage with sub-micron resolution in combination with a tripod leveling system allows samples to be scanned within 10μm of the sapphire window. For a 20-turn 500μm diameter pickup coil, we achieved a field sensitivity of 350fT\\cdotHz-1/2 for frequencies above 1 Hz, and 1pT\\cdotHz-1/2 for a 10-turn 250mm coil. The SQUID microscope was used to image the distribution of time-dependent stimulus and action currents in anisotropic cardiac tissue, the remanent magnetization of the Martian meteorite ALH84001 during thermal demagnetisation, and the magnetic susceptibility of biogenic magnetite in the beak of homing pigeons.

  14. High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M. E.; Gok, R.; Zor, E.; Walter, W. R.

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the crust and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet, forming a complex tectonic regime. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provide a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure of the region. Zor et al. (2003) found an average 46 km thick crust in the Anatolian plateau using a six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver functions alone, however, may result in an apparent depth-velocity trade-off [Ammon et al., 1990]. In order to improve upon this velocity model, we have combined the receiver functions with surface wave data using the joint inversion method of Julia et al. (2000). In this technique, the two sets of observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. The receiver functions are calculated using an iterative time-domain deconvolution technique. We also consider azimuthal changes in the receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups accordingly. We are improving our surface wave model by making Love and Rayleigh dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and incorporating them into a regional group velocity model for periods between 10 and 100 seconds. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocities toward the northeast, indicating slow upper mantle velocities in the area consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. Starting models used for the joint inversions include both a 1-D model from a 12-ton dam shot recorded by ETSE [Gurbuz et al., 2004] and

  15. High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M; Gok, R; Zor, E; Walter, W

    2004-09-03

    We investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet and form a complex tectonic structure. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provided a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure. Zor et al. found an average 46 km thick crust in Anatolian plateau using six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver function alone with many-layered parameterization may result in an apparent depth-velocity tradeoff. In order to improve previous velocity model, we employed the joint inversion method with many layered parameterization of Julia et al. (2000) to the ETSE receiver functions. In this technique, the receiver function and surface-wave observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. We consider azimuthal changes of receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups. We calculated the receiver functions using iterative time-domain deconvolution technique and surface wave group velocity dispersion curves between 10-100 sec. We are making surface wave dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and have incorporated them into a regional group velocity model. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocity in the northeast. This indicates slow upper mantle velocities in the region consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. We started with both the 1-D model that is obtained with the 12 tones dam explosion shot data recorded by ETSE network and the existing receiver function

  16. High Resolution Airborne Shallow Water Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbacher, F.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Aufleger, M.; Ullrich, A.

    2012-07-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim) a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length) of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river bed was achieved

  17. The HFIP High Resolution Hurricane Forecast Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nance, L. B.; Bernardet, L.; Bao, S.; Brown, B.; Carson, L.; Fowler, T.; Halley Gotway, J.; Harrop, C.; Szoke, E.; Tollerud, E. I.; Wolff, J.; Yuan, H.

    2010-12-01

    Tropical cyclones are a serious concern for the nation, causing significant risk to life, property and economic vitality. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Weather Service has a mission of issuing tropical cyclone forecasts and warnings, aimed at protecting life and property and enhancing the national economy. In the last 10 years, the errors in hurricane track forecasts have been reduced by about 50% through improved model guidance, enhanced observations, and forecaster expertise. However, little progress has been made during this period toward reducing forecasted intensity errors. To address this shortcoming, NOAA established the Hurricane Forecast Improvement Project (HFIP) in 2007. HFIP is a 10-year plan to improve one to five day tropical cyclone forecasts, with a focus on rapid intensity change. Recent research suggests that prediction models with grid spacing less than 1 km in the inner core of the hurricane may provide a substantial improvement in intensity forecasts. The 2008-09 staging of the High Resolution Hurricane (HRH) Test focused on quantifying the impact of increased horizontal resolution in numerical models on hurricane intensity forecasts. The primary goal of this test was an evaluation of the effect of increasing horizontal resolution within a given model across a variety of storms with different intensity, location and structure. The test focused on 69 retrospectives cases from the 2005 and 2007 hurricane seasons. Six modeling groups participated in the HRH test utilizing a variety of models, including three configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, the operational GFDL model, the Navy’s tropical cyclone model, and a model developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UWM). The Development Testbed Center (DTC) was tasked with providing objective verification statistics for a variety of metrics. This presentation provides an overview of the HRH Test and a summary of the standard

  18. NMR high-resolution magic angle spinning rotor design for quantification of metabolic concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holly, R.; Damyanovich, A.; Peemoeller, H.

    2006-05-01

    A new high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance technique is presented to obtain absolute metabolite concentrations of solutions. The magnetic resonance spectrum of the sample under investigation and an internal reference are acquired simultaneously, ensuring both spectra are obtained under the same experimental conditions. The robustness of the technique is demonstrated using a solution of creatine, and it is shown that the technique can obtain solution concentrations to within 7% or better.

  19. Generation of high-resolution kagome lattice structures using extreme ultraviolet interference lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Terhalle, Bernd; Guzenko, Vitaliy A.; Farhan, Alan; Hojeij, Mohamad; Ekinci, Yasin

    2012-08-01

    High-resolution kagome lattice structures with feature sizes down to the sub-50 nm regime are fabricated using diffraction-based extreme ultraviolet interference lithography. The resulting interference pattern of multiple beams is sensitive to the relative phase of the interfering beams. The precise control of their phases is achieved by precise positioning of transmission diffraction gratings on a mask using a high-end electron beam lithography tool. The presented method may find applications in providing high-resolution and large-area kagome lattice structures for studies on frustrated magnetic systems, photonic crystals, and plasmonics.

  20. Dispersive light-matter interaction in programmable optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Bianca J.; Horvath, Milena S. J.; Deb, Amita B.; Kjørgaard, Niels

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a robust interrogation system using frequency modulation spectroscopy to measure the quantum state-dependent phase shift incurred on an off-resonant optical probe when transmitted by an atomic medium. Recently, our focus has been on extending this technique for the detection of Feshbach resonances in 87Rb atoms. Feshbach resonance is a mechanism which allows the atomic interaction strength to be precisely tuned via an external magnetic field. To access a Feshbach resonance atoms must be independently prepared in certain internal states, during which we utilize programmable optical tweezers to perform precise spatial micro-manipulation of the ensemble in laser "test-tubes." We use our dispersive probing system to identify the resonant magnetic field value in a sample with a dense "ball" geometry. An important design consideration for such a probing scheme is the three-dimensional mode-matching at the interface between light and the atomic sample when coupled by the dispersive interaction. We discuss challenges which dealing with this new geometry compared to the previously used prolate geometry, and consider the possibility of dipole-dipole interactions in our sample leading to cooperative light scattering processes.