Science.gov

Sample records for high-resolution snapshot imaging

  1. High-intensity x-ray holography: an approach to high-resolution snapshot imaging of biological specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Solem, J.C.

    1982-08-01

    The crucial physical and technological issues pertaining to the holographic imaging of biological structures with a short-pulse, high-intensity, high-quantum-energy laser were examined. The limitations of x-ray optics are discussed. Alternative holographic techniques were considered, and it was concluded that far-field Fresnel transform holography (Fraunhofer holography) using a photoresist recording surface is most tractable with near term technology. The hydrodynamic expansion of inhomogeneities within the specimen is discussed. It is shown that expansion is the major source of image blurring. Analytic expressions were derived for the explosion of protein concentrations in an x-ray transparent cytoplasm, compared with numerical calculations, and corrections derived to account for the competitive transport processes by which these inhomogeneities lose energy. It is concluded that for the near term Fresnel transform holography, particularly, far-field or Fraunhofer holography, is more practical than Fourier transform holography. Of the alternative fine grain recording media for use with Fresnel transform holography, a photo-resist is most attractive. For best resolution, exposure times must be limited to a few picoseconds, and this calls for investigation of mechanisms to shutter the laser or gate the recording surface. The best contrast ratio between the nitrogen-bearing polymers (protein and the nucleic acids) and water is between the K-edges of oxygen and nitrogen.

  2. High-intensity X-ray holography: An approach to high-resolution snapshot imaging of biological specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solem, J. C.

    1982-08-01

    The crucial physical and technological issues pertaining to the holographic imaging of biological structures with a short pulse, high intensity, high quantum energy laser were examined. The limitations of X-ray optics are discussed. Alternative holographic techniques were considered, and it was concluded that far field Fresnel transform holography (Fraunhofer holography) using a photoresist recording surface is most tractable with near term technology. The hydrodynamic expansion of inhomogeneities within the specimen is discussed. It is shown that expansion is the major source of image blurring. Analytic expressions were derived for the explosion of protein concentrations in an X-ray transparent cytoplasm, compared with numerical calculations, and corrections derived to account for the competitive transport processes by which these inhomogeneities lose energy. It is concluded that for the near term Fresnel transform holography, particularly, far field or Fraunhofer holography, is more practical than Fourier transform holography. Of the altenative fine grain recording media for use with Fresnel transform holography, a photo resist is most attractive.

  3. High-resolution structure of viruses from random diffraction snapshots

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinizadeh, A.; Schwander, P.; Dashti, A.; Fung, R.; D'Souza, R. M.; Ourmazd, A.

    2014-01-01

    The advent of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) has made it possible to record diffraction snapshots of biological entities injected into the X-ray beam before the onset of radiation damage. Algorithmic means must then be used to determine the snapshot orientations and thence the three-dimensional structure of the object. Existing Bayesian approaches are limited in reconstruction resolution typically to 1/10 of the object diameter, with the computational expense increasing as the eighth power of the ratio of diameter to resolution. We present an approach capable of exploiting object symmetries to recover three-dimensional structure to high resolution, and thus reconstruct the structure of the satellite tobacco necrosis virus to atomic level. Our approach offers the highest reconstruction resolution for XFEL snapshots to date and provides a potentially powerful alternative route for analysis of data from crystalline and nano-crystalline objects. PMID:24914154

  4. High Resolution Doppler Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Paul B.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on UARS spacecraft during the period 4/l/96 - 3/31/99. During this period, HRDI operation, data processing, and data analysis continued, and there was a high level of vitality in the HRDI project. The HRDI has been collecting data from the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere since instrument activation on October 1, 1991. The HRDI team has stressed three areas since operations commenced: 1) operation of the instrument in a manner which maximizes the quality and versatility of the collected data; 2) algorithm development and validation to produce a high-quality data product; and 3) scientific studies, primarily of the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. There has been no significant degradation in the HRDI instrument since operations began nearly 8 years ago. HRDI operations are fairly routine, although we have continued to look for ways to improve the quality of the scientific product, either by improving existing modes, or by designing new ones. The HRDI instrument has been programmed to collect data for new scientific studies, such as measurements of fluorescence from plants, measuring cloud top heights, and lower atmosphere H2O.

  5. High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, Jeff; Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    1990-01-01

    Earth resources observed in greater detail. High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, undergoing development for use in NASA's Earth Observing System, measures reflectance of Earth's surface in visible and near-infrared wavelengths. From an orbit around Earth, instrument scans surface of Earth in 200 wavelength bands simultaneously. Produces images enabling identification of minerals in rocks and soils, important algal pigments in oceans and inland waters, changes in spectra associated with biochemistry of plant canopies, compositions of atmospheric aerosols, sizes of grains in snow, and contamination of snow by impurities that absorb visible light.

  6. High resolution laser imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyle, Thomas G.

    1989-07-01

    Computations indicate that a synthetic aperture laser imaging system can provide images with 10-cm resolution at satellite ranges using a 10-W CW laser. When imaging satellites from the ground, the synthetic aperture system reduces atmospheric degradations. The system uses 20-cm diam receiver optics. The low laser power is made possible by using separate transmitter and receiver optics and coded pulses with a 50 percent transmitter duty cycle. The coded pulses are derived from Hadamard matrices for which there is an efficient algorithm to transform the received data into images. The synthetic aperture yields spatial resolutions independent of range, and the coded pulses result in an effective range dependence of r exp-2 instead of r exp-4.

  7. Semiconductor crystal high resolution imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Craig S. (Inventor); Matteson, James (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A radiation imaging device (10). The radiation image device (10) comprises a subject radiation station (12) producing photon emissions (14), and at least one semiconductor crystal detector (16) arranged in an edge-on orientation with respect to the emitted photons (14) to directly receive the emitted photons (14) and produce a signal. The semiconductor crystal detector (16) comprises at least one anode and at least one cathode that produces the signal in response to the emitted photons (14).

  8. Fiber optic snapshot hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansur, David J.; Rentz Dupuis, Julia; Vaillancourt, Robert

    2012-06-01

    OPTRA is developing a snapshot hyperspectral imager (HSI) employing a fiber optic bundle and dispersive spectrometer. The fiber optic bundle converts a broadband spatial image to an array of fiber columns which serve as multiple entrance slits to a prism spectrometer. The dispersed spatially resolved spectra are then sampled by a two-dimensional focal plane array (FPA) at a greater than 30 Hz update rate, thereby qualifying the system as snapshot. Unlike snapshot HSI systems based on computed tomography or coded apertures, our approach requires only the remapping of the FPA frame into hyperspectral cubes rather than a complex reconstruction. Our system has high radiometric efficiency and throughput supporting sufficient signal to noise for hyperspectral imaging measurements made over very short integration times (< 33 ms). The overall approach is compact, low cost, and contains no moving parts, making it ideal for unmanned airborne surveillance. In this paper we present a preliminary design for the fiber optic snapshot HSI system.

  9. Pyramidal fractal dimension for high resolution images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Ahammer, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Fractal analysis (FA) should be able to yield reliable and fast results for high-resolution digital images to be applicable in fields that require immediate outcomes. Triggered by an efficient implementation of FA for binary images, we present three new approaches for fractal dimension (D) estimation of images that utilize image pyramids, namely, the pyramid triangular prism, the pyramid gradient, and the pyramid differences method (PTPM, PGM, PDM). We evaluated the performance of the three new and five standard techniques when applied to images with sizes up to 8192 × 8192 pixels. By using artificial fractal images created by three different generator models as ground truth, we determined the scale ranges with minimum deviations between estimation and theory. All pyramidal methods (PM) resulted in reasonable D values for images of all generator models. Especially, for images with sizes ≥1024 ×1024 pixels, the PMs are superior to the investigated standard approaches in terms of accuracy and computation time. A measure for the possibility to differentiate images with different intrinsic D values did show not only that the PMs are well suited for all investigated image sizes, and preferable to standard methods especially for larger images, but also that results of standard D estimation techniques are strongly influenced by the image size. Fastest results were obtained with the PDM and PGM, followed by the PTPM. In terms of absolute D values best performing standard methods were magnitudes slower than the PMs. Concluding, the new PMs yield high quality results in short computation times and are therefore eligible methods for fast FA of high-resolution images.

  10. Pyramidal fractal dimension for high resolution images.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Ahammer, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Fractal analysis (FA) should be able to yield reliable and fast results for high-resolution digital images to be applicable in fields that require immediate outcomes. Triggered by an efficient implementation of FA for binary images, we present three new approaches for fractal dimension (D) estimation of images that utilize image pyramids, namely, the pyramid triangular prism, the pyramid gradient, and the pyramid differences method (PTPM, PGM, PDM). We evaluated the performance of the three new and five standard techniques when applied to images with sizes up to 8192 × 8192 pixels. By using artificial fractal images created by three different generator models as ground truth, we determined the scale ranges with minimum deviations between estimation and theory. All pyramidal methods (PM) resulted in reasonable D values for images of all generator models. Especially, for images with sizes ≥1024×1024 pixels, the PMs are superior to the investigated standard approaches in terms of accuracy and computation time. A measure for the possibility to differentiate images with different intrinsic D values did show not only that the PMs are well suited for all investigated image sizes, and preferable to standard methods especially for larger images, but also that results of standard D estimation techniques are strongly influenced by the image size. Fastest results were obtained with the PDM and PGM, followed by the PTPM. In terms of absolute D values best performing standard methods were magnitudes slower than the PMs. Concluding, the new PMs yield high quality results in short computation times and are therefore eligible methods for fast FA of high-resolution images. PMID:27475069

  11. Information extraction from high resolution satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haiping; Luo, Jiancheng; Shen, Zhanfeng; Xia, Liegang

    2014-11-01

    Information extracted from high resolution satellite images, such as roads, buildings, water and vegetation, has a wide range of applications in disaster assessment and environmental monitoring. At present, object oriented supervised learning is usually used in the objects identification from the high spatial resolution satellite images. In classical ways, we have to label some regions of interests from every image to be classified at first, which is labor intensive. In this paper, we build a feature base for information extraction in order to reduce the labeling efforts. The features stored are regulated and labeled. The labeled samples for a new coming image can be selected from the feature base. And the experiments are taken on GF-1 and ZY-3 images. The results show the feasibility of the feature base for image interpretation.

  12. Limiting liability via high resolution image processing

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwade, L.E.; Overlin, T.K.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as `evidence ready`, even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  13. High resolution multimodal clinical ophthalmic imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Mujat, Mircea; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Patel, Ankit H.; Iftimia, Nicusor; Lue, Niyom; Hammer, Daniel X.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a multimodal adaptive optics (AO) retinal imager which is the first to combine high performance AO-corrected scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and swept source Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) imaging modes in a single compact clinical prototype platform. Such systems are becoming ever more essential to vision research and are expected to prove their clinical value for diagnosis of retinal diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and retinitis pigmentosa. The SSOCT channel operates at a wavelength of 1 µm for increased penetration and visualization of the choriocapillaris and choroid, sites of major disease activity for DR and wet AMD. This AO system is designed for use in clinical populations; a dual deformable mirror (DM) configuration allows simultaneous low- and high-order aberration correction over a large range of refractions and ocular media quality. The system also includes a wide field (33 deg.) line scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) for initial screening, target identification, and global orientation, an integrated retinal tracker (RT) to stabilize the SLO, OCT, and LSO imaging fields in the presence of lateral eye motion, and a high-resolution LCD-based fixation target for presentation of visual cues. The system was tested in human subjects without retinal disease for performance optimization and validation. We were able to resolve and quantify cone photoreceptors across the macula to within ~0.5 deg (~100-150 µm) of the fovea, image and delineate ten retinal layers, and penetrate to resolve features deep into the choroid. The prototype presented here is the first of a new class of powerful flexible imaging platforms that will provide clinicians and researchers with high-resolution, high performance adaptive optics imaging to help guide therapies, develop new drugs, and improve patient outcomes. PMID:20589021

  14. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

    DOEpatents

    Paulus, Michael J.; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Gleason, Shaun S.; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2002-01-01

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  15. LWIR Snapshot Imaging Polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Robert E Sampson

    2009-04-01

    This report describes the results of a phase 1 STTR to design a longwave infrared imaging polarimeter. The system design, expected performance and components needed to construct the imaging polarimeter are described. Expected performance is modeled and sytem specifications are presented.

  16. High-resolution microwave images of saturn.

    PubMed

    Grossman, A W; Muhleman, D O; Berge, G L

    1989-09-15

    An analysis of high-resolution microwave images of Saturn and Saturn's individual rings is presented. Radio interferometric observations of Saturn taken at the Very Large Array in New Mexico at wavelengths of 2 and 6 centimeters reveal interesting new features in both the atmosphere and rings. The resulting maps show an increase in brightness temperature of about 3 K from equator to pole at both wavelengths, while the 6-centimeter map shows a bright band at northern mid-latitudes. The data are consistent with a radiative transfer model of the atmosphere that constrains the well-mixed, fully saturated, NH(3) mixing ratio to be 1.2 x 10(-4) in a region just below the NH(3) clouds, while the observed bright band indicates a 25 percent relative decrease of NH(3) in northern mid-latitudes. Brightness temperatures for the classical rings are presented. Ring brightness shows a variation with azimuth and is linearly polarized at an average value of about 5 percent. The variations in ring polarization suggest that at least 20 percent of the ring brightness is the result of a single scattering process. PMID:17747882

  17. Holographic high-resolution endoscopic image recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1991-03-01

    Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help

  18. High-resolution imaging using endoscopic holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1990-08-01

    Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help to their control. 1.

  19. Snapshot colored compressive spectral imager.

    PubMed

    Correa, Claudia V; Arguello, Henry; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2015-10-01

    Traditional spectral imaging approaches require sensing all the voxels of a scene. Colored mosaic FPA detector-based architectures can acquire sets of the scene's spectral components, but the number of spectral planes depends directly on the number of available filters used on the FPA, which leads to reduced spatiospectral resolutions. Instead of sensing all the voxels of the scene, compressive spectral imaging (CSI) captures coded and dispersed projections of the spatiospectral source. This approach mitigates the resolution issues by exploiting optical phenomena in lenses and other elements, which, in turn, compromise the portability of the devices. This paper presents a compact snapshot colored compressive spectral imager (SCCSI) that exploits the benefits of the colored mosaic FPA detectors and the compression capabilities of CSI sensing techniques. The proposed optical architecture has no moving parts and can capture the spatiospectral information of a scene in a single snapshot by using a dispersive element and a color-patterned detector. The optical and the mathematical models of SCCSI are presented along with a testbed implementation of the system. Simulations and real experiments show the accuracy of SCCSI and compare the reconstructions with those of similar CSI optical architectures, such as the CASSI and SSCSI systems, resulting in improvements of up to 6 dB and 1 dB of PSNR, respectively. PMID:26479928

  20. Longwave infrared snapshot imaging spectropolarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumiller, Riley

    The goal of this dissertation research is to develop and demonstrate a functioning snapshot imaging spectropolarimeter for the long wavelength infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum (wavelengths from 8-12 microns). Such an optical system will be able to simultaneously measure both the spectral and polarimetric signatures of all the spatial locations/targets in a scene with just a single integration period of a camera. This will be accomplished by combining the use of computed tomographic imaging spectrometry (CTIS) and channeled spectropolarimetry. The proposed system will be the first instrument of this type specifically designed to operate in the long wavelength infrared region, as well as being the first demonstration of such a system using an uncooled infrared focal plane array. In addition to the design and construction of the proof-of-concept snapshot imaging spectropolarimeter LWIR system, the dissertation research will also focus on a variety of methods on improving CTIS system performance. These enhancements will include some newly proposed methods of system design, calibration, and reconstruction aimed at improving the speed of reconstructions allowing for the first demonstration of a CTIS system capable of computing reconstructions in real time.

  1. High resolution imaging of boron carbide microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, I.D.R.; Aselage, T.; Van Deusen, S.B.

    1985-08-01

    Two samples of boron carbide have been examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A hot-pressed B/sub 13/C/sub 2/ sample shows a high density of variable width twins normal to (10*1). Subtle shifts or offsets of lattice fringes along the twin plane and normal to approx.(10*5) were also observed. A B/sub 4/C powder showed little evidence of stacking disorder in crystalline regions.

  2. High resolution imaging of boron carbide microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    MacKinnon, I.D.R.; Aselage, T.; Van Deusen, S.B.

    1986-04-15

    Two samples of boron carbide have been examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A hot-pressed B/sub 13/C/sub 2/ sample shows a high density of variable width twins normal to (10*1). Subtle shifts or offsets of lattice fringes along the twin plane and normal to approx.(10*5) were also observed. A B/sub 4/C powder showed little evidence of stacking disorder in crystalline regions.

  3. High-resolution ophthalmic imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Olivier, Scot S.; Carrano, Carmen J.

    2007-12-04

    A system for providing an improved resolution retina image comprising an imaging camera for capturing a retina image and a computer system operatively connected to the imaging camera, the computer producing short exposures of the retina image and providing speckle processing of the short exposures to provide the improved resolution retina image. The system comprises the steps of capturing a retina image, producing short exposures of the retina image, and speckle processing the short exposures of the retina image to provide the improved resolution retina image.

  4. Reproducible high-resolution multispectral image acquisition in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duliu, Alexandru; Gardiazabal, José; Lasser, Tobias; Navab, Nassir

    2015-07-01

    Multispectral image acquisitions are increasingly popular in dermatology, due to their improved spectral resolution which enables better tissue discrimination. Most applications however focus on restricted regions of interest, imaging only small lesions. In this work we present and discuss an imaging framework for high-resolution multispectral imaging on large regions of interest.

  5. Road Extraction from High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özkaya, M.

    2012-07-01

    Roads are significant objects of an infrastructure and the extraction of roads from aerial and satellite images are important for different applications such as automated map generation and change detection. Roads are also important to detect other structures such as buildings and urban areas. In this paper, the road extraction approach is based on Active Contour Models for 1-meter resolution gray level images. Active Contour Models contains Snake Approach. During applications, the road structure was separated as salient-roads, non-salient roads and crossings and extraction of these is provided by using Ribbon Snake and Ziplock Snake methods. These methods are derived from traditional snake model. Finally, various experimental results were presented. Ribbon and Ziplock Snake methods were compared for both salient and non-salient roads. Also these methods were used to extract roads in an image. While Ribbon snake is described for extraction of salient roads in an image, Ziplock snake is applied for extraction of non-salient roads. Beside these, some constant variables in literature were redefined and expressed in a formula as depending on snake approach and a new approach for extraction of crossroads were described and tried.

  6. Invariant high resolution optical skin imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, Supraja; Rolland, Jannick

    2007-02-01

    Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) is a bio-medical low coherence interferometric imaging technique that has become a topic of active research because of its ability to provide accurate, non-invasive cross-sectional images of biological tissue with much greater resolution than the current common technique ultrasound. OCM is a derivative of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) that enables greater resolution imposed by the implementation of an optical confocal design involving high numerical aperture (NA) focusing in the sample. The primary setback of OCM, however is the depth dependence of the lateral resolution obtained that arises from the smaller depth of focus of the high NA beam. We propose to overcome this limitation using a dynamic focusing lens design that can achieve quasi-invariant lateral resolution up to 1.5mm depth of skin tissue.

  7. Medusae Fossae Formation - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    An exotic terrain of wind-eroded ridges and residual smooth surfaces are seen in one of the highest resolution images ever taken of Mars from orbit. The Medusae Fossae formation is believed to be formed of the fragmental ejecta of huge explosive volcanic eruptions. When subjected to intense wind-blasting over hundreds of millions of years, this material erodes easily once the uppermost tougher crust is breached. The crust, or cap rock, can be seen in the upper right part of the picture. The finely-spaced ridges are similar to features on Earth called yardangs, which are formed by intense winds plucking individual grains from, and by wind-driven sand blasting particles off, sedimentary deposits.

    The image was taken on October 30, 1997 at 11:05 AM PST, shortly after the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft's 31st closest approach to Mars. The image covers an area 3.6 X 21.5 km (2.2 X 13.4 miles) at 3.6 m (12 feet) per picture element--craters only 11 m (36 feet, about the size of a swimming pool) across can be seen. The best Viking view of the area (VO 1 387S34) has a resolution of 240 m/pixel, or 67 times lower resolution than the MOC frame.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  8. High-resolution colorimetric imaging of paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Kirk; Cupitt, John; Saunders, David R.

    1993-05-01

    With the aim of providing a digital electronic replacement for conventional photography of paintings, a scanner has been constructed based on a 3000 X 2300 pel resolution camera which is moved precisely over a 1 meter square area. Successive patches are assembled to form a mosaic which covers the whole area at c. 20 pels/mm resolution, which is sufficient to resolve the surface textures, particularly craquelure. To provide high color accuracy, a set of seven broad-band interference filters are used to cover the visible spectrum. A calibration procedure based upon a least-mean-squares fit to the color of patches from a Macbeth Colorchecker chart yields an average color accuracy of better than 3 units in the CMC uniform color space. This work was mainly carried out as part of the VASARI project funded by the European Commission's ESPRIT program, involving companies and galleries from around Europe. The system is being used to record images for conservation research, for archival purposes and to assist in computer-aided learning in the field of art history. The paper will describe the overall system design, including the selection of the various hardware components and the design of controlling software. The theoretical basis for the color calibration methodology is described as well as the software for its practical implementation. The mosaic assembly procedure and some of the associated image processing routines developed are described. Preliminary results from the research will be presented.

  9. Robust Tips for High Resolution Chemical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios, Carlos; Malkovskiy, Andrey; Kisliuk, Alexander; Sokolov, Alexei; Foster, Mark

    2009-03-01

    Tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) combines scanning probe microscopy with Raman spectroscopy, taking advantage of apertureless near-field optics. A plasmonic structure at the apex of a sharp tip provides signal amplification required for chemical imaging. Plasmonic structure characteristics such as roughness, shape, and radius determine the spatial resolution and signal enhancement. Unfortunately, noble metal nanostructures have limited lifetimes due to mechanical, chemical, and thermal degradation. Lifetime extension requires slowing degradation processes while minimizing unfavorable influences on the optical response. An ultrathin SiOx protective coating provides lifetime improvement of silver plasmonic nanostructures on SPM tips. Controlled physical vapor deposition (PVD) of Al can be used to create ultrathin (˜2-3 nm) Al2O3 coatings that improve significantly the stability and wear resistance of plasmonics structures without substantial degradation of optical properties. Such a coating completely prevented decay in plasmonic activity after 40 days of use.

  10. High Resolution X-ray Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, Webster

    2002-01-01

    set of two major x-ray astronomy missions based on the concepts I developed and demonstrated under this SR&T grant. The first Maxim is to image the sky at 100 micro-arcsecond resolution. That is one thousand times higher resolution than Hubble. The full Maxim has the ultimate goal of imaging the event horizon of a black hole in an active galactic nucleus (ALAN). This will require 0.1 micro-arcsecond resolution - one million times higher than Hubble! Nonetheless, using the techniques developed under this grant, it has become possible. Maxim Pathfinder is now in the NASA planning for a new start in approximately 20 10. The full Maxim is carried as a vision mission for the post 2015 timeframe. Finally, this grant is the evolved version of the SR&T grant we carried during the 1980s and up to 1994. At that point in time this grant was also working on x-ray optics, but concentrating on x-ray spectroscopy. The techniques developed by 1990 were not chosen for use on Chandra or XMM-Newton because they were too new. During the last year, however, the Constellation-X mission recognized the need for better spectroscopy techniques and tapped our expertise. We were able to support the initial work on Con-X through this program. It now appears that the off-plane mount will be used in Con-X, increasing performance and decreasing cost and risk.

  11. High Resolution Local Structure-Constrained Image Upsampling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Wang, Ronggang; Wang, Wenmin; Gao, Wen

    2015-11-01

    With the development of ultra-high-resolution display devices, the visual perception of fine texture details is becoming more and more important. A method of high-quality image upsampling with a low cost is greatly needed. In this paper, we propose a fast and efficient image upsampling method that makes use of high-resolution local structure constraints. The average local difference is used to divide a bicubic-interpolated image into a sharp edge area and a texture area, and these two areas are reconstructed separately with specific constraints. For reconstruction of the sharp edge area, a high-resolution gradient map is estimated as an extra constraint for the recovery of sharp and natural edges; for the reconstruction of the texture area, a high-resolution local texture structure map is estimated as an extra constraint to recover fine texture details. These two reconstructed areas are then combined to obtain the final high-resolution image. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method recovered finer pixel-level texture details and obtained top-level objective performance with a low time cost compared with state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26186777

  12. Snapshot retinal imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yifan; Kudenov, Michael; Kashani, Amir; Schwiegerling, Jim; Escuti, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Early diagnosis of glaucoma, which is a leading cause for visual impairment, is critical for successful treatment. It has been shown that Imaging polarimetry has advantages in early detection of structural changes in the retina. Here, we theoretically and experimentally present a snapshot Mueller Matrix Polarimeter fundus camera, which has the potential to record the polarization-altering characteristics of retina with a single snapshot. It is made by incorporating polarization gratings into a fundus camera design. Complete Mueller Matrix data sets can be obtained by analyzing the polarization fringes projected onto the image plane. In this paper, we describe the experimental implementation of the snapshot retinal imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter (SRIMMP), highlight issues related to calibration, and provide preliminary images acquired from the camera.

  13. High-resolution Urban Image Classification Using Extended Features

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution image classification poses several challenges because the typical object size is much larger than the pixel resolution. Any given pixel (spectral features at that location) by itself is not a good indicator of the object it belongs to without looking at the broader spatial footprint. Therefore most modern machine learning approaches that are based on per-pixel spectral features are not very effective in high- resolution urban image classification. One way to overcome this problem is to extract features that exploit spatial contextual information. In this study, we evaluated several features in- cluding edge density, texture, and morphology. Several machine learning schemes were tested on the features extracted from a very high-resolution remote sensing image and results were presented.

  14. Applications of high-resolution remote sensing image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, W. M.; Leckie, D.; Miller, J.; Buxton, R.

    1990-01-01

    There are many situations in which the image resolution of satellite data is insufficient to provide the detail required for resource management and environmental monitoring. This paper will focus on applications of high-resolution (0.4 to 10 m) airborne multispectral and imaging spectrometer data acquired in Canada using the MEIS II multispectral line imager and the PMI imaging spectrometer. Applications discussed will include forestry, mapping, and geobotany.

  15. High resolution ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for latent image analysis.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Hang; Liao, Ningfang; Li, Hongsong; Wu, Wenmin

    2016-03-21

    In this work, we present a close-range ultraviolet imaging spectrometer with high spatial resolution, and reasonably high spectral resolution. As the transmissive optical components cause chromatic aberration in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range, an all-reflective imaging scheme is introduced to promote the image quality. The proposed instrument consists of an oscillating mirror, a Cassegrain objective, a Michelson structure, an Offner relay, and a UV enhanced CCD. The finished spectrometer has a spatial resolution of 29.30μm on the target plane; the spectral scope covers both near and middle UV band; and can obtain approximately 100 wavelength samples over the range of 240~370nm. The control computer coordinates all the components of the instrument and enables capturing a series of images, which can be reconstructed into an interferogram datacube. The datacube can be converted into a spectrum datacube, which contains spectral information of each pixel with many wavelength samples. A spectral calibration is carried out by using a high pressure mercury discharge lamp. A test run demonstrated that this interferometric configuration can obtain high resolution spectrum datacube. The pattern recognition algorithm is introduced to analyze the datacube and distinguish the latent traces from the base materials. This design is particularly good at identifying the latent traces in the application field of forensic imaging. PMID:27136837

  16. High-resolution imaging of cellular processes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Maddox, Amy S; Maddox, Paul S

    2012-01-01

    Differential interference contrast (DIC) imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis led to a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Sulston et al., 1983) as did the first use of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a transgenic C. elegans (Chalfie et al., 1994). Given that C. elegans is free living, does not require exceptional environmental control, and is optically clear, live imaging is a powerful tool in for this model system. Combining genetics with high-resolution imaging has continued to make important contributions to many fields. In this chapter, we discuss how certain aspects of high-resolution microscopy are implemented. This is not an exhaustive review of microscopy; it is meant to be a helpful guide and point of reference for some basic concepts in imaging. While these concepts are largely true for all biological imaging, they are chosen as particularly important for C. elegans. PMID:22226519

  17. Vehicle Detection and Classification from High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, L.; Sasikumar, M.

    2014-11-01

    In the past decades satellite imagery has been used successfully for weather forecasting, geographical and geological applications. Low resolution satellite images are sufficient for these sorts of applications. But the technological developments in the field of satellite imaging provide high resolution sensors which expands its field of application. Thus the High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI) proved to be a suitable alternative to aerial photogrammetric data to provide a new data source for object detection. Since the traffic rates in developing countries are enormously increasing, vehicle detection from satellite data will be a better choice for automating such systems. In this work, a novel technique for vehicle detection from the images obtained from high resolution sensors is proposed. Though we are using high resolution images, vehicles are seen only as tiny spots, difficult to distinguish from the background. But we are able to obtain a detection rate not less than 0.9. Thereafter we classify the detected vehicles into cars and trucks and find the count of them.

  18. Dual camera system for acquisition of high resolution images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papon, Jeremie A.; Broussard, Randy P.; Ives, Robert W.

    2007-02-01

    Video surveillance is ubiquitous in modern society, but surveillance cameras are severely limited in utility by their low resolution. With this in mind, we have developed a system that can autonomously take high resolution still frame images of moving objects. In order to do this, we combine a low resolution video camera and a high resolution still frame camera mounted on a pan/tilt mount. In order to determine what should be photographed (objects of interest), we employ a hierarchical method which first separates foreground from background using a temporal-based median filtering technique. We then use a feed-forward neural network classifier on the foreground regions to determine whether the regions contain the objects of interest. This is done over several frames, and a motion vector is deduced for the object. The pan/tilt mount then focuses the high resolution camera on the next predicted location of the object, and an image is acquired. All components are controlled through a single MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI). The final system we present will be able to detect multiple moving objects simultaneously, track them, and acquire high resolution images of them. Results will demonstrate performance tracking and imaging varying numbers of objects moving at different speeds.

  19. A method for generating high resolution satellite image time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tao

    2014-10-01

    There is an increasing demand for satellite remote sensing data with both high spatial and temporal resolution in many applications. But it still is a challenge to simultaneously improve spatial resolution and temporal frequency due to the technical limits of current satellite observation systems. To this end, much R&D efforts have been ongoing for years and lead to some successes roughly in two aspects, one includes super resolution, pan-sharpen etc. methods which can effectively enhance the spatial resolution and generate good visual effects, but hardly preserve spectral signatures and result in inadequate analytical value, on the other hand, time interpolation is a straight forward method to increase temporal frequency, however it increase little informative contents in fact. In this paper we presented a novel method to simulate high resolution time series data by combing low resolution time series data and a very small number of high resolution data only. Our method starts with a pair of high and low resolution data set, and then a spatial registration is done by introducing LDA model to map high and low resolution pixels correspondingly. Afterwards, temporal change information is captured through a comparison of low resolution time series data, and then projected onto the high resolution data plane and assigned to each high resolution pixel according to the predefined temporal change patterns of each type of ground objects. Finally the simulated high resolution data is generated. A preliminary experiment shows that our method can simulate a high resolution data with a reasonable accuracy. The contribution of our method is to enable timely monitoring of temporal changes through analysis of time sequence of low resolution images only, and usage of costly high resolution data can be reduces as much as possible, and it presents a highly effective way to build up an economically operational monitoring solution for agriculture, forest, land use investigation

  20. High-Resolution Angioscopic Imaging During Endovascular Neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Patrick Z.; Sacho, Raphael; Weersink, Robert A.; Pereira, Vitor M.; Kucharczyk, Walter; Seibel, Eric J.; Wilson, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endoluminal optical imaging, or angioscopy, has not seen widespread application during neurointerventional procedures, largely as a result of the poor imaging resolution of existing angioscopes. Scanning fiber endoscopes (SFEs) are a novel endoscopic platform that allows high-resolution video imaging in an ultraminiature form factor that is compatible with currently used distal access endoluminal catheters. OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility and potential utility of high-resolution angioscopy with an SFE during common endovascular neurosurgical procedures. METHODS: A 3.7-French SFE was used in a porcine model system to image endothelial disruption, ischemic stroke and mechanical thrombectomy, aneurysm coiling, and flow-diverting stent placement. RESULTS: High-resolution, video-rate imaging was shown to be possible during all of the common procedures tested and provided information that was complementary to standard fluoroscopic imaging. SFE angioscopy was able to assess novel factors such as aneurysm base coverage fraction and side branch patency, which have previously not been possible to determine with conventional angiography. CONCLUSION: Endovascular imaging with an SFE provides important information on factors that cannot be assessed fluoroscopically and is a novel platform on which future neurointerventional techniques may be based because it allows for periprocedural inspection of the integrity of the vascular system and the deployed devices. In addition, it may be of diagnostic use for inspecting the vascular wall and postprocedure device evaluation. ABBREVIATIONS: CFB, coherent fiber bundle F, French SFE, scanning fiber endoscope PMID:24762703

  1. High-resolution ultrasound imaging of cutaneous lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mandava, Anitha; Ravuri, Prabhakar Rao; Konathan, Rajyalaxmi

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution variable frequency ultrasound imaging is increasingly being used in the noninvasive evaluation of various cutaneous diseases. It plays a complimentary role to physical examination in the assessment of cutaneous lesions. It is the only imaging modality useful in the evaluation of superficial cutaneous lesions that are too small to be evaluated on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and is helpful in reducing invasive procedures like biopsies and fine needle aspirations. In this article, we seek to describe the relevance and basic principles of cutaneous ultrasound, imaging findings of normal skin, current applications of high-resolution ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of various dermatological conditions, along with the features of some commonly encountered lesions. PMID:24347861

  2. High resolution multiplexed functional imaging in live embyros (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dongli; Peng, Leilei

    2016-03-01

    Optical projection tomography (OPT) creates isotropic 3D imaging of tissue. Two approaches exist today: Wide-field OPT illuminates the entire sample and acquires projection images with a camera; Scanning-laser optical tomography (SLOT) generates the projection with a moving laser beam and point detector. SLOT has superior light collecting efficiency than wide-field optical tomography, making it ideal for tissue fluorescence imaging. Regardless the approach, traditional OPT has to compromise between the resolution and the depth of view. In traditional SLOT, the focused Gaussian beam diverges quickly from the focused plane, making it impossible to achieve high resolution imaging through a large volume specimen. We report using Bessel beam instead of Gaussian beam to perform SLOT. By illuminating samples with a narrow Bessel beam throughout an extended depth, high-resolution projection images can be measured in large volume. Under Bessel illumination, the projection image contains signal from annular-rings of the Bessel beam. Traditional inverse Radon transform of these projections will result in ringing artifacts in reconstructed imaging. Thus a modified 3D filtered back projection algorithm is developed to perform tomography reconstructing of Bessel-illuminated projection images. The resulting 3D imaging is free of artifact and achieved cellular resolution in extended sample volume. The system is applied to in-vivo imaging of transgenic Zebrafish embryos. Results prove Bessel SLOT a promising imaging method in development biology research.

  3. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics. PMID:22312577

  4. Compact and mobile high resolution PET brain imager

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2011-02-08

    A brain imager includes a compact ring-like static PET imager mounted in a helmet-like structure. When attached to a patient's head, the helmet-like brain imager maintains the relative head-to-imager geometry fixed through the whole imaging procedure. The brain imaging helmet contains radiation sensors and minimal front-end electronics. A flexible mechanical suspension/harness system supports the weight of the helmet thereby allowing for patient to have limited movements of the head during imaging scans. The compact ring-like PET imager enables very high resolution imaging of neurological brain functions, cancer, and effects of trauma using a rather simple mobile scanner with limited space needs for use and storage.

  5. High resolution surface plasmon microscopy for cell imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argoul, F.; Monier, K.; Roland, T.; Elezgaray, J.; Berguiga, L.

    2010-04-01

    We introduce a new non-labeling high resolution microscopy method for cellular imaging. This method called SSPM (Scanning Surface Plasmon Microscopy) pushes down the resolution limit of surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) to sub-micronic scales. High resolution SPRi is obtained by the surface plasmon lauching with a high numerical aperture objective lens. The advantages of SPPM compared to other high resolution SPRi's rely on three aspects; (i) the interferometric detection of the back reflected light after plasmon excitation, (ii) the twodimensional scanning of the sample for image reconstruction, (iii) the radial polarization of light, enhancing both resolution and sensitivity. This microscope can afford a lateral resolution of - 150 nm in liquid environment and - 200 nm in air. We present in this paper images of IMR90 fibroblasts obtained with SSPM in dried environment. Internal compartments such as nucleus, nucleolus, mitochondria, cellular and nuclear membrane can be recognized without labelling. We propose an interpretation of the ability of SSPM to reveal high index contrast zones by a local decomposition of the V (Z) function describing the response of the SSPM.

  6. High-resolution lensless Fourier transform holography for microstructure imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; Wang, Dayong; Wang, Huaying; Xie, Jianjun

    2007-12-01

    Digital holography combines the advantages of the optical holography and the computers. It can implement an all-digital processing and has the quasi real-time property. With lensless Fourier transform recording architecture, the limited bandwidth of CCD camera can be utilized sufficiently, and the sampling theorem is satisfied easily. Therefore, high-resolution can be achieved. So it is preferred in the microstructure imaging. In the paper, based on the Fresnel diffraction theory and the off-axis lensless Fourier transform recording architecture, the experimental optimization and correspondingly the digital reconstruction was investigated. Also, the lateral resolution of the reconstructed image was analyzed and improved by the proposed techniques. When the USAF test target was imaged without any pre-magnification, the lateral resolution of 3.1μm was achieved, which matched the theoretical prediction very well. The key points to achieve high resolution image are to use the smaller object and to arrange the distance between the object and the CCD plane as short as possible. Meanwhile, properly overlapping the reconstructed image with the DC term was helpful to improve the resolution. The noise in the reconstructed image could be reduced greatly by choosing the optical elements precisely and adjusting the beam path finely. The experimental results demonstrated that it is possible for the digital holographic microscopy to produce the high resolution image without the objective pre-magnification. The results also showed that, with a high quality hologram, the special image processing during the reconstruction may be unnecessary to obtain a high quality image.

  7. High-Resolution Imaging of Colliding and Merging Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, Brad

    1991-07-01

    We propose to obtain high-resolution images, using the WF/PC, of two colliding and merging galaxies (i.e., NGC 4038/4039 = "The Antennae" and NGC 7252 ="Atoms-for-Peace Galaxy". Our goal is to use HST to make critical observations of each object in order to gain a better understanding of the various phases of the merger process. Our primary objective is to determine whether globular clusters are formed during mergers\\?

  8. Next generation high resolution adaptive optics fundus imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, P.; Erry, G. R. G.; Otten, L. J.; Larichev, A.; Irochnikov, N.

    2005-12-01

    The spatial resolution of retinal images is limited by the presence of static and time-varying aberrations present within the eye. An updated High Resolution Adaptive Optics Fundus Imager (HRAOFI) has been built based on the development from the first prototype unit. This entirely new unit was designed and fabricated to increase opto-mechanical integration and ease-of-use through a new user interface. Improved camera systems for the Shack-Hartmann sensor and for the scene image were implemented to enhance the image quality and the frequency of the Adaptive Optics (AO) control loop. An optimized illumination system that uses specific wavelength bands was applied to increase the specificity of the images. Sample images of clinical trials of retinas, taken with and without the system, are shown. Data on the performance of this system will be presented, demonstrating the ability to calculate near diffraction-limited images.

  9. Clinical applications of high-resolution ocular magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Tanitame, Keizo; Sone, Takashi; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Awai, Kazuo

    2012-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using fast sequences with subjects staring at a target can provide motion-free ocular images, and small receiver surface coils make it possible to produce ocular images with high spatial resolution. MRI using half-Fourier single-shot rapid acquisition with a relaxation enhancement sequence as a fast T2-weighted imaging yields useful images for the morphologic diagnosis of ocular diseases, and MRI using a fast spoiled gradient-recalled-echo sequence as a T1-weighted imaging yields additional information by the administration of gadolinium-based contrast material for assessing the vascularity of intraocular tumors. These ocular imaging techniques are useful for the evaluation of patients with angle closure glaucoma, congenital abnormality of ocular globes, intraocular tumors and several types of detachments, as well as patients after ocular surgery. In this pictorial essay, we demonstrate the clinical applications of fast high-resolution ocular MRI with fixation of the subjects' visual foci. PMID:22923185

  10. Extraction and labeling high-resolution images from PDF documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chachra, Suchet K.; Xue, Zhiyun; Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2013-12-01

    Accuracy of content-based image retrieval is affected by image resolution among other factors. Higher resolution images enable extraction of image features that more accurately represent the image content. In order to improve the relevance of search results for our biomedical image search engine, Open-I, we have developed techniques to extract and label high-resolution versions of figures from biomedical articles supplied in the PDF format. Open-I uses the open-access subset of biomedical articles from the PubMed Central repository hosted by the National Library of Medicine. Articles are available in XML and in publisher supplied PDF formats. As these PDF documents contain little or no meta-data to identify the embedded images, the task includes labeling images according to their figure number in the article after they have been successfully extracted. For this purpose we use the labeled small size images provided with the XML web version of the article. This paper describes the image extraction process and two alternative approaches to perform image labeling that measure the similarity between two images based upon the image intensity projection on the coordinate axes and similarity based upon the normalized cross-correlation between the intensities of two images. Using image identification based on image intensity projection, we were able to achieve a precision of 92.84% and a recall of 82.18% in labeling of the extracted images.

  11. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Mars Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMars server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Mars images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of Mars. The OnMars server is an implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server. Unlike other Mars Internet map servers that provide Martian data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMars WMS server supports encoding of data in Mars-specific coordinate systems. The OnMars server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Martian image and elevation data, including an 8-meter-per-pixel uncontrolled mosaic of most of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera Narrow Angle (MOCNA) image collection, which is not available elsewhere. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF), Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. The OnMars server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  12. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Lunar Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMoon server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Lunar images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of the Moon. The OnMoon server implements the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server protocol and supports Moon-specific extensions. Unlike other Internet map servers that provide Lunar data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMoon server supports encoding of data in Moon-specific coordinate systems. The OnMoon server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Lunar image and elevation data. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF) or the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. Full-precision spectral arithmetic processing is also available, by use of a custom SLD extension. This server can dynamically add shaded relief based on the Lunar elevation to any image layer. This server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  13. [Extracting municipal solid waste dumps based on high resolution images].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang-Li; Du, Shi-Hong; Guo, Zhou

    2013-08-01

    The dramatically increasing informal MSW dumps are endangering the urban environment. Remote sensing (RS) technologies are more efficient to monitor and manage municipal solid wastes (MSW) than traditional survey-based methods. In high spatial resolution remotely sensed images, these irregularly distributed dumps have complex compositions and strong heterogeneities, thus it is still hard to extract them automatically no matter the pixel-or object-based image analysis method is used. Therefore, based on the analysis of MSW characteristics, the present study develops a multiresolution strategy to extract MSW dumps by combining image features at both high resolution and resampled low heterogeneity images, while the high resolution images can provide detailed information and the low resolution images can suppress the strong heterogeneities of informal MSW dumps. Taking the QuickBird image covering part of Beijing as an example, this multi-resolution strategy produced a high accuracy (75%), indicating that this multi-resolution strategy is quite effective for extracting the open-air informal MSW dumps. PMID:24159838

  14. Thin polymer etalon arrays for high-resolution photoacoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yang; Huang, Sheng-Wen; Ashkenazi, Shai; Witte, Russell; O’Donnell, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Thin polymer etalons are demonstrated as high-frequency ultrasound sensors for three-dimensional (3-D) high-resolution photoacoustic imaging. The etalon, a Fabry-Perot optical resonator, consists of a thin polymer slab sandwiched between two gold layers. It is probed with a scanning continuous-wave (CW) laser for ultrasound array detection. Detection bandwidth of a 20-μm-diam array element exceeds 50 MHz, and the ultrasound sensitivity is comparable to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) equivalents of similar size. In a typical photoacoustic imaging setup, a pulsed laser beam illuminates the imaging target, where optical energy is absorbed and acoustic waves are generated through the thermoelastic effect. An ultrasound detection array is formed by scanning the probing laser beam on the etalon surface in either a 1-D or a 2-D configuration, which produces 2-D or 3-D images, respectively. Axial and lateral resolutions have been demonstrated to be better than 20 μm. Detailed characterizations of the optical and acoustical properties of the etalon, as well as photoacoustic imaging results, suggest that thin polymer etalon arrays can be used as ultrasound detectors for 3-D high-resolution photoacoustic imaging applications. PMID:19123679

  15. High-resolution Imaging Techniques for the Assessment of Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Roland; Burghardt, Andrew J.; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis The importance of assessing the bone’s microarchitectural make-up in addition to its mineral density in the context of osteoporosis has been emphasized in a number of publications. The high spatial resolution required to resolve the bone’s microstructure in a clinically feasible scan time is challenging. Currently, the best suited modalities meeting these requirements in vivo are high-resolution peripheral quantitative imaging (HR-pQCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Whereas HR-pQCT is limited to peripheral skeleton regions like the wrist and ankle, MRI can also image other sites like the proximal femur but usually with lower spatial resolution. In addition Multidetector-CT has been used for high-resolution imaging of trabecular bone structure, however, the radiation dose is a limiting factor. This article provides an overview of the different modalities, technical requirements and recent developments in this emerging field. Details regarding imaging protocols as well as image post-processing methods for bone structure quantification are discussed. PMID:20609895

  16. High-resolution imaging of the supercritical antisolvent process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Philip W.; Stephens, Amendi P.; Roberts, Christopher B.; Duke, Steve R.

    2005-06-01

    A high-magnification and high-resolution imaging technique was developed for the supercritical fluid antisolvent (SAS) precipitation process. Visualizations of the jet injection, flow patterns, droplets, and particles were obtained in a high-pressure vessel for polylactic acid and budesonide precipitation in supercritical CO2. The results show two regimes for particle production: one where turbulent mixing occurs in gas-like plumes, and another where distinct droplets were observed in the injection. Images are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the method for examining particle formation theories and for understanding the underlying fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, and mass transport in the SAS process.

  17. Single snapshot imaging of optical properties

    PubMed Central

    Vervandier, Jean; Gioux, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    A novel acquisition and processing method that enables single snapshot wide field imaging of optical properties in the Spatial Frequency Domain (SFD) is described. This method makes use of a Fourier transform performed on a single image and processing in the frequency space to extract two spatial frequency images at once. The performance of the method is compared to the standard six image SFD acquisition method, assessed on tissue mimicking phantoms and in vivo. Overall both methods perform similarly in extracting optical properties. PMID:24409392

  18. Coregistration of high-resolution Mars orbital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2015-04-01

    The systematic orbital imaging of the Martian surface started 4 decades ago from NASA's Viking Orbiter 1 & 2 missions, which were launched in August 1975, and acquired orbital images of the planet between 1976 and 1980. The result of this reconnaissance was the first medium-resolution (i.e. ≤ 300m/pixel) global map of Mars, as well as a variety of high-resolution images (reaching up to 8m/pixel) of special regions of interest. Over the last two decades NASA has sent 3 more spacecraft with onboard instruments for high-resolution orbital imaging: Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) having onboard the Mars Orbital Camera - Narrow Angle (MOC-NA), Mars Odyssey having onboard the Thermal Emission Imaging System - Visual (THEMIS-VIS) and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) having on board two distinct high-resolution cameras, Context Camera (CTX) and High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE). Moreover, ESA has the multispectral High resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) onboard ESA's Mars Express with resolution up to 12.5m since 2004. Overall, this set of cameras have acquired more than 400,000 high-resolution images, i.e. with resolution better than 100m and as fine as 25 cm/pixel. Notwithstanding the high spatial resolution of the available NASA orbital products, their accuracy of areo-referencing is often very poor. As a matter of fact, due to pointing inconsistencies, usually form errors in roll attitude, the acquired products may actually image areas tens of kilometers far away from the point that they are supposed to be looking at. On the other hand, since 2004, the ESA Mars Express has been acquiring stereo images through the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), with resolution that is usually 12.5-25 metres per pixel. The achieved coverage is more than 64% for images with resolution finer than 20 m/pixel, while for ~40% of Mars, Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) have been produced with are co-registered with MOLA [Gwinner et al., 2010]. The HRSC images and DTMs

  19. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken B. (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Siegel, Peter H. (Inventor); Dengler, Robert J. (Inventor); Schlecht, Erich T. (Inventor); Mehdi, Imran (Inventor); Skalare, Anders J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional imaging radar operating at high frequency e.g., 670 GHz, is disclosed. The active target illumination inherent in radar solves the problem of low signal power and narrow-band detection by using submillimeter heterodyne mixer receivers. A submillimeter imaging radar may use low phase-noise synthesizers and a fast chirper to generate a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) waveform. Three-dimensional images are generated through range information derived for each pixel scanned over a target. A peak finding algorithm may be used in processing for each pixel to differentiate material layers of the target. Improved focusing is achieved through a compensation signal sampled from a point source calibration target and applied to received signals from active targets prior to FFT-based range compression to extract and display high-resolution target images. Such an imaging radar has particular application in detecting concealed weapons or contraband.

  20. High-resolution QWIP thermal imager for AFV upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlberg, Anders G. M.

    2004-08-01

    Following on the success of the BIRC clip on thermal imaging sight for the BILL Anti-Tank Missile System, which was in fact the world's first military QWIP based thermal imager, and which has been successfully delivered to the Swedish Army in serial quantities, several new QWIP-based products from FLIR Systems AB in Sweden are now under contract for defense customers worldwide. These include the new Forward Observation Systems for Norway and Sweden, Airborne Search & Rescue Systems, and a new clip on thermal imager for the Bofors RBS 70 Air Defense Missile System. The latest of these products is the development of a High Resolution QWIP Thermal Imager, LIRC, under contract for an upgrade of a number of Swedish CV9040C Armored Fighting Vehicles for Swedish Army International Operations. The paper will focus on the rationale behind the system selection, the development of the military qualified QWIP Thermal Imagers and the current status of the program.

  1. Ultraspectral imaging and the snapshot advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudenov, Michael W.; Gupta Roy, Subharup; Pantalone, Brett; Maione, Bryan

    2015-05-01

    Ultraspectral sensing has been investigated as a way to resolve terrestrial chemical fluorescence within solar Fraunhofer lines. Referred to as Fraunhofer Line Discriminators (FLDs), these sensors attempt to measure "band filling" of terrestrial fluorescence within these naturally dark regions of the spectrum. However, the method has challenging signal to noise ratio limitations due to the low fluorescence emission signal of the target, which is exacerbated by the high spectral resolution required by the sensor (<0.1 nm). To now, many Fraunhofer line discriminators have been scanning sensors; either pushbroom or whiskbroom, which require temporal and/or spatial scanning to acquire an image. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the snapshot throughput advantage in ultraspectral imaging for FLD. This is followed by preliminary results of our snapshot FLD sensor. The system has a spatial resolution of 280x280 pixels and a spectral resolving power of approximately 10,000 at a 658 nm operating wavelength.

  2. Live CLEM imaging to analyze nuclear structures at high resolution.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Tokuko; Osakada, Hiroko; Koujin, Takako

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy (FM) and electron microscopy (EM) are powerful tools for observing molecular components in cells. FM can provide temporal information about cellular proteins and structures in living cells. EM provides nanometer resolution images of cellular structures in fixed cells. We have combined FM and EM to develop a new method of correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM), called "Live CLEM." In this method, the dynamic behavior of specific molecules of interest is first observed in living cells using fluorescence microscopy (FM) and then cellular structures in the same cell are observed using electron microscopy (EM). Following image acquisition, FM and EM images are compared to enable the fluorescent images to be correlated with the high-resolution images of cellular structures obtained using EM. As this method enables analysis of dynamic events involving specific molecules of interest in the context of specific cellular structures at high resolution, it is useful for the study of nuclear structures including nuclear bodies. Here we describe Live CLEM that can be applied to the study of nuclear structures in mammalian cells. PMID:25555577

  3. The High-Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Ken; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy R.; Korreck, Kelly; Golub, Leon; Walsh, Robert W.; De Pontieu, Bart; DeForest, Craig; Title, Alan; Kuzin, Sergey; Savage, Sabrina; Beabout, Dyana; Beabout, Brent; Podgorski, William; Caldwell, David; McCracken, Kenneth; Ordway, Mark; Bergner, Henry; Gates, Richard; McKillop, Sean; Cheimets, Peter; Platt, Simon; Mitchell, Nick; Windt, David

    2014-11-01

    The High-Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) was flown on a NASA sounding rocket on 11 July 2012. The goal of the Hi-C mission was to obtain high-resolution (≈ 0.3 - 0.4''), high-cadence (≈ 5 seconds) images of a solar active region to investigate the dynamics of solar coronal structures at small spatial scales. The instrument consists of a normal-incidence telescope with the optics coated with multilayers to reflect a narrow wavelength range around 19.3 nm (including the Fe xii 19.5-nm spectral line) and a 4096×4096 camera with a plate scale of 0.1'' pixel-1. The target of the Hi-C rocket flight was Active Region 11520. Hi-C obtained 37 full-frame images and 86 partial-frame images during the rocket flight. Analysis of the Hi-C data indicates the corona is structured on scales smaller than currently resolved by existing satellite missions.

  4. High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of single cells

    PubMed Central

    Strohm, Eric M.; Moore, Michael J.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic images of stained neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes from a blood smear were acquired using a combined acoustic/photoacoustic microscope. Photoacoustic images were created using a pulsed 532 nm laser that was coupled to a single mode fiber to produce output wavelengths from 532 nm to 620 nm via stimulated Raman scattering. The excitation wavelength was selected using optical filters and focused onto the sample using a 20× objective. A 1000 MHz transducer was co-aligned with the laser spot and used for ultrasound and photoacoustic images, enabling micrometer resolution with both modalities. The different cell types could be easily identified due to variations in contrast within the acoustic and photoacoustic images. This technique provides a new way of probing leukocyte structure with potential applications towards detecting cellular abnormalities and diseased cells at the single cell level. PMID:27114911

  5. High-resolution dynamic speech imaging with deformation estimation.

    PubMed

    Maojing Fu; Barlaz, Marissa S; Shosted, Ryan K; Zhi-Pei Liang; Sutton, Bradley P

    2015-08-01

    Dynamic speech magnetic resonance imaging (DSMRI) is a promising technique for visualizing articulatory motion in real time. However, many existing applications of DSMRI have been limited by slow imaging speed and the lack of quantitative motion analysis. In this paper, we present a novel DS-MRI technique to simultaneously estimate dynamic image sequence of speech and the associated deformation field. Extending on our previous Partial Separability (PS) model-based methods, the proposed technique visualizes both speech motion and deformation with a spatial resolution of 2.2 × 2.2 mm(2) and a nominal frame rate of 100 fps. Also, the technique enables direct analysis of articulatory motion through the deformation fields. Effectiveness of the method is systematically examined via in vivo experiments. Utilizing the obtained high-resolution images and deformation fields, we also performed a phonetics study on Brazilian Portuguese to show the method's practical utility. PMID:26736572

  6. In vivo high-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Seyedahmadi, Babak Jian; Vavvas, Demetrios

    2010-01-01

    Retinal imaging with conventional methods is only able to overcome the lowest order of aberration, defocus and astigmatism. The human eye is fraught with higher order of aberrations. Since we are forced to use the human optical system in retinal imaging, the images are degraded. In addition, all of these distortions are constantly changing due to head/eye movement and change in accommodation. Adaptive optics is a promising technology introduced in the field of ophthalmology to measure and compensate for these aberrations. High-resolution obtained by adaptive optics enables us to view and image the retinal photoreceptors, retina pigment epithelium, and identification of cone subclasses in vivo. In this review we will be discussing the basic technology of adaptive optics and hardware requirement in addition to clinical applications of such technology. PMID:21090998

  7. Very High Resolution Image of Icy Cliffs on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This image, taken by the camera onboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft, is a very high resolution view of the Conamara Chaos region on Jupiter's moon Europa. It shows an area where icy plates have been broken apart and moved around laterally. The top of this image is dominated by corrugated plateaus ending in icy cliffs over a hundred meters (a few hundred feet) high. Debris piled at the base of the cliffs can be resolved down to blocks the size of a house. A fracture that runs horizontally across and just below the center of the Europa image is about the width of a freeway.

    North is to the top right of the image, and the sun illuminates the surface from the east. The image is centered at approximately 9 degrees north latitude and 274 degrees west longitude. The image covers an area approximately 1.7 kilometers by 4 kilometers (1 mile by 2.5 miles). The resolution is 9 meters (30 feet) per picture element. This image was taken on December 16, 1997 at a range of 900 kilometers (540 miles) by Galileo's solid state imaging system.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  8. High-resolution seismic array imaging using teleseismic scattered waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, P.; Liu, Q.; Chen, C.; Basini, P.; Komatitsch, D.

    2013-12-01

    The advent of dense seismic networks, new modeling and imaging techniques, and increased HPC capacity makes it feasible to resolve subsurface interfaces and structural anomalies beneath seismic arrays at unprecedented details based on teleseismic scattered records. To accurately and efficiently simulate the full propagation of teleseismic waves beneath receiver arrays at the frequencies relevant to scattering imaging, we develop a hybrid method that interfaces a frequency-wavenumber (FK) calculation, which provides semi-analytical solutions to one-dimensional layered background models, with a 2D/3D spectral-element (SEM) numerical solver to calculate synthetic responses of local media to plane-wave incidence. This hybrid method accurately deals with local heterogeneities and discontinuity undulations, and represents an efficient tool for the forward modelling of teleseismic coda (including converted and scattered) waves. Meanwhile, adjoint tomography is a powerful tool for high-resolution imaging in heterogeneous media, which can resolve large velocity contrasts through the use of 2D/3D initial models and full numerical simulations for forward wavefields and sensitivity kernels. In the framework of adjont tomography and hybrid method, we compute sensitivity kernels for teleseismic coda waves, which provide the basis for mapping variations in subsurface discontinuities, density and velocity structures through nonlinear conjugate-gradient methods. Various 2D synthetic imaging examples show that inversion of teleseismic coda phases based on the 2D SEM-FK hybrid method and adjoint techniques is a promising tool for structural imaging beneath dense seismic arrays. 3D synthetic experiments will be performed to test the feasibility of seismic array imaging using adjoint method and 3D SEM-FK hybrid method. We will also apply this hybrid imaging techniques to realistic seismic data, such as the recorded SsPmP phases in central Tibet, to explore high-resolution subsurface

  9. Unsupervised Feature Learning for High-Resolution Satellite Image Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2013-01-01

    The rich data provided by high-resolution satellite imagery allow us to directly model geospatial neighborhoods by understanding their spatial and structural patterns. In this paper we explore an unsupervised feature learning approach to model geospatial neighborhoods for classification purposes. While pixel and object based classification approaches are widely used for satellite image analysis, often these approaches exploit the high-fidelity image data in a limited way. In this paper we extract low-level features to characterize the local neighborhood patterns. We exploit the unlabeled feature measurements in a novel way to learn a set of basis functions to derive new features. The derived sparse feature representation obtained by encoding the measured features in terms of the learned basis function set yields superior classification performance. We applied our technique on two challenging image datasets: ORNL dataset representing one-meter spatial resolution satellite imagery representing five land-use categories and, UCMERCED dataset consisting of 21 different categories representing sub-meter resolution overhead imagery. Our results are highly promising and, in the case of UCMERCED dataset we outperform the best results obtained for this dataset. We show that our feature extraction and learning methods are highly effective in developing a detection system that can be used to automatically scan large-scale high-resolution satellite imagery for detecting large-facility.

  10. A parallel solution for high resolution histological image analysis.

    PubMed

    Bueno, G; González, R; Déniz, O; García-Rojo, M; González-García, J; Fernández-Carrobles, M M; Vállez, N; Salido, J

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes a general methodology for developing parallel image processing algorithms based on message passing for high resolution images (on the order of several Gigabytes). These algorithms have been applied to histological images and must be executed on massively parallel processing architectures. Advances in new technologies for complete slide digitalization in pathology have been combined with developments in biomedical informatics. However, the efficient use of these digital slide systems is still a challenge. The image processing that these slides are subject to is still limited both in terms of data processed and processing methods. The work presented here focuses on the need to design and develop parallel image processing tools capable of obtaining and analyzing the entire gamut of information included in digital slides. Tools have been developed to assist pathologists in image analysis and diagnosis, and they cover low and high-level image processing methods applied to histological images. Code portability, reusability and scalability have been tested by using the following parallel computing architectures: distributed memory with massive parallel processors and two networks, INFINIBAND and Myrinet, composed of 17 and 1024 nodes respectively. The parallel framework proposed is flexible, high performance solution and it shows that the efficient processing of digital microscopic images is possible and may offer important benefits to pathology laboratories. PMID:22522064

  11. Segmentation Based Fuzzy Classification of High Resolution Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Mukund; Rao, Suryaprakash; Masser, Ian; Kasturirangan, K.

    images, we build a much needed bridge between the methodology domains of GIS and Image Analysis. The idea of having an integrated 'geographical information processing' environment is becoming much more realistic now that 'GIS' objects can be used for analysing an image and vice versa, new 'GIS' objects can be directly generated without ignoring the rich information environment of geographical concepts, relations and scales. In the above scenario, the main aim of this project is to assess whether object-oriented classification techniques would be more suitable for remote sensing images - specifically in the context of high resolution images. The paper basically examines potentials of classification techniques - especially segmentation based methods that is based on an object-semantics and that uses not only the spectral information but also the spatial characteristics; studies the integration of segmentation and fuzzy-classification to derive user-oriented information from the high resolution images and evaluates how such segmentation based classification compares with the more common pixel- based statistical technique. Segmentation based fuzzy classification is applied to high resolution images from IRS and for 1m images from satellites - especially to extract urban information.

  12. Detection of Barchan Dunes in High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzaoui, M. A.; Adnani, M.; El Belrhiti, H.; Chaouki, I. E.; Masmoudi, C.

    2016-06-01

    Barchan dunes are the fastest moving sand dunes in the desert. We developed a process to detect barchans dunes on High resolution satellite images. It consisted of three steps, we first enhanced the image using histogram equalization and noise reduction filters. Then, the second step proceeds to eliminate the parts of the image having a texture different from that of the barchans dunes. Using supervised learning, we tested a coarse to fine textural analysis based on Kolomogorov Smirnov test and Youden's J-statistic on co-occurrence matrix. As an output we obtained a mask that we used in the next step to reduce the search area. In the third step we used a gliding window on the mask and check SURF features with SVM to get barchans dunes candidates. Detected barchans dunes were considered as the fusion of overlapping candidates. The results of this approach were very satisfying in processing time and precision.

  13. High resolution three-dimensional microwave imaging of antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Gregory G.; Anderson, Alan P.; Whitaker, Anthony J. T.; Bennett, John C.

    1989-06-01

    A procedure for imaging antenna currents that uses a relationship between the radiated far-field hemisphere and the Fourier transform domain of the source current density distribution is presented. The technique is applied to an array of two orthogonal waveguides, a slotted waveguide array, and a reflector antenna. In each case the radiated far-field hemisphere is inverted to produce a high-resolution volumetric image of the antenna currents. Polarization discrimination is demonstrated as is the ability of the technique to `see behind' blockages by defocusing the foreground. It is shown that accurate distribution is available from the reconstructed image. Selective editing of the Fourier domain of the current distribution is performed to suppress unwanted artifacts in the reconstruction.

  14. High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindlay, Jonathan

    We propose to design and build the first imaging hard X-ray detector system that incorporates 3D stacking of closely packed detector readouts in finely-spaced imaging arrays with their required data processing and control electronics. In virtually all imaging astronomical detectors, detector readout is done with flex connectors or connections that are not vertical but rather horizontal , requiring loss of focal plane area. For high resolution pixel detectors needed for high speed event-based X-ray imaging, from low energy applications (CMOS) with focusing X-ray telescopes, to hard X-ray applications with pixelated CZT for large area coded aperture telescopes, this new detector development offers great promise. We propose to extend our previous and current APRA supported ProtoEXIST program that has developed the first large area imaging CZT detectors and demonstrated their astrophysical capabilities on two successful balloon flight to a next generation High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI), which would incorporate microvia technology for the first time to connect the readout ASIC on each CZT crystal directly to its control and data processing system. This 3-dimensional stacking of detector and readout/control system means that large area (>2m2) imaging detector planes for a High Resolution Wide-field hard X-ray telescope can be built with initially greatly reduced detector gaps and ultimately with no gaps. This increases detector area, efficiency, and simplicity of detector integration. Thus higher sensitivity wide-field imagers will be possible at lower cost. HREXI will enable a post-Swift NASA mission such as the EREXS concept proposed to PCOS to be conducted as a future MIDEX mission. This mission would conduct a high resolution (<2 arcmin) , broad band (5 200 keV) hard X-ray survey of black holes on all scales with ~10X higher sensitivity than Swift. In the current era of Time Domain Astrophysics, such a survey capability, in conjunction with a n

  15. All-Optical Ultrasound Transducers for High Resolution Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheaff, Clay Smith

    High frequency ultrasound (HFUS) has increasingly been used within the past few decades to provide high resolution (< 200 mum) imaging in medical applications such as endoluminal imaging, intravascular imaging, ophthalmology, and dermatology. The optical detection and generation of HFUS using thin films offers numerous advantages over traditional piezoelectric technology. Circumvention of an electronic interface with the device head is one of the most significant given the RF noise, crosstalk, and reduced capacitance that encumbers small-scale electronic transducers. Thin film Fabry-Perot interferometers - also known as etalons - are well suited for HFUS receivers on account of their high sensitivity, wide bandwidth, and ease of fabrication. In addition, thin films can be used to generate HFUS when irradiated with optical pulses - a method referred to as Thermoelastic Ultrasound Generation (TUG). By integrating a polyimide (PI) film for TUG into an etalon receiver, we have created for the first time an all-optical ultrasound transducer that is both thermally stable and capable of forming fully sampled 2-D imaging arrays of arbitrary configuration. Here we report (1) the design and fabrication of PI-etalon transducers; (2) an evaluation of their optical and acoustic performance parameters; (3) the ability to conduct high-resolution imaging with synthetic 2-D arrays of PI-etalon elements; and (4) work towards a fiber optic PI-etalon for in vivo use. Successful development of a fiber optic imager would provide a unique field-of-view thereby exposing an abundance of prospects for minimally-invasive analysis, diagnosis, and treatment of disease.

  16. A miniature high resolution 3-D imaging sonar.

    PubMed

    Josserand, Tim; Wolley, Jason

    2011-04-01

    This paper discusses the design and development of a miniature, high resolution 3-D imaging sonar. The design utilizes frequency steered phased arrays (FSPA) technology. FSPAs present a small, low-power solution to the problem of underwater imaging sonars. The technology provides a method to build sonars with a large number of beams without the proportional power, circuitry and processing complexity. The design differs from previous methods in that the array elements are manufactured from a monolithic material. With this technique the arrays are flat and considerably smaller element dimensions are achievable which allows for higher frequency ranges and smaller array sizes. In the current frequency range, the demonstrated array has ultra high image resolution (1″ range×1° azimuth×1° elevation) and small size (<3″×3″). The design of the FSPA utilizes the phasing-induced frequency-dependent directionality of a linear phased array to produce multiple beams in a forward sector. The FSPA requires only two hardware channels per array and can be arranged in single and multiple array configurations that deliver wide sector 2-D images. 3-D images can be obtained by scanning the array in a direction perpendicular to the 2-D image field and applying suitable image processing to the multiple scanned 2-D images. This paper introduces the 3-D FSPA concept, theory and design methodology. Finally, results from a prototype array are presented and discussed. PMID:21112066

  17. High-resolution adaptive imaging with a single photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldevila, F.; Salvador-Balaguer, E.; Clemente, P.; Tajahuerce, E.; Lancis, J.

    2015-09-01

    During the past few years, the emergence of spatial light modulators operating at the tens of kHz has enabled new imaging modalities based on single-pixel photodetectors. The nature of single-pixel imaging enforces a reciprocal relationship between frame rate and image size. Compressive imaging methods allow images to be reconstructed from a number of projections that is only a fraction of the number of pixels. In microscopy, single-pixel imaging is capable of producing images with a moderate size of 128 × 128 pixels at frame rates under one Hz. Recently, there has been considerable interest in the development of advanced techniques for high-resolution real-time operation in applications such as biological microscopy. Here, we introduce an adaptive compressive technique based on wavelet trees within this framework. In our adaptive approach, the resolution of the projecting patterns remains deliberately small, which is crucial to avoid the demanding memory requirements of compressive sensing algorithms. At pattern projection rates of 22.7 kHz, our technique would enable to obtain 128 × 128 pixel images at frame rates around 3 Hz. In our experiments, we have demonstrated a cost-effective solution employing a commercial projection display.

  18. High-resolution adaptive imaging with a single photodiode

    PubMed Central

    Soldevila, F.; Salvador-Balaguer, E.; Clemente, P.; Tajahuerce, E.; Lancis, J.

    2015-01-01

    During the past few years, the emergence of spatial light modulators operating at the tens of kHz has enabled new imaging modalities based on single-pixel photodetectors. The nature of single-pixel imaging enforces a reciprocal relationship between frame rate and image size. Compressive imaging methods allow images to be reconstructed from a number of projections that is only a fraction of the number of pixels. In microscopy, single-pixel imaging is capable of producing images with a moderate size of 128 × 128 pixels at frame rates under one Hz. Recently, there has been considerable interest in the development of advanced techniques for high-resolution real-time operation in applications such as biological microscopy. Here, we introduce an adaptive compressive technique based on wavelet trees within this framework. In our adaptive approach, the resolution of the projecting patterns remains deliberately small, which is crucial to avoid the demanding memory requirements of compressive sensing algorithms. At pattern projection rates of 22.7 kHz, our technique would enable to obtain 128 × 128 pixel images at frame rates around 3 Hz. In our experiments, we have demonstrated a cost-effective solution employing a commercial projection display. PMID:26382114

  19. Photoswitchable Nanoparticles Enable High-Resolution Cell Imaging: PULSAR Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Dehong; Tian, Z.; Wu, Wuwei; Wan, Wei; Li, Alexander D.

    2008-10-22

    Fluorescence imaging has transformed biological sciences and opened a window to reveal biological mechanisms in real time despite Abbe’s diffraction limit restricts current microscope resolution to 300 nm?.HDH2 Recently, two high-resolution fluorescence microscopic techniques emerged: one uses a special photoactivatable green fluorescent proteinHDH3 and the other employs a pair of cy3/cy5 dyes.HDH4 Both avoid Abbe’s diffraction limit by photoswitching nearby fluorophores off. Thus, photoswitching fluorescence between a bright and a dark state promises to deliver a wealth of information regarding biological phenomena at the nanoscale. The ideal probe is a key-enabling single molecule that can be photoswitched on and off. Such wonderful properties, albeit implausible to imagine at first, were realized in spiropyran derivatives. While being photoswitched, one molecule alternates red-fluorescence on-and-off. Using such photo-actuated unimolecular logical switching attained reconstruction (PULSAR) microscopy, we achieved high-resolution fluorescence imaging down to 80 nm? in nanostructures and cellular organelles.

  20. High-Resolution Mars Camera Test Image of Moon (Infrared)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This crescent view of Earth's Moon in infrared wavelengths comes from a camera test by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on its way to Mars. The mission's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera took the image on Sept. 8, 2005, while at a distance of about 10 million kilometers (6 million miles) from the Moon. The dark feature on the right is Mare Crisium. From that distance, the Moon would appear as a star-like point of light to the unaided eye. The test verified the camera's focusing capability and provided an opportunity for calibration. The spacecraft's Context Camera and Optical Navigation Camera also performed as expected during the test.

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched on Aug. 12, 2005, is on course to reach Mars on March 10, 2006. After gradually adjusting the shape of its orbit for half a year, it will begin its primary science phase in November 2006. From the mission's planned science orbit about 300 kilometers (186 miles) above the surface of Mars, the high resolution camera will be able to discern features as small as one meter or yard across.

  1. High resolution 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, Frank M.; Cornelius, Iwan; Blencowe, Anton; Franich, Rick D.; Geso, Moshi

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) techniques are under investigation at synchrotrons worldwide. Favourable outcomes from animal and cell culture studies have proven the efficacy of MRT. The aim of MRT researchers currently is to progress to human clinical trials in the near future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the high resolution and 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams in PRESAGE® dosimeters using laser fluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated and irradiated with microbeams on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Microbeam arrays comprised of microbeams 25–50 μm wide with 200 or 400 μm peak-to-peak spacing were delivered as single, cross-fire, multidirectional, and interspersed arrays. Imaging of the dosimeters was performed using a NIKON A1 laser fluorescence confocal microscope. Results: The spatial fractionation of the MRT beams was clearly visible in 2D and up to 9 mm in depth. Individual microbeams were easily resolved with the full width at half maximum of microbeams measured on images with resolutions of as low as 0.09 μm/pixel. Profiles obtained demonstrated the change of the peak-to-valley dose ratio for interspersed MRT microbeam arrays and subtle variations in the sample positioning by the sample stage goniometer were measured. Conclusions: Laser fluorescence confocal microscopy of MRT irradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters has been validated in this study as a high resolution imaging tool for the independent spatial and geometrical verification of MRT beam delivery.

  2. High-resolution imaging of solar system objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    The strategy of this investigation has been to develop new high-resolution imaging capabilities and to apply them to extended observing programs. These programs have included Io's neutral sodium cloud and comets. The Io observing program was carried out at Table Mountain Observatory (1976 to 1981), providing a framework interpreting Voyager measurements of the Io torus, and serving as an important reference for studying asymmetries and time variabilities in the Jovian magnetosphere. Comet observations made with the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and 1.6 m AMOS telescope (1984 to 1987) provide basis for studying early coma development in Halley, the kinematics of its nucleus, and the internal and external structure of the nucleus. Images of GZ from the ICE encounter period form the basis for unique comparisons with in situ magnetic field and dust impact measurements to determine the ion tail and dust coma structure, respectively.

  3. Porous silicon phantoms for high-resolution scintillation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francia, G.; Scafè, R.; De Vincentis, G.; La Ferrara, V.; Iurlaro, G.; Nasti, I.; Montani, L.; Pellegrini, R.; Betti, M.; Martucciello, N.; Pani, R.

    2006-12-01

    High resolution radionuclide imaging requires phantoms with precise geometries and known activities using either Anger cameras equipped with pinhole collimators or dedicated small animal devices. Porous silicon samples, having areas of different shape and size, can be made and loaded with a radioactive material, obtaining: (a) precise radio-emitting figures corresponding to the porous areas geometry, (b) a radioactivity of each figure depending on the pore's specifications, and (c) the same emission energy to be used in true exams. To this aim a sample with porous circular areas has been made and loaded with a 99mTcO 4- solution. Imaging has been obtained using both general purpose and pinhole collimators. This first sample shows some defects that are analyzed and discussed.

  4. Semantic-based high resolution remote sensing image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Dihua

    High Resolution Remote Sensing (HRRS) imagery has been experiencing extraordinary development in the past decade. Technology development means increased resolution imagery is available at lower cost, making it a precious resource for planners, environmental scientists, as well as others who can learn from the ground truth. Image retrieval plays an important role in managing and accessing huge image database. Current image retrieval techniques, cannot satisfy users' requests on retrieving remote sensing images based on semantics. In this dissertation, we make two fundamental contributions to the area of content based image retrieval. First, we propose a novel unsupervised texture-based segmentation approach suitable for accurately segmenting HRRS images. The results of existing segmentation algorithms dramatically deteriorate if simply adopted to HRRS images. This is primarily clue to the multi-texture scales and the high level noise present in these images. Therefore, we propose an effective and efficient segmentation model, which is a two-step process. At high-level, we improved the unsupervised segmentation algorithm by coping with two special features possessed by HRRS images. By preprocessing images with wavelet transform, we not only obtain multi-resolution images but also denoise the original images. By optimizing the splitting results, we solve the problem of textons in HRRS images existing in different scales. At fine level, we employ fuzzy classification segmentation techniques with adjusted parameters for different land cover. We implement our algorithm using real world 1-foot resolution aerial images. Second, we devise methodologies to automatically annotate HRRS images based on semantics. In this, we address the issue of semantic feature selection, the major challenge faced by semantic-based image retrieval. To discover and make use of hidden semantics of images is application dependent. One type of the semantics in HRRS image is conveyed by composite

  5. High resolution imaging of objects located within a wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greneker, Eugene F.; Showman, Gregory A.; Trostel, John M.; Sylvester, Vincent

    2006-05-01

    Researchers at Georgia Tech Research Institute have developed a high resolution imaging radar technique that allows large sections of a test wall to be scanned in X and Y dimensions. The resulting images that can be obtained provide information on what is inside the wall, if anything. The scanning homodyne radar operates at a frequency of 24.1 GHz at with an output power level of approximately 10 milliwatts. An imaging technique that has been developed is currently being used to study the detection of toxic mold on the back surface of wallboard using radar as a sensor. The moisture that is associated with the mold can easily be detected. In addition to mold, the technique will image objects as small as a 4 millimeter sphere on the front or rear of the wallboard and will penetrate both sides of a wall made of studs and wallboard. Signal processing is performed on the resulting data to further sharpen the image. Photos of the scanner and images produced by the scanner are presented. A discussion of the signal processing and technical challenges are also discussed.

  6. Graph - Based High Resolution Satellite Image Segmentation for Object Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravali, K.; Kumar, M. V. Ravi; Venugopala Rao, K.

    2014-11-01

    Object based image processing and analysis is challenging research in very high resolution satellite utilisation. Commonly ei ther pixel based classification or visual interpretation is used to recognize and delineate land cover categories. The pixel based classification techniques use rich spectral content of satellite images and fail to utilise spatial relations. To overcome th is drawback, traditional time consuming visual interpretation methods are being used operational ly for preparation of thematic maps. This paper addresses computational vision principles to object level image segmentation. In this study, computer vision algorithms are developed to define the boundary between two object regions and segmentation by representing image as graph. Image is represented as a graph G (V, E), where nodes belong to pixels and, edges (E) connect nodes belonging to neighbouring pixels. The transformed Mahalanobis distance has been used to define a weight function for partition of graph into components such that each component represents the region of land category. This implies that edges between two vertices in the same component have relatively low weights and edges between vertices in different components should have higher weights. The derived segments are categorised to different land cover using supervised classification. The paper presents the experimental results on real world multi-spectral remote sensing images of different landscapes such as Urban, agriculture and mixed land cover. Graph construction done in C program and list the run time for both graph construction and segmentation calculation on dual core Intel i7 system with 16 GB RAM, running 64bit window 7.

  7. High resolution imaging of dynamic surface processes from the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnellan, A.; Green, J. J.; De Jong, E. M.; Knight, R.; Bills, B.; Arrowsmith, R.

    Spaceborne persistent multi-angle imaging allows staring at selected targets during an orbit pass. From its vantage point on the International Space Station (ISS) a persistent Earth imaging telescope would provide hundreds of high-resolution images simultaneously. Observations could be in visible and SWIR bands as it stares at a scene of interest. These images provide rich multi-angle stereo views enabling understanding of rapidly changing Earth features with many applications to Earth science and disaster response. Current academic state-of-the-art is driven by single images taken with a near nadir view. Persistent imaging could address NASA's goal of understanding how and why the Earth's environment is changing, and could be used for forecasting and mitigating the effects of natural disasters. Specifically such a mission could be used to answer the questions: 1) How are Earth's vulnerable systems reflecting changes in climate? and 2) What processes and features characterize the magnitude and extent of disasters? A mission would meet geomorphologists' requirements observing changing features such as landslides, earthquakes, floods, volcanoes, and glaciers.

  8. Secure distribution for high resolution remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin; Sun, Jing; Xu, Zheng Q.

    2010-09-01

    The use of remote sensing images collected by space platforms is becoming more and more widespread. The increasing value of space data and its use in critical scenarios call for adoption of proper security measures to protect these data against unauthorized access and fraudulent use. In this paper, based on the characteristics of remote sensing image data and application requirements on secure distribution, a secure distribution method is proposed, including users and regions classification, hierarchical control and keys generation, and multi-level encryption based on regions. The combination of the three parts can make that the same remote sensing images after multi-level encryption processing are distributed to different permission users through multicast, but different permission users can obtain different degree information after decryption through their own decryption keys. It well meets user access control and security needs in the process of high resolution remote sensing image distribution. The experimental results prove the effectiveness of the proposed method which is suitable for practical use in the secure transmission of remote sensing images including confidential information over internet.

  9. High resolution imaging with impulse based thermoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellnberger, Stephan; Hajiaboli, Amir; Sergiadis, George; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2011-07-01

    Existing imaging modalities like microwave- or radiofrequency (RF) induced thermoacoustic tomography systems show the potential for resolving structures deep inside tissue due to the high penetration properties of RF. However, one of the major drawbacks of existing thermoacoustic tomography systems with pulse modulated carrier frequency excitation is the compromise between efficient signal generation and attainable spatial resolution. In order to overcome limitations of conventional thermoacoustic imaging methods, we herein present and experimentally validate our novel approach towards high resolution thermoacoustic tomography. Instead of carrier-frequency amplification, we utilize ultrahigh-energy electromagnetic impulses at nanosecond duration with near-field energy coupling, thus maintaining thermoacoustic signal strength without compromising spatial resolution. Preliminary experiments on highly absorbing objects, consisting of copper wires with characteristic sizes of ~100 μm, reveal the resolution performance which yields 160 μm. Furthermore, benefits like its cost effectiveness, simplicity and compactness with the potential application in small animal imaging as well as human body imaging show that thermoacoustic tomography with impulse excitation is a promising imaging modality which has a broad range of applications.

  10. A mechanical microcompressor for high resolution imaging of motile specimens.

    PubMed

    Zinskie, Jessica A; Shribak, Michael; Bruist, Michael F; Aufderheide, Karl J; Janetopoulos, Chris

    2015-10-01

    In order to obtain fine details in 3 dimensions (3D) over time, it is critical for motile biological specimens to be appropriately immobilized. Of the many immobilization options available, the mechanical microcompressor offers many benefits. Our device, previously described, achieves gentle flattening of a cell, allowing us to image finely detailed structures of numerous organelles and physiological processes in living cells. We have imaged protozoa and other small metazoans using differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, orientation-independent (OI) DIC, and real-time birefringence imaging using a video-enhanced polychromatic polscope. We also describe an enhancement of our previous design by engineering a new device where the coverslip mount is fashioned onto the top of the base; so the entire apparatus is accessible on top of the stage. The new location allows for easier manipulation of the mount when compressing or releasing a specimen on an inverted microscope. Using this improved design, we imaged immobilized bacteria, yeast, paramecia, and nematode worms and obtained an unprecedented view of cell and specimen details. A variety of microscopic techniques were used to obtain high resolution images of static and dynamic cellular and physiological events. PMID:26192819

  11. A mechanical microcompressor for high resolution imaging of motile specimens

    PubMed Central

    Zinskie, Jessica A.; Shribak, Michael; Bruist, Michael F.; Aufderheide, Karl J.; Janetopoulos, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain fine details in 3 dimensions (3D) over time, it is critical for motile biological specimens to be appropriately immobilized. Of the many immobilization options available, the mechanical microcompressor offers many benefits. Our device, previously described, achieves gentle flattening of a cell, allowing us to image finely detailed structures of numerous organelles and physiological processes in living cells. We have imaged protozoa and other small metazoans using differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, orientation-independent (OI) DIC, and real-time birefringence imaging using a video-enhanced polychromatic polscope. We also describe an enhancement of our previous design by engineering a new device where the coverslip mount is fashioned onto the top of the base; so the entire apparatus is accessible on top of the stage. The new location allows for easier manipulation of the mount when compressing or releasing a specimen on an inverted microscope. Using this improved design, we imaged immobilized bacteria, yeast, paramecia, and nematode worms and obtained an unprecedented view of cell and specimen details. A variety of microscopic techniques were used to obtain high resolution images of static and dynamic cellular and physiological events. PMID:26192819

  12. High-resolution breath-hold cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yu.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation work is composed of investigations of three methods for fast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These methods include (1) 2D breath-hold magnetization prepared gradient echo and fast spin-echo (FSE) cardiac imaging, (2) 3D breath-hold magnetization prepared gradient echo cardiac imaging, and (3) real-time monitoring, feedback, and triggering for breath-hold MRI. The hypothesis of this work is that high resolution 2D and 3D magnetic resonance data sets for the heart can be acquired with the combination of magnetization prepared blood suppression for gradient echo techniques and accurate breath-holding methods. The 2D method included development of magnetic resonance data acquisition for cardiac imaging. The acquisition time is within a single breath-hold of 16 seconds (assuming heart 60/min). The data acquisition is synchronized with the electrocardiogram signal. Based on consistent observations of specific small cardiac structures like the papillary muscle, trabeculae, moderator band, and coronary vessels in studies of normal volunteers, the image quality represents a significant improvement over that obtained with fast imaging methods previously. To further improve the image quality provided by the 2D method, the first 3D cardiac MRI technique was developed. This method provides even better spatial resolution for cardiac images, with a voxel size of 1.09 [times] 2.19 [times] 4 mm[sup 3]. A 3D acquisition is completed in 8 breath-holds. The data acquisition for 3D cardiac imaging requires a consistent breath-hold position to avoid respiratory artifacts. To improve the reliability of the 3DFT acquisition, a new technique called MR breath-hold feedback was developed to provide reproducible breathholding. The diaphragm location is used as the index for breath-hold reproducibility measurement. The range of the diaphragm displacement in different breath-hold is reduced from 8.3 mm without the technique, to 1.3 mm with the technique.

  13. Seabed AUV Offers New Platform for High-Resolution Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Hanumant; Can, Ali; Eustice, Ryan; Lerner, Steve; McPhee, Neil; Pizarro, Oscar; Roman, Chris

    2004-08-01

    A number of marine biological, geological, and archaeological applications share the need for high-resolution optical and acoustic imaging of the sea floor. In particular, there is a compelling need to conduct studies in depths beyond those considered reasonable for divers (~50 m) down to depths at the shelf edge and continental slope (~1000-2000 m). Some of the constraints associated with such work include the requirement to work off of small coastal vessels or fishing boats of opportunity, and the requirement for the vehicle components to be air-shippable, to enable inexpensive deployments at far-flung oceanographic sites of interest. Over the last 2 and a half years, the Seabed Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) has been designed and deployed in the support of such tasks off of Puerto Rico, Bermuda, Stellwagen Bank off Massachusetts, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  14. High-Resolution Multiphoton Imaging of Tumors In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Gligorijevic, Bojana; Entenberg, David; Segall, Jeffrey; Condeelis, John

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the individual steps in metastasis is crucial if insights at the molecular level are to be linked to the cell biology of cancer. A technical hurdle to achieving the analysis of the individual steps of metastasis is the fact that, at the gross level, tumors are heterogeneous in both animal models and patients. Human primary tumors show extensive variation in all properties ranging from growth and morphology of the tumor through tumor-cell density in the blood and formation and growth of metastases. Methods capable of the direct visualization and analysis of tumor-cell behavior at single-cell resolution in vivo have become crucial in advancing the understanding of mechanisms of metastasis, the definition of microenvironment, and the markers related to both. This article discusses the use of high-resolution multiphoton imaging of tumors (specifically breast tumors in mice) in vivo. PMID:21969629

  15. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: high resolution imaging requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiao-Lei; Treu, Tommaso; Agnello, Adriano; Auger, Matthew W.; Liao, Kai; Marshall, Philip J.

    2015-09-01

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ``Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρtotpropto r-γ' for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. However, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation Adaptive Optics System, and TMT, will only be of

  16. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: High resolution imaging requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Xiao -Lei; Treu, Tommaso; Agnello, Adriano; Auger, Matthew W.; Liao, Kai; Marshall, Philip J.

    2015-09-28

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ``Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρtot∝ r–γ' for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. Furthermore, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation Adaptive Optics System, and TMT, will

  17. High-resolution mechanical imaging of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Streitberger, Kaspar-Josche; Guo, Jing; Tzschätzsch, Heiko; Hirsch, Sebastian; Fischer, Thomas; Braun, Jürgen; Sack, Ingolf

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test the feasibility and reproducibility of in vivo high-resolution mechanical imaging of the asymptomatic human kidney. Hereby nine volunteers were examined at three different physiological states of urinary bladder filling (a normal state, urinary urgency, and immediately after urinary relief). Mechanical imaging was performed of the in vivo kidney using three-dimensional multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography combined with multifrequency dual elastovisco inversion. Other than in classical elastography, where the storage and loss shear moduli are evaluated, we analyzed the magnitude |G(⁎)| and the phase angle φ of the complex shear modulus reconstructed by simultaneous inversion of full wave field data corresponding to 7 harmonic drive frequencies from 30 to 60Hz and a resolution of 2.5mm cubic voxel size. Mechanical parameter maps were derived with a spatial resolution superior to that in previous work. The group-averaged values of |G(⁎)| were 2.67±0.52kPa in the renal medulla, 1.64±0.17kPa in the cortex, and 1.17±0.21kPa in the hilus. The phase angle φ (in radians) was 0.89±0.12 in the medulla, 0.83±0.09 in the cortex, and 0.72±0.06 in the hilus. All regional differences were significant (P<0.001), while no significant variation was found in relation to different stages of bladder filling. In summary our study provides first high-resolution maps of viscoelastic parameters of the three anatomical regions of the kidney. |G(⁎)| and φ provide novel information on the viscoelastic properties of the kidney, which is potentially useful for the detection of renal lesions or fibrosis. PMID:24355382

  18. Theme issue "High Resolution Earth Imaging for Geospatial Information"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heipke, Christian; Soergel, Uwe; Rottensteiner, Franz; Jutzi, Boris

    2015-02-01

    Earth imaging from air and space has undergone major changes over the last decade. Examples of new and significant developments comprise the development and constant improvement of digital aerial cameras, multiple-echo and full-waveform laser scanners and the appearance of geosensor networks and unconventional platforms, most notably unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), sometimes called unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) or remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS), and the ever increasing number of high-resolution and hyperspectral optical and SAR satellite sensors, small satellites and satellite constellations, which allow for both, a continued availability of satellite data over long periods of time, and a very short revisit time for any location on the globe. To give few examples: the latest Landsat satellite, appropriately called the Landsat data continuity mission or LDCM was launched on February 2013, continuing the Landsat mission which began back in 1972; during 2013 and 2014 France has put the SPOT 6 and 7 twin satellites into orbit, extending the history of high resolution space images, which started in 1986; and in April 2014 the European Space Agency (ESA) successfully launched the Sentinel 1A satellite with a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor, the first of a fleet of different sensors that will be sent into space in the coming years. Sentinel 1A together with its twin system Sentinel 1B, to be launched in 2016, will continue the tremendous success story of ESA's C band SAR satellite activities dating back to 1991. Like the predecessors ERS 1, ERS 2, and Envisat ASAR, the Sentinel 1 systems are designed to cover the entire land mass with medium resolution, the repeat cycle is 12 days for Sentinel 1A alone and will even drop to six days as soon as both satellites are operational.

  19. Cortical Surface Reconstruction from High-Resolution MR Brain Images

    PubMed Central

    Osechinskiy, Sergey; Kruggel, Frithjof

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of the cerebral cortex from magnetic resonance (MR) images is an important step in quantitative analysis of the human brain structure, for example, in sulcal morphometry and in studies of cortical thickness. Existing cortical reconstruction approaches are typically optimized for standard resolution (~1 mm) data and are not directly applicable to higher resolution images. A new PDE-based method is presented for the automated cortical reconstruction that is computationally efficient and scales well with grid resolution, and thus is particularly suitable for high-resolution MR images with submillimeter voxel size. The method uses a mathematical model of a field in an inhomogeneous dielectric. This field mapping, similarly to a Laplacian mapping, has nice laminar properties in the cortical layer, and helps to identify the unresolved boundaries between cortical banks in narrow sulci. The pial cortical surface is reconstructed by advection along the field gradient as a geometric deformable model constrained by topology-preserving level set approach. The method's performance is illustrated on exvivo images with 0.25–0.35 mm isotropic voxels. The method is further evaluated by cross-comparison with results of the FreeSurfer software on standard resolution data sets from the OASIS database featuring pairs of repeated scans for 20 healthy young subjects. PMID:22481909

  20. Bright Semiconductor Scintillator for High Resolution X-Ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Nagarkar, Vivek V.; Gaysinskiy, Valeriy; Ovechkina, Olena E.; Miller, Stuart; Singh, Bipin; Guo, Liang; Irving, Thomas

    2011-08-16

    We report on a novel approach to produce oxygen-doped zinc telluride (ZnTe:O), a remarkable group II-VI semiconductor scintillator, fabricated in the columnar-structured or polycrystalline forms needed to fulfill the needs of many demanding X-ray and {gamma}-ray imaging applications. ZnTe:O has one of the highest conversion efficiencies among known scintillators, emission around 680 nm (which is ideally suited for CCD sensors), high density of 6.4 g/cm{sup 3}, fast decay time of {approx}1 {micro}s with negligible afterglow, and orders of magnitude higher radiation resistance compared to commonly used scintillators. These properties allow the use of ZnTe:O in numerous applications, including X-ray imaging, nuclear medicine (particularly SPECT), room temperature radioisotope identification, and homeland security. Additionally, ZnTe:O offers distinct advantages for synchrotron-based high resolution imaging due to the absence of atomic absorption edges in the low energy range, which otherwise reduce resolution due to secondary X-ray formations. We have fabricated films of ZnTe:O using a vapor deposition technique that allows large-area structured scintillator fabrication in a time- and cost-efficient manner, and evaluated its performance for small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) at an Argonne National Laboratory synchrotron beamline. Details of the fabrication and characterization of the optical, scintillation and imaging properties of the ZnTe:O films are presented in this paper.

  1. Automatic Crowd Analysis from Very High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirmacek, B.; Reinartz, P.

    2011-04-01

    Recently automatic detection of people crowds from images became a very important research field, since it can provide crucial information especially for police departments and crisis management teams. Due to the importance of the topic, many researchers tried to solve this problem using street cameras. However, these cameras cannot be used to monitor very large outdoor public events. In order to bring a solution to the problem, herein we propose a novel approach to detect crowds automatically from remotely sensed images, and especially from very high resolution satellite images. To do so, we use a local feature based probabilistic framework. We extract local features from color components of the input image. In order to eliminate redundant local features coming from other objects in given scene, we apply a feature selection method. For feature selection purposes, we benefit from three different type of information; digital elevation model (DEM) of the region which is automatically generated using stereo satellite images, possible street segment which is obtained by segmentation, and shadow information. After eliminating redundant local features, remaining features are used to detect individual persons. Those local feature coordinates are also assumed as observations of the probability density function (pdf) of the crowds to be estimated. Using an adaptive kernel density estimation method, we estimate the corresponding pdf which gives us information about dense crowd and people locations. We test our algorithm usingWorldview-2 satellite images over Cairo and Munich cities. Besides, we also provide test results on airborne images for comparison of the detection accuracy. Our experimental results indicate the possible usage of the proposed approach in real-life mass events.

  2. Heuristic optimization in penumbral image for high resolution reconstructed image

    SciTech Connect

    Azuma, R.; Nozaki, S.; Fujioka, S.; Chen, Y. W.; Namihira, Y.

    2010-10-15

    Penumbral imaging is a technique which uses the fact that spatial information can be recovered from the shadow or penumbra that an unknown source casts through a simple large circular aperture. The size of the penumbral image on the detector can be mathematically determined as its aperture size, object size, and magnification. Conventional reconstruction methods are very sensitive to noise. On the other hand, the heuristic reconstruction method is very tolerant of noise. However, the aperture size influences the accuracy and resolution of the reconstructed image. In this article, we propose the optimization of the aperture size for the neutron penumbral imaging.

  3. Structure recognition from high resolution images of ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ushizima, Daniela; Perciano, Talita; Krishnan, Harinarayan; Loring, Burlen; Bale, Hrishikesh; Parkinson, Dilworth; Sethian, James

    2015-01-05

    Fibers provide exceptional strength-to-weight ratio capabilities when woven into ceramic composites, transforming them into materials with exceptional resistance to high temperature, and high strength combined with improved fracture toughness. Microcracks are inevitable when the material is under strain, which can be imaged using synchrotron X-ray computed micro-tomography (mu-CT) for assessment of material mechanical toughness variation. An important part of this analysis is to recognize fibrillar features. This paper presents algorithms for detecting and quantifying composite cracks and fiber breaks from high-resolution image stacks. First, we propose recognition algorithms to identify the different structures of the composite, including matrix cracks and fibers breaks. Second, we introduce our package F3D for fast filtering of large 3D imagery, implemented in OpenCL to take advantage of graphic cards. Results show that our algorithms automatically identify micro-damage and that the GPU-based implementation introduced here takes minutes, being 17x faster than similar tools on a typical image file.

  4. Schiaparelli Crater Rim and Interior Deposits - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A portion of the rim and interior of the large impact crater Schiaparelli is seen at high resolution in this image acquired October 18, 1997 by the Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter Camera (MOC). The area covered is very small--3.9 X 10.2 km (2.4 X 6.33 mi)--but is seen at 63 times higher resolution than the Viking image. The subdued relief and bright surface are attributed to blanketing by dust; many small craters have been completely filled in, and only the most recent (and very small) craters appear sharp and bowl-shaped. Some of the small craters are only 10-12 m (30-35 feet) across. Occasional dark streaks on steeper slopes are small debris slides that have probably occurred in the past few decades. The two prominent, narrow ridges in the center of the image may be related to the adjustment of the crater floor to age or the weight of the material filling the basin.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  5. Cheetah: A high frame rate, high resolution SWIR image camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neys, Joel; Bentell, Jonas; O'Grady, Matt; Vermeiren, Jan; Colin, Thierry; Hooylaerts, Peter; Grietens, Bob

    2008-10-01

    A high resolution, high frame rate InGaAs based image sensor and associated camera has been developed. The sensor and the camera are capable of recording and delivering more than 1700 full 640x512pixel frames per second. The FPA utilizes a low lag CTIA current integrator in each pixel, enabling integration times shorter than one microsecond. On-chip logics allows for four different sub windows to be read out simultaneously at even higher rates. The spectral sensitivity of the FPA is situated in the SWIR range [0.9-1.7 μm] and can be further extended into the Visible and NIR range. The Cheetah camera has max 16 GB of on-board memory to store the acquired images and transfer the data over a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the PC. The camera is also equipped with a full CameralinkTM interface to directly stream the data to a frame grabber or dedicated image processing unit. The Cheetah camera is completely under software control.

  6. Multi-spectral compressive snapshot imaging using RGB image sensors.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Hoover; Lau, Daniel; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2015-05-01

    Compressive sensing is a powerful sensing and reconstruction framework for recovering high dimensional signals with only a handful of observations and for spectral imaging, compressive sensing offers a novel method of multispectral imaging. Specifically, the coded aperture snapshot spectral imager (CASSI) system has been demonstrated to produce multi-spectral data cubes color images from a single snapshot taken by a monochrome image sensor. In this paper, we expand the theoretical framework of CASSI to include the spectral sensitivity of the image sensor pixels to account for color and then investigate the impact on image quality using either a traditional color image sensor that spatially multiplexes red, green, and blue light filters or a novel Foveon image sensor which stacks red, green, and blue pixels on top of one another. PMID:25969307

  7. The Singapore high resolution single cell imaging facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, Frank; Chen, Xiao; Vera, Armin Baysic De; Udalagama, Chammika N. B.; Ren, M.; Kan, Jeroen A. van; Bettiol, Andrew A.

    2011-10-01

    The Centre for Ion Beam Applications, National University of Singapore has recently expanded from three state-of-the-art beam lines to five. Two new beam lines have been constructed: A second generation proton beam writing line, and a high resolution single cell imaging facility. Both systems feature high demagnification lens systems based on compact Oxford Microbeams OM52 lenses, coupled with reduced lens/image distances. The single cell imaging facility is designed around OM52 compact lenses capable of operating in a variety of high demagnification configurations including the spaced Oxford triplet and the double crossover Russian quadruplet. The new facility has design specifications aimed at spatial resolutions below 50 nm, with a variety of techniques including STIM, secondary electron and fluorescence imaging, and an in-built optical and fluorescence microscope for sample imaging, identification and positioning. Preliminary tests using the single space Oxford triplet configuration have indicated a beam spot size of 31 × 39 nm in the horizontal and vertical directions respectively, at beam currents of ∼10,000 protons per second. However, a weakness in the specifications of the electrostatic scanning system has been identified, and a more stable scanning system needs to be implemented before we can fully realize the optimum performance. A single whole fibroblast cell has been scanned using 1.5 MeV protons, and a median fit to the proton transmission energy loss data has shown that proton STIM gives excellent details of the cell structure despite the relatively poor contrast of proton STIM compared with alpha STIM.

  8. Wide-Field-of-View, High-Resolution, Stereoscopic Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prechtl, Eric F.; Sedwick, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    A device combines video feeds from multiple cameras to provide wide-field-of-view, high-resolution, stereoscopic video to the user. The prototype under development consists of two camera assemblies, one for each eye. One of these assemblies incorporates a mounting structure with multiple cameras attached at offset angles. The video signals from the cameras are fed to a central processing platform where each frame is color processed and mapped into a single contiguous wide-field-of-view image. Because the resolution of most display devices is typically smaller than the processed map, a cropped portion of the video feed is output to the display device. The positioning of the cropped window will likely be controlled through the use of a head tracking device, allowing the user to turn his or her head side-to-side or up and down to view different portions of the captured image. There are multiple options for the display of the stereoscopic image. The use of head mounted displays is one likely implementation. However, the use of 3D projection technologies is another potential technology under consideration, The technology can be adapted in a multitude of ways. The computing platform is scalable, such that the number, resolution, and sensitivity of the cameras can be leveraged to improve image resolution and field of view. Miniaturization efforts can be pursued to shrink the package down for better mobility. Power savings studies can be performed to enable unattended, remote sensing packages. Image compression and transmission technologies can be incorporated to enable an improved telepresence experience.

  9. High Resolution Imaging of Circumstellar Disks at Millimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilner, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Our program uses the techniques of millimeter interferometry to make high resolution observations of dust continuum emission to study the structure of protoplanetary disks and debris disks around nearby stars. Observations of dust emission at these wavelengths are advantageous because the dust emission is generally optically thin and directly proportional to mass, and contrast with stellar photospheres is not a problem. We are using of several observational facilities, including (1) the Very Large Array (VLA) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatories, (2) the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) of the Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique, and (3) the Submillimeter Array (SMA), now under construction by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and Academia Sinica (Taiwan). In the past year, we have accomplished the following (more details below): (1) We continued work on our 'low resolution' VLA survey of disks in Herbig Ae star and binary systems, primarily to identify candidates for higher resolution follow-up. We have submitted a paper for publication on the detailed analysis of the structure of the disk around CQ Tauri; (2) We completed analysis of our PdBI observations of the debris disk around Vega, and we presented these results at (1) the 199th AAS meeting in Washington, DC, and (2) a symposium in memory of Fred Gillett on Debris Disks and the Formation of Planets, in Tucson, AZ; (3) We continue commissioning observations with the SMA, which include the first ever interferometric images in the 850 micron wavelength band, in preparation for eventually imaging debris disks.

  10. High resolution imaging of the outflow channels on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davatzes, A. K.; Gulick, V. C.

    2008-12-01

    We report observations of the outflow channels on Mars from HiRISE images in MRO's first Martian year. Several hundred images of the outflow channels on Mars have been collected to date from HiRISE, as well as coordinated images with CTX and CRISM. Depositional features, such as slackwater deposits and small bedforms that are expected to be visible at the resolution of HiRISE have not yet been observed, largely due to post-fluvial modification of the channels. Many of the channels have been subsequently covered by a thin layer of lava, ash, dust, or lineated valley fill. Although altered slightly by later aeolian modification, Ares Valles and Kasei Valles preserve much of the original fluvial erosional forms, particularly cataracts and longitudinal grooves that can be used to infer the mechanics of the flow. Cataracts, steep knickpoints in the large outflow channels, were once large waterfalls on the Martian surface. These have been observed in all of the larger outflow systems, including Kasai, Athabasca, Mangala, and Reull Valles. High resolution imaging shows that all of the cataract systems have multiple generations of erosion, with smaller subchannels within the cataract system. Based on the length of the recession and the morphological evidence most of the large channels experienced multiple flooding events or pulses. The tectonically sourced outflow channels, such as Athabasca and Mangala Valles, show sourcing at regions of complex fault geometries, specifically at fault relays. In terrestrial systems, relays tend to be regions of concentrated stress that can produce dilation manifested as high joint density, as well as point sources for hydrothermal outflow on Earth. Athabasca and Mangala Valles, sourced proximal to large volcanic centers, may have been regions of major hydrothermal activity in the past.

  11. Flow-ejecta Crater in Icaria Planum - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter Camera (MOC) acquired this high resolution image of a flow ejecta crater on November 19, 1997, at 8:26 PM PST, about 18 minutes after the start the 45th orbit of Mars. The area shown is roughly 6.5 by 40.2 kilometers (4 by 25 miles), and is located near 40 degrees South latitude, 120 degrees West longitude. Features as small as 15-18 m (50-60 feet) across are visible in the picture.

    Flow ejecta craters are so named because the material blasted out of the crater during the impact process appears to have flowed across the surface of Mars. First seen in Mariner 9 images in 1973, and described in detail using Viking Orbiter images acquired in 1976-78, flow-ejecta craters are considered by many scientists to be evidence that liquid water could be found in the near-subsurface at the time the craters formed. This image, a factor of two better than any previous view of such features (and a factor of 33 better than the best Viking frame of the specific crater, 056A61), shows two smaller, pre-existing craters and the interaction of the flowing ejecta with these craters. The uppermost small crater has been over-topped and partly buried by the flow, while the flow has been diverted around the lower crater. Ridges formed where the flow 'stacked up' behind obstacles, or came to rest.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  12. High Resolution 3D Radar Imaging of Comet Interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, E. I.; Gim, Y.; Belton, M.; Brophy, J.; Weissman, P. R.; Heggy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Knowing the interiors of comets and other primitive bodies is fundamental to our understanding of how planets formed. We have developed a Discovery-class mission formulation, Comet Radar Explorer (CORE), based on the use of previously flown planetary radar sounding techniques, with the goal of obtaining high resolution 3D images of the interior of a small primitive body. We focus on the Jupiter-Family Comets (JFCs) as these are among the most primitive bodies reachable by spacecraft. Scattered in from far beyond Neptune, they are ultimate targets of a cryogenic sample return mission according to the Decadal Survey. Other suitable targets include primitive NEOs, Main Belt Comets, and Jupiter Trojans. The approach is optimal for small icy bodies ~3-20 km diameter with spin periods faster than about 12 hours, since (a) navigation is relatively easy, (b) radar penetration is global for decameter wavelengths, and (c) repeated overlapping ground tracks are obtained. The science mission can be as short as ~1 month for a fast-rotating JFC. Bodies smaller than ~1 km can be globally imaged, but the navigation solutions are less accurate and the relative resolution is coarse. Larger comets are more interesting, but radar signal is unlikely to be reflected from depths greater than ~10 km. So, JFCs are excellent targets for a variety of reasons. We furthermore focus on the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to rendezvous shortly after the comet's perihelion. This approach leaves us with ample power for science operations under dormant conditions beyond ~2-3 AU. This leads to a natural mission approach of distant observation, followed by closer inspection, terminated by a dedicated radar mapping orbit. Radar reflections are obtained from a polar orbit about the icy nucleus, which spins underneath. Echoes are obtained from a sounder operating at dual frequencies 5 and 15 MHz, with 1 and 10 MHz bandwidths respectively. The dense network of echoes is used to obtain global 3D

  13. High Resolution Image Reconstruction from Projection of Low Resolution Images DIffering in Subpixel Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mareboyana, Manohar; Le Moigne-Stewart, Jacqueline; Bennett, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple algorithm that projects low resolution (LR) images differing in subpixel shifts on a high resolution (HR) also called super resolution (SR) grid. The algorithm is very effective in accuracy as well as time efficiency. A number of spatial interpolation techniques using nearest neighbor, inverse-distance weighted averages, Radial Basis Functions (RBF) etc. used in projection yield comparable results. For best accuracy of reconstructing SR image by a factor of two requires four LR images differing in four independent subpixel shifts. The algorithm has two steps: i) registration of low resolution images and (ii) shifting the low resolution images to align with reference image and projecting them on high resolution grid based on the shifts of each low resolution image using different interpolation techniques. Experiments are conducted by simulating low resolution images by subpixel shifts and subsampling of original high resolution image and the reconstructing the high resolution images from the simulated low resolution images. The results of accuracy of reconstruction are compared by using mean squared error measure between original high resolution image and reconstructed image. The algorithm was tested on remote sensing images and found to outperform previously proposed techniques such as Iterative Back Projection algorithm (IBP), Maximum Likelihood (ML), and Maximum a posterior (MAP) algorithms. The algorithm is robust and is not overly sensitive to the registration inaccuracies.

  14. Special issue on high-resolution optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Peter J. S.; Davis, Ilan; Galbraith, Catherine G.; Stemmer, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    The pace of development in the field of advanced microscopy is truly breath-taking, and is leading to major breakthroughs in our understanding of molecular machines and cell function. This special issue of Journal of Optics draws attention to a number of interesting approaches, ranging from fluorescence and imaging of unlabelled cells, to computational methods, all of which are describing the ever increasing detail of the dynamic behaviour of molecules in the living cell. This is a field which traditionally, and currently, demonstrates a marvellous interplay between the disciplines of physics, chemistry and biology, where apparent boundaries to resolution dissolve and living cells are viewed in ever more clarity. It is fertile ground for those interested in optics and non-conventional imaging to contribute high-impact outputs in the fields of cell biology and biomedicine. The series of articles presented here has been selected to demonstrate this interdisciplinarity and to encourage all those with a background in the physical sciences to 'dip their toes' into the exciting and dynamic discoveries surrounding cell function. Although single molecule super-resolution microscopy is commercially available, specimen preparation and interpretation of single molecule data remain a major challenge for scientists wanting to adopt the techniques. The paper by Allen and Davidson [1] provides a much needed detailed introduction to the practical aspects of stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, including sample preparation, image acquisition and image analysis, as well as a brief description of the different variants of single molecule localization microscopy. Since super-resolution microscopy is no longer restricted to three-dimensional imaging of fixed samples, the review by Fiolka [2] is a timely introduction to techniques that have been successfully applied to four-dimensional live cell super-resolution microscopy. The combination of multiple high-resolution techniques

  15. High-Resolution Imaging of Asteroids/Satellites with AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merline, William

    2012-02-01

    We propose to make high-resolution observations of asteroids using AO, to measure size, shape, and pole position (spin vectors), and/or to search for satellites. We have demonstrated that AO imaging allows determination of the pole/dimensions in 1 or 2 nights on a single target, rather than the years of observations with lightcurve inversion techniques that only yield poles and axial ratios, not true dimensions. Our new technique (KOALA) combines AO imaging with lightcurve and occultation data for optimum size/shape determinations. We request that LGS be available for faint targets, but using NGS AO, we will measure several large and intermediate asteroids that are favorably placed in spring/summer of 2012 for size/shape/pole. Accurately determining the volume from the often-irregular shape allows us to derive densities to much greater precision in cases where the mass is known, e.g., from the presence of a satellite. We will search several d! ozen asteroids for the presence of satellites, particularly in under-studied populations, particularly NEOs (we have recently achieved the first-ever optical image of an NEO binary [Merline et al. 2008b, IAUC 8977]). Satellites provide a real-life lab for testing collisional models. We will search for satellites around special objects at the request of lightcurve observers, and we will make a search for debris in the vicinity of Pluto, in support of the New Horizons mission. Our shape/size work requires observations over most of a full rotation period (typically several hours).

  16. High Resolution Imaging of Circumstellar Disks at Millimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilner, David J.

    2003-01-01

    We update progress on our research program to use high angular resolution imaging of thermal dust continuum emission at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths to probe the structure of protoplanetary disks and debris disks around nearby stars. Observations at these wavelengths are advantageous because the dust emission is generally optically thin and directly proportional to mass, contrast with stellar photospheres is not problematic, and the wavelength dependence provides information on an important regime of grain sizes. We employ several facilities for state-of-the-art high resolution observations, including the Very Large Array (VLA), the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) of the Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique, the Submillimeter Array (SMA) of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). Many recent highlights of our program were presented in an invited review on High Angular Resolution Studies of Disks- the Millimetre at IAU Symposium 221, Star Formation at High Angular Resolution, in July 2003.

  17. Imaging heart development using high-resolution episcopic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mohun, Timothy J; Weninger, Wolfgang J

    2011-10-01

    Development of the heart in vertebrate embryos is a complex process in which the organ is continually remodelled as chambers are formed, valves sculpted and connections established to the developing vascular system. Investigating the genetic programmes driving these changes and the environmental factors that may influence them is critical for our understanding of congenital heart disease. A recurrent challenge in this work is how to integrate studies as diverse as those of cardiac gene function and regulation with an appreciation of the localised interactions between cardiac tissues not to mention the manner in which both may be affected by cardiac function itself. Meeting this challenge requires an accurate way to analyse the changes in 3D morphology of the developing heart, which can be swift or protracted and both dramatic or subtle in consequence. Here we review the use of high-resolution episcopic microscopy as a simple and effective means to examine organ structure and one that allows modern computing methods pioneered by clinical imaging to be applied to the embryonic heart. PMID:21893408

  18. A Stretching Device for High Resolution Live-Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lawrence; Mathieu, Pattie S.; Helmke, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    Several custom-built and commercially available devices are available to investigate cellular responses to substrate strain. However, analysis of structural dynamics by microscopy in living cells during stretch is not readily feasible. We describe a novel stretch device optimized for high-resolution live-cell imaging. The unit assembles onto standard inverted microscopes and applies constant magnitude or cyclic stretch at physiological magnitudes to cultured cells on elastic membranes. Interchangeable modular indenters enable delivery of equibiaxial and uniaxial stretch profiles. Strain analysis performed by tracking fluorescent microspheres adhered onto the substrate demonstrated reproducible application of stretch profiles. In endothelial cells transiently expressing EGFP-vimentin and paxillin-DsRed2 and subjected to constant magnitude equibiaxial stretch, the 2-D strain tensor demonstrated efficient transmission through the extracellular matrix and focal adhesions. Decreased transmission to the intermediate filament network was measured, and a heterogeneous spatial distribution of maximum stretch magnitude revealed discrete sites of strain focusing. Spatial correlation of vimentin and paxillin displacement vectors provided an estimate of the extent of mechanical coupling between the structures. Interestingly, switching the spatial profile of substrate strain reveals that actin-mediated edge ruffling is not desensitized to repeated mechano-stimulation. These initial observations show that the stretch device is compatible with live-cell microscopy and is a novel tool for measuring dynamic structural remodeling under mechanical strain. PMID:20195762

  19. Special issue on high-resolution optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Peter J. S.; Davis, Ilan; Galbraith, Catherine G.; Stemmer, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    The pace of development in the field of advanced microscopy is truly breath-taking, and is leading to major breakthroughs in our understanding of molecular machines and cell function. This special issue of Journal of Optics draws attention to a number of interesting approaches, ranging from fluorescence and imaging of unlabelled cells, to computational methods, all of which are describing the ever increasing detail of the dynamic behaviour of molecules in the living cell. This is a field which traditionally, and currently, demonstrates a marvellous interplay between the disciplines of physics, chemistry and biology, where apparent boundaries to resolution dissolve and living cells are viewed in ever more clarity. It is fertile ground for those interested in optics and non-conventional imaging to contribute high-impact outputs in the fields of cell biology and biomedicine. The series of articles presented here has been selected to demonstrate this interdisciplinarity and to encourage all those with a background in the physical sciences to 'dip their toes' into the exciting and dynamic discoveries surrounding cell function. Although single molecule super-resolution microscopy is commercially available, specimen preparation and interpretation of single molecule data remain a major challenge for scientists wanting to adopt the techniques. The paper by Allen and Davidson [1] provides a much needed detailed introduction to the practical aspects of stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, including sample preparation, image acquisition and image analysis, as well as a brief description of the different variants of single molecule localization microscopy. Since super-resolution microscopy is no longer restricted to three-dimensional imaging of fixed samples, the review by Fiolka [2] is a timely introduction to techniques that have been successfully applied to four-dimensional live cell super-resolution microscopy. The combination of multiple high-resolution techniques

  20. Sea state variability observed by high resolution satellite radar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleskachevsky, A.; Lehner, S.

    2012-04-01

    The spatial variability of the wave parameters is measured and investigated using new TerraSAR-X (TS-X) satellite SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images. Wave groupiness, refraction and breaking of individual wave are studied. Space borne SAR is a unique sensor providing two dimensional information of the ocean surface. Due to its daylight, weather independency and global coverage, the TS-X radar is particularly suitable for many ocean and coastal observations and it acquires images of the sea surface with up to 1m resolution; individual ocean waves with wavelength below 30m are detectable. Two-dimensional information of the ocean surface, retrieved using TS-X data, is validated for different oceanographic applications: derivation of the fine resolved wind field (XMOD algorithm) and integrated sea state parameters (XWAVE algorithm). The algorithms are capable to take into account fine-scale effects in the coastal areas. This two-dimensional information can be successfully applied to validate numerical models. For this, wind field and sea state information retrieved from SAR images are given as input for a spectral numerical wave model (wind forcing and boundary condition). The model runs and sensitivity studies are carried out at a fine spatial horizontal resolution of 100m. The model results are compared to buoy time series at one location and with spatially distributed wave parameters obtained from SAR. The comparison shows the sensitivity of waves to local wind variations and the importance of local effects on wave behavior in coastal areas. Examples for the German Bight, North Sea and Rottenest Island, Australia are shown. The wave refraction, rendered by high resolution SAR images, is also studied. The wave ray tracking technique is applied. The wave rays show the propagation of the peak waves in the SAR-scenes and are estimated using image spectral analysis by deriving peak wavelength and direction. The changing of wavelength and direction in the rays allows

  1. Estimating Scots Pine Tree Mortality Using High Resolution Multispectral Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buriak, L.; Sukhinin, A. I.; Conard, S. G.; Ivanova, G. A.; McRae, D. J.; Soja, A. J.; Okhotkina, E.

    2010-12-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest stands of central Siberia are characterized by a mixed-severity fire regime that is dominated by low- to high-severity surface fires, with crown fires occurring less frequently. The purpose of this study was to link ground measurements with air-borne and satellite observations of active wildfires and older fire scars to better estimate tree mortality remotely. Data from field sampling on experimental fires and wildfires were linked with intermediate-resolution satellite (Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper) data to estimate fire severity and carbon emissions. Results are being applied to Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery, MERIS, Landsat-ETM, SPOT (i.e., low, middle and high spatial resolution), to understand their remote-sensing capability for mapping fire severity, as indicated by tree mortality. Tree mortality depends on fireline intensity, residence time, and the physiological effects on the cambium layer, foliage and roots. We have correlated tree mortality measured after fires of varying severity with NDVI and other Chlorophyll Indexes to model tree mortality on a landscape scale. The field data obtained on experimental and wildfires are being analyzed and compared with intermediate-resolution satellite data (Landsat7-ETM) to help estimate fire severity, emissions, and carbon balance. In addition, it is being used to monitor immediate ecosystem fire effects (e.g., tree mortality) and long-term postfire vegetation recovery. These data are also being used to validate AVHRR , MODIS, and MERIS estimates of burn area. We studied burned areas in the Angara Region of central Siberia (northeast of Lake Baikal) for which both ground data and satellite data (ENVISAT-MERIS, Spot4, Landsat5, Landsat7-ETM) were available for the 2003 - 2004 and 2006 - 2008 periods. Ground validation was conducted on seventy sample plots established on burned sites differing in

  2. High resolution Ceres HAMO atlas derived from Dawn FC images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roatsch, Thomas; Kersten, Elke; Matz, Klaus-Dieter; Preusker, Frank; Scholten, Frank; Jaumann, Ralf; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Chris T.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: NASA's Dawn spacecraft entered the orbit of dwarf planet Ceres in March 2015, and will characterize the geology, elemental and mineralogical composition, topography, shape, and internal structure of Ceres. One of the major goals of the mission is a global mapping of Ceres. Data: The Dawn mission was mapping Ceres in HAMO (High Altitude Mapping Orbit, 1475 km altitude) between August and October 2015. The framing camera took about 2,600 clear filter images with a resolution of about 140 m/pixel during these cycles. The images were taken with different viewing angles and different illumination conditions. We selected images from one cycle (cycle #1) for the mosaicking process to have similar viewing and illumination conditions. Very minor gaps in the coverage were filled with a few images from cycle #2. Data Processing: The first step of the processing chain towards the cartographic products is to ortho-rectify the images to the proper scale and map projec-tion type. This process requires detailed information of the Dawn orbit and attitude data and of the topography of the targets. Both, improved orientation and a high-resolution shape model, are provided by stereo processing (bundle block adjustment) of the HAMO stereo image dataset [3]. Ceres's HAMO shape model was used for the calculation of the ray intersection points while the map projection itself was done onto the reference sphere of Ceres with a radius of 470 km. The final step is the controlled mosaicking) of all images to a global mosaic of Ceres, the so-called basemap. Ceres map tiles: The Ceres atlas was produced in a scale of 1:750,000 and consists of 15 tiles that conform to the quadrangle scheme proposed by Greeley and Batson [4]. A map scale of 1:750,000 guarantees a mapping at the highest available Dawn resolution in HAMO. The individual tiles were extracted from the global mosaic and reprojected. Nomenclature: The Dawn team proposed 81 names for geological features. By international

  3. High resolution VESTA LAMO atlas derived from Dawn FC images.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roatsch, Thomas; Kersten, Elke; Matz, Klaus-Dieter; Preusker, Frank; Scholten, Frank; Jaumann, Ralf; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Cris T.

    2013-04-01

    Introduction: NASA's Dawn spacecraft entered orbit of the inner main belt asteroid 4 Vesta on July 16, 2011, and spent about one year in orbit to characterize the geology, elemental and mineralogical composition, topography, shape, and internal structure of Vesta before it departed to asteroid 1 Ceres in late 2012. One of the major goals of the mission was a global mapping of Vesta. Data: The DAWN mission was mapping Vesta from three different orbit heights during Survey orbit (3100 km altitude), HAMO (High Altitude Mapping Orbit, 700 km altitude), and LAMO (Low Altitude Mapping Orbit, 210 km altitude) [1]. The Dawn mission is equipped with a framing camera (FC) [2] which was the prime instrument during the LAMO phase. DAWN orbited Vesta during LAMO in 21 cycles between December 2011 and end of April 2012. The framing camera took about 10,000 clear filter images with a resolution of about 20 m/pixel during these cycles. The images were taken with different viewing angles and different illumination conditions. We selected about 8,000 images for the global coverage of Vesta. Data Processing: The first step of the processing chain is to ortho rectify the images to the proper scale and map projection type. This process requires detailed high-resolution information of the local topography of Vesta. The global topgraphy was calculated during the stereo processing of the HAMO images [3] and was used here. The shape model was used for the calculation of the ray intersection points while the map projection itself was done onto a sphere with a mean radius of 255 km. The next step was the mosaicking of all images to one global mosaic of Vesta, the so called basemap. Vesta map tiles: The Vesta atlas was produced in a scale of 1:200,000 and consists of 30 tiles that conform to the quadrangle scheme proposed by Greeley and Batson [4] and is used for example for mapping Mars in a scale of 1:5,000,000. A map scale of 1:200,000 guarantees a mapping at the highest available DAWN

  4. Compact snapshot real-time imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudenov, Michael W.; Dereniak, Eustace L.

    2011-11-01

    The described spectral imaging system, referred to as a Snapshot Hyperspectral Imaging Fourier Transform (SHIFT) spectrometer, is capable of acquiring spectral image data of a scene in a single integration of a camera, is ultra-compact, inexpensive (commercial off-the-shelf), has no moving parts, and can produce datacubes (x, y, λ) in real time. Based on the multiple-image FTS originally developed by A. Hirai [1], the presented device offers significant advantages over his original implementation. Namely, its birefringent nature results in a common-path interferometer which makes the spectrometer insensitive to vibration. Furthermore, it enables the potential of making the instrument ultra-compact, thereby improving the portability of the sensor. By combining a birefringent interferometer with a lenslet array, the entire spectrometer consumes approximately 15×15×20 mm3, excluding the imaging camera. The theory of the birefringent FTS is provided, followed by details of its specific embodiment and a laboratory proof of concept of the sensor. Post-processing is currently accomplished in Matlab, but progress is underway in developing real-time reconstruction capabilities with software programmed on a graphics processing unit (GPU). It is anticipated that processing of >30 datacubes per second can be achieved with modest GPU hardware, with spatial/spectral data of or exceeding 256×256 spatial resolution elements and 60 spectral bands over the visible (400-800 nm) spectrum. Data were collected outdoors, demonstrating the sensor's ability to resolve spectral signatures in standard outdoor lighting and environmental conditions as well as retinal imaging.

  5. Snapshot imaging polarimeters using spatial modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Haitao

    The recent demonstration of a novel snapshot imaging polarimeter using the fringe modulation technique shows a promise in building a compact and moving-parts-free device. As just demonstrated in principle, this technique has not been adequately studied. In the effort of advancing this technique, we build a complete theory framework that can address the key issues regarding the polarization aberrations caused by using the functional elements. With this model, we can have the necessary knowledge in designing, analyzing and optimizing the systems. Also, we propose a broader technique that uses arbitrary modulation instead of sinusoidal fringes, which can give us more engineering freedom and can be the solution of achromatizing the system. In the hardware aspect, several important progresses are made. We extend the polarimeter technique from visible to middle wavelength infrared by using the yttrium vanadate crystals. Also, we incorporate a Savart Plate polarimter into a fundus camera to measure the human eye's retinal retardance, useful information for glaucoma diagnosis. Thirdly, a world-smallest imaging polarimeter is proposed and demonstrated, which may open many applications in security, remote sensing and bioscience.

  6. Clinical imaging and high-resolution ultrasonography in melanocytoma management

    PubMed Central

    Gologorsky, Daniel; Schefler, Amy C; Ehlies, Fiona J; Raskauskas, Paul A; Pina, Yolanda; Williams, Basil K; Murray, Timothy G

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the utility of high resolution 20 MHz ophthalmic ultrasound in serial follow-up of optic nerve head melanocytoma patients. Methods: This study is a retrospective review of 30 patients with melanocytoma of the optic nerve head studied with echography. All patients were evaluated with standard ophthalmic A-scan and B-scan ultrasonography and 10 (33%) underwent high-resolution ultrasound. Results: Sixty-two percent (62%) of patients had dome-shaped lesions on ultrasound, twenty-eight percent (28%) presented with mild elevations. The maximum elevation of any lesion was 2.6 mm. The vast majority (89%) of lesions had medium or high internal reflectivity and 89% demonstrated avascularity. Mean follow-up for all patients was nearly 7 years. High-resolution ultrasound enabled enhanced accuracy for detection of lesion dimensions and documentation of growth and possible malignant transformation. Conclusions: In this study, we demonstrate a new and important role for the use of ultrasound in this disease as a complementary tool in identifying and following patients with high-risk growth characteristics. These tumor characteristics can be accurately detected with 10 MHz ultrasound in conjunction with standardized A-scan and better differentiated with the 20 MHz technology. Use of these modalities can aid in distinguishing the melanocytomas that grow from choroidal melanomas and can prevent unnecessary treatments. PMID:20714362

  7. High-Resolution Views of Io's Emakong Patera: Latest Galileo Imaging Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. A.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Davies, A. G.; Greeley, R.; Head, J. W., III

    2002-01-01

    This presentation will discuss analyses of the latest Galileo SSI (solid state imaging) high-resolution images of the Emakong lava channels and flow field on Jupiter's moon Io. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. High-resolution EUV imaging tools for resist exposure and aerial image monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, M.; Brisco, O.; Brunton, A.; Cashmore, J.; Elbourn, P.; Elliner, G.; Gower, M.; Greuters, J.; Grunewald, P.; Gutierrez, R.; Hill, T.; Hirsch, J.; Kling, L.; McEntee, N.; Mundair, S.; Richards, P.; Truffert, V.; Wallhead, I.; Whitfield, M.; Hudyma, R.

    2005-05-01

    Key features are presented of two high-resolution EUV imaging tools: the MS-13 Microstepper wafer exposure and the RIM-13 reticle imaging microscope. The MS-13 has been developed for EUV resist testing and technology evaluation at the 32nm node and beyond, while the RIM-13 is designed for actinic aerial image monitoring of blank and patterned EUV reticles. Details of the design architecture, module layout, major subsystems and performance are presented for both tools.

  9. High resolution imaging of tunnels by magnetic resonance neurography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kenneth C.; Thawait, Shrey K.; Williams, Eric H.; Hashemi, Shahreyar Shar; Machado, Antonio J.; Carrino, John A.; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral nerves often traverse confined fibro-osseous and fibro-muscular tunnels in the extremities, where they are particularly vulnerable to entrapment and compressive neuropathy. This gives rise to various tunnel syndromes, characterized by distinct patterns of muscular weakness and sensory deficits. This article focuses on several upper and lower extremity tunnels, in which direct visualization of the normal and abnormal nerve in question is possible with high resolution 3T MR neurography (MRN). MRN can also serve as a useful adjunct to clinical and electrophysiologic exams by discriminating adhesive lesions (perineural scar) from compressive lesions (such as tumor, ganglion, hypertrophic callous, or anomalous muscles) responsible for symptoms, thereby guiding appropriate treatment. PMID:21479520

  10. Lensfree on-chip high-resolution imaging using two-way lighting, and its limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Yasuhiko; Tamaki, Tokuhiko; Motomura, Hideto; Kato, Yoshihisa

    2016-03-01

    A high-magnification image of a biological sample can generally be obtained by an optical microscope with an objective lens, moving the image sensor with a sub-pixel shift and the subsequent image processing for super-resolution. However, to obtain a high-resolution image, a large number of images will be required for the super-resolution, and thus it is difficult to achieve real-time operation, and the field-of-view (FOV) is not sufficiently wide. The currently proposed digital holography technique places a sample on the image sensor and captures the interference fringe (hologram) to reconstruct a 3D high-resolution image in a computer. This technique ensures the features of a wide FOV, whereas the high resolution obtained by image processing cannot ensure real-time operation, because it requires recursive calculations of light propagation and adequate computer resources. To realize wide FOV and the real-time operation at the same time, we have developed a new technique: Lensfree on-chip high-resolution imaging using two-way lighting. High-resolution image is immediately obtained by image processing of the low-resolution images of the samples. This makes it possible to ensure a wide FOV, a deep depth of focus without the need for focus adjustment, and a continuously expanding operation. We also discuss the limitations of the high resolution.

  11. A new high-resolution electromagnetic method for subsurface imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wanjie

    For most electromagnetic (EM) geophysical systems, the contamination of primary fields on secondary fields ultimately limits the capability of the controlled-source EM methods. Null coupling techniques were proposed to solve this problem. However, the small orientation errors in the null coupling systems greatly restrict the applications of these systems. Another problem encountered by most EM systems is the surface interference and geologic noise, which sometimes make the geophysical survey impossible to carry out. In order to solve these problems, the alternating target antenna coupling (ATAC) method was introduced, which greatly removed the influence of the primary field and reduced the surface interference. But this system has limitations on the maximum transmitter moment that can be used. The differential target antenna coupling (DTAC) method was proposed to allow much larger transmitter moments and at the same time maintain the advantages of the ATAC method. In this dissertation, first, the theoretical DTAC calculations were derived mathematically using Born and Wolf's complex magnetic vector. 1D layered and 2D blocked earth models were used to demonstrate that the DTAC method has no responses for 1D and 2D structures. Analytical studies of the plate model influenced by conductive and resistive backgrounds were presented to explain the physical phenomenology behind the DTAC method, which is the magnetic fields of the subsurface targets are required to be frequency dependent. Then, the advantages of the DTAC method, e.g., high-resolution, reducing the geologic noise and insensitive to surface interference, were analyzed using surface and subsurface numerical examples in the EMGIMA software. Next, the theoretical advantages, such as high resolution and insensitive to surface interference, were verified by designing and developing a low-power (moment of 50 Am 2) vertical-array DTAC system and testing it on controlled targets and scaled target coils. At last, a

  12. High Resolution Imaging of the Sun with CORONAS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karovska, Margarita

    1998-01-01

    We applied several image restoration and enhancement techniques, to CORONAS-I images. We carried out the characterization of the Point Spread Function (PSF) using the unique capability of the Blind Iterative Deconvolution (BID) technique, which recovers the real PSF at a given location and time of observation, when limited a priori information is available on its characteristics. We also applied image enhancement technique to extract the small scale structure imbeded in bright large scale structures on the disk and on the limb. The results demonstrate the capability of the image post-processing to substantially increase the yield from the space observations by improving the resolution and reducing noise in the images.

  13. Towards Adaptive High-Resolution Images Retrieval Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourgli, A.; Sebai, H.; Bouteldja, S.; Oukil, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, content-based image-retrieval techniques constitute powerful tools for archiving and mining of large remote sensing image databases. High spatial resolution images are complex and differ widely in their content, even in the same category. All images are more or less textured and structured. During the last decade, different approaches for the retrieval of this type of images have been proposed. They differ mainly in the type of features extracted. As these features are supposed to efficiently represent the query image, they should be adapted to all kind of images contained in the database. However, if the image to recognize is somewhat or very structured, a shape feature will be somewhat or very effective. While if the image is composed of a single texture, a parameter reflecting the texture of the image will reveal more efficient. This yields to use adaptive schemes. For this purpose, we propose to investigate this idea to adapt the retrieval scheme to image nature. This is achieved by making some preliminary analysis so that indexing stage becomes supervised. First results obtained show that by this way, simple methods can give equal performances to those obtained using complex methods such as the ones based on the creation of bag of visual word using SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) descriptors and those based on multi scale features extraction using wavelets and steerable pyramids.

  14. High resolution PET breast imager with improved detection efficiency

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, Stanislaw

    2010-06-08

    A highly efficient PET breast imager for detecting lesions in the entire breast including those located close to the patient's chest wall. The breast imager includes a ring of imaging modules surrounding the imaged breast. Each imaging module includes a slant imaging light guide inserted between a gamma radiation sensor and a photodetector. The slant light guide permits the gamma radiation sensors to be placed in close proximity to the skin of the chest wall thereby extending the sensitive region of the imager to the base of the breast. Several types of photodetectors are proposed for use in the detector modules, with compact silicon photomultipliers as the preferred choice, due to its high compactness. The geometry of the detector heads and the arrangement of the detector ring significantly reduce dead regions thereby improving detection efficiency for lesions located close to the chest wall.

  15. High resolution image processing on low-cost microcomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    Recent advances in microcomputer technology have resulted in systems that rival the speed, storage, and display capabilities of traditionally larger machines. Low-cost microcomputers can provide a powerful environment for image processing. A new software program which offers sophisticated image display and analysis on IBM-based systems is presented. Designed specifically for a microcomputer, this program provides a wide-range of functions normally found only on dedicated graphics systems, and therefore can provide most students, universities and research groups with an affordable computer platform for processing digital images. The processing of AVHRR images within this environment is presented as an example.

  16. High-Resolution and Animal Imaging Instrumentation and Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcari, Nicola; Guerra, AlbertoDel

    During the last decade we have observed a growing interest in "in vivo" imaging techniques for small animals. This is due to the necessity of studying biochemical processes at a molecular level for pharmacology, genetic, and pathology investigations. This field of research is usually called "molecular imaging."Advances in biological understanding have been accompanied by technological advances in instrumentation and techniques and image-reconstruction software, resulting in improved image quality, visibility, and interpretation. The main technological challenge is then the design of systems with high spatial resolution and high sensitivity.

  17. Virtually distortion-free imaging system for large field, high resolution lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Ceglio, N.M.

    1993-01-05

    Virtually distortion free large field high resolution imaging is performed using an imaging system which contains large field distortion or field curvature. A reticle is imaged in one direction through the optical system to form an encoded mask. The encoded mask is then imaged back through the imaging system onto a wafer positioned at the reticle position.

  18. Virtually distortion-free imaging system for large field, high resolution lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hawryluk, Andrew M.; Ceglio, Natale M.

    1993-01-01

    Virtually distortion free large field high resolution imaging is performed using an imaging system which contains large field distortion or field curvature. A reticle is imaged in one direction through the optical system to form an encoded mask. The encoded mask is then imaged back through the imaging system onto a wafer positioned at the reticle position.

  19. High-Resolution Solar Imaging With Photon Sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktem, F. S.; Kamalabadi, F.; Davila, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    A photon sieve is a modification of a Fresnel zone plate in which open zones are replaced by a large number of circular holes. This lightweight optical device offers a superior image forming capability compared with the Fresnel zone plate, and is specially suited to observations at UV and x-ray wavelengths where refractive lenses are not available due to strong absorption of materials, and reflective mirrors are difficult to manufacture to achieve near diffraction-limited resolution. At these shorter wavelengths, photon sieves enable diffraction-limited imaging performance with relaxed manufacturing tolerances, and simple and low-cost fabrication. In this work, we present a new photon sieve imaging modality that, unlike previous designs, takes advantage of chromatic aberration. The fact that different wavelengths are focused at different distances from photon sieve is exploited to develop a novel multi-spectral imaging technique. The idea is to use a photon sieve imaging system with a moving detector which records images at different planes. Each measurement consists of superimposed images of different wavelengths, with each individual image being either in focus or out of focus. For spatially incoherent illumination, we study the problem of recovering the individual images from these superimposed measurements. We first formulate the discrete forward problem using the closed-form Fresnel imaging formulas. The inverse problem is then a multi-frame deconvolution problem involving multiple objects, and is formulated as a maximum posterior estimation problem. The resulting nonlinear optimization problem is solved using a fixed-point iterative algorithm. In contrast to traditional spectral imagers employing a series of wavelength filters, the proposed technique relies on a simple optical system, but incorporates powerful image processing methods to form spectral images computationally. In addition to diffraction-limited high spatial resolution enabled by photon sieves

  20. Phase correction algorithms for a snapshot hyperspectral imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Victoria C.; Kudenov, Michael; Dereniak, Eustace

    2015-09-01

    We present image processing algorithms that improve spatial and spectral resolution on the Snapshot Hyperspectral Imaging Fourier Transform (SHIFT) spectrometer. Final measurements are stored in the form of threedimensional datacubes containing the scene's spatial and spectral information. We discuss calibration procedures, review post-processing methods, and present preliminary results from proof-of-concept experiments.

  1. Study of fish response using particle image velocimetry and high-speed, high-resolution imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Z.; Richmond, M. C.; Mueller, R. P.; Gruensch, G. R.

    2004-10-01

    Fish swimming has fascinated both engineers and fish biologists for decades. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and high-speed, high-resolution digital imaging are recently developed analysis tools that can help engineers and biologists better understand how fish respond to turbulent environments. This report details studies to evaluate DPIV. The studies included a review of existing literature on DPIV, preliminary studies to test the feasibility of using DPIV conducted at our Flow Biology Laboratory in Richland, Washington September through December 2003, and applications of high-speed, high-resolution digital imaging with advanced motion analysis to investigations of fish injury mechanisms in turbulent shear flows and bead trajectories in laboratory physical models. Several conclusions were drawn based on these studies, which are summarized as recommendations for proposed research at the end of this report.

  2. Dedicated mobile high resolution prostate PET imager with an insertable transrectal probe

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2010-12-28

    A dedicated mobile PET imaging system to image the prostate and surrounding organs. The imaging system includes an outside high resolution PET imager placed close to the patient's torso and an insertable and compact transrectal probe that is placed in close proximity to the prostate and operates in conjunction with the outside imager. The two detector systems are spatially co-registered to each other. The outside imager is mounted on an open rotating gantry to provide torso-wide 3D images of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs. The insertable probe provides closer imaging, high sensitivity, and very high resolution predominately 2D view of the prostate and immediate surroundings. The probe is operated in conjunction with the outside imager and a fast data acquisition system to provide very high resolution reconstruction of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs.

  3. High-Resolution Image of Europa's Ridged Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This spectacular image taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft camera shows a region of ridged plains on Jupiter's moon Europa. The plains are comprised of many parallel and cross-cutting ridges, commonly in pairs. The majority of the region is of very bright, but darker material is seen primarily in valleys between ridges. Some of the most prominent ridges have dark deposits along their margins and in their central valleys. Some of this dark material probably moved down the flanks of the ridges and has piled up along their bases. The most prominent ridges are about a kilometer in width (less than a mile). In the top right hand corner of the image the end of a dark wide ridge (about 2 kilometers or 1.2 miles across) is visible. Several deep fractures cut through this ridge and continue into the plains. The brightness of the region suggests that frost covers much of Europa's surface. This image looks different from those obtained earlier in Galileo's mission, because this image was taken with the Sun higher in Europa's sky.

    This image was taken on December 16, 1997 at a range of 1,300 kilometers (800 miles) by Galileo's solid state imaging system. North is to the top of the picture, and the Sun illuminates the surface from the upper left. This image, centered at approximately 14 degrees south latitude and 194 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) on each side. The resolution is 26 meters (85 feet) per picture element.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  4. Adaptive Optics Technology for High-Resolution Retinal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Marco; Serrao, Sebastiano; Devaney, Nicholas; Parravano, Mariacristina; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effects of optical aberrations. The direct visualization of the photoreceptor cells, capillaries and nerve fiber bundles represents the major benefit of adding AO to retinal imaging. Adaptive optics is opening a new frontier for clinical research in ophthalmology, providing new information on the early pathological changes of the retinal microstructures in various retinal diseases. We have reviewed AO technology for retinal imaging, providing information on the core components of an AO retinal camera. The most commonly used wavefront sensing and correcting elements are discussed. Furthermore, we discuss current applications of AO imaging to a population of healthy adults and to the most frequent causes of blindness, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. We conclude our work with a discussion on future clinical prospects for AO retinal imaging. PMID:23271600

  5. High Resolution Imaging of Circumstellar Disks at Millimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilner, David J.

    2004-01-01

    We summarize progress on our program to use high angular resolution imaging of thermal dust continuum emission at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths to probe the structure of protoplanetary disks and debris disks around nearby stars.

  6. Hypertelescopes: The Challenge of Direct Imaging at High Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labeyrie, A.

    2013-03-01

    Sparse optical interferometric arrays of many apertures can produce direct images in the densified-pupil mode, also called "hypertelescope" mode. Pending the introduction of adaptive optics for cophasing, indirect images can also be reconstructed with speckle imaging techniques. But adaptive phasing is preferable, when a sufficiently bright guide star is available. Several wave sensing techniques, by-products of those used on monolithic telescopes for some of them, are potentially usable. For cophased direct images of very faint sources in the absence of a natural guide star, a modified form of the Laser Guide Star techniques demonstrated on conventional and segmented telescopes is described. Preliminary testing in laboratory suggests further investigation. Recorded images, assumed co-phased, are also improvable post-detection with optical aperture-synthesis techniques such as Earth rotation synthesis, where data from successive exposures are combined incoherently. Nevertheless, the gain becomes modest if hundreds of sub-apertures are used. Image deconvolution techniques are also applicable, if suitably modified as demonstrated by Aime et al. (2012), and Mary (2012). Their modified deconvolution algorithms can extend the Direct Imaging Field (also called Clean Field) of hypertelescopes. More sub-apertures at given collecting area, implying that their size is reduced, improve the direct-imaging performance. The predictable trend thus favors systems combining hundreds of sub-apertures of modest size, if workable designs can be evolved. One such design, the "Ubaye Hypertelescope" entering the initial testing phase in the southern Alps, has a fixed spherical meta-mirror with a 57 m effective aperture, expandable to 200 m. Preliminary results suggest that larger versions, whether spherical or active paraboloidal, can reach a kilometric aperture size at terrestrial sites having a suitable concave topography. In space, hypertelescope meta-apertures spanning up to 100 000

  7. Wide field snapshot imaging polarimeter using modified Savart plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Naooki; Odate, Satoru; Otaki, Katsura; Kubota, Masahiro; Kitahara, Rintaro; Oka, Kazuhiko

    2013-09-01

    Without moving parts, the snapshot imaging polarimeter utilizing Savart plates is capable of stable and fast measurements of spatiallly distributed Stokes parameters. To increase feasibility of the optical design, we propose modi cations that enable a wider eld-of view. By changing the Savar plates' con guration and improving the calibration procedure, the unwanted effects associated with the increase in the eld of view can be reduced. We carried out the veri cation experiments of the wide eld of view snapshot imaging polarimeter.

  8. High Resolution Global Topography of Eros from NEAR Imaging and LIDAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskell, Robert W.; Konopliv, A.; Barnouin-Jha, O.; Scheeres, D.

    2006-01-01

    Principal Data Products: Ensemble of L-maps from SPC, Spacecraft state, Asteroid pole and rotation. Secondary Products: Global topography model, inertia tensor, gravity. Composite high resolution topography. Three dimensional image maps.

  9. High-Resolution Photoacoustic Imaging of Ocular Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Ronald H.; Kong, Fanting; Chen, Y.C.; Lloyd, Harriet O.; Kim, Hyung Ham; Cannata, Jonathan M.; Shung, K. Kirk; Coleman, D Jackson

    2010-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and ultrasound (US) are methods widely used for diagnostic imaging of the eye. These techniques detect discontinuities in optical refractive index and acoustic impedance respectively. Because these both relate to variations in tissue density or composition, OCT and US images share a qualitatively similar appearance. In photoacoustic imaging (PAI), short light pulses are directed at tissues, pressure is generated due to a rapid energy deposition in the tissue volume, and thermoelastic expansion results in generation of broadband US. PAI thus depicts optical absorption, which is independent of the tissue characteristics imaged by OCT or US. Our aim was to demonstrate the application of PAI in ocular tissues and to do so with lateral resolution comparable to OCT. We developed two PAI assemblies, both of which used single-element US transducers and lasers sharing a common focus. The first assembly had optical and 35-MHz US axes offset by a 30° angle. The second assembly consisted of a 20-MHz ring transducer with a coaxial optics. The laser emitted 5-ns pulses at either 532-nm or 1064-nm, with spot sizes at the focus of 35-μm for the angled probe and 20-μm for the coaxial probe. We compared lateral resolution by scanning 12.5-μm diameter wire targets with pulse/echo US and PAI at each wavelength. We then imaged the anterior segment in whole ex vivo pig eyes and the choroid and ciliary body region in sectioned eyes. PAI data obtained at 1064 nm in the near infrared had higher penetration but reduced signal amplitude compared to that obtained using the 532-nm green wavelength. Images were obtained of the iris, choroid and ciliary processes. The zonules and anterior cornea and lens surfaces were seen at 532 nm. Because the laser spot size was significantly smaller than the US beamwidth at the focus, PAI images had superior resolution than those obtained using conventional US. PMID:20420969

  10. High resolution resonance ionization imaging detector and method

    DOEpatents

    Winefordner, James D.; Matveev, Oleg I.; Smith, Benjamin W.

    1999-01-01

    A resonance ionization imaging device (RIID) and method for imaging objects using the RIID are provided, the RIID system including a RIID cell containing an ionizable vapor including monoisotopic atoms or molecules, the cell being positioned to intercept scattered radiation of a resonance wavelength .lambda..sub.1 from the object which is to be detected or imaged, a laser source disposed to illuminate the RIID cell with laser radiation having a wavelength .lambda..sub.2 or wavelengths .lambda..sub.2, .lambda..sub.3 selected to ionize atoms in the cell that are in an excited state by virtue of having absorbed the scattered resonance laser radiation, and a luminescent screen at the back surface of the RIID cell which presents an image of the number and position of charged particles present in the RIID cell as a result of the ionization of the excited state atoms. The method of the invention further includes the step of initially illuminating the object to be detected or imaged with a laser having a wavelength selected such that the object will scatter laser radiation having the resonance wavelength .lambda..sub.1.

  11. High-resolution ultrasound-aided biophotonic imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong V; Wang, Xueding; Ku, Geng; Xie, Xueyi; Stoica, George

    2004-01-01

    Optical contrast is sensitive to functional parameters, including the oxygen saturation and total concentration of hemoglobin, in biological tissues. However, due to the overwhelming scattering encountered by light in tissues, traditional optical modalities cannot provide satisfactory spatial resolution beyond the ballistic (a few hundred microns) and quasiballistic (1-2 mm) regimes. Photoacoustic tomography is based on the high optical contrast yet utilizing the high ultrasonic resolution. Our work in this emerging area of research will be summarized in this invited talk. In this technology, a diffraction-based inverse-source problem is solved in the image reconstruction, for which we developed the rigorous reconstruction theory. We implemented a prototype and accomplished noninvasive transdermal and transcranial functional imaging of small-animal brains in vivo. Change in the cerebral blood oxygenation of a rat, as a result of the alternation from hyperoxia to hypoxia, was imaged successfully. PMID:17271539

  12. Development of high resolution imaging detectors for x ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, S. S.; Schwartz, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    This final report summarizes our past activities and discusses the work performed over the period of 1 April 1990 through 1 April 1991 on x-ray optics, soft x-ray (0.1 - 10 KeV) imaging detectors, and hard x-ray (10 - 300 KeV) imaging detectors. If microchannel plates (MCPs) can be used to focus x-rays with a high efficiency and good angular resolution, they will revolutionize the field of x-ray optics. An x-ray image of a point source through an array of square MCP pores compared favorably with our ray tracing model for the MCP. Initial analysis of this image demonstrates the feasibility of MCPs for soft x-rays. Our work continues with optimizing the performance of our soft x-ray MCP imaging detectors. This work involves readout technology that should provide improved MCP readout devices (thin film crossed grid, curved, and resistive sheets), defect removal in MCPs, and photocathode optimization. In the area of hard x-ray detector development we have developed two different techniques for producing a CsI photocathode thickness of 10 to 100 microns, such that it is thick enough to absorb the high energy x-rays and still allow the photoelectrons to escape to the top MCP of a modified soft x-ray imaging detector. The methods involve vacuum depositing a thick film of CsI on a strong back, and producing a converter device that takes the place of the photocathode.

  13. Maximum bandwidth snapshot channeled imaging polarimeter with polarization gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaCasse, Charles F.; Redman, Brian J.; Kudenov, Michael W.; Craven, Julia M.

    2016-05-01

    Compact snapshot imaging polarimeters have been demonstrated in literature to provide Stokes parameter estimations for spatially varying scenes using polarization gratings. However, the demonstrated system does not employ aggressive modulation frequencies to take full advantage of the bandwidth available to the focal plane array. A snapshot imaging Stokes polarimeter is described and demonstrated through results. The simulation studies the challenges of using a maximum bandwidth configuration for a snapshot polarization grating based polarimeter, such as the fringe contrast attenuation that results from higher modulation frequencies. Similar simulation results are generated and compared for a microgrid polarimeter. Microgrid polarimeters are instruments where pixelated polarizers are superimposed onto a focal plan array, and this is another type of spatially modulated polarimeter, and the most common design uses a 2x2 super pixel of polarizers which maximally uses the available bandwidth of the focal plane array.

  14. Dynamic, gated and high resolution imaging with the ECAT III

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.J.; Phelps, M.E.; Huang, S.; Collard, P.E.; Bidaut, L.M.; Schwab, R.L.; Ricci, A.R.

    1986-02-01

    The ECAT III was designed primarily with a view towards imaging the heart. The gantry both rotates about the vertical axis and tilts about the horizontal axis to allow the optimum imaging angle of the heart. The patient opening is 65 cm in diameter to allow these motions. The system allows six TTL inputs to allow the user to insert additional information into the data stream (i.e. R wave gate from EKG, respiratory gate, signal start of injection, time of blood sample, etc.). The 512 narrow detectors (5.6 mm) per ring and their close packing (.5 mm) in conjunction with the natural spatial resolution limits of annihilation coincidence detection allow the system to image without the requirement of a scanning motion. This eliminates the problem of artefacts caused by inconsistent data due to asynchrony between the scanning motion of a PET system and the cardiac and/or the respiratory cycle. In this work, the authors present initial experience with the ECAT III in imaging phantoms, animals and man.

  15. Fast, High-Resolution Terahertz Radar Imaging at 25 Meters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken B.; Dengler, Robert J.; Llombart, Nuria; Talukder, Ashit; Panangadan, Anand V.; Peay, Chris S.; Siegel, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    We report improvements in the scanning speed and standoff range of an ultra-wide bandwidth terahertz (THz) imaging radar for person-borne concealed object detection. Fast beam scanning of the single-transceiver radar is accomplished by rapidly deflecting a flat, light-weight subreflector in a confocal Gregorian optical geometry. With RF back-end improvements also implemented, the radar imaging rate has increased by a factor of about 30 compared to that achieved previously in a 4 m standoff prototype instrument. In addition, a new 100 cm diameter ellipsoidal aluminum reflector yields beam spot diameters of approximately 1 cm over a 50x50 cm field of view at a range of 25 m, although some aberrations are observed that probably arise from misaligned optics. Through-clothes images of a concealed threat at 25 m range, acquired in 5 seconds, are presented, and the impact of reduced signal-to-noise from an even faster frame rate is analyzed. These results inform the system requirements for eventually achieving sub-second or video-rate THz radar imaging.

  16. High-resolution bispectral imager at 1000 frames per second.

    PubMed

    Strojnik, Marija; Paez, Gonzalo

    2015-09-21

    We describe a bispectral, 1000-frames per second imaging instrument working simultaneously in two spectral bands. These bands may be selected for a specific application; however, we implement a pair centered at 4.3 μm and 4.66 μm. Synchronization is accomplished by employing a single focal plane array. To demonstrate the performance of the bispectral imager, we apply it to the methane flame of a Bunsen burner in a near conjugate configuration with flame image length subtending at about 200 pixels. The instrument detects bispectral puffing at 2 Hz, pulsations, and bispectral radiation oscillations, first reported here in two spectral intervals. The period of oscillatory spectral components in two bands is the same, about 3 Hz for this flame, with delay of a quarter period between them, first reported here. With 1-ms integration time, we detect significant formation of turbulence and vortices, especially pronounced in the region where the flame transitions into a plume. We display bispectral ratioed images of flames in near-real time with either the laboratory or the field device. PMID:26406755

  17. High-Resolution MOC Image of Phobos' Stickney Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This image of Phobos, the inner and larger of the two moons of Mars, was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor on August 19, 1998. This image is a close-up of the far wall of the Stickney crater, 10 kilometers (6 miles) in diameter, that is the largest crater on Phobos. This image shows lighter and darker streaks going down the slopes (C). The presence of material of different brightness on the far crater slopes and in some of the grooves shows that the satellite is heterogeneous (that is, it is made of a mixture of different types of materials). The motion of debris down slopes is guided by gravity, which is only about 1/1000th that of the Earth -- e.g., a 68-kilogram (150-pound) person would weigh only about 57 grams (2 ounces) on Phobos. Phobos was observed by both the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). This image is one of the highest resolution images (4 meters or 13 feet per picture element or pixel) ever obtained of the Martian satellite.

    Malin Space Science Systems, Inc. and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Thermal Emission Spectrometer is operated by Arizona State University and was built by Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  18. High-Resolution MOC Image of Phobos' Face

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This image of Phobos, the inner and larger of the two moons of Mars, was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor on August 19, 1998. The minimum distance between the spacecraft and Phobos was 1,080 kilometers (671 miles). Phobos was observed by both the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). This image is one of the highest resolution images (4 meters or 13 feet per picture element or pixel) ever obtained of the Martian satellite. The image shows several new features of this lumpy moon -- features that are associated with the prominent crater seen in the upper left quarter of the image. This is the largest crater on Phobos, Stickney, 10 kilometers (6 miles) in diameter. Individual boulders are visible on the near rim of the crater (D), and are presumed to be ejecta blocks from the impact that formed Stickney. Some of these boulders are enormous - more than 50 meters (160 feet) across. Also crossing at and near the rim of Stickney are shallow, elongated depressions called grooves. This crater is nearly half the size of Phobos and these grooves may be fractures caused by its formation. The far wall of the crater shows lighter and darker streaks going down the slopes (C). The presence of material of different brightness on the far crater slopes and in some of the grooves shows that the satellite is heterogeneous (that is, it is made of a mixture of different types of materials). The motion of debris down slopes is guided by gravity, which is only about 1/1000th that of the Earth -- e.g., a 68-kilogram (150- pound) person would weigh only about 57 grams (2 ounces) on Phobos. Previous images from the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's were not of sufficient resolution to show the effectiveness of gravity on Phobos in moving material down slopes.

    Malin Space Science Systems, Inc. and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA

  19. High resolution fluorescent bio-imaging with electron beam excitation.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Yoshimasa; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru

    2014-11-01

    We have developed electron beam excitation assisted (EXA) optical microscope[1-3], and demonstrated its resolution higher than 50 nm. In the microscope, a light source in a few nanometers size is excited by focused electron beam in a luminescent film. The microscope makes it possible to observe dynamic behavior of living biological specimens in various surroundings, such as air or liquids. Scan speed of the nanometric light source is faster than that in conventional near-field scanning optical microscopes. The microscope enables to observe optical constants such as absorption, refractive index, polarization, and their dynamic behavior on a nanometric scale. The microscope opens new microscopy applications in nano-technology and nano-science.Figure 1(a) shows schematic diagram of the proposed EXA microscope. An electron beam is focused on a luminescent film. A specimen is put on the luminescent film directly. The inset in Fig. 1(a) shows magnified image of the luminescent film and the specimen. Nanometric light source is excited in the luminescent film by the focused electron beam. The nanometric light source illuminates the specimen, and the scattered or transmitted radiation is detected with a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The light source is scanned by scanning of the focused electron beam in order to construct on image. Figure 1(b) shows a luminescence image of the cells acquired with the EXA microscope, and Fig. 1(c) shows a phase contrast microscope image. Cells were observed in culture solution without any treatments, such as fixation and drying. The shape of each cell was clearly recognized and some bright spots were observed in cells. We believe that the bright spots indicated with arrows were auto-fluorescence of intracellular granules and light- grey regions were auto-fluorescence of cell membranes. It is clearly demonstrated that the EXA microscope is useful tool for observation of living biological cells in physiological conditions.jmicro;63/suppl_1/i

  20. Ultra-High Resolution 3D Imaging of Whole Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fang; Sirinakis, George; Allgeyer, Edward S; Schroeder, Lena K; Duim, Whitney C; Kromann, Emil B; Phan, Thomy; Rivera-Molina, Felix E; Myers, Jordan R; Irnov, Irnov; Lessard, Mark; Zhang, Yongdeng; Handel, Mary Ann; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine; Lusk, C Patrick; Rothman, James E; Toomre, Derek; Booth, Martin J; Bewersdorf, Joerg

    2016-08-11

    Fluorescence nanoscopy, or super-resolution microscopy, has become an important tool in cell biological research. However, because of its usually inferior resolution in the depth direction (50-80 nm) and rapidly deteriorating resolution in thick samples, its practical biological application has been effectively limited to two dimensions and thin samples. Here, we present the development of whole-cell 4Pi single-molecule switching nanoscopy (W-4PiSMSN), an optical nanoscope that allows imaging of three-dimensional (3D) structures at 10- to 20-nm resolution throughout entire mammalian cells. We demonstrate the wide applicability of W-4PiSMSN across diverse research fields by imaging complex molecular architectures ranging from bacteriophages to nuclear pores, cilia, and synaptonemal complexes in large 3D cellular volumes. PMID:27397506

  1. Building identification from very high-resolution satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhomme, Stephane

    Urbanisation still remains one of the main problems worldwide. The extent and rapidity of the urban growth induce a number of socio-economic and environmental conflicts everywhere. In order to reduce these problems, urban planners need to integrate spatial information in planning tools. Actually high expectations are made on Very High Spatial Resolution imagery (VHSR). These high-spatial resolution images are available at a reasonable price and due to short revisit periods, they offer a high degree of actuality. However, interpretation methods seem not to be adapted to this new type of images. The aim of our study is to develop a new method for semi-automatic building extraction with VHSR. The different steps performed to achieve our objective are each presented in a chapter. In the first chapter, the general context of our research is described with the definition of our objective. After a short historical review of urbanisation, we focus on urban growth and associated problems. In the following we discuss the possible contributions of geography to reduce these problems. After discussing concepts, theories and methodologies of geographical analysis in urban areas, we present existing general urban planning tools. Finally, we show the special interest of our study that is due to a growing need to integrate spatial information in these decision support tools. In the second chapter we verify the possibility of reaching our objective by analysing the technical characteristics of the images, the noise and the distortions which affect the images. Quality and interpretability of the studied image is analysed in order to show the capacity of these image to represent urban objects as close to reality as possible. The results confirm the potential of VHSR Imagery for urban objects analysis. The third chapter deal with the preliminary steps necessary for the elaboration of our method of building extraction. First, we evaluate the quality of the Sherbrooke Ikonos image

  2. Advanced DTM Generation from Very High Resolution Satellite Stereo Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perko, R.; Raggam, H.; Gutjahr, K. H.; Schardt, M.

    2015-03-01

    This work proposes a simple filtering approach that can be applied to digital surface models in order to extract digital terrain models. The method focusses on robustness and computational efficiency and is in particular tailored to filter DSMs that are extracted from satellite stereo images. It represents an evolution of an existing DTM generation method and includes distinct advancement through the integration of multi-directional processing as well as slope dependent filtering, thus denoted "MSD filtering". The DTM generation workflow is fully automatic and requires no user interaction. Exemplary results are presented for a DSM generated from a Pléiades tri-stereo image data set. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations with respect to highly accurate reference LiDAR data confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  3. Improved SOT (Hinode mission) high resolution solar imaging observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodarzi, H.; Koutchmy, S.; Adjabshirizadeh, A.

    2015-08-01

    We consider the best today available observations of the Sun free of turbulent Earth atmospheric effects, taken with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) onboard the Hinode spacecraft. Both the instrumental smearing and the observed stray light are analyzed in order to improve the resolution. The Point Spread Function (PSF) corresponding to the blue continuum Broadband Filter Imager (BFI) near 450 nm is deduced by analyzing (i) the limb of the Sun and (ii) images taken during the transit of the planet Venus in 2012. A combination of Gaussian and Lorentzian functions is selected to construct a PSF in order to remove both smearing due to the instrumental diffraction effects (PSF core) and the large-angle stray light due to the spiders and central obscuration (wings of the PSF) that are responsible for the parasitic stray light. A Max-likelihood deconvolution procedure based on an optimum number of iterations is discussed. It is applied to several solar field images, including the granulation near the limb. The normal non-magnetic granulation is compared to the abnormal granulation which we call magnetic. A new feature appearing for the first time at the extreme- limb of the disk (the last 100 km) is discussed in the context of the definition of the solar edge and of the solar diameter. A single sunspot is considered in order to illustrate how effectively the restoration works on the sunspot core. A set of 125 consecutive deconvolved images is assembled in a 45 min long movie illustrating the complexity of the dynamical behavior inside and around the sunspot.

  4. High-Resolution Radar Imaging of Mercury's North Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, J. K.; Perillat, P. J.; Slade, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    The recently upgraded Arecibo S-band (λ12.6-cm) radar was used to make delay-Doppler images of Mercury's north polar region, where earlier observations had shown strong echoes from putative ice deposits in craters. The image resolution of 1.5-3 km is a substantial improvement over the 15-km resolution of the older Arecibo images (J. K. Harmon et al. 1994, Nature369, 213-215). The new observations confirm all the original polar features and reveal many additional features, including several at latitudes as low as 72-75°N and several from craters less than 10 km in diameter. All of the new features located on the Mariner-imaged side of the planet can be matched with known craters or other shaded areas. We find the north pole to be located 65 km from the original Mariner-based pole and 15 km from the new Mariner-based pole of M. S. Robinson et al. (1999, J. Geophys. Res.104, 30,847-30,852). The improved resolution reveals fine structure in the radar features and their respective host craters, including radar shadowing/highlighting by central peaks and rim walls, rim terracing, and preferential concentration of radar-bright deposits in shaded southern floor areas. The radar features' high brightness, circular polarization inversion (μ c=1.25), and confinement to regions permanently shaded from direct sunlight are all consistent with volume scattering from a cold-trapped volatile such as clean water ice. The sizes and locations of most of the features show good agreement with the thermal model of A. R. Vasavada, D. A. Paige, and S. E. Wood (1999, Icarus141, 179-193) for insulated (buried) water ice, although the problems of explaining radar features in small craters and the rapid burial required at lower latitudes suggest that other factors may be suppressing ice loss after emplacement.

  5. ERIS: the exoplanet high-resolution image simulator for CHARIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbach, Mary Anne; Groff, Tyler D.; Kasdin, N. J.; Brandt, Timothy; Mede, Kyle; Loomis, Craig; Hayashi, Masahiko; Takato, Naruhisa

    2014-07-01

    ERIS is an image simulator for CHARIS, the high-contrast exoplanet integral field spectrograph (IFS) being built at Princeton University for the Subaru telescope. We present here the software design and implementation of the ERIS code. ERIS simulates CHARIS FITS images and data cubes that are used for developing the data reduction pipeline and verifying the expected CHARIS performance. Components of the software include detailed models of the light source (such as a star or exoplanet), atmosphere, telescope, adaptive optics systems (AO188 and SCExAO), CHARIS IFS and the Hawaii2-RG infrared detector. Code includes novel details such as the phase errors at the lenslet array, optical wavefront error maps and pinholes for reducing crosstalk, just to list a few. The details of the code as well as several simulated images are presented in this paper. This IFS simulator is critical for the CHARIS data analysis pipeline development, minimizing troubleshooting in the lab and on-sky and the characterization of crosstalk.

  6. High-resolution panoramic images with megapixel MWIR FPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leboucher, Vincent; Aubry, Gilles

    2014-06-01

    In the continuity of its current strategy, HGH maintains a deep effort in developing its most recent product family: the infrared (IR) panoramic 360-degree surveillance sensors. During the last two years, HGH optimized its prototype Middle Wave IR (MWIR) panoramic sensor IR Revolution 360 HD that gave birth to Spynel-S product. Various test campaigns proved its excellent image quality. Cyclope, the software associated with Spynel, benefitted from recent image processing improvements and new functionalities such as target geolocalization, long range sensor slue to cue and facilitated forensics analysis. In the frame of the PANORAMIR project sustained by the DGA (Délégation Générale de l'Armement), HGH designed a new extra large resolution sensor including a MWIR megapixel Focal Plane Array (FPA) detector (1280×1024 pixels). This new sensor is called Spynel-X. It provides outstanding resolution 360-degree images (with more than 100 Mpixels). The mechanical frame of Spynel (-S and -X) was designed with the collaboration of an industrial design agency. Spynel got the "Observeur du Design 2013" label.

  7. High resolution imaging of intracellular oxygen concentration by phosphorescence lifetime

    PubMed Central

    Kurokawa, Hiromi; Ito, Hidehiro; Inoue, Mai; Tabata, Kenji; Sato, Yoshifumi; Yamagata, Kazuya; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Kadonosono, Tetsuya; Yano, Shigenobu; Inoue, Masahiro; Kamachi, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Optical methods using phosphorescence quenching by oxygen are suitable for sequential monitoring and non-invasive measurements for oxygen concentration (OC) imaging within cells. Phosphorescence intensity measurement is widely used with phosphorescent dyes. These dyes are ubiquitously but heterogeneously distributed inside the whole cell. The distribution of phosphorescent dye is a major disadvantage in phosphorescence intensity measurement. We established OC imaging system for a single cell using phosphorescence lifetime and a laser scanning confocal microscope. This system had improved spatial resolution and reduced the measurement time with the high repetition rate of the laser. By the combination of ubiquitously distributed phosphorescent dye with this lifetime imaging microscope, we can visualize the OC inside the whole cell and spheroid. This system uses reversible phosphorescence quenching by oxygen, so it can measure successive OC changes from normoxia to anoxia. Lower regions of OC inside the cell colocalized with mitochondria. The time-dependent OC change in an insulin-producing cell line MIN6 by the glucose stimulation was successfully visualized. Assessing the detailed distribution and dynamics of OC inside cells achieved by the presented system will be useful to understanding a physiological and pathological oxygen metabolism. PMID:26065366

  8. High resolution and image processing of otoconia matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate patterns of fibrils organization in histochemically stained otoconia. Transmission electron microscope and video imaging were used. These data indicate that otoconia of the chick (Gallus domesticus) inner ear may have central cores in vivo. The data also show that the ultrastructural organization of fibrils fixed with aldehydes and histochemical stains follows trajectories that conform to the hexagonal shape of otoconia. These changes in direction may contribute to the formation of a central core. The existence of central cores is important for the in vivo buoyancy of otoconia. Packing of fibrils is tighter after phosphotungstic acid (PTA) stained otoconia than with other histochemical stains, which usually produce looser packing of fibrils and seemingly larger central core. TEM of tilted and untilted material showed that turning of fibrils occurs at the points where the face angles of otoconia form and where central cores exist. Video image processing of the images allowed reconstructing a template which, if assumed to repeat and change trajectories, would fit the pattern of fibrils seen in fixed otoconia. Since it is highly unlikely that aldehyde primary fixation or PTA stain caused such drastic change in the direction of fibrils, the template derived from these results may closely approximate patterns of otoconia fibrils packing in vivo. However, if the above is correct, the perfect crystallographic diffraction pattern of unfixed otoconia do not correspond to patterns of fixed fibrils.

  9. Bathymetric Extraction Using WORLDVIEW-2 High Resolution Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidda, M.; Sanna, G.

    2012-07-01

    The fundamental principle underlying the methods used to extract bathymetric information from remote-sensed imagery is that different wavelengths of the solar light penetrate the water body to different depths. In order to extract bathymetric values from multispectral satellite imagery we implemented the Jupp method (Jupp, 1988), in IDL language and integrated it in the ENVI menu structure. In this experiment we apply this method to two images of the Poetto beach in Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy) acquired from the new-generation WorldView-2 sensor. Launched in October 2009, the WorldView-2 sensor provides, among others, one (named Coastal) that was designed specifically for this kind of analysis; we chose to use the Coastal band in place of the Blue one when applying the model. The images (a stereoscopic pair) were acquired on June 17, 2011. The 5419 scene was pre-processed in order to separate the sea bottom classes. This class was then georeferenced to overlap on the 5318 scene. A traditional bathymetric survey was performed, up to 1,50 m, planned and carried out in order to calibrate the model. For each scene, 10 calibration areas were selected, and for each of them a digital model of the sea bottom was generated. Precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated by analyzing the results extracted from the stereo-pairs and by examining the correlation between the surveyed depth values and the calculated ones, between the different models calculated from the same scene using different calibration areas, and between the models obtained from the two images.

  10. High Resolution Imaging of Io's Volcanoes with LBTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Al; Leisenring, Jarron; de Kleer, Katherine; Skemer, Andy; Hinz, Philip; Skrutskie, Michael; Veillet, Christian; de Pater, Imke; Bertero, Mario; Boccacci, Patrizia; Defrère, Denis; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; La Camera, Andrea; Schertl, Dieter; Spencer, John; Weigelt, Gerd; Woodward, Charles E.

    2014-11-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), located on Mount Graham in eastern Arizona, employs two 8.4 meter mirrors with a 14.4 center-to-center separation on a common mount. Coherent combination of these two AO-corrected apertures via the LBT Interferometer (LBTI) produces Fizeau interferometric images with spatial resolution consistent with the diffraction limit of the 22.8-meter aperture. In particular LBTI resolves thermal signatures (i.e., features observed at M-band) on the surface of Io down to ~150 kilometers; a two-fold improvement over what has previously been possible from the ground. We show images collected with LBTI on December 24, 2013, in which Loki's shape is clearly resolved and at least fourteen additional volcanic hot spots are detected.We analyze three locations in the LBTI data: emission features within Loki Patera, the area near Rarog and Heno Patarae, and a hot spot seen in the Colchis Regio.For Loki Patera, we interpret spatially resolved variation in the emission within that region. With M-band resolution that is comparable to what has previously been achievable only at K-band, we compare localized emission features with what has been seen in earlier observations at shorter wavelengths.Thermal emission from activity at Rarog and Heno Patarae is well resolved in these images, while a third hot-spot in the nearby Lerna Regio is also clearly resolved. This area is of special interest since it was the site of two high-effusion outbursts on August 15th, 2013 [de Pater et al. (2014) Icarus].Lastly, we explore a hot-spot seen in the Colchis Regio that may be a remnant of a violent outburst detected on August 29th, 2013 [de Kleer et al. (2014) Icarus].

  11. Monitoring plant growth using high resolution micro-CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Paquit, Vincent C; Gleason, Shaun Scott; Kalluri, Udaya C

    2011-01-01

    A multidisciplinary research conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory aims at understanding the molecular controls of partitioning, transport and fate of carbon xed by photosynthesis in plants and its correlation with other measured plant system properties. Ultimately, we intend to develop a modeling framework to assess, correlate and predict as to which spatiotemporal changes in system dynamics are key to predicting emergent properties of system. Within this research, this paper relates to the quantitative morphological imaging of the main structures forming a plant (stem, roots, and leaves), their internal sub-structures, and changes occurring overtime.

  12. High-resolution heavy ion track structure imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laczko, G.; Dangendorf, V.; Krämer, M.; Schardt, D.; Tittelmeier, K.

    2004-12-01

    Radiation action in matter depends on the details of the spatial distribution of energy transfer events on the nanometer scale. In this contribution, we present an instrument for experimental investigation of spatial ionisation patterns of ions in matter. The experimental system is based on a time projection chamber with a parallel drift field, parallel-plate charge and light amplification layers and optical readout with an image-intensified CCD camera (OPtical Avalanche Chamber (OPAC)). The chamber is operated with low pressure gas (4-40 hPa) to achieve a resolution of down to 50 nm in tissue density. Preliminary results of measurements and simulations are presented.

  13. New High-Resolution Images of Summer Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, Ronald; Untersteiner, Norbert

    2011-02-01

    In 1995 a group of government and academic scientists were appointed by the vice president of the United States to review and advise on acquisitions of imagery obtained by classified intelligence satellites (National Technical Means) and to recommend the declassification of certain data sets for the benefit of science. The group is called MEDEA and was first described by Richelson [1998]. MEDEA disbanded in 2000 but reassembled in 2008. On 15 June 2009, under the auspices of MEDEA, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released to the public as Literal Image Derived Products (LIDPs) numerous images with 1-meter resolution acquired since 1999 at six locations in the Arctic Basin (Beaufort Sea, Canadian Arctic, Fram Strait, East Siberian Sea, Chukchi Sea, and Point Barrow). These locations are named “fiducial sites” to suggest that the collected imagery establishes a baseline data set for understanding recent and future changes. Data in the Global Fiducials Library (GFL) can be accessed via http://gfl.usgs.gov/. This data repository is updated by USGS as additional data become available.

  14. Fast and high resolution single-cell BRET imaging.

    PubMed

    Goyet, Elise; Bouquier, Nathalie; Ollendorff, Vincent; Perroy, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Resonance Energy Transfer (RET)-based technologies are used to report protein-protein interactions in living cells. Among them, Bioluminescence-initiated RET (BRET) provides excellent sensitivity but the low light intensity intrinsic to the bioluminescent process hampers its use for the localization of protein complexes at the sub-cellular level. Herein we have characterized the methodological conditions required to reliably perform single-cell BRET imaging using an extremely bright luciferase, Nanoluciferase (Nluc). With this, we achieved an unprecedented performance in the field of protein-protein interaction imaging in terms of temporal and spatial resolution, duration of signal stability, signal sensitivity and dynamic range. As proof-of-principle, an Nluc-containing BRET-based sensor of ERK activity enabled the detection of subtle, transient and localized variations in ERK activity in neuronal dendritic spines, induced by the activation of endogenous synaptic NMDA receptors. This development will improve our comprehension of both the spatio-temporal dynamics of protein-protein interactions and the activation patterns of specific signaling pathways. PMID:27302735

  15. High resolution hyperspectral imaging with a high throughput virtual slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooding, Edward A.; Gunn, Thomas; Cenko, Andrew T.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) device users often require both high spectral resolution, on the order of 1 nm, and high light-gathering power. A wide entrance slit assures reasonable étendue but degrades spectral resolution. Spectrometers built using High Throughput Virtual Slit™ (HTVS) technology optimize both parameters simultaneously. Two remote sensing use cases that require high spectral resolution are discussed. First, detection of atmospheric gases with intrinsically narrow absorption lines, such as hydrocarbon vapors or combustion exhaust gases such as NOx and CO2. Detecting exhaust gas species with high precision has become increasingly important in the light of recent events in the automobile industry. Second, distinguishing reflected daylight from emission spectra in the visible and NIR (VNIR) regions is most easily accomplished using the Fraunhofer absorption lines in solar spectra. While ground reflectance spectral features in the VNIR are generally quite broad, the Fraunhofer lines are narrow and provide a signature of intrinsic vs. extrinsic illumination. The High Throughput Virtual Slit enables higher spectral resolution than is achievable with conventional spectrometers by manipulating the beam profile in pupil space. By reshaping the instrument pupil with reflective optics, HTVS-equipped instruments create a tall, narrow image profile at the exit focal plane, typically delivering 5X or better the spectral resolution achievable with a conventional design.

  16. High Resolution HST Images of Pluto and Charon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    At the Edge of the Solar System Click here to jump to photo. The remote planet Pluto and its moon Charon orbit the Sun at a mean distance of almost 6,000 million kilometres, or nearly fourty times farther out than the Earth. During a recent investigation by an international group of astronomers [1], the best picture ever of Pluto and Charon [2] was secured with the European Space Agency's Faint Object Camera at the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). It shows the two objects as individual disks, and it is likely that further image enhancement will allow us to see surface features on Pluto. A Very Special Pair of Celestial Objects Almost all the known facts about these two bodies show that they are quite unusual: Pluto's orbit around the Sun is much more elongated and more inclined to the main plane of the Solar System than that of any other major planet; Charon's orbit around Pluto is nearly perpendicular to this plane; their mutual distance is amazingly small when compared to their size; Charon is half the size of Pluto and the ratio of their masses is much closer to unity than is the case for all other planets and their moons. Moreover, both are small and solid bodies, in contrast to the other, large and gaseous planets in the outer Solar System. We do not know why this is so. But there is another important aspect which makes Pluto and Charon even more interesting: at this very large distance from the Sun, any evolutionary changes happen very slowly. It is therefore likely that Pluto and Charon hold important clues to the conditions that prevailed in the early Solar System and thus to the origin and the evolution of the Solar System as a whole. Long and Difficult Analysis Ahead The present image shows that the overall quality of the new data obtained with the ESA Faint Object Camera on the refurbished Hubble Space Telescope is extremely good. However, such an image represents only the first step of a subsequent, detailed analysis with the ultimate goal of determining

  17. Fast and high resolution single-cell BRET imaging

    PubMed Central

    Goyet, Elise; Bouquier, Nathalie; Ollendorff, Vincent; Perroy, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Resonance Energy Transfer (RET)-based technologies are used to report protein-protein interactions in living cells. Among them, Bioluminescence-initiated RET (BRET) provides excellent sensitivity but the low light intensity intrinsic to the bioluminescent process hampers its use for the localization of protein complexes at the sub-cellular level. Herein we have characterized the methodological conditions required to reliably perform single-cell BRET imaging using an extremely bright luciferase, Nanoluciferase (Nluc). With this, we achieved an unprecedented performance in the field of protein-protein interaction imaging in terms of temporal and spatial resolution, duration of signal stability, signal sensitivity and dynamic range. As proof-of-principle, an Nluc-containing BRET-based sensor of ERK activity enabled the detection of subtle, transient and localized variations in ERK activity in neuronal dendritic spines, induced by the activation of endogenous synaptic NMDA receptors. This development will improve our comprehension of both the spatio-temporal dynamics of protein-protein interactions and the activation patterns of specific signaling pathways. PMID:27302735

  18. High resolution neutron imaging of water in PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L; Davey, John R; Spendelow, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    Optimal water management in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells is critical to improving the performance and durability of fuel cell systems especially during transient, start-up and shut-down operations. For example, while a high water content is desirable for improved membrane and catalyst ionomer conductivity, high water content can also block gas access to the triple-phase boundary resulting in lowered performance due to catalyst and gas diffusion layer (GDL) flooding. Visualizing liquid water by neutron imaging has been used over the past decade to study the water distribution inside operating fuel cells. In this paper, the results from our imaging at NIST using their recently installed higher resolution ({approx} 25 mm) Microchannel Plate (MCP) detector with a pixel pitch of 14.7 mm are presented. This detector is capable of quantitatively imaging the water inside the MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly)/GDL (Gas Diffusion Layer) of working fuel cells and can provide the water profiles within these various components in addition to the channel water. Specially designed fuel cells (active area = 2.25 cm{sup 2}) have been used in order to take advantage of the full detector resolution. The cell design is illustrated in a figure where one of the current collector/end plates is shown. The serpentine pattern was machined into a block of aluminum and plated with nickel and then gold to form the flow field. The measurements were performed using beam no. 1 and aperture no. 2 with a fluence rate of 1.9 x 10{sup 6} neutrons cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. The cells were assembled with Gore{sup TM} Primea{sup R} MEAs and SGL Sigracet {sup R} 24 series GDLs (PRIMEA, GORE-SELECT and GORE are trademarks of W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc). All the cells were tested at 80 {sup o}C with 1.2 stoichiometry H{sub 2} and 2.0 stoichiometry air flows.

  19. Snapshot hyperspectral retinal camera with the Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Liang; Smith, R. Theodore; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2011-01-01

    We present a snapshot hyperspectral retinal camera with the Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) for eye imaging applications. The resulting system is capable of simultaneously acquiring 48 spectral channel images in the range 470 nm–650 nm with frame rate at 5.2 fps. The spatial sampling of each measured spectral scene is 350 × 350 pixels. The advantages of this snapshot device are elimination of the eye motion artifacts and pixel misregistration problems in traditional scanning-based hyperspectral retinal cameras, and real-time imaging of oxygen saturation dynamics with sub-second temporal resolution. The spectral imaging performance is demonstrated in a human retinal imaging experiment in vivo. The absorption spectral signatures of oxy-hemoglobin and macular pigments were successfully acquired by using this device. PMID:22254167

  20. High-resolution microchannel plate image tube results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. Bruce; Patton, Stanley B.; Bender, E.

    1992-07-01

    The present 18-mm active diameter proximity-focused microchannel plate (MCP) image tube design has been modified to produce significantly higher limiting spatial resolution. A glass input window of the `bulls-eye' design with the blackened glass border, reduced cathode-to-MCP spacing, reduced channel center-to-center distance, reduced MCP-to-phosphor screen spacing, a brushed P20 phosphor screen, and a fiber optic output window were used to achieve a limiting resolution in excess of 50 lp/mm. Test results, showing limiting resolution versus applied potentials, are correlated with a simple physical model of performance. The low-light-level white-light sine-wave modulation transfer function, T(f), has been measured to be T(f) equals exp[-(f/21.5)1.46], where f is the spatial frequency in cycles per millimeter.

  1. Accuracy Analysis on Large Blocks of High Resolution Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Passini, Richardo M.

    2007-01-01

    Although high altitude frequencies effects are removed at the time of basic image generation, low altitude (Yaw) effects are still present in form of affinity/angular affinity. They are effectively removed by additional parameters. Bundle block adjustment based on properly weighted ephemeris/altitude quaternions (BBABEQ) are not enough to remove the systematic effect. Moreover, due to the narrow FOV of the HRSI, position and altitude are highly correlated making it almost impossible to separate and remove their systematic effects without extending the geometric model (Self-Calib.) The systematic effects gets evident on the increase of accuracy (in terms of RMSE at GCPs) for looser and relaxed ground control at the expense of large and strong block deformation with large residuals at check points. Systematic errors are most freely distributed and their effects propagated all over the block.

  2. Mobile sensor for high resolution NMR spectroscopy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danieli, Ernesto; Mauler, Jörg; Perlo, Juan; Blümich, Bernhard; Casanova, Federico

    2009-05-01

    In this work we describe the construction of a mobile NMR tomograph with a highly homogeneous magnetic field. Fast MRI techniques as well as NMR spectroscopy measurements were carried out. The magnet is based on a Halbach array built from identical permanent magnet blocks generating a magnetic field of 0.22 T. To shim the field inhomogeneities inherent to magnet arrays constructed from these materials, a shim strategy based on the use of movable magnet blocks is employed. With this approach a reduction of the line-width from ˜20 kHz to less than 0.1 kHz was achieved, that is by more than two orders of magnitude, in a volume of 21 cm 3. Implementing a RARE sequence, 3D images of different objects placed in this volume were obtained in short experimental times. Moreover, by reducing the sample size to 1 cm 3, sub ppm resolution is obtained in 1H NMR spectra.

  3. High resolution LBT imaging of Io and Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, A.; de Kleer, K.; Leisenring, J.; La Camera, A.; Arcidiacono, C.; Bertero, M.; Boccacci, P.; Defrère, D.; de Pater, I.; Hinz, P.; Hoffman, K.-H.; Kürster, M.; Rathbun, J.; Schertl, D.; Skemer, A.; Skrutskie, M.; Spencer, J.; Veillet, C.; Weigelt, G.; Woodward, C.

    2015-10-01

    We report here results from observing Io at high angular resolution, ˜32 mas at 4.8 μm, with LBT at two favorable oppositions as described in our report given at the 2011 EPSC [1]. Analysis of datasets acquired during the last two oppositions has yielded spatially resolved M-band emission at Loki Patera [2], L-band fringes at an eruption site, an occultation of Loki and Pele by Europa, and sufficient sub-earth longitude (SEL) and parallactic angle coverage to produce a full disk map.We summarize completed results for the first of these, and give brief progress reports for the latter three. Finally, we provide plans for imaging the full disk of Jupiter using the MCAO system which is in its commissioning phase at LBT.

  4. AXAF-1 High Resolution Assembly Image Model and Comparison with X-Ray Ground Test Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zissa, David E.

    1999-01-01

    The x-ray ground test of the AXAF-I High Resolution Mirror Assembly was completed in 1997 at the X-ray Calibration Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center. Mirror surface measurements by HDOS, alignment results from Kodak, and predicted gravity distortion in the horizontal test configuration are being used to model the x-ray test image. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) image modeling serves as a cross check with Smithsonian Astrophysical observatory modeling. The MSFC image prediction software has evolved from the MSFC model of the x-ray test of the largest AXAF-I mirror pair in 1991. The MSFC image modeling software development is being assisted by the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The modeling process, modeling software, and image prediction will be discussed. The image prediction will be compared with the x-ray test results.

  5. Nanedi Vallis: Sustained Water Flow? - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This picture of a canyon on the Martian surface was obtained a few minutes after 10 PM PST, January 8, 1998 by the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), during the 87th orbit around Mars of the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. It shows the canyon of Nanedi Vallis, one of the Martian valley systems cutting through cratered plains in the Xanthe Terra region of Mars. The picture covers an area 9.8 km by 18.5 km (6.1 mi by 11.5 mi), and features as small as 12 m (39 ft) can be seen. The canyon is about 2.5 km (1.6 mi) wide. Rocky outcrops are found along the upper canyon walls; weathered debris found on the lower canyon slopes and along the canyon floor. The origin of this canyon is enigmatic: some features, such as terraces within the canyon (as seen near the top of the frame) and the small 200 m (660 ft) wide channel (also seen near the top of the frame) suggest continual fluid flow and downcutting. Other features, such as the lack of a contributing pattern of smaller channels on the surface surrounding the canyon, box-headed tributaries, and the size and tightness of the apparent meanders (as seen, for example, in the Viking image 89A32), suggest formation by collapse. It is likely that both continual flow and collapse have been responsible for the canyon as it now appears. Further observations, especially in areas west of the present image, will be used to help separate the relative effects of these and other potential formation and modification processes.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  6. High Resolution MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Retinal Tissue Lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, David M. G.; Ablonczy, Zsolt; Koutalos, Yiannis; Spraggins, Jeffrey; Crouch, Rosalie K.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Schey, Kevin L.

    2014-08-01

    Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) has the ability to provide an enormous amount of information on the abundances and spatial distributions of molecules within biological tissues. The rapid progress in the development of this technology significantly improves our ability to analyze smaller and smaller areas and features within tissues. The mammalian eye has evolved over millions of years to become an essential asset for survival, providing important sensory input of an organism's surroundings. The highly complex sensory retina of the eye is comprised of numerous cell types organized into specific layers with varying dimensions, the thinnest of which is the 10 μm retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). This single cell layer and the photoreceptor layer contain the complex biochemical machinery required to convert photons of light into electrical signals that are transported to the brain by axons of retinal ganglion cells. Diseases of the retina, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa, and diabetic retinopathy, occur when the functions of these cells are interrupted by molecular processes that are not fully understood. In this report, we demonstrate the use of high spatial resolution MALDI IMS and FT-ICR tandem mass spectrometry in the Abca4 -/- knockout mouse model of Stargardt disease, a juvenile onset form of macular degeneration. The spatial distributions and identity of lipid and retinoid metabolites are shown to be unique to specific retinal cell layers.

  7. Single-molecule high-resolution imaging with photobleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Matthew P.; Ha, Taekjip; Selvin, Paul R.

    2004-04-01

    Conventional light microscopy is limited in its resolving power by the Rayleigh limit to length scales on the order of 200 nm. On the other hand, spectroscopic techniques such as fluorescence resonance energy transfer cannot be used to measure distances >10 nm, leaving a "gap" in the ability of optical techniques to measure distances on the 10- to 100-nm scale. We have previously demonstrated the ability to localize single dye molecules to a precision of 1.5 nm with subsecond time resolution. Here we locate the position of two dyes and determine their separation with 5-nm precision, using the quantal photobleaching behavior of single fluorescent dye molecules. By fitting images both before and after photobleaching of one of the dyes, we may localize both dyes simultaneously and compute their separation. Hence, we have circumvented the Rayleigh limit and achieved nanometer-scale resolution. Specifically, we demonstrate the technique by measuring the distance between single fluorophores separated by 10-20 nm via attachment to the ends of double-stranded DNA molecules immobilized on a surface. In addition to bridging the gap in optical resolution, this technique may be useful for biophysical or genomic applications, including the generation of super-high-density maps of single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

  8. High-resolution hyperspectral single-pixel imaging system based on compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalha~es, Filipe; Abolbashari, Mehrdad; Araújo, Francisco M.; Correia, Miguel V.; Farahi, Faramarz

    2012-07-01

    For the first time, a high-resolution hyperspectral single-pixel imaging system based on compressive sensing is presented and demonstrated. The system integrates a digital micro-mirror device array to optically compress the image to be acquired and an optical spectrum analyzer to enable high spectral resolution. The system's ability to successfully reconstruct images with 10 pm spectral resolution is proven.

  9. Retrieving high-resolution images over the Internet from an anatomical image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strupp-Adams, Annette; Henderson, Earl

    1999-12-01

    The Visible Human Data set is an important contribution to the national collection of anatomical images. To enhance the availability of these images, the National Library of Medicine has supported the design and development of a prototype object-oriented image database which imports, stores, and distributes high resolution anatomical images in both pixel and voxel formats. One of the key database modules is its client-server Internet interface. This Web interface provides a query engine with retrieval access to high-resolution anatomical images that range in size from 100KB for browser viewable rendered images, to 1GB for anatomical structures in voxel file formats. The Web query and retrieval client-server system is composed of applet GUIs, servlets, and RMI application modules which communicate with each other to allow users to query for specific anatomical structures, and retrieve image data as well as associated anatomical images from the database. Selected images can be downloaded individually as single files via HTTP or downloaded in batch-mode over the Internet to the user's machine through an applet that uses Netscape's Object Signing mechanism. The image database uses ObjectDesign's object-oriented DBMS, ObjectStore that has a Java interface. The query and retrieval systems has been tested with a Java-CDE window system, and on the x86 architecture using Windows NT 4.0. This paper describes the Java applet client search engine that queries the database; the Java client module that enables users to view anatomical images online; the Java application server interface to the database which organizes data returned to the user, and its distribution engine that allow users to download image files individually and/or in batch-mode.

  10. Information Extraction of High Resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on the Calculation of Optimal Segmentation Parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongchun; Cai, Lijie; Liu, Haiying; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Multi-scale image segmentation and the selection of optimal segmentation parameters are the key processes in the object-oriented information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing images. The accuracy of remote sensing special subject information depends on this extraction. On the basis of WorldView-2 high-resolution data, the optimal segmentation parameters methodof object-oriented image segmentation and high-resolution image information extraction, the following processes were conducted in this study. Firstly, the best combination of the bands and weights was determined for the information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing image. An improved weighted mean-variance method was proposed andused to calculatethe optimal segmentation scale. Thereafter, the best shape factor parameter and compact factor parameters were computed with the use of the control variables and the combination of the heterogeneity and homogeneity indexes. Different types of image segmentation parameters were obtained according to the surface features. The high-resolution remote sensing images were multi-scale segmented with the optimal segmentation parameters. Ahierarchical network structure was established by setting the information extraction rules to achieve object-oriented information extraction. This study presents an effective and practical method that can explain expert input judgment by reproducible quantitative measurements. Furthermore the results of this procedure may be incorporated into a classification scheme. PMID:27362762

  11. Information Extraction of High Resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on the Calculation of Optimal Segmentation Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongchun; Cai, Lijie; Liu, Haiying; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Multi-scale image segmentation and the selection of optimal segmentation parameters are the key processes in the object-oriented information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing images. The accuracy of remote sensing special subject information depends on this extraction. On the basis of WorldView-2 high-resolution data, the optimal segmentation parameters methodof object-oriented image segmentation and high-resolution image information extraction, the following processes were conducted in this study. Firstly, the best combination of the bands and weights was determined for the information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing image. An improved weighted mean-variance method was proposed andused to calculatethe optimal segmentation scale. Thereafter, the best shape factor parameter and compact factor parameters were computed with the use of the control variables and the combination of the heterogeneity and homogeneity indexes. Different types of image segmentation parameters were obtained according to the surface features. The high-resolution remote sensing images were multi-scale segmented with the optimal segmentation parameters. Ahierarchical network structure was established by setting the information extraction rules to achieve object-oriented information extraction. This study presents an effective and practical method that can explain expert input judgment by reproducible quantitative measurements. Furthermore the results of this procedure may be incorporated into a classification scheme. PMID:27362762

  12. HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, Paula; Baker, Andrew J.; Menanteau, Felipe; Lutz, Dieter; Tacconi, Linda J. E-mail: ajbaker@physics.rutgers.edu E-mail: lutz@mpe.mpg.de

    2013-05-10

    We present F110W ({approx}J) and F160W ({approx}H) observations of 10 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) NICMOS camera. Our targets have optical redshifts in the range 2.20 {<=} z {<=} 2.81 confirmed by millimeter CO or mid-IR spectroscopy, guaranteeing that the two bands sample the rest-frame optical with the Balmer break falling between them. Eight of ten are detected in both bands, while two are detected in F160W only. We study their F160W morphologies, applying a maximum-deblending detection algorithm to distinguish multiple- from single-component configurations, leading to reassessments for several objects. Based on our NICMOS imaging and/or previous dynamical evidence we identify five SMGs as multiple sources, which we interpret as merging systems. Additionally, we calculate morphological parameter asymmetry (A) and the Gini coefficient (G); thanks to our sample's limited redshift range we recover the trend that multiple-component, merger-like morphologies are reflected in higher asymmetries. We analyze the stellar populations of nine objects with F110W/F160W photometry, using archival HST optical data when available. For multiple systems, we are able to model the individual components that build up an SMG. With the available data we cannot discriminate among star formation histories, but we constrain stellar masses and mass ratios for merger-like SMG systems, obtaining a mean log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 10.9 {+-} 0.2 for our full sample, with individual values log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 9.6-11.8. The morphologies and mass ratios of the least and most massive systems match the predictions of the major-merger and cold accretion SMG formation scenarios, respectively, suggesting that both channels may have a role in the population's origin.

  13. Endoscopic high-resolution autofluorescence imaging and OCT of pulmonary vascular networks.

    PubMed

    Pahlevaninezhad, Hamid; Lee, Anthony M D; Hohert, Geoffrey; Lam, Stephen; Shaipanich, Tawimas; Beaudoin, Eve-Lea; MacAulay, Calum; Boudoux, Caroline; Lane, Pierre

    2016-07-15

    High-resolution imaging from within airways may allow new methods for studying lung disease. In this work, we report an endoscopic imaging system capable of high-resolution autofluorescence imaging (AFI) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in peripheral airways using a 0.9 mm diameter double-clad fiber (DCF) catheter. In this system, AFI excitation light is coupled into the core of the DCF, enabling tightly focused excitation light while maintaining efficient collection of autofluorescence emission through the large diameter inner cladding of the DCF. We demonstrate the ability of this imaging system to visualize pulmonary vasculature as small as 12 μm in vivo. PMID:27420497

  14. Updating Object for GIS Database Information Using High Resolution Satellite Images: a Case Study Zonguldak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkan, M.; Arca, D.; Bayik, Ç.; Marangoz, A. M.

    2011-09-01

    Nowadays Geographic Information Systems (GIS) uses Remote Sensing (RS) data for a lot of applications. One of the application areas is the updating of the GIS database using high resolution imagery. In this context high resolution satellite imagery data is very important for many applications areas today's and future. And also, high resolution satellite imagery data will be used in many applications for different purposes. Information systems needs to high resolution imagery data for updating. Updating is very important component for the any of the GIS systems. One of this area will be updated and kept alive GIS database information. High resolution satellite imagery is used with different data base which serve map information via internet and different aims of information systems applications in future topographic and cartographic information systems will very important in our country in this sense use of the satellite images will be unavoidable. In this study explain to how is acquired to satellite images and how is use this images in information systems for object and roads. Firstly, pan-sharpened two of the IKONOS's images have been produced by fusion of high resolution PAN and MS images using PCI Geomatica v9.1 software package. Automatic object extraction has been made using eCognition v4.0.6. On the other hand, these objects have been manually digitized from high resolution images using ArcGIS v9.3. software package. Application section of in this study, satellite images data will be compared each other and GIS objects and road database. It is also determined which data is useful in Geographic Information Systems. Finally, this article explains that integration of remote sensing technology and GIS applications.

  15. Computational high-resolution optical imaging of the living human retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemonski, Nathan D.; South, Fredrick A.; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Adie, Steven G.; Scott Carney, P.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2015-07-01

    High-resolution in vivo imaging is of great importance for the fields of biology and medicine. The introduction of hardware-based adaptive optics (HAO) has pushed the limits of optical imaging, enabling high-resolution near diffraction-limited imaging of previously unresolvable structures. In ophthalmology, when combined with optical coherence tomography, HAO has enabled a detailed three-dimensional visualization of photoreceptor distributions and individual nerve fibre bundles in the living human retina. However, the introduction of HAO hardware and supporting software adds considerable complexity and cost to an imaging system, limiting the number of researchers and medical professionals who could benefit from the technology. Here we demonstrate a fully automated computational approach that enables high-resolution in vivo ophthalmic imaging without the need for HAO. The results demonstrate that computational methods in coherent microscopy are applicable in highly dynamic living systems.

  16. Computational high-resolution optical imaging of the living human retina

    PubMed Central

    Shemonski, Nathan D.; South, Fredrick A.; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Adie, Steven G.; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution in vivo imaging is of great importance for the fields of biology and medicine. The introduction of hardware-based adaptive optics (HAO) has pushed the limits of optical imaging, enabling high-resolution near diffraction-limited imaging of previously unresolvable structures1,2. In ophthalmology, when combined with optical coherence tomography, HAO has enabled a detailed three-dimensional visualization of photoreceptor distributions3,4 and individual nerve fibre bundles5 in the living human retina. However, the introduction of HAO hardware and supporting software adds considerable complexity and cost to an imaging system, limiting the number of researchers and medical professionals who could benefit from the technology. Here we demonstrate a fully automated computational approach that enables high-resolution in vivo ophthalmic imaging without the need for HAO. The results demonstrate that computational methods in coherent microscopy are applicable in highly dynamic living systems. PMID:26877761

  17. IRAC Snapshot Imaging of Red Herschel Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Wardlow, Julie; Ivison, Rob; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Riechers, Dominik; Clements, David; Oliver, Seb; Oteo, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    Wide-field submillimeter surveys with Herschel have produced large samples of rare populations, which provide some of the most stringent constraints on galaxy formation theories. In this proposal we request IRAC observations of 'red' Herschel sources, which are the most extreme DSFGs at z>4. The proposed snapshot IRAC 3.6 and 4.5um data will probe the stellar emission from these systems - complementary data to the far-infrared dust emission that led to their identification. We will use these data to extend the SEDs into the near-IR regime and measure more reliable stellar masses than otherwise available. They will be combined with existing survey data and dedicated follow-up programs to map the evolution of DSFGs as a function of redshift, stellar mass and far-IR luminosity.

  18. Classification of high resolution remote sensing image based on geo-ontology and conditional random fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Liang

    2013-10-01

    The availability of high spatial resolution remote sensing data provides new opportunities for urban land-cover classification. More geometric details can be observed in the high resolution remote sensing image, Also Ground objects in the high resolution remote sensing image have displayed rich texture, structure, shape and hierarchical semantic characters. More landscape elements are represented by a small group of pixels. Recently years, the an object-based remote sensing analysis methodology is widely accepted and applied in high resolution remote sensing image processing. The classification method based on Geo-ontology and conditional random fields is presented in this paper. The proposed method is made up of four blocks: (1) the hierarchical ground objects semantic framework is constructed based on geoontology; (2) segmentation by mean-shift algorithm, which image objects are generated. And the mean-shift method is to get boundary preserved and spectrally homogeneous over-segmentation regions ;(3) the relations between the hierarchical ground objects semantic and over-segmentation regions are defined based on conditional random fields framework ;(4) the hierarchical classification results are obtained based on geo-ontology and conditional random fields. Finally, high-resolution remote sensed image data -GeoEye, is used to testify the performance of the presented method. And the experimental results have shown the superiority of this method to the eCognition method both on the effectively and accuracy, which implies it is suitable for the classification of high resolution remote sensing image.

  19. Experimental validation of a high-resolution diffuse optical imaging modality: photomagnetic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouizi, Farouk; Luk, Alex; Thayer, Dave; Lin, Yuting; Ha, Seunghoon; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2016-01-01

    We present experimental results that validate our imaging technique termed photomagnetic imaging (PMI). PMI illuminates the medium under investigation with a near-infrared light and measures the induced temperature increase using magnetic resonance imaging. A multiphysics solver combining light and heat propagation is used to model spatiotemporal distribution of temperature increase. Furthermore, a dedicated PMI reconstruction algorithm has been developed to reveal high-resolution optical absorption maps from temperature measurements. Being able to perform measurements at any point within the medium, PMI overcomes the limitations of conventional diffuse optical imaging. We present experimental results obtained on agarose phantoms mimicking biological tissue with inclusions having either different sizes or absorption contrasts, located at various depths. The reconstructed images show that PMI can successfully resolve these inclusions with high resolution and recover their absorption coefficient with high-quantitative accuracy. Even a 1-mm inclusion located 6-mm deep is recovered successfully and its absorption coefficient is underestimated by only 32%. The improved PMI system presented here successfully operates under the maximum skin exposure limits defined by the American National Standards Institute, which opens up the exciting possibility of its future clinical use for diagnostic purposes.

  20. Object-Based Forest Change Detection Using High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chehata, N.; Orny, C.; Boukir, S.; Guyon, D.

    2011-04-01

    An object-based approach for forest disaster change detection using High Resolution (HR) satellite images is proposed. An automatic feature selection process is used to optimize image segmentation via an original calibration-like procedure. A multitemporal classification then enables the separation of wind-fall from intact areas based on a new descriptor that depends on the level of fragmentation of the detected regions. The mean shift algorithm was used in both the segmentation and the classification processes. The method was tested on a high resolution Formosat-2 multispectral satellite image pair acquired before and after the Klaus storm. The obtained results are encouraging and the contribution of high resolution images for forest disaster mapping is discussed.

  1. Demonstration of snapshot imaging polarimeter using modified Savart polariscopes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qizhi; Zhang, Jing; DeHoog, Edward; Zhang, Chunmin

    2016-02-10

    In an earlier publication, [Appl. Opt.51, 5791 (2012)] we demonstrated by theoretical analysis that a snapshot imaging polarimeter using modified Savart polariscopes (MSP-SIP) is comparable in carrier frequency, signal-to-noise ratio, and spatial resolution to a snapshot imaging polarimeter using conventional Savart polariscopes. In this investigation, numerical simulation is used to demonstrate the feasibility of MSP-SIP and investigate the limitation of the filtration and the Fourier analysis decoupling the polarization information encoded through the spatial modulation. In addition, a laboratory experiment is conducted to demonstrate the validity of MSP-SIP. The MSP-SIP operates on the principle of encoding polarization information within the spatial modulation of the image. This unique technology allows all Stokes parameters to be simultaneously recorded from every spatial position in an image with a single integration period of the imaging system. The device contains no moving parts and requires no scanning, allowing it to acquire data without the motion artifacts normally associated with a scanning polarimeter. In addition to snapshot imaging and static (no moving parts) capabilities, image processing is simple, and the device is compact and miniature. Therefore, we believe that MSP-SIP will be useful in many applications, such as remote sensing and bioscience. PMID:26906358

  2. High-resolution far-field ghost imaging via sparsity constraint.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wenlin; Han, Shensheng

    2015-01-01

    Ghost imaging (GI) is a method to nonlocally image an object with a single-pixel detector. However, the speckle's transverse size at the object plane limits the system's imaging resolution for conventional GI linear reconstruction algorithm. By combining the sparsity constraint of imaging object with ghost imaging method, we demonstrate experimentally that ghost imaging via sparsity constraint (GISC) can dramatically enhance the imaging resolution even using the random measurements far below the Nyquist limit. The image reconstruction algorithm of GISC is based on compressive sensing. Factors affecting the reconstruction quality of high-resolution GISC, such as the receiving system's numerical aperture and the object's sparse representation basis, are also investigated experimentally. This high-resolution imaging technique will have great applications in the microscopy and remote-sensing areas. PMID:25787897

  3. A high-resolution airborne four-camera imaging system for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and testing of an airborne multispectral digital imaging system for remote sensing applications. The system consists of four high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) digital cameras and a ruggedized PC equipped with a frame grabber and image acquisition software. T...

  4. Interactive Display of High-Resolution Images on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Stephen W.; Hirschi, Gregory W.

    Viewing high-resolution images on the World Wide Web at a level of detail necessary for collaborative research is still a problem today, given the Internet's current bandwidth limitations and its ever increasing network traffic. ImageEyes is an interactive display tool being developed at Utah State University that addresses this problem by…

  5. Content based sub-image retrieval system for high resolution pathology images using salient interest points.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Neville; Alomari, Raja' S; Chaudhary, Vipin

    2009-01-01

    Content-based image retrieval systems for digital pathology require sub-image retrieval rather than the whole image retrieval for the system to be of clinical use. Digital pathology images are huge in size and thus the pathologist is interested in retrieving specific structures from the whole images in the database along with the previous diagnosis of the retrieved sub-image. We propose a content-based sub-image retrieval system (sCBIR) framework for high resolution digital pathology images. We utilize scale-invariant feature extraction and present an efficient and robust searching mechanism for indexing the images as well as for query execution of sub-image retrieval. We present a working sCBIR system and show results of testing our system on a set of queries for specific structures of interest for pathologists in clinical use. The outcomes of the sCBIR system are compared to manual search and there is an 80% match in the top five searches. PMID:19965011

  6. High-resolution harmonic motion imaging (HR-HMI) for tissue biomechanical property characterization

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Teng; Qian, Xuejun; Chiu, Chi Tat; Yu, Mingyue; Jung, Hayong; Tung, Yao-Sheng; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Background Elastography, capable of mapping the biomechanical properties of biological tissues, serves as a useful technique for clinicians to perform disease diagnosis and determine stages of many diseases. Many acoustic radiation force (ARF) based elastography, including acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging and harmonic motion imaging (HMI), have been developed to remotely assess the elastic properties of tissues. However, due to the lower operating frequencies of these approaches, their spatial resolutions are insufficient for revealing stiffness distribution on small scale applications, such as cancerous tumor margin detection, atherosclerotic plaque composition analysis and ophthalmologic tissue characterization. Though recently developed ARF-based optical coherence elastography (OCE) methods open a new window for the high resolution elastography, shallow imaging depths significantly limit their usefulness in clinics. Methods The aim of this study is to develop a high-resolution HMI method to assess the tissue biomechanical properties with acceptable field of view (FOV) using a 4 MHz ring transducer for efficient excitation and a 40 MHz needle transducer for accurate detection. Under precise alignment of two confocal transducers, the high-resolution HMI system has a lateral resolution of 314 µm and an axial resolution of 
147 µm with an effective FOV of 2 mm in depth. Results The performance of this high resolution imaging system was validated on the agar-based tissue mimicking phantoms with different stiffness distributions. These data demonstrated the imaging system’s improved resolution and sensitivity on differentiating materials with varying stiffness. In addition, ex vivo imaging of a human atherosclerosis coronary artery demonstrated the capability of high resolution HMI in identifying layer-specific structures and characterizing atherosclerotic plaques based on their stiffness differences. Conclusions All together high resolution HMI

  7. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kotasidis, Fotis A.; Angelis, Georgios I.; Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C.; Reader, Andrew J.; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution

  8. High Resolution Imaging by Atomic Force Microscopy: Contribution of short-range force to the imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, Toyoaki; Kotone, Akiyama; Masanori, Ono; Toshio, Sakurai; Yukio, Hasegawa

    2003-03-01

    Recent developments in force detection technique have made us possible to obtain atomically resolved images of the Si(111)-(7x7) surface by AFM. Compared with STM, however, its spatial resolution remains limited. In this presentation, we demonstrate that with careful pretreatment and appropriate experimental parameters, the structure of the rest-atom layer can be imaged using AFM by detecting the short-range force due to the single chemical bonding. The detection of the short-range force is verified by analysis of the frequency-shift versus distance curve (force curve). This unprecedented high resolution is achieved by reducing background forces due to the long-range interactions with small oscillation amplitude of the cantilever and an atomically sharp tip. The high temperature annealing of the cantilever assists in obtaining a bare silicon tip on the cantilever without unwanted tip-blunting, and improving the Q-factor of the cantilever. This study implies that characterization of the AFM tip in nanometer scale, not only on the apex atoms but also its shape near the apex, is important and critical for AFM high resolution imaging.

  9. Ultra-high resolution of radiocesium distribution detection based on Cherenkov light imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Ogata, Yoshimune; Kawachi, Naoki; Suzui, Nobuo; Yin, Yong-Gen; Fujimaki, Shu

    2015-03-01

    After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, radiocesium contamination became a serious scientific concern and research of its effects on plants increased. In such plant studies, high resolution images of radiocesium are required without contacting the subjects. Cherenkov light imaging of beta radionuclides has inherently high resolution and is promising for plant research. Since 137Cs and 134Cs emit beta particles, Cherenkov light imaging will be useful for the imaging of radiocesium distribution. Consequently, we developed and tested a Cherenkov light imaging system. We used a high sensitivity cooled charge coupled device (CCD) camera (Hamamatsu Photonics, ORCA2-ER) for imaging Cherenkov light from 137Cs. A bright lens (Xenon, F-number: 0.95, lens diameter: 25 mm) was mounted on the camera and placed in a black box. With a 100-μm 137Cs point source, we obtained 220-μm spatial resolution in the Cherenkov light image. With a 1-mm diameter, 320-kBq 137Cs point source, the source was distinguished within 2-s. We successfully obtained Cherenkov light images of a plant whose root was dipped in a 137Cs solution, radiocesium-containing samples as well as line and character phantom images with our imaging system. Cherenkov light imaging is promising for the high resolution imaging of radiocesium distribution without contacting the subject.

  10. Toward an image compression algorithm for the high-resolution electronic still camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerheim, Rosalee

    1989-01-01

    Taking pictures with a camera that uses a digital recording medium instead of film has the advantage of recording and transmitting images without the use of a darkroom or a courier. However, high-resolution images contain an enormous amount of information and strain data-storage systems. Image compression will allow multiple images to be stored in the High-Resolution Electronic Still Camera. The camera is under development at Johnson Space Center. Fidelity of the reproduced image and compression speed are of tantamount importance. Lossless compression algorithms are fast and faithfully reproduce the image, but their compression ratios will be unacceptably low due to noise in the front end of the camera. Future efforts will include exploring methods that will reduce the noise in the image and increase the compression ratio.

  11. Mapping the electrostatic force field of single molecules from high-resolution scanning probe images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapala, Prokop; Švec, Martin; Stetsovych, Oleksandr; van der Heijden, Nadine J.; Ondráček, Martin; van der Lit, Joost; Mutombo, Pingo; Swart, Ingmar; Jelínek, Pavel

    2016-05-01

    How electronic charge is distributed over a molecule determines to a large extent its chemical properties. Here, we demonstrate how the electrostatic force field, originating from the inhomogeneous charge distribution in a molecule, can be measured with submolecular resolution. We exploit the fact that distortions typically observed in high-resolution atomic force microscopy images are for a significant part caused by the electrostatic force acting between charges of the tip and the molecule of interest. By finding a geometrical transformation between two high-resolution AFM images acquired with two different tips, the electrostatic force field or potential over individual molecules and self-assemblies thereof can be reconstructed with submolecular resolution.

  12. High-resolution three-photon biomedical imaging using doped ZnS nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jung Ho; Kwon, Seung-Hae; Petrášek, Zdeněk; Park, Ok Kyu; Jun, Samuel Woojoo; Shin, Kwangsoo; Choi, Moonkee; Park, Yong Il; Park, Kyeongsoon; Na, Hyon Bin; Lee, Nohyun; Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Schwille, Petra; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2013-04-01

    Three-photon excitation is a process that occurs when three photons are simultaneously absorbed within a luminophore for photo-excitation through virtual states. Although the imaging application of this process was proposed decades ago, three-photon biomedical imaging has not been realized yet owing to its intrinsic low quantum efficiency. We herein report on high-resolution in vitro and in vivo imaging by combining three-photon excitation of ZnS nanocrystals and visible emission from Mn2+ dopants. The large three-photon cross-section of the nanocrystals enabled targeted cellular imaging under high spatial resolution, approaching the theoretical limit of three-photon excitation. Owing to the enhanced Stokes shift achieved through nanocrystal doping, the three-photon process was successfully applied to high-resolution in vivo tumour-targeted imaging. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of ZnS nanocrystals offers great potential for clinical applications of three-photon imaging.

  13. Improved High Resolution Controlled Enceladus Atlas derived from Cassini-ISS Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roatsch, T.; Kersten, E.; Hoffmeister, A.; Matz, K.-D.; Preusker, F.; Porco, C. C.

    2012-09-01

    The Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) acquired 684 high-resolution images (< 1 km/pixel) of Enceladus during its tour through the Saturnian system since 2004. We have combined these images with lower-resolution Cassini images to produce a new high-resolution global controlled mosaic of this moonf Enceladus. This global mosaic is the baseline for the highresolution Enceladus atlas that consists of 15 tiles mapped at a scale of 1:500,000. The nomenclature used in this atlas was proposed by the Cassini imaging team and was approved by the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The whole atlas is available to the public through the Imaging Team's website [http://ciclops.org/maps].

  14. A segmentation-based lossless image coding method for high-resolution medical image compression.

    PubMed

    Shen, L; Rangayyan, R M

    1997-06-01

    Lossless compression techniques are essential in archival and communication of medical images. In this paper, a new segmentation-based lossless image coding (SLIC) method is proposed, which is based on a simple but efficient region growing procedure. The embedded region growing procedure produces an adaptive scanning pattern for the image with the help of a very-few-bits-needed discontinuity index map. Along with this scanning pattern, an error image data part with a very small dynamic range is generated. Both the error image data and the discontinuity index map data parts are then encoded by the Joint Bi-level Image experts Group (JBIG) method. The SLIC method resulted in, on the average, lossless compression to about 1.6 h/pixel from 8 b, and to about 2.9 h/pixel from 10 b with a database of ten high-resolution digitized chest and breast images. In comparison with direct coding by JBIG, Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), hierarchical interpolation (HINT), and two-dimensional Burg Prediction plus Huffman error coding methods, the SLIC method performed better by 4% to 28% on the database used. PMID:9184892

  15. Magellan radar image compared to high resolution Earth-based image of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A strip of a Magellan radar image (left) is compared to a high resolution Earth-based radar image of Venus, obtained by the U.S. National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center's Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. The small white box in the Arecibo image corresponds to the Magellan image. This portion of the Magellan imagery shows a small region on the east flank of a major volcanic upland called Beta Regio. The image is centered at 23 degrees north latitude and 286.7 degrees east longitude. The ridge and valley network in the middle part of the image is formed by intersecting faults which have broken the Venusian crust into a complex deformed type of surface called tessera, the Latin word for tile. The parallel mountains and valleys resemble the Basin and Range Province in the western United States. The irregular dark patch near the top of the image is a smooth surface, probably formed, according to scientists, by lava flows in a region about 10 kilometers (6 miles) across. Similar dark sur

  16. The Potential for Bayesian Compressive Sensing to Significantly Reduce Electron Dose in High Resolution STEM Images

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Andrew J.; Yang, Hao; Carin, Lawrence; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D.

    2014-02-11

    The use of high resolution imaging methods in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is limited in many cases by the sensitivity of the sample to the beam and the onset of electron beam damage (for example in the study of organic systems, in tomography and during in-situ experiments). To demonstrate that alternative strategies for image acquisition can help alleviate this beam damage issue, here we apply compressive sensing via Bayesian dictionary learning to high resolution STEM images. These experiments successively reduce the number of pixels in the image (thereby reducing the overall dose while maintaining the high resolution information) and show promising results for reconstructing images from this reduced set of randomly collected measurements. We show that this approach is valid for both atomic resolution images and nanometer resolution studies, such as those that might be used in tomography datasets, by applying the method to images of strontium titanate and zeolites. As STEM images are acquired pixel by pixel while the beam is scanned over the surface of the sample, these post acquisition manipulations of the images can, in principle, be directly implemented as a low-dose acquisition method with no change in the electron optics or alignment of the microscope itself.

  17. Lipoma and liposarcoma of the parotid gland: high-resolution preoperative imaging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Korentager, R; Noyek, A M; Chapnik, J S; Steinhardt, M; Luk, S C; Cooter, N

    1988-09-01

    Over the past 7 years, nine fatty tumors within the parotid gland have been managed (eight lipomas, one liposarcoma). High-resolution computed tomography examination was carried out in all cases; with correct preoperative diagnosis recorded each time. The computed tomography imaging characteristics of lipoma, liposarcoma, and the differential diagnosis from other fat density lesions, such as a fatty infiltration, appear quite specific. The liposarcoma and six of the lipomas were resected at formal parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation. Two patients with small intraglandular lipomas have elected to undergo long-term clinical and imaging observation. Our experience indicates that high-resolution, soft-tissue imaging with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging permits consistent preoperative fatty tumor diagnosis. This imaging input facilitates rational treatment decision-making. PMID:3412095

  18. A compact high-resolution 3-D imaging spectrometer for discovering Oases on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ge, J.; Ren, D.; Lunine, J.I.; Brown, R.H.; Yelle, R.V.; Soderblom, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    A new design for a very lightweight, very high throughput reflectance sectrometer enabled by two new technologies being developed is presented. These new technologies include integral field unit optics to enable simultaneous imaging and spectroscopy at high spatial resolution with an infrared (IR) array, and silicon grisms to enable compact and high-resolution spectroscopy.

  19. Real-time snapshot hyperspectral imaging endoscope

    PubMed Central

    Kester, Robert T.; Bedard, Noah; Gao, Liang; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2011-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has tremendous potential to detect important molecular biomarkers of early cancer based on their unique spectral signatures. Several drawbacks have limited its use for in vivo screening applications: most notably the poor temporal and spatial resolution, high expense, and low optical throughput of existing hyperspectral imagers. We present the development of a new real-time hyperspectral endoscope (called the image mapping spectroscopy endoscope) based on an image mapping technique capable of addressing these challenges. The parallel high throughput nature of this technique enables the device to operate at frame rates of 5.2 frames per second while collecting a (x, y, λ) datacube of 350 × 350 × 48. We have successfully imaged tissue in vivo, resolving a vasculature pattern of the lower lip while simultaneously detecting oxy-hemoglobin. PMID:21639573

  20. High resolution retinal image restoration with wavefront sensing and self-extracted filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuyu; Erry, Gavin; Nemeth, Sheila; Mitra, Sunanda; Soliz, Peter

    2005-04-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy commonly rely on a clear view of the retina. The challenge in obtaining high quality retinal image lies in the design of the imaging system that can reduce the strong aberrations of the human eye. Since the amplitudes of human eye aberrations decrease rapidly as the aberration order goes up, it is more cost-effective to correct low order aberrations with adaptive optical devices while process high order aberrations through image processing. A cost effective fundus imaging device that can capture high quality retinal images with 2-5 times higher resolution than conventional retinal images has been designed [1]. This imager improves image quality by attaching complementary adaptive optical components to a conventional fundus camera. However, images obtained with the high resolution camera are still blurred due to some uncorrected aberrations as well as defocusing resulting from non-isoplanatic effect. Therefore, advanced image restoration algorithms have been employed for further improvement in image quality. In this paper, we use wavefront-based and self-extracted blind deconvolution techniques to restore images captured by the high resolution fundus camera. We demonstrate that through such techniques, pathologies that are critical to retinal disease diagnosis but not clear or not observable in the original image can be observed clearly in the restored images. Image quality evaluation is also used to finalize the development of a cost-effective, fast, and automated diagnostic system that can be used clinically.

  1. The high-resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Paul B.; Abreu, Vincent J.; Dobbs, Michael E.; Gell, David A.; Grassl, Heinz J.; Skinner, Wilbert R.

    1993-01-01

    The high-resolution Doppler imager (HRDI) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite is a triple-etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer designed to measure winds in the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere. Winds are determined by measuring the Doppler shifts of rotational lines of the O2 atmospheric band, which are observed in emission in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere and in absorption in the stratosphere. The interferometer has high resolution (0.05/cm), good offhand rejection, aud excellent stability. This paper provides details of the design and capabilities of the HRDI instrument.

  2. Realization of quantitative-grade fieldable snapshot imaging spectropolarimeter.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephen; Iannarilli, Frank; Kebabian, Paul

    2004-12-27

    We discuss achievement of a long-standing technology goal: the first practical realization of a quantitative-grade, field-worthy snapshot imaging spectropolarimeter. The instrument employs Polarimetric Spectral Intensity Modulation (PSIM), a technique that enables full Stokes instantaneous "snapshot" spectropolarimetry with perfect channel registration. This is achieved with conventional single beam optics and a single focal plane array (FPA). Simultaneity and perfect registration are obtained by encoding the polarimetry onto the spectrum via a novel optical arrangement which enables sensing from moving platforms against dynamic scenes. PSIM is feasible across the electro-optical sensing range (UV-LWIR). We present measurement results from a prototype sensor that operates in the visible and near infrared regime (450-900 nm). We discuss in some detail the calibration and Stokes spectrum inversion algorithms that are presently achieving 0.5% polarimetric accuracy. PMID:19488307

  3. Realization of quantitative-grade fieldable snapshot imaging spectropolarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Stephen H.; Iannarilli, Frank J.; Kebabian, Paul L.

    2004-12-01

    We discuss achievement of a long-standing technology goal: the first practical realization of a quantitative-grade, field-worthy snapshot imaging spectropolarimeter. The instrument employs Polarimetric Spectral Intensity Modulation (PSIM), a technique that enables full Stokes instantaneous "snapshot" spectropolarimetry with perfect channel registration. This is achieved with conventional single beam optics and a single focal plane array (FPA). Simultaneity and perfect registration are obtained by encoding the polarimetry onto the spectrum via a novel optical arrangement which enables sensing from moving platforms against dynamic scenes. PSIM is feasible across the electro-optical sensing range (UV-LWIR). We present measurement results from a prototype sensor that operates in the visible and near infrared regime (450-900 nm). We discuss in some detail the calibration and Stokes spectrum inversion algorithms that are presently achieving 0.5% polarimetric accuracy.

  4. High resolution remote sensing image segmentation based on graph theory and fractal net evolution approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Li, H. T.; Han, Y. S.; Gu, H. Y.

    2015-06-01

    Image segmentation is the foundation of further object-oriented image analysis, understanding and recognition. It is one of the key technologies in high resolution remote sensing applications. In this paper, a new fast image segmentation algorithm for high resolution remote sensing imagery is proposed, which is based on graph theory and fractal net evolution approach (FNEA). Firstly, an image is modelled as a weighted undirected graph, where nodes correspond to pixels, and edges connect adjacent pixels. An initial object layer can be obtained efficiently from graph-based segmentation, which runs in time nearly linear in the number of image pixels. Then FNEA starts with the initial object layer and a pairwise merge of its neighbour object with the aim to minimize the resulting summed heterogeneity. Furthermore, according to the character of different features in high resolution remote sensing image, three different merging criterions for image objects based on spectral and spatial information are adopted. Finally, compared with the commercial remote sensing software eCognition, the experimental results demonstrate that the efficiency of the algorithm has significantly improved, and the result can maintain good feature boundaries.

  5. High resolution quantitative phase imaging of live cells with constrained optimization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandiyan, Vimal Prabhu; Khare, Kedar; John, Renu

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) aims at studying weakly scattering and absorbing biological specimens with subwavelength accuracy without any external staining mechanisms. Use of a reference beam at an angle is one of the necessary criteria for recording of high resolution holograms in most of the interferometric methods used for quantitative phase imaging. The spatial separation of the dc and twin images is decided by the reference beam angle and Fourier-filtered reconstructed image will have a very poor resolution if hologram is recorded below a minimum reference angle condition. However, it is always inconvenient to have a large reference beam angle while performing high resolution microscopy of live cells and biological specimens with nanometric features. In this paper, we treat reconstruction of digital holographic microscopy images as a constrained optimization problem with smoothness constraint in order to recover only complex object field in hologram plane even with overlapping dc and twin image terms. We solve this optimization problem by gradient descent approach iteratively and the smoothness constraint is implemented by spatial averaging with appropriate size. This approach will give excellent high resolution image recovery compared to Fourier filtering while keeping a very small reference angle. We demonstrate this approach on digital holographic microscopy of live cells by recovering the quantitative phase of live cells from a hologram recorded with nearly zero reference angle.

  6. Spatiotemporally multiplexed integral imaging projector for large-scale high-resolution three-dimensional display.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ju-Seog; Oh, Yong-Seok; Javidi, Bahram

    2004-02-23

    We present a projection method in integral imaging for large-scale high-resolution three-dimensional display. In the proposed method, the entire set of high resolution elemental images with a large number of pixels is spatially divided into smaller image subsets. Then they are projected separately onto the corresponding lenslet array positions either simultaneously or in a sequence faster than the flicker fusion frequency of human eyes or both (i.e., spatiotemporal multiplexing). Thus display panels that do not have enough pixel numbers can be used to display the entire elemental images with a large number of pixels. Preliminary experiments were performed using a galvanometer-based optical scanner. PMID:19474856

  7. Technologies of diffractive imaging system for high-resolution earth observation from geostationary orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Su, Yun; Jiao, Jianchao

    2013-08-01

    High-resolution earth observation from geostationary orbit (GEO) is a good way to satisfy the increased time resolution for resource, environment and disaster monitor. Earth observation from geostationary orbit will require optical remote sensor with ultra-large aperture. Given size, weight and launch ability constraints, as well as cost consideration, the traditional monolithic aperture optical system couldn't satisfy the need. This paper gives a new method, the diffractive imaging system. Diffract ive imaging system is a feasible way to realize high-resolution earth observation from geostationary orbit. The principle of diffract ive imaging system is introduced firstly, then, the primary design of remote sensor with 1m resolution from geostationary orbit using diffractive imaging system is analyzed. Finally, the key technologies are analyzed and feasible solutions are given.

  8. High-resolution thermal imaging methodology for non-destructive evaluation of historic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Michael; Vanoni, David; Petrovic, Vid; Kuester, Falko

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a methodology for automated, portable thermography, for the acquisition of high-resolution thermal image mosaics supporting the non-destructive evaluation of historic structures. The presented approach increases the spatial resolution of thermal surveys to a level of detail needed for building scale analysis. The integration of a robotic camera platform enables automated alignment of multiple images into a high-resolution thermal image mosaic giving a holistic view of the structure while maintaining a level of detail equaling or exceeding that of traditional spot surveys using existing cameras. Providing a digital workflow for automated data and metadata recording increases the consistency and accuracy of surveys regardless of the location or operator. An imaging workflow and instrumentation are shown for a case-study on buildings in Florence, Italy demonstrating the effectiveness of this methodology for structural diagnostics.

  9. High Resolution Electromechanical Imaging of Ferroelectric Materials in a Liquid Environment by Piezoresponse Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Brian J; Jesse, Stephen; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution imaging of ferroelectric materials using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) is demonstrated in an aqueous environment. The elimination of both long-range electrostatic forces and capillary interactions results in a localization of the ac field to the tip-surface junction and allows the tip-surface contact area to be controlled. This approach results in spatial resolutions approaching the limit of the intrinsic domain-wall width. Imaging at frequencies corresponding to high-order cantilever resonances minimizes the viscous damping and added mass effects on cantilever dynamics and allows sensitivities comparable to ambient conditions. PFM in liquids will provide novel opportunities for high-resolution studies of ferroelectric materials, imaging of soft polymer materials, and imaging of biological systems in physiological environments on, ultimately, the molecular level.

  10. Automatic optimization high-speed high-resolution OCT retinal imaging at 1μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cua, Michelle; Liu, Xiyun; Miao, Dongkai; Lee, Sujin; Lee, Sieun; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Mackenzie, Paul J.; Jian, Yifan; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution OCT retinal imaging is important in providing visualization of various retinal structures to aid researchers in better understanding the pathogenesis of vision-robbing diseases. However, conventional optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems have a trade-off between lateral resolution and depth-of-focus. In this report, we present the development of a focus-stacking optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with automatic optimization for high-resolution, extended-focal-range clinical retinal imaging. A variable-focus liquid lens was added to correct for de-focus in real-time. A GPU-accelerated segmentation and optimization was used to provide real-time layer-specific enface visualization as well as depth-specific focus adjustment. After optimization, multiple volumes focused at different depths were acquired, registered, and stitched together to yield a single, high-resolution focus-stacked dataset. Using this system, we show high-resolution images of the ONH, from which we extracted clinically-relevant parameters such as the nerve fiber layer thickness and lamina cribrosa microarchitecture.

  11. Application of Multiframe High-Resolution Image Reconstruction to Digital Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxley, Frank O.; Hardie, Russell C.

    1999-04-01

    A high-resolution image reconstruction algorithm previously used to improve undersampled infrared airborne imagery was applied to two different sets of digital microscopy images. One set is that of medical pap smear images, and the second set contains metallurgical micrographs. Both the pap smear images and the metallurgical micrographs are undersampled, thus causing loss of detail and aliasing artifacts. The algorithm minimizes the effects of aliasing and restores detail unobtainable through simple interpolation techniques. Both applications demonstrate improvement by use of the image reconstruction algorithm.

  12. Fusing electro-optic and infrared signals for high resolution night images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaopeng; Netravali, Ravi; Man, Hong; Lawrence, Victor

    2012-03-01

    Electro-optic (EO) images exhibit the properties of high resolution and low noise level, while it is a challenge to distinguish objects at night through infrared (IR) images, especially for objects with a similar temperature. Therefore, we will propose a novel framework of IR image enhancement based on the information (e.g., edge) from EO images, which will result in high resolution IR images and help us distinguish objects at night. Superimposing the detected edge of the EO image onto the corresponding transformed IR image is our principal idea for the proposed framework. In this framework, we will adopt the theoretical point spread function (PSF) proposed by Russell C. Hardie et al. for our IR image system, which is contributed by the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a uniform detector array and the incoherent optical transfer function (OTF) of diffraction-limited optics. In addition, we will design an inverse filter in terms of the proposed PSF to conduct the IR image transformation. The framework requires four main steps, which are inverse filter-based IR image transformation, EO image edge detection, registration and superimposing of the obtained image pair. Simulation results will show the superimposed IR images.

  13. High resolution MRI imaging at 1. 5T using surface coils

    SciTech Connect

    Blinder, R.A.; Herfkens, R.J.; Coleman, R.E.; Johnson, G.A.; Schenck, J.F.; Hart, H.R. Jr.; Foster, T.H.; Edelstein, W.A.

    1985-05-01

    The potential utility of high resolution MRI imaging in various pathologic conditions was explored. As the voxel size of MRI images is decreased the signal per pixel diminishes due to the geometric decrease in volume. In very high resolution images the signal can be small enough to be obscured by Johnson noise. High magnetic field strength (1.5T) coupled with surface coil imaging increases the signal to noise ratio. The surface coils used were single turn coils with diameters of 6 or 11 cm depending on the body part being imaged. A ''clam shell'' crossed coil was used for imaging the knees. Using a 1.5T prototype MRI imaging system we have obtained images with 14.5 cm field of view that are 256 by 256 pixels with a slice thickness of 3 mm. Good signal to noise is obtained using 2DTF imaging with only 2 excitations per phase encoding step (1 average). Images obtained of peripheral joints demonstrate articular cartilage, ligamentous structures, and trabeculae in medullary bone. These exams have demonstrated the changes of rheumatoid arthritis, and the extent of neoplastic involvement in bone. Images of the temporomandibular joint and the neck have been obtained. Parathyroid adenomas have been identified. Surface coil imaging and high magnetic fields allow for high resolution MRI imaging of various anatomic structures. Good signal to noise can be accomplished without extensive signal averaging so that reasonable imaging times and throughput can be realized with voxel dimensions of 0.6 x 0.6 x 3mm.

  14. High-Resolution Mosaic Imaging with Multifocal, Multiphoton Photon-Counting Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, E.; Hoover, E.; Field, J.; Sheetz, K.; Amir, W.; Carriles, R.; Ding, S. Y.; Squier, J.

    2009-04-10

    High-resolution mosaic imaging is performed for the first time to our knowledge with a multifocal, multiphoton, photon-counting imaging system. We present a novel design consisting of a home-built femtosecond Yb-doped KGdWO{sub 4} laser with an optical multiplexer, which is coupled with a commercial Olympus IX-71 microscope frame. Photon counting is performed using single-element detectors and an inexpensive electronic demultiplexer and counters.

  15. Micropolarizer arrays in the MWIR for snapshot polarimetric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemme, S. A.; Cruz-Cabrera, A. A.; Nandy, R.; Boye, R. R.; Wendt, J. R.; Carter, T. R.; Samora, S.

    2007-04-01

    We report on the design, fabrication, and simulation of a four-state pixelated subwavelength optical device that enables mid-wave infrared (MWIR) or long-wave infrared (LWIR) snapshot polarimetric imaging. The polarization information can help to classify imaged materials and identify objects of interest for remote sensing and military applications. The fabricated pixelated polarizers have measured extinction ratios larger than 100:1 for pixel sizes greater than 9 microns by 9 microns, with transmitted signals greater than 50%. That exceeds, by 7 times, previously reported device extinction ratios for 15 micron by 15 micron pixels. Traditionally, sequential polarimetric imaging sensors produce scenes with polarization information through a series of assembled images. Snapshot polarimetric imaging collects the spatial distribution of all four Stokes' parameters simultaneously. In this way any noise due to scene movement from one frame to the next is eliminated. In this paper, we will quantify near-field and diffractive effects of the finite pixel apertures upon detection. We have designed and built an experimental setup that models a pixel within a focal plane array (FPA) to measure crosstalk from adjacent gold wiregrid micropolarizers. This configuration simulates a snapshot polarization imaging device where the two substrates are stacked; micropolarizer array substrate on top of an FPA. Modeling and measured data indicate crosstalk between the adjacent pixels up to a few microns behind the polarizer plane. Crosstalk between adjacent pixels increases uncertainty in the measured polarization states in a scene of interest. Measured and simulated data confirm that the extinction ratio of a micropolarizer pixel in a super-cell will be reduced by 17% when moving the FPA from 0.5 microns to 1.0 microns away from the polarizer. These changes in extinction ratio are significant since typical glue separation is on the order of 10 microns.

  16. Computational Burden Resulting from Image Recognition of High Resolution Radar Sensors

    PubMed Central

    López-Rodríguez, Patricia; Fernández-Recio, Raúl; Bravo, Ignacio; Gardel, Alfredo; Lázaro, José L.; Rufo, Elena

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for high resolution radar image generation and automatic target recognition emphasizing the computational cost involved in the process. In order to obtain focused inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) images certain signal processing algorithms must be applied to the information sensed by the radar. From actual data collected by radar the stages and algorithms needed to obtain ISAR images are revised, including high resolution range profile generation, motion compensation and ISAR formation. Target recognition is achieved by comparing the generated set of actual ISAR images with a database of ISAR images generated by electromagnetic software. High resolution radar image generation and target recognition processes are burdensome and time consuming, so to determine the most suitable implementation platform the analysis of the computational complexity is of great interest. To this end and since target identification must be completed in real time, computational burden of both processes the generation and comparison with a database is explained separately. Conclusions are drawn about implementation platforms and calculation efficiency in order to reduce time consumption in a possible future implementation. PMID:23609804

  17. High-resolution and LIDAR imaging support to the Haiti earthquake relief effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messinger, David W.; van Aardt, Jan; McKeown, Don; Casterline, May; Faulring, Jason; Raqueño, Nina; Basener, Bill; Velez-Reyes, Miguel

    2010-08-01

    The Wildfire Airborne Sensor Program (WASP) is an imaging system designed, built, and operated by the RIT Center for Imaging Science. The system consists of four cameras: a high resolution color camera and SWIR, MWIR, and LWIR cameras. When flown with our corporate partners, Kucera International, the imaging system is combined with a high-resolution LIDAR. This combination provides a full-spectrum, multimodal data collection platform unique to RIT. Under funding by the World Bank, the WASP system was used to image over 250 sq. mi. in Haiti (approximately 15,000 visible and 45,000 infrared frames) from January 21 - 27, 2010 in support of the earthquake relief efforts. Priorities of collection were the area surrounding Port au Prince, the city of Leogane, several other badly damaged towns, and, at the request of the USGS, a high resolution LIDAR collection over the fault line. The imagery was used in the field by disaster relief workers and by collaborators at the University of Buffalo and ImageCat, Inc. to perform building damage and road network trafficability assessments. Additionally, large area mosaics and semi-automatic processing algorithms were developed for value-added product development. In particular, a methodology was developed to extract the locations of blue tarps (indicative of displaced persons) from the images. All imagery was made available to the public through outlets such as Google Earth, the University of Buffalo, the US Geological Survey, the United Nations, and other sites.

  18. Compact snapshot birefringent imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudenov, Michael W.; Dereniak, Eustace L.

    2010-08-01

    The design and implementation of a compact multiple-image Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) is presented. Based on the multiple-image FTS originally developed by A. Hirai, the presented device offers significant advantages over his original implementation. Namely, its birefringent nature results in a common-path interferometer which makes the spectrometer insensitive to vibration. Furthermore, it enables the potential of making the instrument ultra-compact, thereby improving the portability of the sensor. The theory of the birefringent FTS is provided, followed by details of its specific embodiment. A laboratory proof of concept of the sensor, designed and developed at the Optical Detection Lab, is also presented. Spectral measurements of laboratory sources are provided, including measurements of light-emitting diodes and gas-discharge lamps. These spectra are verified against a calibrated Ocean Optics USB2000 spectrometer. Other data were collected outdoors, demonstrating the sensor's ability to resolve spectral signatures in standard outdoor lighting and environmental conditions.

  19. Feasibility of Transoral Robotic-Assisted High Resolution Microendoscopic Imaging of Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Patsias, Alexis; Giraldez-Rodriguez, Laureano A.; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Quang, Timothy; Sikora, Andrew G.; Miles, Brett A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Transoral robotic-assisted oncologic surgery of the head and neck offers promising functional results. Nonetheless, the efficacy of oncologic surgery remains critically dependent on obtaining negative margins. We aimed to integrate a miniaturized high resolution fiberoptic microendoscope (HRME), which provides real time histological assessment, with the da Vinci robotic system (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA). Methods Three patients undergoing transoral robotic surgery were prospectively enrolled. Optical imaging of the oropharynx was performed intraoperatively with the robotic-assisted HRME. Results All patients underwent the procedure successfully with no complications. The HRME was successfully integrated with the Da Vinci Robotic system. Several sites of the oropharynx and associated malignancy were imaged, which correlated with the standard histopathological analysis. Conclusions Transoral robotic-assisted high resolution microendoscopic imaging of the oropharynx is a safe and technically feasible approach, providing a real time histological assessment and may serve as a valuable aid in oncologic surgery. PMID:25327825

  20. REVIEW ARTICLE: Techniques for high resolution imaging of wood structure: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucur, V.

    2003-12-01

    High resolution imaging of wood requires the development of measurement techniques for nondestructive characterization of this material. The techniques, ranging from ionizing radiation to thermal techniques, microwaves, ultrasonics and nuclear magnetic resonance, provide excellent means of obtaining information about the internal structure of wood. High resolution images of wood structure can be obtained from a complete set of projections of relevant physical parameters such as x-ray attenuation, ultrasonic velocities, dielectric properties, etc. In this article the criterion selected for the description of the measurement techniques is the wavelength of the radiation which interacts with wood. The most relevant technique for the imaging of the cross section of the specimen under test will depend upon the particular application and material being studied: trees, logs, timber and wood-based composites.

  1. Protected Plasmonic Nanostructures for High Resolution Chemical Imaging using Tip Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butt, Rebecca; Barrios, Carlos; Malkovskiy, Andrey; Kisliuk, Alexander; Sokolov, Alexei; Foster, Mark

    2009-03-01

    Tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS), an emerging technique that combines optical microscopy and scanning probe microscopy, provides the sensitivity and selectivity necessary for high-resolution chemical imaging of polymer surfaces. An unprecedented 20 nm lateral resolution for the chemical imaging has been achieved. Unfortunately, the fragile plasmonic structures used to enhance the electric field are prone to mechanical, chemical, and thermal degradation. Developing robust noble metal nanostructures with stable plasmonic resonance is essential to reliable high resolution chemical imaging. Covering the metal layer with organic and inorganic ultrathin coatings is being investigated to extend the plasmonic activity of the engineered nanostructures. Addition of an ultrathin aluminum oxide (Al2O3) coating to a silver-coated scanning probe microscopy tip for TERS significantly improves plasmonic structure stability without sacrificing the initial TERS efficiency. This ultrathin coating provides wear resistance and stops chemical degradation responsible for the loss of signal enhancement.

  2. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the lower extremity nerves.

    PubMed

    Burge, Alissa J; Gold, Stephanie L; Kuong, Sharon; Potter, Hollis G

    2014-02-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the nerves, commonly known as MR neurography is increasingly being used as noninvasive means of diagnosing peripheral nerve disease. High-resolution imaging protocols aimed at imaging the nerves of the hip, thigh, knee, leg, ankle, and foot can demonstrate traumatic or iatrogenic injury, tumorlike lesions, or entrapment of the nerves, causing a potential loss of motor and sensory function in the affected area. A thorough understanding of normal MR imaging and gross anatomy, as well as MR findings in the presence of peripheral neuropathies will aid in accurate diagnosis and ultimately help guide clinical management. PMID:24210318

  3. Localization of tissues in high-resolution digital anatomic pathology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomari, Raja S.; Allen, Ron; Sabata, Bikash; Chaudhary, Vipin

    2009-02-01

    High resolution digital pathology images have a wide range of variability in color, shape, size, number, appearance, location, and texture. The segmentation problem is challenging in this environment. We introduce a hybrid method that combines parametric machine learning with heuristic methods for feature extraction as well as pre- and post-processing steps for localizing diverse tissues in slide images. The method uses features such as color, intensity, texture, and spatial distribution. We use principal component analysis for feature reduction and train a two layer back propagation neural network (with one hidden layer). We perform image labeling at pixel-level and achieve higher than 96% automatic localization accuracy on 294 test images.

  4. Interactive Change Detection Using High Resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on Active Learning with Gaussian Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ru, Hui; Yu, Huai; Huang, Pingping; Yang, Wen

    2016-06-01

    Although there have been many studies for change detection, the effective and efficient use of high resolution remote sensing images is still a problem. Conventional supervised methods need lots of annotations to classify the land cover categories and detect their changes. Besides, the training set in supervised methods often has lots of redundant samples without any essential information. In this study, we present a method for interactive change detection using high resolution remote sensing images with active learning to overcome the shortages of existing remote sensing image change detection techniques. In our method, there is no annotation of actual land cover category at the beginning. First, we find a certain number of the most representative objects in unsupervised way. Then, we can detect the change areas from multi-temporal high resolution remote sensing images by active learning with Gaussian processes in an interactive way gradually until the detection results do not change notably. The artificial labelling can be reduced substantially, and a desirable detection result can be obtained in a few iterations. The experiments on Geo-Eye1 and WorldView2 remote sensing images demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method.

  5. High resolution T2(*)-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3 Tesla using PROPELLER-EPI.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Martin; Reichenbach, Jürgen R

    2014-05-01

    We report the application of PROPELLER-EPI for high resolution T2(*)-weighted imaging with sub-millimeter in-plane resolution on a clinical 3 Tesla scanner. Periodically rotated blades of a long-axis PROPELLER-EPI sequence were acquired with fast gradient echo readout and acquisition matrix of 320 × 50 per blade. Images were reconstructed by using 2D-gridding, phase and geometric distortion correction and compensation of resonance frequency drifts that occurred during extended measurements. To characterize these resonance frequency offsets, short FID calibration measurements were added to the PROPELLER-EPI sequence. Functional PROPELLER-EPI was performed with volunteers using a simple block design of right handed finger tapping. Results indicate that PROPELLER-EPI can be employed for fast, high resolution T2(*)-weighted imaging provided geometric distortions and possible resonance frequency drifts are properly corrected. Even small resonance frequency drifts below 10 Hz as well as non-corrected geometric distortions degraded image quality substantially. In the initial fMRI experiment image quality and signal-to-noise ratio was sufficient for obtaining high resolution functional activation maps. PMID:24439698

  6. Interval TYPE-2 Fuzzy Based Neural Network for High Resolution Remote Sensing Image Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunyan; Xu, Aigong; Li, Chao; Zhao, Xuemei

    2016-06-01

    Recently, high resolution remote sensing image segmentation is a hot issue in image procesing procedures. However, it is a difficult task. The difficulties derive from the uncertainties of pixel segmentation and decision-making model. To this end, we take spatial relationship into consideration when constructing the interval type-2 fuzzy neural networks for high resolution remote sensing image segmentation. First, the proposed algorithm constructs a Gaussian model as a type-1 fuzzy model to describe the uncertainty contained in the image. Second, interval type-2 fuzzy model is obtained by blurring the mean and variance in type-1 model. The proposed interval type-2 model can strengthen the expression of uncertainty and simultaneously decrease the uncertainty in the decision model. Then the fuzzy membership function itself and its upper and lower fuzzy membership functions of the training samples are used as the input of neuron network which acts as the decision model in proposed algorithm. Finally, the relationship of neighbour pixels is taken into consideration and the fuzzy membership functions of the detected pixel and its neighbourhood are used to decide the class of each pixel to get the final segmentation result. The proposed algorithm, FCM and HMRF-FCM algorithm and an interval type-2 fuzzy neuron networks without spatial relationships are performed on synthetic and real high resolution remote sensing images. The qualitative and quantitative analyses demonstrate the efficient of the proposed algorithm, especially for homogeneous regions which contains a great difference in its gray level (for example forest).

  7. Performance Validation of High Resolution Digital Surface Models Generated by Dense Image Matching with the Aerial Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yastikli, N.; Bayraktar, H.; Erisir, Z.

    2014-11-01

    The digital surface models (DSM) are the most popular products to determine visible surface of Earth which includes all non-terrain objects such as vegetation, forest, and man-made constructions. The airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is the preferred technique for high resolution DSM generation in local coverage. The automatic generation of the high resolution DSM is also possible with stereo image matching using the aerial images. The image matching algorithms usually rely on the feature based matching for DSM generation. First, feature points are extracted and then corresponding features are searched in the overlapping images. These image matching algorithms face with the problems in the areas which have repetitive pattern such as urban structure and forest. The recent innovation in camera technology and image matching algorithm enabled the automatic dense DSM generation for large scale city and environment modelling. The new pixel-wise matching approaches are generates very high resolution DSMs which corresponds to the ground sample distance (GSD) of the original images. The numbers of the research institutes and photogrammetric software vendors are currently developed software tools for dense DSM generation using the aerial images. This new approach can be used high resolution DSM generation for the larger cities, rural areas and forest even Nation-wide applications. In this study, the performance validation of high resolution DSM generated by pixel-wise dense image matching in part of Istanbul was aimed. The study area in Istanbul is including different land classes such as open areas, forest and built-up areas to test performance of dense image matching in different land classes. The obtained result from this performance validation in Istanbul test area showed that, high resolution DSM which corresponds to the ground sample distance (GSD) of original aerial image can be generated successfully by pixel-wise dense image matching using commercial and

  8. High resolution Cerenkov light imaging of induced positron distribution in proton therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Seiichi Fujii, Kento; Morishita, Yuki; Okumura, Satoshi; Komori, Masataka; Toshito, Toshiyuki

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: In proton therapy, imaging of the positron distribution produced by fragmentation during or soon after proton irradiation is a useful method to monitor the proton range. Although positron emission tomography (PET) is typically used for this imaging, its spatial resolution is limited. Cerenkov light imaging is a new molecular imaging technology that detects the visible photons that are produced from high-speed electrons using a high sensitivity optical camera. Because its inherent spatial resolution is much higher than PET, the authors can measure more precise information of the proton-induced positron distribution with Cerenkov light imaging technology. For this purpose, they conducted Cerenkov light imaging of induced positron distribution in proton therapy. Methods: First, the authors evaluated the spatial resolution of our Cerenkov light imaging system with a {sup 22}Na point source for the actual imaging setup. Then the transparent acrylic phantoms (100 × 100 × 100 mm{sup 3}) were irradiated with two different proton energies using a spot scanning proton therapy system. Cerenkov light imaging of each phantom was conducted using a high sensitivity electron multiplied charge coupled device (EM-CCD) camera. Results: The Cerenkov light’s spatial resolution for the setup was 0.76 ± 0.6 mm FWHM. They obtained high resolution Cerenkov light images of the positron distributions in the phantoms for two different proton energies and made fused images of the reference images and the Cerenkov light images. The depths of the positron distribution in the phantoms from the Cerenkov light images were almost identical to the simulation results. The decay curves derived from the region-of-interests (ROIs) set on the Cerenkov light images revealed that Cerenkov light images can be used for estimating the half-life of the radionuclide components of positrons. Conclusions: High resolution Cerenkov light imaging of proton-induced positron distribution was possible. The

  9. High-resolution interferometric radar images of equatorial spread F scattering structures using Capon's method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zewdie, G. K.; Rodrigues, F. S.; Paula, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Coherent backscatter radar imaging techniques use measurements made by multiple antenna baselines (visibility estimates) to infer the spatial distribution of the scatterers (brightness function) responsible for the observed echoes. It has been proposed that the Capon method for spectral estimation can be used for high-resolution estimation of the brightness distribution. We investigate the application of the Capon method to measurements made by a small (7-baseline) 30 MHz ionospheric coherent backscatter radar interferometer in Sao Luis, Brazil. The longest baseline of the interferometer is only 15 times the wavelength of radar signal (10 m), and the ionospheric radar soundings have been made using only 4-8 kW transmitters. Nevertheless, we have been able to obtain high-resolution (kilometric scales in the zonal direction) images of scattering structures during equatorial spread F (ESF) events over a wide field of view (+/- 10 degrees off zenith). We will present numerical simulations demonstrating the performance of the technique for the Sao Luis radar setup as well as results of the Capon technique applied to actual measurements. We will discuss the behavior of the ESF scattering structures as seen in the Capon images. The high-resolution images can assist our interpretation of plasma instabilities in the equatorial ionosphere and serve to test our ability to model the behavior of ionospheric irregularities during space weather events such as those associated with ESF.

  10. Origin of High-Resolution IETS-STM Images of Organic Molecules with Functionalized Tips.

    PubMed

    Hapala, Prokop; Temirov, Ruslan; Tautz, F Stefan; Jelínek, Pavel

    2014-11-28

    Recently, the family of high-resolution scanning probe imaging techniques using decorated tips has been complemented by a method based on inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). The new technique resolves the inner structure of organic molecules by mapping the vibrational energy of a single carbon monoxide (CO) molecule positioned at the apex of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip. Here, we explain high-resolution IETS imaging by extending a model developed earlier for STM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging with decorated tips. In particular, we show that the tip decorated with CO acts as a nanoscale sensor that changes the energy of its frustrated translation mode in response to changes of the local curvature of the surface potential. In addition, we show that high resolution AFM, STM, and IETS-STM images can deliver information about the charge distribution within molecules deposited on a surface. To demonstrate this, we extend our mechanical model by taking into account electrostatic forces acting on the decorated tip in the surface Hartree potential. PMID:25494078

  11. Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy imaging using a high-resolution linear radon transform

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xu, Y.; Liu, J.; Liu, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) analysis is an efficient tool to obtain the vertical shear-wave profile. One of the key steps in the MASW method is to generate an image of dispersive energy in the frequency-velocity domain, so dispersion curves can be determined by picking peaks of dispersion energy. In this paper, we propose to image Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy by high-resolution linear Radon transform (LRT). The shot gather is first transformed along the time direction to the frequency domain and then the Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy can be imaged by high-resolution LRT using a weighted preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm. Synthetic data with a set of linear events are presented to show the process of generating dispersive energy. Results of synthetic and real-world examples demonstrate that, compared with the slant stacking algorithm, high-resolution LRT can improve the resolution of images of dispersion energy by more than 50%. ?? Birkhaueser 2008.

  12. Refinement procedure for the image alignment in high-resolution electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Houben, L; Bar Sadan, M

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution electron tomography from a tilt series of transmission electron microscopy images requires an accurate image alignment procedure in order to maximise the resolution of the tomogram. This is the case in particular for ultra-high resolution where even very small misalignments between individual images can dramatically reduce the fidelity of the resultant reconstruction. A tomographic-reconstruction based and marker-free method is proposed, which uses an iterative optimisation of the tomogram resolution. The method utilises a search algorithm that maximises the contrast in tomogram sub-volumes. Unlike conventional cross-correlation analysis it provides the required correlation over a large tilt angle separation and guarantees a consistent alignment of images for the full range of object tilt angles. An assessment based on experimental reconstructions shows that the marker-free procedure is competitive to the reference of marker-based procedures at lower resolution and yields sub-pixel accuracy even for simulated high-resolution data. PMID:21930024

  13. Improved fusing infrared and electro-optic signals for high-resolution night images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaopeng; Netravali, Ravi; Man, Hong; Lawrence, Victor

    2012-06-01

    Electro-optic (EO) images exhibit the properties of high resolution and low noise level, while it is a challenge to distinguish objects with infrared (IR), especially for objects with similar temperatures. In earlier work, we proposed a novel framework for IR image enhancement based on the information (e.g., edge) from EO images. Our framework superimposed the detected edges of the EO image with the corresponding transformed IR image. Obviously, this framework resulted in better resolution IR images that help distinguish objects at night. For our IR image system, we used the theoretical point spread function (PSF) proposed by Russell C. Hardie et al., which is composed of the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a uniform detector array and the incoherent optical transfer function (OTF) of diffraction-limited optics. In addition, we designed an inverse filter based on the proposed PSF to transform the IR image. In this paper, blending the detected edge of the EO image with the corresponding transformed IR image and the original IR image is the principal idea for improving the previous framework. This improved framework requires four main steps: (1) inverse filter-based IR image transformation, (2) image edge detection, (3) images registration, and (4) blending of the corresponding images. Simulation results show that blended IR images have better quality over the superimposed images that were generated under the previous framework. Based on the same steps, the simulation result shows a blended IR image of better quality when only the original IR image is available.

  14. Low-noise small-size microring ultrasonic detectors for high-resolution photoacoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sung-Liang; Ling, Tao; Guo, L. Jay

    2011-01-01

    Small size polymer microring resonators have been exploited for photoacoustic (PA) imaging. To demonstrate the advantages of the wide acceptance angle of ultrasound detection of small size microrings, photoacoustic tomography (PAT), and delay-and-sum beamforming PA imaging was conducted. In PAT, we compared the imaging quality using different sizes of detectors with similar noise-equivalent pressures and the same wideband response: 500 μm hydrophone and 100, 60, and 40 μm microrings. The results show significantly improved imaging contrast and high resolution over the whole imaging region using smaller size detectors. The uniform high resolution in PAT imaging using 40 μm microrings indicates the potential to resolve microvasculature over a large imaging region. The improved lateral resolution of two-dimensional and three-dimensional delay-and-sum beamforming PA imaging using a synthetic array demonstrate another advantageous application of small microrings. The small microrings can also be applied to other ultrasound-related imaging applications. PMID:21639569

  15. High-Resolution Imaging of Patients with Bietti Crystalline Dystrophy with CYP4V2 Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Gocho, Kiyoko; Kameya, Shuhei; Akeo, Keiichiro; Kikuchi, Sachiko; Usui, Ayumi; Yamaki, Kunihiko; Hayashi, Takaaki; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi; Mizota, Atsushi; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the retinal morphology of eyes with Bietti crystalline dystrophy (BCD) associated with a CYP4V2 mutation using high-resolution imaging techniques. Three subjects with BCD underwent detailed ophthalmic examinations. High-resolution fundus images were obtained with an adaptive optics (AO) fundus camera. A common homozygous mutation was detected in the three patients. Funduscopic examination of the three patients revealed the presence of crystalline deposits in the retina, and all of the crystalline deposits were also detected in the infrared (IR) images. The crystals observed in the IR images were seen as bright reflective plaques located on the RPE layer in the SD-OCT images. The clusters of hyperreflective signals in the AO images corresponded to the crystals in the IR images. High-magnification AO images revealed that the clusters of hyperreflective signals consisted of circular spots that are similar to the signals of cone photoreceptors. Most of these circular spots were detected in healthy areas in the FAF images. There is a possibility that circular spots observed by AO are residual cone photoreceptors located over the crystals. PMID:25276414

  16. Image Registration of High-Resolution Uav Data: the New Hypare Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, T.; Jin, X.; Lasica, R.; Giessel, D.

    2013-08-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles play an important role in the present-day civilian and military intelligence. Equipped with a variety of sensors, such as SAR imaging modes, E/O- and IR sensor technology, they are due to their agility suitable for many applications. Hence, the necessity arises to use fusion technologies and to develop them continuously. Here an exact image-to-image registration is essential. It serves as the basis for important image processing operations such as georeferencing, change detection, and data fusion. Therefore we developed the Hybrid Powered Auto-Registration Engine (HyPARE). HyPARE combines all available spatial reference information with a number of image registration approaches to improve the accuracy, performance, and automation of tie point generation and image registration. We demonstrate this approach by the registration of 39 still images from a high-resolution image stream, acquired with a Aeryon Photo3S™ camera on an Aeryon Scout micro-UAV™.

  17. Mobile robot control for composition of seamless and high-resolution images in library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Ryuichi; Moriya, Toshio; Trevai, Chomchana; Arai, Tamio

    2004-05-01

    We are developing an assistant robot system for administration of a library. In this system, an autonomous mobile robot obtains images with a camera, and composes seamless and high-resolution images of a bookshelf by using mosaicing and super-resolution techniques. In this paper, we propose a control method for the robot in front of a bookshelf as a part of this system. To obtain images that are suitable for mosaicing, a robot should take images from the same distance and orientation to a bookshelf. Our control method utilizes horizontal edges, which are detected easily in any bookshelf. The robot modifies its orientation with the edge in camera images. We implemented a super-resolution and mosaicing algorithm. Our implementation is simple. However, it can compose a high quality image in an experiment, since the robot obtains preferable images for the image processing.

  18. A fast and automatic mosaic method for high-resolution satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongshun; He, Hui; Xiao, Hongyu; Huang, Jing

    2015-12-01

    We proposed a fast and fully automatic mosaic method for high-resolution satellite images. First, the overlapped rectangle is computed according to geographical locations of the reference and mosaic images and feature points on both the reference and mosaic images are extracted by a scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm only from the overlapped region. Then, the RANSAC method is used to match feature points of both images. Finally, the two images are fused into a seamlessly panoramic image by the simple linear weighted fusion method or other method. The proposed method is implemented in C++ language based on OpenCV and GDAL, and tested by Worldview-2 multispectral images with a spatial resolution of 2 meters. Results show that the proposed method can detect feature points efficiently and mosaic images automatically.

  19. Multi-illumination Gabor holography recorded in a single camera snap-shot for high-resolution phase retrieval in digital in-line holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, Martin; Picazo-Bueno, Jose A.; Garcia, Javier; Micó, Vicente

    2015-05-01

    In this contribution we introduce MISHELF microscopy, a new concept and design of a lensless holographic microscope based on wavelength multiplexing, single hologram acquisition and digital image processing. The technique which name comes from Multi-Illumination Single-Holographic-Exposure Lensless Fresnel microscopy, is based on the simultaneous illumination and recording of three diffraction patterns in the Fresnel domain. In combination with a novel and fast iterative phase retrieval algorithm, MISHELF microscopy is capable of high-resolution (micron range) phase-retrieved (twin image elimination) biological imaging of dynamic events (video rate recording speed) since it avoids the time multiplexing needed for the in-line hologram sequence recording when using conventional phase-shifting or phase retrieval algorithms. MISHELF microscopy is validated using two different experimental layouts: one using RGB illumination and detection schemes and another using IRRB as illumination while keeping the RGB color camera as detection device. Preliminary experimental results are provided for both experimental layouts using a synthetic object (USAF resolution test target).

  20. Snapshot imaging Fraunhofer line discriminator for detection of plant fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta Roy, S.; Kudenov, M. W.

    2015-05-01

    Non-invasive quantification of plant health is traditionally accomplished using reflectance based metrics, such as the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI). However, measuring plant fluorescence (both active and passive) to determine photochemistry of plants has gained importance. Due to better cost efficiency, lower power requirements, and simpler scanning synchronization, detecting passive fluorescence is preferred over active fluorescence. In this paper, we propose a high speed imaging approach for measuring passive plant fluorescence, within the hydrogen alpha Fraunhofer line at ~656 nm, using a Snapshot Imaging Fraunhofer Line Discriminator (SIFOLD). For the first time, the advantage of snapshot imaging for high throughput Fraunhofer Line Discrimination (FLD) is cultivated by our system, which is based on a multiple-image Fourier transform spectrometer and a spatial heterodyne interferometer (SHI). The SHI is a Sagnac interferometer, which is dispersion compensated using blazed diffraction gratings. We present data and techniques for calibrating the SIFOLD to any particular wavelength. This technique can be applied to quantify plant fluorescence at low cost and reduced complexity of data collection.

  1. High-resolution imaging of (100) kyanite surfaces using friction force microscopy in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Carlos; Gnecco, Enrico; Pina, Carlos M.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we present high-resolution friction force microscopy (FFM) images of the (100) face of kyanite (Al2SiO5) immersed in water. These images show an almost rectangular lattice presumably defined by the protruding oxygen of AlO6 polyhedra. Surface lattice parameters measured on two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) plots of recorded high-resolution friction maps are in good agreement with lattice parameters calculated from the bulk mineral structure. Friction measurements performed along the [001] and [010] directions on the kyanite (100) face provide similar friction coefficients μ ≈ 0.10, even if the sequences of AlO6 polyhedra are different along the two crystallographic directions.

  2. Clinical in vivo two-photon microendoscopy for intradermal high-resolution imaging with GRIN optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten; Ehlers, Alexander; Riemann, Iris; Schenkl, Selma; Messerschmidt, Bernhard; Bückle, Rainer; Le Harzic, Ronan; Elsner, Peter; Kaatz, Martin

    2007-02-01

    Multiphoton tomography with the clinical femtosecond laser system DermaInspect has become an important non-invasive high resolution imaging tool for skin research, melanoma detection, and in situ drug monitoring of pharmaceutical and cosmetical components. The detection of endogenous fluorophores and SHG active biostructures such as mitochondrial NAD(P)H, melanin in melancytes and basal cells, as well as the extracellular matrix components elastin and collagen is achieved with submicron resolution when using high NA focusing optics. So far, the working distance was limited to 200 µm. In addition, the focusing optics was large in diameter (2-3 cm). Here we report for the first time on clinical deep-tissue high-resolution imaging with a novel high NA rigid GRIN microendoscope which extends the potential of clinical multiphoton tomography significantly. We performed the very first clinical in vivo measurements with two-photon endoscopes and studied wounds of patients with ulcus cruris.

  3. Aircraft Detection in High-Resolution SAR Images Based on a Gradient Textural Saliency Map

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yihua; Li, Qingyun; Li, Yansheng; Tian, Jinwen

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new automatic and adaptive aircraft target detection algorithm in high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of airport. The proposed method is based on gradient textural saliency map under the contextual cues of apron area. Firstly, the candidate regions with the possible existence of airport are detected from the apron area. Secondly, directional local gradient distribution detector is used to obtain a gradient textural saliency map in the favor of the candidate regions. In addition, the final targets will be detected by segmenting the saliency map using CFAR-type algorithm. The real high-resolution airborne SAR image data is used to verify the proposed algorithm. The results demonstrate that this algorithm can detect aircraft targets quickly and accurately, and decrease the false alarm rate. PMID:26378543

  4. MRO's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE): Education and Public Outreach Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, V.; McEwen, A.; Delamere, W. A.; Eliason, E.; Grant, J.; Hansen, C.; Herkenhoff, K.; Keszthelyi, L.; Kirk, R.; Mellon, M.

    2003-01-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Experiment, described by McEwen et al. and Delamere et al., will fly on the Mars 2005 Orbiter. In conjunction with the NASA Mars E/PO program, the HiRISE team plans an innovative and aggressive E/PO effort to complement the unique high-resolution capabilities of the camera. The team is organizing partnerships with existing educational outreach programs and museums and plans to develop its own educational materials. In addition to other traditional E/PO activities and a strong web presence, opportunities will be provided for the public to participate in image targeting and science analysis. The main aspects of our program are summarized.

  5. High Resolution Surface Geometry and Albedo by Combining Laser Altimetry and Visible Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robin D.; vonToussaint, Udo; Cheeseman, Peter C.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The need for accurate geometric and radiometric information over large areas has become increasingly important. Laser altimetry is one of the key technologies for obtaining this geometric information. However, there are important application areas where the observing platform has its orbit constrained by the other instruments it is carrying, and so the spatial resolution that can be recorded by the laser altimeter is limited. In this paper we show how information recorded by one of the other instruments commonly carried, a high-resolution imaging camera, can be combined with the laser altimeter measurements to give a high resolution estimate both of the surface geometry and its reflectance properties. This estimate has an accuracy unavailable from other interpolation methods. We present the results from combining synthetic laser altimeter measurements on a coarse grid with images generated from a surface model to re-create the surface model.

  6. High-resolution MEA platform for in-vitro electrogenic cell networks imaging.

    PubMed

    Imfeld, K; Garenne, A; Neukom, S; Maccione, A; Martinoia, S; Koudelka-Hep, M; Berdondini, L

    2007-01-01

    A platform based on an active-pixel-sensor electrode array (APS-MEA) for high-resolution imaging of in-vitro electrogenic cell cultures is presented, characterized and validated under culture conditions. The system enables full frame acquisition at 8 kHz from 4096 microelectrodes integrated with separations of 21 microm and zoomed area acquisition with temporal resolutions down to 8 micros. This bi-modal acquisition feature opens new perspectives in particular for neuronal activity analysis and for the correlation of micro-scale and macro-scale behaviors. The low-noise performances of the integrated amplifier (11 microVRMS) combined with a hardware implementation reflecting image-/video-concepts enable high-resolution acquisitions with real-time processing capabilities adapted to the handling of the large amount of acquired data. PMID:18003403

  7. High-resolution Ceres High Altitude Mapping Orbit atlas derived from Dawn Framing Camera images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roatsch, Th.; Kersten, E.; Matz, K.-D.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2016-09-01

    The Dawn spacecraft Framing Camera (FC) acquired over 2400 clear filter images of Ceres with a resolution of about 140 m/pixel during the six cycles in the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) phase between August 18 and October 21, 2015. We ortho-rectified the images from the first cycle and produced a global, high-resolution, controlled photomosaic of Ceres. This global mosaic is the basis for a high-resolution Ceres atlas that consists of 15 tiles mapped at a scale of 1:750,000. The nomenclature used in this atlas was proposed by the Dawn team and was approved by the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The full atlas is available to the public through the Dawn Geographical Information System (GIS) web page

  8. Aircraft Detection in High-Resolution SAR Images Based on a Gradient Textural Saliency Map.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yihua; Li, Qingyun; Li, Yansheng; Tian, Jinwen

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new automatic and adaptive aircraft target detection algorithm in high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of airport. The proposed method is based on gradient textural saliency map under the contextual cues of apron area. Firstly, the candidate regions with the possible existence of airport are detected from the apron area. Secondly, directional local gradient distribution detector is used to obtain a gradient textural saliency map in the favor of the candidate regions. In addition, the final targets will be detected by segmenting the saliency map using CFAR-type algorithm. The real high-resolution airborne SAR image data is used to verify the proposed algorithm. The results demonstrate that this algorithm can detect aircraft targets quickly and accurately, and decrease the false alarm rate. PMID:26378543

  9. Mapping the electrostatic force field of single molecules from high-resolution scanning probe images

    PubMed Central

    Hapala, Prokop; Švec, Martin; Stetsovych, Oleksandr; van der Heijden, Nadine J.; Ondráček, Martin; van der Lit, Joost; Mutombo, Pingo; Swart, Ingmar; Jelínek, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    How electronic charge is distributed over a molecule determines to a large extent its chemical properties. Here, we demonstrate how the electrostatic force field, originating from the inhomogeneous charge distribution in a molecule, can be measured with submolecular resolution. We exploit the fact that distortions typically observed in high-resolution atomic force microscopy images are for a significant part caused by the electrostatic force acting between charges of the tip and the molecule of interest. By finding a geometrical transformation between two high-resolution AFM images acquired with two different tips, the electrostatic force field or potential over individual molecules and self-assemblies thereof can be reconstructed with submolecular resolution. PMID:27230940

  10. Rapid calibrated high-resolution hyperspectral imaging using tunable laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Lam K.; Margalith, Eli

    2009-05-01

    We present a novel hyperspectral imaging technique based on tunable laser technology. By replacing the broadband source and tunable filters of a typical NIR imaging instrument, several advantages are realized, including: high spectral resolution, highly variable field-of-views, fast scan-rates, high signal-to-noise ratio, and the ability to use optical fiber for efficient and flexible sample illumination. With this technique, high-resolution, calibrated hyperspectral images over the NIR range can be acquired in seconds. The performance of system features will be demonstrated on two example applications: detecting melamine contamination in wheat gluten and separating bovine protein from wheat protein in cattle feed.

  11. Human oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets imaging with high-resolution phase-diversity homodyne OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senda, Naoko; Osawa, Kentaro

    2015-03-01

    There is a need for development of non-invasive technique to evaluate regenerative tissues such as cell sheets for transplantation. We demonstrated non-invasive imaging inside living cell sheets of human oral mucosal epithelial cells by phase-diversity homodyne optical coherence tomography (OCT). The new method OCT developed in Hitachi enables cell imaging because of high resolution (axial resolution; ~2.6 μm, lateral resolution; ~1 μm, in the air). Nuclei inside cell sheets were imaged with sufficient spatial resolution to identify each cell. It suggested that the new method OCT could be useful for non-invasive cell sheet evaluation test.

  12. Design of high resolution panoramic endoscope imaging system based on freeform surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qun; Bai, Jian; Luo, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel endoscope design based on the panoramic annular staring imaging technology. This design utilizes a single optical system to realize both panoramic observation and local high resolution on a single sensor. The freeform surface is employed to improve the image quality and reduce system volume. The design results based on the commercial optical design software package ZEMAX, indicate that this optical system is able to acquire an excellent image quality with a modulation transfer function above 0.6. Compared with the traditional ones, this novel endoscope design with wide FOV is likely to decrease the diagnostic time dramatically and improve the lesion detect rate considerably.

  13. The Role of Imaging for Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Segmental Approach to High-Resolution MRI.

    PubMed

    Seeburg, Daniel P; Northcutt, Benjamin; Aygun, Nafi; Blitz, Ari M

    2016-07-01

    High-resolution MRI affords exquisite anatomic detail and allows radiologists to scrutinize the entire course of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve [CN] V). This article focuses first on the normal MRI appearance of the course of CN V and how best to image each segment. Special attention is then devoted to the role of MRI in presurgical evaluation of patients with neurovascular conflict and in identifying secondary causes of trigeminal neuralgia, including multiple sclerosis. Fundamental concepts in postsurgical imaging after neurovascular decompression are also addressed. Finally, how imaging has been used to better understand the etiology of trigeminal neuralgia is discussed. PMID:27324998

  14. High Resolution Imager (HRI) for the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The design of the high resolution imager (HRI) on HEAO 2 was modified for use in the instrument complement of the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT). Mechanical models of the front end assembly, central electronics assembly, and detector assembly were used to accurately represent the HRI envelope for both fit checks and focal plane configuration studies. The mechanical and electrical interfaces were defined and the requirements for electrical ground support equipment were established. A summary description of the ROSAT telescope and mission is included.

  15. Stem cell implantation in ischemic mouse heart: a high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging investigation.

    PubMed

    Küstermann, Ekkehard; Roell, Wilhelm; Breitbach, Martin; Wecker, Stefan; Wiedermann, Dirk; Buehrle, Christian; Welz, Armin; Hescheler, Juergen; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Hoehn, Mathias

    2005-10-01

    Advances in the biology of stem cells have evoked great interest in cell replacement therapies for the regeneration of heart tissue after myocardial infarction. However, results from human trials are controversial, since the destination of the injected cells, their engraftment and their long-term fate have remained unclear. Here we investigate whether transplanted cells can be identified in the intact and lesioned murine myocardium employing high-resolution MRI. Cardiac progenitor cells, expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), were labeled with ultra-small paramagnetic iron-oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles and transplanted into the intact or injured myocardium of mice. Their precise location was determined with high-resolution MRI and compared with histological tissue sections, stained with Prussian blue for iron content. These experiments showed that iron nanoparticle-loaded cells could be identified at high resolution in the mouse heart. However, ischemic myocardium (after cryoinjury or left coronary artery ligation) was characterized by a signal attenuation similar to that induced by USPIO-labeled cells in T2*-weighted MR images, making detection of labeled stem cells in this area by T2*-sensitive contrast rather difficult. In animals with myocardial injury only, the signal attenuated areas were of the same size in proton density- and T2*-weighted MR images. In injured animals also receiving labeled cells the lesioned area appeared larger in T2*--than in proton density-weighted MR images. This sequence-dependent lesion size change is due to the increased signal loss caused by the iron oxide nanoparticles, most sensitively detectable in the T2*-sensitive images. Thus, using the novel combination of these two parameter weightings, USPIO-labeled cells can be detected at high resolution in ischemic myocardium. PMID:15948224

  16. InSAR Forensics: Tracing InSAR Scatterers in High Resolution Optical Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhu, XiaoXiang

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a step towards a better interpretation of the scattering mechanism of different objects and their deformation histories in SAR interferometry (InSAR). The proposed technique traces individual SAR scatterer in high resolution optical images where their geometries, materials, and other properties can be better analyzed and classified. And hence scatterers of a same object can be analyzed in group, which brings us to a new level of InSAR deformation monitoring.

  17. High-Resolution Vessel Wall Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Varicella-Zoster Virus Vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Lachanis, Stefanos; Magoufis, Georgios; Safouris, Apostolos; Kargiotis, Odysseas; Stamboulis, Elefterios

    2016-06-01

    Varicella-zoster virus vasculopathy is a rare but potentially treatable condition. Diagnosis has been based on angiography, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. High-resolution vessel wall MRI may aid to the diagnosis by differentiating inflammation from other vessel wall pathologies. We present the characteristic MRI findings of this condition in a young patient presenting with ischemic stroke. PMID:27067878

  18. High resolution neutron imaging of water in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Partha P; Makundan, Rangachary; Spendelow, Jacob S; Borup, Rodney L; Hussey, D S; Jacobson, D L; Arif, M

    2009-01-01

    Water transport in the ionomeric membrane, typically Nafion{reg_sign}, has profound influence on the performance of the polymer electrolyte fuel cell, in terms of internal resistance and overall water balance. In this work, high resolution neutron imaging of the Nafion{reg_sign} membrane is presented in order to measure water content and through-plane gradients in situ under disparate temperature and humidification conditions.

  19. High-Resolution Image Classification Integrating Spectral-Spatial-Location Cues by Conditional Random Fields.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ji; Zhong, Yanfei; Shu, Hong; Zhang, Liangpei

    2016-09-01

    With the increase in the availability of high-resolution remote sensing imagery, classification is becoming an increasingly useful technique for providing a large area of detailed land-cover information by the use of these high-resolution images. High-resolution images have the characteristics of abundant geometric and detail information, which are beneficial to detailed classification. In order to make full use of these characteristics, a classification algorithm based on conditional random fields (CRFs) is presented in this paper. The proposed algorithm integrates spectral, spatial contextual, and spatial location cues by modeling the probabilistic potentials. The spectral cues modeled by the unary potentials can provide basic information for discriminating the various land-cover classes. The pairwise potentials consider the spatial contextual information by establishing the neighboring interactions between pixels to favor spatial smoothing. The spatial location cues are explicitly encoded in the higher order potentials. The higher order potentials consider the nonlocal range of the spatial location interactions between the target pixel and its nearest training samples. This can provide useful information for the classes that are easily confused with other land-cover types in the spectral appearance. The proposed algorithm integrates spectral, spatial contextual, and spatial location cues within a CRF framework to provide complementary information from varying perspectives, so that it can address the common problem of spectral variability in remote sensing images, which is directly reflected in the accuracy of each class and the average accuracy. The experimental results with three high-resolution images show the validity of the algorithm, compared with the other state-of-the-art classification algorithms. PMID:27295673

  20. Progress in BazookaSPECT: High-Resolution, Dynamic Scintigraphy with Large-Area Imagers

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brian W.; Barber, H. Bradford; Barrett, Harrison H.; Liu, Zhonglin; Nagarkar, Vivek V.; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2015-01-01

    We present recent progress in BazookaSPECT, a high-resolution, photon-counting gamma-ray detector. It is a new class of scintillation detector that combines columnar scintillators, image intensifiers, and CCD (charge-coupled device) or CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductors) sensors for high-resolution imaging. A key feature of the BazookaSPECT paradigm is the capability to easily design custom detectors in terms of the desired intrinsic detector resolution and event detection rate. This capability is possible because scintillation light is optically amplified by the image intensifier prior to being imaging onto the CCD/CMOS sensor, thereby allowing practically any consumer-grade CCD/CMOS sensor to be used for gamma-ray imaging. Recent efforts have been made to increase the detector area by incorporating fiber-optic tapers between the scintillator and image intensifier, resulting in a 16× increase in detector area. These large-area BazookaSPECT detectors can be used for full-body imaging and we present preliminary results of their use as dynamic scintigraphy imagers for mice and rats. Also, we discuss ongoing and future developments in BazookaSPECT and the improved event-detection rate capability that is achieved using Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), multi-core processors, and new high-speed, USB 3.0 CMOS cameras. PMID:26346514

  1. Analysis and verification of dominant factor to obtain the high resolution photo-acoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirasawa, T.; Ishihara, M.; Kitagaki, M.; Bansaku, I.; Fujita, M.; Kikuchi, M.

    2011-03-01

    Our goal is to develop a photo-acoustic imaging (PAI) system which offers functional image of living tissues and organs with high resolution. In order to obtain high resolution image, we implemented the Fourier transform reconstruction algorithm which determines an optical absorption distribution from photo-acoustic (PA) signals. However, resolutions of reconstructed images were restricted by the sensor directionality, finite scan width and frequency band width. There was an essential requirement to optimize the sensor specification. In this study, we demonstrated relationship between image resolution and sensor specification by simulation and experiment. In our experimental system, PA signals were acquired by line scanning of our fabricated P(VDF/TrFE) film sensor. As results of simulations and experiments, lateral resolutions of PA images were restricted by the directionality of sensor. Furthermore, by limiting scan width and frequency band width, lateral resolution is decreased at deep region. The optimum sensor specification depends on the imaging region due to some trade-offs, for example, a sensor with wider directionality has less sensitivity, wider scan in same step increases acquisition time. Therefore, the results could indicate the possibility of optimizing sensor directionality, scan width and frequency band width for various depths and volumes of imaging region.

  2. Automatic Near-Real-Time Image Processing Chain for Very High Resolution Optical Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostir, K.; Cotar, K.; Marsetic, A.; Pehani, P.; Perse, M.; Zaksek, K.; Zaletelj, J.; Rodic, T.

    2015-04-01

    In response to the increasing need for automatic and fast satellite image processing SPACE-SI has developed and implemented a fully automatic image processing chain STORM that performs all processing steps from sensor-corrected optical images (level 1) to web-delivered map-ready images and products without operator's intervention. Initial development was tailored to high resolution RapidEye images, and all crucial and most challenging parts of the planned full processing chain were developed: module for automatic image orthorectification based on a physical sensor model and supported by the algorithm for automatic detection of ground control points (GCPs); atmospheric correction module, topographic corrections module that combines physical approach with Minnaert method and utilizing anisotropic illumination model; and modules for high level products generation. Various parts of the chain were implemented also for WorldView-2, THEOS, Pleiades, SPOT 6, Landsat 5-8, and PROBA-V. Support of full-frame sensor currently in development by SPACE-SI is in plan. The proposed paper focuses on the adaptation of the STORM processing chain to very high resolution multispectral images. The development concentrated on the sub-module for automatic detection of GCPs. The initially implemented two-step algorithm that worked only with rasterized vector roads and delivered GCPs with sub-pixel accuracy for the RapidEye images, was improved with the introduction of a third step: super-fine positioning of each GCP based on a reference raster chip. The added step exploits the high spatial resolution of the reference raster to improve the final matching results and to achieve pixel accuracy also on very high resolution optical satellite data.

  3. Optical contrast enhancement of high-resolution ocular fundus imaging in vivo using polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hansheng; Rao, Xuejun; Zhang, Yudong

    2007-11-01

    The adaptive optics (AO) retina imaging was performed with contrast enhancement by characterizing polarization parameters of the living retina. A removable pair of polarization state generating unit near the optical source and analysis unit near the CCD camera was incorporated into the basic 37-channle deformable mirror AO microscopic ophthalmoscope. Double-pass imaging polarimetry of the human eye was carried out, then incomplete Mueller matrix was calculated and analyzed to optimize the retina imaging condition using polarized light, which caused the subretinal structures with different polarization properties to emerge from the scattering light background, so the contrast of the image can be substantially enhanced. This method is demonstrated briefly and its validity was tested in the laboratory. The high-resolution images of ocular fundus are compared with 8-frame-averaging images we obtained prior to this method. The experiment results now show improved visualization of fundus structures to some extent without greatly sacrificing image resolution.

  4. High-resolution, continuous field-of-view (FOV), non-rotating imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance L. (Inventor); Stirbl, Robert C. (Inventor); Aghazarian, Hrand (Inventor); Padgett, Curtis W. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A high resolution CMOS imaging system especially suitable for use in a periscope head. The imaging system includes a sensor head for scene acquisition, and a control apparatus inclusive of distributed processors and software for device-control, data handling, and display. The sensor head encloses a combination of wide field-of-view CMOS imagers and narrow field-of-view CMOS imagers. Each bank of imagers is controlled by a dedicated processing module in order to handle information flow and image analysis of the outputs of the camera system. The imaging system also includes automated or manually controlled display system and software for providing an interactive graphical user interface (GUI) that displays a full 360-degree field of view and allows the user or automated ATR system to select regions for higher resolution inspection.

  5. Multi-sensor fusion of infrared and electro-optic signals for high resolution night images.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaopeng; Netravali, Ravi; Man, Hong; Lawrence, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Electro-optic (EO) image sensors exhibit the properties of high resolution and low noise level at daytime, but they do not work in dark environments. Infrared (IR) image sensors exhibit poor resolution and cannot separate objects with similar temperature. Therefore, we propose a novel framework of IR image enhancement based on the information (e.g., edge) from EO images, which improves the resolution of IR images and helps us distinguish objects at night. Our framework superimposing/blending the edges of the EO image onto the corresponding transformed IR image improves their resolution. In this framework, we adopt the theoretical point spread function (PSF) proposed by Hardie et al. for the IR image, which has the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a uniform detector array and the incoherent optical transfer function (OTF) of diffraction-limited optics. In addition, we design an inverse filter for the proposed PSF and use it for the IR image transformation. The framework requires four main steps: (1) inverse filter-based IR image transformation; (2) EO image edge detection; (3) registration; and (4) blending/superimposing of the obtained image pair. Simulation results show both blended and superimposed IR images, and demonstrate that blended IR images have better quality over the superimposed images. Additionally, based on the same steps, simulation result shows a blended IR image of better quality when only the original IR image is available. PMID:23112602

  6. Multi-Sensor Fusion of Infrared and Electro-Optic Signals for High Resolution Night Images

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaopeng; Netravali, Ravi; Man, Hong; Lawrence, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Electro-optic (EO) image sensors exhibit the properties of high resolution and low noise level at daytime, but they do not work in dark environments. Infrared (IR) image sensors exhibit poor resolution and cannot separate objects with similar temperature. Therefore, we propose a novel framework of IR image enhancement based on the information (e.g., edge) from EO images, which improves the resolution of IR images and helps us distinguish objects at night. Our framework superimposing/blending the edges of the EO image onto the corresponding transformed IR image improves their resolution. In this framework, we adopt the theoretical point spread function (PSF) proposed by Hardie et al. for the IR image, which has the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a uniform detector array and the incoherent optical transfer function (OTF) of diffraction-limited optics. In addition, we design an inverse filter for the proposed PSF and use it for the IR image transformation. The framework requires four main steps: (1) inverse filter-based IR image transformation; (2) EO image edge detection; (3) registration; and (4) blending/superimposing of the obtained image pair. Simulation results show both blended and superimposed IR images, and demonstrate that blended IR images have better quality over the superimposed images. Additionally, based on the same steps, simulation result shows a blended IR image of better quality when only the original IR image is available. PMID:23112602

  7. High Resolution Imaging of Satellites with Ground-Based 10-m Astronomical Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C

    2007-01-04

    High resolution imaging of artificial satellites can play an important role in current and future space endeavors. One such use is acquiring detailed images that can be used to identify or confirm damage and aid repair plans. It is shown that a 10-m astronomical telescope equipped with an adaptive optics system (AO) to correct for atmospheric turbulence using a natural guide star can acquire high resolution images of satellites in low-orbits using a fast shutter and a near-infrared camera even if the telescope is not capable of tracking satellites. With the telescope pointing towards the satellite projected orbit and less than 30 arcsec away from a guide star, multiple images of the satellite are acquired on the detector using the fast shutter. Images can then be shifted and coadded by post processing to increase the satellite signal to noise ratio. Using the Keck telescope typical Strehl ratio and anisoplanatism angle as well as a simple diffusion/reflection model for a satellite 400 km away observed near Zenith at sunset or sunrise, it is expected that such system will produced > 10{sigma} K-band images at a resolution of 10 cm inside a 60 arcsec diameter field of view. If implemented, such camera could deliver the highest resolution satellite images ever acquired from the ground.

  8. FFT-enhanced IHS transform method for fusing high-resolution satellite images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ling, Y.; Ehlers, M.; Usery, E.L.; Madden, M.

    2007-01-01

    Existing image fusion techniques such as the intensity-hue-saturation (IHS) transform and principal components analysis (PCA) methods may not be optimal for fusing the new generation commercial high-resolution satellite images such as Ikonos and QuickBird. One problem is color distortion in the fused image, which causes visual changes as well as spectral differences between the original and fused images. In this paper, a fast Fourier transform (FFT)-enhanced IHS method is developed for fusing new generation high-resolution satellite images. This method combines a standard IHS transform with FFT filtering of both the panchromatic image and the intensity component of the original multispectral image. Ikonos and QuickBird data are used to assess the FFT-enhanced IHS transform method. Experimental results indicate that the FFT-enhanced IHS transform method may improve upon the standard IHS transform and the PCA methods in preserving spectral and spatial information. ?? 2006 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS).

  9. Mitigating atmospheric effects in high-resolution infra-red surveillance imagery with bispectral speckle imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Carrano, C J

    2006-05-30

    Obtaining a high-resolution image of an object or scene from a long distance away can be very problematic, even with the best optical system. This is because atmospheric blurring and distortion will limit the resolution and contrast of high-resolution imaging systems with substantial sized apertures over horizontal and slant paths. Much of the horizontal and slant-path surveillance imagery we have previously collected and successfully enhanced has been collected at visible wavelengths where atmospheric effects are the strongest. Imaging at longer wavelengths has the benefit of seeing through obscurants or even at night, but even though the atmospheric effects are noticeably reduced, they are nevertheless present, especially near the ground. This paper will describe our recent work on enhanced infrared (IR) surveillance using bispectral speckle imaging. Bispectral speckle imaging in this context is an image postprocessing algorithm that aims to solve the atmospheric blurring and distortion problem of imaging through horizontal or slant path turbulence. A review of the algorithm as well as descriptions of the IR camera and optical systems used in our data collections will be given. Examples of horizontal and slant-path imagery before and after speckle processing will also be presented to demonstrate the resolution improvement gained by the processing. Comparisons of IR imagery to visible wavelength imagery of the same target under the same conditions will be shown to demonstrate the tradeoffs of going to longer wavelengths.

  10. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC): 10 Years of Imaging Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.; Tirsch, D.; Hoffmann, H.

    2014-04-01

    The HRSC Experiment: Imagery is the major source for our current understanding of the geologic evolution of Mars in qualitative and quantitative terms.Imaging is required to enhance our knowledge of Mars with respect to geological processes occurring on local, regional and global scales and is an essential prerequisite for detailed surface exploration. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) of ESA's Mars Express Mission (MEx) is designed to simultaneously map the morphology, topography, structure and geologic context of the surface of Mars as well as atmospheric phenomena [1]. The HRSC directly addresses two of the main scientific goals of the Mars Express mission: (1) High-resolution three-dimensional photogeologic surface exploration and (2) the investigation of surface-atmosphere interactions over time; and significantly supports: (3) the study of atmospheric phenomena by multi-angle coverage and limb sounding as well as (4) multispectral mapping by providing high-resolution threedimensional color context information. In addition, the stereoscopic imagery will especially characterize landing sites and their geologic context [1]. The HRSC surface resolution and the digital terrain models bridge the gap in scales between highest ground resolution images (e.g., HiRISE) and global coverage observations (e.g., Viking). This is also the case with respect to DTMs (e.g., MOLA and local high-resolution DTMs). HRSC is also used as cartographic basis to correlate between panchromatic and multispectral stereo data. The unique multi-angle imaging technique of the HRSC supports its stereo capability by providing not only a stereo triplet but also a stereo quintuplet, making the photogrammetric processing very robust [1, 3]. The capabilities for three dimensional orbital reconnaissance of the Martian surface are ideally met by HRSC making this camera unique in the international Mars exploration effort.

  11. Object-oriented recognition of high-resolution remote sensing image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongyan; Li, Haitao; Chen, Hong; Xu, Yuannan

    2016-01-01

    With the development of remote sensing imaging technology and the improvement of multi-source image's resolution in satellite visible light, multi-spectral and hyper spectral , the high resolution remote sensing image has been widely used in various fields, for example military field, surveying and mapping, geophysical prospecting, environment and so forth. In remote sensing image, the segmentation of ground targets, feature extraction and the technology of automatic recognition are the hotspot and difficulty in the research of modern information technology. This paper also presents an object-oriented remote sensing image scene classification method. The method is consist of vehicles typical objects classification generation, nonparametric density estimation theory, mean shift segmentation theory, multi-scale corner detection algorithm, local shape matching algorithm based on template. Remote sensing vehicles image classification software system is designed and implemented to meet the requirements .

  12. High-resolution X-ray imaging by polycapillary optics and lithium fluoride detectors combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampai, D.; Dabagov, S. B.; Della Ventura, G.; Bellatreccia, F.; Magi, M.; Bonfigli, F.; Montereali, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Novel results on high-resolution X-ray imaging by a table-top laboratory system based on lithium fluoride (LiF) imaging radiation detectors and a X-ray tube combined with polycapillary optics are reported for the first time. In this paper, imaging experiments of reference objects, as well as thick geological samples, show some of the potentialities of this approach for the development of a compact laboratory X-ray microscopy apparatus. The high spatial resolution and dynamic range of versatile LiF imaging detectors, based on optical reading of photoluminescence from X-ray-induced color centers in LiF crystals and films, allow us to use very simple contact imaging techniques. Promising applications can be foreseen in the fields of bio-medical imaging diagnostics, characterization of X-ray sources and optical elements, material science and photonics.

  13. Observation of Dipole-Bound State and High-Resolution Photoelectron Imaging of Cold Acetate Anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guo-Zhu; Huang, Dao-Ling; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    We report the observation of a dipole-bound state and a high-resolution photoelectron imaging study of cryogenically cooled acetate anions (CH3COO-). Both high-resolution non-resonant and resonant photoelectron spectra via the dipole-bound state of CH3COO- are obtained. The binding energy of the dipole-bound state relative to the detachment threshold is determined to be 53 ±{8} wn. The electron affinity of the CH_3COObullet neutral radical is measured accurately as 26 236 ±{8} wn (3.2528 ±{ 0.0010} eV) using high-resolution photoelectron imaging. This accurate electron affinity is validated by observation of autodetachment from two vibrational levels of the dipole-bound state of CH3COO-. Excitation spectra to the dipole-bound states yield rotational profiles, allowing the rotational temperature of the trapped CH3COO- anions to be evaluated 1. [1] D. L. Huang, G. Z. Zhu and L. S. Wang, J. Chem. Phys., 2015, 142, 091103

  14. Ultra-High-Resolution Computed Tomography of the Lung: Image Quality of a Prototype Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Muramatsu, Yukio; Gomi, Shiho; Suzuki, Masahiro; Nagasawa, Hirobumi; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Aso, Tomohiko; Muramatsu, Yoshihisa; Tsuchida, Takaaki; Tsuta, Koji; Maeshima, Akiko Miyagi; Tochigi, Naobumi; Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Sugihara, Naoki; Tsukagoshi, Shinsuke; Saito, Yasuo; Kazama, Masahiro; Ashizawa, Kazuto; Awai, Kazuo; Honda, Osamu; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Koizumi, Naoya; Komoto, Daisuke; Moriya, Hiroshi; Oda, Seitaro; Oshiro, Yasuji; Yanagawa, Masahiro; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Asamura, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The image noise and image quality of a prototype ultra-high-resolution computed tomography (U-HRCT) scanner was evaluated and compared with those of conventional high-resolution CT (C-HRCT) scanners. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board. A U-HRCT scanner prototype with 0.25 mm x 4 rows and operating at 120 mAs was used. The C-HRCT images were obtained using a 0.5 mm x 16 or 0.5 mm x 64 detector-row CT scanner operating at 150 mAs. Images from both scanners were reconstructed at 0.1-mm intervals; the slice thickness was 0.25 mm for the U-HRCT scanner and 0.5 mm for the C-HRCT scanners. For both scanners, the display field of view was 80 mm. The image noise of each scanner was evaluated using a phantom. U-HRCT and C-HRCT images of 53 images selected from 37 lung nodules were then observed and graded using a 5-point score by 10 board-certified thoracic radiologists. The images were presented to the observers randomly and in a blinded manner. Results The image noise for U-HRCT (100.87 ± 0.51 Hounsfield units [HU]) was greater than that for C-HRCT (40.41 ± 0.52 HU; P < .0001). The image quality of U-HRCT was graded as superior to that of C-HRCT (P < .0001) for all of the following parameters that were examined: margins of subsolid and solid nodules, edges of solid components and pulmonary vessels in subsolid nodules, air bronchograms, pleural indentations, margins of pulmonary vessels, edges of bronchi, and interlobar fissures. Conclusion Despite a larger image noise, the prototype U-HRCT scanner had a significantly better image quality than the C-HRCT scanners. PMID:26352144

  15. High resolution through-the-wall radar image based on beamspace eigenstructure subspace methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yeo-Sun; Amin, Moeness G.

    2008-04-01

    Through-the-wall imaging (TWI) is a challenging problem, even if the wall parameters and characteristics are known to the system operator. Proper target classification and correct imaging interpretation require the application of high resolution techniques using limited array size. In inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR), signal subspace methods such as Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) are used to obtain high resolution imaging. In this paper, we adopt signal subspace methods and apply them to the 2-D spectrum obtained from the delay-andsum beamforming image. This is in contrast to ISAR, where raw data, in frequency and angle, is directly used to form the estimate of the covariance matrix and array response vector. Using beams rather than raw data has two main advantages, namely, it improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and can correctly image typical indoor extended targets, such as tables and cabinets, as well as point targets. The paper presents both simulated and experimental results using synthesized and real data. It compares the performance of beam-space MUSIC and Capon beamformer. The experimental data is collected at the test facility in the Radar Imaging Laboratory, Villanova University.

  16. Performances of a specific denoising wavelet process for high-resolution gamma imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pousse, Annie; Dornier, Christophe; Parmentier, Michel; Kastler, Bruno; Chavanelle, Jerome

    2004-02-01

    Due to its functional capabilities, gamma imaging is an interesting tool for medical diagnosis. Recent developments lead to improved intrinsic resolution. However this gain is impaired by the poor activity detected and the Poissonian feature of gamma ray emission. High resolution gamma images are grainy. This is a real nuisance for detecting cold nodules in an emitting organ. A specific translation wavelet filter which takes into account the Poissonian feature of noise, has been developed in order to improve the diagnostic capabilities of radioisotopic high resolution images. Monte Carlo simulations of a hot thyroid phantom in which cold spheres, 3-7 mm in diameter, could be included were performed. The loss of activity induced by cold nodules was determined on filtered images by using catchment basins determination. On the original images, only 5-7 mm cold spheres were clearly visible. On filtered images, 3 and 4 mm spheres were put in prominent. The limit of the developed filter is approximately the detection of 3 mm spherical cold nodule in acquisition and activity conditions which mimic a thyroid examination. Furthermore, no disturbing artifacts are generated. It is therefore a powerful tool for detecting small cold nodules in a gamma emitting medium.

  17. Step-stare technique for airborne high-resolution infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, Valerie; Chevrette, Paul C.; Ricard, Benot; Zaccarin, Andre

    2004-08-01

    The Infrared Eye project was developed at DRDC Valcartier to improve the efficiency of airborne search and rescue operations. A high performance opto-mechanical pointing system was developed to allow fast positioning of a narrow field of view with high resolution, used for search and detection, over a wide field of view of lower resolution that optimizes area coverage. This system also enables the use of a step-stare technique, which rapidly builds a large area coverage image mosaic by step-staring a narrow field camera and properly tiling the resulting images. The resulting image mosaic covers the wide field of the current Infrared Eye, but with the high resolution of the narrow field. For the desired application, the camera will be fixed to an airborne platform using a stabilized mount and image positioning in the mosaic will be calculated using flight data provided by an altimeter, a GPS and an inertial unit. This paper presents a model of the complete system, a dynamic step-stare strategy that generates the image mosaic, a flight image taking simulator for strategy testing and some results obtained with this simulator.

  18. Common-path depth-filtered digital holography for high resolution imaging of buried semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkeldey, Markus; Schellenberg, Falk; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Paar, Christof; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate digital holographic microscopy (DHM) in reflection geometry for non-destructive 3D imaging of semiconductor devices. This technique provides high resolution information of the inner structure of a sample while maintaining its integrity. To illustrate the performance of the DHM, we use our setup to localize the precise spots for laser fault injection, in the security related field of side-channel attacks. While digital holographic microscopy techniques easily offer high resolution phase images of surface structures in reflection geometry, they are typically incapable to provide high quality phase images of buried structures due to the interference of reflected waves from different interfaces inside the structure. Our setup includes a sCMOS camera for image capture, arranged in a common-path interferometer to provide very high phase stability. As a proof of principle, we show sample images of the inner structure of a modern microcontroller. Finally, we compare our holographic method to classic optical beam induced current (OBIC) imaging to demonstrate its benefits.

  19. Image processing enhancement of high-resolution TEM micrographs of nanometer-size metal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artal, P.; Avalos-Borja, M.; Soria, F.; Poppa, H.; Heinemann, K.

    The high-resolution TEM detectability of lattice fringes from metal particles supported on substrates is impeded by the substrate itself. Single value decomposition (SVD) and Fourier filtering (FFT) methods were applied to standard high resolution micrographs to enhance lattice resolution from particles as well as from crystalline substrates. SVD produced good results for one direction of fringes, and it can be implemented as a real-time process. Fourier methods are independent of azimuthal directions and allow separation of particle lattice planes from those pertaining to the substrate, which makes it feasible to detect possible substrate distortions produced by the supported particle. This method, on the other hand, is more elaborate, requires more computer time than SVD and is, therefore, less likely to be used in real-time image processing applications.

  20. Planning the HRIC (High Resolution Imaging Channel) observations of Mercury surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zusi, M.; Di Achille, G.; Galluzzi, V.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Della Corte, V.; Palumbo, P.; Flamini, E.

    2015-10-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Channel (HRIC) of SIMBIOSYS [1]onboard the BepiColombo mission to Mercury, is the visible imaging camera devoted to the detailed characterization of the Hermean surface. The potential huge amount of data that HRIC can produce must cope with the allocated (and shared) mission resources in terms of power, data volume,and pointing maneuvers. For this reason , well before the mission launch, it is extremely important the definition of an operative plan compatible with both the available resources and the scientific objectives accomplishment.

  1. High-resolution surface-plasmon resonance real-time imaging.

    PubMed

    Vander, R; Lipson, S G

    2009-01-01

    We use surface-plasmon resonance in a silver film to obtain high-resolution real-time images of a transparent dielectric sample in contact with it. A new aspect of the work was the use of radially polarized illumination from a LED at 530 nm to obtain speckle-free images with high spatial resolution along all orientations. The sensitivity to refractive index changes in the sample is estimated to be better than 10(-3), and the modulation transfer function out to spatial frequency 1 microm(-1) was measured. PMID:19109632

  2. High resolution X-ray diffraction imaging of lead tin telluride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiner, Bruce; Dobbyn, Ronald C.; Black, David; Burdette, Harold; Kuriyama, Masao; Spal, Richard; Simchick, Richard; Fripp, Archibald

    1991-01-01

    High resolution X-ray diffraction images of two directly comparable crystals of lead tin telluride, one Bridgman-grown on Space Shuttle STS 61A and the other terrestrially Bridgman-grown under similar conditions from identical material, present different subgrain structure. In the terrestrial, sample 1 the appearance of an elaborate array of subgrains is closely associated with the intrusion of regions that are out of diffraction in all of the various images. The formation of this elaborate subgrain structure is inhibited by growth in microgravity.

  3. High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction lenses with mechanically bent crystals

    DOEpatents

    Smither, Robert K.

    2008-12-23

    A method for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. High quality mechanically bent diffracting crystals of 0.1 mm radial width are used for focusing the radiation and directing the radiation to an array of detectors which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for the use of a multi-component high resolution detector array and for narrow source and detector apertures.

  4. Wavelength scanning digital interference holography for high-resolution ophthalmic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potcoava, Mariana C.; Kim, M. K.; Kay, Christine N.

    2009-02-01

    An improved digital interference holography (DIH) technique suitable for fundus images is proposed. This technique incorporates a dispersion compensation algorithm to compensate for the unknown axial length of the eye. Using this instrument we acquired successfully tomographic fundus images in human eye with narrow axial resolution less than 5μm. The optic nerve head together with the surrounding retinal vasculature were constructed. We were able to quantify a depth of 84μm between the retinal fiber and the retinal pigmented epithelium layers. DIH provides high resolution 3D information which could potentially aid in guiding glaucoma diagnosis and treatment.

  5. High-resolution wavefront shaping with a photonic crystal fiber for multimode fiber imaging.

    PubMed

    Amitonova, Lyubov V; Descloux, Adrien; Petschulat, Joerg; Frosz, Michael H; Ahmed, Goran; Babic, Fehim; Jiang, Xin; Mosk, Allard P; Russell, Philip St J; Pinkse, Pepijn W H

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate that a high-numerical-aperture photonic crystal fiber allows lensless focusing at an unparalleled resolution by complex wavefront shaping. This paves the way toward high-resolution imaging exceeding the capabilities of imaging with multi-core single-mode optical fibers. We analyze the beam waist and power in the focal spot on the fiber output using different types of fibers and different wavefront shaping approaches. We show that the complex wavefront shaping technique, together with a properly designed multimode photonic crystal fiber, enables us to create a tightly focused spot on the desired position on the fiber output facet with a subwavelength beam waist. PMID:26907407

  6. Applying high resolution remote sensing image and DEM to falling boulder hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Changqing; Shi, Wenzhong; Ng, K. C.

    2005-10-01

    Boulder fall hazard assessing generally requires gaining the boulder information. The extensive mapping and surveying fieldwork is a time-consuming, laborious and dangerous conventional method. So this paper proposes an applying image processing technology to extract boulder and assess boulder fall hazard from high resolution remote sensing image. The method can replace the conventional method and extract the boulder information in high accuracy, include boulder size, shape, height and the slope and aspect of its position. With above boulder information, it can be satisfied for assessing, prevention and cure boulder fall hazard.

  7. High-resolution deep-tissue optical imaging using anti-Stokes phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, A. P.; Karmenyan, A. V.; Bykov, A. V.; Khaydukov, E. V.; Nechaev, A. V.; Bibikova, O. A.; Panchenko, V. Y.; Semchishen, V. A.; Seminogov, V. N.; Akhmanov, A. S.; Sokolov, V. I.; Kinnunen, M. T.; Tuchin, V. V.; Zvyagin, A. V.

    2013-06-01

    We report on the high-resolution deep-tissue imaging using novel water-dispersible upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) β-NaYF4:Yb3+:Tm3+. Luminescence from the UCNP embedded into tissue-mimicking phantoms at the depth of 4 mm epi-illuminated with 975-nm laser radiation was detected. Fiber-optic detection shows 2-times better resolution compared with that obtained using CCD-based imaging modality. The conversion efficiency of upconversion particles and their cytotoxicity to HeLa cells were also investigated and reported.

  8. Phase contrast enhanced high resolution X-ray imaging and tomography of soft tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubek, Jan; Granja, Carlos; Dammer, Jiri; Hanus, Robert; Holy, Tomas; Pospisil, Stanislav; Tykva, Richard; Uher, Josef; Vykydal, Zdenek

    2007-02-01

    A tabletop system for digital high resolution and high sensitivity X-ray micro-radiography has been developed for small-animal and soft-tissue imaging. The system is based on a micro-focus X-ray tube and the semiconductor hybrid position sensitive Medipix2 pixel detector. Transmission radiography imaging, conventionally based only on absorption, is enhanced by exploiting phase-shift effects induced in the X-ray beam traversing the sample. Phase contrast imaging is realized by object edge enhancement. DAQ is done by a novel fully integrated USB-based readout with online image generation. Improved signal reconstruction techniques make use of advanced statistical data analysis, enhanced beam hardening correction and direct thickness calibration of individual pixels. 2D and 3D micro-tomography images of several biological samples demonstrate the applicability of the system for biological and medical purposes including in-vivo and time dependent physiological studies in the life sciences.

  9. A low-cost, high-resolution, video-rate imaging optical radar

    SciTech Connect

    Sackos, J.T.; Nellums, R.O.; Lebien, S.M.; Diegert, C.F.; Grantham, J.W.; Monson, T.

    1998-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a unique type of portable low-cost range imaging optical radar (laser radar or LADAR). This innovative sensor is comprised of an active floodlight scene illuminator and an image intensified CCD camera receiver. It is a solid-state device (no moving parts) that offers significant size, performance, reliability, and simplicity advantages over other types of 3-D imaging sensors. This unique flash LADAR is based on low cost, commercially available hardware, and is well suited for many government and commercial uses. This paper presents an update of Sandia`s development of the Scannerless Range Imager technology and applications, and discusses the progress that has been made in evolving the sensor into a compact, low, cost, high-resolution, video rate Laser Dynamic Range Imager.

  10. Visualizing bag-of-words for high-resolution remote sensing image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Haosong; Chen, Weihai; Wu, Xingming; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Classification of high-resolution remote sensing images is a challenging problem. Bag-of-words (BOW) based classification algorithms have obtained good performances in recent years. However, how the procedures of the BOW framework affect the classification result is still an open question. We present three visualization algorithms to reconstruct images from BOW. After visualization, we can see what the computer actually "sees" in an image feature. We also analyze the procedures of the BOW framework, namely, descriptor extraction and histogram generation, in detail. It is found that the descriptors should not be blamed for wrong classification. The histogram generation strategy should be improved to be robust with image transformation. Then some suggestions are posed for future improvement of BOW-based remote sensing image classification algorithms.

  11. Characterization of high resolution MR images reconstructed by a GRAPPA based parallel technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Suchandrima; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2006-03-01

    This work implemented an auto-calibrating parallel imaging technique and applied it to in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of trabecular bone micro-architecture. A Generalized auto-calibrating partially parallel acquisition (GRAPPA) based reconstruction technique using modified robust data fitting was developed. The MR data was acquired with an eight channel phased array receiver on three normal volunteers on a General Electric 3 Tesla scanner. Microstructures comprising the trabecular bone architecture are of the order of 100 microns and hence their depiction requires very high imaging resolution. This work examined the effects of GRAPPA based parallel imaging on signal and noise characteristics and effective spatial resolution in high resolution (HR) images, for the range of undersampling or reduction factors 2-4. Additionally quantitative analysis was performed to obtain structural measures of trabecular bone from the images. Image quality in terms of contrast and depiction of structures was maintained in parallel images for reduction factors up to 3. Comparison between regular and parallel images suggested similar spatial resolution for both. However differences in noise characteristics in parallel images compared to regular images affected the threshholding based quantification. This suggested that GRAPPA based parallel images might require different analysis techniques. In conclusion, the study showed the feasibility of using parallel imaging techniques in HR-MRI of trabecular bone, although quantification strategies will have to be further investigated. Reduction of acquisition time using parallel techniques can improve the clinical feasibility of MRI of trabecular bone for prognosis and staging of the skeletal disorder osteoporosis.

  12. Hybrid region merging method for segmentation of high-resolution remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xueliang; Xiao, Pengfeng; Feng, Xuezhi; Wang, Jiangeng; Wang, Zuo

    2014-12-01

    Image segmentation remains a challenging problem for object-based image analysis. In this paper, a hybrid region merging (HRM) method is proposed to segment high-resolution remote sensing images. HRM integrates the advantages of global-oriented and local-oriented region merging strategies into a unified framework. The globally most-similar pair of regions is used to determine the starting point of a growing region, which provides an elegant way to avoid the problem of starting point assignment and to enhance the optimization ability for local-oriented region merging. During the region growing procedure, the merging iterations are constrained within the local vicinity, so that the segmentation is accelerated and can reflect the local context, as compared with the global-oriented method. A set of high-resolution remote sensing images is used to test the effectiveness of the HRM method, and three region-based remote sensing image segmentation methods are adopted for comparison, including the hierarchical stepwise optimization (HSWO) method, the local-mutual best region merging (LMM) method, and the multiresolution segmentation (MRS) method embedded in eCognition Developer software. Both the supervised evaluation and visual assessment show that HRM performs better than HSWO and LMM by combining both their advantages. The segmentation results of HRM and MRS are visually comparable, but HRM can describe objects as single regions better than MRS, and the supervised and unsupervised evaluation results further prove the superiority of HRM.

  13. High-resolution Magnetic Resonance Vessel Wall Imaging for Intracranial Arterial Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xian-Jin; Wang, Wu; Liu, Zun-Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the feasibility and clinical value of high-resolution magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging (HRMR VWI) for intracranial arterial stenosis. Date Sources: We retrieved information from PubMed database up to December 2015, using various search terms including vessel wall imaging (VWI), high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, intracranial arterial stenosis, black blood, and intracranial atherosclerosis. Study Selection: We reviewed peer-reviewed articles printed in English on imaging technique of VWI and characteristic findings of various intracranial vasculopathies on VWI. We organized this data to explain the value of VWI in clinical application. Results: VWI with black blood technique could provide high-quality images with submillimeter voxel size, and display both the vessel wall and lumen of intracranial artery simultaneously. Various intracranial vasculopathies (atherosclerotic or nonatherosclerotic) had differentiating features including pattern of wall thickening, enhancement, and vessel remodeling on VWI. This technique could be used for determining causes of stenosis, identification of stroke mechanism, risk-stratifying patients, and directing therapeutic management in clinical practice. In addition, a new morphological classification based on VWI could be established for predicting the efficacy of endovascular therapy. Conclusions: This review highlights the value of HRMR VWI for discrimination of different intracranial vasculopathies and directing therapeutic management. PMID:27231176

  14. High resolution in-vivo imaging of skin with full field optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalimier, E.; Bruhat, Alexis; Grieve, K.; Harms, F.; Martins, F.; Boccara, C.

    2014-03-01

    Full-field OCT (FFOCT) has the ability to provide en-face images with a very good axial sectioning as well as a very high transverse resolution (about 1 microns in all directions). Therefore it offers the possibility to visualize biological tissues with very high resolution both on the axial native view, and on vertical reconstructed sections. Here we investigated the potential dermatological applications of in-vivo skin imaging with FFOCT. A commercial FFOCT device was adapted for the in-vivo acquisition of stacks of images on the arm, hand and finger. Several subjects of different benign and pathological skin conditions were tested. The images allowed measurement of the stratum corneum and epidermis thicknesses, measurement of the stratum corneum refractive index, size measurement and count of the keratinocytes, visualization of the dermal-epidermal junction, and visualization of the melanin granules and of the melanocytes. Skins with different pigmentations could be discriminated and skin pathologies such as eczema could be identified. The very high resolution offered by FFOCT both on axial native images and vertical reconstructed sections allows for the visualization and measurement of a set of parameters useful for cosmetology and dermatology. In particular, FFOCT is a potential tool for the understanding and monitoring of skin hydration and pigmentation, as well as skin inflammation.

  15. High-resolution seismic array imaging based on numerical seismic wave simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Tong, P.; Chen, C.

    2012-12-01

    Adjoint tomography, i.e., seismic tomography based on full numerical simulations and adjoint methods, is a powerful tool for high-resolution imaging in heterogeneous media. It resolves large velocity contrasts through the use of 3D initial models and exploits more quantitative information from observed seismograms. However, for regions with limited local seismicity, seismic imaging relies more on teleseismic records. In particular coda and converted waves of main teleseismic arrivals used in scattering imaging are vital in resolving subsurface interfaces and velocity anomalies beneath seismic arrays. It remains numerically challenging to accurately and efficiently simulate the full propagation of seismic waves at the frequencies relevant to scattering imaging. In this work, to simulate the propagation of teleseismic planes waves into localized heterogeneous structures, we apply a hybrid method that interacts a spectral-element solver within the domain with a semi-analytical solution for 1D background medium at the absorbing boundaries. This technique will be implemented in both SPECFEM2D and SPECFEM3D packages and make it possible to invert both regional and teleseismic recordings in the framework of adjoint tomography. Synthetic tests will be performed to show the feasibility of high-resolution seismic array imaging of coda and converted waves based on adjoint techniques.

  16. High-Resolution In Vivo Imaging of Regimes of Laser Damage to the Primate Retina

    PubMed Central

    Pocock, Ginger M.; Oliver, Jeffrey W.; Specht, Charles S.; Estep, J. Scot; Noojin, Gary D.; Schuster, Kurt; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate fundamental mechanisms of regimes of laser induced damage to the retina and the morphological changes associated with the damage response. Methods. Varying grades of photothermal, photochemical, and photomechanical retinal laser damage were produced in eyes of eight cynomolgus monkeys. An adaptive optics confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope and spectral domain optical coherence tomographer were combined to simultaneously collect complementary in vivo images of retinal laser damage during and following exposure. Baseline color fundus photography was performed to complement high-resolution imaging. Monkeys were perfused with 10% buffered formalin and eyes were enucleated for histological analysis. Results. Laser energies for visible retinal damage in this study were consistent with previously reported damage thresholds. Lesions were identified in OCT images that were not visible in direct ophthalmoscopic examination or fundus photos. Unique diagnostic characteristics, specific to each damage regime, were identified and associated with shape and localization of lesions to specific retinal layers. Previously undocumented retinal healing response to blue continuous wave laser exposure was recorded through a novel experimental methodology. Conclusion. This study revealed increased sensitivity of lesion detection and improved specificity to the laser of origin utilizing high-resolution imaging when compared to traditional ophthalmic imaging techniques in the retina. PMID:24891943

  17. Batch Co-Registration of Mars High-Resolution Images to HRSC MC11-E Mosaic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2016-06-01

    Four NASA missions over the last forty years with onboard instruments for high-resolution orbital imaging have achieved both global coverage (with 6m CTX, 20m THEMIS-VIS and >8m Viking Orbiter cameras) as well as imaging with very high resolution in specific regions of interest (e.g. 25cm HiRISE and ≈1.5-12m MOC-NA cameras). Overall, this set of cameras have acquired more than 400,000 high-quality images of Mars with resolution between 25cm/pixel and 100m/pixel (Sidiropoulos and Muller, 2015). On the other hand, ESA has sent the only high-resolution stereo photogrammetric camera around Mars, HRSC onboard the Mars Express spacecraft, which has been mapping the Martian surface since 2004 with a resolution of 12.5 m/pixel (Jaumann et al., 2015). Initially the raw images are combined through an elaborate photogrammetric process to get (single-strip) 3D products (i.e. digital terrain models (DTMs) and derived orthorectified images (ORIs)). However, recently the processing chain has changed, and the single-strip product release was temporarily halted to be replaced by the production and release of mosaics of Mars quadrangles. The first product of this kind is the mosaic for the East part of quadrangle MC11 (i.e. the MC11-E mosaic), a product with 12.5 metres per pixel resolution in the panchromatic image and 50 metres per pixel resolution in the corresponding DTM (Gwinner et al., 2015). Such a product provides an excellent basemap to co-register and orthorectify all NASA high-resolution (≤100m/pixel) orbital images. The need for this co-registration to HRSC comes from their poor areo-referencing, which often leads to large deviations (reaching up to several kilometres) between the area they are supposed to image and the area they are actually imaging. After co-registration, all products are projected onto an common 3D coordinate system, which allows an examination of dynamic features of Mars through the changes that happen on its surface. In this work, we present the

  18. Vehicle extraction from high-resolution satellite image using template matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natt, Dehchaiwong; Cao, Xiaoguang

    2015-12-01

    The process of vehicle examination by using satellite images is complicated and cumbersome process. At the present, the high definition satellite images are being used, however, the images of the vehicles can be seen as just a small point which is difficult to separate it out from the background that the image details are not sufficient to identify small objects. In this research, the techniques for the process of vehicle examination by using satellite images were applied by using image data from Pléiades which is the satellite image with high resolution of 0.40 m. The objective of this research is to study and develop the device for data extracting from satellite images, and the received data would be organized and created as Geospatial information by the concept of the picture matching with a pattern matching or Template Matching developed with Matlab program and Sum of Absolute Difference method collaborated with Neural Network technique in order to help evaluating pattern matching between template images of cars and cars' images which were used to examine from satellite images. The result obtained from the comparison with template data shows that data extraction accuracy is greater than 90%, and the extracted data can be imported into Geospatial information database. Moreover, the data can be displayed in Geospatial information Software, and it also can be searched by quantity condition and satellite image position.

  19. Rapid Diagnosis of Tuberculosis by Real-Time High-Resolution Imaging of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Ghodbane, Ramzi; Asmar, Shady; Betzner, Marlena; Linet, Marie; Pierquin, Joseph; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Culture remains the cornerstone of diagnosis for pulmonary tuberculosis, but the fastidiousness of Mycobacterium tuberculosis may delay culture-based diagnosis for weeks. We evaluated the performance of real-time high-resolution imaging for the rapid detection of M. tuberculosis colonies growing on a solid medium. A total of 50 clinical specimens, including 42 sputum specimens, 4 stool specimens, 2 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimens, and 2 bronchial aspirate fluid specimens were prospectively inoculated into (i) a commercially available Middlebrook broth and evaluated for mycobacterial growth indirectly detected by measuring oxygen consumption (standard protocol) and (ii) a home-made solid medium incubated in an incubator featuring real-time high-resolution imaging of colonies (real-time protocol). Isolates were identified by Ziehl-Neelsen staining and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry. Use of the standard protocol yielded 14/50 (28%) M. tuberculosis isolates, which is not significantly different from the 13/50 (26%) M. tuberculosis isolates found using the real-time protocol (P = 1.00 by Fisher's exact test), and the contamination rate of 1/50 (2%) was not significantly different from the contamination rate of 2/50 (4%) using the real-time protocol (P = 1.00). The real-time imaging protocol showed a 4.4-fold reduction in time to detection, 82 ± 54 h versus 360 ± 142 h (P < 0.05). These preliminary data give the proof of concept that real-time high-resolution imaging of M. tuberculosis colonies is a new technology that shortens the time to growth detection and the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:26085608

  20. Rapid Diagnosis of Tuberculosis by Real-Time High-Resolution Imaging of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Colonies.

    PubMed

    Ghodbane, Ramzi; Asmar, Shady; Betzner, Marlena; Linet, Marie; Pierquin, Joseph; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2015-08-01

    Culture remains the cornerstone of diagnosis for pulmonary tuberculosis, but the fastidiousness of Mycobacterium tuberculosis may delay culture-based diagnosis for weeks. We evaluated the performance of real-time high-resolution imaging for the rapid detection of M. tuberculosis colonies growing on a solid medium. A total of 50 clinical specimens, including 42 sputum specimens, 4 stool specimens, 2 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimens, and 2 bronchial aspirate fluid specimens were prospectively inoculated into (i) a commercially available Middlebrook broth and evaluated for mycobacterial growth indirectly detected by measuring oxygen consumption (standard protocol) and (ii) a home-made solid medium incubated in an incubator featuring real-time high-resolution imaging of colonies (real-time protocol). Isolates were identified by Ziehl-Neelsen staining and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Use of the standard protocol yielded 14/50 (28%) M. tuberculosis isolates, which is not significantly different from the 13/50 (26%) M. tuberculosis isolates found using the real-time protocol (P = 1.00 by Fisher's exact test), and the contamination rate of 1/50 (2%) was not significantly different from the contamination rate of 2/50 (4%) using the real-time protocol (P = 1.00). The real-time imaging protocol showed a 4.4-fold reduction in time to detection, 82 ± 54 h versus 360 ± 142 h (P < 0.05). These preliminary data give the proof of concept that real-time high-resolution imaging of M. tuberculosis colonies is a new technology that shortens the time to growth detection and the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:26085608

  1. Snapshot 3D optical coherence tomography system using image mappingspectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thuc-Uyen; Pierce, Mark C; Higgins, Laura; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S

    2013-01-01

    A snapshot 3-Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography system was developed using Image MappingSpectrometry. This system can give depth information (Z) at different spatial positions (XY) withinone camera integration time to potentially reduce motion artifact and enhance throughput. Thecurrent (x,y,λ) datacube of (85×356×117) provides a 3Dvisualization of sample with 400 μm depth and 13.4μm in transverse resolution. Axial resolution of 16.0μm can also be achieved in this proof-of-concept system. We present ananalysis of the theoretical constraints which will guide development of future systems withincreased imaging depth and improved axial and lateral resolutions. PMID:23736629

  2. Using Image Segmentation to Identify Tundra Vegetation Variability in High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazow, Z.; Roemke, L.; Loranty, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic tundra ecosystems will play an important role in the global carbon cycle in coming decades and centuries. Amplified climate warming at high northern latitudes has stimulated carbon uptake via plant productivity, while thawing permafrost is releasing carbon to the atmosphere. Accurately quantifying the effect of changing tundra ecosystems on global climate will require detailed understanding of both of these processes. In this context, accounting for the spatial variation of landscape features is critical to creating carbon budgets for ecosystems and regions, and for forecasting the effects of climate change in the tundra. Water tracks and other areas that feature channelized subsurface water flow are landscape features with distinct differences in carbon stocks and fluxes relative to adjacent upland tundra areas. Numerous studies have shown that water tracks and flowpaths have greater water and nutrient availability that leads relatively high carbon stocks and rates of carbon uptake. However a clear understanding of the relative proportion of tundra ecosystems that are comprised of these landscape features is lacking. Recently developed fine-scale remote sensing technology allows for the spatial analysis of tundra landscapes and specifically water tracks. This study automates process of distinguishing water tracks through the use of image classification and segmentation techniques on high-resolution satellite imagery. Both supervised and unsupervised classification techniques identify water tracks as distinctive and tundra landscape features. Unlike the unsupervised classification, edge detection and region-thresholding algorithms in the supervised classification differentiates water tracks from locations with high productivity by assessing connectivity shape. Depending on the area of inquiry, water tracks comprise roughly 10%-25% of the landscape. Field observations indicate that water tracks have greater plant productivity, and rates of carbon cycling

  3. MTRC compensation in high-resolution ISAR imaging via improved polar format algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Hao; Li, Na; Xu, Shiyou; Chen, Zengping

    2014-10-01

    Migration through resolution cells (MTRC) is generated in high-resolution inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging. A MTRC compensation algorithm for high-resolution ISAR imaging based on improved polar format algorithm (PFA) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, in the situation that a rigid-body target stably flies, the initial value of the rotation angle and center of the target is obtained from the rotation of radar line of sight (RLOS) and high range resolution profile (HRRP). Then, the PFA is iteratively applied to the echo data to search the optimization solution based on minimum entropy criterion. The procedure starts with the estimated initial rotation angle and center, and terminated when the entropy of the compensated ISAR image is minimized. To reduce the computational load, the 2-D iterative search is divided into two 1-D search. One is carried along the rotation angle and the other one is carried along rotation center. Each of the 1-D searches is realized by using of the golden section search method. The accurate rotation angle and center can be obtained when the iterative search terminates. Finally, apply the PFA to compensate the MTRC by the use of the obtained optimized rotation angle and center. After MTRC compensation, the ISAR image can be best focused. Simulated and real data demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm.

  4. In-vivo high resolution corneal imaging and analysis on animal models for clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jesmond; Shinoj, V. K.; Murukeshan, V. M.; Baskaran, M.; Aung, Tin

    2015-07-01

    A simple and low cost optical probe system for the high resolution imaging of the cornea is proposed, based on a Gaussian beam epi-illumination configuration. Corneal topography is obtained by moving the scanning spot across the eye in a raster fashion whereas pachymetry data is achieved by reconstructing the images obtained at different depths. The proposed prototype has been successfully tested on porcine eye samples ex vivo and subsequently on laboratory animals, such as the New Zealand White Rabbit, in vivo. This proposed system and methodology pave the way for realizing a simple and inexpensive optical configuration for pachymetry and keratometry readings, with achievable resolution up to the cellular level. This novel and non-contact high resolution imaging modality demonstrates high intraobserver reproducibility and repeatability. Together with its sophisticated data analysis strategies and safety profile, it is believed to complement existing imaging modalities in the assessment and evaluation of corneal diseases, which enable a decrease in morbidity and improvement in the effectiveness of subsequent treatment.

  5. Spmk and Grabcut Based Target Extraction from High Resolution Remote Sensing Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Weihong; Wang, Guofeng; Feng, Chenyi; Zheng, Yiwei; Li, Jonathan; Zhang, Yi

    2016-06-01

    Target detection and extraction from high resolution remote sensing images is a basic and wide needed application. In this paper, to improve the efficiency of image interpretation, we propose a detection and segmentation combined method to realize semi-automatic target extraction. We introduce the dense transform color scale invariant feature transform (TC-SIFT) descriptor and the histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) & HSV descriptor to characterize the spatial structure and color information of the targets. With the k-means cluster method, we get the bag of visual words, and then, we adopt three levels' spatial pyramid (SP) to represent the target patch. After gathering lots of different kinds of target image patches from many high resolution UAV images, and using the TC-SIFT-SP and the multi-scale HOG & HSV feature, we constructed the SVM classifier to detect the target. In this paper, we take buildings as the targets. Experiment results show that the target detection accuracy of buildings can reach to above 90%. Based on the detection results which are a series of rectangle regions of the targets. We select the rectangle regions as candidates for foreground and adopt the GrabCut based and boundary regularized semi-auto interactive segmentation algorithm to get the accurate boundary of the target. Experiment results show its accuracy and efficiency. It can be an effective way for some special targets extraction.

  6. Damaged road extracting with high-resolution aerial image of post-earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zezhong; Pu, Chengjun; Zhu, Mingcang; Xia, Jun; Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Yalan; Li, Jiang

    2015-12-01

    With the rapid development of earth observation technology, remote sensing images have played more important roles, because the high resolution images can provide the original data for object recognition, disaster investigation, and so on. When a disastrous earthquake breaks out, a large number of roads could be damaged instantly. There are a lot of approaches about road extraction, such as region growing, gray threshold, and k-means clustering algorithm. We could not obtain the undamaged roads with these approaches, if the trees or their shadows along the roads are difficult to be distinguished from the damaged road. In the paper, a method is presented to extract the damaged road with high resolution aerial image of post-earthquake. Our job is to extract the damaged road and the undamaged with the aerial image. We utilized the mathematical morphology approach and the k-means clustering algorithm to extract the road. Our method was composed of four ingredients. Firstly, the mathematical morphology filter operators were employed to remove the interferences from the trees or their shadows. Secondly, the k-means algorithm was employed to derive the damaged segments. Thirdly, the mathematical morphology approach was used to extract the undamaged road; Finally, we could derive the damaged segments by overlaying the road networks of pre-earthquake. Our results showed that the earthquake, broken in Yaan, was disastrous for the road, Therefore, we could take more measures to keep it clear.

  7. Advances in ultrasound methods for high-resolution imaging of the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Wickline, S A

    1997-07-01

    Acoustic microscopy entails the use of high-frequency high-resolution ultrasound methods to produce images of sound waves reflected from or propagated through some tissue of interest. The image contrast depends on microscopic differences in the intrinsic material properties of the substance imaged, such as mass density or compressibility. Pathologic changes in cardiovascular tissues at the subcellular level can be observed with high-frequency acoustic imaging techniques, based on alterations in the structure, properties, and organization of cells and their surrounding matrix. Potential applications extend from delineation of cardiovascular development in experimental animals to clinical characterization of the composition of atherosclerotic lesions with intravascular ultrasound and estimation of the potential for plaque rupture and infarction. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:168-174). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc. PMID:21235881

  8. High-Resolution In Vivo Imaging of Fluorescent Proteins Using Window Chamber Models

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Gregory M.; Fontanella, Andrew N.; Shan, Siqing; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins enable in vivo characterization of a wide and growing array of morphological and functional biomarkers. To fully capitalize on the spatial and temporal information afforded by these reporter proteins, a method for imaging these proteins at high resolution longitudinally is required. This chapter describes the use of window chamber models as a means of imaging fluorescent proteins and other optical parameters. Such models essentially involve surgically implanting a window through which tumor or normal tissue can be imaged using existing microscopy techniques. This enables acquisition of high-quality images down to the cellular or subcellular scale, exploiting the diverse array of optical contrast mechanisms, while also maintaining the native microenvironment of the tissue of interest. This makes these techniques applicable to a wide array of problems in the biomedical sciences. PMID:22700402

  9. High Resolution Shape and Topography of Eros - Preliminary Results From NEAR Imaging Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskell, R. W.

    2004-05-01

    A program has been developed for determining small body shape and topography from imaging data, using multiple image stereography and photoclinometry. A preliminary study using 1600 F4 images of Eros, 90 percent of them between 10 m/pixel and 30 m/pixel, has produced a 1.57 million vector model with an average resolution of about 30 meters. The postfit residual of the 7.2 million vectors which went into the model was less than 8 m/dof. The model predictions correlate better with observed gravity harmonics than does the laser altimetry model, its coverage is more uniform, and it has far less noise. More generally, the method allows the synthesis of all imaging data into a single high-resolution data structure that can be displayed in a variety of ways for geological analysis.

  10. Application of high-resolution stereo satellite images to detailed landslide hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichol, Janet E.; Shaker, Ahmed; Wong, Man-Sing

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates and demonstrates the state of the art in remote sensing techniques for detailed landslide hazard assessment applicable to large areas. Since the most common methods of landslide hazard assessment using simple inventories and weighted overlays are heavily dependent on three-dimensional terrain visualization and analysis, stereo satellite images from the IKONOS Very High Resolution (VHR) sensor are used for this study. The DEMs created from IKONOS stereo images appear to be much more accurate and sensitive to micro-scale terrain features than a DEM created from digital contour data with a 2 m contour interval. Pan-sharpened stereo IKONOS images permit interpretation of recent landslides as small as 2-3 m in width as well as relict landslides older than 50 years. A cost-benefit analysis comparing stereo air photo interpretation with stereo satellite image interpretation suggests that stereo satellite imagery is usually more cost-effective for detailed landslide hazard assessment over large areas.

  11. Multiparametric high-resolution imaging of native proteins by force-distance curve-based AFM.

    PubMed

    Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Martinez-Martin, David; Mulvihill, Estefania; Wegmann, Susanne; Muller, Daniel J

    2014-05-01

    A current challenge in the life sciences is to understand how the properties of individual molecular machines adjust in order to meet the functional requirements of the cell. Recent developments in force-distance (FD) curve-based atomic force microscopy (FD-based AFM) enable researchers to combine sub-nanometer imaging with quantitative mapping of physical, chemical and biological properties. Here we present a protocol to apply FD-based AFM to the multiparametric imaging of native proteins under physiological conditions. We describe procedures for experimental FD-based AFM setup, high-resolution imaging of proteins in the native unperturbed state with simultaneous quantitative mapping of multiple parameters, and data interpretation and analysis. The protocol, which can be completed in 1-3 d, enables researchers to image proteins and protein complexes in the native unperturbed state and to simultaneously map their biophysical and biochemical properties at sub-nanometer resolution. PMID:24743419

  12. High resolution photoacoustic imaging of microvasculature in normal and cancerous bladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhixing; Roberts, William; Carson, Paul L.; Liu, Xiaojun; Tao, Chao; Wang, Xueding

    2013-03-01

    We explored the potential of an emerging laser-based technology, photoacoustic imaging (PAI), for bladder cancer diagnosis through high resolution imaging of microvasculature in the interior bladder tissues. Images of ex vivo canine bladders demonstrated the excellent ability of PAI to map three-dimensional microvasculature in optically scattering bladder tissues. By comparing the results from human bladder specimens affected by cancer to those from the normal control, the feasibility of PAI in differentiating malignant from benign bladder tissues was explored. The reported distinctive morphometric characteristics of tumor microvasculature can be seen in the images from cancer samples, suggesting that PAI may allow in vivo assessment of neoangiogenesis that is closely associated with bladder cancer generation and progression. By presenting subsurface morphological and physiological information in bladder tissues, PAI, when performed in a similar way to that in conventional endoscopy, provides an opportunity for improved diagnosis, staging and treatment guidance of bladder cancer.

  13. Workflow for the use of a high-resolution image detector in endovascular interventional procedures

    PubMed Central

    Rana, R.; Loughran, B.; Swetadri Vasan, S. N.; Pope, L.; Ionita, C. N.; Siddiqui, A.; Lin, N.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2014-01-01

    Endovascular image-guided intervention (EIGI) has become the primary interventional therapy for the most widespread vascular diseases. These procedures involve the insertion of a catheter into the femoral artery, which is then threaded under fluoroscopic guidance to the site of the pathology to be treated. Flat Panel Detectors (FPDs) are normally used for EIGIs; however, once the catheter is guided to the pathological site, high-resolution imaging capabilities can be used for accurately guiding a successful endovascular treatment. The Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) detector provides needed high-resolution, high-sensitivity, and real-time imaging capabilities. An experimental MAF enabled with a Control, Acquisition, Processing, Image Display and Storage (CAPIDS) system was installed and aligned on a detector changer attached to the C-arm of a clinical angiographic unit. The CAPIDS system was developed and implemented using LabVIEW software and provides a user-friendly interface that enables control of several clinical radiographic imaging modes of the MAF including: fluoroscopy, roadmap, radiography, and digital-subtraction-angiography (DSA). Using the automatic controls, the MAF detector can be moved to the deployed position, in front of a standard FPD, whenever higher resolution is needed during angiographic or interventional vascular imaging procedures. To minimize any possible negative impact to image guidance with the two detector systems, it is essential to have a well-designed workflow that enables smooth deployment of the MAF at critical stages of clinical procedures. For the ultimate success of this new imaging capability, a clear understanding of the workflow design is essential. This presentation provides a detailed description and demonstration of such a workflow design. PMID:25302003

  14. Workflow for the use of a high-resolution image detector in endovascular interventional procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, R.; Loughran, B.; Swetadri Vasan, S. N.; Pope, L.; Ionita, C. N.; Siddiqui, A.; Lin, N.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2014-03-01

    Endovascular image-guided intervention (EIGI) has become the primary interventional therapy for the most widespread vascular diseases. These procedures involve the insertion of a catheter into the femoral artery, which is then threaded under fluoroscopic guidance to the site of the pathology to be treated. Flat Panel Detectors (FPDs) are normally used for EIGIs; however, once the catheter is guided to the pathological site, high-resolution imaging capabilities can be used for accurately guiding a successful endovascular treatment. The Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) detector provides needed high-resolution, high-sensitivity, and real-time imaging capabilities. An experimental MAF enabled with a Control, Acquisition, Processing, Image Display and Storage (CAPIDS) system was installed and aligned on a detector changer attached to the C-arm of a clinical angiographic unit. The CAPIDS system was developed and implemented using LabVIEW software and provides a user-friendly interface that enables control of several clinical radiographic imaging modes of the MAF including: fluoroscopy, roadmap, radiography, and digital-subtraction-angiography (DSA). Using the automatic controls, the MAF detector can be moved to the deployed position, in front of a standard FPD, whenever higher resolution is needed during angiographic or interventional vascular imaging procedures. To minimize any possible negative impact to image guidance with the two detector systems, it is essential to have a well-designed workflow that enables smooth deployment of the MAF at critical stages of clinical procedures. For the ultimate success of this new imaging capability, a clear understanding of the workflow design is essential. This presentation provides a detailed description and demonstration of such a workflow design.

  15. Scatter reduction for high resolution image detectors with a region of interest attenuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Compton scatter is the main interaction of x-rays with objects undergoing radiographic and fluoroscopic imaging procedures. Such scatter is responsible for reducing image signal to noise ratio which can negatively impact object detection especially for low contrast objects. To reduce scatter, possible methods are smaller fields-of-view, larger air gaps and the use of an anti-scatter grid. Smaller fields of view may not be acceptable and scanned-beam radiography is not practical for real-time imaging. Air gaps can increase geometric unsharpness and thus degrade image resolution. Deployment of an anti-scatter grid is not well suited for high resolution imagers due to the unavailability of high line density grids needed to prevent grid-line artifacts. However, region of interest (ROI) imaging can be used not only for dose reduction but also for scatter reduction in the ROI. The ROI region receives unattenuated x-rays while the peripheral region receives x-rays reduced in intensity by an ROI attenuator. The scatter within the ROI part of the image originates from both the unattenuated ROI and the attenuated peripheral region. The scatter contribution from the periphery is reduced in intensity because of the reduced primary x-rays in that region and the scatter fraction in the ROI is thus reduced. In this study, the scatter fraction for various kVp's, air-gaps and field sizes was measured for a uniform head equivalent phantom. The scatter fraction in the ROI was calculated using a derived scatter fraction formula, which was validated with experimental measurements. It is shown that use of a ROI attenuator can be an effective way to reduce both scatter and patient dose while maintaining the superior image quality of high resolution detectors.

  16. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging and analysis of rock falls in Yosemite valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stock, Gregory M.; Bawden, G.W.; Green, J.K.; Hanson, E.; Downing, G.; Collins, B.D.; Bond, S.; Leslar, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present quantitative analyses of recent large rock falls in Yosemite Valley, California, using integrated high-resolution imaging techniques. Rock falls commonly occur from the glacially sculpted granitic walls of Yosemite Valley, modifying this iconic landscape but also posing signifi cant potential hazards and risks. Two large rock falls occurred from the cliff beneath Glacier Point in eastern Yosemite Valley on 7 and 8 October 2008, causing minor injuries and damaging structures in a developed area. We used a combination of gigapixel photography, airborne laser scanning (ALS) data, and ground-based terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data to characterize the rock-fall detachment surface and adjacent cliff area, quantify the rock-fall volume, evaluate the geologic structure that contributed to failure, and assess the likely failure mode. We merged the ALS and TLS data to resolve the complex, vertical to overhanging topography of the Glacier Point area in three dimensions, and integrated these data with gigapixel photographs to fully image the cliff face in high resolution. Three-dimensional analysis of repeat TLS data reveals that the cumulative failure consisted of a near-planar rock slab with a maximum length of 69.0 m, a mean thickness of 2.1 m, a detachment surface area of 2750 m2, and a volume of 5663 ?? 36 m3. Failure occurred along a surfaceparallel, vertically oriented sheeting joint in a clear example of granitic exfoliation. Stress concentration at crack tips likely propagated fractures through the partially attached slab, leading to failure. Our results demonstrate the utility of high-resolution imaging techniques for quantifying far-range (>1 km) rock falls occurring from the largely inaccessible, vertical rock faces of Yosemite Valley, and for providing highly accurate and precise data needed for rock-fall hazard assessment. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  17. Limitations of anti-scatter grids when used with high resolution image detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, V.; Jain, A.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2014-03-01

    Anti-scatter grids are used in fluoroscopic systems to improve image quality by absorbing scattered radiation. A stationary Smit Rontgen X-ray grid (line density: 70 lines/cm, grid ratio: 13:1) was used with a flat panel detector (FPD) of pixel size 194 micron and a high-resolution CMOS detector, the Dexela 1207 with pixel size of 75 microns. To investigate the effectiveness of the grid, a simulated artery block was placed in a modified uniform frontal head phantom and imaged with both the FPD and the Dexela for an approximately 15 x 15 cm field of view (FOV). The contrast improved for both detectors with the grid. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) does not increase as much in the case of the Dexela as it improves in the case of the FPD. Since the total noise in a single frame increases substantially for the Dexela compared to the FPD when the grid is used, the CNR is degraded. The increase in the quantum noise per frame would be similar for both detectors when the grid is used due to the attenuation of radiation, but the fixed pattern noise caused by the grid was substantially higher for the Dexela compared to the FPD and hence caused a severe reduction of CNR. Without further corrective methods this grid should not be used with high-resolution fluoroscopic detectors because the CNR does not improve significantly and the visibility of low contrast details may be reduced. Either an anti-scatter grid of different design or an additional image processing step when using a similar grid would be required to deal with the problem of scatter for high resolution detectors and the structured noise of the grid pattern.

  18. Limitations of anti-scatter grids when used with high resolution image detectors.

    PubMed

    Singh, V; Jain, A; Bednarek, D R; Rudin, S

    2014-03-19

    Anti-scatter grids are used in fluoroscopic systems to improve image quality by absorbing scattered radiation. A stationary Smit Rontgen X-ray grid (line density: 70 lines/cm, grid ratio: 13:1) was used with a flat panel detector (FPD) of pixel size 194 micron and a high-resolution CMOS detector, the Dexela 1207 with pixel size of 75 microns. To investigate the effectiveness of the grid, a simulated artery block was placed in a modified uniform frontal head phantom and imaged with both the FPD and the Dexela for an approximately 15 × 15 cm field of view (FOV). The contrast improved for both detectors with the grid. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) does not increase as much in the case of the Dexela as it improves in the case of the FPD. Since the total noise in a single frame increases substantially for the Dexela compared to the FPD when the grid is used, the CNR is degraded. The increase in the quantum noise per frame would be similar for both detectors when the grid is used due to the attenuation of radiation, but the fixed pattern noise caused by the grid was substantially higher for the Dexela compared to the FPD and hence caused a severe reduction of CNR. Without further corrective methods this grid should not be used with high-resolution fluoroscopic detectors because the CNR does not improve significantly and the visibility of low contrast details may be reduced. Either an anti-scatter grid of different design or an additional image processing step when using a similar grid would be required to deal with the problem of scatter for high resolution detectors and the structured noise of the grid pattern. PMID:25309101

  19. Ultrafast, high resolution, phase contrast imaging of impact response with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, B. J.; Luo, S. N.; Hooks, D. E.; Ramos, K. J.; Yeager, J. D.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Shimada, T.; Dattelbaum, D. M.; Fezzaa, K.

    2012-03-15

    Understanding the dynamic response of materials at extreme conditions requires diagnostics that can provide real-time, in situ, spatially resolved measurements on the nanosecond timescale. The development of methods such as phase contrast imaging (PCI) typically used at synchrotron sources offer unique opportunities to examine dynamic material response. In this work, we report ultrafast, high-resolution, dynamic PCI measurements of shock compressed materials with 3 {mu}m spatial resolution using a single 60 ps synchrotron X-ray bunch. These results firmly establish the use of PCI to examine dynamic phenomena at ns to {mu}s timescales.

  20. High-resolution Fourier hologram synthesis from photographic images through computing the light field.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ni; Ren, Zhenbo; Lam, Edmund Y

    2016-03-01

    We present a technique for synthesizing the Fourier hologram of a three-dimensional scene from its light field. The light field captures the volumetric information of an object, and an important advantage is that it does not require coherent illumination, as in conventional holography. In this work, we show how to obtain a high-resolution digital hologram with the light field obtained from a series of photographic images captured along the optical axis. The method is verified both by simulations and experimentally captured light field. PMID:26974639

  1. High-resolution imaging and target designation through clouds or smoke

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    A method and system of combining gated intensifiers and advances in solid-state, short-pulse laser technology, compact systems capable of producing high resolution (i.e., approximately less than 20 centimeters) optical images through a scattering medium such as dense clouds, fog, smoke, etc. may be achieved from air or ground based platforms. Laser target designation through a scattering medium is also enabled by utilizing a short pulse illumination laser and a relatively minor change to the detectors on laser guided munitions.

  2. Estimation of sampling errors in a high-resolution TV microscope image-processing system.

    PubMed

    Harms, H; Aus, H M

    1984-05-01

    The basic postulate of this paper is that the commonly accepted sampling density of 2-4 pixels/micron in a high-resolution TV microscope system is too low to digitize exactly and analyze the complex cellular detail found in stained cell images. Depending on the specific microscope system, the required sampling density is much higher, lying between 15 and 30 pixels/micron. This sampling density is derived from the aliasing error, the resolution loss, and computational limitations. The mathematical and optical methods and equipment used to obtain these results are described in detail. PMID:6375997

  3. Observations of the quasi 2-day wave from the High Resolution Doppler Imager on UARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, D. L.; Hays, P. B.; Skinner, W. R.; Marshall, A. R.; Burrage, M. D.; Lieberman, R. S.; Ortland, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    A strong westward traveling oscillation, with a period of 2 days and zonal wave number 3, is observed in the mesospheric and lower thermospheric winds from the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). The important events happen in January, July, and September/October, of which the occurrence in January is the strongest with an amplitude over 60 m/s. Detailed analyses for the periods of January 1992 and January 1993 reveal a cause-and-effect relationship in the wave developing process at 95 km. The global structures of the wave amplitude and phase are also presented.

  4. High resolution diffraction imaging of crystals grown in microgravity and closely related terrestrial crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiner, B.; Dobbyn, R.; Black, D.; Burdette, H.; Kuriyama, M.; Spal, R.; Vandenberg, L.; Fripp, A.; Simchick, R.; Lal, R.

    1991-01-01

    Irregularities found in three crystals grown in space, in four crystals grown entirely on the ground were examined and compared. Irregularities were observed in mercuric iodide, lead tin telluride, triglycine sulfate, and gallium arsenide by high resolution synchrotron x radiation diffraction imaging. Radiation detectors made from mercuric iodide crystals grown in microgravity were reported to perform far better than conventional detectors grown from the same material under full gravity. Effort is now underway to reproduce these 'space' crystals, optimize their properties, and extend comparable superiority to other types of materials.

  5. Multimodal adaptive optics for depth-enhanced high-resolution ophthalmic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Mujat, Mircea; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Lue, Niyom; Ferguson, R. Daniel

    2010-02-01

    We developed a multimodal adaptive optics (AO) retinal imager for diagnosis of retinal diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The development represents the first ever high performance AO system constructed that combines AO-corrected scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and swept source Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) imaging modes in a single compact clinical prototype platform. The SSOCT channel operates at a wavelength of 1 μm for increased penetration and visualization of the choriocapillaris and choroid, sites of major disease activity for DR and wet AMD. The system is designed to operate on a broad clinical population with a dual deformable mirror (DM) configuration that allows simultaneous low- and high-order aberration correction. The system also includes a wide field line scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) for initial screening, target identification, and global orientation; an integrated retinal tracker (RT) to stabilize the SLO, OCT, and LSO imaging fields in the presence of rotational eye motion; and a high-resolution LCD-based fixation target for presentation to the subject of stimuli and other visual cues. The system was tested in a limited number of human subjects without retinal disease for performance optimization and validation. The system was able to resolve and quantify cone photoreceptors across the macula to within ~0.5 deg (~100-150 μm) of the fovea, image and delineate ten retinal layers, and penetrate to resolve targets deep into the choroid. In addition to instrument hardware development, analysis algorithms were developed for efficient information extraction from clinical imaging sessions, with functionality including automated image registration, photoreceptor counting, strip and montage stitching, and segmentation. The system provides clinicians and researchers with high-resolution, high performance adaptive optics imaging to help

  6. Computational high-resolution heart phantoms for medical imaging and dosimetry simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Songxiang; Gupta, Rajiv; Kyprianou, Iacovos

    2011-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease in general and coronary artery disease (CAD) in particular, are the leading cause of death worldwide. They are principally diagnosed using either invasive percutaneous transluminal coronary angiograms or non-invasive computed tomography angiograms (CTA). Minimally invasive therapies for CAD such as angioplasty and stenting are rendered under fluoroscopic guidance. Both invasive and non-invasive imaging modalities employ ionizing radiation and there is concern for deterministic and stochastic effects of radiation. Accurate simulation to optimize image quality with minimal radiation dose requires detailed, gender-specific anthropomorphic phantoms with anatomically correct heart and associated vasculature. Such phantoms are currently unavailable. This paper describes an open source heart phantom development platform based on a graphical user interface. Using this platform, we have developed seven high-resolution cardiac/coronary artery phantoms for imaging and dosimetry from seven high-quality CTA datasets. To extract a phantom from a coronary CTA, the relationship between the intensity distribution of the myocardium, the ventricles and the coronary arteries is identified via histogram analysis of the CTA images. By further refining the segmentation using anatomy-specific criteria such as vesselness, connectivity criteria required by the coronary tree and image operations such as active contours, we are able to capture excellent detail within our phantoms. For example, in one of the female heart phantoms, as many as 100 coronary artery branches could be identified. Triangular meshes are fitted to segmented high-resolution CTA data. We have also developed a visualization tool for adding stenotic lesions to the coronaries. The male and female heart phantoms generated so far have been cross-registered and entered in the mesh-based Virtual Family of phantoms with matched age/gender information. Any phantom in this family, along with user

  7. High-Resolution SQUID imaging of Magnetic Fields Generated by Propagating Cardiac Action Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, Jenny R.; Sidorov, Veniamin; Fong, Luis; Peters, Nicholas; Baudenbacher, Petra; Baudenbacher, Franz

    2004-03-01

    The heart's magnetic field is exquisitely sensitive to anisotropy ratios in the cardiac bidomain model; Therefore, magnetic imaging of cardiac action currents is an ideally suited technique for testing the accuracy of cardiac models and elucidating the effects of anisotropy in the spread of stimulus and action currents. We mapped the magnetocardiogram (MCG) as a function of position over a 10mm x 10mm area of the left ventricle of a Langendorff perfused isolated rabbit heart using high-resolution scanning SQUID microscopy and epi-fluorescent imaging with a high speed CCD camera and the transmembrane voltage sensitive dye di-4-ANEPPS. The combination of these two methods allowed us to map the transmembrane potential, the magnetic field, and consequently the total current, over the same area. The MCGs were combined to produce a time series of 2D field maps that show a clear octupolar pattern during the cathodal current injection, a similar pattern with a reversal of currents immediately after terminating the stimulus, and the generation and propagation of an elliptical action current wave front. The observed patterns are in agreement with predictions using a bidomain model. Our high-resolution SQUID images have confirmed that unequal anisotropies in the intra- and extracellular spaces must be considered to explain the magnetic field associated with action current propagation However, a realistic cardiac bidomain model incorporating fiber rotation, cleavage planes, and tissue heterogeneities are required to reproduce the complete experimental observations.

  8. Localizing chemical groups while imaging single native proteins by high-resolution atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Alsteens, David; Hilbert, Manuel; Steinmetz, Michel O; Müller, Daniel J

    2014-05-14

    Simultaneous high-resolution imaging and localization of chemical interaction sites on single native proteins is a pertinent biophysical, biochemical, and nanotechnological challenge. Such structural mapping and characterization of binding sites is of importance in understanding how proteins interact with their environment and in manipulating such interactions in a plethora of biotechnological applications. Thus far, this challenge remains to be tackled. Here, we introduce force-distance curve-based atomic force microscopy (FD-based AFM) for the high-resolution imaging of SAS-6, a protein that self-assembles into cartwheel-like structures. Using functionalized AFM tips bearing Ni(2+)-N-nitrilotriacetate groups, we locate specific interaction sites on SAS-6 at nanometer resolution and quantify the binding strength of the Ni(2+)-NTA groups to histidine residues. The FD-based AFM approach can readily be applied to image any other native protein and to locate and structurally map histidine residues. Moreover, the surface chemistry used to functionalize the AFM tip can be modified to map other chemical interaction sites. PMID:24766578

  9. An Automated Platform for High-Resolution Tissue Imaging Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Heath, Brandi S.; Liyu, Andrey V.; Thomas, Mathew; Carson, James P.; Laskin, Julia

    2012-10-02

    An automated platform has been developed for acquisition and visualization of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) data using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI). The new system enables robust operation of the nano-DESI imaging source over many hours. This is achieved by controlling the distance between the sample and the probe by mounting the sample holder onto an automated XYZ stage and defining the tilt of the sample plane. This approach is useful for imaging of relatively flat samples such as thin tissue sections. Custom software called MSI QuickView was developed for visualization of large data sets generated in imaging experiments. MSI QuickView enables fast visualization of the imaging data during data acquisition and detailed processing after the entire image is acquired. The performance of the system is demonstrated by imaging rat brain tissue sections. High resolution mass analysis combined with MS/MS experiments enabled identification of lipids and metabolites in the tissue section. In addition, high dynamic range and sensitivity of the technique allowed us to generate ion images of low-abundance isobaric lipids. High-spatial resolution image acquired over a small region of the tissue section revealed the spatial distribution of an abundant brain metabolite, creatine, in the white and gray matter that is consistent with the literature data obtained using magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  10. High-resolution imagery of a space object using an unconventional laser-illumination imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelz, David G.; O'Keefe, Shawn D.; Gonglewski, John D.; Rider, Douglas B.; Schulze, Kathy J.

    1994-12-01

    The US Air Force Phillips Laboratory's Retro-Assisted Imaging Laser Experiment (RAILE) demonstrated high-resolution imaging of a space object from the ground using an active illumination imaging technique. Results were obtained using a technique known as Imaging Correlography where images are constructed from measurements of backscattered (non-imaged) laser speckle intensity patterns. The target for the experiment was the Relay Mirror satellite that was designed and launched for a separate experiment known as the Relay Mirror Experiment (RME). The satellite carried four retroreflectors, arranged in a pattern, that comprised the actual imaging target. The satellite was tracked from a ground site and illuminated with a low-power, coherent, visible laser beam. The receiver was a simple linear array of intensity detectors, or light buckets. The use of an inverse synthetic aperture scheme allowed a modest effective receiving aperture to be realized (approximately 2 x 2 m). Although the effective receiving aperture for this experiment was no larger than that of a moderate-sized astronomical telescope, the light bucket concept is scaleable to much larger apertures. Image reconstruction was done in the computer after the sampled intensity data was collected by the receiver array. The paper contains a discussion of the imaging correlography technique, the experimental hardware, and the field results including reconstructed imagery.

  11. Nanoscale deformation analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image correlation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Xueju; Pan, Zhipeng; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-10

    We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for themore » analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. As a result, the DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.« less

  12. Nanoscale deformation analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xueju; Pan, Zhipeng; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-10

    We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for the analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. As a result, the DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.

  13. Simulation of high-resolution X-ray microscopic images for improved alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiangxia; Zhang, Xiaobo; Liu, Gang; Cheng, Xianchao; Li, Wenjie; Guan, Yong; Liu, Ying; Xiong, Ying; Tian, Yangchao

    2011-12-01

    The introduction of precision optical elements to X-ray microscopes necessitates fine realignment to achieve optimal high-resolution imaging. In this paper, we demonstrate a numerical method for simulating image formation that facilitates alignment of the source, condenser, objective lens, and CCD camera. This algorithm, based on ray-tracing and Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory, is applied to simulate the X-ray microscope beamline U7A of National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). The simulations and imaging experiments show that the algorithm is useful for guiding experimental adjustments. Our alignment simulation method is an essential tool for the transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) with optical elements and may also be useful for the alignment of optical components in other modes of microscopy.

  14. Flexible sample environment for high resolution neutron imaging at high temperatures in controlled atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowska, Małgorzata G.; Theil Kuhn, Luise; Cleemann, Lars N.; Lauridsen, Erik M.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Molaison, Jamie J.; Santodonato, Louis J.; Tremsin, Anton S.; Grosse, Mirco; Morgano, Manuel; Kabra, Saurabh; Strobl, Markus

    2015-12-01

    High material penetration by neutrons allows for experiments using sophisticated sample environments providing complex conditions. Thus, neutron imaging holds potential for performing in situ nondestructive measurements on large samples or even full technological systems, which are not possible with any other technique. This paper presents a new sample environment for in situ high resolution neutron imaging experiments at temperatures from room temperature up to 1100 °C and/or using controllable flow of reactive atmospheres. The design also offers the possibility to directly combine imaging with diffraction measurements. Design, special features, and specification of the furnace are described. In addition, examples of experiments successfully performed at various neutron facilities with the furnace, as well as examples of possible applications are presented. This covers a broad field of research from fundamental to technological investigations of various types of materials and components.

  15. Optimal experimental design for nano-particle atom-counting from high-resolution STEM images.

    PubMed

    De Backer, A; De Wael, A; Gonnissen, J; Van Aert, S

    2015-04-01

    In the present paper, the principles of detection theory are used to quantify the probability of error for atom-counting from high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR STEM) images. Binary and multiple hypothesis testing have been investigated in order to determine the limits to the precision with which the number of atoms in a projected atomic column can be estimated. The probability of error has been calculated when using STEM images, scattering cross-sections or peak intensities as a criterion to count atoms. Based on this analysis, we conclude that scattering cross-sections perform almost equally well as images and perform better than peak intensities. Furthermore, the optimal STEM detector design can be derived for atom-counting using the expression for the probability of error. We show that for very thin objects LAADF is optimal and that for thicker objects the optimal inner detector angle increases. PMID:25499018

  16. Flexible sample environment for high resolution neutron imaging at high temperatures in controlled atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Makowska, Małgorzata G.; Theil Kuhn, Luise; Cleemann, Lars N.; Lauridsen, Erik M.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Molaison, Jamie J.; Santodonato, Louis J.; Tremsin, Anton S.; Grosse, Mirco; Morgano, Manuel; Kabra, Saurabh; Strobl, Markus

    2015-12-15

    High material penetration by neutrons allows for experiments using sophisticated sample environments providing complex conditions. Thus, neutron imaging holds potential for performing in situ nondestructive measurements on large samples or even full technological systems, which are not possible with any other technique. This paper presents a new sample environment for in situ high resolution neutron imaging experiments at temperatures from room temperature up to 1100 °C and/or using controllable flow of reactive atmospheres. The design also offers the possibility to directly combine imaging with diffraction measurements. Design, special features, and specification of the furnace are described. In addition, examples of experiments successfully performed at various neutron facilities with the furnace, as well as examples of possible applications are presented. This covers a broad field of research from fundamental to technological investigations of various types of materials and components.

  17. Flexible sample environment for high resolution neutron imaging at high temperatures in controlled atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Makowska, Małgorzata G.; Theil Kuhn, Luise; Cleemann, Lars N.; Lauridsen, Erik M.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Molaison, Jamie J.; Santodonato, Louis J.; Tremsin, Anton S.; Grosse, Mirco; Morgano, Manuel; Kabra, Saurabh; Strobl, Markus

    2015-12-17

    In high material penetration by neutrons allows for experiments using sophisticated sample environments providing complex conditions. Thus, neutron imaging holds potential for performing in situ nondestructive measurements on large samples or even full technological systems, which are not possible with any other technique. Our paper presents a new sample environment for in situ high resolution neutron imaging experiments at temperatures from room temperature up to 1100 degrees C and/or using controllable flow of reactive atmospheres. The design also offers the possibility to directly combine imaging with diffraction measurements. Design, special features, and specification of the furnace are described. In addition, examples of experiments successfully performed at various neutron facilities with the furnace, as well as examples of possible applications are presented. Our work covers a broad field of research from fundamental to technological investigations of various types of materials and components.

  18. High resolution iridocorneal angle imaging system by axicon lens assisted gonioscopy.

    PubMed

    Perinchery, Sandeep Menon; Shinde, Anant; Fu, Chan Yiu; Jeesmond Hong, Xun Jie; Baskaran, Mani; Aung, Tin; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham

    2016-01-01

    Direct visualization and assessment of the iridocorneal angle (ICA) region with high resolution is important for the clinical evaluation of glaucoma. However, the current clinical imaging systems for ICA do not provide sufficient structural details due to their poor resolution. The key challenges in achieving high quality ICA imaging are its location in the anterior region of the eye and the occurrence of total internal reflection due to refractive index difference between cornea and air. Here, we report an indirect axicon assisted gonioscopy imaging probe with white light illumination. The illustrated results with this probe shows significantly improved visualization of structures in the ICA including TM region, compared to the current available tools. It could reveal critical details of ICA and expected to aid management by providing information that is complementary to angle photography and gonioscopy. PMID:27471000

  19. Label-free imaging of cellular malformation using high resolution photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhongjiang; Li, Bingbing; Yang, Sihua

    2014-09-01

    A label-free high resolution photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) system for imaging cellular malformation is presented. The carbon fibers were used to testify the lateral resolution of the PAM. Currently, the lateral resolution is better than 2.7 μm. The human normal red blood cells (RBCs) were used to prove the imaging capability of the system, and a single red blood cell was mapped with high contrast. Moreover, the iron deficiency anemia RBCs were clearly distinguished from the cell morphology by using the PAM. The experimental results demonstrate that the photoacoustic microscopy system can accomplish label-free photoacoustic imaging and that it has clinical potential for use in the detection of erythrocytes and blood vessels malformation.

  20. Tip radius preservation for high resolution imaging in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, Jorge R.

    2014-07-28

    The acquisition of high resolution images in atomic force microscopy (AFM) is correlated to the cantilever's tip shape, size, and imaging conditions. In this work, relative tip wear is quantified based on the evolution of a direct experimental observable in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy, i.e., the critical amplitude. We further show that the scanning parameters required to guarantee a maximum compressive stress that is lower than the yield/fracture stress of the tip can be estimated via experimental observables. In both counts, the optimized parameters to acquire AFM images while preserving the tip are discussed. The results are validated experimentally by employing IgG antibodies as a model system.

  1. High resolution iridocorneal angle imaging system by axicon lens assisted gonioscopy

    PubMed Central

    Perinchery, Sandeep Menon; Shinde, Anant; Fu, Chan Yiu; Jeesmond Hong, Xun Jie; Baskaran, Mani; Aung, Tin; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham

    2016-01-01

    Direct visualization and assessment of the iridocorneal angle (ICA) region with high resolution is important for the clinical evaluation of glaucoma. However, the current clinical imaging systems for ICA do not provide sufficient structural details due to their poor resolution. The key challenges in achieving high quality ICA imaging are its location in the anterior region of the eye and the occurrence of total internal reflection due to refractive index difference between cornea and air. Here, we report an indirect axicon assisted gonioscopy imaging probe with white light illumination. The illustrated results with this probe shows significantly improved visualization of structures in the ICA including TM region, compared to the current available tools. It could reveal critical details of ICA and expected to aid management by providing information that is complementary to angle photography and gonioscopy. PMID:27471000

  2. Flexible sample environment for high resolution neutron imaging at high temperatures in controlled atmosphere

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Makowska, Małgorzata G.; Theil Kuhn, Luise; Cleemann, Lars N.; Lauridsen, Erik M.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Molaison, Jamie J.; Santodonato, Louis J.; Tremsin, Anton S.; Grosse, Mirco; Morgano, Manuel; et al

    2015-12-17

    In high material penetration by neutrons allows for experiments using sophisticated sample environments providing complex conditions. Thus, neutron imaging holds potential for performing in situ nondestructive measurements on large samples or even full technological systems, which are not possible with any other technique. Our paper presents a new sample environment for in situ high resolution neutron imaging experiments at temperatures from room temperature up to 1100 degrees C and/or using controllable flow of reactive atmospheres. The design also offers the possibility to directly combine imaging with diffraction measurements. Design, special features, and specification of the furnace are described. In addition,more » examples of experiments successfully performed at various neutron facilities with the furnace, as well as examples of possible applications are presented. Our work covers a broad field of research from fundamental to technological investigations of various types of materials and components.« less

  3. Flexible sample environment for high resolution neutron imaging at high temperatures in controlled atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Makowska, Małgorzata G; Theil Kuhn, Luise; Cleemann, Lars N; Lauridsen, Erik M; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Molaison, Jamie J; Santodonato, Louis J; Tremsin, Anton S; Grosse, Mirco; Morgano, Manuel; Kabra, Saurabh; Strobl, Markus

    2015-12-01

    High material penetration by neutrons allows for experiments using sophisticated sample environments providing complex conditions. Thus, neutron imaging holds potential for performing in situ nondestructive measurements on large samples or even full technological systems, which are not possible with any other technique. This paper presents a new sample environment for in situ high resolution neutron imaging experiments at temperatures from room temperature up to 1100 °C and/or using controllable flow of reactive atmospheres. The design also offers the possibility to directly combine imaging with diffraction measurements. Design, special features, and specification of the furnace are described. In addition, examples of experiments successfully performed at various neutron facilities with the furnace, as well as examples of possible applications are presented. This covers a broad field of research from fundamental to technological investigations of various types of materials and components. PMID:26724075

  4. Detection of single mammalian cells by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, S J; Williams, M; Suhan, J P; Williams, D S; Koretsky, A P; Ho, C

    1999-01-01

    This study reports the detection of single mammalian cells, specifically T cells (T lymphocytes) labeled with dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide particles, using magnetic resonance microscopy. Size amplification due to sequestration of the superparamagnetic particles in vacuoles enhances contrast in localized areas in high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic resonance images of samples containing differing concentrations of T cells embedded in 3% gelatin show a number of dark regions due to the superparamagnetic iron oxide particles, consistent with the number predicted by transmission electron microscopy. Colabeling of T cell samples with a fluorescent dye leads to strong correlations between magnetic resonance and fluorescence microscopic images, showing the presence of the superparamagnetic iron oxide particles at the cell site. This result lays the foundation for our approach to tracking the movement of a specific cell type in live animals and humans. PMID:9876127

  5. High-Resolution Bistatic Radar Imaging With The Deep-Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, M.; Benner, L.; Slade, M. A.; Teitelbaum, L.; Brozovic, M.; Nolan, M. C.; Taylor, P. A.; Ghigo, F. D.; Ford, J.

    2014-12-01

    Recent upgrades to the Deep Space Network's Goldstone Solar System Radar allow the transmitted waveform to be modulated at up to 40 MHz, providing resolution as fine as 3.75 m in line-of-sight distance for near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and the Moon. Bistatic observations, transmitting with an antenna at Goldstone and receiving with either another Goldstone antenna or a larger antenna such as the Arecibo Observatory or the Green Bank Telescope, give the highest possible sensitivity combined with high resolution. High-resolution bistatic radar projects have revealed spin state changes and the presence of boulders on many NEAs. Examples include radar imaging campaigns on the NEAs 2005 YU55, Toutatis, 2012 DA14, and 2014 HQ124. In the near future, a new high-resolution transmitter on Goldstone's DSS-13 antenna will be able to transmit a signal modulated at 80 MHz, improving line-of-sight resolution by a factor of two to 1.875 m. This will allow many new projects: seeing previously-invisible surface details; measuring the size distributions of boulders and possibly craters on small NEAs; obtaining better estimates of the masses and densities of asteroids from radiation pressure perturbations to their trajectories; improved trajectory predictions for small spacecraft targets and potential Earth impactors; and possibly imaging the reconfiguration of asteroids' surfaces due to tides during extremely close Earth flybys. Somewhat further into the future, a 1.875-m-resolution transmitter may be installed on a 34-m antenna at the DSN's Canberra complex. This would allow radar imaging of objects in the far southern sky, which current radars cannot see. It would also facilitate rapid follow-up of newly discovered radar targets and before-and-after observations of NEAs making flybys close enough to cause tidal reconfiguration, which move very quickly across the sky at closest approach. As with the current 3.75-m-resolution system, these future high-resolution transmitters will

  6. Multi-temporal database of High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) images - Alpha version

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkeling, G.; Luesebrink, D.; Hiesinger, H.; Reiss, D.; Jaumann, R.

    2014-04-01

    Image data transmitted to Earth by Martian spacecraft since the 1970s, for example by Mariner and Viking, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Express (MEx) and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) showed, that the surface of Mars has changed dramatically and actually is continually changing [e.g., 1-8]. The changes are attributed to a large variety of atmospherical, geological and morphological processes, including eolian processes [9,10], mass wasting processes [11], changes of the polar caps [12] and impact cratering processes [13]. In addition, comparisons between Mariner, Viking and Mars Global Surveyor images suggest that more than one third of the Martian surface has brightened or darkened by at least 10% [6]. Albedo changes can have effects on the global heat balance and the circulation of winds, which can result in further surface changes [14-15]. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) [16,17] on board Mars Express (MEx) covers large areas at high resolution and is therefore suited to detect the frequency, extent and origin of Martian surface changes. Since 2003 HRSC acquires highresolution images of the Martian surface and contributes to Martian research, with focus on the surface morphology, the geology and mineralogy, the role of liquid water on the surface and in the atmosphere, on volcanism, as well as on the proposed climate change throughout the Martian history and has improved our understanding of the evolution of Mars significantly [18-21]. The HRSC data are available at ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA) as well as through the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS). Both data platforms are frequently used by the scientific community and provide additional software and environments to further generate map-projected and geometrically calibrated HRSC data. However, while previews of the images are available, there is no possibility to quickly and conveniently see the spatial and temporal availability of HRSC images in a specific region, which is

  7. High-resolution apertureless near-field optical imaging using gold nanosphere probes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Zee Hwan; Leone, Stephen R

    2006-10-12

    An apertureless near-field scanning optical microscope (ANSOM) that utilizes the enhanced field around a gold nanosphere, which is attached to the end of an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, is used to image the local dielectric constant of the patterned metallic surfaces and local electric field around plasmonic nanosphere samples. A colloidal gold nanosphere (approximately 50 nm diameter) is linked to the extremity of the conventional etched-silicon probe. The scattering of laser radiation (633 or 532 nm) is modulated by the oscillating nanosphere-functionalized silicon tip, and the scattered radiation is detected. The approach curve (scattering intensity as a function of the tip-sample distance), the polarization dependence (scattering intensity as a function of the excitation polarization direction), and ANSOM image contrast confirm that the spherical nanosphere attached to the silicon tip acts as a point dipole that interacts with the sample surface via a dipole-dipole coupling, in which the dipole created by the field at the tip interacts with its own image dipole in the sample. The image obtained with the nanoparticle functionalized tip provides a dielectric map of the sample surface with a spatial resolution better than 80 nm. In addition, we show that the functionalized tip is capable of imaging the local electric field distribution above the plasmonic nanosphere samples. Overall, the result shows that high-resolution ANSOM is possible without the aid of the lightning-rod effect. With an improved tip-fabrication method, we believe that the method can provide a versatile high-resolution chemical imaging that is not available from usual forms of ANSOM. PMID:17020365

  8. High-Resolution 3 T MR Microscopy Imaging of Arterial Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Sailer, Johannes Rand, Thomas; Berg, Andreas; Sulzbacher, Irene; Peloschek, P.; Hoelzenbein, Thomas; Lammer, Johannes

    2006-10-15

    Purpose. To achieve a high spatial resolution in MR imaging that allows for clear visualization of anatomy and even histology and documentation of plaque morphology in in vitro samples from patients with advanced atherosclerosis. A further objective of our study was to evaluate whether T2-weighted high-resolution MR imaging can provide accurate classification of atherosclerotic plaque according to a modified American Heart Association classification. Methods. T2-weighted images of arteries were obtained in 13 in vitro specimens using a 3 T MR unit (Medspec 300 Avance/Bruker, Ettlingen, Germany) combined with a dedicated MR microscopy system. Measurement parameters were: T2-weighted sequences with TR 3.5 sec, TE 15-120 msec; field of view (FOV) 1.4 x 1.4; NEX 8; matrix 192; and slice thickness 600 {mu}m. MR measurements were compared with corresponding histologic sections. Results. We achieved excellent spatial and contrast resolution in all specimens. We found high agreement between MR images and histology with regard to the morphology and extent of intimal proliferations in all but 2 specimens. We could differentiate fibrous caps and calcifications from lipid plaque components based on differences in signal intensity in order to differentiate hard and soft atheromatous plaques. Hard plaques with predominantly intimal calcifications were found in 7 specimens, and soft plaques with a cholesterol/lipid content in 5 cases. In all specimens, hemorrhage or thrombus formation, and fibrotic and hyalinized tissue could be detected on both MR imaging and histopathology. Conclusion. High-resolution, high-field MR imaging of arterial walls demonstrates the morphologic features, volume, and extent of intimal proliferations with high spatial and contrast resolution in in vitro specimens and can differentiate hard and soft plaques.

  9. 3D Cryo-Imaging: A Very High-Resolution View of the Whole Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Debashish; Steyer, Grant J.; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Stone, Meredith E.; Wilson, David L.

    2009-01-01

    We developed the Case Cryo-imaging system that provides information rich, very high-resolution, color brightfield, and molecular fluorescence images of a whole mouse using a section-and-image block-face imaging technology. The system consists of a mouse-sized, motorized cryo-microtome with special features for imaging, a modified, brightfield/ fluorescence microscope, and a robotic xyz imaging system positioner, all of which is fully automated by a control system. Using the robotic system, we acquired microscopic tiled images at a pixel size of 15.6 µm over the block face of a whole mouse sectioned at 40 µm, with a total data volume of 55 GB. Viewing 2D images at multiple resolutions, we identified small structures such as cardiac vessels, muscle layers, villi of the small intestine, the optic nerve, and layers of the eye. Cryo-imaging was also suitable for imaging embryo mutants in 3D. A mouse, in which enhanced green fluorescent protein was expressed under gamma actin promoter in smooth muscle cells, gave clear 3D views of smooth muscle in the urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts. With cryo-imaging, we could obtain 3D vasculature down to 10 µm, over very large regions of mouse brain. Software is fully automated with fully programmable imaging/sectioning protocols, email notifications, and automatic volume visualization. With a unique combination of field-of-view, depth of field, contrast, and resolution, the Case Cryo-imaging system fills the gap between whole animal in vivo imaging and histology. PMID:19248166

  10. πSPIM: high NA high resolution isotropic light-sheet imaging in cell culture dishes.

    PubMed

    Theer, Patrick; Dragneva, Denitsa; Knop, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM), also termed single plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), enables live cell fluorescence imaging with optical sectioning capabilities superior to confocal microscopy and without any out-of-focus exposure of the specimen. However, the need of two objective lenses, one for light-sheet illumination and one for imaging, imposes geometrical constraints that require LSFM setups to be adapted to the specific needs of different types of specimen in order to obtain optimal imaging conditions. Here we demonstrate the use of an oblique light-sheet configuration adapted to provide the highest possible Gaussian beam enabled resolution in LSFM. The oblique light-sheet configuration furthermore enables LSFM imaging at the surface of a cover slip, without the need of specific sample mounting. In addition, the system is compatible with simultaneous high NA wide-field epi-fluorescence imaging of the specimen contained in a glass-bottom cell culture dish. This prevents cumbersome sample mounting and enables rapid screening of large areas of the specimen followed by high-resolution LSFM imaging of selected cells. We demonstrate the application of this microscope for in toto imaging of endocytosis in yeast, showing for the first time imaging of all endocytic events of a given cell over a period of >5 minutes with sub-second resolution. PMID:27619647

  11. First High-resolution Images of the Sun in the 2796 Å Mg II k Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riethmüller, T. L.; Solanki, S. K.; Hirzberger, J.; Danilovic, S.; Barthol, P.; Berkefeld, T.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Knölker, M.; Schmidt, W.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.

    2013-10-01

    We present the first high-resolution solar images in the Mg II k 2796 Å line. The images, taken through a 4.8 Å broad interference filter, were obtained during the second science flight of Sunrise in 2013 June by the Sunrise Filter Imager (SuFI) instrument. The Mg II k images display structures that look qualitatively very similar to images taken in the core of Ca II H. The Mg II images exhibit reversed granulation (or shock waves) in the internetwork regions of the quiet Sun, at intensity contrasts that are similar to those found in Ca II H. Very prominent in Mg II are bright points, both in the quiet Sun and in plage regions, particularly near the disk center. These are much brighter than at other wavelengths sampled at similar resolution. Furthermore, Mg II k images also show fibril structures associated with plage regions. Again, the fibrils are similar to those seen in Ca II H images, but tend to be more pronounced, particularly in weak plage.

  12. Multi-temporal database of High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkeling, G.; Luesebrink, D.; Hiesinger, H.; Reiss, D.

    2013-09-01

    Image data transmitted to Earth by Martian spacecraft since the 1970s, for example by Mariner and Viking, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Express (MEx) and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) showed, that the surface of Mars has changed dramatically and actually is continually changing [e.g., 1-8]. The changes are attributed to a large variety of atmospherical, geological and morphological processes, including eolian processes [9,10], mass wasting processes [11], changes of the polar caps [12] and impact cratering processes [13]. In addition, comparisons between Mariner, Viking and Mars Global Surveyor images suggest that more than one third of the Martian surface has brightened or darkened by at least 10% [6]. Albedo changes can have effects on the global heat balance and the circulation of winds, which can result in further surface changes [14-15]. In particular, the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) [16,17] on board Mars Express (MEx) covers large areas at high resolution and is therefore suited to detect the frequency, extent and origin of Martian surface changes. Since 2003 HRSC acquires high-resolution images of the Martian surface and contributes to Martian research, with focus on the surface morphology, the geology and mineralogy, the role of liquid water on the surface and in the atmosphere, on volcanism, as well as on the proposed climate change throughout the Martian history and has improved our understanding of the evolution of Mars significantly [18-21]. The HRSC data are available at ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA) as well as through the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS). Both data platforms are frequently used by the scientific community and provide additional software and environments to further generate map-projected and geometrically calibrated HRSC data. However, while previews of the images are available, there is no possibility to quickly and conveniently see the spatial and temporal availability of HRSC images in a specific region

  13. Animals In Synchrotrons: Overcoming Challenges For High-Resolution, Live, Small-Animal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelley, Martin; Parsons, David; Morgan, Kaye; Siu, Karen

    2010-07-01

    Physiological studies in small animals can be complicated, but the complexity is increased dramatically when performing live-animal synchrotron X-ray imaging studies. Our group has extensive experience in high-resolution live-animal imaging at the Japanese SPring-8 synchrotron, primarily examining airways in two-dimensions. These experiments normally image an area of 1.8 mm×1.2 mm at a pixel resolution of 0.45 μm and are performed with live, intact, anaesthetized mice. There are unique challenges in this experimental setting. Importantly, experiments must be performed in an isolated imaging hutch not specifically designed for small-animal imaging. This requires equipment adapted to remotely monitor animals, maintain their anesthesia, and deliver test substances while collecting images. The horizontal synchrotron X-ray beam has a fixed location and orientation that limits experimental flexibility. The extremely high resolution makes locating anatomical regions-of-interest slow and can result in a high radiation dose, and at this level of magnification small animal movements produce motion-artifacts that can render acquired images unusable. Here we describe our experimental techniques and how we have overcome several challenges involved in performing live mouse synchrotron imaging. Experiments have tested different mouse strains, with hairless strains minimizing overlying skin and hair artifacts. Different anesthetics have also be trialed due to the limited choices available at SPring-8. Tracheal-intubation methods have been refined and controlled-ventilation is now possible using a specialized small-animal ventilator. With appropriate animal restraint and respiratory-gating, motion-artifacts have been minimized. The animal orientation (supine vs. head-high) also appears to affect animal physiology, and can alter image quality. Our techniques and image quality at SPring-8 have dramatically improved and in the near future we plan to translate this experience to the

  14. Animals In Synchrotrons: Overcoming Challenges For High-Resolution, Live, Small-Animal Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelley, Martin; Parsons, David; Morgan, Kaye; Siu, Karen

    2010-07-23

    Physiological studies in small animals can be complicated, but the complexity is increased dramatically when performing live-animal synchrotron X-ray imaging studies. Our group has extensive experience in high-resolution live-animal imaging at the Japanese SPring-8 synchrotron, primarily examining airways in two-dimensions. These experiments normally image an area of 1.8 mmx1.2 mm at a pixel resolution of 0.45 {mu}m and are performed with live, intact, anaesthetized mice.There are unique challenges in this experimental setting. Importantly, experiments must be performed in an isolated imaging hutch not specifically designed for small-animal imaging. This requires equipment adapted to remotely monitor animals, maintain their anesthesia, and deliver test substances while collecting images. The horizontal synchrotron X-ray beam has a fixed location and orientation that limits experimental flexibility. The extremely high resolution makes locating anatomical regions-of-interest slow and can result in a high radiation dose, and at this level of magnification small animal movements produce motion-artifacts that can render acquired images unusable. Here we describe our experimental techniques and how we have overcome several challenges involved in performing live mouse synchrotron imaging.Experiments have tested different mouse strains, with hairless strains minimizing overlying skin and hair artifacts. Different anesthetics have also be trialed due to the limited choices available at SPring-8. Tracheal-intubation methods have been refined and controlled-ventilation is now possible using a specialized small-animal ventilator. With appropriate animal restraint and respiratory-gating, motion-artifacts have been minimized. The animal orientation (supine vs. head-high) also appears to affect animal physiology, and can alter image quality. Our techniques and image quality at SPring-8 have dramatically improved and in the near future we plan to translate this experience to the

  15. A high-resolution imaging approach to investigate chromatin architecture in complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Linhoff, Michael W; Garg, Saurabh K; Mandel, Gail

    2015-09-24

    We present ChromATin, a quantitative high-resolution imaging approach for investigating chromatin organization in complex tissues. This method combines analysis of epigenetic modifications by immunostaining, localization of specific DNA sequences by FISH, and high-resolution segregation of nuclear compartments using array tomography (AT) imaging. We then apply this approach to examine how the genome is organized in the mammalian brain using female Rett syndrome mice, which are a mosaic of normal and Mecp2-null cells. Side-by-side comparisons within the same field reveal distinct heterochromatin territories in wild-type neurons that are altered in Mecp2-null nuclei. Mutant neurons exhibit increased chromatin compaction and a striking redistribution of the H4K20me3 histone modification into pericentromeric heterochromatin, a territory occupied normally by MeCP2. These events are not observed in every neuronal cell type, highlighting ChromATin as a powerful in situ method for examining cell-type-specific differences in chromatin architecture in complex tissues. PMID:26406379

  16. High-resolution projection image reconstruction of thick objects by hard x-ray diffraction microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Yukio; Nishino, Yoshinori; Tsutsumi, Ryosuke; Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Matsubara, Eiichiro; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2010-12-01

    Hard x-ray diffraction microscopy enables us to observe thick objects at high spatial resolution. The resolution of this method is limited, in principle, by only the x-ray wavelength and the largest scattering angle recorded. As the resolution approaches the wavelength, the thickness effect of objects plays a significant role in x-ray diffraction microscopy. In this paper, we report high-resolution hard x-ray diffraction microscopy for thick objects. We used highly focused coherent x rays with a wavelength of {approx}0.1 nm as an incident beam and measured the diffraction patterns of a {approx}150-nm-thick silver nanocube at the scattering angle of {approx}3 deg. We observed a characteristic contrast of the coherent diffraction pattern due to only the thickness effect and collected the diffraction patterns at nine incident angles so as to obtain information on a cross section of Fourier space. We reconstructed a pure projection image by the iterative phasing method from the patched diffraction pattern. The edge resolution of the reconstructed image was {approx}2 nm, which was the highest resolution so far achieved by x-ray microscopy. The present study provides us with a method for quantitatively observing thick samples at high resolution by hard x-ray diffraction microscopy.

  17. Building Change Detection in Very High Resolution Satellite Stereo Image Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, J.; Qin, R.; Cerra, D.; Reinartz, P.

    2016-06-01

    There is an increasing demand for robust methods on urban sprawl monitoring. The steadily increasing number of high resolution and multi-view sensors allows producing datasets with high temporal and spatial resolution; however, less effort has been dedicated to employ very high resolution (VHR) satellite image time series (SITS) to monitor the changes in buildings with higher accuracy. In addition, these VHR data are often acquired from different sensors. The objective of this research is to propose a robust time-series data analysis method for VHR stereo imagery. Firstly, the spatial-temporal information of the stereo imagery and the Digital Surface Models (DSMs) generated from them are combined, and building probability maps (BPM) are calculated for all acquisition dates. In the second step, an object-based change analysis is performed based on the derivative features of the BPM sets. The change consistence between object-level and pixel-level are checked to remove any outlier pixels. Results are assessed on six pairs of VHR satellite images acquired within a time span of 7 years. The evaluation results have proved the efficiency of the proposed method.

  18. Molecular imaging: High-resolution detectors for early diagnosis and therapy monitoring of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garibaldi, F.; Cisbani, E.; Colilli, S.; Cusanno, F.; Fratoni, R.; Giuliani, F.; Gricia, M.; Lucentini, M.; Fratoni, R.; Lo Meo, S.; Magliozzi, M. L.; Santanvenere, F.; Cinti, M. N.; Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Simonetti, G.; Schillaci, O.; Del Vecchio, S.; Salvatore, M.; Majewski, S.; Lanza, R. C.; De Vincentis, G.; Scopinaro, F.

    2006-12-01

    Dedicated high-resolution detectors are required for detection of small cancerous breast tumours by molecular imaging with radionuclides. Absorptive collimation is normally applied in imaging single photon emitters, but it results in a strong reduction in detection efficiency. Systems based on electronic collimation are complex and expensive. For these reasons simulations and measurements have been performed to design optimised dedicated high-resolution mini gamma camera. Critical parameters are contrast and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Intrinsic performance (spatial resolution, pixel identification, and response linearity and uniformity) were first optimised. Pixellated scintillator arrays (NaI(Tl)) of different pixel size were coupled to arrays of PSPMTs with different anode pad dimensions (6×6 mm 2 and 3×3 mm 2). Detectors having a field of view (FOV) of 100×100 mm 2 and 150×200 mm 2 were designed and built. The electronic system allows read out of all the anode pad signals. The collimation technique was then considered and limits of coded aperture option were studied. Preliminary results are presented.

  19. Connected Component Labeling algorithm for very complex and high-resolution images on an FPGA platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenk, Kurt; Huber, Felix

    2015-10-01

    Connected Component Labeling (CCL) is a basic algorithm in image processing and an essential step in nearly every application dealing with object detection. It groups together pixels belonging to the same connected component (e.g. object). Special architectures such as ASICs, FPGAs and GPUs were utilised for achieving high data throughput, primarily for video processing. In this article, the FPGA implementation of a CCL method is presented, which was specially designed to process high resolution images with complex structure at high speed, generating a label mask. In general, CCL is a dynamic task and therefore not well suited for parallelisation, which is needed to achieve high processing speed with an FPGA. Facing this issue, most of the FPGA CCL implementations are restricted to low or medium resolution images (≤ 2048 ∗ 2048 pixels) with lower complexity, where the fastest implementations do not create a label mask. Instead, they extract object features like size and position directly, which can be realized with high performance and perfectly suits the need for many video applications. Since these restrictions are incompatible with the requirements to label high resolution images with highly complex structures and the need for generating a label mask, a new approach was required. The CCL method presented in this work is based on a two-pass CCL algorithm, which was modified with respect to low memory consumption and suitability for an FPGA implementation. Nevertheless, since not all parts of CCL can be parallelised, a stop-and-go high-performance pipeline processing CCL module was designed. The algorithm, the performance and the hardware requirements of a prototype implementation are presented. Furthermore, a clock-accurate runtime analysis is shown, which illustrates the dependency between processing speed and image complexity in detail. Finally, the performance of the FPGA implementation is compared with that of a software implementation on modern embedded

  20. High-Resolution 3D Seismic Imaging of Fluid Flow Anomalies in the Southwest Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planke, S.; Eriksen, F. N.; Eriksen, O. K.; Assad, M.; Stokke, H. H.

    2014-12-01

    Fluid flow features imaged as gas flares in the water column, pockmarks and mud volcanoes on the seabed, and high-amplitude cross-cutting reflections and bright spots in the sub-surface are abundant in the SW Barents Sea offshore northern Norway. This region is covered by extensive conventional 2D and 3D deep penetration seismic reflection data and multibeam bathymetry. High-resolution 3D P-Cable seismic data have been acquired in the SW Barents Sea over the past few years to image the uppermost ca. 500 m of the sub-surface. The P-Cable system consist of 12 to 16 short streamers (25 m) that are towed on a cross-cable perpendicular to the vessel's steaming direction. This configuration allows for acquisition of seismic data with high trace density, typically with 6 m in-line separation. The vertical resolution is a good as 1-2 m using conventional site survey air gun configurations. The sedimentary succession in the SW Barents Sea consists of upper Paleozoic evaporites overlaid by Mesozoic and Cenozoic clastic sediments. There are several organic-rich intervals in the sequence, including Paleozoic coals and Triassic and Jurassic marine source rocks that are locally in the oil or gas maturation windows. Glacial erosion has locally removed kilometer thick Cenozoic and Mesozoic successions, leaving the Mesozoic and Paleozoic strata in shallow sub-surface. The new high-resolution 3D surveys have targeted shallow fluid anomalies in the subsurface. These are imaged as high-amplitude reflections in fault blocks and structural highs, locally cross-cutting well-defined Mesozoic reflections. Commonly, disturbed reflections are present in overlying sequences, or high-amplitude reflections are imaged in the glacial overburden sediments. Locally, hundreds of pockmarks are imaged by the seafloor reflection. The deep cross-cutting reflections are interpreted as hydrocarbon accumulations that locally migrate towards the surface. The fluids are stored in shallow gas pockets or

  1. High Resolution Images of the Granitic Plutons Along the Iberseis Deep Seismic Reflection Transect: Southwestern Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomeras, I.; Flecha, I.; Simacas, F.; Gonzalez-Lodeiro, F.; Carbonell, R.

    2006-12-01

    IBERSEIS is a 303 Km long deep seismic profile in the S-W of Iberian Peninsula. The parameters used for the acquisition allow for a high resolution imaging of the shallow subsurface. The deep seismic transect goes across several characteristic granitic plutons. Detailed imaging of these outcropping granites and the neighboring geologic structures has been attempted. The trace of the profile followed roads and paths, resulting in a irregular acquisition geometry. The quality of the final image is improved considerably by using crooked line techniques which took into account the irregular distribution of sources and receivers. The rugged topography which can reach more than 300 m height and the highly heterogeneous surface geology required carefully estimated static corrections. Reliable shallow velocity models were obtained by first arrival travel time tomographic inversions. These velocity models were also used for pre-stack depth migration imaging. The reprocessing improved the seismic reflection images allowing for a better geological interpretation and, in some cases, provide a direct correlation between the surface geology and the imaged features. The imaged structures suggest possible emplacement mechanisms.

  2. Imaging the Seattle Fault Zone with high-resolution seismic tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvert, A.J.; Fisher, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Seattle fault, which trends east-west through the greater Seattle metropolitan area, is a thrust fault that, around 1100 years ago, produced a major earthquake believed to have had a magnitude greater than 7. We present the first high resolution image of the shallow P wave velocity variation across the fault zone obtained by tomographic inversion of first arrivals recorded on a seismic reflection profile shot through Puget Sound adjacent to Seattle. The velocity image shows that above 500 m depth the fault zone extending beneath Seattle comprises three distinct fault splays, the northernmost of which dips to the south at around 60??. The degree of uplift of Tertiary rocks within the fault zone suggests that the slip-rate along the northernmost splay during the Quaternary is 0.5 mm a-1, which is twice the average slip-rate of the Seattle fault over the last 40 Ma.

  3. High-resolution ultrasound imaging of the eye – a review

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Ronald H

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the physics, technology and clinical application of ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) of the eye, in which frequencies of 35 MHz and above provide over a threefold improvement in resolution compared with conventional ophthalmic ultrasound systems. UBM allows imaging of anatomy and pathology involving the anterior segment, including regions obscured by overlying optically opaque anatomic or pathologic structures. UBM provides diagnostically significant information in conditions such as glaucoma, cysts and neoplasms, trauma and foreign bodies. UBM also can provide crucial biometric information regarding anterior segment structures, including the cornea and its constituent layers and the anterior and posterior chambers. Although UBM has now been in use for over 15 years, new technologies, including transducer arrays, pulse encoding and combination of ultrasound with light, offer the potential for significant advances in high-resolution diagnostic imaging of the eye. PMID:19138310

  4. Characterisation of LSO:Tb scintillator films for high resolution X-ray imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecilia, A.; Rack, A.; Douissard, P.-A.; Martin, T.; Dos Santos Rolo, T.; Vagovič, P.; Pelliccia, D.; Couchaud, M.; Dupré, K.; Baumbach, T.

    2011-05-01

    Within the framework of an FP6 project (SCINTAX)1The Project SCINTAX is funded by the European Community (STRP 033 427), . we developed a new thin film single crystal scintillator for high resolution X-ray imaging based on a layer of modified LSO (Lu2SiO5) grown by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) on a dedicated substrate. In this work we present the characterisation of the scintillating LSO films in terms of optical and scintillation properties as well as spatial resolution performances. The obtained results are discussed and compared with the performances of the thin scintillating films commonly used in synchrotron-based micro-imaging applications.

  5. High-resolution ultrasound elasticity imaging to evaluate dialysis fistula stenosis.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, William F; Kim, Kang; Park, Dae Woo; Hamilton, James; O'Donnell, Matthew; Cichonski, Thomas J; Rubin, Jonathan M

    2009-01-01

    Accurate, noninvasive characterization of arterial wall mechanics and detection of fibrotic vascular lesions could vastly improve the ability to predict patient response to local treatments such as angioplasty. Current imaging and other techniques for determining wall compliance rely on imprecise or indirect estimates of wall motion. This study used high-resolution ultrasound imaging with phase-sensitive speckle tracking to obtain detailed and direct measurements of arterial stiffness in two subjects with dialysis fistula dysfunction. In both subjects, the absolute values of strain were much higher in normal regions of fistula than in regions of stenosis. The lower values of strain in stenotic fistula indicate greater stiffness of the vessel wall. The ultrasound speckle tracking technique used here may have potential to determine vascular mechanical properties noninvasively with a level of precision and accuracy not currently available. PMID:19000117

  6. Optical coherence tomography for high-resolution imaging of mouse development in utero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, Saba H.; Larin, Kirill V.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larina, Irina V.

    2011-04-01

    Although the mouse is a superior model to study mammalian embryonic development, high-resolution live dynamic visualization of mouse embryos remain a technical challenge. We present optical coherence tomography as a novel methodology for live imaging of mouse embryos through the uterine wall thereby allowing for time lapse analysis of developmental processes and direct phenotypic analysis of developing embryos. We assessed the capability of the proposed methodology to visualize structures of the living embryo from embryonic stages 12.5 to 18.5 days postcoitus. Repetitive in utero embryonic imaging is demonstrated. Our work opens the door for a wide range of live, in utero embryonic studies to screen for mutations and understand the effects of pharmacological and toxicological agents leading to birth defects.

  7. A Bayesian approach for high resolution imaging of small changes in multiple scattering media.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fan; Moreau, Ludovic; Zhang, Yuxiang; Larose, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a Bayesian approach to achieve high-resolution imaging of sub-wavelength changes in the presence of multiple scattering. The approach is based on the minimization of a cost function defined by the decorrelations induced in the measured waveforms by the apparition of a local changes. Minimization is achieved via a Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) algorithm combined to an analytical model that computes the sensitivity kernel of the medium. In the inversion procedure, the parameters to infer represent the physics of the problem, such as the diffusivity in the medium and/or the geometrical features of the reflector (position and scattering cross-section). The method is successfully compared to the linear inversion approach initially proposed for the so-called Locadiff imaging method through several examples, both numerical and experimental. PMID:26341851

  8. Damage assessment framework for landslide disaster based on very high-resolution images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Xu, Qihua; He, Jun; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Ying; Ge, Fengxiang

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that rapid building damage assessment is necessary for postdisaster emergency relief and recovery. Based on an analysis of very high-resolution remote-sensing images, we propose an automatic building damage assessment framework for rainfall- or earthquake-induced landslide disasters. The framework consists of two parts that implement landslide detection and the damage classification of buildings, respectively. In this framework, an approach based on modified object-based sparse representation classification and morphological processing is used for automatic landslide detection. Moreover, we propose a building damage classification model, which is a classification strategy designed for affected buildings based on the spectral characteristics of the landslide disaster and the morphological characteristics of building damage. The effectiveness of the proposed framework was verified by applying it to remote-sensing images from Wenchuan County, China, in 2008, in the aftermath of an earthquake. It can be useful for decision makers, disaster management agencies, and scientific research organizations.

  9. Submicron-diameter phase-separated scintillator fibers for high-resolution X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Yoshihiro; Yasui, Nobuhiro; Yokota, Yuui; Yoshikawa, Akira; Den, Toru

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrated micrometer-scale resolution X-ray imaging by using phase-separated scintillator fibers. Hexagonally well-aligned 680-nm-diameter GdAlO3(GAP):Ce3+ scintillator fibers surrounded with α-Al2O3 were fabricated from directionally solidified eutectics. The GAP:Ce3+ fibers convert X-rays to lights and emitted lights are confined and transported along the fiber direction by a total reflection mode. High-resolution X-ray image of a gold grating phantom with a 4 μm aperture, corresponding to a bundle of 12 fibers, was achieved even with a 150 -μm-thick scintillator. These scintillator fibers overcome resolution reduction caused by light scattering and almost reach the resolution limit of the material nature itself.

  10. High resolution, two-dimensional imaging, microchannel plate detector for use on a sounding rocket experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Brett C.; Cotton, Daniel M.; Siegmund, Oswald H.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Harris, Walter; Clarke, John

    1991-01-01

    We discuss a high resolution microchannel plate (MCP) imaging detector to be used in measurements of Doppler-shifted hydrogen Lyman-alpha line emission from Jupiter and the interplanetary medium. The detector is housed in a vacuum-tight stainless steel cylinder (to provide shielding from magnetic fields) with a MgF2 window. Operating at nominal voltage, the four plate configuration provides a gain of 1.2 x 10 exp 7 electrons per incident photon. The wedge-and-strip anode has two-dimensional imaging capabilities, with a resolution of 40 microns FWHM over a one centimeter diameter area. The detector has a high quantum efficiency while retaining a low background rate. A KBr photocathode is used to enhance the quantum efficiency of the bare MCPs to a value of 35 percent at Lyman-alpha.

  11. Remote Sensing Image Classification of Geoeye-1 High-Resolution Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, B.; Yu, X.

    2014-04-01

    Networks play the role of a high-level language, as is seen in Artificial Intelligence and statistics, because networks are used to build complex model from simple components. These years, Bayesian Networks, one of probabilistic networks, are a powerful data mining technique for handling uncertainty in complex domains. In this paper, we apply Bayesian Networks Augmented Naive Bayes (BAN) to texture classification of High-resolution satellite images and put up a new method to construct the network topology structure in terms of training accuracy based on the training samples. In the experiment, we choose GeoEye-1 satellite images. Experimental results demonstrate BAN outperform than NBC in the overall classification accuracy. Although it is time consuming, it will be an attractive and effective method in the future.

  12. Arrested Development: High-Resolution Imaging of Foveal Morphology in Albinism

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, John T.; Dubis, Adam M.; Tait, Diane M.; Ostler, Shawn; Rha, Jungtae; Stepien, Kimberly E.; Summers, C. Gail; Carroll, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Albinism, an inherited disorder of melanin biosynthesis, disrupts normal retinal development, with foveal hypoplasia as one of the more commonly associated ocular phenotypes. However the cellular integrity of the fovea in albinism is not well understood – there likely exist important anatomical differences that underlie phenotypic variability within the disease and that also may affect responsiveness to therapeutic intervention. Here, using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and adaptive optics (AO) retinal imaging, we obtained high-resolution images of the foveal region in six individuals with albinism. We provide a quantitative analysis of cone density and outer segment elongation demonstrating that foveal cone specialization is variable in albinism. In addition, our data reveal a continuum of foveal pit morphology, roughly aligning with schematics of normal foveal development based on post-mortem analyses. Different albinism subtypes, genetic mutations, and constitutional pigment background likely play a role in determining the degree of foveal maturation. PMID:20149815

  13. Two-photon luminescence thermometry: towards 3D high-resolution thermal imaging of waveguides.

    PubMed

    He, Ruiyun; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier Rodríguez; Pedrola, Ginés Lifante; Chen, Feng; Jaque, Daniel

    2016-07-11

    We report on the use of the Erbium-based luminescence thermometry to realize high resolution, three dimensional thermal imaging of optical waveguides. Proof of concept is demonstrated in a 980-nm laser pumped ultrafast laser inscribed waveguide in Er:Yb phosphate glass. Multi-photon microscopy images revealed the existence of well confined intra-waveguide temperature increments as large as 200 °C for moderate 980-nm pump powers of 120 mW. Numerical simulations and experimental data reveal that thermal loading can be substantially reduced if pump events are separated more than the characteristic thermal time that for the waveguides investigated is in the ms time scale. PMID:27410882

  14. Optical coherence tomography for high-resolution imaging of mouse development in utero

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Saba H.; Larin, Kirill V.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larina, Irina V.

    2011-01-01

    Although the mouse is a superior model to study mammalian embryonic development, high-resolution live dynamic visualization of mouse embryos remain a technical challenge. We present optical coherence tomography as a novel methodology for live imaging of mouse embryos through the uterine wall thereby allowing for time lapse analysis of developmental processes and direct phenotypic analysis of developing embryos. We assessed the capability of the proposed methodology to visualize structures of the living embryo from embryonic stages 12.5 to 18.5 days postcoitus. Repetitive in utero embryonic imaging is demonstrated. Our work opens the door for a wide range of live, in utero embryonic studies to screen for mutations and understand the effects of pharmacological and toxicological agents leading to birth defects. PMID:21529073

  15. Snapshot spectrally encoded fluorescence imaging through a fiber bundle

    PubMed Central

    Bedard, Noah

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Fiber optic endomicroscopy is a valuable tool for clinical diagnostics and animal studies because it can capture images of tissue in vivo with subcellular resolution. Current configurations for endomicroscopes have either limited spatial resolution or require a scanning mechanism at the distal end of the fiber, which can slow imaging speed and increase the probe size. We present a novel configuration that provides high contrast 350×350 pixel images at 7.2 frames per second, without the need for mechanical scanning at the proximal or distal end of the fiber. The proof-of-concept benchtop system is tested in fluorescence mode and can resolve 1.5 µm features of a high resolution 1951 USAF target. PMID:23224159

  16. Snapshot spectrally encoded fluorescence imaging through a fiber bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedard, Noah; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2012-08-01

    Fiber optic endomicroscopy is a valuable tool for clinical diagnostics and animal studies because it can capture images of tissue in vivo with subcellular resolution. Current configurations for endomicroscopes have either limited spatial resolution or require a scanning mechanism at the distal end of the fiber, which can slow imaging speed and increase the probe size. We present a novel configuration that provides high contrast 350×350 pixel images at 7.2 frames per second, without the need for mechanical scanning at the proximal or distal end of the fiber. The proof-of-concept benchtop system is tested in fluorescence mode and can resolve 1.5 μm features of a high resolution 1951 USAF target.

  17. High-resolution 3D imaging laser radar flight test experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Richard M.; Davis, W. R.; Rich, G. C.; McLaughlin, J. L.; Lee, E. I.; Stanley, B. M.; Burnside, J. W.; Rowe, G. S.; Hatch, R. E.; Square, T. E.; Skelly, L. J.; O'Brien, M.; Vasile, A.; Heinrichs, R. M.

    2005-05-01

    Situation awareness and accurate Target Identification (TID) are critical requirements for successful battle management. Ground vehicles can be detected, tracked, and in some cases imaged using airborne or space-borne microwave radar. Obscurants such as camouflage net and/or tree canopy foliage can degrade the performance of such radars. Foliage can be penetrated with long wavelength microwave radar, but generally at the expense of imaging resolution. The goals of the DARPA Jigsaw program include the development and demonstration of high-resolution 3-D imaging laser radar (ladar) ensor technology and systems that can be used from airborne platforms to image and identify military ground vehicles that may be hiding under camouflage or foliage such as tree canopy. With DARPA support, MIT Lincoln Laboratory has developed a rugged and compact 3-D imaging ladar system that has successfully demonstrated the feasibility and utility of this application. The sensor system has been integrated into a UH-1 helicopter for winter and summer flight campaigns. The sensor operates day or night and produces high-resolution 3-D spatial images using short laser pulses and a focal plane array of Geiger-mode avalanche photo-diode (APD) detectors with independent digital time-of-flight counting circuits at each pixel. The sensor technology includes Lincoln Laboratory developments of the microchip laser and novel focal plane arrays. The microchip laser is a passively Q-switched solid-state frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser transmitting short laser pulses (300 ps FWHM) at 16 kilohertz pulse rate and at 532 nm wavelength. The single photon detection efficiency has been measured to be > 20 % using these 32x32 Silicon Geiger-mode APDs at room temperature. The APD saturates while providing a gain of typically > 106. The pulse out of the detector is used to stop a 500 MHz digital clock register integrated within the focal-plane array at each pixel. Using the detector in this binary response mode

  18. High-resolution laser radar for 3D imaging in artwork cataloging, reproduction, and restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Roberto; Fantoni, Roberta; Ferri de Collibus, Mario; Fornetti, Giorgio G.; Guarneri, Massimiliano; Poggi, Claudio

    2003-10-01

    A high resolution Amplitude Modulated Laser Radar (AM-LR) sensor has recently been developed, aimed at accurately reconstructing 3D digital models of real targets, either single objects or complex scenes. The sensor sounding beam can be swept linearly across the object or circularly around it, by placing the object on a controlled rotating platform, enabling to obtain respectively linear and cylindrical range maps. Both amplitude and phase shift of the modulating wave of back-scattered light are collected and processed, providing respectively a shade-free, high resolution, photographic-like picture and accurate range data in the form of a range image. The resolution of range measurements depends mainly on the laser modulation frequency, provided that the power of the backscattered light reaching the detector is at least a few nW (current best performances are ~100 μm). The complete object surface can be reconstructed from the sampled points by using specifically developed software tools. The system has been successfully applied to scan different types of real surfaces (stone, wood, alloys, bones), with relevant applications in different fields, ranging from industrial machining to medical diagnostics, to vision in hostile environments. Examples of artwork reconstructed models (pottery, marble statues) are presented and the relevance of this technology for reverse engineering applied to cultural heritage conservation and restoration are discussed. Final 3D models can be passed to numeric control machines for rapid-prototyping, exported in standard formats for CAD/CAM purposes and made available on the Internet by adopting a virtual museum paradigm, thus possibly enabling specialists to perform remote inspections on high resolution digital reproductions of hardly accessible masterpieces.

  19. Combining high-resolution satellite images and altimetry to estimate the volume of small lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baup, F.; Frappart, F.; Maubant, J.

    2013-12-01

    This study presents an approach to determine the volume of water in small lakes (<100 ha) by combining satellite altimetry data and high-resolution (HR) images. The lake being studied is located in the south-west of France and is only used for agricultural irrigation purposes. The altimetry satellite data are provided by RA-2 sensor on board Envisat, and the high-resolution images (<10 m) are obtained from optical (Formosat-2) and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors (Terrasar-X and Radarsat-2) satellites. The altimetry data (data are obtained every 35 days) and the HR images (45) have been available since 2003 and 2010, respectively. In situ data (for the water levels and volumes) going back to 2003 have been provided by the manager of the lake. Three independent approaches are developed to estimate the lake volume and its temporal variability. The first two approaches are empirical and use synchronous ground measurements of the water volume and the satellite data. The results demonstrate that altimetry and imagery can be effectively and accurately used to monitor the temporal variations of the lake (R2altimetry = 0.97, RMSEaltimetry = 5.2%, R2imagery = 0.90, and RMSEimagery = 7.4%). The third method combines altimetry (to measure the lake level) and satellite images (of the lake surface) to estimate the volume changes of the lake and produces the best results (R2 = 0.99) of the three methods, demonstrating the potential of future Sentinel and SWOT missions to monitor small lakes and reservoirs for agricultural and irrigation applications.

  20. High resolution imaging of the Earth with adaptive full-waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, J. V.; Warner, M.; Guasch, L.; Umpleby, A.; Yao, G.; Herrmann, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Three-dimensional full-waveform inversion (FWI) is a high-resolution, high-fidelity, quantitative, seismic imaging technique that has advanced rapidly within the oil and gas industry. The method involves the iterative improvement of a starting model using a series of local linearized updates to solve the full non-linear inversion problem. During the inversion, forward modeling employs the full two-way three-dimensional heterogeneous anisotropic acoustic or elastic wave equation to predict the observed raw field data, wiggle-for-wiggle, trace-by-trace. The method is computationally demanding; it is highly parallelized, and runs on large multi-core multi-node clusters. A recently developed adaptive version of FWI is able to overcome the requirement for a good starting model and low frequencies in the data, and this opens up the range of datasets and problems to which FWI can be applied. Here, we demonstrate what can be achieved by applying this newly practical technique to high-density 3D seismic datasets acquired to image petroleum targets. We show that the resulting anisotropic p-wave velocity models match in situ measurements in boreholes, reproduce detailed structure observed independently on high-resolution seismic reflection sections, accurately predict the raw seismic data, and simplify and sharpen reverse-time-migrated reflection images of deeper horizons. The velocity models image individual faults, gas clouds, channels, and other geological features with previously unobtainable resolution and clarity. These same benefits can be obtained when this technique is applied to scientific targets provided that the data coverage is adequate in three-dimensions, and that an appropriate range of offsets and azimuths are available. Possible targets range from the water column, ice sheets, and Holocene deposits, through active faults, spreading centres, collision zones, rifted margins, magma plumbing, lower-continental crust, and deep crustal hot zones, to whole

  1. Study of stent deployment mechanics using a high-resolution x-ray imaging detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiyuan; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    To treat or prevent some of the 795,000 annual strokes in the U.S., self-expanding endo-vascular stents deployed under fluoroscopic image guidance are often used. Neuro-interventionalists need to know the deployment behavior of each stent in order to place them in the correct position. Using the Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) which has about 3 times higher resolution than commercially available flat panel detectors (FPD) we studied the deployment mechanics of two of the most important commercially available nitinol stents: the Pipeline embolization device (EV3), and the Enterprise stent (Codman). The Pipeline stent's length extends to about 3 times that of its deployed length when it is contained inside a catheter. From the high-resolution images with the MAF we found that upon the sudden release of the distal end of the Pipeline from a helical wire cap, the stent expands radially but retracts to about 30% (larger than for patient deployments) of its length. When released from the catheter proximally, it retracts additionally about 50% contributing to large uncertainty in the final deployed location. In contrast, the MAF images clearly show that the Enterprise stent self expands with minimal length retraction during deployment from its catheter and can be retrieved and repositioned until the proximal markers are released from clasping structures on its guide-wire thus enabling more accurate placement at the center of an aneurysm or stenosis. The high-resolution imaging demonstrated in this study should help neurointerventionalists understand and control endovascular stent deployment mechanisms and hence perform more precise treatments.

  2. High Resolution Seismic Imaging of the Trench Canyon Fault Zone, Mono Lake, Northeastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novick, M. W.; Jayko, A. S.; Roeske, S.; McClain, J. S.; Hart, P. E.; Boyle, M.

    2009-12-01

    High resolution seismic imaging of Mono Lake, located in northeastern California, has revealed an approximately northwest striking fault in the area to the west of aerially exposed Negit Volcano. This fault, henceforth referred to as the Trench Canyon Fault (TCF), has also been mapped onshore along a correlating strike as far north as Cedar Hill Volcano, located to the northeast of the lake on the California/Nevada border. Onshore, the TCF was mapped for approximately 10 kilometers using air photos, DEM images, and standard geologic pace and compass mapping techniques. The TCF post- dates the last glacial maximum, evidenced by the cutting of wave cut benches along Cedar Hill Volcano. Relict, non-historic shorelines, left by the steady evaporation of Mono Lake beginning approximately 13k, are also repeatedly cut by the fault. Additional evidence of fault presence includes sag ponds, pressure ridges, tectonically fractured rocks, and normal fault scarps found along strike. Offshore, DEM images show a northeast striking structure to the northwest of Negit Volcano, which is co-linear with the onshore TCF. High resolution seismic imaging of the structure, using an applied acoustic/SIG mini-sparker system, reveals steeply dipping Holocene sediments, as well as volcanic deposits from active vents which have erupted in the last 1000 years, offset by the fault. Detailed structural analysis of the previously unstudied Trench Canyon Fault (TFC) and faults in the Cedar Hill region of northern California, along with seismic studies of sediments beneath Mono Lake not only allow for a better comprehension of this minor fault system, but provide greater understanding of the larger and more complex Walker Lane Shear Zone. Fault analyses, combined and correlated with those from CHV, give a better understanding of how slip is transferred into the complicated Mina defection to the east, from the dextral and normal faults along the Sierra Nevada Range front.

  3. Luciola Hypertelescope Space Observatory. Versatile, Upgradable High-Resolution Imaging,from Stars to Deep-Field Cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labeyrie, Antoine; Le Coroller, Herve; Dejonghe, Julien; Lardiere, Olivier; Aime, Claude; Dohlen, Kjetil; Mourard, Denis; Lyon, Richard; Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    2008-01-01

    Luciola is a large (one kilometer) "multi-aperture densified-pupil imaging interferometer", or "hypertelescope" employing many small apertures, rather than a few large ones, for obtaining direct snapshot images with a high information content. A diluted collector mirror, deployed in space as a flotilla of small mirrors, focuses a sky image which is exploited by several beam-combiner spaceships. Each contains a pupil densifier micro-lens array to avoid the diffractive spread and image attenuation caused by the small sub-apertures. The elucidation of hypertelescope imaging properties during the last decade has shown that many small apertures tend to be far more efficient, regarding the science yield, than a few large ones providing a comparable collecting area. For similar underlying physical reasons, radio-astronomy has also evolved in the direction of many-antenna systems such as the proposed Low Frequency Array having hundreds of thousands of individual receivers . With its high limiting magnitude, reaching the mv=30 limit of HST when 100 collectors of 25cm will match its collecting area, high-resolution direct imaging in multiple channels, broad spectral coverage from the 1200 Angstrom ultra-violet to the 20 micron infra-red, apodization, coronagraphic and spectroscopic capabilities, the proposed hypertelescope observatory addresses very broad and innovative science covering different areas of ESA s Cosmic Vision program. In the initial phase, a focal spacecraft covering the UV to near IR spectral range of EMCCD photon-counting cameras ( currently 200 to 1000nm), will image details on the surface of many stars, as well as their environment, including multiple stars and clusters. Spectra will be obtained for each resel. It will also image neutron star, black-hole and micro-quasar candidates, as well as active galactic nuclei, quasars, gravitational lenses, and other Cosmic Vision targets observable with the initial modest crowding limit. With subsequent upgrade

  4. High-resolution imaging of biological tissue with full-field optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yue; Gao, Wanrong

    2015-03-01

    A new full-field optical coherence tomography system with high-resolution has been developed for imaging of cells and tissues. Compared with other FF-OCT (Full-field optical coherence tomography, FF-OCT) systems illuminated with optical fiber bundle, the improved Köhler illumination arrangement with a halogen lamp was used in the proposed FF-OCT system. High numerical aperture microscopic objectives were used for imaging and a piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT) was used for phase-shifting. En-face tomographic images can be obtained by applying the five-step phase-shifting algorithm to a series of interferometric images which are recorded by a smart camera. Three-dimensional images can be generated from these tomographic images. Imaging of the chip of Intel Pentium 4 processor demonstrated the ultrahigh resolution of the system (lateral resolution is 0.8μm ), which approaches the theoretical resolution 0.7 μm× 0.5 μm (lateral × axial). En-face images of cells of onion show an excellent performance of the system in generating en-face images of biological tissues. Then, unstained pig stomach was imaged as a tissue and gastric pits could be easily recognized using FF-OCT system. Our study provides evidence for the potential ability of FFOCT in identifying gastric pits from pig stomach tissue. Finally, label-free and unstained ex vivo human liver tissues from both normal and tumor were imaged with this FFOCT system. The results show that the setup has the potential for medical diagnosis applications such liver cancer diagnosis.

  5. High-resolution FTIR imaging of colon tissues for elucidation of individual cellular and histopathological features.

    PubMed

    Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Lloyd, Gavin Rhys; Shepherd, Neil; Stone, Nick

    2016-01-21

    Novel technologies that could complement current histopathology based cancer diagnostic methods are under examination. In this endeavour mid-infrared spectroscopic imaging is a promising candidate that can provide valuable bio-molecular information from unstained cells and tissues in a rapid and a non-destructive manner. With this imaging technique, the biochemical information obtained from smaller areas of the tissues can be of clinical significance and hence the measured pixel size. Until recently it was difficult to obtain spectral data from pixels below around 5 microns square. High NA objectives have been utilised to reduce the ideal diffraction limit, enabling for the first time elucidation of subcellular features. In this context, the ability of high-resolution imaging, obtained using novel high-magnification optics retro-fitted onto a bench top FTIR imaging system, to characterise histopathological features in colonic tissues has been tested. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded colon tissues from three different pathologies were imaged directly using the conventional and the high-magnification imaging set-ups. To circumvent chemical de-paraffinization protocols, an extended multiplicative signal correction (EMSC) based electronic de-paraffinization was carried out on all the infrared images. Multivariate analysis of the high-magnification infrared imaging data showed a detailed information of the histological features of the colon tissue in comparison to conventional imaging. Furthermore, high-magnification imaging has enabled a label-free characterization of the mucin rich goblet cell features in an unprecedented manner. The current study demonstrates the applicability of high-magnification FTIR imaging to characterise complex tissues on a smaller scale that could be of clinical significance. PMID:26549223

  6. Global Monitoring of Mountain Glaciers Using High-Resolution Spotlight Imaging from the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnellan, A.; Green, J. J.; Bills, B. G.; Goguen, J.; Ansar, A.; Knight, R. L.; Hallet, B.; Scambos, T. A.; Thompson, L. G.; Morin, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain glaciers around the world are retreating rapidly, contributing about 20% to present-day sea level rise. Numerous studies have shown that mountain glaciers are sensitive to global environmental change. Temperate-latitude glaciers and snowpack provide water for over 1 billion people. Glaciers are a resource for irrigation and hydroelectric power, but also pose flood and avalanche hazards. Accurate mass balance assessments have been made for only 280 glaciers, yet there are over 130,000 in the World Glacier Inventory. The rate of glacier retreat or advance can be highly variable, is poorly sampled, and inadequately understood. Liquid water from ice front lakes, rain, melt, or sea water and debris from rocks, dust, or pollution interact with glacier ice often leading to an amplification of warming and further melting. Many mountain glaciers undergo rapid and episodic events that greatly change their mass balance or extent but are sparsely documented. Events include calving, outburst floods, opening of crevasses, or iceberg motion. Spaceborne high-resolution spotlight optical imaging provides a means of clarifying the relationship between the health of mountain glaciers and global environmental change. Digital elevation models (DEMs) can be constructed from a series of images from a range of perspectives collected by staring at a target during a satellite overpass. It is possible to collect imagery for 1800 targets per month in the ×56° latitude range, construct high-resolution DEMs, and monitor changes in high detail over time with a high-resolution optical telescope mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). Snow and ice type, age, and maturity can be inferred from different color bands as well as distribution of liquid water. Texture, roughness, albedo, and debris distribution can be estimated by measuring bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) and reflectance intensity as a function of viewing angle. The non-sun-synchronous orbit

  7. High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xingde; Martin, Scott; Pitris, Costas; Ghanta, Ravi; Stamper, Debra L; Harman, Michelle; Fujimoto, James G; Brezinski, Mark E

    2005-01-01

    This study demonstrates the first real-time imaging in vivo of human cartilage in normal and osteoarthritic knee joints at a resolution of micrometers, using optical coherence tomography (OCT). This recently developed high-resolution imaging technology is analogous to B-mode ultrasound except that it uses infrared light rather than sound. Real-time imaging with 11-μm resolution at four frames per second was performed on six patients using a portable OCT system with a handheld imaging probe during open knee surgery. Tissue registration was achieved by marking sites before imaging, and then histologic processing was performed. Structural changes including cartilage thinning, fissures, and fibrillations were observed at a resolution substantially higher than is achieved with any current clinical imaging technology. The structural features detected with OCT were evident in the corresponding histology. In addition to changes in architectural morphology, changes in the birefringent or the polarization properties of the articular cartilage were observed with OCT, suggesting collagen disorganization, an early indicator of osteoarthritis. Furthermore, this study supports the hypothesis that polarization-sensitive OCT may allow osteoarthritis to be diagnosed before cartilage thinning. This study illustrates that OCT, which can eventually be developed for use in offices or through an arthroscope, has considerable potential for assessing early osteoarthritic cartilage and monitoring therapeutic effects for cartilage repair with resolution in real time on a scale of micrometers. PMID:15743479

  8. High resolution neutron imaging capabilities at BOA beamline at Paul Scherrer Institut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremsin, A. S.; Morgano, M.; Panzner, T.; Lehmann, E.; Filgers, U.; Vallerga, J. V.; McPhate, J. B.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Feller, W. B.

    2015-06-01

    The cold neutron spectrum of the Beamline for neutron Optics and other Applications (BOA) at Paul Scherrer Institut enables high contrast neutron imaging because neutron cross sections for many materials increase with neutron wavelength. However, for many neutron imaging applications, spatial resolution can be as important as contrast. In this paper the neutron transmission imaging capabilities of an MCP/Timepix detector installed at the BOA beamline are presented, demonstrating the possibilities for studying sub-20 μm features in various samples. In addition to conventional neutron radiography and microtomography, the high degree of neutron polarization at the BOA beamline can be very attractive for imaging of magnetic fields, as demonstrated by our measurements. We also show that a collimated cold neutron beamline combined with a high resolution detector can produce image artifacts, (e.g. edge enhancements) due to neutron refraction and scattering. The results of our experiments indicate that the BOA beamline is a valuable addition to neutron imaging facilities, providing improved and sometimes unique capabilities for non-destructive studies with cold neutrons.

  9. Adapting high-resolution speckle imaging to moving targets and platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Carrano, C J; Brase, J M

    2004-02-05

    High-resolution surveillance imaging with apertures greater than a few inches over horizontal or slant paths at optical or infrared wavelengths will typically be limited by atmospheric aberrations. With static targets and static platforms, we have previously demonstrated near-diffraction limited imaging of various targets including personnel and vehicles over horizontal and slant paths ranging from less than a kilometer to many tens of kilometers using adaptations to bispectral speckle imaging techniques. Nominally, these image processing methods require the target to be static with respect to its background during the data acquisition since multiple frames are required. To obtain a sufficient number of frames and also to allow the atmosphere to decorrelate between frames, data acquisition times on the order of one second are needed. Modifications to the original imaging algorithm will be needed to deal with situations where there is relative target to background motion. In this paper, we present an extension of these imaging techniques to accommodate mobile platforms and moving targets.

  10. High-resolution 3D OCT imaging with a MEMS scanning endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Li S.; Piyawattanametha, Wibool; Wu, Ming C.; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Herz, Paul R.; Chen, Yu; Fujimoto, James G.

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional imaging is achieved by optical coherence tomography (OCT) integrated with a two-axis MEMS scanner to enable noninvasive volume imaging of biological tissues. The longitudinal scan is obtained by optical coherence interferometry. The transverse scan is obtained by tilting the two-axis MEMS mirror to scan the optical beam across the target. High-resolution OCT imaging has enabled in vivo observation of tissue architectural layers and differentiation of normal from tumor lesions within the human gastrointestinal tract. MEMS scanner based catheters with distal beam scanning can image with higher speed, precision, and repeatability than conventional linear scanning catheters. In this work, a 1-mm diameter MEMS scanning mirror with collimator and focusing optics is integrated into a compact 5-mm diameter package that is compatible with limited space in the endoscope. A large fill factor mirror provides high aperture over large scan angle and frequencies of hundreds of Hz in both axes. Using a broadband femtosecond laser light source, high axial image resolution of ~5 um is achieved at 1.06 um wavelength. Transverse resolution of ~ 12-um is demonstrated for cross-sectional image with the endoscope.

  11. High-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography using high dynamic range image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong-Hoï, A.; Claveau, R.; Montgomery, P. C.; Serio, B.; Uhring, W.; Anstotz, F.; Flury, M.

    2016-04-01

    Full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) based on white-light interference microscopy, is an emerging noninvasive imaging technique for characterizing biological tissue or optical scattering media with micrometer resolution. Tomographic images can be obtained by analyzing a sequence of interferograms acquired with a camera. This is achieved by scanning an interferometric microscope objectives along the optical axis and performing appropriate signal processing for fringe envelope extraction, leading to three-dimensional imaging over depth. However, noise contained in the images can hide some important details or induce errors in the size of these details. To firstly reduce temporal and spatial noise from the camera, it is possible to apply basic image post processing methods such as image averaging, dark frame subtraction or flat field division. It has been demonstrate that this can improve the quality of microscopy images by enhancing the signal to noise ratio. In addition, the dynamic range of images can be enhanced to improve the contrast by combining images acquired with different exposure times or light intensity. This can be made possible by applying a hybrid high dynamic range (HDR) technique, which is proposed in this paper. High resolution tomographic analysis is thus performed using a combination of the above-mentioned image processing techniques. As a result, the lateral resolution of the system can be improved so as to approach the diffraction limit of the microscope as well as to increase the power of detection, thus enabling new sub-diffraction sized structures contained in a transparent layer, initially hidden by the noise, to be detected.

  12. Semi-automated analysis of high-resolution aerial images to quantify docks in glacial lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Marcus W.; Vondracek, Bruce; Hatch, Lorin K.; Vinje, Jason

    2013-07-01

    Lake resources can be negatively affected by environmental stressors originating from multiple sources and different spatial scales. Shoreline development, in particular, can negatively affect lake resources through decline in habitat quality, physical disturbance, and impacts on fisheries. The development of remote sensing techniques that efficiently characterize shoreline development in a regional context could greatly improve management approaches for protecting and restoring lake resources. The goal of this study was to develop an approach using high-resolution aerial photographs to quantify and assess docks as indicators of shoreline development. First, we describe a dock analysis workflow that can be used to quantify the spatial extent of docks using aerial images. Our approach incorporates pixel-based classifiers with object-based techniques to effectively analyze high-resolution digital imagery. Second, we apply the analysis workflow to quantify docks for 4261 lakes managed by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Overall accuracy of the analysis results was 98.4% (87.7% based on K^) after manual post-processing. The analysis workflow was also 74% more efficient than the time required for manual digitization of docks. These analyses have immediate relevance for resource planning in Minnesota, whereas the dock analysis workflow could be used to quantify shoreline development in other regions with comparable imagery. These data can also be used to better understand the effects of shoreline development on aquatic resources and to evaluate the effects of shoreline development relative to other stressors.

  13. New optical sensor systems for high-resolution satellite, airborne and terrestrial imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckardt, Andreas; Börner, Anko; Lehmann, Frank

    2007-10-01

    The department of Optical Information Systems (OS) at the Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) has more than 25 years experience with high-resolution imaging technology. The technology changes in the development of detectors, as well as the significant change of the manufacturing accuracy in combination with the engineering research define the next generation of spaceborne sensor systems focusing on Earth observation and remote sensing. The combination of large TDI lines, intelligent synchronization control, fast-readable sensors and new focal-plane concepts open the door to new remote-sensing instruments. This class of instruments is feasible for high-resolution sensor systems regarding geometry and radiometry and their data products like 3D virtual reality. Systemic approaches are essential for such designs of complex sensor systems for dedicated tasks. The system theory of the instrument inside a simulated environment is the beginning of the optimization process for the optical, mechanical and electrical designs. Single modules and the entire system have to be calibrated and verified. Suitable procedures must be defined on component, module and system level for the assembly test and verification process. This kind of development strategy allows the hardware-in-the-loop design. The paper gives an overview about the current activities at DLR in the field of innovative sensor systems for photogrammetric and remote sensing purposes.

  14. Wavelet analysis and classification of urban environment using high-resolution multispectral image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myint, Soe Win

    2001-07-01

    Attempts to analyze urban features and classify land use and land cover directly from high-resolution satellite data with traditional computer classification techniques have proven to be inefficient. The fundamental problem usually found in identifying urban land cover types from high-resolution satellite imagery is that urban areas are composed of diverse materials (metal, glass, concrete, asphalt, plastic, trees, soil, etc.). These materials, each of which may have completely different spectral characteristics, are combined in complex ways by human beings. Hence, each urban land cover type may contain several different objects with different reflectance values. Noisy appearance with lots of edges, and the complex nature of these images, inhibit accurate interpretation of urban features. Traditional classifiers employ spectral information based on single pixel value and ignore a great amount of spatial information. Texture features play an important role in image segmentation and object recognition, as well as interpretation of images in a variety of applications ranging from medical imaging to remote sensing. This study analyzed urban texture features in multi-spectral image data. Recent development in the mathematical theory of wavelet transform has received overwhelming attention by the image analysts. An evaluation of the ability of wavelet transform and other texture analysis algorithms in urban feature extraction and classification was performed in this study. Advanced Thermal Land Application Sensor (ATLAS) image data at 2.5 m spatial resolution acquired with 15 channel (0.45 mum--12.2 mum) were used for this research. The data were collected by a NASA Stennis LearJet 23 flying at 6600 feet over Baton Rouge, Louisiana, on May 7, 1999. The algorithms examined were the wavelet transforms, spatial co-occurrence matrix, fractal analysis, and spatial autocorrelation. The performance of the above approaches with the use of different window sizes, different

  15. Dual-order snapshot spectral imaging of plasmonic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusz, Gregory J.; Marinakos, Stella M.; Rangarajan, Srinath; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2011-07-01

    The development of truly scalable, multiplexed optical microarrays requires a detection platform capable of simultaneous detection of multiple signals in real-time. We present a technique we term dual-order snapshot spectroscopic imaging (DOSSI) and demonstrate that it can be effectively used to collect spectrally resolved images of a full field of view of sparsely located spots in real time. Resonant peaks of plasmonic gold nanoparticles were tracked as a function of their surrounding refractive index. Measurement uncertainty analysis indicated that the spectral resolution of DOSSI in the described configuration is approximately 0.95nm. Further, real-time measurements by DOSSI allowed discrimination between optically identical nanoparticles that were functionalized with two homologous small molecule ligands that bound to the same protein, albeit with different affinity, based purely on their different molecular interaction kinetics---a feat not possible with slower raster-type hyperspectral imaging systems, or other dark-field optical detection systems that solely rely on end point measurements. Kinetic measurements of plasmon bands by DOSSI can be performed with a relatively simple optical system, thereby opening up the possibility of developing low-cost detectors for arrayed plasmonic diagnostics.

  16. Dual Order Snapshot Spectral Imaging of Plasmonic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Nusz, Gregory J.; Marinakos, Stella M.; Rangarajan, Srinath; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2013-01-01

    The development of truly scalable, multiplexed optical microarrays requires a detection platform capable of simultaneous detection of multiple independent signals in real-time. We present a technique we term dual order snapshot spectroscopic imaging (DOSSI) and demonstrate that it can be effectively used to collect spectrally-resolved images of a full field of view of sparsely located spots in real-time. Resonant peaks of plasmonic gold nanoparticles were tracked as a function of their surrounding refractive index. Measurement uncertainty analysis indicated that the spectral resolution of DOSSI in the described configuration is approximately 0.95 nm. Further, real-time measurements by DOSSI allowed discrimination between optically identical nanoparticles that were functionalized with two homologous small molecule ligands that bound to the same protein, albeit with different affinity, based purely on their different molecular interaction kinetics– a feat not possible with slower raster-type hyperspectral imaging systems, or other darkfield optical detection systems that solely rely on end-point measurements. Kinetic measurements of plasmon bands by DOSSI can be performed with a relatively simple optical system, thereby opening up the possibility of developing low-cost detectors for arrayed plasmonic diagnostics. PMID:21772408

  17. Very High Resolution Image of Icy Cliffs on Europa and Similar Scales on Earth (Providence, RI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The top image is a very high resolution view of the Conamara Chaos region on Jupiter's moon Europa, showing an area where icy plates have been broken apart and moved around laterally. The top of this image is dominated by corrugated plateaus ending in icy cliffs over a hundred meters (a few hundred feet) high. Debris piled at the base of the cliffs. The bottom image is an aerial photograph of downtown Providence, Rhode Island at the same scale. The bright white circular feature in the top center of the Providence image is an indoor hockey rink, and one can find many craters in the Europa image about the same size. Blocks of debris which have fallen from the cliffs on the Europa image are about the same size as houses seen in the Providence image, and the largest blocks are almost as large as the Rhode Island state capitol building (large white building in upper left of Providence image). A fracture that runs horizontally across the center of the Europa image is about the same width as the freeway which runs along the bottom of the Providence image.

    North is to the top right of the Europa image, and the sun illuminates the surface from the east. The Europa image is centered at approximately 9 degrees north latitude and 274 degrees west longitude. The images each cover an area approximately 1.7 kilometers by 4 kilometers (1 mile by 2.5 miles). The resolution is 9 meters (30 feet) per picture element. The Europa image was taken on December 16, 1997 at a range of 900 kilometers (540 miles) by the solid state imaging system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  18. An improved method for the removal of ring artifacts in high resolution CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Sabrina; Lee, Soo Yeol; Hasan, Md Kamrul

    2012-12-01

    In high resolution computed tomography (CT) using flat panel detectors, imperfect or defected detector elements cause stripe artifacts in sinogram which results in concentric ring artifacts in the image. Such ring artifacts obscure image details in the regions of interest of the image. In this article, novel techniques are proposed for the detection, classification, and correction of ring artifacts in the sinogram domain. The proposed method is suitable for multislice CT with parallel or fan beam geometry. It can also be employed for ring artifact removal in 3D cone beam volume CT by adopting a sinogram by sinogram processing technique. The detection algorithm is based on applying data driven thresholds on the mean curve and difference curve of the sinogram. The ring artifacts are classified into three types and a separate correction algorithm is used for each class. The performance of the proposed techniques is evaluated on a number of real micro-CT images. Experimental results corroborate that the proposed algorithm can remove ring artifacts from micro-CT images more effectively as compared to other recently reported techniques in the literature.

  19. Extraction of the urban green space based on the high resolution remote sensing image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Miaomiao; Jiang, Hong; Chen, Jian; Guo, Zheng; Jiang, Zishan

    2009-10-01

    High resolution image can be used to distinguish the small difference of the ground things. Texture information can avoid the matter of same spectral from different objective and different spectral with same objective which must be faced when making classification with only spectral information. The main objective of this research was to determine the capacity of high spatial resolution satellite image data to discriminate vegetation in urban area. A high spatial resolution IKONOS image, coincident field data covering the urban area of linping scenic region in Yuhang town, Zhejiang province in china, was used in this analysis. The vegetation of test region was classified as tea garden, masson pine, fir, broadleaves, and shrub/herb based on the field data. Semi-variograms were calculated to differentiate vegetation classes and assess which window sizes were most appropriate for calculation of grey-level co-occurrence texture measures. The texture analysis showed that co-occurrence mean, variance, contrast, and correlation texture measures provided the most significant statistical differentiation between vegetation classes. Subsequently, a decision tree classification was applied to spectral and textural transformations of the IKONOS image data to classify the vegetation. Using both spectral and textural image bands yielded the good classification accuracy (overall accuracy=81.72%). The results showed that it has the higher accuracy to extract the urban green space from IKONOS imagery with the spectral and texture information, as well as the vegetation index.

  20. High resolution x-ray lensless imaging by differential holographic encoding

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, D.; Guizar-Sicairos, M.; Wu, B.; Scherz, A.; Acremann, Y.; Tylisczcak, T.; Fischer, P.; Friedenberger, N.; Ollefs, K.; Farle, M.; Fienup, J. R.; Stohr, J.

    2009-11-02

    X-ray free electron lasers (X-FEL{sub s}) will soon offer femtosecond pulses of laterally coherent x-rays with sufficient intensity to record single-shot coherent scattering patterns for nanoscale imaging. Pulse trains created by splitand-delay techniques even open the door for cinematography on unprecedented nanometer length and femtosecond time scales. A key to real space ultrafast motion pictures is fast and reliable inversion of the recorded reciprocal space scattering patterns. Here we for the first time demonstrate in the x-ray regime the power of a novel technique for lensless high resolution imaging, previously suggested by Guizar-Sicairos and Fienup termed holography with extended reference by autocorrelation linear differential operation, HERALD0. We have achieved superior resolution over conventional x-ray Fourier transform holography (FTH) without sacrifices in SNR or significant increase in algorithmic complexity. By combining images obtained from individual sharp features on an extended reference, we further show that the resolution can be even extended beyond the reference fabrication limits. Direct comparison to iterative phase retrieval image reconstruction and images recorded with stateof- the-art zone plate microscopes is presented. Our results demonstrate the power of HERALDO as a favorable candidate for robust inversion of single-shot coherent scattering patterns.

  1. High-resolution in vivo imaging of mouse brain through the intact skull

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Hoon; Sun, Wei; Cui, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy is the current method of choice for in vivo deep-tissue imaging. The long laser wavelength suffers less scattering, and the 3D-confined excitation permits the use of scattered signal light. However, the imaging depth is still limited because of the complex refractive index distribution of biological tissue, which scrambles the incident light and destroys the optical focus needed for high resolution imaging. Here, we demonstrate a wavefront-shaping scheme that allows clear imaging through extremely turbid biological tissue, such as the skull, over an extended corrected field of view (FOV). The complex wavefront correction is obtained and directly conjugated to the turbid layer in a noninvasive manner. Using this technique, we demonstrate in vivo submicron-resolution imaging of neural dendrites and microglia dynamics through the intact skulls of adult mice. This is the first observation, to our knowledge, of dynamic morphological changes of microglia through the intact skull, allowing truly noninvasive studies of microglial immune activities free from external perturbations. PMID:26170286

  2. A Saliency Guided Semi-Supervised Building Change Detection Method for High Resolution Remote Sensing Images.

    PubMed

    Hou, Bin; Wang, Yunhong; Liu, Qingjie

    2016-01-01

    Characterizations of up to date information of the Earth's surface are an important application providing insights to urban planning, resources monitoring and environmental studies. A large number of change detection (CD) methods have been developed to solve them by utilizing remote sensing (RS) images. The advent of high resolution (HR) remote sensing images further provides challenges to traditional CD methods and opportunities to object-based CD methods. While several kinds of geospatial objects are recognized, this manuscript mainly focuses on buildings. Specifically, we propose a novel automatic approach combining pixel-based strategies with object-based ones for detecting building changes with HR remote sensing images. A multiresolution contextual morphological transformation called extended morphological attribute profiles (EMAPs) allows the extraction of geometrical features related to the structures within the scene at different scales. Pixel-based post-classification is executed on EMAPs using hierarchical fuzzy clustering. Subsequently, the hierarchical fuzzy frequency vector histograms are formed based on the image-objects acquired by simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC) segmentation. Then, saliency and morphological building index (MBI) extracted on difference images are used to generate a pseudo training set. Ultimately, object-based semi-supervised classification is implemented on this training set by applying random forest (RF). Most of the important changes are detected by the proposed method in our experiments. This study was checked for effectiveness using visual evaluation and numerical evaluation. PMID:27618903

  3. Research on Complicated Imaging Condition of GEO Optical High Resolution Earth Observing Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Linghua

    2012-07-01

    The requirement for high time and space resolution of optical remote sensing satellite in disaster, land resources, environment, marine monitoring and meteorology observation, etc is getting urgent and strict. For that reason, a remote sensing satellite system solely located in MEO or LEO cannot operate continuous observation and Surveillance. GEO optical high resolution earth observing satellite in the other hand can keep the mesoscale and microscale target under continuous surveillance by controlling line of sight(LOS), and can provide imaging observation of an extensive region in a short time. The advantages of GEO satellite such as real-time observation of the mesoscale and microscale target, rapid response of key events, have been recognized by lots of countries and become a new trend of remote sensing satellite. As many advantages as the GEO remote sensing satellite has, its imaging condition is more complicated. Many new characteristics of imaging observation and imaging quality need to be discussed. We analyze each factor in the remote sensing link, using theoretical analysis and modeling simulation to get coefficient of each factor to represent its effect on imaging system. Such research achievements can provide reference for satellite mission analysis and system design.

  4. Statistical list-mode image reconstruction for the high resolution research tomograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmim, A.; Lenox, M.; Reader, A. J.; Michel, C.; Burbar, Z.; Ruth, T. J.; Sossi, V.

    2004-09-01

    We have investigated statistical list-mode reconstruction applicable to a depth-encoding high resolution research tomograph. An image non-negativity constraint has been employed in the reconstructions and is shown to effectively remove the overestimation bias introduced by the sinogram non-negativity constraint. We have furthermore implemented a convergent subsetized (CS) list-mode reconstruction algorithm, based on previous work (Hsiao et al 2002 Conf. Rec. SPIE Med. Imaging 4684 10-19 Hsiao et al 2002 Conf. Rec. IEEE Int. Symp. Biomed. Imaging 409-12) on convergent histogram OSEM reconstruction. We have demonstrated that the first step of the convergent algorithm is exactly equivalent (unlike the histogram-mode case) to the regular subsetized list-mode EM algorithm, while the second and final step takes the form of additive updates in image space. We have shown that in terms of contrast, noise as well as FWHM width behaviour, the CS algorithm is robust and does not result in limit cycles. A hybrid algorithm based on the ordinary and the convergent algorithms is also proposed, and is shown to combine the advantages of the two algorithms (i.e. it is able to reach a higher image quality in fewer iterations while maintaining the convergent behaviour), making the hybrid approach a good alternative to the ordinary subsetized list-mode EM algorithm.

  5. Self-feeding MUSE: a robust method for high resolution diffusion imaging using interleaved EPI.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Huang, Feng; Ma, Xiaodong; Xie, Sheng; Guo, Hua

    2015-01-15

    Single-shot echo planar imaging (EPI) with parallel imaging techniques has been well established as the most popular method for clinical diffusion imaging, due to its fast acquisition and motion insensitivity. However, this approach is limited by the relatively low spatial resolution and image distortion. Interleaved EPI is able to break the limitations but the phase variations among different shots must be considered for artifact suppression. The introduction of multiplexed sensitivity-encoding (MUSE) can address the phase issue using sensitivity encoding (SENSE) for self-navigation of each interleave. However, MUSE has suboptimal results when the number of shots is high. To achieve higher spatial resolution and lower geometric distortion, we introduce two new schemes into the MUSE framework: 1) a self-feeding mechanism is adopted by using prior information regularized SENSE in order to obtain reliable phase estimation; and 2) retrospective motion detection and data rejection strategies are performed to exclude unusable data corrupted by severe pulsatile motions. The proposed method is named self-feeding MUSE (SF-MUSE). Experiments on healthy volunteers demonstrate that this new SF-MUSE approach provides more accurate motion-induced phase estimation and fewer artifacts caused by data corruption when compared with the original MUSE method. SF-MUSE is a robust method for high resolution diffusion imaging and suitable for practical applications with reasonable scan time. PMID:25451470

  6. Chemical Imaging of Lipid Domains by High-Resolution Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, M L; Weber, P K; Longo, M L; Hutcheon, I D; Boxer, S G

    2005-09-30

    Lipid microdomains within supported lipid bilayers composed of binary phosphocholine mixtures were chemically imaged by high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry performed with the NanoSIMS 50 (Cameca Instruments). This instrument images the sample components based on the elemental or isotopic composition of their atomic and small molecular secondary ions. Up to five different secondary ions can be simultaneously detected, and a lateral resolution of 50 nm can be achieved with high sensitivity at high mass resolution. In our experiments, the NanoSIMS 50 extensively fragmented the supported membrane, therefore an isotopic labeling strategy was used to encode the identities of the lipid components. Supported lipid membranes that contained distinct lipid microdomains were freeze-dried to preserve their lateral organization and analyzed with the NanoSIMS 50. Lipid microdomains as small as 100 nm in diameter were successfully imaged, and this was validated by comparison to AFM images taken at the same region prior to chemical imaging. Quantitative information on the lipid distribution within the domain was also determined by calibrating against supported membranes of known composition. We believe this will be a valuable approach for analyzing the composition of complex membrane domains with high spatial resolution.

  7. In vivo high-resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, E. Z.; Laufer, J. G.; Pedley, R. B.; Beard, P. C.

    2009-02-01

    The application of a photoacoustic imaging instrument based upon a Fabry-Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor to imaging the superficial vasculature is described. This approach provides a backward mode-sensing configuration that has the potential to overcome the limitations of current piezoelectric based detection systems used in superficial photoacoustic imaging. The system has been evaluated by obtaining non-invasive images of the vasculature in human and mouse skin as well as mouse models of human colorectal tumours. These studies showed that the system can provide high-resolution 3D images of vascular structures to depths of up to 5 mm. It is considered that this type of instrument may find a role in the clinical assessment of conditions characterized by changes in the vasculature such as skin tumours and superficial soft tissue damage due to burns, wounds or ulceration. It may also find application in the characterization of small animal cancer models where it is important to follow the tumour vasculature over time in order to study its development and/or response to therapy.

  8. HIGH RESOLUTION 36 GHz IMAGING OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT OF SN 1987A

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, T. M.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Zanardo, G.; Ng, C.-Y.; Gaensler, B. M.; Ball, Lewis; Kesteven, M. J.; Manchester, R. N.; Tzioumis, A. K.

    2009-11-01

    The aftermath of supernova (SN) 1987A continues to provide spectacular insights into the interaction between an SN blastwave and its circumstellar environment. We here present 36 GHz observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array of the radio remnant of SN 1987A. These new images, taken in 2008 April and 2008 October, substantially extend the frequency range of an ongoing monitoring and imaging program conducted between 1.4 and 20 GHz. Our 36.2 GHz images have a diffraction-limited angular resolution of 0.''3-0.''4, which covers the gap between high resolution, low dynamic range VLBI images of the remnant and low resolution, high dynamic range images at frequencies between 1 and 20 GHz. The radio morphology of the remnant at 36 GHz is an elliptical ring with enhanced emission on the eastern and western sides, similar to that seen previously at lower frequencies. Model fits to the data in the Fourier domain show that the emitting region is consistent with a thick inclined torus of mean radius 0.''85, and a 2008 October flux density of 27 +- 6 mJy at 36.2 GHz. The spectral index for the remnant at this epoch, determined between 1.4 GHz and 36.2 GHz, is alpha = -0.83. There is tentative evidence for an unresolved central source with flatter spectral index.

  9. High-resolution digital holographic imaging by using a spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Da-Yong; Wang, Yun-Xin; Rong, Lu

    2014-09-01

    Digital holography is the product of the optical holography, computer technology and photoelectric detection technology, and has the advantage of high-speed, real-time, full field of view, non-contact and quantitative phase contrast imaging. However, the numerical aperture of the hologram is limited due to the smaller sensitive area of the photoelectric sensor and the larger pixel size, and it is uneasy to meet the practical requirement on the imaging resolution. An approach is presented to achieve the high-resolution digital holographic imaging based on a spatial light modulator(SLM). An amplitude spatial light modulator is placed between the object and the CCD in the lensless Fourier transform digital holographic imaging system. The distribution of a diffraction grating is loaded into the SLM. In this way, more light including the high-frequency content, diffracted from the object, can be collected by the CCD. The standard resolution target is used as the object. The reconstructed image is obtained by the Fresnel diffraction propagation algorithm, which exhibits three diffraction orders. The results show that the resolution is improved from 62.5 μm to 31.3 μm.

  10. Relating speech production to tongue muscle compressions using tagged and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Fangxu; Ye, Chuyang; Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry

    2015-03-01

    The human tongue is composed of multiple internal muscles that work collaboratively during the production of speech. Assessment of muscle mechanics can help understand the creation of tongue motion, interpret clinical observations, and predict surgical outcomes. Although various methods have been proposed for computing the tongue's motion, associating motion with muscle activity in an interdigitated fiber framework has not been studied. In this work, we aim to develop a method that reveals different tongue muscles' activities in different time phases during speech. We use fourdimensional tagged magnetic resonance (MR) images and static high-resolution MR images to obtain tongue motion and muscle anatomy, respectively. Then we compute strain tensors and local tissue compression along the muscle fiber directions in order to reveal their shortening pattern. This process relies on the support from multiple image analysis methods, including super-resolution volume reconstruction from MR image slices, segmentation of internal muscles, tracking the incompressible motion of tissue points using tagged images, propagation of muscle fiber directions over time, and calculation of strain in the line of action, etc. We evaluated the method on a control subject and two postglossectomy patients in a controlled speech task. The normal subject's tongue muscle activity shows high correspondence with the production of speech in different time instants, while both patients' muscle activities show different patterns from the control due to their resected tongues. This method shows potential for relating overall tongue motion to particular muscle activity, which may provide novel information for future clinical and scientific studies.

  11. Multiphase Flow Characterization Using Simultaneous High Resolution Neutron and X-Ray Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaManna, J.; Anovitz, L. M.; Hussey, D. S.; Jacobson, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Multiphase flow in geologic materials is an important area of research for hydrology and oil recovery. A valuable tool for determining how liquid water and/or hydrocarbons transport through soils and rocks is neutron tomography due to its high sensitivity to hydrogen. This technique allows for the 3D reconstruction of the liquid phase in the sample. In order to resolve the solid phase structure of the sample it is necessary to perform x-ray tomography which often must be conducted at a separate facility from the neutron imaging. When imaging deformable samples or stochastic flow this delay in imaging modes ruins the analysis as the sample is no longer in an identical state. To address this issue and bring a unique capability to NIST, an instrument has been commissioned for the simultaneous imaging with neutrons and x-rays. The new system orients a micro-focus 90 kV x-ray beam 90° to the neutron beam which facilitates rapid dual-mode tomography of samples. Current highest spatial resolutions are 20 μm and 10 μm for the neutron and x-ray detectors, respectively, with upcoming improvements. This presentation will focus on introducing the new system and demonstrating its ability with several cases. Examples of high resolution water uptake and high speed imaging of uptake dynamics will be given.

  12. 3-Dimensional modelling of chick embryo eye development and growth using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Goodall, Nicola; Kisiswa, Lilian; Prashar, Ankush; Faulkner, Stuart; Tokarczuk, Paweł; Singh, Krish; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Guggenheim, Jez; Halfter, Willi; Wride, Michael A

    2009-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for generating 3-dimensional structural and functional image data. MRI has already proven valuable in creating atlases of mouse and quail development. Here, we have exploited high resolution MRI to determine the parameters necessary to acquire images of the chick embryo eye. Using a 9.4 Tesla (400 MHz) high field ultra-shielded and refrigerated magnet (Bruker), MRI was carried out on paraformaldehyde-fixed chick embryos or heads at E4, E6, E8, and E10. Image data were processed using established and custom packages (MRICro, ImageJ, ParaVision, Bruker and mri3dX). Voxel dimensions ranged from 62.5 microm to 117.2 microm. We subsequently used the images obtained from the MRI data in order to make precise measurements of chick embryo eye surface area, volume and axial length from E4 to E10. MRI was validated for accurate sizing of ocular tissue features by direct comparison with previously published literature. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of high resolution MRI for making accurate measurements of morphological changes due to experimental manipulation of chick eye development, thereby facilitating a better understanding of the effects on chick embryo eye development and growth of such manipulations. Chondroitin sulphate or heparin were microinjected into the vitreous cavity of the right eyes of each of 3 embryos at E5. At E10, embryos were fixed and various eye parameters (volume, surface area, axial length and equatorial diameter) were determined using MRI and normalised with respect to the un-injected left eyes. Statistically significant alterations in eye volume (p < 0.05; increases with chondroitin sulphate and decreases with heparin) and changes in vitreous homogeneity were observed in embryos following microinjection of glycosaminoglycans. Furthermore, in the heparin-injected eyes, significant disturbances at the vitreo-retinal boundary were observed as well as retinal folding and detachment

  13. Observations of the O2 atmospheric band nightglow by the High Resolution Doppler Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrage, M. D.; Arvin, N.; Skinner, W. R.; Hays, P. B.

    1994-01-01

    During nighttime operation the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measures both the horizontal wind field at about 94 km altitude and the limb brightness of the O2(b(sup 1) Sigma(sup +)(sub g) - Chi(cubed)Sigma(sup +)(sub g)) (0,0) atmospheric band airglow. The dominant feature of the observed emission is a latitudinal and local time dependence which is consistent with the (1,1) diurnal tidal mode. A survey of the available data set from November 1991 to July 1993 reveals a semiannual variation in the peak brightness observed at the equator, with maxima observed at the equinoxes and minima at the solstices. These results are consistent with the long-term variations in the diurnal tidal amplitudes detected in HRDI wind measurements.

  14. High Resolution Doppler Imager FY 2001,2002,2003 Operations and Algorithm Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Wilbert

    2004-01-01

    During the performance period of this grant HRDI (High Resolution Doppler Imager) operations remained nominal. The instrument has suffered no loss of scientific capability and operates whenever sufficient power is available. Generally, there are approximately 5-7 days per month when the power level is too low to permit observations. The daily latitude coverage for HRDI measurements in the mesosphere, lower thermosphere (MLT) region are shown.It shows that during the time of this grant, HRDI operations collected data at a rate comparable to that achieved during the UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) prime mission (1991 -1995). Data collection emphasized MLT wind to support the validation efforts of the TIDI instrument on TIMED, therefore fulfilling one of the primary objectives of this phase of the UARS mission. Skinner et al., (2003) present a summary of the instrument performance during this period.

  15. Comparison of HRDI wind measurements with radar and rocket observations. [High Resolution Doppler Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrage, M. D.; Skinner, W. R.; Marshall, A. R.; Hays, P. B.; Lieberman, R. S.; Franke, S. J.; Gell, D. A.; Ortland, D. A.; Morton, Y. T.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    1993-01-01

    Wind fields in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere are obtained with the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) by observing the Doppler shifts of emission lines in the O2 Atmospheric band. The validity of the measured winds depends on an accurate knowledge of the positions on the detector of the observed lines in the absence of a wind-induced Doppler shift. These positions have been determined to an accuracy of approximately 5 m/s from the comparison of winds measured by HRDI with those obtained by MF radars. Excellent agreement is found between HRDI measured winds and winds observed with radars and rockets. In addition, the sensitivity of HRDI to migrating tides and other large scale waves is demonstrated.

  16. Exploring Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry with Advanced High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry and Particle Imaging Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizkorodov, S.

    2014-12-01

    Physical and chemical complexity of atmospheric aerosols presents significant challenges both to experimentalists working on aerosol characterization and to modelers trying to parameterize critical aerosol properties. Multi-modal approaches that combine state-of-the-art experimental, theoretical, and modeling methods are becoming increasingly important in aerosol research. This presentation will discuss recent applications of unique high-resolution mass spectrometry and particle imaging tools developed at two Department of Energy's user facilities, the Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL) and Advanced Light Source (ALS), to studies of molecular composition, photochemical aging, and properties of laboratory-generated and field aerosols. Specifically, this presentation will attempt to address the following questions: (a) how do NO2, SO2, and NH3 affect molecular level composition of anthropogenic aerosols?; (b) what factors determine viscosity/surface tension of organic aerosol particles?; (c) how does photolysis affect molecular composition and optical properties of organic aerosols?

  17. Compact, high-resolution, gamma ray imaging for scintimammography and other medical diagostic applications

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Wojcik, Randolph F.; Steinbach, Daniela

    1999-01-01

    A high resolution gamma ray imaging device includes an aluminum housing, a lead screen collimator at an opened end of the housing, a crystal scintillator array mounted behind the lead screen collimator, a foam layer between the lead screen collimator and the crystal scintillator array, a photomultiplier window coupled to the crystal with optical coupling grease, a photomultiplier having a dynode chain body and a base voltage divider with anodes, anode wire amplifiers each connected to four anodes and a multi pin connector having pin connections to each anode wire amplifier. In one embodiment the crystal scintillator array includes a yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) crystal array. In an alternate embodiment, the crystal scintillator array includes a gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (GSO) crystal array.

  18. Improving the Altimeter Derived Geostrophic Currents Using High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature Images: A Feasibility Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, M.-H.; Santoleri, R.; Giffa, A.; Piterbarg, L.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate knowledge of spatial and temporal ocean surface currents at high resolution is essential for a variety of applications. The altimeter observing system, by providing global and repetitive measurements of the Sea Surface Height, has been by far the most exploited system to estimate ocean surface currents in the past 20 years. However it does not allow observing currents departing from the geostrophic equilibrium, nor is capable to resolve the shortest spatial scales of the currents. In order to go beyond these limits, we investigate how the high spatial and temporal resolution information from Sea Surface Temperature (SST) images can improve the altimeter currents by adapting a method first proposed by [1]. It consists in inverting the SST evolution equation for the velocity by prescribing the source and sink terms and by using the altimeter currents as background. The method feasibility is tested using simulated data based on the Mercator-Ocean system.

  19. Propagation-based phase-contrast tomography for high-resolution lung imaging with laboratory sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenkel, Martin; Töpperwien, Mareike; Dullin, Christian; Alves, Frauke; Salditt, Tim

    2016-03-01

    We have performed high-resolution phase-contrast tomography on whole mice with a laboratory setup. Enabled by a high-brilliance liquid-metal-jet source, we show the feasibility of propagation-based phase contrast in local tomography even in the presence of strongly absorbing surrounding tissue as it is the case in small animal imaging of the lung. We demonstrate the technique by reconstructions of the mouse lung for two different fields of view, covering the whole organ, and a zoom to the local finer structure of terminal airways and alveoli. With a resolution of a few micrometers and the wide availability of the technique, studies of larger biological samples at the cellular level become possible.

  20. brainR: Interactive 3 and 4D Images of High Resolution Neuroimage Data

    PubMed Central

    Muschelli, John; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Crainiceanu, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    We provide software tools for displaying and publishing interactive 3-dimensional (3D) and 4-dimensional (4D) figures to html webpages, with examples of high-resolution brain imaging. Our framework is based in the R statistical software using the rgl package, a 3D graphics library. We build on this package to allow manipulation of figures including rotation and translation, zooming, coloring of brain substructures, adjusting transparency levels, and addition/or removal of brain structures. The need for better visualization tools of ultra high dimensional data is ever present; we are providing a clean, simple, web-based option. We also provide a package (brainR) for users to readily implement these tools. PMID:27330829

  1. Ordered Arrays of Native Chromatin Molecules for High-Resolution Imaging and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cerf, Aline; Tian, Harvey C.; Craighead, Harold G.

    2012-01-01

    Individual chromatin molecules contain valuable genetic and epigenetic information. To date, there have not been reliable techniques available for the controlled stretching and manipulation of individual chromatin fragments for high-resolution imaging and analysis of these molecules. We report the controlled stretching of single chromatin fragments extracted from two different cancerous cell types (M091 and HeLa) characterized through fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our method combines soft-lithography with molecular stretching to form ordered arrays of more than 250,000 individual chromatin fragments immobilized into a beads-on-a-string structure on a solid transparent support. Using fluorescence microscopy and AFM, we verified the presence of histone proteins after the stretching and transfer process. PMID:22816516

  2. Measurement of water content in polymer electrolyte membranes using high resolution neutron imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Spernjak, Dusan; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L; Davey, John; Mukherjee, Partha P; Hussey, Daniel S; Jacobson, David

    2010-01-01

    Sufficient water content within a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) is necessary for adequate ionic conductivity. Membrane hydration is therefore a fundamental requirement for fuel cell operation. The hydration state of the membrane affects the water transport within, as both the diffusion coefficient and electro-osmotic drag depend on the water content. Membrane's water uptake is conventionally measured ex situ by weighing free-swelling samples equilibrated at controlled water activity. In the present study, water profiles in Nafion{reg_sign} membranes were measured using the high-resolution neutron imaging. The state-of-the-art, 10 {micro}m resolution neutron detector is capable of resolving water distributions across N1120, N1110 and N117 membranes. It provides a means to measure the water uptake and transport properties of fuel cell membranes in situ.

  3. Flexible high-resolution film recorder system. [in NASA image processing facility for remote sensor data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffner, P.; Connell, E.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes a high-resolution film recorder (HRFR) system capable of meeting the requirements of all of the imaging sensors for the recording support of NASA missions. The technical requirements imposed by sensor constraints and end users of the film product are examined, along with the implementation techniques to satisfy these requirements. The recorder can produce annotated imagery with array sizes ranging from 1 to 400 million picture elements and a programmable radiometric transfer function provided by the recorder. The HRFR requirements were grouped into three categories: (1) front end (input) requirements defined by the input medium, (2) operational requirements based on the volume, throughput, and changeover time from one mode to another, and (3) film product requirements determined by the needs of the end product user.

  4. High resolution neurography of the brachial plexus by 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Cejas, C; Rollán, C; Michelin, G; Nogués, M

    2016-01-01

    The study of the structures that make up the brachial plexus has benefited particularly from the high resolution images provided by 3T magnetic resonance scanners. The brachial plexus can have mononeuropathies or polyneuropathies. The mononeuropathies include traumatic injuries and trapping, such as occurs in thoracic outlet syndrome due to cervical ribs, prominent transverse apophyses, or tumors. The polyneuropathies include inflammatory processes, in particular chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, Parsonage-Turner syndrome, granulomatous diseases, and radiation neuropathy. Vascular processes affecting the brachial plexus include diabetic polyneuropathy and the vasculitides. This article reviews the anatomy of the brachial plexus and describes the technique for magnetic resonance neurography and the most common pathologic conditions that can affect the brachial plexus. PMID:26860655

  5. Grooved Terrain on Ganymede: First Results from Galileo High-Resolution Imaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pappalardo, R.T.; Head, J.W.; Collins, G.C.; Kirk, R.L.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Giese, B.; Greeley, R.; Chapman, C.R.; Helfenstein, P.; Moore, Johnnie N.; McEwen, A.; Tufts, B.R.; Senske, D.A.; Herbert, Breneman H.; Klaasen, K.

    1998-01-01

    High-resolution Galileo imaging has provided important insight into the origin and evolution of grooved terrain on Ganymede. The Uruk Sulcus target site was the first imaged at high resolution, and considerations of resolution, viewing geometry, low image compression, and complementary stereo imaging make this region extremely informative. Contrast variations in these low-incidence angle images are extreme and give the visual impression of topographic shading. However, photometric analysis shows that the scene must owe its character to albedo variations. A close correlation of albedo variations to topography is demonstrated by limited stereo coverage, allowing extrapolation of the observed brightness and topographic relationships to the rest of the imaged area. Distinct geological units are apparent across the region, and ridges and grooves are ubiquitous within these units. The stratigraphically lowest and most heavily cratered units ("lineated grooved terrain") generally show morphologies indicative of horst-and-graben-style normal faulting. The stratigraphically highest groove lanes ("parallel ridged terrain") exhibit ridges of roughly triangular cross section, suggesting that tilt-block-style normal faulting has shaped them. These extensional-tectonic models are supported by crosscutting relationships at the margins of groove lanes. Thus, a change in tectonic style with time is suggested in the Uruk Sulcus region, varying from horst and graben faulting for the oldest grooved terrain units to tilt block normal faulting for the latest units. The morphologies and geometries of some stratigraphically high units indicate that a strike-slip component of deformation has played an important role in shaping this region of grooved terrain. The most recent tectonic episode is interpreted as right-lateral transtension, with its tectonic pattern of two contemporaneous structural orientations superimposed on older units of grooved terrain. There is little direct evidence for

  6. High resolution seismic imaging of Rainier Mesa using surface reflection and surface to tunnel tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Majer, E.L.; Johnson, L.R.; Karageorgi, E.K.; Peterson, J.E.

    1994-06-01

    In the interpretation of seismic data to infer properties of an explosion source, it is necessary to account for wave propagation effects. In order to understand and remove these propagation effects, it is necessary to have a model. An open question concerning this matter is the detail and accuracy which must be present in the velocity model in order to produce reliable estimates in the estimated source properties. While it would appear that the reliability of the results would be directly related to the accuracy of the velocity and density models used in the interpretation, it may be that certain deficiencies in these models can be compensated by the and amount of seismic data which is used in the inversion. The NPE provided an opportunity to test questions of this sort. In August 1993, two high resolution seismic experiments were performed in N-Tunnel and on the surface of Rainier Mesa above it. The first involved a surface-to-tunnel imaging experiment with sources on the surface and receivers in tunnel U12n.23 about 88 meters west of the NPE. It was possible to estimate the apparent average velocity between the tunnel and the surface. In a separate experiment, a high resolution reflection experiment was performed in order to image the lithology in Rainier Mesa. Good quality, broad band, reflections were obtained from depths extending into the Paleozoic basement. A high velocity layer near the surface is underlain by a thick section of low velocity material, providing a nonuniform but low average velocity between the depth of the NPE and the surface.

  7. High Resolution Global Topography of Eros From NEAR Imaging and LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskell, R.; Konopliv, A.; Barnouin-Jha, O.; Scheeres, D.

    2006-05-01

    The global topography of asteroid Eros is currently represented by an ensemble of about 6000 digital landmark maps (L-maps). Slopes found by applying stereo-photoclinometry to multiple NEAR images are integrated, with constraints coming from limbs and overlapping maps, to produce the L-map topography. The center of each L-map is a control point, whose location is determined in an iterative estimation along with the spacecraft orientation. The set of L-maps can be used to construct high-resolution composite maps of portions of the surface, or to produce a single high-resolution global topography model (GTM). Assuming a homogeneous mass distribution, the GTM can be used to estimate the inertial and gravitational properties of the asteroid. Differences between the predicted and measured gravity harmonics may suggest an inhomogeneous mass distribution. These differences have been significantly reduced from earlier estimates. In the study to date, very tight aprioris have been placed on the spacecraft position, so only the camera orientation is allowed to change. Now, both are being allowed to vary, and LIDAR data is being included. By fitting a trajectory through the spacecraft positions at the image times, both position and orientation errors can be minimized. The surface locations and ranges of the LIDAR spots along the trajectory produce an independent estimate of the topography, which can then be correlated with topography from the GTM to further constrain the spacecraft's location and improve the overall topography solution. This may improve the navigation solution to the extent that errors can be reduced in the determination of gravity harmonics, shedding more light on the internal structure of Eros.

  8. Using High Resolution Vegetation Images to study Ecogeomorphologic Thresholds in Semiarid Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azadi, Samira; Saco, Patricia; Moreno-de las Heras, Mariano; Willgoose, Garry

    2016-04-01

    Arid and Semiarid sites are very sensitive to climatic or anthropogenic pressures. Several previous studies argue that ecosystem function in these areas tends to display critical degradation thresholds which make rehabilitation efforts considerably difficult. This threshold behaviour is linked to coevolving eco-geomorphic processes triggered by climatic or anthropogenic disturbances. A common trigger is the removal of vegetation (by grazing or harvesting activities) which increases landscape hydrological connectivity and can induce a substantial loss of water and soil affecting ecosystem function (e.g. decreasing the rainfall-use efficiency of the landscape). Here we present results exploring the impact of degradation processes induced by grazing pressure on rainfall-use efficiency along a precipitation gradient (250 mm to 490 mm annual average rainfall). The sites were carefully selected in the mulga lands bioregion (New South Wales, Queensland) and in sites of the Northern Territory in Australia, and display similar vegetation characteristics and good quality rainfall information. Vegetation patterns and percentage cover are derived from high resolution remote sensing images (IKONOS, QuickBird and complement this information with high resolution images obtained from Google Earth). We compute rainfall use efficiency and precipitation marginal response using local precipitation data and MODIS vegetation indices. The analysis of the NDVI MODIS data shows the presence of a clear critical degradation threshold, associated with loss of vegetation cover in the drier sites. Below this threshold we found what we call "functional landscapes" with high vegetation cover that display high rainfall use efficiency. Above this threshold, we found "dysfunctional landscapes" with much lower rainfall use efficiency. We compare the different behaviours for several sites along the precipitation gradient, and find that the wetter sites do not tend to display this threshold behaviour

  9. HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGING OF EPITHELIAL INJURY IN THE SHEEP CERVICOVAGINAL TRACT

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Kathleen L.; Bourne, Nigel; Bell, Brent A.; Vargas, Gracie; Tan, Alai; Cowan, Daniel; Stanberry, Lawrence R.; Rosenthal, Susan L.; Motamedi, Massoud

    2009-01-01

    Background Access to readily available large animal models and sensitive non-invasive techniques that can be used for the evaluation of microbicide-induced changes in tissue could significantly facilitate pre-clinical evaluations of microbicide safety. The sheep cervicovaginal tract, with stratified squamous epithelium similar to humans, holds promise as a large animal model used prior to non-human primates. In addition, optical coherence tomography (OCT) could enable high resolution visualization of tissue morphology and non-invasive assessment of microbicide-induced epithelial injury. Methods We evaluated the dose response of sheep cervicovaginal tract to benzalkonium chloride (BZK). Twenty sheep received treatment with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or BZK solution (2%, 0.2%, or 0.02%). Pre- and post-treatment colposcopy and OCT images were collected and graded based on WHO criteria and a previously reported scoring system, respectively. Biopsies were collected and the degree of epithelial injury and its thickness was assessed based on histology and OCT. Results The sheep cervicovagina exhibited anatomical and microscopic features similar to the human. Extensive loss of the epithelium was noted on colposcopy and OCT following application of 2% BZK. Colposcopy detected findings in half of sheep and OCT in all sheep treated with 0.2% BZK. OCT detected differences in the 0.02% BZK-treated group compared to controls whereas colposcopy failed to detect any changes. Conclusions The sheep cervicovagina is similar to humans, and exhibits dose dependent epithelial changes following BZK treatment. These findings suggest that the sheep model and OCT may become valuable tools for the safety evaluation of candidate microbicides, and warrant continued development. Short summary Optical coherence tomography, a high resolution imaging method, used with colposcopy in the sheep cervicovaginal tract detected a dose-dependent response to benzalkonium chloride, demonstrating

  10. High resolution ultrasound elastomicroscopy imaging of soft tissues: system development and feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y. P.; Bridal, S. L.; Shi, J.; Saied, A.; Lu, M. H.; Jaffre, B.; Mak, A. F. T.; Laugier, P.

    2004-09-01

    Research in elasticity imaging typically relies on 1-10 MHz ultrasound. Elasticity imaging at these frequencies can provide strain maps with a resolution in the order of millimetres, but this is not sufficient for applications to skin, articular cartilage or other fine structures. We developed a prototype high resolution elastomicroscopy system consisting of a 50 MHz ultrasound backscatter microscope system and a calibrated compression device using a load cell to measure the pressure applied to the specimen, which was installed between a rigidly fixed face-plate and a specimen platform. Radiofrequency data were acquired in a B-scan format (10 mm wide × 3 mm deep) in specimens of mouse skin and bovine patellar cartilage. The scanning resolution along the B-scan plane direction was 50 µm, and the ultrasound signals were digitized at 500 MHz to achieve a sensitivity better than 1 µm for the axial displacement measurement. Because of elevated attenuation of ultrasound at high frequencies, special consideration was necessary to design a face-plate permitting efficient ultrasound transmission into the specimen and relative uniformity of the compression. Best results were obtained using a thin plastic film to cover a specially shaped slit in the face-plate. Local tissue strain maps were constructed by applying a cross-correlation tracking method to signals obtained at the same site at different compression levels. The speed of sound in the tissue specimen (1589.8 ± 7.8 m s-1 for cartilage and 1532.4 ± 4.4 m s-1 for skin) was simultaneously measured during the compression test. Preliminary results demonstrated that this ultrasound elastomicroscopy technique was able to map deformations of the skin and articular cartilage specimens to high resolution, in the order of 50 µm. This system can also be potentially used for the assessment of other biological tissues, bioengineered tissues or biomaterials with fine structures.

  11. Nano-laminography for three-dimensional high-resolution imaging of flat specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfen, L.; Xu, F.; Suhonen, H.; Urbanelli, L.; Cloetens, P.; Baumbach, T.

    2013-05-01

    Developed for non-destructive three-dimensional (3D) imaging of flat specimens, synchrotron-radiation computed laminography (SR-CL) complements the established method of computed tomography (CT) which is optimised towards rod-like specimens elongated along one direction. SR-CL is realised by the inclination of the tomographic axis with respect to the incident x-ray beam by a defined angle. Its potential for 3D imaging of regions of interests in flat specimens has been demonstrated in various fields of investigation, e.g. in nondestructive device testing, cultural heritage studies, materials science and life sciences. Here we report on the latest developments of SR-CL at the ESRF beamline ID22NI which is dedicated to 3D nano-scale imaging using phase contrast and x-ray fluorescence. For the life sciences, the attractiveness of nano-laminography stems from the ability to study large heterogeneous samples at relatively low resolution in 2D or 3D and, subsequently, to focus on the regions of interest for high resolution 3D imaging.

  12. High-resolution in-depth imaging of optically cleared thick samples using an adaptive SPIM

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Aurore; Escande, Paul; Frongia, Céline; Clouvel, Grégory; Ducommun, Bernard; Lorenzo, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Today, Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (LSFM) makes it possible to image fluorescent samples through depths of several hundreds of microns. However, LSFM also suffers from scattering, absorption and optical aberrations. Spatial variations in the refractive index inside the samples cause major changes to the light path resulting in loss of signal and contrast in the deepest regions, thus impairing in-depth imaging capability. These effects are particularly marked when inhomogeneous, complex biological samples are under study. Recently, chemical treatments have been developed to render a sample transparent by homogenizing its refractive index (RI), consequently enabling a reduction of scattering phenomena and a simplification of optical aberration patterns. One drawback of these methods is that the resulting RI of cleared samples does not match the working RI medium generally used for LSFM lenses. This RI mismatch leads to the presence of low-order aberrations and therefore to a significant degradation of image quality. In this paper, we introduce an original optical-chemical combined method based on an adaptive SPIM and a water-based clearing protocol enabling compensation for aberrations arising from RI mismatches induced by optical clearing methods and acquisition of high-resolution in-depth images of optically cleared complex thick samples such as Multi-Cellular Tumour Spheroids. PMID:26576666

  13. Luminescence studies using high-resolution intensified digital imaging: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castracane, James; Conerty, Michelle; Clow, Lawrence P.; Casscells, S. W.; Engler, David

    1997-06-01

    The use of bio-chemiluminescence immunoassay (BL/CLI) technology for molecular and cellular characterization is rapidly evolving. The excellent selectivity of this method can be exploited to identify the presence and distribution of specific cells. Current work involves the advancement of the required methods and technologies for application to the analysis of vascular wall surfaces. In this effort, various enzyme-linked antibodies are being explored which can be directed to cell surface antigens producing a luminogenic reaction. To aid in the analysis of this light emission, a custom high resolution digital imaging system which couples a multi-megapixel CCD with a specially designed image intensifier is under development. This intensifier system has high spatial resolution and excellent sensitivity in the wavelength region of the candidate BL/CL emissions. The application of this imaging system to BL/CLI requires unique performance characteristics and specialized optical design. Component level electro-optical tests of the imaging system will be presented along with design considerations for an eventual catheter based instrument. Initial in vitro experiments focused on the performance limits of the optical system in discriminating candidate luminogenic reactions. The main objective of these tests is the identification of suitable enzyme catalyzed systems for ultimate application to in vivo vascular tissue and cell diagnosis.

  14. High-resolution positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging of the mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Greco, Adelaide; Fiumara, Giovanni; Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Brunetti, Arturo; Cuocolo, Alberto

    2013-03-01

    Different animal models have been used to reproduce coronary heart disease, but in recent years mice have become the animals of choice, because of their short life cycle and the possibility of genetic manipulation. Various techniques are currently used for cardiovascular imaging in mice, including high-resolution ultrasound, X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear medicine procedures. In particular, molecular imaging with cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) allows non-invasive evaluation of changes in myocardial perfusion, metabolism, apoptosis, inflammation and gene expression or measurement of changes in left ventricular functional parameters. With technological advances, dedicated small laboratory PET/CT imaging has emerged in cardiovascular research, providing in vivo a non-invasive, serial and quantitative assessment of left ventricular function, myocardial perfusion and metabolism at a molecular level. This non-invasive methodology might be useful in longitudinal studies to monitor cardiac biochemical parameters and might facilitate studies to assess the effect of different interventions after acute myocardial ischaemia. PMID:23118016

  15. High-resolution in-depth imaging of optically cleared thick samples using an adaptive SPIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Aurore; Escande, Paul; Frongia, Céline; Clouvel, Grégory; Ducommun, Bernard; Lorenzo, Corinne

    2015-11-01

    Today, Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (LSFM) makes it possible to image fluorescent samples through depths of several hundreds of microns. However, LSFM also suffers from scattering, absorption and optical aberrations. Spatial variations in the refractive index inside the samples cause major changes to the light path resulting in loss of signal and contrast in the deepest regions, thus impairing in-depth imaging capability. These effects are particularly marked when inhomogeneous, complex biological samples are under study. Recently, chemical treatments have been developed to render a sample transparent by homogenizing its refractive index (RI), consequently enabling a reduction of scattering phenomena and a simplification of optical aberration patterns. One drawback of these methods is that the resulting RI of cleared samples does not match the working RI medium generally used for LSFM lenses. This RI mismatch leads to the presence of low-order aberrations and therefore to a significant degradation of image quality. In this paper, we introduce an original optical-chemical combined method based on an adaptive SPIM and a water-based clearing protocol enabling compensation for aberrations arising from RI mismatches induced by optical clearing methods and acquisition of high-resolution in-depth images of optically cleared complex thick samples such as Multi-Cellular Tumour Spheroids.

  16. High-resolution imaging characterization of bladder dynamic morphophysiology by time-lapse optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y. T.; Wu, Q.; Wang, Z. G.; Brink, P. R.; Du, C. W.

    2005-09-01

    We report an experimental study of the possibility of high-speed optical coherence tomography (OCT) for high-resolution imaging characterization of detrusor dynamic morphophysiology and analysis of the mechanisms that lead to geriatric incontinence (GI). The spontaneous contractility of intact fresh rabbit bladders was imaged with two-dimensional (2D) OCT ex vivo at up to 8frames/s. The time-lapse 2D OCT images were postprocessed by image segmentation and fast-Fourier-transform analysis to characterize the dynamic morphological changes of the bladder contractility. In addition, we studied young and aging rat bladders to analyze the differences in dynamics. Preliminary results of our ex vivo study reveal that time-lapse OCT can track the contractile waves of bladders at high spatial resolution and characterize their dynamic morphophysiology in terms of amplitude, phase, and frequency. The results suggest that time-lapse OCT has the potential to act as a detrusor optical biopsy to enhance the diagnosis of detrusor dysfunction and thus of the mechanisms that lead to GI.

  17. Automated Detection of Oil Depots from High Resolution Images: a New Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ok, A. O.; Başeski, E.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents an original approach to identify oil depots from single high resolution aerial/satellite images in an automated manner. The new approach considers the symmetric nature of circular oil depots, and it computes the radial symmetry in a unique way. An automated thresholding method to focus on circular regions and a new measure to verify circles are proposed. Experiments are performed on six GeoEye-1 test images. Besides, we perform tests on 16 Google Earth images of an industrial test site acquired in a time series manner (between the years 1995 and 2012). The results reveal that our approach is capable of detecting circle objects in very different/difficult images. We computed an overall performance of 95.8% for the GeoEye-1 dataset. The time series investigation reveals that our approach is robust enough to locate oil depots in industrial environments under varying illumination and environmental conditions. The overall performance is computed as 89.4% for the Google Earth dataset, and this result secures the success of our approach compared to a state-of-the-art approach.

  18. High-resolution dynamic pressure sensor array based on piezo-phototronic effect tuned photoluminescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mingzeng; Li, Zhou; Liu, Caihong; Zheng, Qiang; Shi, Xieqing; Song, Ming; Zhang, Yang; Du, Shiyu; Zhai, Junyi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-03-24

    A high-resolution dynamic tactile/pressure display is indispensable to the comprehensive perception of force/mechanical stimulations such as electronic skin, biomechanical imaging/analysis, or personalized signatures. Here, we present a dynamic pressure sensor array based on pressure/strain tuned photoluminescence imaging without the need for electricity. Each sensor is a nanopillar that consists of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells. Its photoluminescence intensity can be modulated dramatically and linearly by small strain (0-0.15%) owing to the piezo-phototronic effect. The sensor array has a high pixel density of 6350 dpi and exceptional small standard deviation of photoluminescence. High-quality tactile/pressure sensing distribution can be real-time recorded by parallel photoluminescence imaging without any cross-talk. The sensor array can be inexpensively fabricated over large areas by semiconductor product lines. The proposed dynamic all-optical pressure imaging with excellent resolution, high sensitivity, good uniformity, and ultrafast response time offers a suitable way for smart sensing, micro/nano-opto-electromechanical systems. PMID:25712580

  19. High Resolution Fluorescence Imaging of Cancers Using Lanthanide Ion-Doped Upconverting Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Naccache, Rafik; Rodríguez, Emma Martín; Bogdan, Nicoleta; Sanz-Rodríguez, Francisco; de la Cruz, Maria del Carmen Iglesias; de la Fuente, Ángeles Juarranz; Vetrone, Fiorenzo; Jaque, Daniel; Solé, José García; Capobianco, John A.

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade inorganic luminescent nanoparticles that emit visible light under near infrared (NIR) excitation (in the biological window) have played a relevant role for high resolution imaging of cancer. Indeed, semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and metal nanoparticles, mostly gold nanorods (GNRs), are already commercially available for this purpose. In this work we review the role which is being played by a relatively new class of nanoparticles, based on lanthanide ion doped nanocrystals, to target and image cancer cells using upconversion fluorescence microscopy. These nanoparticles are insulating nanocrystals that are usually doped with small percentages of two different rare earth (lanthanide) ions: The excited donor ions (usually Yb3+ ion) that absorb the NIR excitation and the acceptor ions (usually Er3+, Ho3+ or Tm3+), that are responsible for the emitted visible (or also near infrared) radiation. The higher conversion efficiency of these nanoparticles in respect to those based on QDs and GNRs, as well as the almost independent excitation/emission properties from the particle size, make them particularly promising for fluorescence imaging. The different approaches of these novel nanoparticles devoted to “in vitro” and “in vivo” cancer imaging, selective targeting and treatment are examined in this review. PMID:24213500

  20. DSP accelerator for the wavelet compression/decompression of high- resolution images

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, M.A.; Gleason, S.S.; Jatko, W.B.

    1993-07-23

    A Texas Instruments (TI) TMS320C30-based S-Bus digital signal processing (DSP) module was used to accelerate a wavelet-based compression and decompression algorithm applied to high-resolution fingerprint images. The law enforcement community, together with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NISI), is adopting a standard based on the wavelet transform for the compression, transmission, and decompression of scanned fingerprint images. A two-dimensional wavelet transform of the input image is computed. Then spatial/frequency regions are automatically analyzed for information content and quantized for subsequent Huffman encoding. Compression ratios range from 10:1 to 30:1 while maintaining the level of image quality necessary for identification. Several prototype systems were developed using SUN SPARCstation 2 with a 1280 {times} 1024 8-bit display, 64-Mbyte random access memory (RAM), Tiber distributed data interface (FDDI), and Spirit-30 S-Bus DSP-accelerators from Sonitech. The final implementation of the DSP-accelerated algorithm performed the compression or decompression operation in 3.5 s per print. Further increases in system throughput were obtained by adding several DSP accelerators operating in parallel.

  1. Automatic tissue classification for high-resolution breast CT images based on bilateral filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Fei, Baowei

    2011-03-01

    Breast tissue classification can provide quantitative measurements of breast composition, density and tissue distribution for diagnosis and identification of high-risk patients. In this study, we present an automatic classification method to classify high-resolution dedicated breast CT images. The breast is classified into skin, fat and glandular tissue. First, we use a multiscale bilateral filter to reduce noise and at the same time keep edges on the images. As skin and glandular tissue have similar CT values in breast CT images, we use morphologic operations to get the mask of the skin based on information of its position. Second, we use a modified fuzzy C-mean classification method twice, one for the skin and the other for the fatty and glandular tissue. We compared our classified results with manually segmentation results and used Dice overlap ratios to evaluate our classification method. We also tested our method using added noise in the images. The overlap ratios for glandular tissue were above 94.7% for data from five patients. Evaluation results showed that our method is robust and accurate.

  2. Concept of coherence aperture and pathways toward white light high-resolution correlation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchal, P.; Bouchal, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Self-interference correlation imaging is a recently discovered method that takes advantage of holographic reconstruction when using a spatially incoherent light. Although the temporal coherence of light significantly influences the resolution of the method, it has not been studied either theoretically or experimentally. We present the first systematic study of the resolution in a broadband correlation imaging based on the concept of coherence-induced diffraction. We show that the physical limits of the resolution are reached in a non-dispersive experiment and their examination can be performed by the coherence aperture whose width depends on the coherence length of light and the optical path difference of interfering waves. As the main result, the optimal configuration of the non-dispersive experimental system is found in which the sub-diffraction image resolution previously demonstrated for monochromatic light can be retained even when the white light is used. Dispersion effects that prevent reaching the physical resolution limits are discussed and the dispersion sensitivity of the currently available experiments examined. The proposed concept of the coherence aperture is verified experimentally and its generalization to the concept of the dispersion-induced aperture suggested. As a challenge for future research, possible methods of dispersion elimination are outlined that allow the design of advanced optical systems enabling implementation of the high-resolution white light correlation imaging.

  3. Classification of high resolution satellite images using spatial constraints-based fuzzy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pankaj Pratap; Garg, Rahul Dev

    2014-01-01

    A spatial constraints-based fuzzy clustering technique is introduced in the paper and the target application is classification of high resolution multispectral satellite images. This fuzzy-C-means (FCM) technique enhances the classification results with the help of a weighted membership function (Wmf). Initially, spatial fuzzy clustering (FC) is used to segment the targeted vegetation areas with the surrounding low vegetation areas, which include the information of spatial constraints (SCs). The performance of the FCM image segmentation is subject to appropriate initialization of Wmf and SC. It is able to evolve directly from the initial segmentation by spatial fuzzy clustering. The controlling parameters in fuzziness of the FCM approach, Wmf and SC, help to estimate the segmented road results, then the Stentiford thinning algorithm is used to estimate the road network from the classified results. Such improvements facilitate FCM method manipulation and lead to segmentation that is more robust. The results confirm its effectiveness for satellite image classification, which extracts useful information in suburban and urban areas. The proposed approach, spatial constraint-based fuzzy clustering with a weighted membership function (SCFCWmf), has been used to extract the information of healthy trees with vegetation and shadows showing elevated features in satellite images. The performance values of quality assessment parameters show a good degree of accuracy for segmented roads using the proposed hybrid SCFCWmf-MO (morphological operations) approach which also occluded nonroad parts.

  4. Tomographic Small-Animal Imaging Using a High-Resolution Semiconductor Camera

    PubMed Central

    Kastis, GA; Wu, MC; Balzer, SJ; Wilson, DW; Furenlid, LR; Stevenson, G; Barber, HB; Barrett, HH; Woolfenden, JM; Kelly, P; Appleby, M

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a high-resolution, compact semiconductor camera for nuclear medicine applications. The modular unit has been used to obtain tomographic images of phantoms and mice. The system consists of a 64 x 64 CdZnTe detector array and a parallel-hole tungsten collimator mounted inside a 17 cm x 5.3 cm x 3.7 cm tungsten-aluminum housing. The detector is a 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm x 0.15 cm slab of CdZnTe connected to a 64 x 64 multiplexer readout via indium-bump bonding. The collimator is 7 mm thick, with a 0.38 mm pitch that matches the detector pixel pitch. We obtained a series of projections by rotating the object in front of the camera. The axis of rotation was vertical and about 1.5 cm away from the collimator face. Mouse holders were made out of acrylic plastic tubing to facilitate rotation and the administration of gas anesthetic. Acquisition times were varied from 60 sec to 90 sec per image for a total of 60 projections at an equal spacing of 6 degrees between projections. We present tomographic images of a line phantom and mouse bone scan and assess the properties of the system. The reconstructed images demonstrate spatial resolution on the order of 1–2 mm. PMID:26568676

  5. High resolution deep imaging of a bright radio quiet QSO at z ~ 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Ping; He, Wei; Yamada, Toru; Tanaka, Ichi; Iye, Masanori; Ji, Tuo

    2015-05-01

    We have obtained deep J and Ks-band images centered on a bright radio quiet QSO UM 402 (zem = 2.856) using the IRCS camera and adaptive optics systems that are part of the Subaru Telescope, as well as retrieved WFC3/F140W archive images of this object. A faint galaxy (mk = 23.32±0.05 in the Vega magnitude system) that lies ~ 2.4″ north of the QSO sightline has been clearly resolved in all three deep high resolution datasets, and appears as an irregular galaxy with two close components in the Ks-band images (separation ~ 0.3″). Given the small impact parameter (b = 19.6 kpc, at zlls = 2.531), as well as the red color of (J - Ks)Vega ~ 1.6, it might be a candidate galaxy giving rise to the Lyman Limit system absorption at zabs = 2.531 seen in the QSO spectrum. After carefully subtracting the point spread function from the QSO images, the host galaxy of this bright radio quiet QSO at z ~ 3 was marginally revealed. We placed a lower limit on the host component of mk ~ 23.3 according to our analyses. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  6. Ultra-fast high-resolution hybrid and monolithic CMOS imagers in multi-frame radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, Kris; Douence, Vincent; Bai, Yibin; Nedrow, Paul; Mariam, Fesseha; Merrill, Frank; Morris, Christopher L.; Saunders, Andy

    2014-09-01

    A new burst-mode, 10-frame, hybrid Si-sensor/CMOS-ROIC FPA chip has been recently fabricated at Teledyne Imaging Sensors. The intended primary use of the sensor is in the multi-frame 800 MeV proton radiography at LANL. The basic part of the hybrid is a large (48×49 mm2) stitched CMOS chip of 1100×1100 pixel count, with a minimum shutter speed of 50 ns. The performance parameters of this chip are compared to the first generation 3-frame 0.5-Mpixel custom hybrid imager. The 3-frame cameras have been in continuous use for many years, in a variety of static and dynamic experiments at LANSCE. The cameras can operate with a per-frame adjustable integration time of ~ 120ns-to- 1s, and inter-frame time of 250ns to 2s. Given the 80 ms total readout time, the original and the new imagers can be externally synchronized to 0.1-to-5 Hz, 50-ns wide proton beam pulses, and record up to ~1000-frame radiographic movies typ. of 3-to-30 minute duration. The performance of the global electronic shutter is discussed and compared to that of a high-resolution commercial front-illuminated monolithic CMOS imager.

  7. Objects Grouping for Segmentation of Roads Network in High Resolution Images of Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maboudi, M.; Amini, J.; Hahn, M.

    2016-06-01

    Updated road databases are required for many purposes such as urban planning, disaster management, car navigation, route planning, traffic management and emergency handling. In the last decade, the improvement in spatial resolution of VHR civilian satellite sensors - as the main source of large scale mapping applications - was so considerable that GSD has become finer than size of common urban objects of interest such as building, trees and road parts. This technological advancement pushed the development of "Object-based Image Analysis (OBIA)" as an alternative to pixel-based image analysis methods. Segmentation as one of the main stages of OBIA provides the image objects on which most of the following processes will be applied. Therefore, the success of an OBIA approach is strongly affected by the segmentation quality. In this paper, we propose a purpose-dependent refinement strategy in order to group road segments in urban areas using maximal similarity based region merging. For investigations with the proposed method, we use high resolution images of some urban sites. The promising results suggest that the proposed approach is applicable in grouping of road segments in urban areas.

  8. High resolution confocal imaging of vaginal epithelial microstructure as a means of detecting microbicide toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Gracie; Shilagard, Tuya; Johnston, Rebecca; Bell, Brent; Stegal, Rachael; Vincent, Kathleen; Stanberry, Lawrence; Motamedi, Massoud; Bourne, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    High resolution optical imaging by confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM) was investigated for revealing epithelial microstructure and alterations which may occur from vaginal microbicides. The vaginal tracts of Swiss Webster mice treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate were exposed in vivo to a 4% nonoxynyl-9 containing gel or saline for 4, 16, or 48 hours. The vaginal tract was removed and imaged by CRM without staining and imaged regions were then biopsied and processed for histology. In control mice, CRM revealed columnar epithelium and lamina propria with features resembling that of histology. CRM revealed exfoliated epithelium following 4 and 16 hour N-9 treatments and quantitative measurement of epithelial thickness revealed a decrease from approximately 41.7 ± 1.7 (SEM) in controls to 14.9 ± 4.5 and 24.4 ± 2.1 after 4 and 16 hours, respectively. Indication of inflammation at 4 hours was given through the presence of inflammatory infiltrates. After 48 hours the epithelium was regenerating. The timecourse of change in structure and epithelial thickness detected by CRM closely resembled that observed and measured by histology. This study demonstrates CRM can reveal epithelial structure and indicators of inflammation following treatment with N-9 and may be a useful imaging tool for evaluating effects of microbicides. PMID:19355817

  9. High-resolution image digitizing through 12x3-bit RGB-filtered CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Andrew Y. S.; Pau, Michael C. Y.

    1996-09-01

    A high resolution computer-controlled CCD image capturing system is developed by using a 12 bits 1024 by 1024 pixels CCD camera and motorized RGB filters to grasp an image with color depth up to 36 bits. The filters distinguish the major components of color and collect them separately while the CCD camera maintains the spatial resolution and detector filling factor. The color separation can be done optically rather than electronically. The operation is simply by placing the capturing objects like color photos, slides and even x-ray transparencies under the camera system, the necessary parameters such as integration time, mixing level and light intensity are automatically adjusted by an on-line expert system. This greatly reduces the restrictions of the capturing species. This unique approach can save considerable time for adjusting the quality of image, give much more flexibility of manipulating captured object even if it is a 3D object with minimal setup fixers. In addition, cross sectional dimension of a 3D capturing object can be analyzed by adapting a fiber optic ring light source. It is particularly useful in non-contact metrology of a 3D structure. The digitized information can be stored in an easily transferable format. Users can also perform a special LUT mapping automatically or manually. Applications of the system include medical images archiving, printing quality control, 3D machine vision, and etc.

  10. Inductively-overcoupled coil design for high resolution magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bilgen, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    Background Maintaining the quality of magnetic resonance images acquired with the current implantable coil technology is challenging in longitudinal studies. To overcome this challenge, the principle of 'inductive overcoupling' is introduced as a method to tune and match a dual coil system. This system consists of an imaging coil built with fixed electrical elements and a matching coil equipped with tuning and matching capabilities. Overcoupling here refers to the condition beyond which the peak of the current in the imaging coil splits. Methods The combined coils are coupled inductively to operate like a transformer. Each coil circuit is electrically represented by equivalent lumped-elements. A theoretical analysis is given to identify the frequency response characteristics of the currents in each coil. The predictions from this analysis are translated into experiments and applied to locally image rat spinal cord at 9.4 T using an implantable coil as the imaging coil and an external volume coil as the matching coil. Results The theoretical analysis indicated that strong coupling between the coils divides the resonance peaks on the response curves of the currents. Once these newly generated peaks were tuned and matched to the desired frequency and impedance of operation, in vivo images were acquired from the rat spinal cord at high quality and high resolution. Conclusion After proper implementation, inductive overcoupling provides a unique opportunity for tuning and matching the coil system, and allows reliable and repeatable acquisitions of magnetic resonance data. This feature is likely to be useful in experimental studies, such as those aimed at longitudinally imaging the rat following spinal cord injury. PMID:16401343

  11. Shadow detection improvement using spectral indices and morphological operators in high resolution images from urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, S. C.; Silva, E. A.; Pedrosa, M. M.

    2015-04-01

    While high-resolution remote sensing images have increased application possibilities for urban studies, the large number of shadow areas has created challenges to processing and extracting information from these images. Furthermore, shadows can reduce or omit information from the surface as well as degrading the visual quality of images. The pixels of shadows tend to have lower radiance response within the spectrum and are often confused with low reflectance targets. In this work, a shadow detection method was proposed using a morphological operator for dark pattern identification combined with spectral indices. The aims are to avoid misclassification in shadow identification through properties provided by them on color models and, therefore, to improve shadow detection accuracy. Experimental results were tested applying the panchromatic and multispectral band of WorldView-2 image from Sao Paulo city in Brazil, which is a complex urban environment composed by high objects like tall buildings causing large shadow areas. Black top-hat with area injunction was applied in PAN image and shadow identification performance has improved with index as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Saturation-Value Difference Index (NSDVI) ratio from HSV color space obtained from pansharpened multispectral WV-2 image. An increase in distinction between shadows and others objects was observed, which was tested for the completeness, correctness and quality measures computed, using a created manual shadow mask as reference. Therefore, this method can contribute to overcoming difficulties faced by other techniques that need shadow detection as a first necessary preprocessing step, like object recognition, image matching, 3D reconstruction, etc.

  12. High resolution X-ray fluorescence imaging for a microbeam radiation therapy treatment planning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chtcheprov, Pavel; Inscoe, Christina; Burk, Laurel; Ger, Rachel; Yuan, Hong; Lu, Jianping; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto

    2014-03-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) uses an array of high-dose, narrow (~100 μm) beams separated by a fraction of a millimeter to treat various radio-resistant, deep-seated tumors. MRT has been shown to spare normal tissue up to 1000 Gy of entrance dose while still being highly tumoricidal. Current methods of tumor localization for our MRT treatments require MRI and X-ray imaging with subject motion and image registration that contribute to the measurement error. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel form of imaging to quickly and accurately assist in high resolution target positioning for MRT treatments using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The key to this method is using the microbeam to both treat and image. High Z contrast media is injected into the phantom or blood pool of the subject prior to imaging. Using a collimated spectrum analyzer, the region of interest is scanned through the MRT beam and the fluorescence signal is recorded for each slice. The signal can be processed to show vascular differences in the tissue and isolate tumor regions. Using the radiation therapy source as the imaging source, repositioning and registration errors are eliminated. A phantom study showed that a spatial resolution of a fraction of microbeam width can be achieved by precision translation of the mouse stage. Preliminary results from an animal study showed accurate iodine profusion, confirmed by CT. The proposed image guidance method, using XRF to locate and ablate tumors, can be used as a fast and accurate MRT treatment planning system.

  13. Boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) functionalized carbon nano-onions for high resolution cellular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelmess, Juergen; de Luca, Elisa; Signorelli, Angelo; Baldrighi, Michele; Becce, Michele; Brescia, Rosaria; Nardone, Valentina; Parisini, Emilio; Echegoyen, Luis; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Giordani, Silvia

    2014-10-01

    Carbon nano-onions (CNOs) are an exciting class of carbon nanomaterials, which have recently demonstrated a facile cell-penetration capability. In the present work, highly fluorescent boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes were covalently attached to the surface of CNOs. The introduction of this new carbon nanomaterial-based imaging platform, made of CNOs and BODIPY fluorophores, allows for the exploration of synergetic effects between the two building blocks and for the elucidation of its performance in biological applications. The high fluorescence intensity exhibited by the functionalized CNOs translates into an excellent in vitro probe for the high resolution imaging of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. It was also found that the CNOs, internalized by the cells by endocytosis, localized in the lysosomes and did not show any cytotoxic effects. The presented results highlight CNOs as excellent platforms for biological and biomedical studies due to their low toxicity, efficient cellular uptake and low fluorescence quenching of attached probes.Carbon nano-onions (CNOs) are an exciting class of carbon nanomaterials, which have recently demonstrated a facile cell-penetration capability. In the present work, highly fluorescent boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes were covalently attached to the surface of CNOs. The introduction of this new carbon nanomaterial-based imaging platform, made of CNOs and BODIPY fluorophores, allows for the exploration of synergetic effects between the two building blocks and for the elucidation of its performance in biological applications. The high fluorescence intensity exhibited by the functionalized CNOs translates into an excellent in vitro probe for the high resolution imaging of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. It was also found that the CNOs, internalized by the cells by endocytosis, localized in the lysosomes and did not show any cytotoxic effects. The presented results highlight CNOs as excellent platforms for biological and biomedical

  14. Design and development of a high resolution animal SPECT scanner dedicated for rat and mouse imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajedi, Salar; Zeraatkar, Navid; Moji, Vahideh; Farahani, Mohammad Hossein; Sarkar, Saeed; Arabi, Hossein; Teymoorian, Behnoosh; Ghafarian, Pardis; Rahmim, Arman; Reza Ay, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    A dedicated small-animal SPECT system, HiReSPECT, was designed and developed to provide a high resolution molecular imaging modality in response to growing research demands. HiReSPECT is a dual-head system mounted on a rotating gantry. The detection system is based on pixelated CsI(Na) scintillator crystals coupled to two Hamamatsu H8500 Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tubes in each head. Also, a high resolution parallel-hole collimator is applied to every head. The dimensions of each head are 50 mm×100 mm, enabling sufficient transaxial and axial fields-of-view (TFOV and AFOV), respectively, for coverage of the entire mouse in single-bed position imaging. However, a 50 mm TFOV is not sufficient for transaxial coverage of rats. To address this, each head can be rotated by 90 degrees in order to align the larger dimension of the heads with the short body axis, allowing tomographic data acquisition for rats. An innovative non-linear recursive filter was used for signal processing/detection. Resolution recovery was also embedded in the modified Maximum-Likelihood Expectation Maximization (MLEM) image reconstruction code to compensate for Collimator-Detector Response (CDR). Moreover, an innovative interpolation algorithm was developed to speed up the reconstruction code. The planar spatial resolution at the head surface and the image spatial resolutions were 1.7 mm and 1.2-1.6 mm, respectively. The measurements followed by post-processing showed that the observed count rate at 20% count loss is about 42 kcps. The system sensitivity at the collimator surface for heads 1 and 2 were 1.32 cps/μCi and 1.25 cps/μCi, respectively. The corresponding values were 1.18 cps/μCi and 1.02 cps/μCi at 8 cm distance from the collimator surfaces. In addition, whole-body scans of mice demonstrated appropriate imaging capability of the HiReSPECT.

  15. A Rapid Approach to High-Resolution Fluorescence Imaging in Semi-Thick Brain Slices

    PubMed Central

    Selever, Jennifer; Kong, Jian-Qiang; Arenkiel, Benjamin R.

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental goal to both basic and clinical neuroscience is to better understand the identities, molecular makeup, and patterns of connectivity that are characteristic to neurons in both normal and diseased brain. Towards this, a great deal of effort has been placed on building high-resolution neuroanatomical maps1-3. With the expansion of molecular genetics and advances in light microscopy has come the ability to query not only neuronal morphologies, but also the molecular and cellular makeup of individual neurons and their associated networks4. Major advances in the ability to mark and manipulate neurons through transgenic and gene targeting technologies in the rodent now allow investigators to 'program' neuronal subsets at will5-6. Arguably, one of the most influential contributions to contemporary neuroscience has been the discovery and cloning of genes encoding fluorescent proteins (FPs) in marine invertebrates7-8, alongside their subsequent engineering to yield an ever-expanding toolbox of vital reporters9. Exploiting cell type-specific promoter activity to drive targeted FP expression in discrete neuronal populations now affords neuroanatomical investigation with genetic precision. Engineering FP expression in neurons has vastly improved our understanding of brain structure and function. However, imaging individual neurons and their associated networks in deep brain tissues, or in three dimensions, has remained a challenge. Due to high lipid content, nervous tissue is rather opaque and exhibits auto fluorescence. These inherent biophysical properties make it difficult to visualize and image fluorescently labelled neurons at high resolution using standard epifluorescent or confocal microscopy beyond depths of tens of microns. To circumvent this challenge investigators often employ serial thin-section imaging and reconstruction methods10, or 2-photon laser scanning microscopy11. Current drawbacks to these approaches are the associated labor-intensive tissue

  16. High Resolution/High Fidelity Seismic Imaging and Parameter Estimation for Geological Structure and Material Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Ru-Shan Wu; Xiao-Bi Xie

    2008-06-08

    Our proposed work on high resolution/high fidelity seismic imaging focused on three general areas: (1) development of new, more efficient, wave-equation-based propagators and imaging conditions, (2) developments towards amplitude-preserving imaging in the local angle domain, in particular, imaging methods that allow us to estimate the reflection as a function of angle at a layer boundary, and (3) studies of wave inversion for local parameter estimation. In this report we summarize the results and progress we made during the project period. The report is divided into three parts, totaling 10 chapters. The first part is on resolution analysis and its relation to directional illumination analysis. The second part, which is composed of 6 chapters, is on the main theme of our work, the true-reflection imaging. True-reflection imaging is an advanced imaging technology which aims at keeping the image amplitude proportional to the reflection strength of the local reflectors or to obtain the reflection coefficient as function of reflection-angle. There are many factors which may influence the image amplitude, such as geometrical spreading, transmission loss, path absorption, acquisition aperture effect, etc. However, we can group these into two categories: one is the propagator effect (geometric spreading, path losses); the other is the acquisition-aperture effect. We have made significant progress in both categories. We studied the effects of different terms in the true-amplitude one-way propagators, especially the terms including lateral velocity variation of the medium. We also demonstrate the improvements by optimizing the expansion coefficients in different terms. Our research also includes directional illumination analysis for both the one-way propagators and full-wave propagators. We developed the fast acquisition-aperture correction method in the local angle-domain, which is an important element in the true-reflection imaging. Other developments include the super

  17. Water Extraction in High Resolution Remote Sensing Image Based on Hierarchical Spectrum and Shape Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bangyu; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Fanjiang

    2014-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of water extraction from high resolution remote sensing images (including R, G, B, and NIR channels), which draws considerable attention in recent years. Previous work on water extraction mainly faced two difficulties. 1) It is difficult to obtain accurate position of water boundary because of using low resolution images. 2) Like all other image based object classification problems, the phenomena of "different objects same image" or "different images same object" affects the water extraction. Shadow of elevated objects (e.g. buildings, bridges, towers and trees) scattered in the remote sensing image is a typical noise objects for water extraction. In many cases, it is difficult to discriminate between water and shadow in a remote sensing image, especially in the urban region. We propose a water extraction method with two hierarchies: the statistical feature of spectral characteristic based on image segmentation and the shape feature based on shadow removing. In the first hierarchy, the Statistical Region Merging (SRM) algorithm is adopted for image segmentation. The SRM includes two key steps: one is sorting adjacent regions according to a pre-ascertained sort function, and the other one is merging adjacent regions based on a pre-ascertained merging predicate. The sort step is done one time during the whole processing without considering changes caused by merging which may cause imprecise results. Therefore, we modify the SRM with dynamic sort processing, which conducts sorting step repetitively when there is large adjacent region changes after doing merging. To achieve robust segmentation, we apply the merging region with six features (four remote sensing image bands, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), and Normalized Saturation-value Difference Index (NSVDI)). All these features contribute to segment image into region of object. NDWI and NSVDI are discriminate between water and some shadows. In the second hierarchy, we adopt

  18. An Innovative Combination of Fiber Scrambling and Image Slicing for High Resolution Spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Zachary; Spronck, J. F. P.; Fischer, D. A.; Schwab, C.

    2012-05-01

    The detection of Earth-like exoplanets with the radial velocity method requires extreme Doppler precision and long-term stability in order to measure tiny reflex velocities in the host star. Recent planet searches have led to the detection of so called “super-Earths” (up to a few Earth masses) that induce radial velocity changes of about 1 m/s. However, the detection of true Earth analogs requires a precision of 10 cm/s. Image slicers have been used since 1938 to increase spectral resolution of the spectrograph while minimizing light losses by “slicing” the star image into a spot of less width and greater length. However, slicing the image creates a multiple-peak order in the cross-dispersion direction, which ultimately impacts modeling of the extracted spectrum. Here we present the design of a modified Bowen-Walraven type image slicer that re-images the sliced spot onto a rectangular optical fiber, using the exit of that fiber to feed a spectrograph. Such a fiber preserves the narrow width in the image plane while creating stable illumination in the pupil plane. The fiber also provides good scrambling of the incoming light. Scrambling refers to a fiber’s ability to produce an output beam independent of input. This is of particular importance for precise radial velocities, as fiber scramblers help to decouple the spectrograph from errors such as guiding, focusing or seeing changes; thus improving the spectrograph stability. The resulting pseudo-slit is half the original slit width, doubling the spectral resolution while eliminating losses associated with a narrow slit. Such a design could be implemented on many current high resolution spectrographs. We acknowledge the support of the Planetary Society, NSF and NASA.

  19. A new method of inshore ship detection in high-resolution optical remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qifeng; Du, Yaling; Jiang, Yunqiu; Ming, Delie

    2015-10-01

    Ship as an important military target and water transportation, of which the detection has great significance. In the military field, the automatic detection of ships can be used to monitor ship dynamic in the harbor and maritime of enemy, and then analyze the enemy naval power. In civilian field, the automatic detection of ships can be used in monitoring transportation of harbor and illegal behaviors such as illegal fishing, smuggling and pirates, etc. In recent years, research of ship detection is mainly concentrated in three categories: forward-looking infrared images, downward-looking SAR image, and optical remote sensing images with sea background. Little research has been done into ship detection of optical remote sensing images with harbor background, as the gray-scale and texture features of ships are similar to the coast in high-resolution optical remote sensing images. In this paper, we put forward an effective harbor ship target detection method. First of all, in order to overcome the shortage of the traditional difference method in obtaining histogram valley as the segmentation threshold, we propose an iterative histogram valley segmentation method which separates the harbor and ships from the water quite well. Secondly, as landing ships in optical remote sensing images usually lead to discontinuous harbor edges, we use Hough Transform method to extract harbor edges. First, lines are detected by Hough Transform. Then, lines that have similar slope are connected into a new line, thus we access continuous harbor edges. Secondary segmentation on the result of the land-and-sea separation, we eventually get the ships. At last, we calculate the aspect ratio of the ROIs, thereby remove those targets which are not ship. The experiment results show that our method has good robustness and can tolerate a certain degree of noise and occlusion.

  20. An image of the Columbia Plateau from inversion of high-resolution seismic data

    SciTech Connect

    Lutter, W.J.; Catchings, R.D. ); Jarchow, C.M. )

    1994-08-01

    The authors use a method of traveltime inversion of high-resolution seismic data to provide the first reliable images of internal details of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), the subsurface basalt/sediment interface, and the deeper sediment/basement interface. Velocity structure within the basalts, delineated on the order of 1 km horizontally and 0.2 km vertically, is constrained to within [plus minus]0.1 km/s for most of the seismic profile. Over 5,000 observed traveltimes fit their model with an rms error of 0.018 s. The maximum depth of penetration of the basalt diving waves (truncated by underlying low-velocity sediments) provides a reliable estimate of the depth to the base of the basalt, which agrees with well-log measurements to within 0.05 km (165 ft). The authors use image blurring, calculated from the resolution matrix, to estimate the aspect ratio of images velocity anomaly widths to true widths for velocity features within the basalt. From their calculations of image blurring, they interpret low velocity zones (LVZ) within the basalts at Boylston Mountain and the Whiskey Dick anticline to have widths of 4.5 and 3 km, respectively, within the upper 1.5 km of the model. At greater depth, the widths of these imaged LVZs thin to approximately 2 km or less. They interpret these linear, subparallel, low-velocity zones imaged adjacent to anticlines of the Yakima Fold Belt to be brecciated fault zones. These fault zones dip to the south at angles between 15 to 45 degrees.

  1. High Resolution Airborne Laser Scanning and Hyperspectral Imaging with a Small Uav Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallay, Michal; Eck, Christoph; Zgraggen, Carlo; Kaňuk, Ján; Dvorný, Eduard

    2016-06-01

    The capabilities of unmanned airborne systems (UAS) have become diverse with the recent development of lightweight remote sensing instruments. In this paper, we demonstrate our custom integration of the state-of-the-art technologies within an unmanned aerial platform capable of high-resolution and high-accuracy laser scanning, hyperspectral imaging, and photographic imaging. The technological solution comprises the latest development of a completely autonomous, unmanned helicopter by Aeroscout, the Scout B1-100 UAV helicopter. The helicopter is powered by a gasoline two-stroke engine and it allows for integrating 18 kg of a customized payload unit. The whole system is modular providing flexibility of payload options, which comprises the main advantage of the UAS. The UAS integrates two kinds of payloads which can be altered. Both payloads integrate a GPS/IMU with a dual GPS antenna configuration provided by OXTS for accurate navigation and position measurements during the data acquisition. The first payload comprises a VUX-1 laser scanner by RIEGL and a Sony A6000 E-Mount photo camera. The second payload for hyperspectral scanning integrates a push-broom imager AISA KESTREL 10 by SPECIM. The UAS was designed for research of various aspects of landscape dynamics (landslides, erosion, flooding, or phenology) in high spectral and spatial resolution.

  2. Moving target imaging by both Ka-band and Ku-band high-resolution radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunhua; Zhai, Wenshuai; Zhang, Xiangkun; Shi, Xiaojin; Gu, Xiang; Jiang, Jingshan

    2011-11-01

    The experimental work on testing the wide-band transmitters and receivers developed for Ka-band and Ku-band radar systems, as well as the signal processing algorithms were introduced. A city light-railway train was selected as the imaged target. The wide-band transmitters and receivers were designed based on the stepped-frequency chirp signal (SFCS) with 2GHz bandwidth synthesized. The Super-SVA technique was used to deal with the case of transmitting SFCS with band gaps between subchirps for purpose of achieving the same bandwidth using as less as possible subpulses. Both Ka-band and Ku-band high-resolution radar images were obtained, which show that Ka-band images are much clear than that of Ku-band as we expect. There are two reasons to explaining this, one reason is due to the electromagnetic scattering of train itself are different for Ka-band and Ku-band frequencies, and the other reason is due to the interactions, i.e. multi-reflection or multi-scattering between the train and the side metal fences or the lamp post are different.

  3. Image tiling for a high-resolution helmet-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Russell M.; Pradhan, Ranjit D.; Aye, Tin M.; Chua, Kang-Bin; Tengara, Indra; Tun, Nay; Win, Tin; Holmstedt, Jason; Schindler, Axel; Hergert, Steffen

    2005-05-01

    Head-mounted or helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) have long proven invaluable for many military applications. Integrated with head position, orientation, and/or eye-tracking sensors, HMDs can be powerful tools for training. For such training applications as flight simulation, HMDs need to be lightweight and compact with good center-of-gravity characteristics, and must display realistic full-color imagery with eye-limited resolution and large field-of-view (FOV) so that the pilot sees a truly realistic out-the-window scene. Under bright illumination, the resolution of the eye is ~300 μr (1 arc-min), setting the minimum HMD resolution. There are several methods of achieving this resolution, including increasing the number of individual pixels on a CRT or LCD display, thereby increasing the size, weight, and complexity of the HMD; dithering the image to provide an apparent resolution increase at the cost of reduced frame rate; and tiling normal resolution subimages into a single, larger high-resolution image. Physical Optics Corporation (POC) is developing a 5120 × 4096 pixel HMD covering 1500 × 1200 mr with resolution of 300 μr by tiling 20 subimages, each of which has a resolution of 1024 × 1024 pixels, in a 5 × 4 array. We present theory and results of our preliminary development of this HMD, resulting in a 4k × 1k image tiled from 16 subimages, each with resolution 512 × 512, in an 8 × 2 array.

  4. High-resolution glacier imaging and characterization by means of GPR attribute analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenke; Forte, Emanuele; Colucci, Renato R.; Pipan, Michele

    2016-06-01

    We evaluate the applicability and the effectiveness of GPR attribute analysis for high-resolution glacier imaging and characterization, testing this approach on 4-D GPR multi-frequency data collected in a small glacier in the Eastern Alps, by repeating the acquisition along the same profiles in four different periods of the year 2013. The main objectives are to image and characterize the glacier's inner structure and to quantitatively monitor the seasonal thawing of near-surface frozen materials (snow/firn). A multi-attribute approach is used to characterize the subsurface through different attribute categories, including instantaneous, and textural attributes considering not only amplitude-, phase- and frequency-related attributes, but also other more complex and integrated parameters. We combine information from more than one attribute into a single image with composite displays, using overlays or mixed displays. The results demonstrate that the developed GPR attribute analysis can provide significant improvements in the discrimination of GPR signals, and obtain enhanced and more constrained data interpretations.

  5. High-resolution glacier imaging and characterization by means of GPR attribute analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenke; Forte, Emanuele; Colucci, Renato R.; Pipan, Michele

    2016-08-01

    We evaluate the applicability and the effectiveness of GPR attribute analysis for high-resolution glacier imaging and characterization, testing this approach on 4-D GPR multifrequency data collected in a small glacier in the Eastern Alps, by repeating the acquisition along the same profiles in four different periods of the year 2013. The main objectives are to image and characterize the glacier's inner structure and to quantitatively monitor the seasonal thawing of near-surface frozen materials (snow/firn). A multiattribute approach is used to characterize the subsurface through different attribute categories, including instantaneous and textural attributes considering not only amplitude-, phase- and frequency-related attributes, but also other more complex and integrated parameters. We combine information from more than one attribute into a single image with composite displays, using overlays or mixed displays. The results demonstrate that the developed GPR attribute analysis can provide signific