Science.gov

Sample records for high-resolution snapshot imaging

  1. High-intensity x-ray holography: an approach to high-resolution snapshot imaging of biological specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Solem, J.C.

    1982-08-01

    The crucial physical and technological issues pertaining to the holographic imaging of biological structures with a short-pulse, high-intensity, high-quantum-energy laser were examined. The limitations of x-ray optics are discussed. Alternative holographic techniques were considered, and it was concluded that far-field Fresnel transform holography (Fraunhofer holography) using a photoresist recording surface is most tractable with near term technology. The hydrodynamic expansion of inhomogeneities within the specimen is discussed. It is shown that expansion is the major source of image blurring. Analytic expressions were derived for the explosion of protein concentrations in an x-ray transparent cytoplasm, compared with numerical calculations, and corrections derived to account for the competitive transport processes by which these inhomogeneities lose energy. It is concluded that for the near term Fresnel transform holography, particularly, far-field or Fraunhofer holography, is more practical than Fourier transform holography. Of the alternative fine grain recording media for use with Fresnel transform holography, a photo-resist is most attractive. For best resolution, exposure times must be limited to a few picoseconds, and this calls for investigation of mechanisms to shutter the laser or gate the recording surface. The best contrast ratio between the nitrogen-bearing polymers (protein and the nucleic acids) and water is between the K-edges of oxygen and nitrogen.

  2. High-intensity X-ray holography: An approach to high-resolution snapshot imaging of biological specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solem, J. C.

    1982-08-01

    The crucial physical and technological issues pertaining to the holographic imaging of biological structures with a short pulse, high intensity, high quantum energy laser were examined. The limitations of X-ray optics are discussed. Alternative holographic techniques were considered, and it was concluded that far field Fresnel transform holography (Fraunhofer holography) using a photoresist recording surface is most tractable with near term technology. The hydrodynamic expansion of inhomogeneities within the specimen is discussed. It is shown that expansion is the major source of image blurring. Analytic expressions were derived for the explosion of protein concentrations in an X-ray transparent cytoplasm, compared with numerical calculations, and corrections derived to account for the competitive transport processes by which these inhomogeneities lose energy. It is concluded that for the near term Fresnel transform holography, particularly, far field or Fraunhofer holography, is more practical than Fourier transform holography. Of the altenative fine grain recording media for use with Fresnel transform holography, a photo resist is most attractive.

  3. High-resolution structure of viruses from random diffraction snapshots

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinizadeh, A.; Schwander, P.; Dashti, A.; Fung, R.; D'Souza, R. M.; Ourmazd, A.

    2014-01-01

    The advent of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) has made it possible to record diffraction snapshots of biological entities injected into the X-ray beam before the onset of radiation damage. Algorithmic means must then be used to determine the snapshot orientations and thence the three-dimensional structure of the object. Existing Bayesian approaches are limited in reconstruction resolution typically to 1/10 of the object diameter, with the computational expense increasing as the eighth power of the ratio of diameter to resolution. We present an approach capable of exploiting object symmetries to recover three-dimensional structure to high resolution, and thus reconstruct the structure of the satellite tobacco necrosis virus to atomic level. Our approach offers the highest reconstruction resolution for XFEL snapshots to date and provides a potentially powerful alternative route for analysis of data from crystalline and nano-crystalline objects. PMID:24914154

  4. High Resolution Doppler Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Paul B.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on UARS spacecraft during the period 4/l/96 - 3/31/99. During this period, HRDI operation, data processing, and data analysis continued, and there was a high level of vitality in the HRDI project. The HRDI has been collecting data from the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere since instrument activation on October 1, 1991. The HRDI team has stressed three areas since operations commenced: 1) operation of the instrument in a manner which maximizes the quality and versatility of the collected data; 2) algorithm development and validation to produce a high-quality data product; and 3) scientific studies, primarily of the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. There has been no significant degradation in the HRDI instrument since operations began nearly 8 years ago. HRDI operations are fairly routine, although we have continued to look for ways to improve the quality of the scientific product, either by improving existing modes, or by designing new ones. The HRDI instrument has been programmed to collect data for new scientific studies, such as measurements of fluorescence from plants, measuring cloud top heights, and lower atmosphere H2O.

  5. High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, Jeff; Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    1990-01-01

    Earth resources observed in greater detail. High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, undergoing development for use in NASA's Earth Observing System, measures reflectance of Earth's surface in visible and near-infrared wavelengths. From an orbit around Earth, instrument scans surface of Earth in 200 wavelength bands simultaneously. Produces images enabling identification of minerals in rocks and soils, important algal pigments in oceans and inland waters, changes in spectra associated with biochemistry of plant canopies, compositions of atmospheric aerosols, sizes of grains in snow, and contamination of snow by impurities that absorb visible light.

  6. High resolution laser imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyle, Thomas G.

    1989-07-01

    Computations indicate that a synthetic aperture laser imaging system can provide images with 10-cm resolution at satellite ranges using a 10-W CW laser. When imaging satellites from the ground, the synthetic aperture system reduces atmospheric degradations. The system uses 20-cm diam receiver optics. The low laser power is made possible by using separate transmitter and receiver optics and coded pulses with a 50 percent transmitter duty cycle. The coded pulses are derived from Hadamard matrices for which there is an efficient algorithm to transform the received data into images. The synthetic aperture yields spatial resolutions independent of range, and the coded pulses result in an effective range dependence of r exp-2 instead of r exp-4.

  7. Semiconductor crystal high resolution imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Craig S. (Inventor); Matteson, James (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A radiation imaging device (10). The radiation image device (10) comprises a subject radiation station (12) producing photon emissions (14), and at least one semiconductor crystal detector (16) arranged in an edge-on orientation with respect to the emitted photons (14) to directly receive the emitted photons (14) and produce a signal. The semiconductor crystal detector (16) comprises at least one anode and at least one cathode that produces the signal in response to the emitted photons (14).

  8. Fiber optic snapshot hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansur, David J.; Rentz Dupuis, Julia; Vaillancourt, Robert

    2012-06-01

    OPTRA is developing a snapshot hyperspectral imager (HSI) employing a fiber optic bundle and dispersive spectrometer. The fiber optic bundle converts a broadband spatial image to an array of fiber columns which serve as multiple entrance slits to a prism spectrometer. The dispersed spatially resolved spectra are then sampled by a two-dimensional focal plane array (FPA) at a greater than 30 Hz update rate, thereby qualifying the system as snapshot. Unlike snapshot HSI systems based on computed tomography or coded apertures, our approach requires only the remapping of the FPA frame into hyperspectral cubes rather than a complex reconstruction. Our system has high radiometric efficiency and throughput supporting sufficient signal to noise for hyperspectral imaging measurements made over very short integration times (< 33 ms). The overall approach is compact, low cost, and contains no moving parts, making it ideal for unmanned airborne surveillance. In this paper we present a preliminary design for the fiber optic snapshot HSI system.

  9. Pyramidal fractal dimension for high resolution images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Ahammer, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Fractal analysis (FA) should be able to yield reliable and fast results for high-resolution digital images to be applicable in fields that require immediate outcomes. Triggered by an efficient implementation of FA for binary images, we present three new approaches for fractal dimension (D) estimation of images that utilize image pyramids, namely, the pyramid triangular prism, the pyramid gradient, and the pyramid differences method (PTPM, PGM, PDM). We evaluated the performance of the three new and five standard techniques when applied to images with sizes up to 8192 × 8192 pixels. By using artificial fractal images created by three different generator models as ground truth, we determined the scale ranges with minimum deviations between estimation and theory. All pyramidal methods (PM) resulted in reasonable D values for images of all generator models. Especially, for images with sizes ≥1024 ×1024 pixels, the PMs are superior to the investigated standard approaches in terms of accuracy and computation time. A measure for the possibility to differentiate images with different intrinsic D values did show not only that the PMs are well suited for all investigated image sizes, and preferable to standard methods especially for larger images, but also that results of standard D estimation techniques are strongly influenced by the image size. Fastest results were obtained with the PDM and PGM, followed by the PTPM. In terms of absolute D values best performing standard methods were magnitudes slower than the PMs. Concluding, the new PMs yield high quality results in short computation times and are therefore eligible methods for fast FA of high-resolution images.

  10. Pyramidal fractal dimension for high resolution images.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Ahammer, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Fractal analysis (FA) should be able to yield reliable and fast results for high-resolution digital images to be applicable in fields that require immediate outcomes. Triggered by an efficient implementation of FA for binary images, we present three new approaches for fractal dimension (D) estimation of images that utilize image pyramids, namely, the pyramid triangular prism, the pyramid gradient, and the pyramid differences method (PTPM, PGM, PDM). We evaluated the performance of the three new and five standard techniques when applied to images with sizes up to 8192 × 8192 pixels. By using artificial fractal images created by three different generator models as ground truth, we determined the scale ranges with minimum deviations between estimation and theory. All pyramidal methods (PM) resulted in reasonable D values for images of all generator models. Especially, for images with sizes ≥1024×1024 pixels, the PMs are superior to the investigated standard approaches in terms of accuracy and computation time. A measure for the possibility to differentiate images with different intrinsic D values did show not only that the PMs are well suited for all investigated image sizes, and preferable to standard methods especially for larger images, but also that results of standard D estimation techniques are strongly influenced by the image size. Fastest results were obtained with the PDM and PGM, followed by the PTPM. In terms of absolute D values best performing standard methods were magnitudes slower than the PMs. Concluding, the new PMs yield high quality results in short computation times and are therefore eligible methods for fast FA of high-resolution images. PMID:27475069

  11. Information extraction from high resolution satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haiping; Luo, Jiancheng; Shen, Zhanfeng; Xia, Liegang

    2014-11-01

    Information extracted from high resolution satellite images, such as roads, buildings, water and vegetation, has a wide range of applications in disaster assessment and environmental monitoring. At present, object oriented supervised learning is usually used in the objects identification from the high spatial resolution satellite images. In classical ways, we have to label some regions of interests from every image to be classified at first, which is labor intensive. In this paper, we build a feature base for information extraction in order to reduce the labeling efforts. The features stored are regulated and labeled. The labeled samples for a new coming image can be selected from the feature base. And the experiments are taken on GF-1 and ZY-3 images. The results show the feasibility of the feature base for image interpretation.

  12. Limiting liability via high resolution image processing

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwade, L.E.; Overlin, T.K.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as `evidence ready`, even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  13. High resolution multimodal clinical ophthalmic imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Mujat, Mircea; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Patel, Ankit H.; Iftimia, Nicusor; Lue, Niyom; Hammer, Daniel X.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a multimodal adaptive optics (AO) retinal imager which is the first to combine high performance AO-corrected scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and swept source Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) imaging modes in a single compact clinical prototype platform. Such systems are becoming ever more essential to vision research and are expected to prove their clinical value for diagnosis of retinal diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and retinitis pigmentosa. The SSOCT channel operates at a wavelength of 1 µm for increased penetration and visualization of the choriocapillaris and choroid, sites of major disease activity for DR and wet AMD. This AO system is designed for use in clinical populations; a dual deformable mirror (DM) configuration allows simultaneous low- and high-order aberration correction over a large range of refractions and ocular media quality. The system also includes a wide field (33 deg.) line scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) for initial screening, target identification, and global orientation, an integrated retinal tracker (RT) to stabilize the SLO, OCT, and LSO imaging fields in the presence of lateral eye motion, and a high-resolution LCD-based fixation target for presentation of visual cues. The system was tested in human subjects without retinal disease for performance optimization and validation. We were able to resolve and quantify cone photoreceptors across the macula to within ~0.5 deg (~100-150 µm) of the fovea, image and delineate ten retinal layers, and penetrate to resolve features deep into the choroid. The prototype presented here is the first of a new class of powerful flexible imaging platforms that will provide clinicians and researchers with high-resolution, high performance adaptive optics imaging to help guide therapies, develop new drugs, and improve patient outcomes. PMID:20589021

  14. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

    DOEpatents

    Paulus, Michael J.; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Gleason, Shaun S.; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2002-01-01

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  15. LWIR Snapshot Imaging Polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Robert E Sampson

    2009-04-01

    This report describes the results of a phase 1 STTR to design a longwave infrared imaging polarimeter. The system design, expected performance and components needed to construct the imaging polarimeter are described. Expected performance is modeled and sytem specifications are presented.

  16. High-resolution microwave images of saturn.

    PubMed

    Grossman, A W; Muhleman, D O; Berge, G L

    1989-09-15

    An analysis of high-resolution microwave images of Saturn and Saturn's individual rings is presented. Radio interferometric observations of Saturn taken at the Very Large Array in New Mexico at wavelengths of 2 and 6 centimeters reveal interesting new features in both the atmosphere and rings. The resulting maps show an increase in brightness temperature of about 3 K from equator to pole at both wavelengths, while the 6-centimeter map shows a bright band at northern mid-latitudes. The data are consistent with a radiative transfer model of the atmosphere that constrains the well-mixed, fully saturated, NH(3) mixing ratio to be 1.2 x 10(-4) in a region just below the NH(3) clouds, while the observed bright band indicates a 25 percent relative decrease of NH(3) in northern mid-latitudes. Brightness temperatures for the classical rings are presented. Ring brightness shows a variation with azimuth and is linearly polarized at an average value of about 5 percent. The variations in ring polarization suggest that at least 20 percent of the ring brightness is the result of a single scattering process. PMID:17747882

  17. Holographic high-resolution endoscopic image recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1991-03-01

    Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help

  18. High-resolution imaging using endoscopic holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1990-08-01

    Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help to their control. 1.

  19. Snapshot colored compressive spectral imager.

    PubMed

    Correa, Claudia V; Arguello, Henry; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2015-10-01

    Traditional spectral imaging approaches require sensing all the voxels of a scene. Colored mosaic FPA detector-based architectures can acquire sets of the scene's spectral components, but the number of spectral planes depends directly on the number of available filters used on the FPA, which leads to reduced spatiospectral resolutions. Instead of sensing all the voxels of the scene, compressive spectral imaging (CSI) captures coded and dispersed projections of the spatiospectral source. This approach mitigates the resolution issues by exploiting optical phenomena in lenses and other elements, which, in turn, compromise the portability of the devices. This paper presents a compact snapshot colored compressive spectral imager (SCCSI) that exploits the benefits of the colored mosaic FPA detectors and the compression capabilities of CSI sensing techniques. The proposed optical architecture has no moving parts and can capture the spatiospectral information of a scene in a single snapshot by using a dispersive element and a color-patterned detector. The optical and the mathematical models of SCCSI are presented along with a testbed implementation of the system. Simulations and real experiments show the accuracy of SCCSI and compare the reconstructions with those of similar CSI optical architectures, such as the CASSI and SSCSI systems, resulting in improvements of up to 6 dB and 1 dB of PSNR, respectively. PMID:26479928

  20. Longwave infrared snapshot imaging spectropolarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumiller, Riley

    The goal of this dissertation research is to develop and demonstrate a functioning snapshot imaging spectropolarimeter for the long wavelength infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum (wavelengths from 8-12 microns). Such an optical system will be able to simultaneously measure both the spectral and polarimetric signatures of all the spatial locations/targets in a scene with just a single integration period of a camera. This will be accomplished by combining the use of computed tomographic imaging spectrometry (CTIS) and channeled spectropolarimetry. The proposed system will be the first instrument of this type specifically designed to operate in the long wavelength infrared region, as well as being the first demonstration of such a system using an uncooled infrared focal plane array. In addition to the design and construction of the proof-of-concept snapshot imaging spectropolarimeter LWIR system, the dissertation research will also focus on a variety of methods on improving CTIS system performance. These enhancements will include some newly proposed methods of system design, calibration, and reconstruction aimed at improving the speed of reconstructions allowing for the first demonstration of a CTIS system capable of computing reconstructions in real time.

  1. High resolution imaging of boron carbide microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, I.D.R.; Aselage, T.; Van Deusen, S.B.

    1985-08-01

    Two samples of boron carbide have been examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A hot-pressed B/sub 13/C/sub 2/ sample shows a high density of variable width twins normal to (10*1). Subtle shifts or offsets of lattice fringes along the twin plane and normal to approx.(10*5) were also observed. A B/sub 4/C powder showed little evidence of stacking disorder in crystalline regions.

  2. High resolution imaging of boron carbide microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    MacKinnon, I.D.R.; Aselage, T.; Van Deusen, S.B.

    1986-04-15

    Two samples of boron carbide have been examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A hot-pressed B/sub 13/C/sub 2/ sample shows a high density of variable width twins normal to (10*1). Subtle shifts or offsets of lattice fringes along the twin plane and normal to approx.(10*5) were also observed. A B/sub 4/C powder showed little evidence of stacking disorder in crystalline regions.

  3. High-resolution ophthalmic imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Olivier, Scot S.; Carrano, Carmen J.

    2007-12-04

    A system for providing an improved resolution retina image comprising an imaging camera for capturing a retina image and a computer system operatively connected to the imaging camera, the computer producing short exposures of the retina image and providing speckle processing of the short exposures to provide the improved resolution retina image. The system comprises the steps of capturing a retina image, producing short exposures of the retina image, and speckle processing the short exposures of the retina image to provide the improved resolution retina image.

  4. Reproducible high-resolution multispectral image acquisition in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duliu, Alexandru; Gardiazabal, José; Lasser, Tobias; Navab, Nassir

    2015-07-01

    Multispectral image acquisitions are increasingly popular in dermatology, due to their improved spectral resolution which enables better tissue discrimination. Most applications however focus on restricted regions of interest, imaging only small lesions. In this work we present and discuss an imaging framework for high-resolution multispectral imaging on large regions of interest.

  5. Road Extraction from High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özkaya, M.

    2012-07-01

    Roads are significant objects of an infrastructure and the extraction of roads from aerial and satellite images are important for different applications such as automated map generation and change detection. Roads are also important to detect other structures such as buildings and urban areas. In this paper, the road extraction approach is based on Active Contour Models for 1-meter resolution gray level images. Active Contour Models contains Snake Approach. During applications, the road structure was separated as salient-roads, non-salient roads and crossings and extraction of these is provided by using Ribbon Snake and Ziplock Snake methods. These methods are derived from traditional snake model. Finally, various experimental results were presented. Ribbon and Ziplock Snake methods were compared for both salient and non-salient roads. Also these methods were used to extract roads in an image. While Ribbon snake is described for extraction of salient roads in an image, Ziplock snake is applied for extraction of non-salient roads. Beside these, some constant variables in literature were redefined and expressed in a formula as depending on snake approach and a new approach for extraction of crossroads were described and tried.

  6. Invariant high resolution optical skin imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, Supraja; Rolland, Jannick

    2007-02-01

    Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) is a bio-medical low coherence interferometric imaging technique that has become a topic of active research because of its ability to provide accurate, non-invasive cross-sectional images of biological tissue with much greater resolution than the current common technique ultrasound. OCM is a derivative of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) that enables greater resolution imposed by the implementation of an optical confocal design involving high numerical aperture (NA) focusing in the sample. The primary setback of OCM, however is the depth dependence of the lateral resolution obtained that arises from the smaller depth of focus of the high NA beam. We propose to overcome this limitation using a dynamic focusing lens design that can achieve quasi-invariant lateral resolution up to 1.5mm depth of skin tissue.

  7. Medusae Fossae Formation - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    An exotic terrain of wind-eroded ridges and residual smooth surfaces are seen in one of the highest resolution images ever taken of Mars from orbit. The Medusae Fossae formation is believed to be formed of the fragmental ejecta of huge explosive volcanic eruptions. When subjected to intense wind-blasting over hundreds of millions of years, this material erodes easily once the uppermost tougher crust is breached. The crust, or cap rock, can be seen in the upper right part of the picture. The finely-spaced ridges are similar to features on Earth called yardangs, which are formed by intense winds plucking individual grains from, and by wind-driven sand blasting particles off, sedimentary deposits.

    The image was taken on October 30, 1997 at 11:05 AM PST, shortly after the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft's 31st closest approach to Mars. The image covers an area 3.6 X 21.5 km (2.2 X 13.4 miles) at 3.6 m (12 feet) per picture element--craters only 11 m (36 feet, about the size of a swimming pool) across can be seen. The best Viking view of the area (VO 1 387S34) has a resolution of 240 m/pixel, or 67 times lower resolution than the MOC frame.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  8. High-resolution colorimetric imaging of paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Kirk; Cupitt, John; Saunders, David R.

    1993-05-01

    With the aim of providing a digital electronic replacement for conventional photography of paintings, a scanner has been constructed based on a 3000 X 2300 pel resolution camera which is moved precisely over a 1 meter square area. Successive patches are assembled to form a mosaic which covers the whole area at c. 20 pels/mm resolution, which is sufficient to resolve the surface textures, particularly craquelure. To provide high color accuracy, a set of seven broad-band interference filters are used to cover the visible spectrum. A calibration procedure based upon a least-mean-squares fit to the color of patches from a Macbeth Colorchecker chart yields an average color accuracy of better than 3 units in the CMC uniform color space. This work was mainly carried out as part of the VASARI project funded by the European Commission's ESPRIT program, involving companies and galleries from around Europe. The system is being used to record images for conservation research, for archival purposes and to assist in computer-aided learning in the field of art history. The paper will describe the overall system design, including the selection of the various hardware components and the design of controlling software. The theoretical basis for the color calibration methodology is described as well as the software for its practical implementation. The mosaic assembly procedure and some of the associated image processing routines developed are described. Preliminary results from the research will be presented.

  9. Robust Tips for High Resolution Chemical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios, Carlos; Malkovskiy, Andrey; Kisliuk, Alexander; Sokolov, Alexei; Foster, Mark

    2009-03-01

    Tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) combines scanning probe microscopy with Raman spectroscopy, taking advantage of apertureless near-field optics. A plasmonic structure at the apex of a sharp tip provides signal amplification required for chemical imaging. Plasmonic structure characteristics such as roughness, shape, and radius determine the spatial resolution and signal enhancement. Unfortunately, noble metal nanostructures have limited lifetimes due to mechanical, chemical, and thermal degradation. Lifetime extension requires slowing degradation processes while minimizing unfavorable influences on the optical response. An ultrathin SiOx protective coating provides lifetime improvement of silver plasmonic nanostructures on SPM tips. Controlled physical vapor deposition (PVD) of Al can be used to create ultrathin (˜2-3 nm) Al2O3 coatings that improve significantly the stability and wear resistance of plasmonics structures without substantial degradation of optical properties. Such a coating completely prevented decay in plasmonic activity after 40 days of use.

  10. High Resolution X-ray Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, Webster

    2002-01-01

    set of two major x-ray astronomy missions based on the concepts I developed and demonstrated under this SR&T grant. The first Maxim is to image the sky at 100 micro-arcsecond resolution. That is one thousand times higher resolution than Hubble. The full Maxim has the ultimate goal of imaging the event horizon of a black hole in an active galactic nucleus (ALAN). This will require 0.1 micro-arcsecond resolution - one million times higher than Hubble! Nonetheless, using the techniques developed under this grant, it has become possible. Maxim Pathfinder is now in the NASA planning for a new start in approximately 20 10. The full Maxim is carried as a vision mission for the post 2015 timeframe. Finally, this grant is the evolved version of the SR&T grant we carried during the 1980s and up to 1994. At that point in time this grant was also working on x-ray optics, but concentrating on x-ray spectroscopy. The techniques developed by 1990 were not chosen for use on Chandra or XMM-Newton because they were too new. During the last year, however, the Constellation-X mission recognized the need for better spectroscopy techniques and tapped our expertise. We were able to support the initial work on Con-X through this program. It now appears that the off-plane mount will be used in Con-X, increasing performance and decreasing cost and risk.

  11. High Resolution Local Structure-Constrained Image Upsampling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Wang, Ronggang; Wang, Wenmin; Gao, Wen

    2015-11-01

    With the development of ultra-high-resolution display devices, the visual perception of fine texture details is becoming more and more important. A method of high-quality image upsampling with a low cost is greatly needed. In this paper, we propose a fast and efficient image upsampling method that makes use of high-resolution local structure constraints. The average local difference is used to divide a bicubic-interpolated image into a sharp edge area and a texture area, and these two areas are reconstructed separately with specific constraints. For reconstruction of the sharp edge area, a high-resolution gradient map is estimated as an extra constraint for the recovery of sharp and natural edges; for the reconstruction of the texture area, a high-resolution local texture structure map is estimated as an extra constraint to recover fine texture details. These two reconstructed areas are then combined to obtain the final high-resolution image. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method recovered finer pixel-level texture details and obtained top-level objective performance with a low time cost compared with state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26186777

  12. High-resolution Urban Image Classification Using Extended Features

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution image classification poses several challenges because the typical object size is much larger than the pixel resolution. Any given pixel (spectral features at that location) by itself is not a good indicator of the object it belongs to without looking at the broader spatial footprint. Therefore most modern machine learning approaches that are based on per-pixel spectral features are not very effective in high- resolution urban image classification. One way to overcome this problem is to extract features that exploit spatial contextual information. In this study, we evaluated several features in- cluding edge density, texture, and morphology. Several machine learning schemes were tested on the features extracted from a very high-resolution remote sensing image and results were presented.

  13. Applications of high-resolution remote sensing image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, W. M.; Leckie, D.; Miller, J.; Buxton, R.

    1990-01-01

    There are many situations in which the image resolution of satellite data is insufficient to provide the detail required for resource management and environmental monitoring. This paper will focus on applications of high-resolution (0.4 to 10 m) airborne multispectral and imaging spectrometer data acquired in Canada using the MEIS II multispectral line imager and the PMI imaging spectrometer. Applications discussed will include forestry, mapping, and geobotany.

  14. Snapshot retinal imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yifan; Kudenov, Michael; Kashani, Amir; Schwiegerling, Jim; Escuti, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Early diagnosis of glaucoma, which is a leading cause for visual impairment, is critical for successful treatment. It has been shown that Imaging polarimetry has advantages in early detection of structural changes in the retina. Here, we theoretically and experimentally present a snapshot Mueller Matrix Polarimeter fundus camera, which has the potential to record the polarization-altering characteristics of retina with a single snapshot. It is made by incorporating polarization gratings into a fundus camera design. Complete Mueller Matrix data sets can be obtained by analyzing the polarization fringes projected onto the image plane. In this paper, we describe the experimental implementation of the snapshot retinal imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter (SRIMMP), highlight issues related to calibration, and provide preliminary images acquired from the camera.

  15. High resolution ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for latent image analysis.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Hang; Liao, Ningfang; Li, Hongsong; Wu, Wenmin

    2016-03-21

    In this work, we present a close-range ultraviolet imaging spectrometer with high spatial resolution, and reasonably high spectral resolution. As the transmissive optical components cause chromatic aberration in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range, an all-reflective imaging scheme is introduced to promote the image quality. The proposed instrument consists of an oscillating mirror, a Cassegrain objective, a Michelson structure, an Offner relay, and a UV enhanced CCD. The finished spectrometer has a spatial resolution of 29.30μm on the target plane; the spectral scope covers both near and middle UV band; and can obtain approximately 100 wavelength samples over the range of 240~370nm. The control computer coordinates all the components of the instrument and enables capturing a series of images, which can be reconstructed into an interferogram datacube. The datacube can be converted into a spectrum datacube, which contains spectral information of each pixel with many wavelength samples. A spectral calibration is carried out by using a high pressure mercury discharge lamp. A test run demonstrated that this interferometric configuration can obtain high resolution spectrum datacube. The pattern recognition algorithm is introduced to analyze the datacube and distinguish the latent traces from the base materials. This design is particularly good at identifying the latent traces in the application field of forensic imaging. PMID:27136837

  16. High-resolution imaging of cellular processes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Maddox, Amy S; Maddox, Paul S

    2012-01-01

    Differential interference contrast (DIC) imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis led to a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Sulston et al., 1983) as did the first use of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a transgenic C. elegans (Chalfie et al., 1994). Given that C. elegans is free living, does not require exceptional environmental control, and is optically clear, live imaging is a powerful tool in for this model system. Combining genetics with high-resolution imaging has continued to make important contributions to many fields. In this chapter, we discuss how certain aspects of high-resolution microscopy are implemented. This is not an exhaustive review of microscopy; it is meant to be a helpful guide and point of reference for some basic concepts in imaging. While these concepts are largely true for all biological imaging, they are chosen as particularly important for C. elegans. PMID:22226519

  17. Vehicle Detection and Classification from High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, L.; Sasikumar, M.

    2014-11-01

    In the past decades satellite imagery has been used successfully for weather forecasting, geographical and geological applications. Low resolution satellite images are sufficient for these sorts of applications. But the technological developments in the field of satellite imaging provide high resolution sensors which expands its field of application. Thus the High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI) proved to be a suitable alternative to aerial photogrammetric data to provide a new data source for object detection. Since the traffic rates in developing countries are enormously increasing, vehicle detection from satellite data will be a better choice for automating such systems. In this work, a novel technique for vehicle detection from the images obtained from high resolution sensors is proposed. Though we are using high resolution images, vehicles are seen only as tiny spots, difficult to distinguish from the background. But we are able to obtain a detection rate not less than 0.9. Thereafter we classify the detected vehicles into cars and trucks and find the count of them.

  18. Dual camera system for acquisition of high resolution images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papon, Jeremie A.; Broussard, Randy P.; Ives, Robert W.

    2007-02-01

    Video surveillance is ubiquitous in modern society, but surveillance cameras are severely limited in utility by their low resolution. With this in mind, we have developed a system that can autonomously take high resolution still frame images of moving objects. In order to do this, we combine a low resolution video camera and a high resolution still frame camera mounted on a pan/tilt mount. In order to determine what should be photographed (objects of interest), we employ a hierarchical method which first separates foreground from background using a temporal-based median filtering technique. We then use a feed-forward neural network classifier on the foreground regions to determine whether the regions contain the objects of interest. This is done over several frames, and a motion vector is deduced for the object. The pan/tilt mount then focuses the high resolution camera on the next predicted location of the object, and an image is acquired. All components are controlled through a single MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI). The final system we present will be able to detect multiple moving objects simultaneously, track them, and acquire high resolution images of them. Results will demonstrate performance tracking and imaging varying numbers of objects moving at different speeds.

  19. A method for generating high resolution satellite image time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tao

    2014-10-01

    There is an increasing demand for satellite remote sensing data with both high spatial and temporal resolution in many applications. But it still is a challenge to simultaneously improve spatial resolution and temporal frequency due to the technical limits of current satellite observation systems. To this end, much R&D efforts have been ongoing for years and lead to some successes roughly in two aspects, one includes super resolution, pan-sharpen etc. methods which can effectively enhance the spatial resolution and generate good visual effects, but hardly preserve spectral signatures and result in inadequate analytical value, on the other hand, time interpolation is a straight forward method to increase temporal frequency, however it increase little informative contents in fact. In this paper we presented a novel method to simulate high resolution time series data by combing low resolution time series data and a very small number of high resolution data only. Our method starts with a pair of high and low resolution data set, and then a spatial registration is done by introducing LDA model to map high and low resolution pixels correspondingly. Afterwards, temporal change information is captured through a comparison of low resolution time series data, and then projected onto the high resolution data plane and assigned to each high resolution pixel according to the predefined temporal change patterns of each type of ground objects. Finally the simulated high resolution data is generated. A preliminary experiment shows that our method can simulate a high resolution data with a reasonable accuracy. The contribution of our method is to enable timely monitoring of temporal changes through analysis of time sequence of low resolution images only, and usage of costly high resolution data can be reduces as much as possible, and it presents a highly effective way to build up an economically operational monitoring solution for agriculture, forest, land use investigation

  20. High-Resolution Angioscopic Imaging During Endovascular Neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Patrick Z.; Sacho, Raphael; Weersink, Robert A.; Pereira, Vitor M.; Kucharczyk, Walter; Seibel, Eric J.; Wilson, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endoluminal optical imaging, or angioscopy, has not seen widespread application during neurointerventional procedures, largely as a result of the poor imaging resolution of existing angioscopes. Scanning fiber endoscopes (SFEs) are a novel endoscopic platform that allows high-resolution video imaging in an ultraminiature form factor that is compatible with currently used distal access endoluminal catheters. OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility and potential utility of high-resolution angioscopy with an SFE during common endovascular neurosurgical procedures. METHODS: A 3.7-French SFE was used in a porcine model system to image endothelial disruption, ischemic stroke and mechanical thrombectomy, aneurysm coiling, and flow-diverting stent placement. RESULTS: High-resolution, video-rate imaging was shown to be possible during all of the common procedures tested and provided information that was complementary to standard fluoroscopic imaging. SFE angioscopy was able to assess novel factors such as aneurysm base coverage fraction and side branch patency, which have previously not been possible to determine with conventional angiography. CONCLUSION: Endovascular imaging with an SFE provides important information on factors that cannot be assessed fluoroscopically and is a novel platform on which future neurointerventional techniques may be based because it allows for periprocedural inspection of the integrity of the vascular system and the deployed devices. In addition, it may be of diagnostic use for inspecting the vascular wall and postprocedure device evaluation. ABBREVIATIONS: CFB, coherent fiber bundle F, French SFE, scanning fiber endoscope PMID:24762703

  1. High-resolution ultrasound imaging of cutaneous lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mandava, Anitha; Ravuri, Prabhakar Rao; Konathan, Rajyalaxmi

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution variable frequency ultrasound imaging is increasingly being used in the noninvasive evaluation of various cutaneous diseases. It plays a complimentary role to physical examination in the assessment of cutaneous lesions. It is the only imaging modality useful in the evaluation of superficial cutaneous lesions that are too small to be evaluated on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and is helpful in reducing invasive procedures like biopsies and fine needle aspirations. In this article, we seek to describe the relevance and basic principles of cutaneous ultrasound, imaging findings of normal skin, current applications of high-resolution ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of various dermatological conditions, along with the features of some commonly encountered lesions. PMID:24347861

  2. High resolution multiplexed functional imaging in live embyros (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dongli; Peng, Leilei

    2016-03-01

    Optical projection tomography (OPT) creates isotropic 3D imaging of tissue. Two approaches exist today: Wide-field OPT illuminates the entire sample and acquires projection images with a camera; Scanning-laser optical tomography (SLOT) generates the projection with a moving laser beam and point detector. SLOT has superior light collecting efficiency than wide-field optical tomography, making it ideal for tissue fluorescence imaging. Regardless the approach, traditional OPT has to compromise between the resolution and the depth of view. In traditional SLOT, the focused Gaussian beam diverges quickly from the focused plane, making it impossible to achieve high resolution imaging through a large volume specimen. We report using Bessel beam instead of Gaussian beam to perform SLOT. By illuminating samples with a narrow Bessel beam throughout an extended depth, high-resolution projection images can be measured in large volume. Under Bessel illumination, the projection image contains signal from annular-rings of the Bessel beam. Traditional inverse Radon transform of these projections will result in ringing artifacts in reconstructed imaging. Thus a modified 3D filtered back projection algorithm is developed to perform tomography reconstructing of Bessel-illuminated projection images. The resulting 3D imaging is free of artifact and achieved cellular resolution in extended sample volume. The system is applied to in-vivo imaging of transgenic Zebrafish embryos. Results prove Bessel SLOT a promising imaging method in development biology research.

  3. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics. PMID:22312577

  4. Compact and mobile high resolution PET brain imager

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2011-02-08

    A brain imager includes a compact ring-like static PET imager mounted in a helmet-like structure. When attached to a patient's head, the helmet-like brain imager maintains the relative head-to-imager geometry fixed through the whole imaging procedure. The brain imaging helmet contains radiation sensors and minimal front-end electronics. A flexible mechanical suspension/harness system supports the weight of the helmet thereby allowing for patient to have limited movements of the head during imaging scans. The compact ring-like PET imager enables very high resolution imaging of neurological brain functions, cancer, and effects of trauma using a rather simple mobile scanner with limited space needs for use and storage.

  5. High resolution surface plasmon microscopy for cell imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argoul, F.; Monier, K.; Roland, T.; Elezgaray, J.; Berguiga, L.

    2010-04-01

    We introduce a new non-labeling high resolution microscopy method for cellular imaging. This method called SSPM (Scanning Surface Plasmon Microscopy) pushes down the resolution limit of surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) to sub-micronic scales. High resolution SPRi is obtained by the surface plasmon lauching with a high numerical aperture objective lens. The advantages of SPPM compared to other high resolution SPRi's rely on three aspects; (i) the interferometric detection of the back reflected light after plasmon excitation, (ii) the twodimensional scanning of the sample for image reconstruction, (iii) the radial polarization of light, enhancing both resolution and sensitivity. This microscope can afford a lateral resolution of - 150 nm in liquid environment and - 200 nm in air. We present in this paper images of IMR90 fibroblasts obtained with SSPM in dried environment. Internal compartments such as nucleus, nucleolus, mitochondria, cellular and nuclear membrane can be recognized without labelling. We propose an interpretation of the ability of SSPM to reveal high index contrast zones by a local decomposition of the V (Z) function describing the response of the SSPM.

  6. High-resolution lensless Fourier transform holography for microstructure imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; Wang, Dayong; Wang, Huaying; Xie, Jianjun

    2007-12-01

    Digital holography combines the advantages of the optical holography and the computers. It can implement an all-digital processing and has the quasi real-time property. With lensless Fourier transform recording architecture, the limited bandwidth of CCD camera can be utilized sufficiently, and the sampling theorem is satisfied easily. Therefore, high-resolution can be achieved. So it is preferred in the microstructure imaging. In the paper, based on the Fresnel diffraction theory and the off-axis lensless Fourier transform recording architecture, the experimental optimization and correspondingly the digital reconstruction was investigated. Also, the lateral resolution of the reconstructed image was analyzed and improved by the proposed techniques. When the USAF test target was imaged without any pre-magnification, the lateral resolution of 3.1μm was achieved, which matched the theoretical prediction very well. The key points to achieve high resolution image are to use the smaller object and to arrange the distance between the object and the CCD plane as short as possible. Meanwhile, properly overlapping the reconstructed image with the DC term was helpful to improve the resolution. The noise in the reconstructed image could be reduced greatly by choosing the optical elements precisely and adjusting the beam path finely. The experimental results demonstrated that it is possible for the digital holographic microscopy to produce the high resolution image without the objective pre-magnification. The results also showed that, with a high quality hologram, the special image processing during the reconstruction may be unnecessary to obtain a high quality image.

  7. High-Resolution Imaging of Colliding and Merging Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, Brad

    1991-07-01

    We propose to obtain high-resolution images, using the WF/PC, of two colliding and merging galaxies (i.e., NGC 4038/4039 = "The Antennae" and NGC 7252 ="Atoms-for-Peace Galaxy". Our goal is to use HST to make critical observations of each object in order to gain a better understanding of the various phases of the merger process. Our primary objective is to determine whether globular clusters are formed during mergers\\?

  8. Next generation high resolution adaptive optics fundus imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, P.; Erry, G. R. G.; Otten, L. J.; Larichev, A.; Irochnikov, N.

    2005-12-01

    The spatial resolution of retinal images is limited by the presence of static and time-varying aberrations present within the eye. An updated High Resolution Adaptive Optics Fundus Imager (HRAOFI) has been built based on the development from the first prototype unit. This entirely new unit was designed and fabricated to increase opto-mechanical integration and ease-of-use through a new user interface. Improved camera systems for the Shack-Hartmann sensor and for the scene image were implemented to enhance the image quality and the frequency of the Adaptive Optics (AO) control loop. An optimized illumination system that uses specific wavelength bands was applied to increase the specificity of the images. Sample images of clinical trials of retinas, taken with and without the system, are shown. Data on the performance of this system will be presented, demonstrating the ability to calculate near diffraction-limited images.

  9. Clinical applications of high-resolution ocular magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Tanitame, Keizo; Sone, Takashi; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Awai, Kazuo

    2012-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using fast sequences with subjects staring at a target can provide motion-free ocular images, and small receiver surface coils make it possible to produce ocular images with high spatial resolution. MRI using half-Fourier single-shot rapid acquisition with a relaxation enhancement sequence as a fast T2-weighted imaging yields useful images for the morphologic diagnosis of ocular diseases, and MRI using a fast spoiled gradient-recalled-echo sequence as a T1-weighted imaging yields additional information by the administration of gadolinium-based contrast material for assessing the vascularity of intraocular tumors. These ocular imaging techniques are useful for the evaluation of patients with angle closure glaucoma, congenital abnormality of ocular globes, intraocular tumors and several types of detachments, as well as patients after ocular surgery. In this pictorial essay, we demonstrate the clinical applications of fast high-resolution ocular MRI with fixation of the subjects' visual foci. PMID:22923185

  10. Extraction and labeling high-resolution images from PDF documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chachra, Suchet K.; Xue, Zhiyun; Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2013-12-01

    Accuracy of content-based image retrieval is affected by image resolution among other factors. Higher resolution images enable extraction of image features that more accurately represent the image content. In order to improve the relevance of search results for our biomedical image search engine, Open-I, we have developed techniques to extract and label high-resolution versions of figures from biomedical articles supplied in the PDF format. Open-I uses the open-access subset of biomedical articles from the PubMed Central repository hosted by the National Library of Medicine. Articles are available in XML and in publisher supplied PDF formats. As these PDF documents contain little or no meta-data to identify the embedded images, the task includes labeling images according to their figure number in the article after they have been successfully extracted. For this purpose we use the labeled small size images provided with the XML web version of the article. This paper describes the image extraction process and two alternative approaches to perform image labeling that measure the similarity between two images based upon the image intensity projection on the coordinate axes and similarity based upon the normalized cross-correlation between the intensities of two images. Using image identification based on image intensity projection, we were able to achieve a precision of 92.84% and a recall of 82.18% in labeling of the extracted images.

  11. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Mars Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMars server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Mars images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of Mars. The OnMars server is an implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server. Unlike other Mars Internet map servers that provide Martian data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMars WMS server supports encoding of data in Mars-specific coordinate systems. The OnMars server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Martian image and elevation data, including an 8-meter-per-pixel uncontrolled mosaic of most of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera Narrow Angle (MOCNA) image collection, which is not available elsewhere. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF), Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. The OnMars server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  12. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Lunar Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMoon server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Lunar images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of the Moon. The OnMoon server implements the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server protocol and supports Moon-specific extensions. Unlike other Internet map servers that provide Lunar data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMoon server supports encoding of data in Moon-specific coordinate systems. The OnMoon server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Lunar image and elevation data. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF) or the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. Full-precision spectral arithmetic processing is also available, by use of a custom SLD extension. This server can dynamically add shaded relief based on the Lunar elevation to any image layer. This server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  13. [Extracting municipal solid waste dumps based on high resolution images].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang-Li; Du, Shi-Hong; Guo, Zhou

    2013-08-01

    The dramatically increasing informal MSW dumps are endangering the urban environment. Remote sensing (RS) technologies are more efficient to monitor and manage municipal solid wastes (MSW) than traditional survey-based methods. In high spatial resolution remotely sensed images, these irregularly distributed dumps have complex compositions and strong heterogeneities, thus it is still hard to extract them automatically no matter the pixel-or object-based image analysis method is used. Therefore, based on the analysis of MSW characteristics, the present study develops a multiresolution strategy to extract MSW dumps by combining image features at both high resolution and resampled low heterogeneity images, while the high resolution images can provide detailed information and the low resolution images can suppress the strong heterogeneities of informal MSW dumps. Taking the QuickBird image covering part of Beijing as an example, this multi-resolution strategy produced a high accuracy (75%), indicating that this multi-resolution strategy is quite effective for extracting the open-air informal MSW dumps. PMID:24159838

  14. Thin polymer etalon arrays for high-resolution photoacoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yang; Huang, Sheng-Wen; Ashkenazi, Shai; Witte, Russell; O’Donnell, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Thin polymer etalons are demonstrated as high-frequency ultrasound sensors for three-dimensional (3-D) high-resolution photoacoustic imaging. The etalon, a Fabry-Perot optical resonator, consists of a thin polymer slab sandwiched between two gold layers. It is probed with a scanning continuous-wave (CW) laser for ultrasound array detection. Detection bandwidth of a 20-μm-diam array element exceeds 50 MHz, and the ultrasound sensitivity is comparable to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) equivalents of similar size. In a typical photoacoustic imaging setup, a pulsed laser beam illuminates the imaging target, where optical energy is absorbed and acoustic waves are generated through the thermoelastic effect. An ultrasound detection array is formed by scanning the probing laser beam on the etalon surface in either a 1-D or a 2-D configuration, which produces 2-D or 3-D images, respectively. Axial and lateral resolutions have been demonstrated to be better than 20 μm. Detailed characterizations of the optical and acoustical properties of the etalon, as well as photoacoustic imaging results, suggest that thin polymer etalon arrays can be used as ultrasound detectors for 3-D high-resolution photoacoustic imaging applications. PMID:19123679

  15. High-resolution Imaging Techniques for the Assessment of Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Roland; Burghardt, Andrew J.; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis The importance of assessing the bone’s microarchitectural make-up in addition to its mineral density in the context of osteoporosis has been emphasized in a number of publications. The high spatial resolution required to resolve the bone’s microstructure in a clinically feasible scan time is challenging. Currently, the best suited modalities meeting these requirements in vivo are high-resolution peripheral quantitative imaging (HR-pQCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Whereas HR-pQCT is limited to peripheral skeleton regions like the wrist and ankle, MRI can also image other sites like the proximal femur but usually with lower spatial resolution. In addition Multidetector-CT has been used for high-resolution imaging of trabecular bone structure, however, the radiation dose is a limiting factor. This article provides an overview of the different modalities, technical requirements and recent developments in this emerging field. Details regarding imaging protocols as well as image post-processing methods for bone structure quantification are discussed. PMID:20609895

  16. High-resolution imaging of the supercritical antisolvent process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Philip W.; Stephens, Amendi P.; Roberts, Christopher B.; Duke, Steve R.

    2005-06-01

    A high-magnification and high-resolution imaging technique was developed for the supercritical fluid antisolvent (SAS) precipitation process. Visualizations of the jet injection, flow patterns, droplets, and particles were obtained in a high-pressure vessel for polylactic acid and budesonide precipitation in supercritical CO2. The results show two regimes for particle production: one where turbulent mixing occurs in gas-like plumes, and another where distinct droplets were observed in the injection. Images are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the method for examining particle formation theories and for understanding the underlying fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, and mass transport in the SAS process.

  17. Coregistration of high-resolution Mars orbital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2015-04-01

    The systematic orbital imaging of the Martian surface started 4 decades ago from NASA's Viking Orbiter 1 & 2 missions, which were launched in August 1975, and acquired orbital images of the planet between 1976 and 1980. The result of this reconnaissance was the first medium-resolution (i.e. ≤ 300m/pixel) global map of Mars, as well as a variety of high-resolution images (reaching up to 8m/pixel) of special regions of interest. Over the last two decades NASA has sent 3 more spacecraft with onboard instruments for high-resolution orbital imaging: Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) having onboard the Mars Orbital Camera - Narrow Angle (MOC-NA), Mars Odyssey having onboard the Thermal Emission Imaging System - Visual (THEMIS-VIS) and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) having on board two distinct high-resolution cameras, Context Camera (CTX) and High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE). Moreover, ESA has the multispectral High resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) onboard ESA's Mars Express with resolution up to 12.5m since 2004. Overall, this set of cameras have acquired more than 400,000 high-resolution images, i.e. with resolution better than 100m and as fine as 25 cm/pixel. Notwithstanding the high spatial resolution of the available NASA orbital products, their accuracy of areo-referencing is often very poor. As a matter of fact, due to pointing inconsistencies, usually form errors in roll attitude, the acquired products may actually image areas tens of kilometers far away from the point that they are supposed to be looking at. On the other hand, since 2004, the ESA Mars Express has been acquiring stereo images through the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), with resolution that is usually 12.5-25 metres per pixel. The achieved coverage is more than 64% for images with resolution finer than 20 m/pixel, while for ~40% of Mars, Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) have been produced with are co-registered with MOLA [Gwinner et al., 2010]. The HRSC images and DTMs

  18. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken B. (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Siegel, Peter H. (Inventor); Dengler, Robert J. (Inventor); Schlecht, Erich T. (Inventor); Mehdi, Imran (Inventor); Skalare, Anders J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional imaging radar operating at high frequency e.g., 670 GHz, is disclosed. The active target illumination inherent in radar solves the problem of low signal power and narrow-band detection by using submillimeter heterodyne mixer receivers. A submillimeter imaging radar may use low phase-noise synthesizers and a fast chirper to generate a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) waveform. Three-dimensional images are generated through range information derived for each pixel scanned over a target. A peak finding algorithm may be used in processing for each pixel to differentiate material layers of the target. Improved focusing is achieved through a compensation signal sampled from a point source calibration target and applied to received signals from active targets prior to FFT-based range compression to extract and display high-resolution target images. Such an imaging radar has particular application in detecting concealed weapons or contraband.

  19. High-resolution QWIP thermal imager for AFV upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlberg, Anders G. M.

    2004-08-01

    Following on the success of the BIRC clip on thermal imaging sight for the BILL Anti-Tank Missile System, which was in fact the world's first military QWIP based thermal imager, and which has been successfully delivered to the Swedish Army in serial quantities, several new QWIP-based products from FLIR Systems AB in Sweden are now under contract for defense customers worldwide. These include the new Forward Observation Systems for Norway and Sweden, Airborne Search & Rescue Systems, and a new clip on thermal imager for the Bofors RBS 70 Air Defense Missile System. The latest of these products is the development of a High Resolution QWIP Thermal Imager, LIRC, under contract for an upgrade of a number of Swedish CV9040C Armored Fighting Vehicles for Swedish Army International Operations. The paper will focus on the rationale behind the system selection, the development of the military qualified QWIP Thermal Imagers and the current status of the program.

  20. Single snapshot imaging of optical properties

    PubMed Central

    Vervandier, Jean; Gioux, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    A novel acquisition and processing method that enables single snapshot wide field imaging of optical properties in the Spatial Frequency Domain (SFD) is described. This method makes use of a Fourier transform performed on a single image and processing in the frequency space to extract two spatial frequency images at once. The performance of the method is compared to the standard six image SFD acquisition method, assessed on tissue mimicking phantoms and in vivo. Overall both methods perform similarly in extracting optical properties. PMID:24409392

  1. Live CLEM imaging to analyze nuclear structures at high resolution.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Tokuko; Osakada, Hiroko; Koujin, Takako

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy (FM) and electron microscopy (EM) are powerful tools for observing molecular components in cells. FM can provide temporal information about cellular proteins and structures in living cells. EM provides nanometer resolution images of cellular structures in fixed cells. We have combined FM and EM to develop a new method of correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM), called "Live CLEM." In this method, the dynamic behavior of specific molecules of interest is first observed in living cells using fluorescence microscopy (FM) and then cellular structures in the same cell are observed using electron microscopy (EM). Following image acquisition, FM and EM images are compared to enable the fluorescent images to be correlated with the high-resolution images of cellular structures obtained using EM. As this method enables analysis of dynamic events involving specific molecules of interest in the context of specific cellular structures at high resolution, it is useful for the study of nuclear structures including nuclear bodies. Here we describe Live CLEM that can be applied to the study of nuclear structures in mammalian cells. PMID:25555577

  2. Ultraspectral imaging and the snapshot advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudenov, Michael W.; Gupta Roy, Subharup; Pantalone, Brett; Maione, Bryan

    2015-05-01

    Ultraspectral sensing has been investigated as a way to resolve terrestrial chemical fluorescence within solar Fraunhofer lines. Referred to as Fraunhofer Line Discriminators (FLDs), these sensors attempt to measure "band filling" of terrestrial fluorescence within these naturally dark regions of the spectrum. However, the method has challenging signal to noise ratio limitations due to the low fluorescence emission signal of the target, which is exacerbated by the high spectral resolution required by the sensor (<0.1 nm). To now, many Fraunhofer line discriminators have been scanning sensors; either pushbroom or whiskbroom, which require temporal and/or spatial scanning to acquire an image. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the snapshot throughput advantage in ultraspectral imaging for FLD. This is followed by preliminary results of our snapshot FLD sensor. The system has a spatial resolution of 280x280 pixels and a spectral resolving power of approximately 10,000 at a 658 nm operating wavelength.

  3. The High-Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Ken; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy R.; Korreck, Kelly; Golub, Leon; Walsh, Robert W.; De Pontieu, Bart; DeForest, Craig; Title, Alan; Kuzin, Sergey; Savage, Sabrina; Beabout, Dyana; Beabout, Brent; Podgorski, William; Caldwell, David; McCracken, Kenneth; Ordway, Mark; Bergner, Henry; Gates, Richard; McKillop, Sean; Cheimets, Peter; Platt, Simon; Mitchell, Nick; Windt, David

    2014-11-01

    The High-Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) was flown on a NASA sounding rocket on 11 July 2012. The goal of the Hi-C mission was to obtain high-resolution (≈ 0.3 - 0.4''), high-cadence (≈ 5 seconds) images of a solar active region to investigate the dynamics of solar coronal structures at small spatial scales. The instrument consists of a normal-incidence telescope with the optics coated with multilayers to reflect a narrow wavelength range around 19.3 nm (including the Fe xii 19.5-nm spectral line) and a 4096×4096 camera with a plate scale of 0.1'' pixel-1. The target of the Hi-C rocket flight was Active Region 11520. Hi-C obtained 37 full-frame images and 86 partial-frame images during the rocket flight. Analysis of the Hi-C data indicates the corona is structured on scales smaller than currently resolved by existing satellite missions.

  4. In vivo high-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Seyedahmadi, Babak Jian; Vavvas, Demetrios

    2010-01-01

    Retinal imaging with conventional methods is only able to overcome the lowest order of aberration, defocus and astigmatism. The human eye is fraught with higher order of aberrations. Since we are forced to use the human optical system in retinal imaging, the images are degraded. In addition, all of these distortions are constantly changing due to head/eye movement and change in accommodation. Adaptive optics is a promising technology introduced in the field of ophthalmology to measure and compensate for these aberrations. High-resolution obtained by adaptive optics enables us to view and image the retinal photoreceptors, retina pigment epithelium, and identification of cone subclasses in vivo. In this review we will be discussing the basic technology of adaptive optics and hardware requirement in addition to clinical applications of such technology. PMID:21090998

  5. High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of single cells

    PubMed Central

    Strohm, Eric M.; Moore, Michael J.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic images of stained neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes from a blood smear were acquired using a combined acoustic/photoacoustic microscope. Photoacoustic images were created using a pulsed 532 nm laser that was coupled to a single mode fiber to produce output wavelengths from 532 nm to 620 nm via stimulated Raman scattering. The excitation wavelength was selected using optical filters and focused onto the sample using a 20× objective. A 1000 MHz transducer was co-aligned with the laser spot and used for ultrasound and photoacoustic images, enabling micrometer resolution with both modalities. The different cell types could be easily identified due to variations in contrast within the acoustic and photoacoustic images. This technique provides a new way of probing leukocyte structure with potential applications towards detecting cellular abnormalities and diseased cells at the single cell level. PMID:27114911

  6. High-resolution dynamic speech imaging with deformation estimation.

    PubMed

    Maojing Fu; Barlaz, Marissa S; Shosted, Ryan K; Zhi-Pei Liang; Sutton, Bradley P

    2015-08-01

    Dynamic speech magnetic resonance imaging (DSMRI) is a promising technique for visualizing articulatory motion in real time. However, many existing applications of DSMRI have been limited by slow imaging speed and the lack of quantitative motion analysis. In this paper, we present a novel DS-MRI technique to simultaneously estimate dynamic image sequence of speech and the associated deformation field. Extending on our previous Partial Separability (PS) model-based methods, the proposed technique visualizes both speech motion and deformation with a spatial resolution of 2.2 × 2.2 mm(2) and a nominal frame rate of 100 fps. Also, the technique enables direct analysis of articulatory motion through the deformation fields. Effectiveness of the method is systematically examined via in vivo experiments. Utilizing the obtained high-resolution images and deformation fields, we also performed a phonetics study on Brazilian Portuguese to show the method's practical utility. PMID:26736572

  7. Very High Resolution Image of Icy Cliffs on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This image, taken by the camera onboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft, is a very high resolution view of the Conamara Chaos region on Jupiter's moon Europa. It shows an area where icy plates have been broken apart and moved around laterally. The top of this image is dominated by corrugated plateaus ending in icy cliffs over a hundred meters (a few hundred feet) high. Debris piled at the base of the cliffs can be resolved down to blocks the size of a house. A fracture that runs horizontally across and just below the center of the Europa image is about the width of a freeway.

    North is to the top right of the image, and the sun illuminates the surface from the east. The image is centered at approximately 9 degrees north latitude and 274 degrees west longitude. The image covers an area approximately 1.7 kilometers by 4 kilometers (1 mile by 2.5 miles). The resolution is 9 meters (30 feet) per picture element. This image was taken on December 16, 1997 at a range of 900 kilometers (540 miles) by Galileo's solid state imaging system.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  8. High-resolution seismic array imaging using teleseismic scattered waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, P.; Liu, Q.; Chen, C.; Basini, P.; Komatitsch, D.

    2013-12-01

    The advent of dense seismic networks, new modeling and imaging techniques, and increased HPC capacity makes it feasible to resolve subsurface interfaces and structural anomalies beneath seismic arrays at unprecedented details based on teleseismic scattered records. To accurately and efficiently simulate the full propagation of teleseismic waves beneath receiver arrays at the frequencies relevant to scattering imaging, we develop a hybrid method that interfaces a frequency-wavenumber (FK) calculation, which provides semi-analytical solutions to one-dimensional layered background models, with a 2D/3D spectral-element (SEM) numerical solver to calculate synthetic responses of local media to plane-wave incidence. This hybrid method accurately deals with local heterogeneities and discontinuity undulations, and represents an efficient tool for the forward modelling of teleseismic coda (including converted and scattered) waves. Meanwhile, adjoint tomography is a powerful tool for high-resolution imaging in heterogeneous media, which can resolve large velocity contrasts through the use of 2D/3D initial models and full numerical simulations for forward wavefields and sensitivity kernels. In the framework of adjont tomography and hybrid method, we compute sensitivity kernels for teleseismic coda waves, which provide the basis for mapping variations in subsurface discontinuities, density and velocity structures through nonlinear conjugate-gradient methods. Various 2D synthetic imaging examples show that inversion of teleseismic coda phases based on the 2D SEM-FK hybrid method and adjoint techniques is a promising tool for structural imaging beneath dense seismic arrays. 3D synthetic experiments will be performed to test the feasibility of seismic array imaging using adjoint method and 3D SEM-FK hybrid method. We will also apply this hybrid imaging techniques to realistic seismic data, such as the recorded SsPmP phases in central Tibet, to explore high-resolution subsurface

  9. Unsupervised Feature Learning for High-Resolution Satellite Image Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2013-01-01

    The rich data provided by high-resolution satellite imagery allow us to directly model geospatial neighborhoods by understanding their spatial and structural patterns. In this paper we explore an unsupervised feature learning approach to model geospatial neighborhoods for classification purposes. While pixel and object based classification approaches are widely used for satellite image analysis, often these approaches exploit the high-fidelity image data in a limited way. In this paper we extract low-level features to characterize the local neighborhood patterns. We exploit the unlabeled feature measurements in a novel way to learn a set of basis functions to derive new features. The derived sparse feature representation obtained by encoding the measured features in terms of the learned basis function set yields superior classification performance. We applied our technique on two challenging image datasets: ORNL dataset representing one-meter spatial resolution satellite imagery representing five land-use categories and, UCMERCED dataset consisting of 21 different categories representing sub-meter resolution overhead imagery. Our results are highly promising and, in the case of UCMERCED dataset we outperform the best results obtained for this dataset. We show that our feature extraction and learning methods are highly effective in developing a detection system that can be used to automatically scan large-scale high-resolution satellite imagery for detecting large-facility.

  10. A parallel solution for high resolution histological image analysis.

    PubMed

    Bueno, G; González, R; Déniz, O; García-Rojo, M; González-García, J; Fernández-Carrobles, M M; Vállez, N; Salido, J

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes a general methodology for developing parallel image processing algorithms based on message passing for high resolution images (on the order of several Gigabytes). These algorithms have been applied to histological images and must be executed on massively parallel processing architectures. Advances in new technologies for complete slide digitalization in pathology have been combined with developments in biomedical informatics. However, the efficient use of these digital slide systems is still a challenge. The image processing that these slides are subject to is still limited both in terms of data processed and processing methods. The work presented here focuses on the need to design and develop parallel image processing tools capable of obtaining and analyzing the entire gamut of information included in digital slides. Tools have been developed to assist pathologists in image analysis and diagnosis, and they cover low and high-level image processing methods applied to histological images. Code portability, reusability and scalability have been tested by using the following parallel computing architectures: distributed memory with massive parallel processors and two networks, INFINIBAND and Myrinet, composed of 17 and 1024 nodes respectively. The parallel framework proposed is flexible, high performance solution and it shows that the efficient processing of digital microscopic images is possible and may offer important benefits to pathology laboratories. PMID:22522064

  11. Segmentation Based Fuzzy Classification of High Resolution Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Mukund; Rao, Suryaprakash; Masser, Ian; Kasturirangan, K.

    images, we build a much needed bridge between the methodology domains of GIS and Image Analysis. The idea of having an integrated 'geographical information processing' environment is becoming much more realistic now that 'GIS' objects can be used for analysing an image and vice versa, new 'GIS' objects can be directly generated without ignoring the rich information environment of geographical concepts, relations and scales. In the above scenario, the main aim of this project is to assess whether object-oriented classification techniques would be more suitable for remote sensing images - specifically in the context of high resolution images. The paper basically examines potentials of classification techniques - especially segmentation based methods that is based on an object-semantics and that uses not only the spectral information but also the spatial characteristics; studies the integration of segmentation and fuzzy-classification to derive user-oriented information from the high resolution images and evaluates how such segmentation based classification compares with the more common pixel- based statistical technique. Segmentation based fuzzy classification is applied to high resolution images from IRS and for 1m images from satellites - especially to extract urban information.

  12. High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindlay, Jonathan

    We propose to design and build the first imaging hard X-ray detector system that incorporates 3D stacking of closely packed detector readouts in finely-spaced imaging arrays with their required data processing and control electronics. In virtually all imaging astronomical detectors, detector readout is done with flex connectors or connections that are not vertical but rather horizontal , requiring loss of focal plane area. For high resolution pixel detectors needed for high speed event-based X-ray imaging, from low energy applications (CMOS) with focusing X-ray telescopes, to hard X-ray applications with pixelated CZT for large area coded aperture telescopes, this new detector development offers great promise. We propose to extend our previous and current APRA supported ProtoEXIST program that has developed the first large area imaging CZT detectors and demonstrated their astrophysical capabilities on two successful balloon flight to a next generation High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI), which would incorporate microvia technology for the first time to connect the readout ASIC on each CZT crystal directly to its control and data processing system. This 3-dimensional stacking of detector and readout/control system means that large area (>2m2) imaging detector planes for a High Resolution Wide-field hard X-ray telescope can be built with initially greatly reduced detector gaps and ultimately with no gaps. This increases detector area, efficiency, and simplicity of detector integration. Thus higher sensitivity wide-field imagers will be possible at lower cost. HREXI will enable a post-Swift NASA mission such as the EREXS concept proposed to PCOS to be conducted as a future MIDEX mission. This mission would conduct a high resolution (<2 arcmin) , broad band (5 200 keV) hard X-ray survey of black holes on all scales with ~10X higher sensitivity than Swift. In the current era of Time Domain Astrophysics, such a survey capability, in conjunction with a n

  13. Detection of Barchan Dunes in High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzaoui, M. A.; Adnani, M.; El Belrhiti, H.; Chaouki, I. E.; Masmoudi, C.

    2016-06-01

    Barchan dunes are the fastest moving sand dunes in the desert. We developed a process to detect barchans dunes on High resolution satellite images. It consisted of three steps, we first enhanced the image using histogram equalization and noise reduction filters. Then, the second step proceeds to eliminate the parts of the image having a texture different from that of the barchans dunes. Using supervised learning, we tested a coarse to fine textural analysis based on Kolomogorov Smirnov test and Youden's J-statistic on co-occurrence matrix. As an output we obtained a mask that we used in the next step to reduce the search area. In the third step we used a gliding window on the mask and check SURF features with SVM to get barchans dunes candidates. Detected barchans dunes were considered as the fusion of overlapping candidates. The results of this approach were very satisfying in processing time and precision.

  14. High resolution three-dimensional microwave imaging of antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Gregory G.; Anderson, Alan P.; Whitaker, Anthony J. T.; Bennett, John C.

    1989-06-01

    A procedure for imaging antenna currents that uses a relationship between the radiated far-field hemisphere and the Fourier transform domain of the source current density distribution is presented. The technique is applied to an array of two orthogonal waveguides, a slotted waveguide array, and a reflector antenna. In each case the radiated far-field hemisphere is inverted to produce a high-resolution volumetric image of the antenna currents. Polarization discrimination is demonstrated as is the ability of the technique to `see behind' blockages by defocusing the foreground. It is shown that accurate distribution is available from the reconstructed image. Selective editing of the Fourier domain of the current distribution is performed to suppress unwanted artifacts in the reconstruction.

  15. All-Optical Ultrasound Transducers for High Resolution Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheaff, Clay Smith

    High frequency ultrasound (HFUS) has increasingly been used within the past few decades to provide high resolution (< 200 mum) imaging in medical applications such as endoluminal imaging, intravascular imaging, ophthalmology, and dermatology. The optical detection and generation of HFUS using thin films offers numerous advantages over traditional piezoelectric technology. Circumvention of an electronic interface with the device head is one of the most significant given the RF noise, crosstalk, and reduced capacitance that encumbers small-scale electronic transducers. Thin film Fabry-Perot interferometers - also known as etalons - are well suited for HFUS receivers on account of their high sensitivity, wide bandwidth, and ease of fabrication. In addition, thin films can be used to generate HFUS when irradiated with optical pulses - a method referred to as Thermoelastic Ultrasound Generation (TUG). By integrating a polyimide (PI) film for TUG into an etalon receiver, we have created for the first time an all-optical ultrasound transducer that is both thermally stable and capable of forming fully sampled 2-D imaging arrays of arbitrary configuration. Here we report (1) the design and fabrication of PI-etalon transducers; (2) an evaluation of their optical and acoustic performance parameters; (3) the ability to conduct high-resolution imaging with synthetic 2-D arrays of PI-etalon elements; and (4) work towards a fiber optic PI-etalon for in vivo use. Successful development of a fiber optic imager would provide a unique field-of-view thereby exposing an abundance of prospects for minimally-invasive analysis, diagnosis, and treatment of disease.

  16. A miniature high resolution 3-D imaging sonar.

    PubMed

    Josserand, Tim; Wolley, Jason

    2011-04-01

    This paper discusses the design and development of a miniature, high resolution 3-D imaging sonar. The design utilizes frequency steered phased arrays (FSPA) technology. FSPAs present a small, low-power solution to the problem of underwater imaging sonars. The technology provides a method to build sonars with a large number of beams without the proportional power, circuitry and processing complexity. The design differs from previous methods in that the array elements are manufactured from a monolithic material. With this technique the arrays are flat and considerably smaller element dimensions are achievable which allows for higher frequency ranges and smaller array sizes. In the current frequency range, the demonstrated array has ultra high image resolution (1″ range×1° azimuth×1° elevation) and small size (<3″×3″). The design of the FSPA utilizes the phasing-induced frequency-dependent directionality of a linear phased array to produce multiple beams in a forward sector. The FSPA requires only two hardware channels per array and can be arranged in single and multiple array configurations that deliver wide sector 2-D images. 3-D images can be obtained by scanning the array in a direction perpendicular to the 2-D image field and applying suitable image processing to the multiple scanned 2-D images. This paper introduces the 3-D FSPA concept, theory and design methodology. Finally, results from a prototype array are presented and discussed. PMID:21112066

  17. High-resolution adaptive imaging with a single photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldevila, F.; Salvador-Balaguer, E.; Clemente, P.; Tajahuerce, E.; Lancis, J.

    2015-09-01

    During the past few years, the emergence of spatial light modulators operating at the tens of kHz has enabled new imaging modalities based on single-pixel photodetectors. The nature of single-pixel imaging enforces a reciprocal relationship between frame rate and image size. Compressive imaging methods allow images to be reconstructed from a number of projections that is only a fraction of the number of pixels. In microscopy, single-pixel imaging is capable of producing images with a moderate size of 128 × 128 pixels at frame rates under one Hz. Recently, there has been considerable interest in the development of advanced techniques for high-resolution real-time operation in applications such as biological microscopy. Here, we introduce an adaptive compressive technique based on wavelet trees within this framework. In our adaptive approach, the resolution of the projecting patterns remains deliberately small, which is crucial to avoid the demanding memory requirements of compressive sensing algorithms. At pattern projection rates of 22.7 kHz, our technique would enable to obtain 128 × 128 pixel images at frame rates around 3 Hz. In our experiments, we have demonstrated a cost-effective solution employing a commercial projection display.

  18. High-resolution adaptive imaging with a single photodiode

    PubMed Central

    Soldevila, F.; Salvador-Balaguer, E.; Clemente, P.; Tajahuerce, E.; Lancis, J.

    2015-01-01

    During the past few years, the emergence of spatial light modulators operating at the tens of kHz has enabled new imaging modalities based on single-pixel photodetectors. The nature of single-pixel imaging enforces a reciprocal relationship between frame rate and image size. Compressive imaging methods allow images to be reconstructed from a number of projections that is only a fraction of the number of pixels. In microscopy, single-pixel imaging is capable of producing images with a moderate size of 128 × 128 pixels at frame rates under one Hz. Recently, there has been considerable interest in the development of advanced techniques for high-resolution real-time operation in applications such as biological microscopy. Here, we introduce an adaptive compressive technique based on wavelet trees within this framework. In our adaptive approach, the resolution of the projecting patterns remains deliberately small, which is crucial to avoid the demanding memory requirements of compressive sensing algorithms. At pattern projection rates of 22.7 kHz, our technique would enable to obtain 128 × 128 pixel images at frame rates around 3 Hz. In our experiments, we have demonstrated a cost-effective solution employing a commercial projection display. PMID:26382114

  19. Photoswitchable Nanoparticles Enable High-Resolution Cell Imaging: PULSAR Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Dehong; Tian, Z.; Wu, Wuwei; Wan, Wei; Li, Alexander D.

    2008-10-22

    Fluorescence imaging has transformed biological sciences and opened a window to reveal biological mechanisms in real time despite Abbe’s diffraction limit restricts current microscope resolution to 300 nm?.HDH2 Recently, two high-resolution fluorescence microscopic techniques emerged: one uses a special photoactivatable green fluorescent proteinHDH3 and the other employs a pair of cy3/cy5 dyes.HDH4 Both avoid Abbe’s diffraction limit by photoswitching nearby fluorophores off. Thus, photoswitching fluorescence between a bright and a dark state promises to deliver a wealth of information regarding biological phenomena at the nanoscale. The ideal probe is a key-enabling single molecule that can be photoswitched on and off. Such wonderful properties, albeit implausible to imagine at first, were realized in spiropyran derivatives. While being photoswitched, one molecule alternates red-fluorescence on-and-off. Using such photo-actuated unimolecular logical switching attained reconstruction (PULSAR) microscopy, we achieved high-resolution fluorescence imaging down to 80 nm? in nanostructures and cellular organelles.

  20. High-Resolution Mars Camera Test Image of Moon (Infrared)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This crescent view of Earth's Moon in infrared wavelengths comes from a camera test by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on its way to Mars. The mission's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera took the image on Sept. 8, 2005, while at a distance of about 10 million kilometers (6 million miles) from the Moon. The dark feature on the right is Mare Crisium. From that distance, the Moon would appear as a star-like point of light to the unaided eye. The test verified the camera's focusing capability and provided an opportunity for calibration. The spacecraft's Context Camera and Optical Navigation Camera also performed as expected during the test.

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched on Aug. 12, 2005, is on course to reach Mars on March 10, 2006. After gradually adjusting the shape of its orbit for half a year, it will begin its primary science phase in November 2006. From the mission's planned science orbit about 300 kilometers (186 miles) above the surface of Mars, the high resolution camera will be able to discern features as small as one meter or yard across.

  1. High resolution 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, Frank M.; Cornelius, Iwan; Blencowe, Anton; Franich, Rick D.; Geso, Moshi

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) techniques are under investigation at synchrotrons worldwide. Favourable outcomes from animal and cell culture studies have proven the efficacy of MRT. The aim of MRT researchers currently is to progress to human clinical trials in the near future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the high resolution and 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams in PRESAGE® dosimeters using laser fluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated and irradiated with microbeams on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Microbeam arrays comprised of microbeams 25–50 μm wide with 200 or 400 μm peak-to-peak spacing were delivered as single, cross-fire, multidirectional, and interspersed arrays. Imaging of the dosimeters was performed using a NIKON A1 laser fluorescence confocal microscope. Results: The spatial fractionation of the MRT beams was clearly visible in 2D and up to 9 mm in depth. Individual microbeams were easily resolved with the full width at half maximum of microbeams measured on images with resolutions of as low as 0.09 μm/pixel. Profiles obtained demonstrated the change of the peak-to-valley dose ratio for interspersed MRT microbeam arrays and subtle variations in the sample positioning by the sample stage goniometer were measured. Conclusions: Laser fluorescence confocal microscopy of MRT irradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters has been validated in this study as a high resolution imaging tool for the independent spatial and geometrical verification of MRT beam delivery.

  2. Porous silicon phantoms for high-resolution scintillation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francia, G.; Scafè, R.; De Vincentis, G.; La Ferrara, V.; Iurlaro, G.; Nasti, I.; Montani, L.; Pellegrini, R.; Betti, M.; Martucciello, N.; Pani, R.

    2006-12-01

    High resolution radionuclide imaging requires phantoms with precise geometries and known activities using either Anger cameras equipped with pinhole collimators or dedicated small animal devices. Porous silicon samples, having areas of different shape and size, can be made and loaded with a radioactive material, obtaining: (a) precise radio-emitting figures corresponding to the porous areas geometry, (b) a radioactivity of each figure depending on the pore's specifications, and (c) the same emission energy to be used in true exams. To this aim a sample with porous circular areas has been made and loaded with a 99mTcO 4- solution. Imaging has been obtained using both general purpose and pinhole collimators. This first sample shows some defects that are analyzed and discussed.

  3. High-resolution imaging of solar system objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    The strategy of this investigation has been to develop new high-resolution imaging capabilities and to apply them to extended observing programs. These programs have included Io's neutral sodium cloud and comets. The Io observing program was carried out at Table Mountain Observatory (1976 to 1981), providing a framework interpreting Voyager measurements of the Io torus, and serving as an important reference for studying asymmetries and time variabilities in the Jovian magnetosphere. Comet observations made with the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and 1.6 m AMOS telescope (1984 to 1987) provide basis for studying early coma development in Halley, the kinematics of its nucleus, and the internal and external structure of the nucleus. Images of GZ from the ICE encounter period form the basis for unique comparisons with in situ magnetic field and dust impact measurements to determine the ion tail and dust coma structure, respectively.

  4. Semantic-based high resolution remote sensing image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Dihua

    High Resolution Remote Sensing (HRRS) imagery has been experiencing extraordinary development in the past decade. Technology development means increased resolution imagery is available at lower cost, making it a precious resource for planners, environmental scientists, as well as others who can learn from the ground truth. Image retrieval plays an important role in managing and accessing huge image database. Current image retrieval techniques, cannot satisfy users' requests on retrieving remote sensing images based on semantics. In this dissertation, we make two fundamental contributions to the area of content based image retrieval. First, we propose a novel unsupervised texture-based segmentation approach suitable for accurately segmenting HRRS images. The results of existing segmentation algorithms dramatically deteriorate if simply adopted to HRRS images. This is primarily clue to the multi-texture scales and the high level noise present in these images. Therefore, we propose an effective and efficient segmentation model, which is a two-step process. At high-level, we improved the unsupervised segmentation algorithm by coping with two special features possessed by HRRS images. By preprocessing images with wavelet transform, we not only obtain multi-resolution images but also denoise the original images. By optimizing the splitting results, we solve the problem of textons in HRRS images existing in different scales. At fine level, we employ fuzzy classification segmentation techniques with adjusted parameters for different land cover. We implement our algorithm using real world 1-foot resolution aerial images. Second, we devise methodologies to automatically annotate HRRS images based on semantics. In this, we address the issue of semantic feature selection, the major challenge faced by semantic-based image retrieval. To discover and make use of hidden semantics of images is application dependent. One type of the semantics in HRRS image is conveyed by composite

  5. High resolution imaging of dynamic surface processes from the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnellan, A.; Green, J. J.; De Jong, E. M.; Knight, R.; Bills, B.; Arrowsmith, R.

    Spaceborne persistent multi-angle imaging allows staring at selected targets during an orbit pass. From its vantage point on the International Space Station (ISS) a persistent Earth imaging telescope would provide hundreds of high-resolution images simultaneously. Observations could be in visible and SWIR bands as it stares at a scene of interest. These images provide rich multi-angle stereo views enabling understanding of rapidly changing Earth features with many applications to Earth science and disaster response. Current academic state-of-the-art is driven by single images taken with a near nadir view. Persistent imaging could address NASA's goal of understanding how and why the Earth's environment is changing, and could be used for forecasting and mitigating the effects of natural disasters. Specifically such a mission could be used to answer the questions: 1) How are Earth's vulnerable systems reflecting changes in climate? and 2) What processes and features characterize the magnitude and extent of disasters? A mission would meet geomorphologists' requirements observing changing features such as landslides, earthquakes, floods, volcanoes, and glaciers.

  6. High resolution imaging of objects located within a wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greneker, Eugene F.; Showman, Gregory A.; Trostel, John M.; Sylvester, Vincent

    2006-05-01

    Researchers at Georgia Tech Research Institute have developed a high resolution imaging radar technique that allows large sections of a test wall to be scanned in X and Y dimensions. The resulting images that can be obtained provide information on what is inside the wall, if anything. The scanning homodyne radar operates at a frequency of 24.1 GHz at with an output power level of approximately 10 milliwatts. An imaging technique that has been developed is currently being used to study the detection of toxic mold on the back surface of wallboard using radar as a sensor. The moisture that is associated with the mold can easily be detected. In addition to mold, the technique will image objects as small as a 4 millimeter sphere on the front or rear of the wallboard and will penetrate both sides of a wall made of studs and wallboard. Signal processing is performed on the resulting data to further sharpen the image. Photos of the scanner and images produced by the scanner are presented. A discussion of the signal processing and technical challenges are also discussed.

  7. Graph - Based High Resolution Satellite Image Segmentation for Object Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravali, K.; Kumar, M. V. Ravi; Venugopala Rao, K.

    2014-11-01

    Object based image processing and analysis is challenging research in very high resolution satellite utilisation. Commonly ei ther pixel based classification or visual interpretation is used to recognize and delineate land cover categories. The pixel based classification techniques use rich spectral content of satellite images and fail to utilise spatial relations. To overcome th is drawback, traditional time consuming visual interpretation methods are being used operational ly for preparation of thematic maps. This paper addresses computational vision principles to object level image segmentation. In this study, computer vision algorithms are developed to define the boundary between two object regions and segmentation by representing image as graph. Image is represented as a graph G (V, E), where nodes belong to pixels and, edges (E) connect nodes belonging to neighbouring pixels. The transformed Mahalanobis distance has been used to define a weight function for partition of graph into components such that each component represents the region of land category. This implies that edges between two vertices in the same component have relatively low weights and edges between vertices in different components should have higher weights. The derived segments are categorised to different land cover using supervised classification. The paper presents the experimental results on real world multi-spectral remote sensing images of different landscapes such as Urban, agriculture and mixed land cover. Graph construction done in C program and list the run time for both graph construction and segmentation calculation on dual core Intel i7 system with 16 GB RAM, running 64bit window 7.

  8. A mechanical microcompressor for high resolution imaging of motile specimens.

    PubMed

    Zinskie, Jessica A; Shribak, Michael; Bruist, Michael F; Aufderheide, Karl J; Janetopoulos, Chris

    2015-10-01

    In order to obtain fine details in 3 dimensions (3D) over time, it is critical for motile biological specimens to be appropriately immobilized. Of the many immobilization options available, the mechanical microcompressor offers many benefits. Our device, previously described, achieves gentle flattening of a cell, allowing us to image finely detailed structures of numerous organelles and physiological processes in living cells. We have imaged protozoa and other small metazoans using differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, orientation-independent (OI) DIC, and real-time birefringence imaging using a video-enhanced polychromatic polscope. We also describe an enhancement of our previous design by engineering a new device where the coverslip mount is fashioned onto the top of the base; so the entire apparatus is accessible on top of the stage. The new location allows for easier manipulation of the mount when compressing or releasing a specimen on an inverted microscope. Using this improved design, we imaged immobilized bacteria, yeast, paramecia, and nematode worms and obtained an unprecedented view of cell and specimen details. A variety of microscopic techniques were used to obtain high resolution images of static and dynamic cellular and physiological events. PMID:26192819

  9. Secure distribution for high resolution remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin; Sun, Jing; Xu, Zheng Q.

    2010-09-01

    The use of remote sensing images collected by space platforms is becoming more and more widespread. The increasing value of space data and its use in critical scenarios call for adoption of proper security measures to protect these data against unauthorized access and fraudulent use. In this paper, based on the characteristics of remote sensing image data and application requirements on secure distribution, a secure distribution method is proposed, including users and regions classification, hierarchical control and keys generation, and multi-level encryption based on regions. The combination of the three parts can make that the same remote sensing images after multi-level encryption processing are distributed to different permission users through multicast, but different permission users can obtain different degree information after decryption through their own decryption keys. It well meets user access control and security needs in the process of high resolution remote sensing image distribution. The experimental results prove the effectiveness of the proposed method which is suitable for practical use in the secure transmission of remote sensing images including confidential information over internet.

  10. High resolution imaging with impulse based thermoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellnberger, Stephan; Hajiaboli, Amir; Sergiadis, George; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2011-07-01

    Existing imaging modalities like microwave- or radiofrequency (RF) induced thermoacoustic tomography systems show the potential for resolving structures deep inside tissue due to the high penetration properties of RF. However, one of the major drawbacks of existing thermoacoustic tomography systems with pulse modulated carrier frequency excitation is the compromise between efficient signal generation and attainable spatial resolution. In order to overcome limitations of conventional thermoacoustic imaging methods, we herein present and experimentally validate our novel approach towards high resolution thermoacoustic tomography. Instead of carrier-frequency amplification, we utilize ultrahigh-energy electromagnetic impulses at nanosecond duration with near-field energy coupling, thus maintaining thermoacoustic signal strength without compromising spatial resolution. Preliminary experiments on highly absorbing objects, consisting of copper wires with characteristic sizes of ~100 μm, reveal the resolution performance which yields 160 μm. Furthermore, benefits like its cost effectiveness, simplicity and compactness with the potential application in small animal imaging as well as human body imaging show that thermoacoustic tomography with impulse excitation is a promising imaging modality which has a broad range of applications.

  11. A mechanical microcompressor for high resolution imaging of motile specimens

    PubMed Central

    Zinskie, Jessica A.; Shribak, Michael; Bruist, Michael F.; Aufderheide, Karl J.; Janetopoulos, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain fine details in 3 dimensions (3D) over time, it is critical for motile biological specimens to be appropriately immobilized. Of the many immobilization options available, the mechanical microcompressor offers many benefits. Our device, previously described, achieves gentle flattening of a cell, allowing us to image finely detailed structures of numerous organelles and physiological processes in living cells. We have imaged protozoa and other small metazoans using differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, orientation-independent (OI) DIC, and real-time birefringence imaging using a video-enhanced polychromatic polscope. We also describe an enhancement of our previous design by engineering a new device where the coverslip mount is fashioned onto the top of the base; so the entire apparatus is accessible on top of the stage. The new location allows for easier manipulation of the mount when compressing or releasing a specimen on an inverted microscope. Using this improved design, we imaged immobilized bacteria, yeast, paramecia, and nematode worms and obtained an unprecedented view of cell and specimen details. A variety of microscopic techniques were used to obtain high resolution images of static and dynamic cellular and physiological events. PMID:26192819

  12. High-resolution breath-hold cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yu.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation work is composed of investigations of three methods for fast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These methods include (1) 2D breath-hold magnetization prepared gradient echo and fast spin-echo (FSE) cardiac imaging, (2) 3D breath-hold magnetization prepared gradient echo cardiac imaging, and (3) real-time monitoring, feedback, and triggering for breath-hold MRI. The hypothesis of this work is that high resolution 2D and 3D magnetic resonance data sets for the heart can be acquired with the combination of magnetization prepared blood suppression for gradient echo techniques and accurate breath-holding methods. The 2D method included development of magnetic resonance data acquisition for cardiac imaging. The acquisition time is within a single breath-hold of 16 seconds (assuming heart 60/min). The data acquisition is synchronized with the electrocardiogram signal. Based on consistent observations of specific small cardiac structures like the papillary muscle, trabeculae, moderator band, and coronary vessels in studies of normal volunteers, the image quality represents a significant improvement over that obtained with fast imaging methods previously. To further improve the image quality provided by the 2D method, the first 3D cardiac MRI technique was developed. This method provides even better spatial resolution for cardiac images, with a voxel size of 1.09 [times] 2.19 [times] 4 mm[sup 3]. A 3D acquisition is completed in 8 breath-holds. The data acquisition for 3D cardiac imaging requires a consistent breath-hold position to avoid respiratory artifacts. To improve the reliability of the 3DFT acquisition, a new technique called MR breath-hold feedback was developed to provide reproducible breathholding. The diaphragm location is used as the index for breath-hold reproducibility measurement. The range of the diaphragm displacement in different breath-hold is reduced from 8.3 mm without the technique, to 1.3 mm with the technique.

  13. Seabed AUV Offers New Platform for High-Resolution Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Hanumant; Can, Ali; Eustice, Ryan; Lerner, Steve; McPhee, Neil; Pizarro, Oscar; Roman, Chris

    2004-08-01

    A number of marine biological, geological, and archaeological applications share the need for high-resolution optical and acoustic imaging of the sea floor. In particular, there is a compelling need to conduct studies in depths beyond those considered reasonable for divers (~50 m) down to depths at the shelf edge and continental slope (~1000-2000 m). Some of the constraints associated with such work include the requirement to work off of small coastal vessels or fishing boats of opportunity, and the requirement for the vehicle components to be air-shippable, to enable inexpensive deployments at far-flung oceanographic sites of interest. Over the last 2 and a half years, the Seabed Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) has been designed and deployed in the support of such tasks off of Puerto Rico, Bermuda, Stellwagen Bank off Massachusetts, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  14. High-Resolution Multiphoton Imaging of Tumors In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Gligorijevic, Bojana; Entenberg, David; Segall, Jeffrey; Condeelis, John

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the individual steps in metastasis is crucial if insights at the molecular level are to be linked to the cell biology of cancer. A technical hurdle to achieving the analysis of the individual steps of metastasis is the fact that, at the gross level, tumors are heterogeneous in both animal models and patients. Human primary tumors show extensive variation in all properties ranging from growth and morphology of the tumor through tumor-cell density in the blood and formation and growth of metastases. Methods capable of the direct visualization and analysis of tumor-cell behavior at single-cell resolution in vivo have become crucial in advancing the understanding of mechanisms of metastasis, the definition of microenvironment, and the markers related to both. This article discusses the use of high-resolution multiphoton imaging of tumors (specifically breast tumors in mice) in vivo. PMID:21969629

  15. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: high resolution imaging requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiao-Lei; Treu, Tommaso; Agnello, Adriano; Auger, Matthew W.; Liao, Kai; Marshall, Philip J.

    2015-09-01

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ``Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρtotpropto r-γ' for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. However, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation Adaptive Optics System, and TMT, will only be of

  16. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: High resolution imaging requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Xiao -Lei; Treu, Tommaso; Agnello, Adriano; Auger, Matthew W.; Liao, Kai; Marshall, Philip J.

    2015-09-28

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ``Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρtot∝ r–γ' for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. Furthermore, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation Adaptive Optics System, and TMT, will

  17. Theme issue "High Resolution Earth Imaging for Geospatial Information"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heipke, Christian; Soergel, Uwe; Rottensteiner, Franz; Jutzi, Boris

    2015-02-01

    Earth imaging from air and space has undergone major changes over the last decade. Examples of new and significant developments comprise the development and constant improvement of digital aerial cameras, multiple-echo and full-waveform laser scanners and the appearance of geosensor networks and unconventional platforms, most notably unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), sometimes called unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) or remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS), and the ever increasing number of high-resolution and hyperspectral optical and SAR satellite sensors, small satellites and satellite constellations, which allow for both, a continued availability of satellite data over long periods of time, and a very short revisit time for any location on the globe. To give few examples: the latest Landsat satellite, appropriately called the Landsat data continuity mission or LDCM was launched on February 2013, continuing the Landsat mission which began back in 1972; during 2013 and 2014 France has put the SPOT 6 and 7 twin satellites into orbit, extending the history of high resolution space images, which started in 1986; and in April 2014 the European Space Agency (ESA) successfully launched the Sentinel 1A satellite with a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor, the first of a fleet of different sensors that will be sent into space in the coming years. Sentinel 1A together with its twin system Sentinel 1B, to be launched in 2016, will continue the tremendous success story of ESA's C band SAR satellite activities dating back to 1991. Like the predecessors ERS 1, ERS 2, and Envisat ASAR, the Sentinel 1 systems are designed to cover the entire land mass with medium resolution, the repeat cycle is 12 days for Sentinel 1A alone and will even drop to six days as soon as both satellites are operational.

  18. High-resolution mechanical imaging of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Streitberger, Kaspar-Josche; Guo, Jing; Tzschätzsch, Heiko; Hirsch, Sebastian; Fischer, Thomas; Braun, Jürgen; Sack, Ingolf

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test the feasibility and reproducibility of in vivo high-resolution mechanical imaging of the asymptomatic human kidney. Hereby nine volunteers were examined at three different physiological states of urinary bladder filling (a normal state, urinary urgency, and immediately after urinary relief). Mechanical imaging was performed of the in vivo kidney using three-dimensional multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography combined with multifrequency dual elastovisco inversion. Other than in classical elastography, where the storage and loss shear moduli are evaluated, we analyzed the magnitude |G(⁎)| and the phase angle φ of the complex shear modulus reconstructed by simultaneous inversion of full wave field data corresponding to 7 harmonic drive frequencies from 30 to 60Hz and a resolution of 2.5mm cubic voxel size. Mechanical parameter maps were derived with a spatial resolution superior to that in previous work. The group-averaged values of |G(⁎)| were 2.67±0.52kPa in the renal medulla, 1.64±0.17kPa in the cortex, and 1.17±0.21kPa in the hilus. The phase angle φ (in radians) was 0.89±0.12 in the medulla, 0.83±0.09 in the cortex, and 0.72±0.06 in the hilus. All regional differences were significant (P<0.001), while no significant variation was found in relation to different stages of bladder filling. In summary our study provides first high-resolution maps of viscoelastic parameters of the three anatomical regions of the kidney. |G(⁎)| and φ provide novel information on the viscoelastic properties of the kidney, which is potentially useful for the detection of renal lesions or fibrosis. PMID:24355382

  19. Cortical Surface Reconstruction from High-Resolution MR Brain Images

    PubMed Central

    Osechinskiy, Sergey; Kruggel, Frithjof

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of the cerebral cortex from magnetic resonance (MR) images is an important step in quantitative analysis of the human brain structure, for example, in sulcal morphometry and in studies of cortical thickness. Existing cortical reconstruction approaches are typically optimized for standard resolution (~1 mm) data and are not directly applicable to higher resolution images. A new PDE-based method is presented for the automated cortical reconstruction that is computationally efficient and scales well with grid resolution, and thus is particularly suitable for high-resolution MR images with submillimeter voxel size. The method uses a mathematical model of a field in an inhomogeneous dielectric. This field mapping, similarly to a Laplacian mapping, has nice laminar properties in the cortical layer, and helps to identify the unresolved boundaries between cortical banks in narrow sulci. The pial cortical surface is reconstructed by advection along the field gradient as a geometric deformable model constrained by topology-preserving level set approach. The method's performance is illustrated on exvivo images with 0.25–0.35 mm isotropic voxels. The method is further evaluated by cross-comparison with results of the FreeSurfer software on standard resolution data sets from the OASIS database featuring pairs of repeated scans for 20 healthy young subjects. PMID:22481909

  20. Bright Semiconductor Scintillator for High Resolution X-Ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Nagarkar, Vivek V.; Gaysinskiy, Valeriy; Ovechkina, Olena E.; Miller, Stuart; Singh, Bipin; Guo, Liang; Irving, Thomas

    2011-08-16

    We report on a novel approach to produce oxygen-doped zinc telluride (ZnTe:O), a remarkable group II-VI semiconductor scintillator, fabricated in the columnar-structured or polycrystalline forms needed to fulfill the needs of many demanding X-ray and {gamma}-ray imaging applications. ZnTe:O has one of the highest conversion efficiencies among known scintillators, emission around 680 nm (which is ideally suited for CCD sensors), high density of 6.4 g/cm{sup 3}, fast decay time of {approx}1 {micro}s with negligible afterglow, and orders of magnitude higher radiation resistance compared to commonly used scintillators. These properties allow the use of ZnTe:O in numerous applications, including X-ray imaging, nuclear medicine (particularly SPECT), room temperature radioisotope identification, and homeland security. Additionally, ZnTe:O offers distinct advantages for synchrotron-based high resolution imaging due to the absence of atomic absorption edges in the low energy range, which otherwise reduce resolution due to secondary X-ray formations. We have fabricated films of ZnTe:O using a vapor deposition technique that allows large-area structured scintillator fabrication in a time- and cost-efficient manner, and evaluated its performance for small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) at an Argonne National Laboratory synchrotron beamline. Details of the fabrication and characterization of the optical, scintillation and imaging properties of the ZnTe:O films are presented in this paper.

  1. Automatic Crowd Analysis from Very High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirmacek, B.; Reinartz, P.

    2011-04-01

    Recently automatic detection of people crowds from images became a very important research field, since it can provide crucial information especially for police departments and crisis management teams. Due to the importance of the topic, many researchers tried to solve this problem using street cameras. However, these cameras cannot be used to monitor very large outdoor public events. In order to bring a solution to the problem, herein we propose a novel approach to detect crowds automatically from remotely sensed images, and especially from very high resolution satellite images. To do so, we use a local feature based probabilistic framework. We extract local features from color components of the input image. In order to eliminate redundant local features coming from other objects in given scene, we apply a feature selection method. For feature selection purposes, we benefit from three different type of information; digital elevation model (DEM) of the region which is automatically generated using stereo satellite images, possible street segment which is obtained by segmentation, and shadow information. After eliminating redundant local features, remaining features are used to detect individual persons. Those local feature coordinates are also assumed as observations of the probability density function (pdf) of the crowds to be estimated. Using an adaptive kernel density estimation method, we estimate the corresponding pdf which gives us information about dense crowd and people locations. We test our algorithm usingWorldview-2 satellite images over Cairo and Munich cities. Besides, we also provide test results on airborne images for comparison of the detection accuracy. Our experimental results indicate the possible usage of the proposed approach in real-life mass events.

  2. Heuristic optimization in penumbral image for high resolution reconstructed image

    SciTech Connect

    Azuma, R.; Nozaki, S.; Fujioka, S.; Chen, Y. W.; Namihira, Y.

    2010-10-15

    Penumbral imaging is a technique which uses the fact that spatial information can be recovered from the shadow or penumbra that an unknown source casts through a simple large circular aperture. The size of the penumbral image on the detector can be mathematically determined as its aperture size, object size, and magnification. Conventional reconstruction methods are very sensitive to noise. On the other hand, the heuristic reconstruction method is very tolerant of noise. However, the aperture size influences the accuracy and resolution of the reconstructed image. In this article, we propose the optimization of the aperture size for the neutron penumbral imaging.

  3. Structure recognition from high resolution images of ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ushizima, Daniela; Perciano, Talita; Krishnan, Harinarayan; Loring, Burlen; Bale, Hrishikesh; Parkinson, Dilworth; Sethian, James

    2015-01-05

    Fibers provide exceptional strength-to-weight ratio capabilities when woven into ceramic composites, transforming them into materials with exceptional resistance to high temperature, and high strength combined with improved fracture toughness. Microcracks are inevitable when the material is under strain, which can be imaged using synchrotron X-ray computed micro-tomography (mu-CT) for assessment of material mechanical toughness variation. An important part of this analysis is to recognize fibrillar features. This paper presents algorithms for detecting and quantifying composite cracks and fiber breaks from high-resolution image stacks. First, we propose recognition algorithms to identify the different structures of the composite, including matrix cracks and fibers breaks. Second, we introduce our package F3D for fast filtering of large 3D imagery, implemented in OpenCL to take advantage of graphic cards. Results show that our algorithms automatically identify micro-damage and that the GPU-based implementation introduced here takes minutes, being 17x faster than similar tools on a typical image file.

  4. Cheetah: A high frame rate, high resolution SWIR image camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neys, Joel; Bentell, Jonas; O'Grady, Matt; Vermeiren, Jan; Colin, Thierry; Hooylaerts, Peter; Grietens, Bob

    2008-10-01

    A high resolution, high frame rate InGaAs based image sensor and associated camera has been developed. The sensor and the camera are capable of recording and delivering more than 1700 full 640x512pixel frames per second. The FPA utilizes a low lag CTIA current integrator in each pixel, enabling integration times shorter than one microsecond. On-chip logics allows for four different sub windows to be read out simultaneously at even higher rates. The spectral sensitivity of the FPA is situated in the SWIR range [0.9-1.7 μm] and can be further extended into the Visible and NIR range. The Cheetah camera has max 16 GB of on-board memory to store the acquired images and transfer the data over a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the PC. The camera is also equipped with a full CameralinkTM interface to directly stream the data to a frame grabber or dedicated image processing unit. The Cheetah camera is completely under software control.

  5. Schiaparelli Crater Rim and Interior Deposits - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A portion of the rim and interior of the large impact crater Schiaparelli is seen at high resolution in this image acquired October 18, 1997 by the Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter Camera (MOC). The area covered is very small--3.9 X 10.2 km (2.4 X 6.33 mi)--but is seen at 63 times higher resolution than the Viking image. The subdued relief and bright surface are attributed to blanketing by dust; many small craters have been completely filled in, and only the most recent (and very small) craters appear sharp and bowl-shaped. Some of the small craters are only 10-12 m (30-35 feet) across. Occasional dark streaks on steeper slopes are small debris slides that have probably occurred in the past few decades. The two prominent, narrow ridges in the center of the image may be related to the adjustment of the crater floor to age or the weight of the material filling the basin.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  6. Multi-spectral compressive snapshot imaging using RGB image sensors.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Hoover; Lau, Daniel; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2015-05-01

    Compressive sensing is a powerful sensing and reconstruction framework for recovering high dimensional signals with only a handful of observations and for spectral imaging, compressive sensing offers a novel method of multispectral imaging. Specifically, the coded aperture snapshot spectral imager (CASSI) system has been demonstrated to produce multi-spectral data cubes color images from a single snapshot taken by a monochrome image sensor. In this paper, we expand the theoretical framework of CASSI to include the spectral sensitivity of the image sensor pixels to account for color and then investigate the impact on image quality using either a traditional color image sensor that spatially multiplexes red, green, and blue light filters or a novel Foveon image sensor which stacks red, green, and blue pixels on top of one another. PMID:25969307

  7. Wide-Field-of-View, High-Resolution, Stereoscopic Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prechtl, Eric F.; Sedwick, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    A device combines video feeds from multiple cameras to provide wide-field-of-view, high-resolution, stereoscopic video to the user. The prototype under development consists of two camera assemblies, one for each eye. One of these assemblies incorporates a mounting structure with multiple cameras attached at offset angles. The video signals from the cameras are fed to a central processing platform where each frame is color processed and mapped into a single contiguous wide-field-of-view image. Because the resolution of most display devices is typically smaller than the processed map, a cropped portion of the video feed is output to the display device. The positioning of the cropped window will likely be controlled through the use of a head tracking device, allowing the user to turn his or her head side-to-side or up and down to view different portions of the captured image. There are multiple options for the display of the stereoscopic image. The use of head mounted displays is one likely implementation. However, the use of 3D projection technologies is another potential technology under consideration, The technology can be adapted in a multitude of ways. The computing platform is scalable, such that the number, resolution, and sensitivity of the cameras can be leveraged to improve image resolution and field of view. Miniaturization efforts can be pursued to shrink the package down for better mobility. Power savings studies can be performed to enable unattended, remote sensing packages. Image compression and transmission technologies can be incorporated to enable an improved telepresence experience.

  8. The Singapore high resolution single cell imaging facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, Frank; Chen, Xiao; Vera, Armin Baysic De; Udalagama, Chammika N. B.; Ren, M.; Kan, Jeroen A. van; Bettiol, Andrew A.

    2011-10-01

    The Centre for Ion Beam Applications, National University of Singapore has recently expanded from three state-of-the-art beam lines to five. Two new beam lines have been constructed: A second generation proton beam writing line, and a high resolution single cell imaging facility. Both systems feature high demagnification lens systems based on compact Oxford Microbeams OM52 lenses, coupled with reduced lens/image distances. The single cell imaging facility is designed around OM52 compact lenses capable of operating in a variety of high demagnification configurations including the spaced Oxford triplet and the double crossover Russian quadruplet. The new facility has design specifications aimed at spatial resolutions below 50 nm, with a variety of techniques including STIM, secondary electron and fluorescence imaging, and an in-built optical and fluorescence microscope for sample imaging, identification and positioning. Preliminary tests using the single space Oxford triplet configuration have indicated a beam spot size of 31 × 39 nm in the horizontal and vertical directions respectively, at beam currents of ∼10,000 protons per second. However, a weakness in the specifications of the electrostatic scanning system has been identified, and a more stable scanning system needs to be implemented before we can fully realize the optimum performance. A single whole fibroblast cell has been scanned using 1.5 MeV protons, and a median fit to the proton transmission energy loss data has shown that proton STIM gives excellent details of the cell structure despite the relatively poor contrast of proton STIM compared with alpha STIM.

  9. High Resolution Imaging of Circumstellar Disks at Millimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilner, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Our program uses the techniques of millimeter interferometry to make high resolution observations of dust continuum emission to study the structure of protoplanetary disks and debris disks around nearby stars. Observations of dust emission at these wavelengths are advantageous because the dust emission is generally optically thin and directly proportional to mass, and contrast with stellar photospheres is not a problem. We are using of several observational facilities, including (1) the Very Large Array (VLA) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatories, (2) the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) of the Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique, and (3) the Submillimeter Array (SMA), now under construction by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and Academia Sinica (Taiwan). In the past year, we have accomplished the following (more details below): (1) We continued work on our 'low resolution' VLA survey of disks in Herbig Ae star and binary systems, primarily to identify candidates for higher resolution follow-up. We have submitted a paper for publication on the detailed analysis of the structure of the disk around CQ Tauri; (2) We completed analysis of our PdBI observations of the debris disk around Vega, and we presented these results at (1) the 199th AAS meeting in Washington, DC, and (2) a symposium in memory of Fred Gillett on Debris Disks and the Formation of Planets, in Tucson, AZ; (3) We continue commissioning observations with the SMA, which include the first ever interferometric images in the 850 micron wavelength band, in preparation for eventually imaging debris disks.

  10. High resolution imaging of the outflow channels on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davatzes, A. K.; Gulick, V. C.

    2008-12-01

    We report observations of the outflow channels on Mars from HiRISE images in MRO's first Martian year. Several hundred images of the outflow channels on Mars have been collected to date from HiRISE, as well as coordinated images with CTX and CRISM. Depositional features, such as slackwater deposits and small bedforms that are expected to be visible at the resolution of HiRISE have not yet been observed, largely due to post-fluvial modification of the channels. Many of the channels have been subsequently covered by a thin layer of lava, ash, dust, or lineated valley fill. Although altered slightly by later aeolian modification, Ares Valles and Kasei Valles preserve much of the original fluvial erosional forms, particularly cataracts and longitudinal grooves that can be used to infer the mechanics of the flow. Cataracts, steep knickpoints in the large outflow channels, were once large waterfalls on the Martian surface. These have been observed in all of the larger outflow systems, including Kasai, Athabasca, Mangala, and Reull Valles. High resolution imaging shows that all of the cataract systems have multiple generations of erosion, with smaller subchannels within the cataract system. Based on the length of the recession and the morphological evidence most of the large channels experienced multiple flooding events or pulses. The tectonically sourced outflow channels, such as Athabasca and Mangala Valles, show sourcing at regions of complex fault geometries, specifically at fault relays. In terrestrial systems, relays tend to be regions of concentrated stress that can produce dilation manifested as high joint density, as well as point sources for hydrothermal outflow on Earth. Athabasca and Mangala Valles, sourced proximal to large volcanic centers, may have been regions of major hydrothermal activity in the past.

  11. Flow-ejecta Crater in Icaria Planum - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter Camera (MOC) acquired this high resolution image of a flow ejecta crater on November 19, 1997, at 8:26 PM PST, about 18 minutes after the start the 45th orbit of Mars. The area shown is roughly 6.5 by 40.2 kilometers (4 by 25 miles), and is located near 40 degrees South latitude, 120 degrees West longitude. Features as small as 15-18 m (50-60 feet) across are visible in the picture.

    Flow ejecta craters are so named because the material blasted out of the crater during the impact process appears to have flowed across the surface of Mars. First seen in Mariner 9 images in 1973, and described in detail using Viking Orbiter images acquired in 1976-78, flow-ejecta craters are considered by many scientists to be evidence that liquid water could be found in the near-subsurface at the time the craters formed. This image, a factor of two better than any previous view of such features (and a factor of 33 better than the best Viking frame of the specific crater, 056A61), shows two smaller, pre-existing craters and the interaction of the flowing ejecta with these craters. The uppermost small crater has been over-topped and partly buried by the flow, while the flow has been diverted around the lower crater. Ridges formed where the flow 'stacked up' behind obstacles, or came to rest.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  12. High Resolution 3D Radar Imaging of Comet Interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, E. I.; Gim, Y.; Belton, M.; Brophy, J.; Weissman, P. R.; Heggy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Knowing the interiors of comets and other primitive bodies is fundamental to our understanding of how planets formed. We have developed a Discovery-class mission formulation, Comet Radar Explorer (CORE), based on the use of previously flown planetary radar sounding techniques, with the goal of obtaining high resolution 3D images of the interior of a small primitive body. We focus on the Jupiter-Family Comets (JFCs) as these are among the most primitive bodies reachable by spacecraft. Scattered in from far beyond Neptune, they are ultimate targets of a cryogenic sample return mission according to the Decadal Survey. Other suitable targets include primitive NEOs, Main Belt Comets, and Jupiter Trojans. The approach is optimal for small icy bodies ~3-20 km diameter with spin periods faster than about 12 hours, since (a) navigation is relatively easy, (b) radar penetration is global for decameter wavelengths, and (c) repeated overlapping ground tracks are obtained. The science mission can be as short as ~1 month for a fast-rotating JFC. Bodies smaller than ~1 km can be globally imaged, but the navigation solutions are less accurate and the relative resolution is coarse. Larger comets are more interesting, but radar signal is unlikely to be reflected from depths greater than ~10 km. So, JFCs are excellent targets for a variety of reasons. We furthermore focus on the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to rendezvous shortly after the comet's perihelion. This approach leaves us with ample power for science operations under dormant conditions beyond ~2-3 AU. This leads to a natural mission approach of distant observation, followed by closer inspection, terminated by a dedicated radar mapping orbit. Radar reflections are obtained from a polar orbit about the icy nucleus, which spins underneath. Echoes are obtained from a sounder operating at dual frequencies 5 and 15 MHz, with 1 and 10 MHz bandwidths respectively. The dense network of echoes is used to obtain global 3D

  13. High Resolution Image Reconstruction from Projection of Low Resolution Images DIffering in Subpixel Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mareboyana, Manohar; Le Moigne-Stewart, Jacqueline; Bennett, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple algorithm that projects low resolution (LR) images differing in subpixel shifts on a high resolution (HR) also called super resolution (SR) grid. The algorithm is very effective in accuracy as well as time efficiency. A number of spatial interpolation techniques using nearest neighbor, inverse-distance weighted averages, Radial Basis Functions (RBF) etc. used in projection yield comparable results. For best accuracy of reconstructing SR image by a factor of two requires four LR images differing in four independent subpixel shifts. The algorithm has two steps: i) registration of low resolution images and (ii) shifting the low resolution images to align with reference image and projecting them on high resolution grid based on the shifts of each low resolution image using different interpolation techniques. Experiments are conducted by simulating low resolution images by subpixel shifts and subsampling of original high resolution image and the reconstructing the high resolution images from the simulated low resolution images. The results of accuracy of reconstruction are compared by using mean squared error measure between original high resolution image and reconstructed image. The algorithm was tested on remote sensing images and found to outperform previously proposed techniques such as Iterative Back Projection algorithm (IBP), Maximum Likelihood (ML), and Maximum a posterior (MAP) algorithms. The algorithm is robust and is not overly sensitive to the registration inaccuracies.

  14. Special issue on high-resolution optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Peter J. S.; Davis, Ilan; Galbraith, Catherine G.; Stemmer, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    The pace of development in the field of advanced microscopy is truly breath-taking, and is leading to major breakthroughs in our understanding of molecular machines and cell function. This special issue of Journal of Optics draws attention to a number of interesting approaches, ranging from fluorescence and imaging of unlabelled cells, to computational methods, all of which are describing the ever increasing detail of the dynamic behaviour of molecules in the living cell. This is a field which traditionally, and currently, demonstrates a marvellous interplay between the disciplines of physics, chemistry and biology, where apparent boundaries to resolution dissolve and living cells are viewed in ever more clarity. It is fertile ground for those interested in optics and non-conventional imaging to contribute high-impact outputs in the fields of cell biology and biomedicine. The series of articles presented here has been selected to demonstrate this interdisciplinarity and to encourage all those with a background in the physical sciences to 'dip their toes' into the exciting and dynamic discoveries surrounding cell function. Although single molecule super-resolution microscopy is commercially available, specimen preparation and interpretation of single molecule data remain a major challenge for scientists wanting to adopt the techniques. The paper by Allen and Davidson [1] provides a much needed detailed introduction to the practical aspects of stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, including sample preparation, image acquisition and image analysis, as well as a brief description of the different variants of single molecule localization microscopy. Since super-resolution microscopy is no longer restricted to three-dimensional imaging of fixed samples, the review by Fiolka [2] is a timely introduction to techniques that have been successfully applied to four-dimensional live cell super-resolution microscopy. The combination of multiple high-resolution techniques

  15. High-Resolution Imaging of Asteroids/Satellites with AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merline, William

    2012-02-01

    We propose to make high-resolution observations of asteroids using AO, to measure size, shape, and pole position (spin vectors), and/or to search for satellites. We have demonstrated that AO imaging allows determination of the pole/dimensions in 1 or 2 nights on a single target, rather than the years of observations with lightcurve inversion techniques that only yield poles and axial ratios, not true dimensions. Our new technique (KOALA) combines AO imaging with lightcurve and occultation data for optimum size/shape determinations. We request that LGS be available for faint targets, but using NGS AO, we will measure several large and intermediate asteroids that are favorably placed in spring/summer of 2012 for size/shape/pole. Accurately determining the volume from the often-irregular shape allows us to derive densities to much greater precision in cases where the mass is known, e.g., from the presence of a satellite. We will search several d! ozen asteroids for the presence of satellites, particularly in under-studied populations, particularly NEOs (we have recently achieved the first-ever optical image of an NEO binary [Merline et al. 2008b, IAUC 8977]). Satellites provide a real-life lab for testing collisional models. We will search for satellites around special objects at the request of lightcurve observers, and we will make a search for debris in the vicinity of Pluto, in support of the New Horizons mission. Our shape/size work requires observations over most of a full rotation period (typically several hours).

  16. High Resolution Imaging of Circumstellar Disks at Millimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilner, David J.

    2003-01-01

    We update progress on our research program to use high angular resolution imaging of thermal dust continuum emission at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths to probe the structure of protoplanetary disks and debris disks around nearby stars. Observations at these wavelengths are advantageous because the dust emission is generally optically thin and directly proportional to mass, contrast with stellar photospheres is not problematic, and the wavelength dependence provides information on an important regime of grain sizes. We employ several facilities for state-of-the-art high resolution observations, including the Very Large Array (VLA), the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) of the Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique, the Submillimeter Array (SMA) of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). Many recent highlights of our program were presented in an invited review on High Angular Resolution Studies of Disks- the Millimetre at IAU Symposium 221, Star Formation at High Angular Resolution, in July 2003.

  17. A Stretching Device for High Resolution Live-Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lawrence; Mathieu, Pattie S.; Helmke, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    Several custom-built and commercially available devices are available to investigate cellular responses to substrate strain. However, analysis of structural dynamics by microscopy in living cells during stretch is not readily feasible. We describe a novel stretch device optimized for high-resolution live-cell imaging. The unit assembles onto standard inverted microscopes and applies constant magnitude or cyclic stretch at physiological magnitudes to cultured cells on elastic membranes. Interchangeable modular indenters enable delivery of equibiaxial and uniaxial stretch profiles. Strain analysis performed by tracking fluorescent microspheres adhered onto the substrate demonstrated reproducible application of stretch profiles. In endothelial cells transiently expressing EGFP-vimentin and paxillin-DsRed2 and subjected to constant magnitude equibiaxial stretch, the 2-D strain tensor demonstrated efficient transmission through the extracellular matrix and focal adhesions. Decreased transmission to the intermediate filament network was measured, and a heterogeneous spatial distribution of maximum stretch magnitude revealed discrete sites of strain focusing. Spatial correlation of vimentin and paxillin displacement vectors provided an estimate of the extent of mechanical coupling between the structures. Interestingly, switching the spatial profile of substrate strain reveals that actin-mediated edge ruffling is not desensitized to repeated mechano-stimulation. These initial observations show that the stretch device is compatible with live-cell microscopy and is a novel tool for measuring dynamic structural remodeling under mechanical strain. PMID:20195762

  18. Imaging heart development using high-resolution episcopic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mohun, Timothy J; Weninger, Wolfgang J

    2011-10-01

    Development of the heart in vertebrate embryos is a complex process in which the organ is continually remodelled as chambers are formed, valves sculpted and connections established to the developing vascular system. Investigating the genetic programmes driving these changes and the environmental factors that may influence them is critical for our understanding of congenital heart disease. A recurrent challenge in this work is how to integrate studies as diverse as those of cardiac gene function and regulation with an appreciation of the localised interactions between cardiac tissues not to mention the manner in which both may be affected by cardiac function itself. Meeting this challenge requires an accurate way to analyse the changes in 3D morphology of the developing heart, which can be swift or protracted and both dramatic or subtle in consequence. Here we review the use of high-resolution episcopic microscopy as a simple and effective means to examine organ structure and one that allows modern computing methods pioneered by clinical imaging to be applied to the embryonic heart. PMID:21893408

  19. Special issue on high-resolution optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Peter J. S.; Davis, Ilan; Galbraith, Catherine G.; Stemmer, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    The pace of development in the field of advanced microscopy is truly breath-taking, and is leading to major breakthroughs in our understanding of molecular machines and cell function. This special issue of Journal of Optics draws attention to a number of interesting approaches, ranging from fluorescence and imaging of unlabelled cells, to computational methods, all of which are describing the ever increasing detail of the dynamic behaviour of molecules in the living cell. This is a field which traditionally, and currently, demonstrates a marvellous interplay between the disciplines of physics, chemistry and biology, where apparent boundaries to resolution dissolve and living cells are viewed in ever more clarity. It is fertile ground for those interested in optics and non-conventional imaging to contribute high-impact outputs in the fields of cell biology and biomedicine. The series of articles presented here has been selected to demonstrate this interdisciplinarity and to encourage all those with a background in the physical sciences to 'dip their toes' into the exciting and dynamic discoveries surrounding cell function. Although single molecule super-resolution microscopy is commercially available, specimen preparation and interpretation of single molecule data remain a major challenge for scientists wanting to adopt the techniques. The paper by Allen and Davidson [1] provides a much needed detailed introduction to the practical aspects of stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, including sample preparation, image acquisition and image analysis, as well as a brief description of the different variants of single molecule localization microscopy. Since super-resolution microscopy is no longer restricted to three-dimensional imaging of fixed samples, the review by Fiolka [2] is a timely introduction to techniques that have been successfully applied to four-dimensional live cell super-resolution microscopy. The combination of multiple high-resolution techniques

  20. Sea state variability observed by high resolution satellite radar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleskachevsky, A.; Lehner, S.

    2012-04-01

    The spatial variability of the wave parameters is measured and investigated using new TerraSAR-X (TS-X) satellite SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images. Wave groupiness, refraction and breaking of individual wave are studied. Space borne SAR is a unique sensor providing two dimensional information of the ocean surface. Due to its daylight, weather independency and global coverage, the TS-X radar is particularly suitable for many ocean and coastal observations and it acquires images of the sea surface with up to 1m resolution; individual ocean waves with wavelength below 30m are detectable. Two-dimensional information of the ocean surface, retrieved using TS-X data, is validated for different oceanographic applications: derivation of the fine resolved wind field (XMOD algorithm) and integrated sea state parameters (XWAVE algorithm). The algorithms are capable to take into account fine-scale effects in the coastal areas. This two-dimensional information can be successfully applied to validate numerical models. For this, wind field and sea state information retrieved from SAR images are given as input for a spectral numerical wave model (wind forcing and boundary condition). The model runs and sensitivity studies are carried out at a fine spatial horizontal resolution of 100m. The model results are compared to buoy time series at one location and with spatially distributed wave parameters obtained from SAR. The comparison shows the sensitivity of waves to local wind variations and the importance of local effects on wave behavior in coastal areas. Examples for the German Bight, North Sea and Rottenest Island, Australia are shown. The wave refraction, rendered by high resolution SAR images, is also studied. The wave ray tracking technique is applied. The wave rays show the propagation of the peak waves in the SAR-scenes and are estimated using image spectral analysis by deriving peak wavelength and direction. The changing of wavelength and direction in the rays allows

  1. Estimating Scots Pine Tree Mortality Using High Resolution Multispectral Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buriak, L.; Sukhinin, A. I.; Conard, S. G.; Ivanova, G. A.; McRae, D. J.; Soja, A. J.; Okhotkina, E.

    2010-12-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest stands of central Siberia are characterized by a mixed-severity fire regime that is dominated by low- to high-severity surface fires, with crown fires occurring less frequently. The purpose of this study was to link ground measurements with air-borne and satellite observations of active wildfires and older fire scars to better estimate tree mortality remotely. Data from field sampling on experimental fires and wildfires were linked with intermediate-resolution satellite (Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper) data to estimate fire severity and carbon emissions. Results are being applied to Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery, MERIS, Landsat-ETM, SPOT (i.e., low, middle and high spatial resolution), to understand their remote-sensing capability for mapping fire severity, as indicated by tree mortality. Tree mortality depends on fireline intensity, residence time, and the physiological effects on the cambium layer, foliage and roots. We have correlated tree mortality measured after fires of varying severity with NDVI and other Chlorophyll Indexes to model tree mortality on a landscape scale. The field data obtained on experimental and wildfires are being analyzed and compared with intermediate-resolution satellite data (Landsat7-ETM) to help estimate fire severity, emissions, and carbon balance. In addition, it is being used to monitor immediate ecosystem fire effects (e.g., tree mortality) and long-term postfire vegetation recovery. These data are also being used to validate AVHRR , MODIS, and MERIS estimates of burn area. We studied burned areas in the Angara Region of central Siberia (northeast of Lake Baikal) for which both ground data and satellite data (ENVISAT-MERIS, Spot4, Landsat5, Landsat7-ETM) were available for the 2003 - 2004 and 2006 - 2008 periods. Ground validation was conducted on seventy sample plots established on burned sites differing in

  2. High resolution Ceres HAMO atlas derived from Dawn FC images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roatsch, Thomas; Kersten, Elke; Matz, Klaus-Dieter; Preusker, Frank; Scholten, Frank; Jaumann, Ralf; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Chris T.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: NASA's Dawn spacecraft entered the orbit of dwarf planet Ceres in March 2015, and will characterize the geology, elemental and mineralogical composition, topography, shape, and internal structure of Ceres. One of the major goals of the mission is a global mapping of Ceres. Data: The Dawn mission was mapping Ceres in HAMO (High Altitude Mapping Orbit, 1475 km altitude) between August and October 2015. The framing camera took about 2,600 clear filter images with a resolution of about 140 m/pixel during these cycles. The images were taken with different viewing angles and different illumination conditions. We selected images from one cycle (cycle #1) for the mosaicking process to have similar viewing and illumination conditions. Very minor gaps in the coverage were filled with a few images from cycle #2. Data Processing: The first step of the processing chain towards the cartographic products is to ortho-rectify the images to the proper scale and map projec-tion type. This process requires detailed information of the Dawn orbit and attitude data and of the topography of the targets. Both, improved orientation and a high-resolution shape model, are provided by stereo processing (bundle block adjustment) of the HAMO stereo image dataset [3]. Ceres's HAMO shape model was used for the calculation of the ray intersection points while the map projection itself was done onto the reference sphere of Ceres with a radius of 470 km. The final step is the controlled mosaicking) of all images to a global mosaic of Ceres, the so-called basemap. Ceres map tiles: The Ceres atlas was produced in a scale of 1:750,000 and consists of 15 tiles that conform to the quadrangle scheme proposed by Greeley and Batson [4]. A map scale of 1:750,000 guarantees a mapping at the highest available Dawn resolution in HAMO. The individual tiles were extracted from the global mosaic and reprojected. Nomenclature: The Dawn team proposed 81 names for geological features. By international

  3. High resolution VESTA LAMO atlas derived from Dawn FC images.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roatsch, Thomas; Kersten, Elke; Matz, Klaus-Dieter; Preusker, Frank; Scholten, Frank; Jaumann, Ralf; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Cris T.

    2013-04-01

    Introduction: NASA's Dawn spacecraft entered orbit of the inner main belt asteroid 4 Vesta on July 16, 2011, and spent about one year in orbit to characterize the geology, elemental and mineralogical composition, topography, shape, and internal structure of Vesta before it departed to asteroid 1 Ceres in late 2012. One of the major goals of the mission was a global mapping of Vesta. Data: The DAWN mission was mapping Vesta from three different orbit heights during Survey orbit (3100 km altitude), HAMO (High Altitude Mapping Orbit, 700 km altitude), and LAMO (Low Altitude Mapping Orbit, 210 km altitude) [1]. The Dawn mission is equipped with a framing camera (FC) [2] which was the prime instrument during the LAMO phase. DAWN orbited Vesta during LAMO in 21 cycles between December 2011 and end of April 2012. The framing camera took about 10,000 clear filter images with a resolution of about 20 m/pixel during these cycles. The images were taken with different viewing angles and different illumination conditions. We selected about 8,000 images for the global coverage of Vesta. Data Processing: The first step of the processing chain is to ortho rectify the images to the proper scale and map projection type. This process requires detailed high-resolution information of the local topography of Vesta. The global topgraphy was calculated during the stereo processing of the HAMO images [3] and was used here. The shape model was used for the calculation of the ray intersection points while the map projection itself was done onto a sphere with a mean radius of 255 km. The next step was the mosaicking of all images to one global mosaic of Vesta, the so called basemap. Vesta map tiles: The Vesta atlas was produced in a scale of 1:200,000 and consists of 30 tiles that conform to the quadrangle scheme proposed by Greeley and Batson [4] and is used for example for mapping Mars in a scale of 1:5,000,000. A map scale of 1:200,000 guarantees a mapping at the highest available DAWN

  4. Compact snapshot real-time imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudenov, Michael W.; Dereniak, Eustace L.

    2011-11-01

    The described spectral imaging system, referred to as a Snapshot Hyperspectral Imaging Fourier Transform (SHIFT) spectrometer, is capable of acquiring spectral image data of a scene in a single integration of a camera, is ultra-compact, inexpensive (commercial off-the-shelf), has no moving parts, and can produce datacubes (x, y, λ) in real time. Based on the multiple-image FTS originally developed by A. Hirai [1], the presented device offers significant advantages over his original implementation. Namely, its birefringent nature results in a common-path interferometer which makes the spectrometer insensitive to vibration. Furthermore, it enables the potential of making the instrument ultra-compact, thereby improving the portability of the sensor. By combining a birefringent interferometer with a lenslet array, the entire spectrometer consumes approximately 15×15×20 mm3, excluding the imaging camera. The theory of the birefringent FTS is provided, followed by details of its specific embodiment and a laboratory proof of concept of the sensor. Post-processing is currently accomplished in Matlab, but progress is underway in developing real-time reconstruction capabilities with software programmed on a graphics processing unit (GPU). It is anticipated that processing of >30 datacubes per second can be achieved with modest GPU hardware, with spatial/spectral data of or exceeding 256×256 spatial resolution elements and 60 spectral bands over the visible (400-800 nm) spectrum. Data were collected outdoors, demonstrating the sensor's ability to resolve spectral signatures in standard outdoor lighting and environmental conditions as well as retinal imaging.

  5. Snapshot imaging polarimeters using spatial modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Haitao

    The recent demonstration of a novel snapshot imaging polarimeter using the fringe modulation technique shows a promise in building a compact and moving-parts-free device. As just demonstrated in principle, this technique has not been adequately studied. In the effort of advancing this technique, we build a complete theory framework that can address the key issues regarding the polarization aberrations caused by using the functional elements. With this model, we can have the necessary knowledge in designing, analyzing and optimizing the systems. Also, we propose a broader technique that uses arbitrary modulation instead of sinusoidal fringes, which can give us more engineering freedom and can be the solution of achromatizing the system. In the hardware aspect, several important progresses are made. We extend the polarimeter technique from visible to middle wavelength infrared by using the yttrium vanadate crystals. Also, we incorporate a Savart Plate polarimter into a fundus camera to measure the human eye's retinal retardance, useful information for glaucoma diagnosis. Thirdly, a world-smallest imaging polarimeter is proposed and demonstrated, which may open many applications in security, remote sensing and bioscience.

  6. Clinical imaging and high-resolution ultrasonography in melanocytoma management

    PubMed Central

    Gologorsky, Daniel; Schefler, Amy C; Ehlies, Fiona J; Raskauskas, Paul A; Pina, Yolanda; Williams, Basil K; Murray, Timothy G

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the utility of high resolution 20 MHz ophthalmic ultrasound in serial follow-up of optic nerve head melanocytoma patients. Methods: This study is a retrospective review of 30 patients with melanocytoma of the optic nerve head studied with echography. All patients were evaluated with standard ophthalmic A-scan and B-scan ultrasonography and 10 (33%) underwent high-resolution ultrasound. Results: Sixty-two percent (62%) of patients had dome-shaped lesions on ultrasound, twenty-eight percent (28%) presented with mild elevations. The maximum elevation of any lesion was 2.6 mm. The vast majority (89%) of lesions had medium or high internal reflectivity and 89% demonstrated avascularity. Mean follow-up for all patients was nearly 7 years. High-resolution ultrasound enabled enhanced accuracy for detection of lesion dimensions and documentation of growth and possible malignant transformation. Conclusions: In this study, we demonstrate a new and important role for the use of ultrasound in this disease as a complementary tool in identifying and following patients with high-risk growth characteristics. These tumor characteristics can be accurately detected with 10 MHz ultrasound in conjunction with standardized A-scan and better differentiated with the 20 MHz technology. Use of these modalities can aid in distinguishing the melanocytomas that grow from choroidal melanomas and can prevent unnecessary treatments. PMID:20714362

  7. High-Resolution Views of Io's Emakong Patera: Latest Galileo Imaging Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. A.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Davies, A. G.; Greeley, R.; Head, J. W., III

    2002-01-01

    This presentation will discuss analyses of the latest Galileo SSI (solid state imaging) high-resolution images of the Emakong lava channels and flow field on Jupiter's moon Io. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. High-resolution EUV imaging tools for resist exposure and aerial image monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, M.; Brisco, O.; Brunton, A.; Cashmore, J.; Elbourn, P.; Elliner, G.; Gower, M.; Greuters, J.; Grunewald, P.; Gutierrez, R.; Hill, T.; Hirsch, J.; Kling, L.; McEntee, N.; Mundair, S.; Richards, P.; Truffert, V.; Wallhead, I.; Whitfield, M.; Hudyma, R.

    2005-05-01

    Key features are presented of two high-resolution EUV imaging tools: the MS-13 Microstepper wafer exposure and the RIM-13 reticle imaging microscope. The MS-13 has been developed for EUV resist testing and technology evaluation at the 32nm node and beyond, while the RIM-13 is designed for actinic aerial image monitoring of blank and patterned EUV reticles. Details of the design architecture, module layout, major subsystems and performance are presented for both tools.

  9. High resolution imaging of tunnels by magnetic resonance neurography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kenneth C.; Thawait, Shrey K.; Williams, Eric H.; Hashemi, Shahreyar Shar; Machado, Antonio J.; Carrino, John A.; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral nerves often traverse confined fibro-osseous and fibro-muscular tunnels in the extremities, where they are particularly vulnerable to entrapment and compressive neuropathy. This gives rise to various tunnel syndromes, characterized by distinct patterns of muscular weakness and sensory deficits. This article focuses on several upper and lower extremity tunnels, in which direct visualization of the normal and abnormal nerve in question is possible with high resolution 3T MR neurography (MRN). MRN can also serve as a useful adjunct to clinical and electrophysiologic exams by discriminating adhesive lesions (perineural scar) from compressive lesions (such as tumor, ganglion, hypertrophic callous, or anomalous muscles) responsible for symptoms, thereby guiding appropriate treatment. PMID:21479520

  10. Lensfree on-chip high-resolution imaging using two-way lighting, and its limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Yasuhiko; Tamaki, Tokuhiko; Motomura, Hideto; Kato, Yoshihisa

    2016-03-01

    A high-magnification image of a biological sample can generally be obtained by an optical microscope with an objective lens, moving the image sensor with a sub-pixel shift and the subsequent image processing for super-resolution. However, to obtain a high-resolution image, a large number of images will be required for the super-resolution, and thus it is difficult to achieve real-time operation, and the field-of-view (FOV) is not sufficiently wide. The currently proposed digital holography technique places a sample on the image sensor and captures the interference fringe (hologram) to reconstruct a 3D high-resolution image in a computer. This technique ensures the features of a wide FOV, whereas the high resolution obtained by image processing cannot ensure real-time operation, because it requires recursive calculations of light propagation and adequate computer resources. To realize wide FOV and the real-time operation at the same time, we have developed a new technique: Lensfree on-chip high-resolution imaging using two-way lighting. High-resolution image is immediately obtained by image processing of the low-resolution images of the samples. This makes it possible to ensure a wide FOV, a deep depth of focus without the need for focus adjustment, and a continuously expanding operation. We also discuss the limitations of the high resolution.

  11. A new high-resolution electromagnetic method for subsurface imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wanjie

    For most electromagnetic (EM) geophysical systems, the contamination of primary fields on secondary fields ultimately limits the capability of the controlled-source EM methods. Null coupling techniques were proposed to solve this problem. However, the small orientation errors in the null coupling systems greatly restrict the applications of these systems. Another problem encountered by most EM systems is the surface interference and geologic noise, which sometimes make the geophysical survey impossible to carry out. In order to solve these problems, the alternating target antenna coupling (ATAC) method was introduced, which greatly removed the influence of the primary field and reduced the surface interference. But this system has limitations on the maximum transmitter moment that can be used. The differential target antenna coupling (DTAC) method was proposed to allow much larger transmitter moments and at the same time maintain the advantages of the ATAC method. In this dissertation, first, the theoretical DTAC calculations were derived mathematically using Born and Wolf's complex magnetic vector. 1D layered and 2D blocked earth models were used to demonstrate that the DTAC method has no responses for 1D and 2D structures. Analytical studies of the plate model influenced by conductive and resistive backgrounds were presented to explain the physical phenomenology behind the DTAC method, which is the magnetic fields of the subsurface targets are required to be frequency dependent. Then, the advantages of the DTAC method, e.g., high-resolution, reducing the geologic noise and insensitive to surface interference, were analyzed using surface and subsurface numerical examples in the EMGIMA software. Next, the theoretical advantages, such as high resolution and insensitive to surface interference, were verified by designing and developing a low-power (moment of 50 Am 2) vertical-array DTAC system and testing it on controlled targets and scaled target coils. At last, a

  12. High Resolution Imaging of the Sun with CORONAS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karovska, Margarita

    1998-01-01

    We applied several image restoration and enhancement techniques, to CORONAS-I images. We carried out the characterization of the Point Spread Function (PSF) using the unique capability of the Blind Iterative Deconvolution (BID) technique, which recovers the real PSF at a given location and time of observation, when limited a priori information is available on its characteristics. We also applied image enhancement technique to extract the small scale structure imbeded in bright large scale structures on the disk and on the limb. The results demonstrate the capability of the image post-processing to substantially increase the yield from the space observations by improving the resolution and reducing noise in the images.

  13. Towards Adaptive High-Resolution Images Retrieval Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourgli, A.; Sebai, H.; Bouteldja, S.; Oukil, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, content-based image-retrieval techniques constitute powerful tools for archiving and mining of large remote sensing image databases. High spatial resolution images are complex and differ widely in their content, even in the same category. All images are more or less textured and structured. During the last decade, different approaches for the retrieval of this type of images have been proposed. They differ mainly in the type of features extracted. As these features are supposed to efficiently represent the query image, they should be adapted to all kind of images contained in the database. However, if the image to recognize is somewhat or very structured, a shape feature will be somewhat or very effective. While if the image is composed of a single texture, a parameter reflecting the texture of the image will reveal more efficient. This yields to use adaptive schemes. For this purpose, we propose to investigate this idea to adapt the retrieval scheme to image nature. This is achieved by making some preliminary analysis so that indexing stage becomes supervised. First results obtained show that by this way, simple methods can give equal performances to those obtained using complex methods such as the ones based on the creation of bag of visual word using SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) descriptors and those based on multi scale features extraction using wavelets and steerable pyramids.

  14. High resolution PET breast imager with improved detection efficiency

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, Stanislaw

    2010-06-08

    A highly efficient PET breast imager for detecting lesions in the entire breast including those located close to the patient's chest wall. The breast imager includes a ring of imaging modules surrounding the imaged breast. Each imaging module includes a slant imaging light guide inserted between a gamma radiation sensor and a photodetector. The slant light guide permits the gamma radiation sensors to be placed in close proximity to the skin of the chest wall thereby extending the sensitive region of the imager to the base of the breast. Several types of photodetectors are proposed for use in the detector modules, with compact silicon photomultipliers as the preferred choice, due to its high compactness. The geometry of the detector heads and the arrangement of the detector ring significantly reduce dead regions thereby improving detection efficiency for lesions located close to the chest wall.

  15. Virtually distortion-free imaging system for large field, high resolution lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Ceglio, N.M.

    1993-01-05

    Virtually distortion free large field high resolution imaging is performed using an imaging system which contains large field distortion or field curvature. A reticle is imaged in one direction through the optical system to form an encoded mask. The encoded mask is then imaged back through the imaging system onto a wafer positioned at the reticle position.

  16. Virtually distortion-free imaging system for large field, high resolution lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hawryluk, Andrew M.; Ceglio, Natale M.

    1993-01-01

    Virtually distortion free large field high resolution imaging is performed using an imaging system which contains large field distortion or field curvature. A reticle is imaged in one direction through the optical system to form an encoded mask. The encoded mask is then imaged back through the imaging system onto a wafer positioned at the reticle position.

  17. High resolution image processing on low-cost microcomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    Recent advances in microcomputer technology have resulted in systems that rival the speed, storage, and display capabilities of traditionally larger machines. Low-cost microcomputers can provide a powerful environment for image processing. A new software program which offers sophisticated image display and analysis on IBM-based systems is presented. Designed specifically for a microcomputer, this program provides a wide-range of functions normally found only on dedicated graphics systems, and therefore can provide most students, universities and research groups with an affordable computer platform for processing digital images. The processing of AVHRR images within this environment is presented as an example.

  18. High-Resolution and Animal Imaging Instrumentation and Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcari, Nicola; Guerra, AlbertoDel

    During the last decade we have observed a growing interest in "in vivo" imaging techniques for small animals. This is due to the necessity of studying biochemical processes at a molecular level for pharmacology, genetic, and pathology investigations. This field of research is usually called "molecular imaging."Advances in biological understanding have been accompanied by technological advances in instrumentation and techniques and image-reconstruction software, resulting in improved image quality, visibility, and interpretation. The main technological challenge is then the design of systems with high spatial resolution and high sensitivity.

  19. High-Resolution Solar Imaging With Photon Sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktem, F. S.; Kamalabadi, F.; Davila, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    A photon sieve is a modification of a Fresnel zone plate in which open zones are replaced by a large number of circular holes. This lightweight optical device offers a superior image forming capability compared with the Fresnel zone plate, and is specially suited to observations at UV and x-ray wavelengths where refractive lenses are not available due to strong absorption of materials, and reflective mirrors are difficult to manufacture to achieve near diffraction-limited resolution. At these shorter wavelengths, photon sieves enable diffraction-limited imaging performance with relaxed manufacturing tolerances, and simple and low-cost fabrication. In this work, we present a new photon sieve imaging modality that, unlike previous designs, takes advantage of chromatic aberration. The fact that different wavelengths are focused at different distances from photon sieve is exploited to develop a novel multi-spectral imaging technique. The idea is to use a photon sieve imaging system with a moving detector which records images at different planes. Each measurement consists of superimposed images of different wavelengths, with each individual image being either in focus or out of focus. For spatially incoherent illumination, we study the problem of recovering the individual images from these superimposed measurements. We first formulate the discrete forward problem using the closed-form Fresnel imaging formulas. The inverse problem is then a multi-frame deconvolution problem involving multiple objects, and is formulated as a maximum posterior estimation problem. The resulting nonlinear optimization problem is solved using a fixed-point iterative algorithm. In contrast to traditional spectral imagers employing a series of wavelength filters, the proposed technique relies on a simple optical system, but incorporates powerful image processing methods to form spectral images computationally. In addition to diffraction-limited high spatial resolution enabled by photon sieves

  20. Study of fish response using particle image velocimetry and high-speed, high-resolution imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Z.; Richmond, M. C.; Mueller, R. P.; Gruensch, G. R.

    2004-10-01

    Fish swimming has fascinated both engineers and fish biologists for decades. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and high-speed, high-resolution digital imaging are recently developed analysis tools that can help engineers and biologists better understand how fish respond to turbulent environments. This report details studies to evaluate DPIV. The studies included a review of existing literature on DPIV, preliminary studies to test the feasibility of using DPIV conducted at our Flow Biology Laboratory in Richland, Washington September through December 2003, and applications of high-speed, high-resolution digital imaging with advanced motion analysis to investigations of fish injury mechanisms in turbulent shear flows and bead trajectories in laboratory physical models. Several conclusions were drawn based on these studies, which are summarized as recommendations for proposed research at the end of this report.

  1. Dedicated mobile high resolution prostate PET imager with an insertable transrectal probe

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2010-12-28

    A dedicated mobile PET imaging system to image the prostate and surrounding organs. The imaging system includes an outside high resolution PET imager placed close to the patient's torso and an insertable and compact transrectal probe that is placed in close proximity to the prostate and operates in conjunction with the outside imager. The two detector systems are spatially co-registered to each other. The outside imager is mounted on an open rotating gantry to provide torso-wide 3D images of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs. The insertable probe provides closer imaging, high sensitivity, and very high resolution predominately 2D view of the prostate and immediate surroundings. The probe is operated in conjunction with the outside imager and a fast data acquisition system to provide very high resolution reconstruction of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs.

  2. High-Resolution Image of Europa's Ridged Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This spectacular image taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft camera shows a region of ridged plains on Jupiter's moon Europa. The plains are comprised of many parallel and cross-cutting ridges, commonly in pairs. The majority of the region is of very bright, but darker material is seen primarily in valleys between ridges. Some of the most prominent ridges have dark deposits along their margins and in their central valleys. Some of this dark material probably moved down the flanks of the ridges and has piled up along their bases. The most prominent ridges are about a kilometer in width (less than a mile). In the top right hand corner of the image the end of a dark wide ridge (about 2 kilometers or 1.2 miles across) is visible. Several deep fractures cut through this ridge and continue into the plains. The brightness of the region suggests that frost covers much of Europa's surface. This image looks different from those obtained earlier in Galileo's mission, because this image was taken with the Sun higher in Europa's sky.

    This image was taken on December 16, 1997 at a range of 1,300 kilometers (800 miles) by Galileo's solid state imaging system. North is to the top of the picture, and the Sun illuminates the surface from the upper left. This image, centered at approximately 14 degrees south latitude and 194 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) on each side. The resolution is 26 meters (85 feet) per picture element.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  3. Phase correction algorithms for a snapshot hyperspectral imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Victoria C.; Kudenov, Michael; Dereniak, Eustace

    2015-09-01

    We present image processing algorithms that improve spatial and spectral resolution on the Snapshot Hyperspectral Imaging Fourier Transform (SHIFT) spectrometer. Final measurements are stored in the form of threedimensional datacubes containing the scene's spatial and spectral information. We discuss calibration procedures, review post-processing methods, and present preliminary results from proof-of-concept experiments.

  4. High Resolution Imaging of Circumstellar Disks at Millimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilner, David J.

    2004-01-01

    We summarize progress on our program to use high angular resolution imaging of thermal dust continuum emission at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths to probe the structure of protoplanetary disks and debris disks around nearby stars.

  5. Adaptive Optics Technology for High-Resolution Retinal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Marco; Serrao, Sebastiano; Devaney, Nicholas; Parravano, Mariacristina; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effects of optical aberrations. The direct visualization of the photoreceptor cells, capillaries and nerve fiber bundles represents the major benefit of adding AO to retinal imaging. Adaptive optics is opening a new frontier for clinical research in ophthalmology, providing new information on the early pathological changes of the retinal microstructures in various retinal diseases. We have reviewed AO technology for retinal imaging, providing information on the core components of an AO retinal camera. The most commonly used wavefront sensing and correcting elements are discussed. Furthermore, we discuss current applications of AO imaging to a population of healthy adults and to the most frequent causes of blindness, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. We conclude our work with a discussion on future clinical prospects for AO retinal imaging. PMID:23271600

  6. Hypertelescopes: The Challenge of Direct Imaging at High Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labeyrie, A.

    2013-03-01

    Sparse optical interferometric arrays of many apertures can produce direct images in the densified-pupil mode, also called "hypertelescope" mode. Pending the introduction of adaptive optics for cophasing, indirect images can also be reconstructed with speckle imaging techniques. But adaptive phasing is preferable, when a sufficiently bright guide star is available. Several wave sensing techniques, by-products of those used on monolithic telescopes for some of them, are potentially usable. For cophased direct images of very faint sources in the absence of a natural guide star, a modified form of the Laser Guide Star techniques demonstrated on conventional and segmented telescopes is described. Preliminary testing in laboratory suggests further investigation. Recorded images, assumed co-phased, are also improvable post-detection with optical aperture-synthesis techniques such as Earth rotation synthesis, where data from successive exposures are combined incoherently. Nevertheless, the gain becomes modest if hundreds of sub-apertures are used. Image deconvolution techniques are also applicable, if suitably modified as demonstrated by Aime et al. (2012), and Mary (2012). Their modified deconvolution algorithms can extend the Direct Imaging Field (also called Clean Field) of hypertelescopes. More sub-apertures at given collecting area, implying that their size is reduced, improve the direct-imaging performance. The predictable trend thus favors systems combining hundreds of sub-apertures of modest size, if workable designs can be evolved. One such design, the "Ubaye Hypertelescope" entering the initial testing phase in the southern Alps, has a fixed spherical meta-mirror with a 57 m effective aperture, expandable to 200 m. Preliminary results suggest that larger versions, whether spherical or active paraboloidal, can reach a kilometric aperture size at terrestrial sites having a suitable concave topography. In space, hypertelescope meta-apertures spanning up to 100 000

  7. High Resolution Global Topography of Eros from NEAR Imaging and LIDAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskell, Robert W.; Konopliv, A.; Barnouin-Jha, O.; Scheeres, D.

    2006-01-01

    Principal Data Products: Ensemble of L-maps from SPC, Spacecraft state, Asteroid pole and rotation. Secondary Products: Global topography model, inertia tensor, gravity. Composite high resolution topography. Three dimensional image maps.

  8. High-Resolution Photoacoustic Imaging of Ocular Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Ronald H.; Kong, Fanting; Chen, Y.C.; Lloyd, Harriet O.; Kim, Hyung Ham; Cannata, Jonathan M.; Shung, K. Kirk; Coleman, D Jackson

    2010-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and ultrasound (US) are methods widely used for diagnostic imaging of the eye. These techniques detect discontinuities in optical refractive index and acoustic impedance respectively. Because these both relate to variations in tissue density or composition, OCT and US images share a qualitatively similar appearance. In photoacoustic imaging (PAI), short light pulses are directed at tissues, pressure is generated due to a rapid energy deposition in the tissue volume, and thermoelastic expansion results in generation of broadband US. PAI thus depicts optical absorption, which is independent of the tissue characteristics imaged by OCT or US. Our aim was to demonstrate the application of PAI in ocular tissues and to do so with lateral resolution comparable to OCT. We developed two PAI assemblies, both of which used single-element US transducers and lasers sharing a common focus. The first assembly had optical and 35-MHz US axes offset by a 30° angle. The second assembly consisted of a 20-MHz ring transducer with a coaxial optics. The laser emitted 5-ns pulses at either 532-nm or 1064-nm, with spot sizes at the focus of 35-μm for the angled probe and 20-μm for the coaxial probe. We compared lateral resolution by scanning 12.5-μm diameter wire targets with pulse/echo US and PAI at each wavelength. We then imaged the anterior segment in whole ex vivo pig eyes and the choroid and ciliary body region in sectioned eyes. PAI data obtained at 1064 nm in the near infrared had higher penetration but reduced signal amplitude compared to that obtained using the 532-nm green wavelength. Images were obtained of the iris, choroid and ciliary processes. The zonules and anterior cornea and lens surfaces were seen at 532 nm. Because the laser spot size was significantly smaller than the US beamwidth at the focus, PAI images had superior resolution than those obtained using conventional US. PMID:20420969

  9. High resolution resonance ionization imaging detector and method

    DOEpatents

    Winefordner, James D.; Matveev, Oleg I.; Smith, Benjamin W.

    1999-01-01

    A resonance ionization imaging device (RIID) and method for imaging objects using the RIID are provided, the RIID system including a RIID cell containing an ionizable vapor including monoisotopic atoms or molecules, the cell being positioned to intercept scattered radiation of a resonance wavelength .lambda..sub.1 from the object which is to be detected or imaged, a laser source disposed to illuminate the RIID cell with laser radiation having a wavelength .lambda..sub.2 or wavelengths .lambda..sub.2, .lambda..sub.3 selected to ionize atoms in the cell that are in an excited state by virtue of having absorbed the scattered resonance laser radiation, and a luminescent screen at the back surface of the RIID cell which presents an image of the number and position of charged particles present in the RIID cell as a result of the ionization of the excited state atoms. The method of the invention further includes the step of initially illuminating the object to be detected or imaged with a laser having a wavelength selected such that the object will scatter laser radiation having the resonance wavelength .lambda..sub.1.

  10. Wide field snapshot imaging polarimeter using modified Savart plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Naooki; Odate, Satoru; Otaki, Katsura; Kubota, Masahiro; Kitahara, Rintaro; Oka, Kazuhiko

    2013-09-01

    Without moving parts, the snapshot imaging polarimeter utilizing Savart plates is capable of stable and fast measurements of spatiallly distributed Stokes parameters. To increase feasibility of the optical design, we propose modi cations that enable a wider eld-of view. By changing the Savar plates' con guration and improving the calibration procedure, the unwanted effects associated with the increase in the eld of view can be reduced. We carried out the veri cation experiments of the wide eld of view snapshot imaging polarimeter.

  11. High-resolution ultrasound-aided biophotonic imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong V; Wang, Xueding; Ku, Geng; Xie, Xueyi; Stoica, George

    2004-01-01

    Optical contrast is sensitive to functional parameters, including the oxygen saturation and total concentration of hemoglobin, in biological tissues. However, due to the overwhelming scattering encountered by light in tissues, traditional optical modalities cannot provide satisfactory spatial resolution beyond the ballistic (a few hundred microns) and quasiballistic (1-2 mm) regimes. Photoacoustic tomography is based on the high optical contrast yet utilizing the high ultrasonic resolution. Our work in this emerging area of research will be summarized in this invited talk. In this technology, a diffraction-based inverse-source problem is solved in the image reconstruction, for which we developed the rigorous reconstruction theory. We implemented a prototype and accomplished noninvasive transdermal and transcranial functional imaging of small-animal brains in vivo. Change in the cerebral blood oxygenation of a rat, as a result of the alternation from hyperoxia to hypoxia, was imaged successfully. PMID:17271539

  12. Development of high resolution imaging detectors for x ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, S. S.; Schwartz, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    This final report summarizes our past activities and discusses the work performed over the period of 1 April 1990 through 1 April 1991 on x-ray optics, soft x-ray (0.1 - 10 KeV) imaging detectors, and hard x-ray (10 - 300 KeV) imaging detectors. If microchannel plates (MCPs) can be used to focus x-rays with a high efficiency and good angular resolution, they will revolutionize the field of x-ray optics. An x-ray image of a point source through an array of square MCP pores compared favorably with our ray tracing model for the MCP. Initial analysis of this image demonstrates the feasibility of MCPs for soft x-rays. Our work continues with optimizing the performance of our soft x-ray MCP imaging detectors. This work involves readout technology that should provide improved MCP readout devices (thin film crossed grid, curved, and resistive sheets), defect removal in MCPs, and photocathode optimization. In the area of hard x-ray detector development we have developed two different techniques for producing a CsI photocathode thickness of 10 to 100 microns, such that it is thick enough to absorb the high energy x-rays and still allow the photoelectrons to escape to the top MCP of a modified soft x-ray imaging detector. The methods involve vacuum depositing a thick film of CsI on a strong back, and producing a converter device that takes the place of the photocathode.

  13. Dynamic, gated and high resolution imaging with the ECAT III

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.J.; Phelps, M.E.; Huang, S.; Collard, P.E.; Bidaut, L.M.; Schwab, R.L.; Ricci, A.R.

    1986-02-01

    The ECAT III was designed primarily with a view towards imaging the heart. The gantry both rotates about the vertical axis and tilts about the horizontal axis to allow the optimum imaging angle of the heart. The patient opening is 65 cm in diameter to allow these motions. The system allows six TTL inputs to allow the user to insert additional information into the data stream (i.e. R wave gate from EKG, respiratory gate, signal start of injection, time of blood sample, etc.). The 512 narrow detectors (5.6 mm) per ring and their close packing (.5 mm) in conjunction with the natural spatial resolution limits of annihilation coincidence detection allow the system to image without the requirement of a scanning motion. This eliminates the problem of artefacts caused by inconsistent data due to asynchrony between the scanning motion of a PET system and the cardiac and/or the respiratory cycle. In this work, the authors present initial experience with the ECAT III in imaging phantoms, animals and man.

  14. Fast, High-Resolution Terahertz Radar Imaging at 25 Meters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken B.; Dengler, Robert J.; Llombart, Nuria; Talukder, Ashit; Panangadan, Anand V.; Peay, Chris S.; Siegel, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    We report improvements in the scanning speed and standoff range of an ultra-wide bandwidth terahertz (THz) imaging radar for person-borne concealed object detection. Fast beam scanning of the single-transceiver radar is accomplished by rapidly deflecting a flat, light-weight subreflector in a confocal Gregorian optical geometry. With RF back-end improvements also implemented, the radar imaging rate has increased by a factor of about 30 compared to that achieved previously in a 4 m standoff prototype instrument. In addition, a new 100 cm diameter ellipsoidal aluminum reflector yields beam spot diameters of approximately 1 cm over a 50x50 cm field of view at a range of 25 m, although some aberrations are observed that probably arise from misaligned optics. Through-clothes images of a concealed threat at 25 m range, acquired in 5 seconds, are presented, and the impact of reduced signal-to-noise from an even faster frame rate is analyzed. These results inform the system requirements for eventually achieving sub-second or video-rate THz radar imaging.

  15. High-resolution bispectral imager at 1000 frames per second.

    PubMed

    Strojnik, Marija; Paez, Gonzalo

    2015-09-21

    We describe a bispectral, 1000-frames per second imaging instrument working simultaneously in two spectral bands. These bands may be selected for a specific application; however, we implement a pair centered at 4.3 μm and 4.66 μm. Synchronization is accomplished by employing a single focal plane array. To demonstrate the performance of the bispectral imager, we apply it to the methane flame of a Bunsen burner in a near conjugate configuration with flame image length subtending at about 200 pixels. The instrument detects bispectral puffing at 2 Hz, pulsations, and bispectral radiation oscillations, first reported here in two spectral intervals. The period of oscillatory spectral components in two bands is the same, about 3 Hz for this flame, with delay of a quarter period between them, first reported here. With 1-ms integration time, we detect significant formation of turbulence and vortices, especially pronounced in the region where the flame transitions into a plume. We display bispectral ratioed images of flames in near-real time with either the laboratory or the field device. PMID:26406755

  16. High-Resolution MOC Image of Phobos' Stickney Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This image of Phobos, the inner and larger of the two moons of Mars, was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor on August 19, 1998. This image is a close-up of the far wall of the Stickney crater, 10 kilometers (6 miles) in diameter, that is the largest crater on Phobos. This image shows lighter and darker streaks going down the slopes (C). The presence of material of different brightness on the far crater slopes and in some of the grooves shows that the satellite is heterogeneous (that is, it is made of a mixture of different types of materials). The motion of debris down slopes is guided by gravity, which is only about 1/1000th that of the Earth -- e.g., a 68-kilogram (150-pound) person would weigh only about 57 grams (2 ounces) on Phobos. Phobos was observed by both the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). This image is one of the highest resolution images (4 meters or 13 feet per picture element or pixel) ever obtained of the Martian satellite.

    Malin Space Science Systems, Inc. and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Thermal Emission Spectrometer is operated by Arizona State University and was built by Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  17. Maximum bandwidth snapshot channeled imaging polarimeter with polarization gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaCasse, Charles F.; Redman, Brian J.; Kudenov, Michael W.; Craven, Julia M.

    2016-05-01

    Compact snapshot imaging polarimeters have been demonstrated in literature to provide Stokes parameter estimations for spatially varying scenes using polarization gratings. However, the demonstrated system does not employ aggressive modulation frequencies to take full advantage of the bandwidth available to the focal plane array. A snapshot imaging Stokes polarimeter is described and demonstrated through results. The simulation studies the challenges of using a maximum bandwidth configuration for a snapshot polarization grating based polarimeter, such as the fringe contrast attenuation that results from higher modulation frequencies. Similar simulation results are generated and compared for a microgrid polarimeter. Microgrid polarimeters are instruments where pixelated polarizers are superimposed onto a focal plan array, and this is another type of spatially modulated polarimeter, and the most common design uses a 2x2 super pixel of polarizers which maximally uses the available bandwidth of the focal plane array.

  18. High resolution fluorescent bio-imaging with electron beam excitation.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Yoshimasa; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru

    2014-11-01

    We have developed electron beam excitation assisted (EXA) optical microscope[1-3], and demonstrated its resolution higher than 50 nm. In the microscope, a light source in a few nanometers size is excited by focused electron beam in a luminescent film. The microscope makes it possible to observe dynamic behavior of living biological specimens in various surroundings, such as air or liquids. Scan speed of the nanometric light source is faster than that in conventional near-field scanning optical microscopes. The microscope enables to observe optical constants such as absorption, refractive index, polarization, and their dynamic behavior on a nanometric scale. The microscope opens new microscopy applications in nano-technology and nano-science.Figure 1(a) shows schematic diagram of the proposed EXA microscope. An electron beam is focused on a luminescent film. A specimen is put on the luminescent film directly. The inset in Fig. 1(a) shows magnified image of the luminescent film and the specimen. Nanometric light source is excited in the luminescent film by the focused electron beam. The nanometric light source illuminates the specimen, and the scattered or transmitted radiation is detected with a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The light source is scanned by scanning of the focused electron beam in order to construct on image. Figure 1(b) shows a luminescence image of the cells acquired with the EXA microscope, and Fig. 1(c) shows a phase contrast microscope image. Cells were observed in culture solution without any treatments, such as fixation and drying. The shape of each cell was clearly recognized and some bright spots were observed in cells. We believe that the bright spots indicated with arrows were auto-fluorescence of intracellular granules and light- grey regions were auto-fluorescence of cell membranes. It is clearly demonstrated that the EXA microscope is useful tool for observation of living biological cells in physiological conditions.jmicro;63/suppl_1/i

  19. High-Resolution MOC Image of Phobos' Face

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This image of Phobos, the inner and larger of the two moons of Mars, was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor on August 19, 1998. The minimum distance between the spacecraft and Phobos was 1,080 kilometers (671 miles). Phobos was observed by both the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). This image is one of the highest resolution images (4 meters or 13 feet per picture element or pixel) ever obtained of the Martian satellite. The image shows several new features of this lumpy moon -- features that are associated with the prominent crater seen in the upper left quarter of the image. This is the largest crater on Phobos, Stickney, 10 kilometers (6 miles) in diameter. Individual boulders are visible on the near rim of the crater (D), and are presumed to be ejecta blocks from the impact that formed Stickney. Some of these boulders are enormous - more than 50 meters (160 feet) across. Also crossing at and near the rim of Stickney are shallow, elongated depressions called grooves. This crater is nearly half the size of Phobos and these grooves may be fractures caused by its formation. The far wall of the crater shows lighter and darker streaks going down the slopes (C). The presence of material of different brightness on the far crater slopes and in some of the grooves shows that the satellite is heterogeneous (that is, it is made of a mixture of different types of materials). The motion of debris down slopes is guided by gravity, which is only about 1/1000th that of the Earth -- e.g., a 68-kilogram (150- pound) person would weigh only about 57 grams (2 ounces) on Phobos. Previous images from the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's were not of sufficient resolution to show the effectiveness of gravity on Phobos in moving material down slopes.

    Malin Space Science Systems, Inc. and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA

  20. Ultra-High Resolution 3D Imaging of Whole Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fang; Sirinakis, George; Allgeyer, Edward S; Schroeder, Lena K; Duim, Whitney C; Kromann, Emil B; Phan, Thomy; Rivera-Molina, Felix E; Myers, Jordan R; Irnov, Irnov; Lessard, Mark; Zhang, Yongdeng; Handel, Mary Ann; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine; Lusk, C Patrick; Rothman, James E; Toomre, Derek; Booth, Martin J; Bewersdorf, Joerg

    2016-08-11

    Fluorescence nanoscopy, or super-resolution microscopy, has become an important tool in cell biological research. However, because of its usually inferior resolution in the depth direction (50-80 nm) and rapidly deteriorating resolution in thick samples, its practical biological application has been effectively limited to two dimensions and thin samples. Here, we present the development of whole-cell 4Pi single-molecule switching nanoscopy (W-4PiSMSN), an optical nanoscope that allows imaging of three-dimensional (3D) structures at 10- to 20-nm resolution throughout entire mammalian cells. We demonstrate the wide applicability of W-4PiSMSN across diverse research fields by imaging complex molecular architectures ranging from bacteriophages to nuclear pores, cilia, and synaptonemal complexes in large 3D cellular volumes. PMID:27397506

  1. Building identification from very high-resolution satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhomme, Stephane

    Urbanisation still remains one of the main problems worldwide. The extent and rapidity of the urban growth induce a number of socio-economic and environmental conflicts everywhere. In order to reduce these problems, urban planners need to integrate spatial information in planning tools. Actually high expectations are made on Very High Spatial Resolution imagery (VHSR). These high-spatial resolution images are available at a reasonable price and due to short revisit periods, they offer a high degree of actuality. However, interpretation methods seem not to be adapted to this new type of images. The aim of our study is to develop a new method for semi-automatic building extraction with VHSR. The different steps performed to achieve our objective are each presented in a chapter. In the first chapter, the general context of our research is described with the definition of our objective. After a short historical review of urbanisation, we focus on urban growth and associated problems. In the following we discuss the possible contributions of geography to reduce these problems. After discussing concepts, theories and methodologies of geographical analysis in urban areas, we present existing general urban planning tools. Finally, we show the special interest of our study that is due to a growing need to integrate spatial information in these decision support tools. In the second chapter we verify the possibility of reaching our objective by analysing the technical characteristics of the images, the noise and the distortions which affect the images. Quality and interpretability of the studied image is analysed in order to show the capacity of these image to represent urban objects as close to reality as possible. The results confirm the potential of VHSR Imagery for urban objects analysis. The third chapter deal with the preliminary steps necessary for the elaboration of our method of building extraction. First, we evaluate the quality of the Sherbrooke Ikonos image

  2. Advanced DTM Generation from Very High Resolution Satellite Stereo Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perko, R.; Raggam, H.; Gutjahr, K. H.; Schardt, M.

    2015-03-01

    This work proposes a simple filtering approach that can be applied to digital surface models in order to extract digital terrain models. The method focusses on robustness and computational efficiency and is in particular tailored to filter DSMs that are extracted from satellite stereo images. It represents an evolution of an existing DTM generation method and includes distinct advancement through the integration of multi-directional processing as well as slope dependent filtering, thus denoted "MSD filtering". The DTM generation workflow is fully automatic and requires no user interaction. Exemplary results are presented for a DSM generated from a Pléiades tri-stereo image data set. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations with respect to highly accurate reference LiDAR data confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  3. Improved SOT (Hinode mission) high resolution solar imaging observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodarzi, H.; Koutchmy, S.; Adjabshirizadeh, A.

    2015-08-01

    We consider the best today available observations of the Sun free of turbulent Earth atmospheric effects, taken with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) onboard the Hinode spacecraft. Both the instrumental smearing and the observed stray light are analyzed in order to improve the resolution. The Point Spread Function (PSF) corresponding to the blue continuum Broadband Filter Imager (BFI) near 450 nm is deduced by analyzing (i) the limb of the Sun and (ii) images taken during the transit of the planet Venus in 2012. A combination of Gaussian and Lorentzian functions is selected to construct a PSF in order to remove both smearing due to the instrumental diffraction effects (PSF core) and the large-angle stray light due to the spiders and central obscuration (wings of the PSF) that are responsible for the parasitic stray light. A Max-likelihood deconvolution procedure based on an optimum number of iterations is discussed. It is applied to several solar field images, including the granulation near the limb. The normal non-magnetic granulation is compared to the abnormal granulation which we call magnetic. A new feature appearing for the first time at the extreme- limb of the disk (the last 100 km) is discussed in the context of the definition of the solar edge and of the solar diameter. A single sunspot is considered in order to illustrate how effectively the restoration works on the sunspot core. A set of 125 consecutive deconvolved images is assembled in a 45 min long movie illustrating the complexity of the dynamical behavior inside and around the sunspot.

  4. High-Resolution Radar Imaging of Mercury's North Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, J. K.; Perillat, P. J.; Slade, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    The recently upgraded Arecibo S-band (λ12.6-cm) radar was used to make delay-Doppler images of Mercury's north polar region, where earlier observations had shown strong echoes from putative ice deposits in craters. The image resolution of 1.5-3 km is a substantial improvement over the 15-km resolution of the older Arecibo images (J. K. Harmon et al. 1994, Nature369, 213-215). The new observations confirm all the original polar features and reveal many additional features, including several at latitudes as low as 72-75°N and several from craters less than 10 km in diameter. All of the new features located on the Mariner-imaged side of the planet can be matched with known craters or other shaded areas. We find the north pole to be located 65 km from the original Mariner-based pole and 15 km from the new Mariner-based pole of M. S. Robinson et al. (1999, J. Geophys. Res.104, 30,847-30,852). The improved resolution reveals fine structure in the radar features and their respective host craters, including radar shadowing/highlighting by central peaks and rim walls, rim terracing, and preferential concentration of radar-bright deposits in shaded southern floor areas. The radar features' high brightness, circular polarization inversion (μ c=1.25), and confinement to regions permanently shaded from direct sunlight are all consistent with volume scattering from a cold-trapped volatile such as clean water ice. The sizes and locations of most of the features show good agreement with the thermal model of A. R. Vasavada, D. A. Paige, and S. E. Wood (1999, Icarus141, 179-193) for insulated (buried) water ice, although the problems of explaining radar features in small craters and the rapid burial required at lower latitudes suggest that other factors may be suppressing ice loss after emplacement.

  5. ERIS: the exoplanet high-resolution image simulator for CHARIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbach, Mary Anne; Groff, Tyler D.; Kasdin, N. J.; Brandt, Timothy; Mede, Kyle; Loomis, Craig; Hayashi, Masahiko; Takato, Naruhisa

    2014-07-01

    ERIS is an image simulator for CHARIS, the high-contrast exoplanet integral field spectrograph (IFS) being built at Princeton University for the Subaru telescope. We present here the software design and implementation of the ERIS code. ERIS simulates CHARIS FITS images and data cubes that are used for developing the data reduction pipeline and verifying the expected CHARIS performance. Components of the software include detailed models of the light source (such as a star or exoplanet), atmosphere, telescope, adaptive optics systems (AO188 and SCExAO), CHARIS IFS and the Hawaii2-RG infrared detector. Code includes novel details such as the phase errors at the lenslet array, optical wavefront error maps and pinholes for reducing crosstalk, just to list a few. The details of the code as well as several simulated images are presented in this paper. This IFS simulator is critical for the CHARIS data analysis pipeline development, minimizing troubleshooting in the lab and on-sky and the characterization of crosstalk.

  6. High-resolution panoramic images with megapixel MWIR FPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leboucher, Vincent; Aubry, Gilles

    2014-06-01

    In the continuity of its current strategy, HGH maintains a deep effort in developing its most recent product family: the infrared (IR) panoramic 360-degree surveillance sensors. During the last two years, HGH optimized its prototype Middle Wave IR (MWIR) panoramic sensor IR Revolution 360 HD that gave birth to Spynel-S product. Various test campaigns proved its excellent image quality. Cyclope, the software associated with Spynel, benefitted from recent image processing improvements and new functionalities such as target geolocalization, long range sensor slue to cue and facilitated forensics analysis. In the frame of the PANORAMIR project sustained by the DGA (Délégation Générale de l'Armement), HGH designed a new extra large resolution sensor including a MWIR megapixel Focal Plane Array (FPA) detector (1280×1024 pixels). This new sensor is called Spynel-X. It provides outstanding resolution 360-degree images (with more than 100 Mpixels). The mechanical frame of Spynel (-S and -X) was designed with the collaboration of an industrial design agency. Spynel got the "Observeur du Design 2013" label.

  7. High resolution and image processing of otoconia matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate patterns of fibrils organization in histochemically stained otoconia. Transmission electron microscope and video imaging were used. These data indicate that otoconia of the chick (Gallus domesticus) inner ear may have central cores in vivo. The data also show that the ultrastructural organization of fibrils fixed with aldehydes and histochemical stains follows trajectories that conform to the hexagonal shape of otoconia. These changes in direction may contribute to the formation of a central core. The existence of central cores is important for the in vivo buoyancy of otoconia. Packing of fibrils is tighter after phosphotungstic acid (PTA) stained otoconia than with other histochemical stains, which usually produce looser packing of fibrils and seemingly larger central core. TEM of tilted and untilted material showed that turning of fibrils occurs at the points where the face angles of otoconia form and where central cores exist. Video image processing of the images allowed reconstructing a template which, if assumed to repeat and change trajectories, would fit the pattern of fibrils seen in fixed otoconia. Since it is highly unlikely that aldehyde primary fixation or PTA stain caused such drastic change in the direction of fibrils, the template derived from these results may closely approximate patterns of otoconia fibrils packing in vivo. However, if the above is correct, the perfect crystallographic diffraction pattern of unfixed otoconia do not correspond to patterns of fixed fibrils.

  8. High resolution imaging of intracellular oxygen concentration by phosphorescence lifetime

    PubMed Central

    Kurokawa, Hiromi; Ito, Hidehiro; Inoue, Mai; Tabata, Kenji; Sato, Yoshifumi; Yamagata, Kazuya; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Kadonosono, Tetsuya; Yano, Shigenobu; Inoue, Masahiro; Kamachi, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Optical methods using phosphorescence quenching by oxygen are suitable for sequential monitoring and non-invasive measurements for oxygen concentration (OC) imaging within cells. Phosphorescence intensity measurement is widely used with phosphorescent dyes. These dyes are ubiquitously but heterogeneously distributed inside the whole cell. The distribution of phosphorescent dye is a major disadvantage in phosphorescence intensity measurement. We established OC imaging system for a single cell using phosphorescence lifetime and a laser scanning confocal microscope. This system had improved spatial resolution and reduced the measurement time with the high repetition rate of the laser. By the combination of ubiquitously distributed phosphorescent dye with this lifetime imaging microscope, we can visualize the OC inside the whole cell and spheroid. This system uses reversible phosphorescence quenching by oxygen, so it can measure successive OC changes from normoxia to anoxia. Lower regions of OC inside the cell colocalized with mitochondria. The time-dependent OC change in an insulin-producing cell line MIN6 by the glucose stimulation was successfully visualized. Assessing the detailed distribution and dynamics of OC inside cells achieved by the presented system will be useful to understanding a physiological and pathological oxygen metabolism. PMID:26065366

  9. Bathymetric Extraction Using WORLDVIEW-2 High Resolution Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidda, M.; Sanna, G.

    2012-07-01

    The fundamental principle underlying the methods used to extract bathymetric information from remote-sensed imagery is that different wavelengths of the solar light penetrate the water body to different depths. In order to extract bathymetric values from multispectral satellite imagery we implemented the Jupp method (Jupp, 1988), in IDL language and integrated it in the ENVI menu structure. In this experiment we apply this method to two images of the Poetto beach in Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy) acquired from the new-generation WorldView-2 sensor. Launched in October 2009, the WorldView-2 sensor provides, among others, one (named Coastal) that was designed specifically for this kind of analysis; we chose to use the Coastal band in place of the Blue one when applying the model. The images (a stereoscopic pair) were acquired on June 17, 2011. The 5419 scene was pre-processed in order to separate the sea bottom classes. This class was then georeferenced to overlap on the 5318 scene. A traditional bathymetric survey was performed, up to 1,50 m, planned and carried out in order to calibrate the model. For each scene, 10 calibration areas were selected, and for each of them a digital model of the sea bottom was generated. Precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated by analyzing the results extracted from the stereo-pairs and by examining the correlation between the surveyed depth values and the calculated ones, between the different models calculated from the same scene using different calibration areas, and between the models obtained from the two images.

  10. High Resolution Imaging of Io's Volcanoes with LBTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Al; Leisenring, Jarron; de Kleer, Katherine; Skemer, Andy; Hinz, Philip; Skrutskie, Michael; Veillet, Christian; de Pater, Imke; Bertero, Mario; Boccacci, Patrizia; Defrère, Denis; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; La Camera, Andrea; Schertl, Dieter; Spencer, John; Weigelt, Gerd; Woodward, Charles E.

    2014-11-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), located on Mount Graham in eastern Arizona, employs two 8.4 meter mirrors with a 14.4 center-to-center separation on a common mount. Coherent combination of these two AO-corrected apertures via the LBT Interferometer (LBTI) produces Fizeau interferometric images with spatial resolution consistent with the diffraction limit of the 22.8-meter aperture. In particular LBTI resolves thermal signatures (i.e., features observed at M-band) on the surface of Io down to ~150 kilometers; a two-fold improvement over what has previously been possible from the ground. We show images collected with LBTI on December 24, 2013, in which Loki's shape is clearly resolved and at least fourteen additional volcanic hot spots are detected.We analyze three locations in the LBTI data: emission features within Loki Patera, the area near Rarog and Heno Patarae, and a hot spot seen in the Colchis Regio.For Loki Patera, we interpret spatially resolved variation in the emission within that region. With M-band resolution that is comparable to what has previously been achievable only at K-band, we compare localized emission features with what has been seen in earlier observations at shorter wavelengths.Thermal emission from activity at Rarog and Heno Patarae is well resolved in these images, while a third hot-spot in the nearby Lerna Regio is also clearly resolved. This area is of special interest since it was the site of two high-effusion outbursts on August 15th, 2013 [de Pater et al. (2014) Icarus].Lastly, we explore a hot-spot seen in the Colchis Regio that may be a remnant of a violent outburst detected on August 29th, 2013 [de Kleer et al. (2014) Icarus].

  11. High-resolution heavy ion track structure imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laczko, G.; Dangendorf, V.; Krämer, M.; Schardt, D.; Tittelmeier, K.

    2004-12-01

    Radiation action in matter depends on the details of the spatial distribution of energy transfer events on the nanometer scale. In this contribution, we present an instrument for experimental investigation of spatial ionisation patterns of ions in matter. The experimental system is based on a time projection chamber with a parallel drift field, parallel-plate charge and light amplification layers and optical readout with an image-intensified CCD camera (OPtical Avalanche Chamber (OPAC)). The chamber is operated with low pressure gas (4-40 hPa) to achieve a resolution of down to 50 nm in tissue density. Preliminary results of measurements and simulations are presented.

  12. Monitoring plant growth using high resolution micro-CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Paquit, Vincent C; Gleason, Shaun Scott; Kalluri, Udaya C

    2011-01-01

    A multidisciplinary research conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory aims at understanding the molecular controls of partitioning, transport and fate of carbon xed by photosynthesis in plants and its correlation with other measured plant system properties. Ultimately, we intend to develop a modeling framework to assess, correlate and predict as to which spatiotemporal changes in system dynamics are key to predicting emergent properties of system. Within this research, this paper relates to the quantitative morphological imaging of the main structures forming a plant (stem, roots, and leaves), their internal sub-structures, and changes occurring overtime.

  13. New High-Resolution Images of Summer Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, Ronald; Untersteiner, Norbert

    2011-02-01

    In 1995 a group of government and academic scientists were appointed by the vice president of the United States to review and advise on acquisitions of imagery obtained by classified intelligence satellites (National Technical Means) and to recommend the declassification of certain data sets for the benefit of science. The group is called MEDEA and was first described by Richelson [1998]. MEDEA disbanded in 2000 but reassembled in 2008. On 15 June 2009, under the auspices of MEDEA, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released to the public as Literal Image Derived Products (LIDPs) numerous images with 1-meter resolution acquired since 1999 at six locations in the Arctic Basin (Beaufort Sea, Canadian Arctic, Fram Strait, East Siberian Sea, Chukchi Sea, and Point Barrow). These locations are named “fiducial sites” to suggest that the collected imagery establishes a baseline data set for understanding recent and future changes. Data in the Global Fiducials Library (GFL) can be accessed via http://gfl.usgs.gov/. This data repository is updated by USGS as additional data become available.

  14. Fast and high resolution single-cell BRET imaging.

    PubMed

    Goyet, Elise; Bouquier, Nathalie; Ollendorff, Vincent; Perroy, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Resonance Energy Transfer (RET)-based technologies are used to report protein-protein interactions in living cells. Among them, Bioluminescence-initiated RET (BRET) provides excellent sensitivity but the low light intensity intrinsic to the bioluminescent process hampers its use for the localization of protein complexes at the sub-cellular level. Herein we have characterized the methodological conditions required to reliably perform single-cell BRET imaging using an extremely bright luciferase, Nanoluciferase (Nluc). With this, we achieved an unprecedented performance in the field of protein-protein interaction imaging in terms of temporal and spatial resolution, duration of signal stability, signal sensitivity and dynamic range. As proof-of-principle, an Nluc-containing BRET-based sensor of ERK activity enabled the detection of subtle, transient and localized variations in ERK activity in neuronal dendritic spines, induced by the activation of endogenous synaptic NMDA receptors. This development will improve our comprehension of both the spatio-temporal dynamics of protein-protein interactions and the activation patterns of specific signaling pathways. PMID:27302735

  15. Fast and high resolution single-cell BRET imaging

    PubMed Central

    Goyet, Elise; Bouquier, Nathalie; Ollendorff, Vincent; Perroy, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Resonance Energy Transfer (RET)-based technologies are used to report protein-protein interactions in living cells. Among them, Bioluminescence-initiated RET (BRET) provides excellent sensitivity but the low light intensity intrinsic to the bioluminescent process hampers its use for the localization of protein complexes at the sub-cellular level. Herein we have characterized the methodological conditions required to reliably perform single-cell BRET imaging using an extremely bright luciferase, Nanoluciferase (Nluc). With this, we achieved an unprecedented performance in the field of protein-protein interaction imaging in terms of temporal and spatial resolution, duration of signal stability, signal sensitivity and dynamic range. As proof-of-principle, an Nluc-containing BRET-based sensor of ERK activity enabled the detection of subtle, transient and localized variations in ERK activity in neuronal dendritic spines, induced by the activation of endogenous synaptic NMDA receptors. This development will improve our comprehension of both the spatio-temporal dynamics of protein-protein interactions and the activation patterns of specific signaling pathways. PMID:27302735

  16. High resolution hyperspectral imaging with a high throughput virtual slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooding, Edward A.; Gunn, Thomas; Cenko, Andrew T.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) device users often require both high spectral resolution, on the order of 1 nm, and high light-gathering power. A wide entrance slit assures reasonable étendue but degrades spectral resolution. Spectrometers built using High Throughput Virtual Slit™ (HTVS) technology optimize both parameters simultaneously. Two remote sensing use cases that require high spectral resolution are discussed. First, detection of atmospheric gases with intrinsically narrow absorption lines, such as hydrocarbon vapors or combustion exhaust gases such as NOx and CO2. Detecting exhaust gas species with high precision has become increasingly important in the light of recent events in the automobile industry. Second, distinguishing reflected daylight from emission spectra in the visible and NIR (VNIR) regions is most easily accomplished using the Fraunhofer absorption lines in solar spectra. While ground reflectance spectral features in the VNIR are generally quite broad, the Fraunhofer lines are narrow and provide a signature of intrinsic vs. extrinsic illumination. The High Throughput Virtual Slit enables higher spectral resolution than is achievable with conventional spectrometers by manipulating the beam profile in pupil space. By reshaping the instrument pupil with reflective optics, HTVS-equipped instruments create a tall, narrow image profile at the exit focal plane, typically delivering 5X or better the spectral resolution achievable with a conventional design.

  17. High Resolution HST Images of Pluto and Charon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    At the Edge of the Solar System Click here to jump to photo. The remote planet Pluto and its moon Charon orbit the Sun at a mean distance of almost 6,000 million kilometres, or nearly fourty times farther out than the Earth. During a recent investigation by an international group of astronomers [1], the best picture ever of Pluto and Charon [2] was secured with the European Space Agency's Faint Object Camera at the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). It shows the two objects as individual disks, and it is likely that further image enhancement will allow us to see surface features on Pluto. A Very Special Pair of Celestial Objects Almost all the known facts about these two bodies show that they are quite unusual: Pluto's orbit around the Sun is much more elongated and more inclined to the main plane of the Solar System than that of any other major planet; Charon's orbit around Pluto is nearly perpendicular to this plane; their mutual distance is amazingly small when compared to their size; Charon is half the size of Pluto and the ratio of their masses is much closer to unity than is the case for all other planets and their moons. Moreover, both are small and solid bodies, in contrast to the other, large and gaseous planets in the outer Solar System. We do not know why this is so. But there is another important aspect which makes Pluto and Charon even more interesting: at this very large distance from the Sun, any evolutionary changes happen very slowly. It is therefore likely that Pluto and Charon hold important clues to the conditions that prevailed in the early Solar System and thus to the origin and the evolution of the Solar System as a whole. Long and Difficult Analysis Ahead The present image shows that the overall quality of the new data obtained with the ESA Faint Object Camera on the refurbished Hubble Space Telescope is extremely good. However, such an image represents only the first step of a subsequent, detailed analysis with the ultimate goal of determining

  18. High resolution neutron imaging of water in PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L; Davey, John R; Spendelow, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    Optimal water management in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells is critical to improving the performance and durability of fuel cell systems especially during transient, start-up and shut-down operations. For example, while a high water content is desirable for improved membrane and catalyst ionomer conductivity, high water content can also block gas access to the triple-phase boundary resulting in lowered performance due to catalyst and gas diffusion layer (GDL) flooding. Visualizing liquid water by neutron imaging has been used over the past decade to study the water distribution inside operating fuel cells. In this paper, the results from our imaging at NIST using their recently installed higher resolution ({approx} 25 mm) Microchannel Plate (MCP) detector with a pixel pitch of 14.7 mm are presented. This detector is capable of quantitatively imaging the water inside the MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly)/GDL (Gas Diffusion Layer) of working fuel cells and can provide the water profiles within these various components in addition to the channel water. Specially designed fuel cells (active area = 2.25 cm{sup 2}) have been used in order to take advantage of the full detector resolution. The cell design is illustrated in a figure where one of the current collector/end plates is shown. The serpentine pattern was machined into a block of aluminum and plated with nickel and then gold to form the flow field. The measurements were performed using beam no. 1 and aperture no. 2 with a fluence rate of 1.9 x 10{sup 6} neutrons cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. The cells were assembled with Gore{sup TM} Primea{sup R} MEAs and SGL Sigracet {sup R} 24 series GDLs (PRIMEA, GORE-SELECT and GORE are trademarks of W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc). All the cells were tested at 80 {sup o}C with 1.2 stoichiometry H{sub 2} and 2.0 stoichiometry air flows.

  19. Mobile sensor for high resolution NMR spectroscopy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danieli, Ernesto; Mauler, Jörg; Perlo, Juan; Blümich, Bernhard; Casanova, Federico

    2009-05-01

    In this work we describe the construction of a mobile NMR tomograph with a highly homogeneous magnetic field. Fast MRI techniques as well as NMR spectroscopy measurements were carried out. The magnet is based on a Halbach array built from identical permanent magnet blocks generating a magnetic field of 0.22 T. To shim the field inhomogeneities inherent to magnet arrays constructed from these materials, a shim strategy based on the use of movable magnet blocks is employed. With this approach a reduction of the line-width from ˜20 kHz to less than 0.1 kHz was achieved, that is by more than two orders of magnitude, in a volume of 21 cm 3. Implementing a RARE sequence, 3D images of different objects placed in this volume were obtained in short experimental times. Moreover, by reducing the sample size to 1 cm 3, sub ppm resolution is obtained in 1H NMR spectra.

  20. High-resolution microchannel plate image tube results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. Bruce; Patton, Stanley B.; Bender, E.

    1992-07-01

    The present 18-mm active diameter proximity-focused microchannel plate (MCP) image tube design has been modified to produce significantly higher limiting spatial resolution. A glass input window of the `bulls-eye' design with the blackened glass border, reduced cathode-to-MCP spacing, reduced channel center-to-center distance, reduced MCP-to-phosphor screen spacing, a brushed P20 phosphor screen, and a fiber optic output window were used to achieve a limiting resolution in excess of 50 lp/mm. Test results, showing limiting resolution versus applied potentials, are correlated with a simple physical model of performance. The low-light-level white-light sine-wave modulation transfer function, T(f), has been measured to be T(f) equals exp[-(f/21.5)1.46], where f is the spatial frequency in cycles per millimeter.

  1. Accuracy Analysis on Large Blocks of High Resolution Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Passini, Richardo M.

    2007-01-01

    Although high altitude frequencies effects are removed at the time of basic image generation, low altitude (Yaw) effects are still present in form of affinity/angular affinity. They are effectively removed by additional parameters. Bundle block adjustment based on properly weighted ephemeris/altitude quaternions (BBABEQ) are not enough to remove the systematic effect. Moreover, due to the narrow FOV of the HRSI, position and altitude are highly correlated making it almost impossible to separate and remove their systematic effects without extending the geometric model (Self-Calib.) The systematic effects gets evident on the increase of accuracy (in terms of RMSE at GCPs) for looser and relaxed ground control at the expense of large and strong block deformation with large residuals at check points. Systematic errors are most freely distributed and their effects propagated all over the block.

  2. High resolution LBT imaging of Io and Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, A.; de Kleer, K.; Leisenring, J.; La Camera, A.; Arcidiacono, C.; Bertero, M.; Boccacci, P.; Defrère, D.; de Pater, I.; Hinz, P.; Hoffman, K.-H.; Kürster, M.; Rathbun, J.; Schertl, D.; Skemer, A.; Skrutskie, M.; Spencer, J.; Veillet, C.; Weigelt, G.; Woodward, C.

    2015-10-01

    We report here results from observing Io at high angular resolution, ˜32 mas at 4.8 μm, with LBT at two favorable oppositions as described in our report given at the 2011 EPSC [1]. Analysis of datasets acquired during the last two oppositions has yielded spatially resolved M-band emission at Loki Patera [2], L-band fringes at an eruption site, an occultation of Loki and Pele by Europa, and sufficient sub-earth longitude (SEL) and parallactic angle coverage to produce a full disk map.We summarize completed results for the first of these, and give brief progress reports for the latter three. Finally, we provide plans for imaging the full disk of Jupiter using the MCAO system which is in its commissioning phase at LBT.

  3. Snapshot hyperspectral retinal camera with the Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Liang; Smith, R. Theodore; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2011-01-01

    We present a snapshot hyperspectral retinal camera with the Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) for eye imaging applications. The resulting system is capable of simultaneously acquiring 48 spectral channel images in the range 470 nm–650 nm with frame rate at 5.2 fps. The spatial sampling of each measured spectral scene is 350 × 350 pixels. The advantages of this snapshot device are elimination of the eye motion artifacts and pixel misregistration problems in traditional scanning-based hyperspectral retinal cameras, and real-time imaging of oxygen saturation dynamics with sub-second temporal resolution. The spectral imaging performance is demonstrated in a human retinal imaging experiment in vivo. The absorption spectral signatures of oxy-hemoglobin and macular pigments were successfully acquired by using this device. PMID:22254167

  4. AXAF-1 High Resolution Assembly Image Model and Comparison with X-Ray Ground Test Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zissa, David E.

    1999-01-01

    The x-ray ground test of the AXAF-I High Resolution Mirror Assembly was completed in 1997 at the X-ray Calibration Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center. Mirror surface measurements by HDOS, alignment results from Kodak, and predicted gravity distortion in the horizontal test configuration are being used to model the x-ray test image. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) image modeling serves as a cross check with Smithsonian Astrophysical observatory modeling. The MSFC image prediction software has evolved from the MSFC model of the x-ray test of the largest AXAF-I mirror pair in 1991. The MSFC image modeling software development is being assisted by the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The modeling process, modeling software, and image prediction will be discussed. The image prediction will be compared with the x-ray test results.

  5. Nanedi Vallis: Sustained Water Flow? - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This picture of a canyon on the Martian surface was obtained a few minutes after 10 PM PST, January 8, 1998 by the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), during the 87th orbit around Mars of the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. It shows the canyon of Nanedi Vallis, one of the Martian valley systems cutting through cratered plains in the Xanthe Terra region of Mars. The picture covers an area 9.8 km by 18.5 km (6.1 mi by 11.5 mi), and features as small as 12 m (39 ft) can be seen. The canyon is about 2.5 km (1.6 mi) wide. Rocky outcrops are found along the upper canyon walls; weathered debris found on the lower canyon slopes and along the canyon floor. The origin of this canyon is enigmatic: some features, such as terraces within the canyon (as seen near the top of the frame) and the small 200 m (660 ft) wide channel (also seen near the top of the frame) suggest continual fluid flow and downcutting. Other features, such as the lack of a contributing pattern of smaller channels on the surface surrounding the canyon, box-headed tributaries, and the size and tightness of the apparent meanders (as seen, for example, in the Viking image 89A32), suggest formation by collapse. It is likely that both continual flow and collapse have been responsible for the canyon as it now appears. Further observations, especially in areas west of the present image, will be used to help separate the relative effects of these and other potential formation and modification processes.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  6. High-resolution hyperspectral single-pixel imaging system based on compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalha~es, Filipe; Abolbashari, Mehrdad; Araújo, Francisco M.; Correia, Miguel V.; Farahi, Faramarz

    2012-07-01

    For the first time, a high-resolution hyperspectral single-pixel imaging system based on compressive sensing is presented and demonstrated. The system integrates a digital micro-mirror device array to optically compress the image to be acquired and an optical spectrum analyzer to enable high spectral resolution. The system's ability to successfully reconstruct images with 10 pm spectral resolution is proven.

  7. Single-molecule high-resolution imaging with photobleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Matthew P.; Ha, Taekjip; Selvin, Paul R.

    2004-04-01

    Conventional light microscopy is limited in its resolving power by the Rayleigh limit to length scales on the order of 200 nm. On the other hand, spectroscopic techniques such as fluorescence resonance energy transfer cannot be used to measure distances >10 nm, leaving a "gap" in the ability of optical techniques to measure distances on the 10- to 100-nm scale. We have previously demonstrated the ability to localize single dye molecules to a precision of 1.5 nm with subsecond time resolution. Here we locate the position of two dyes and determine their separation with 5-nm precision, using the quantal photobleaching behavior of single fluorescent dye molecules. By fitting images both before and after photobleaching of one of the dyes, we may localize both dyes simultaneously and compute their separation. Hence, we have circumvented the Rayleigh limit and achieved nanometer-scale resolution. Specifically, we demonstrate the technique by measuring the distance between single fluorophores separated by 10-20 nm via attachment to the ends of double-stranded DNA molecules immobilized on a surface. In addition to bridging the gap in optical resolution, this technique may be useful for biophysical or genomic applications, including the generation of super-high-density maps of single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

  8. High Resolution MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Retinal Tissue Lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, David M. G.; Ablonczy, Zsolt; Koutalos, Yiannis; Spraggins, Jeffrey; Crouch, Rosalie K.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Schey, Kevin L.

    2014-08-01

    Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) has the ability to provide an enormous amount of information on the abundances and spatial distributions of molecules within biological tissues. The rapid progress in the development of this technology significantly improves our ability to analyze smaller and smaller areas and features within tissues. The mammalian eye has evolved over millions of years to become an essential asset for survival, providing important sensory input of an organism's surroundings. The highly complex sensory retina of the eye is comprised of numerous cell types organized into specific layers with varying dimensions, the thinnest of which is the 10 μm retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). This single cell layer and the photoreceptor layer contain the complex biochemical machinery required to convert photons of light into electrical signals that are transported to the brain by axons of retinal ganglion cells. Diseases of the retina, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa, and diabetic retinopathy, occur when the functions of these cells are interrupted by molecular processes that are not fully understood. In this report, we demonstrate the use of high spatial resolution MALDI IMS and FT-ICR tandem mass spectrometry in the Abca4 -/- knockout mouse model of Stargardt disease, a juvenile onset form of macular degeneration. The spatial distributions and identity of lipid and retinoid metabolites are shown to be unique to specific retinal cell layers.

  9. Retrieving high-resolution images over the Internet from an anatomical image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strupp-Adams, Annette; Henderson, Earl

    1999-12-01

    The Visible Human Data set is an important contribution to the national collection of anatomical images. To enhance the availability of these images, the National Library of Medicine has supported the design and development of a prototype object-oriented image database which imports, stores, and distributes high resolution anatomical images in both pixel and voxel formats. One of the key database modules is its client-server Internet interface. This Web interface provides a query engine with retrieval access to high-resolution anatomical images that range in size from 100KB for browser viewable rendered images, to 1GB for anatomical structures in voxel file formats. The Web query and retrieval client-server system is composed of applet GUIs, servlets, and RMI application modules which communicate with each other to allow users to query for specific anatomical structures, and retrieve image data as well as associated anatomical images from the database. Selected images can be downloaded individually as single files via HTTP or downloaded in batch-mode over the Internet to the user's machine through an applet that uses Netscape's Object Signing mechanism. The image database uses ObjectDesign's object-oriented DBMS, ObjectStore that has a Java interface. The query and retrieval systems has been tested with a Java-CDE window system, and on the x86 architecture using Windows NT 4.0. This paper describes the Java applet client search engine that queries the database; the Java client module that enables users to view anatomical images online; the Java application server interface to the database which organizes data returned to the user, and its distribution engine that allow users to download image files individually and/or in batch-mode.

  10. Information Extraction of High Resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on the Calculation of Optimal Segmentation Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongchun; Cai, Lijie; Liu, Haiying; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Multi-scale image segmentation and the selection of optimal segmentation parameters are the key processes in the object-oriented information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing images. The accuracy of remote sensing special subject information depends on this extraction. On the basis of WorldView-2 high-resolution data, the optimal segmentation parameters methodof object-oriented image segmentation and high-resolution image information extraction, the following processes were conducted in this study. Firstly, the best combination of the bands and weights was determined for the information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing image. An improved weighted mean-variance method was proposed andused to calculatethe optimal segmentation scale. Thereafter, the best shape factor parameter and compact factor parameters were computed with the use of the control variables and the combination of the heterogeneity and homogeneity indexes. Different types of image segmentation parameters were obtained according to the surface features. The high-resolution remote sensing images were multi-scale segmented with the optimal segmentation parameters. Ahierarchical network structure was established by setting the information extraction rules to achieve object-oriented information extraction. This study presents an effective and practical method that can explain expert input judgment by reproducible quantitative measurements. Furthermore the results of this procedure may be incorporated into a classification scheme. PMID:27362762

  11. Information Extraction of High Resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on the Calculation of Optimal Segmentation Parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongchun; Cai, Lijie; Liu, Haiying; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Multi-scale image segmentation and the selection of optimal segmentation parameters are the key processes in the object-oriented information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing images. The accuracy of remote sensing special subject information depends on this extraction. On the basis of WorldView-2 high-resolution data, the optimal segmentation parameters methodof object-oriented image segmentation and high-resolution image information extraction, the following processes were conducted in this study. Firstly, the best combination of the bands and weights was determined for the information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing image. An improved weighted mean-variance method was proposed andused to calculatethe optimal segmentation scale. Thereafter, the best shape factor parameter and compact factor parameters were computed with the use of the control variables and the combination of the heterogeneity and homogeneity indexes. Different types of image segmentation parameters were obtained according to the surface features. The high-resolution remote sensing images were multi-scale segmented with the optimal segmentation parameters. Ahierarchical network structure was established by setting the information extraction rules to achieve object-oriented information extraction. This study presents an effective and practical method that can explain expert input judgment by reproducible quantitative measurements. Furthermore the results of this procedure may be incorporated into a classification scheme. PMID:27362762

  12. HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, Paula; Baker, Andrew J.; Menanteau, Felipe; Lutz, Dieter; Tacconi, Linda J. E-mail: ajbaker@physics.rutgers.edu E-mail: lutz@mpe.mpg.de

    2013-05-10

    We present F110W ({approx}J) and F160W ({approx}H) observations of 10 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) NICMOS camera. Our targets have optical redshifts in the range 2.20 {<=} z {<=} 2.81 confirmed by millimeter CO or mid-IR spectroscopy, guaranteeing that the two bands sample the rest-frame optical with the Balmer break falling between them. Eight of ten are detected in both bands, while two are detected in F160W only. We study their F160W morphologies, applying a maximum-deblending detection algorithm to distinguish multiple- from single-component configurations, leading to reassessments for several objects. Based on our NICMOS imaging and/or previous dynamical evidence we identify five SMGs as multiple sources, which we interpret as merging systems. Additionally, we calculate morphological parameter asymmetry (A) and the Gini coefficient (G); thanks to our sample's limited redshift range we recover the trend that multiple-component, merger-like morphologies are reflected in higher asymmetries. We analyze the stellar populations of nine objects with F110W/F160W photometry, using archival HST optical data when available. For multiple systems, we are able to model the individual components that build up an SMG. With the available data we cannot discriminate among star formation histories, but we constrain stellar masses and mass ratios for merger-like SMG systems, obtaining a mean log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 10.9 {+-} 0.2 for our full sample, with individual values log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 9.6-11.8. The morphologies and mass ratios of the least and most massive systems match the predictions of the major-merger and cold accretion SMG formation scenarios, respectively, suggesting that both channels may have a role in the population's origin.

  13. Endoscopic high-resolution autofluorescence imaging and OCT of pulmonary vascular networks.

    PubMed

    Pahlevaninezhad, Hamid; Lee, Anthony M D; Hohert, Geoffrey; Lam, Stephen; Shaipanich, Tawimas; Beaudoin, Eve-Lea; MacAulay, Calum; Boudoux, Caroline; Lane, Pierre

    2016-07-15

    High-resolution imaging from within airways may allow new methods for studying lung disease. In this work, we report an endoscopic imaging system capable of high-resolution autofluorescence imaging (AFI) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in peripheral airways using a 0.9 mm diameter double-clad fiber (DCF) catheter. In this system, AFI excitation light is coupled into the core of the DCF, enabling tightly focused excitation light while maintaining efficient collection of autofluorescence emission through the large diameter inner cladding of the DCF. We demonstrate the ability of this imaging system to visualize pulmonary vasculature as small as 12 μm in vivo. PMID:27420497

  14. Updating Object for GIS Database Information Using High Resolution Satellite Images: a Case Study Zonguldak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkan, M.; Arca, D.; Bayik, Ç.; Marangoz, A. M.

    2011-09-01

    Nowadays Geographic Information Systems (GIS) uses Remote Sensing (RS) data for a lot of applications. One of the application areas is the updating of the GIS database using high resolution imagery. In this context high resolution satellite imagery data is very important for many applications areas today's and future. And also, high resolution satellite imagery data will be used in many applications for different purposes. Information systems needs to high resolution imagery data for updating. Updating is very important component for the any of the GIS systems. One of this area will be updated and kept alive GIS database information. High resolution satellite imagery is used with different data base which serve map information via internet and different aims of information systems applications in future topographic and cartographic information systems will very important in our country in this sense use of the satellite images will be unavoidable. In this study explain to how is acquired to satellite images and how is use this images in information systems for object and roads. Firstly, pan-sharpened two of the IKONOS's images have been produced by fusion of high resolution PAN and MS images using PCI Geomatica v9.1 software package. Automatic object extraction has been made using eCognition v4.0.6. On the other hand, these objects have been manually digitized from high resolution images using ArcGIS v9.3. software package. Application section of in this study, satellite images data will be compared each other and GIS objects and road database. It is also determined which data is useful in Geographic Information Systems. Finally, this article explains that integration of remote sensing technology and GIS applications.

  15. Computational high-resolution optical imaging of the living human retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemonski, Nathan D.; South, Fredrick A.; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Adie, Steven G.; Scott Carney, P.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2015-07-01

    High-resolution in vivo imaging is of great importance for the fields of biology and medicine. The introduction of hardware-based adaptive optics (HAO) has pushed the limits of optical imaging, enabling high-resolution near diffraction-limited imaging of previously unresolvable structures. In ophthalmology, when combined with optical coherence tomography, HAO has enabled a detailed three-dimensional visualization of photoreceptor distributions and individual nerve fibre bundles in the living human retina. However, the introduction of HAO hardware and supporting software adds considerable complexity and cost to an imaging system, limiting the number of researchers and medical professionals who could benefit from the technology. Here we demonstrate a fully automated computational approach that enables high-resolution in vivo ophthalmic imaging without the need for HAO. The results demonstrate that computational methods in coherent microscopy are applicable in highly dynamic living systems.

  16. Computational high-resolution optical imaging of the living human retina

    PubMed Central

    Shemonski, Nathan D.; South, Fredrick A.; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Adie, Steven G.; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution in vivo imaging is of great importance for the fields of biology and medicine. The introduction of hardware-based adaptive optics (HAO) has pushed the limits of optical imaging, enabling high-resolution near diffraction-limited imaging of previously unresolvable structures1,2. In ophthalmology, when combined with optical coherence tomography, HAO has enabled a detailed three-dimensional visualization of photoreceptor distributions3,4 and individual nerve fibre bundles5 in the living human retina. However, the introduction of HAO hardware and supporting software adds considerable complexity and cost to an imaging system, limiting the number of researchers and medical professionals who could benefit from the technology. Here we demonstrate a fully automated computational approach that enables high-resolution in vivo ophthalmic imaging without the need for HAO. The results demonstrate that computational methods in coherent microscopy are applicable in highly dynamic living systems. PMID:26877761

  17. Classification of high resolution remote sensing image based on geo-ontology and conditional random fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Liang

    2013-10-01

    The availability of high spatial resolution remote sensing data provides new opportunities for urban land-cover classification. More geometric details can be observed in the high resolution remote sensing image, Also Ground objects in the high resolution remote sensing image have displayed rich texture, structure, shape and hierarchical semantic characters. More landscape elements are represented by a small group of pixels. Recently years, the an object-based remote sensing analysis methodology is widely accepted and applied in high resolution remote sensing image processing. The classification method based on Geo-ontology and conditional random fields is presented in this paper. The proposed method is made up of four blocks: (1) the hierarchical ground objects semantic framework is constructed based on geoontology; (2) segmentation by mean-shift algorithm, which image objects are generated. And the mean-shift method is to get boundary preserved and spectrally homogeneous over-segmentation regions ;(3) the relations between the hierarchical ground objects semantic and over-segmentation regions are defined based on conditional random fields framework ;(4) the hierarchical classification results are obtained based on geo-ontology and conditional random fields. Finally, high-resolution remote sensed image data -GeoEye, is used to testify the performance of the presented method. And the experimental results have shown the superiority of this method to the eCognition method both on the effectively and accuracy, which implies it is suitable for the classification of high resolution remote sensing image.

  18. Experimental validation of a high-resolution diffuse optical imaging modality: photomagnetic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouizi, Farouk; Luk, Alex; Thayer, Dave; Lin, Yuting; Ha, Seunghoon; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2016-01-01

    We present experimental results that validate our imaging technique termed photomagnetic imaging (PMI). PMI illuminates the medium under investigation with a near-infrared light and measures the induced temperature increase using magnetic resonance imaging. A multiphysics solver combining light and heat propagation is used to model spatiotemporal distribution of temperature increase. Furthermore, a dedicated PMI reconstruction algorithm has been developed to reveal high-resolution optical absorption maps from temperature measurements. Being able to perform measurements at any point within the medium, PMI overcomes the limitations of conventional diffuse optical imaging. We present experimental results obtained on agarose phantoms mimicking biological tissue with inclusions having either different sizes or absorption contrasts, located at various depths. The reconstructed images show that PMI can successfully resolve these inclusions with high resolution and recover their absorption coefficient with high-quantitative accuracy. Even a 1-mm inclusion located 6-mm deep is recovered successfully and its absorption coefficient is underestimated by only 32%. The improved PMI system presented here successfully operates under the maximum skin exposure limits defined by the American National Standards Institute, which opens up the exciting possibility of its future clinical use for diagnostic purposes.

  19. IRAC Snapshot Imaging of Red Herschel Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Wardlow, Julie; Ivison, Rob; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Riechers, Dominik; Clements, David; Oliver, Seb; Oteo, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    Wide-field submillimeter surveys with Herschel have produced large samples of rare populations, which provide some of the most stringent constraints on galaxy formation theories. In this proposal we request IRAC observations of 'red' Herschel sources, which are the most extreme DSFGs at z>4. The proposed snapshot IRAC 3.6 and 4.5um data will probe the stellar emission from these systems - complementary data to the far-infrared dust emission that led to their identification. We will use these data to extend the SEDs into the near-IR regime and measure more reliable stellar masses than otherwise available. They will be combined with existing survey data and dedicated follow-up programs to map the evolution of DSFGs as a function of redshift, stellar mass and far-IR luminosity.

  20. Object-Based Forest Change Detection Using High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chehata, N.; Orny, C.; Boukir, S.; Guyon, D.

    2011-04-01

    An object-based approach for forest disaster change detection using High Resolution (HR) satellite images is proposed. An automatic feature selection process is used to optimize image segmentation via an original calibration-like procedure. A multitemporal classification then enables the separation of wind-fall from intact areas based on a new descriptor that depends on the level of fragmentation of the detected regions. The mean shift algorithm was used in both the segmentation and the classification processes. The method was tested on a high resolution Formosat-2 multispectral satellite image pair acquired before and after the Klaus storm. The obtained results are encouraging and the contribution of high resolution images for forest disaster mapping is discussed.

  1. High-resolution far-field ghost imaging via sparsity constraint.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wenlin; Han, Shensheng

    2015-01-01

    Ghost imaging (GI) is a method to nonlocally image an object with a single-pixel detector. However, the speckle's transverse size at the object plane limits the system's imaging resolution for conventional GI linear reconstruction algorithm. By combining the sparsity constraint of imaging object with ghost imaging method, we demonstrate experimentally that ghost imaging via sparsity constraint (GISC) can dramatically enhance the imaging resolution even using the random measurements far below the Nyquist limit. The image reconstruction algorithm of GISC is based on compressive sensing. Factors affecting the reconstruction quality of high-resolution GISC, such as the receiving system's numerical aperture and the object's sparse representation basis, are also investigated experimentally. This high-resolution imaging technique will have great applications in the microscopy and remote-sensing areas. PMID:25787897

  2. Demonstration of snapshot imaging polarimeter using modified Savart polariscopes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qizhi; Zhang, Jing; DeHoog, Edward; Zhang, Chunmin

    2016-02-10

    In an earlier publication, [Appl. Opt.51, 5791 (2012)] we demonstrated by theoretical analysis that a snapshot imaging polarimeter using modified Savart polariscopes (MSP-SIP) is comparable in carrier frequency, signal-to-noise ratio, and spatial resolution to a snapshot imaging polarimeter using conventional Savart polariscopes. In this investigation, numerical simulation is used to demonstrate the feasibility of MSP-SIP and investigate the limitation of the filtration and the Fourier analysis decoupling the polarization information encoded through the spatial modulation. In addition, a laboratory experiment is conducted to demonstrate the validity of MSP-SIP. The MSP-SIP operates on the principle of encoding polarization information within the spatial modulation of the image. This unique technology allows all Stokes parameters to be simultaneously recorded from every spatial position in an image with a single integration period of the imaging system. The device contains no moving parts and requires no scanning, allowing it to acquire data without the motion artifacts normally associated with a scanning polarimeter. In addition to snapshot imaging and static (no moving parts) capabilities, image processing is simple, and the device is compact and miniature. Therefore, we believe that MSP-SIP will be useful in many applications, such as remote sensing and bioscience. PMID:26906358

  3. Interactive Display of High-Resolution Images on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Stephen W.; Hirschi, Gregory W.

    Viewing high-resolution images on the World Wide Web at a level of detail necessary for collaborative research is still a problem today, given the Internet's current bandwidth limitations and its ever increasing network traffic. ImageEyes is an interactive display tool being developed at Utah State University that addresses this problem by…

  4. A high-resolution airborne four-camera imaging system for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and testing of an airborne multispectral digital imaging system for remote sensing applications. The system consists of four high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) digital cameras and a ruggedized PC equipped with a frame grabber and image acquisition software. T...

  5. Content based sub-image retrieval system for high resolution pathology images using salient interest points.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Neville; Alomari, Raja' S; Chaudhary, Vipin

    2009-01-01

    Content-based image retrieval systems for digital pathology require sub-image retrieval rather than the whole image retrieval for the system to be of clinical use. Digital pathology images are huge in size and thus the pathologist is interested in retrieving specific structures from the whole images in the database along with the previous diagnosis of the retrieved sub-image. We propose a content-based sub-image retrieval system (sCBIR) framework for high resolution digital pathology images. We utilize scale-invariant feature extraction and present an efficient and robust searching mechanism for indexing the images as well as for query execution of sub-image retrieval. We present a working sCBIR system and show results of testing our system on a set of queries for specific structures of interest for pathologists in clinical use. The outcomes of the sCBIR system are compared to manual search and there is an 80% match in the top five searches. PMID:19965011

  6. High-resolution harmonic motion imaging (HR-HMI) for tissue biomechanical property characterization

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Teng; Qian, Xuejun; Chiu, Chi Tat; Yu, Mingyue; Jung, Hayong; Tung, Yao-Sheng; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Background Elastography, capable of mapping the biomechanical properties of biological tissues, serves as a useful technique for clinicians to perform disease diagnosis and determine stages of many diseases. Many acoustic radiation force (ARF) based elastography, including acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging and harmonic motion imaging (HMI), have been developed to remotely assess the elastic properties of tissues. However, due to the lower operating frequencies of these approaches, their spatial resolutions are insufficient for revealing stiffness distribution on small scale applications, such as cancerous tumor margin detection, atherosclerotic plaque composition analysis and ophthalmologic tissue characterization. Though recently developed ARF-based optical coherence elastography (OCE) methods open a new window for the high resolution elastography, shallow imaging depths significantly limit their usefulness in clinics. Methods The aim of this study is to develop a high-resolution HMI method to assess the tissue biomechanical properties with acceptable field of view (FOV) using a 4 MHz ring transducer for efficient excitation and a 40 MHz needle transducer for accurate detection. Under precise alignment of two confocal transducers, the high-resolution HMI system has a lateral resolution of 314 µm and an axial resolution of 
147 µm with an effective FOV of 2 mm in depth. Results The performance of this high resolution imaging system was validated on the agar-based tissue mimicking phantoms with different stiffness distributions. These data demonstrated the imaging system’s improved resolution and sensitivity on differentiating materials with varying stiffness. In addition, ex vivo imaging of a human atherosclerosis coronary artery demonstrated the capability of high resolution HMI in identifying layer-specific structures and characterizing atherosclerotic plaques based on their stiffness differences. Conclusions All together high resolution HMI

  7. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kotasidis, Fotis A.; Angelis, Georgios I.; Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C.; Reader, Andrew J.; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution

  8. High Resolution Imaging by Atomic Force Microscopy: Contribution of short-range force to the imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, Toyoaki; Kotone, Akiyama; Masanori, Ono; Toshio, Sakurai; Yukio, Hasegawa

    2003-03-01

    Recent developments in force detection technique have made us possible to obtain atomically resolved images of the Si(111)-(7x7) surface by AFM. Compared with STM, however, its spatial resolution remains limited. In this presentation, we demonstrate that with careful pretreatment and appropriate experimental parameters, the structure of the rest-atom layer can be imaged using AFM by detecting the short-range force due to the single chemical bonding. The detection of the short-range force is verified by analysis of the frequency-shift versus distance curve (force curve). This unprecedented high resolution is achieved by reducing background forces due to the long-range interactions with small oscillation amplitude of the cantilever and an atomically sharp tip. The high temperature annealing of the cantilever assists in obtaining a bare silicon tip on the cantilever without unwanted tip-blunting, and improving the Q-factor of the cantilever. This study implies that characterization of the AFM tip in nanometer scale, not only on the apex atoms but also its shape near the apex, is important and critical for AFM high resolution imaging.

  9. Ultra-high resolution of radiocesium distribution detection based on Cherenkov light imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Ogata, Yoshimune; Kawachi, Naoki; Suzui, Nobuo; Yin, Yong-Gen; Fujimaki, Shu

    2015-03-01

    After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, radiocesium contamination became a serious scientific concern and research of its effects on plants increased. In such plant studies, high resolution images of radiocesium are required without contacting the subjects. Cherenkov light imaging of beta radionuclides has inherently high resolution and is promising for plant research. Since 137Cs and 134Cs emit beta particles, Cherenkov light imaging will be useful for the imaging of radiocesium distribution. Consequently, we developed and tested a Cherenkov light imaging system. We used a high sensitivity cooled charge coupled device (CCD) camera (Hamamatsu Photonics, ORCA2-ER) for imaging Cherenkov light from 137Cs. A bright lens (Xenon, F-number: 0.95, lens diameter: 25 mm) was mounted on the camera and placed in a black box. With a 100-μm 137Cs point source, we obtained 220-μm spatial resolution in the Cherenkov light image. With a 1-mm diameter, 320-kBq 137Cs point source, the source was distinguished within 2-s. We successfully obtained Cherenkov light images of a plant whose root was dipped in a 137Cs solution, radiocesium-containing samples as well as line and character phantom images with our imaging system. Cherenkov light imaging is promising for the high resolution imaging of radiocesium distribution without contacting the subject.

  10. Toward an image compression algorithm for the high-resolution electronic still camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerheim, Rosalee

    1989-01-01

    Taking pictures with a camera that uses a digital recording medium instead of film has the advantage of recording and transmitting images without the use of a darkroom or a courier. However, high-resolution images contain an enormous amount of information and strain data-storage systems. Image compression will allow multiple images to be stored in the High-Resolution Electronic Still Camera. The camera is under development at Johnson Space Center. Fidelity of the reproduced image and compression speed are of tantamount importance. Lossless compression algorithms are fast and faithfully reproduce the image, but their compression ratios will be unacceptably low due to noise in the front end of the camera. Future efforts will include exploring methods that will reduce the noise in the image and increase the compression ratio.

  11. Mapping the electrostatic force field of single molecules from high-resolution scanning probe images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapala, Prokop; Švec, Martin; Stetsovych, Oleksandr; van der Heijden, Nadine J.; Ondráček, Martin; van der Lit, Joost; Mutombo, Pingo; Swart, Ingmar; Jelínek, Pavel

    2016-05-01

    How electronic charge is distributed over a molecule determines to a large extent its chemical properties. Here, we demonstrate how the electrostatic force field, originating from the inhomogeneous charge distribution in a molecule, can be measured with submolecular resolution. We exploit the fact that distortions typically observed in high-resolution atomic force microscopy images are for a significant part caused by the electrostatic force acting between charges of the tip and the molecule of interest. By finding a geometrical transformation between two high-resolution AFM images acquired with two different tips, the electrostatic force field or potential over individual molecules and self-assemblies thereof can be reconstructed with submolecular resolution.

  12. Improved High Resolution Controlled Enceladus Atlas derived from Cassini-ISS Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roatsch, T.; Kersten, E.; Hoffmeister, A.; Matz, K.-D.; Preusker, F.; Porco, C. C.

    2012-09-01

    The Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) acquired 684 high-resolution images (< 1 km/pixel) of Enceladus during its tour through the Saturnian system since 2004. We have combined these images with lower-resolution Cassini images to produce a new high-resolution global controlled mosaic of this moonf Enceladus. This global mosaic is the baseline for the highresolution Enceladus atlas that consists of 15 tiles mapped at a scale of 1:500,000. The nomenclature used in this atlas was proposed by the Cassini imaging team and was approved by the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The whole atlas is available to the public through the Imaging Team's website [http://ciclops.org/maps].

  13. High-resolution three-photon biomedical imaging using doped ZnS nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jung Ho; Kwon, Seung-Hae; Petrášek, Zdeněk; Park, Ok Kyu; Jun, Samuel Woojoo; Shin, Kwangsoo; Choi, Moonkee; Park, Yong Il; Park, Kyeongsoon; Na, Hyon Bin; Lee, Nohyun; Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Schwille, Petra; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2013-04-01

    Three-photon excitation is a process that occurs when three photons are simultaneously absorbed within a luminophore for photo-excitation through virtual states. Although the imaging application of this process was proposed decades ago, three-photon biomedical imaging has not been realized yet owing to its intrinsic low quantum efficiency. We herein report on high-resolution in vitro and in vivo imaging by combining three-photon excitation of ZnS nanocrystals and visible emission from Mn2+ dopants. The large three-photon cross-section of the nanocrystals enabled targeted cellular imaging under high spatial resolution, approaching the theoretical limit of three-photon excitation. Owing to the enhanced Stokes shift achieved through nanocrystal doping, the three-photon process was successfully applied to high-resolution in vivo tumour-targeted imaging. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of ZnS nanocrystals offers great potential for clinical applications of three-photon imaging.

  14. A segmentation-based lossless image coding method for high-resolution medical image compression.

    PubMed

    Shen, L; Rangayyan, R M

    1997-06-01

    Lossless compression techniques are essential in archival and communication of medical images. In this paper, a new segmentation-based lossless image coding (SLIC) method is proposed, which is based on a simple but efficient region growing procedure. The embedded region growing procedure produces an adaptive scanning pattern for the image with the help of a very-few-bits-needed discontinuity index map. Along with this scanning pattern, an error image data part with a very small dynamic range is generated. Both the error image data and the discontinuity index map data parts are then encoded by the Joint Bi-level Image experts Group (JBIG) method. The SLIC method resulted in, on the average, lossless compression to about 1.6 h/pixel from 8 b, and to about 2.9 h/pixel from 10 b with a database of ten high-resolution digitized chest and breast images. In comparison with direct coding by JBIG, Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), hierarchical interpolation (HINT), and two-dimensional Burg Prediction plus Huffman error coding methods, the SLIC method performed better by 4% to 28% on the database used. PMID:9184892

  15. Magellan radar image compared to high resolution Earth-based image of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A strip of a Magellan radar image (left) is compared to a high resolution Earth-based radar image of Venus, obtained by the U.S. National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center's Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. The small white box in the Arecibo image corresponds to the Magellan image. This portion of the Magellan imagery shows a small region on the east flank of a major volcanic upland called Beta Regio. The image is centered at 23 degrees north latitude and 286.7 degrees east longitude. The ridge and valley network in the middle part of the image is formed by intersecting faults which have broken the Venusian crust into a complex deformed type of surface called tessera, the Latin word for tile. The parallel mountains and valleys resemble the Basin and Range Province in the western United States. The irregular dark patch near the top of the image is a smooth surface, probably formed, according to scientists, by lava flows in a region about 10 kilometers (6 miles) across. Similar dark sur

  16. The Potential for Bayesian Compressive Sensing to Significantly Reduce Electron Dose in High Resolution STEM Images

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Andrew J.; Yang, Hao; Carin, Lawrence; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D.

    2014-02-11

    The use of high resolution imaging methods in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is limited in many cases by the sensitivity of the sample to the beam and the onset of electron beam damage (for example in the study of organic systems, in tomography and during in-situ experiments). To demonstrate that alternative strategies for image acquisition can help alleviate this beam damage issue, here we apply compressive sensing via Bayesian dictionary learning to high resolution STEM images. These experiments successively reduce the number of pixels in the image (thereby reducing the overall dose while maintaining the high resolution information) and show promising results for reconstructing images from this reduced set of randomly collected measurements. We show that this approach is valid for both atomic resolution images and nanometer resolution studies, such as those that might be used in tomography datasets, by applying the method to images of strontium titanate and zeolites. As STEM images are acquired pixel by pixel while the beam is scanned over the surface of the sample, these post acquisition manipulations of the images can, in principle, be directly implemented as a low-dose acquisition method with no change in the electron optics or alignment of the microscope itself.

  17. Lipoma and liposarcoma of the parotid gland: high-resolution preoperative imaging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Korentager, R; Noyek, A M; Chapnik, J S; Steinhardt, M; Luk, S C; Cooter, N

    1988-09-01

    Over the past 7 years, nine fatty tumors within the parotid gland have been managed (eight lipomas, one liposarcoma). High-resolution computed tomography examination was carried out in all cases; with correct preoperative diagnosis recorded each time. The computed tomography imaging characteristics of lipoma, liposarcoma, and the differential diagnosis from other fat density lesions, such as a fatty infiltration, appear quite specific. The liposarcoma and six of the lipomas were resected at formal parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation. Two patients with small intraglandular lipomas have elected to undergo long-term clinical and imaging observation. Our experience indicates that high-resolution, soft-tissue imaging with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging permits consistent preoperative fatty tumor diagnosis. This imaging input facilitates rational treatment decision-making. PMID:3412095

  18. A compact high-resolution 3-D imaging spectrometer for discovering Oases on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ge, J.; Ren, D.; Lunine, J.I.; Brown, R.H.; Yelle, R.V.; Soderblom, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    A new design for a very lightweight, very high throughput reflectance sectrometer enabled by two new technologies being developed is presented. These new technologies include integral field unit optics to enable simultaneous imaging and spectroscopy at high spatial resolution with an infrared (IR) array, and silicon grisms to enable compact and high-resolution spectroscopy.

  19. High resolution retinal image restoration with wavefront sensing and self-extracted filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuyu; Erry, Gavin; Nemeth, Sheila; Mitra, Sunanda; Soliz, Peter

    2005-04-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy commonly rely on a clear view of the retina. The challenge in obtaining high quality retinal image lies in the design of the imaging system that can reduce the strong aberrations of the human eye. Since the amplitudes of human eye aberrations decrease rapidly as the aberration order goes up, it is more cost-effective to correct low order aberrations with adaptive optical devices while process high order aberrations through image processing. A cost effective fundus imaging device that can capture high quality retinal images with 2-5 times higher resolution than conventional retinal images has been designed [1]. This imager improves image quality by attaching complementary adaptive optical components to a conventional fundus camera. However, images obtained with the high resolution camera are still blurred due to some uncorrected aberrations as well as defocusing resulting from non-isoplanatic effect. Therefore, advanced image restoration algorithms have been employed for further improvement in image quality. In this paper, we use wavefront-based and self-extracted blind deconvolution techniques to restore images captured by the high resolution fundus camera. We demonstrate that through such techniques, pathologies that are critical to retinal disease diagnosis but not clear or not observable in the original image can be observed clearly in the restored images. Image quality evaluation is also used to finalize the development of a cost-effective, fast, and automated diagnostic system that can be used clinically.

  20. The high-resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Paul B.; Abreu, Vincent J.; Dobbs, Michael E.; Gell, David A.; Grassl, Heinz J.; Skinner, Wilbert R.

    1993-01-01

    The high-resolution Doppler imager (HRDI) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite is a triple-etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer designed to measure winds in the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere. Winds are determined by measuring the Doppler shifts of rotational lines of the O2 atmospheric band, which are observed in emission in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere and in absorption in the stratosphere. The interferometer has high resolution (0.05/cm), good offhand rejection, aud excellent stability. This paper provides details of the design and capabilities of the HRDI instrument.

  1. Real-time snapshot hyperspectral imaging endoscope

    PubMed Central

    Kester, Robert T.; Bedard, Noah; Gao, Liang; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2011-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has tremendous potential to detect important molecular biomarkers of early cancer based on their unique spectral signatures. Several drawbacks have limited its use for in vivo screening applications: most notably the poor temporal and spatial resolution, high expense, and low optical throughput of existing hyperspectral imagers. We present the development of a new real-time hyperspectral endoscope (called the image mapping spectroscopy endoscope) based on an image mapping technique capable of addressing these challenges. The parallel high throughput nature of this technique enables the device to operate at frame rates of 5.2 frames per second while collecting a (x, y, λ) datacube of 350 × 350 × 48. We have successfully imaged tissue in vivo, resolving a vasculature pattern of the lower lip while simultaneously detecting oxy-hemoglobin. PMID:21639573

  2. High resolution remote sensing image segmentation based on graph theory and fractal net evolution approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Li, H. T.; Han, Y. S.; Gu, H. Y.

    2015-06-01

    Image segmentation is the foundation of further object-oriented image analysis, understanding and recognition. It is one of the key technologies in high resolution remote sensing applications. In this paper, a new fast image segmentation algorithm for high resolution remote sensing imagery is proposed, which is based on graph theory and fractal net evolution approach (FNEA). Firstly, an image is modelled as a weighted undirected graph, where nodes correspond to pixels, and edges connect adjacent pixels. An initial object layer can be obtained efficiently from graph-based segmentation, which runs in time nearly linear in the number of image pixels. Then FNEA starts with the initial object layer and a pairwise merge of its neighbour object with the aim to minimize the resulting summed heterogeneity. Furthermore, according to the character of different features in high resolution remote sensing image, three different merging criterions for image objects based on spectral and spatial information are adopted. Finally, compared with the commercial remote sensing software eCognition, the experimental results demonstrate that the efficiency of the algorithm has significantly improved, and the result can maintain good feature boundaries.

  3. High resolution quantitative phase imaging of live cells with constrained optimization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandiyan, Vimal Prabhu; Khare, Kedar; John, Renu

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) aims at studying weakly scattering and absorbing biological specimens with subwavelength accuracy without any external staining mechanisms. Use of a reference beam at an angle is one of the necessary criteria for recording of high resolution holograms in most of the interferometric methods used for quantitative phase imaging. The spatial separation of the dc and twin images is decided by the reference beam angle and Fourier-filtered reconstructed image will have a very poor resolution if hologram is recorded below a minimum reference angle condition. However, it is always inconvenient to have a large reference beam angle while performing high resolution microscopy of live cells and biological specimens with nanometric features. In this paper, we treat reconstruction of digital holographic microscopy images as a constrained optimization problem with smoothness constraint in order to recover only complex object field in hologram plane even with overlapping dc and twin image terms. We solve this optimization problem by gradient descent approach iteratively and the smoothness constraint is implemented by spatial averaging with appropriate size. This approach will give excellent high resolution image recovery compared to Fourier filtering while keeping a very small reference angle. We demonstrate this approach on digital holographic microscopy of live cells by recovering the quantitative phase of live cells from a hologram recorded with nearly zero reference angle.

  4. High Resolution Electromechanical Imaging of Ferroelectric Materials in a Liquid Environment by Piezoresponse Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Brian J; Jesse, Stephen; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution imaging of ferroelectric materials using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) is demonstrated in an aqueous environment. The elimination of both long-range electrostatic forces and capillary interactions results in a localization of the ac field to the tip-surface junction and allows the tip-surface contact area to be controlled. This approach results in spatial resolutions approaching the limit of the intrinsic domain-wall width. Imaging at frequencies corresponding to high-order cantilever resonances minimizes the viscous damping and added mass effects on cantilever dynamics and allows sensitivities comparable to ambient conditions. PFM in liquids will provide novel opportunities for high-resolution studies of ferroelectric materials, imaging of soft polymer materials, and imaging of biological systems in physiological environments on, ultimately, the molecular level.

  5. Spatiotemporally multiplexed integral imaging projector for large-scale high-resolution three-dimensional display.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ju-Seog; Oh, Yong-Seok; Javidi, Bahram

    2004-02-23

    We present a projection method in integral imaging for large-scale high-resolution three-dimensional display. In the proposed method, the entire set of high resolution elemental images with a large number of pixels is spatially divided into smaller image subsets. Then they are projected separately onto the corresponding lenslet array positions either simultaneously or in a sequence faster than the flicker fusion frequency of human eyes or both (i.e., spatiotemporal multiplexing). Thus display panels that do not have enough pixel numbers can be used to display the entire elemental images with a large number of pixels. Preliminary experiments were performed using a galvanometer-based optical scanner. PMID:19474856

  6. Technologies of diffractive imaging system for high-resolution earth observation from geostationary orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Su, Yun; Jiao, Jianchao

    2013-08-01

    High-resolution earth observation from geostationary orbit (GEO) is a good way to satisfy the increased time resolution for resource, environment and disaster monitor. Earth observation from geostationary orbit will require optical remote sensor with ultra-large aperture. Given size, weight and launch ability constraints, as well as cost consideration, the traditional monolithic aperture optical system couldn't satisfy the need. This paper gives a new method, the diffractive imaging system. Diffract ive imaging system is a feasible way to realize high-resolution earth observation from geostationary orbit. The principle of diffract ive imaging system is introduced firstly, then, the primary design of remote sensor with 1m resolution from geostationary orbit using diffractive imaging system is analyzed. Finally, the key technologies are analyzed and feasible solutions are given.

  7. High-resolution thermal imaging methodology for non-destructive evaluation of historic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Michael; Vanoni, David; Petrovic, Vid; Kuester, Falko

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a methodology for automated, portable thermography, for the acquisition of high-resolution thermal image mosaics supporting the non-destructive evaluation of historic structures. The presented approach increases the spatial resolution of thermal surveys to a level of detail needed for building scale analysis. The integration of a robotic camera platform enables automated alignment of multiple images into a high-resolution thermal image mosaic giving a holistic view of the structure while maintaining a level of detail equaling or exceeding that of traditional spot surveys using existing cameras. Providing a digital workflow for automated data and metadata recording increases the consistency and accuracy of surveys regardless of the location or operator. An imaging workflow and instrumentation are shown for a case-study on buildings in Florence, Italy demonstrating the effectiveness of this methodology for structural diagnostics.

  8. Automatic optimization high-speed high-resolution OCT retinal imaging at 1μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cua, Michelle; Liu, Xiyun; Miao, Dongkai; Lee, Sujin; Lee, Sieun; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Mackenzie, Paul J.; Jian, Yifan; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution OCT retinal imaging is important in providing visualization of various retinal structures to aid researchers in better understanding the pathogenesis of vision-robbing diseases. However, conventional optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems have a trade-off between lateral resolution and depth-of-focus. In this report, we present the development of a focus-stacking optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with automatic optimization for high-resolution, extended-focal-range clinical retinal imaging. A variable-focus liquid lens was added to correct for de-focus in real-time. A GPU-accelerated segmentation and optimization was used to provide real-time layer-specific enface visualization as well as depth-specific focus adjustment. After optimization, multiple volumes focused at different depths were acquired, registered, and stitched together to yield a single, high-resolution focus-stacked dataset. Using this system, we show high-resolution images of the ONH, from which we extracted clinically-relevant parameters such as the nerve fiber layer thickness and lamina cribrosa microarchitecture.

  9. Application of Multiframe High-Resolution Image Reconstruction to Digital Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxley, Frank O.; Hardie, Russell C.

    1999-04-01

    A high-resolution image reconstruction algorithm previously used to improve undersampled infrared airborne imagery was applied to two different sets of digital microscopy images. One set is that of medical pap smear images, and the second set contains metallurgical micrographs. Both the pap smear images and the metallurgical micrographs are undersampled, thus causing loss of detail and aliasing artifacts. The algorithm minimizes the effects of aliasing and restores detail unobtainable through simple interpolation techniques. Both applications demonstrate improvement by use of the image reconstruction algorithm.

  10. Realization of quantitative-grade fieldable snapshot imaging spectropolarimeter.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephen; Iannarilli, Frank; Kebabian, Paul

    2004-12-27

    We discuss achievement of a long-standing technology goal: the first practical realization of a quantitative-grade, field-worthy snapshot imaging spectropolarimeter. The instrument employs Polarimetric Spectral Intensity Modulation (PSIM), a technique that enables full Stokes instantaneous "snapshot" spectropolarimetry with perfect channel registration. This is achieved with conventional single beam optics and a single focal plane array (FPA). Simultaneity and perfect registration are obtained by encoding the polarimetry onto the spectrum via a novel optical arrangement which enables sensing from moving platforms against dynamic scenes. PSIM is feasible across the electro-optical sensing range (UV-LWIR). We present measurement results from a prototype sensor that operates in the visible and near infrared regime (450-900 nm). We discuss in some detail the calibration and Stokes spectrum inversion algorithms that are presently achieving 0.5% polarimetric accuracy. PMID:19488307

  11. Realization of quantitative-grade fieldable snapshot imaging spectropolarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Stephen H.; Iannarilli, Frank J.; Kebabian, Paul L.

    2004-12-01

    We discuss achievement of a long-standing technology goal: the first practical realization of a quantitative-grade, field-worthy snapshot imaging spectropolarimeter. The instrument employs Polarimetric Spectral Intensity Modulation (PSIM), a technique that enables full Stokes instantaneous "snapshot" spectropolarimetry with perfect channel registration. This is achieved with conventional single beam optics and a single focal plane array (FPA). Simultaneity and perfect registration are obtained by encoding the polarimetry onto the spectrum via a novel optical arrangement which enables sensing from moving platforms against dynamic scenes. PSIM is feasible across the electro-optical sensing range (UV-LWIR). We present measurement results from a prototype sensor that operates in the visible and near infrared regime (450-900 nm). We discuss in some detail the calibration and Stokes spectrum inversion algorithms that are presently achieving 0.5% polarimetric accuracy.

  12. High resolution MRI imaging at 1. 5T using surface coils

    SciTech Connect

    Blinder, R.A.; Herfkens, R.J.; Coleman, R.E.; Johnson, G.A.; Schenck, J.F.; Hart, H.R. Jr.; Foster, T.H.; Edelstein, W.A.

    1985-05-01

    The potential utility of high resolution MRI imaging in various pathologic conditions was explored. As the voxel size of MRI images is decreased the signal per pixel diminishes due to the geometric decrease in volume. In very high resolution images the signal can be small enough to be obscured by Johnson noise. High magnetic field strength (1.5T) coupled with surface coil imaging increases the signal to noise ratio. The surface coils used were single turn coils with diameters of 6 or 11 cm depending on the body part being imaged. A ''clam shell'' crossed coil was used for imaging the knees. Using a 1.5T prototype MRI imaging system we have obtained images with 14.5 cm field of view that are 256 by 256 pixels with a slice thickness of 3 mm. Good signal to noise is obtained using 2DTF imaging with only 2 excitations per phase encoding step (1 average). Images obtained of peripheral joints demonstrate articular cartilage, ligamentous structures, and trabeculae in medullary bone. These exams have demonstrated the changes of rheumatoid arthritis, and the extent of neoplastic involvement in bone. Images of the temporomandibular joint and the neck have been obtained. Parathyroid adenomas have been identified. Surface coil imaging and high magnetic fields allow for high resolution MRI imaging of various anatomic structures. Good signal to noise can be accomplished without extensive signal averaging so that reasonable imaging times and throughput can be realized with voxel dimensions of 0.6 x 0.6 x 3mm.

  13. Fusing electro-optic and infrared signals for high resolution night images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaopeng; Netravali, Ravi; Man, Hong; Lawrence, Victor

    2012-03-01

    Electro-optic (EO) images exhibit the properties of high resolution and low noise level, while it is a challenge to distinguish objects at night through infrared (IR) images, especially for objects with a similar temperature. Therefore, we will propose a novel framework of IR image enhancement based on the information (e.g., edge) from EO images, which will result in high resolution IR images and help us distinguish objects at night. Superimposing the detected edge of the EO image onto the corresponding transformed IR image is our principal idea for the proposed framework. In this framework, we will adopt the theoretical point spread function (PSF) proposed by Russell C. Hardie et al. for our IR image system, which is contributed by the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a uniform detector array and the incoherent optical transfer function (OTF) of diffraction-limited optics. In addition, we will design an inverse filter in terms of the proposed PSF to conduct the IR image transformation. The framework requires four main steps, which are inverse filter-based IR image transformation, EO image edge detection, registration and superimposing of the obtained image pair. Simulation results will show the superimposed IR images.

  14. High-Resolution Mosaic Imaging with Multifocal, Multiphoton Photon-Counting Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, E.; Hoover, E.; Field, J.; Sheetz, K.; Amir, W.; Carriles, R.; Ding, S. Y.; Squier, J.

    2009-04-10

    High-resolution mosaic imaging is performed for the first time to our knowledge with a multifocal, multiphoton, photon-counting imaging system. We present a novel design consisting of a home-built femtosecond Yb-doped KGdWO{sub 4} laser with an optical multiplexer, which is coupled with a commercial Olympus IX-71 microscope frame. Photon counting is performed using single-element detectors and an inexpensive electronic demultiplexer and counters.

  15. Computational Burden Resulting from Image Recognition of High Resolution Radar Sensors

    PubMed Central

    López-Rodríguez, Patricia; Fernández-Recio, Raúl; Bravo, Ignacio; Gardel, Alfredo; Lázaro, José L.; Rufo, Elena

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for high resolution radar image generation and automatic target recognition emphasizing the computational cost involved in the process. In order to obtain focused inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) images certain signal processing algorithms must be applied to the information sensed by the radar. From actual data collected by radar the stages and algorithms needed to obtain ISAR images are revised, including high resolution range profile generation, motion compensation and ISAR formation. Target recognition is achieved by comparing the generated set of actual ISAR images with a database of ISAR images generated by electromagnetic software. High resolution radar image generation and target recognition processes are burdensome and time consuming, so to determine the most suitable implementation platform the analysis of the computational complexity is of great interest. To this end and since target identification must be completed in real time, computational burden of both processes the generation and comparison with a database is explained separately. Conclusions are drawn about implementation platforms and calculation efficiency in order to reduce time consumption in a possible future implementation. PMID:23609804

  16. High-resolution and LIDAR imaging support to the Haiti earthquake relief effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messinger, David W.; van Aardt, Jan; McKeown, Don; Casterline, May; Faulring, Jason; Raqueño, Nina; Basener, Bill; Velez-Reyes, Miguel

    2010-08-01

    The Wildfire Airborne Sensor Program (WASP) is an imaging system designed, built, and operated by the RIT Center for Imaging Science. The system consists of four cameras: a high resolution color camera and SWIR, MWIR, and LWIR cameras. When flown with our corporate partners, Kucera International, the imaging system is combined with a high-resolution LIDAR. This combination provides a full-spectrum, multimodal data collection platform unique to RIT. Under funding by the World Bank, the WASP system was used to image over 250 sq. mi. in Haiti (approximately 15,000 visible and 45,000 infrared frames) from January 21 - 27, 2010 in support of the earthquake relief efforts. Priorities of collection were the area surrounding Port au Prince, the city of Leogane, several other badly damaged towns, and, at the request of the USGS, a high resolution LIDAR collection over the fault line. The imagery was used in the field by disaster relief workers and by collaborators at the University of Buffalo and ImageCat, Inc. to perform building damage and road network trafficability assessments. Additionally, large area mosaics and semi-automatic processing algorithms were developed for value-added product development. In particular, a methodology was developed to extract the locations of blue tarps (indicative of displaced persons) from the images. All imagery was made available to the public through outlets such as Google Earth, the University of Buffalo, the US Geological Survey, the United Nations, and other sites.

  17. Micropolarizer arrays in the MWIR for snapshot polarimetric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemme, S. A.; Cruz-Cabrera, A. A.; Nandy, R.; Boye, R. R.; Wendt, J. R.; Carter, T. R.; Samora, S.

    2007-04-01

    We report on the design, fabrication, and simulation of a four-state pixelated subwavelength optical device that enables mid-wave infrared (MWIR) or long-wave infrared (LWIR) snapshot polarimetric imaging. The polarization information can help to classify imaged materials and identify objects of interest for remote sensing and military applications. The fabricated pixelated polarizers have measured extinction ratios larger than 100:1 for pixel sizes greater than 9 microns by 9 microns, with transmitted signals greater than 50%. That exceeds, by 7 times, previously reported device extinction ratios for 15 micron by 15 micron pixels. Traditionally, sequential polarimetric imaging sensors produce scenes with polarization information through a series of assembled images. Snapshot polarimetric imaging collects the spatial distribution of all four Stokes' parameters simultaneously. In this way any noise due to scene movement from one frame to the next is eliminated. In this paper, we will quantify near-field and diffractive effects of the finite pixel apertures upon detection. We have designed and built an experimental setup that models a pixel within a focal plane array (FPA) to measure crosstalk from adjacent gold wiregrid micropolarizers. This configuration simulates a snapshot polarization imaging device where the two substrates are stacked; micropolarizer array substrate on top of an FPA. Modeling and measured data indicate crosstalk between the adjacent pixels up to a few microns behind the polarizer plane. Crosstalk between adjacent pixels increases uncertainty in the measured polarization states in a scene of interest. Measured and simulated data confirm that the extinction ratio of a micropolarizer pixel in a super-cell will be reduced by 17% when moving the FPA from 0.5 microns to 1.0 microns away from the polarizer. These changes in extinction ratio are significant since typical glue separation is on the order of 10 microns.

  18. Protected Plasmonic Nanostructures for High Resolution Chemical Imaging using Tip Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butt, Rebecca; Barrios, Carlos; Malkovskiy, Andrey; Kisliuk, Alexander; Sokolov, Alexei; Foster, Mark

    2009-03-01

    Tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS), an emerging technique that combines optical microscopy and scanning probe microscopy, provides the sensitivity and selectivity necessary for high-resolution chemical imaging of polymer surfaces. An unprecedented 20 nm lateral resolution for the chemical imaging has been achieved. Unfortunately, the fragile plasmonic structures used to enhance the electric field are prone to mechanical, chemical, and thermal degradation. Developing robust noble metal nanostructures with stable plasmonic resonance is essential to reliable high resolution chemical imaging. Covering the metal layer with organic and inorganic ultrathin coatings is being investigated to extend the plasmonic activity of the engineered nanostructures. Addition of an ultrathin aluminum oxide (Al2O3) coating to a silver-coated scanning probe microscopy tip for TERS significantly improves plasmonic structure stability without sacrificing the initial TERS efficiency. This ultrathin coating provides wear resistance and stops chemical degradation responsible for the loss of signal enhancement.

  19. Feasibility of Transoral Robotic-Assisted High Resolution Microendoscopic Imaging of Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Patsias, Alexis; Giraldez-Rodriguez, Laureano A.; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Quang, Timothy; Sikora, Andrew G.; Miles, Brett A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Transoral robotic-assisted oncologic surgery of the head and neck offers promising functional results. Nonetheless, the efficacy of oncologic surgery remains critically dependent on obtaining negative margins. We aimed to integrate a miniaturized high resolution fiberoptic microendoscope (HRME), which provides real time histological assessment, with the da Vinci robotic system (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA). Methods Three patients undergoing transoral robotic surgery were prospectively enrolled. Optical imaging of the oropharynx was performed intraoperatively with the robotic-assisted HRME. Results All patients underwent the procedure successfully with no complications. The HRME was successfully integrated with the Da Vinci Robotic system. Several sites of the oropharynx and associated malignancy were imaged, which correlated with the standard histopathological analysis. Conclusions Transoral robotic-assisted high resolution microendoscopic imaging of the oropharynx is a safe and technically feasible approach, providing a real time histological assessment and may serve as a valuable aid in oncologic surgery. PMID:25327825

  20. REVIEW ARTICLE: Techniques for high resolution imaging of wood structure: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucur, V.

    2003-12-01

    High resolution imaging of wood requires the development of measurement techniques for nondestructive characterization of this material. The techniques, ranging from ionizing radiation to thermal techniques, microwaves, ultrasonics and nuclear magnetic resonance, provide excellent means of obtaining information about the internal structure of wood. High resolution images of wood structure can be obtained from a complete set of projections of relevant physical parameters such as x-ray attenuation, ultrasonic velocities, dielectric properties, etc. In this article the criterion selected for the description of the measurement techniques is the wavelength of the radiation which interacts with wood. The most relevant technique for the imaging of the cross section of the specimen under test will depend upon the particular application and material being studied: trees, logs, timber and wood-based composites.

  1. Compact snapshot birefringent imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudenov, Michael W.; Dereniak, Eustace L.

    2010-08-01

    The design and implementation of a compact multiple-image Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) is presented. Based on the multiple-image FTS originally developed by A. Hirai, the presented device offers significant advantages over his original implementation. Namely, its birefringent nature results in a common-path interferometer which makes the spectrometer insensitive to vibration. Furthermore, it enables the potential of making the instrument ultra-compact, thereby improving the portability of the sensor. The theory of the birefringent FTS is provided, followed by details of its specific embodiment. A laboratory proof of concept of the sensor, designed and developed at the Optical Detection Lab, is also presented. Spectral measurements of laboratory sources are provided, including measurements of light-emitting diodes and gas-discharge lamps. These spectra are verified against a calibrated Ocean Optics USB2000 spectrometer. Other data were collected outdoors, demonstrating the sensor's ability to resolve spectral signatures in standard outdoor lighting and environmental conditions.

  2. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the lower extremity nerves.

    PubMed

    Burge, Alissa J; Gold, Stephanie L; Kuong, Sharon; Potter, Hollis G

    2014-02-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the nerves, commonly known as MR neurography is increasingly being used as noninvasive means of diagnosing peripheral nerve disease. High-resolution imaging protocols aimed at imaging the nerves of the hip, thigh, knee, leg, ankle, and foot can demonstrate traumatic or iatrogenic injury, tumorlike lesions, or entrapment of the nerves, causing a potential loss of motor and sensory function in the affected area. A thorough understanding of normal MR imaging and gross anatomy, as well as MR findings in the presence of peripheral neuropathies will aid in accurate diagnosis and ultimately help guide clinical management. PMID:24210318

  3. Localization of tissues in high-resolution digital anatomic pathology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomari, Raja S.; Allen, Ron; Sabata, Bikash; Chaudhary, Vipin

    2009-02-01

    High resolution digital pathology images have a wide range of variability in color, shape, size, number, appearance, location, and texture. The segmentation problem is challenging in this environment. We introduce a hybrid method that combines parametric machine learning with heuristic methods for feature extraction as well as pre- and post-processing steps for localizing diverse tissues in slide images. The method uses features such as color, intensity, texture, and spatial distribution. We use principal component analysis for feature reduction and train a two layer back propagation neural network (with one hidden layer). We perform image labeling at pixel-level and achieve higher than 96% automatic localization accuracy on 294 test images.

  4. High resolution T2(*)-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3 Tesla using PROPELLER-EPI.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Martin; Reichenbach, Jürgen R

    2014-05-01

    We report the application of PROPELLER-EPI for high resolution T2(*)-weighted imaging with sub-millimeter in-plane resolution on a clinical 3 Tesla scanner. Periodically rotated blades of a long-axis PROPELLER-EPI sequence were acquired with fast gradient echo readout and acquisition matrix of 320 × 50 per blade. Images were reconstructed by using 2D-gridding, phase and geometric distortion correction and compensation of resonance frequency drifts that occurred during extended measurements. To characterize these resonance frequency offsets, short FID calibration measurements were added to the PROPELLER-EPI sequence. Functional PROPELLER-EPI was performed with volunteers using a simple block design of right handed finger tapping. Results indicate that PROPELLER-EPI can be employed for fast, high resolution T2(*)-weighted imaging provided geometric distortions and possible resonance frequency drifts are properly corrected. Even small resonance frequency drifts below 10 Hz as well as non-corrected geometric distortions degraded image quality substantially. In the initial fMRI experiment image quality and signal-to-noise ratio was sufficient for obtaining high resolution functional activation maps. PMID:24439698

  5. Interactive Change Detection Using High Resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on Active Learning with Gaussian Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ru, Hui; Yu, Huai; Huang, Pingping; Yang, Wen

    2016-06-01

    Although there have been many studies for change detection, the effective and efficient use of high resolution remote sensing images is still a problem. Conventional supervised methods need lots of annotations to classify the land cover categories and detect their changes. Besides, the training set in supervised methods often has lots of redundant samples without any essential information. In this study, we present a method for interactive change detection using high resolution remote sensing images with active learning to overcome the shortages of existing remote sensing image change detection techniques. In our method, there is no annotation of actual land cover category at the beginning. First, we find a certain number of the most representative objects in unsupervised way. Then, we can detect the change areas from multi-temporal high resolution remote sensing images by active learning with Gaussian processes in an interactive way gradually until the detection results do not change notably. The artificial labelling can be reduced substantially, and a desirable detection result can be obtained in a few iterations. The experiments on Geo-Eye1 and WorldView2 remote sensing images demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method.

  6. Interval TYPE-2 Fuzzy Based Neural Network for High Resolution Remote Sensing Image Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunyan; Xu, Aigong; Li, Chao; Zhao, Xuemei

    2016-06-01

    Recently, high resolution remote sensing image segmentation is a hot issue in image procesing procedures. However, it is a difficult task. The difficulties derive from the uncertainties of pixel segmentation and decision-making model. To this end, we take spatial relationship into consideration when constructing the interval type-2 fuzzy neural networks for high resolution remote sensing image segmentation. First, the proposed algorithm constructs a Gaussian model as a type-1 fuzzy model to describe the uncertainty contained in the image. Second, interval type-2 fuzzy model is obtained by blurring the mean and variance in type-1 model. The proposed interval type-2 model can strengthen the expression of uncertainty and simultaneously decrease the uncertainty in the decision model. Then the fuzzy membership function itself and its upper and lower fuzzy membership functions of the training samples are used as the input of neuron network which acts as the decision model in proposed algorithm. Finally, the relationship of neighbour pixels is taken into consideration and the fuzzy membership functions of the detected pixel and its neighbourhood are used to decide the class of each pixel to get the final segmentation result. The proposed algorithm, FCM and HMRF-FCM algorithm and an interval type-2 fuzzy neuron networks without spatial relationships are performed on synthetic and real high resolution remote sensing images. The qualitative and quantitative analyses demonstrate the efficient of the proposed algorithm, especially for homogeneous regions which contains a great difference in its gray level (for example forest).

  7. Performance Validation of High Resolution Digital Surface Models Generated by Dense Image Matching with the Aerial Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yastikli, N.; Bayraktar, H.; Erisir, Z.

    2014-11-01

    The digital surface models (DSM) are the most popular products to determine visible surface of Earth which includes all non-terrain objects such as vegetation, forest, and man-made constructions. The airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is the preferred technique for high resolution DSM generation in local coverage. The automatic generation of the high resolution DSM is also possible with stereo image matching using the aerial images. The image matching algorithms usually rely on the feature based matching for DSM generation. First, feature points are extracted and then corresponding features are searched in the overlapping images. These image matching algorithms face with the problems in the areas which have repetitive pattern such as urban structure and forest. The recent innovation in camera technology and image matching algorithm enabled the automatic dense DSM generation for large scale city and environment modelling. The new pixel-wise matching approaches are generates very high resolution DSMs which corresponds to the ground sample distance (GSD) of the original images. The numbers of the research institutes and photogrammetric software vendors are currently developed software tools for dense DSM generation using the aerial images. This new approach can be used high resolution DSM generation for the larger cities, rural areas and forest even Nation-wide applications. In this study, the performance validation of high resolution DSM generated by pixel-wise dense image matching in part of Istanbul was aimed. The study area in Istanbul is including different land classes such as open areas, forest and built-up areas to test performance of dense image matching in different land classes. The obtained result from this performance validation in Istanbul test area showed that, high resolution DSM which corresponds to the ground sample distance (GSD) of original aerial image can be generated successfully by pixel-wise dense image matching using commercial and

  8. High resolution Cerenkov light imaging of induced positron distribution in proton therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Seiichi Fujii, Kento; Morishita, Yuki; Okumura, Satoshi; Komori, Masataka; Toshito, Toshiyuki

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: In proton therapy, imaging of the positron distribution produced by fragmentation during or soon after proton irradiation is a useful method to monitor the proton range. Although positron emission tomography (PET) is typically used for this imaging, its spatial resolution is limited. Cerenkov light imaging is a new molecular imaging technology that detects the visible photons that are produced from high-speed electrons using a high sensitivity optical camera. Because its inherent spatial resolution is much higher than PET, the authors can measure more precise information of the proton-induced positron distribution with Cerenkov light imaging technology. For this purpose, they conducted Cerenkov light imaging of induced positron distribution in proton therapy. Methods: First, the authors evaluated the spatial resolution of our Cerenkov light imaging system with a {sup 22}Na point source for the actual imaging setup. Then the transparent acrylic phantoms (100 × 100 × 100 mm{sup 3}) were irradiated with two different proton energies using a spot scanning proton therapy system. Cerenkov light imaging of each phantom was conducted using a high sensitivity electron multiplied charge coupled device (EM-CCD) camera. Results: The Cerenkov light’s spatial resolution for the setup was 0.76 ± 0.6 mm FWHM. They obtained high resolution Cerenkov light images of the positron distributions in the phantoms for two different proton energies and made fused images of the reference images and the Cerenkov light images. The depths of the positron distribution in the phantoms from the Cerenkov light images were almost identical to the simulation results. The decay curves derived from the region-of-interests (ROIs) set on the Cerenkov light images revealed that Cerenkov light images can be used for estimating the half-life of the radionuclide components of positrons. Conclusions: High resolution Cerenkov light imaging of proton-induced positron distribution was possible. The

  9. High-resolution interferometric radar images of equatorial spread F scattering structures using Capon's method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zewdie, G. K.; Rodrigues, F. S.; Paula, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Coherent backscatter radar imaging techniques use measurements made by multiple antenna baselines (visibility estimates) to infer the spatial distribution of the scatterers (brightness function) responsible for the observed echoes. It has been proposed that the Capon method for spectral estimation can be used for high-resolution estimation of the brightness distribution. We investigate the application of the Capon method to measurements made by a small (7-baseline) 30 MHz ionospheric coherent backscatter radar interferometer in Sao Luis, Brazil. The longest baseline of the interferometer is only 15 times the wavelength of radar signal (10 m), and the ionospheric radar soundings have been made using only 4-8 kW transmitters. Nevertheless, we have been able to obtain high-resolution (kilometric scales in the zonal direction) images of scattering structures during equatorial spread F (ESF) events over a wide field of view (+/- 10 degrees off zenith). We will present numerical simulations demonstrating the performance of the technique for the Sao Luis radar setup as well as results of the Capon technique applied to actual measurements. We will discuss the behavior of the ESF scattering structures as seen in the Capon images. The high-resolution images can assist our interpretation of plasma instabilities in the equatorial ionosphere and serve to test our ability to model the behavior of ionospheric irregularities during space weather events such as those associated with ESF.

  10. Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy imaging using a high-resolution linear radon transform

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xu, Y.; Liu, J.; Liu, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) analysis is an efficient tool to obtain the vertical shear-wave profile. One of the key steps in the MASW method is to generate an image of dispersive energy in the frequency-velocity domain, so dispersion curves can be determined by picking peaks of dispersion energy. In this paper, we propose to image Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy by high-resolution linear Radon transform (LRT). The shot gather is first transformed along the time direction to the frequency domain and then the Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy can be imaged by high-resolution LRT using a weighted preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm. Synthetic data with a set of linear events are presented to show the process of generating dispersive energy. Results of synthetic and real-world examples demonstrate that, compared with the slant stacking algorithm, high-resolution LRT can improve the resolution of images of dispersion energy by more than 50%. ?? Birkhaueser 2008.