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Sample records for high-risk work environment

  1. Working with Youth in High-Risk Environments: Experiences in Prevention. OSAP Prevention Monograph-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Carol E., Ed.; Swisher, John D., Ed.

    This report focuses on prevention programs developed with support from the Office for Substance Abuse Prevention's (OSAP) High-Risk Youth Demonstration Grant Program. Included are an Introduction (Eric Goplerud and others) and the following reports: (1) "Athletes Coaching Teens for Substance Abuse Prevention: Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Risk…

  2. Teamwork in high-risk environments analogous to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    1990-01-01

    Mountaineering expeditions combine a number of factors which make them potentially good analogs to the planetary exploration facet of long-duration space missions. A study of mountain climbing teams was conducted in order to evaluate the usefulness of the environment as a space analog and to specifically identify the factors and issues surrounding teamwork and 'successful' team performance in two mountaineering environments. This paper focuses on social/organizational factors, including team size and structure, leadership styles and authority structure which were found in the sample of 22 climb teams (122 individuals). The second major issue discussed is the construction of a valid performance measure in this high-risk environment.

  3. Social work services in a high-risk nursery.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, M S; Johnson, D R

    1976-05-01

    Why should a social worker be on the team of a neonatal intensive-care nursery? Helping parents cope with the crises that arise with high-risk births is only one important reason. Ameliorating staff stress is another. Also, by following up the high-risk babies, the social worker has an opportunity to play a preventive role. PMID:185126

  4. Work and High-Risk Alcohol Consumption in the Canadian Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Marchand, Alain; Parent-Lamarche, Annick; Blanc, Marie-Ève

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the associations between occupational groups; work-organization conditions based on task design; demands, social relations, and gratifications; and weekly high-risk alcohol consumption among Canadian workers. A secondary data analysis was performed on Cycle 2.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey conducted by Statistics Canada in 2003. The sample consisted of 76,136 employees 15 years of age and older nested in 2,451 neighbourhoods. High-risk alcohol consumption is defined in accordance with Canadian guidelines for weekly low-risk alcohol consumption. The prevalence of weekly high-risk alcohol consumption is estimated to be 8.1% among workers. The results obtained using multilevel logistic regression analysis suggest that increased work hours and job insecurity are associated with elevated odds of high-risk alcohol consumption. Gender female, older age, being in couple and living with children associated with lower odds of high-risk drinking, while increased education, smoking, physical activities, and, and economic status were associated with higher odds. High-risk drinking varied between neighbourhoods, and gender moderates the contribution of physical demands. The results suggest that work made a limited contribution and non-work factors a greater contribution to weekly high-risk alcohol consumption. Limits and implications of these results are discussed. PMID:21845153

  5. Working with Asian American Youth at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis: A Case Illustration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huijun; Friedman-Yakoobian, Michelle; Min, Grace; Granato, Andréa Gnong; Seidman, Larry J.

    2013-01-01

    The idea of a clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis has focused attention on early intervention to prevent or attenuate psychosis. However, many clinicians may still not be very familiar with the concept of CHR. Current studies have not allowed for an in-depth examination of the challenges and strategies of working with youth from the range of racial/ethnic minority families, Asian American families in particular. The purpose of this paper is three fold. First, we critically review Asian cultural values and beliefs about mental illness, psychosis in particular, while highlighting specific challenges that Asian American families encounter. Second, we provide a clinical case to illustrate these challenges and inform clinical practice when working with Asian youth at risk for psychosis and their families. Third, practical and easy-to-follow clinical strategies are provided. Implications for clinical practice and directions for future research are presented. PMID:23689196

  6. Spatial Working Memory Ability in Individuals at Ultra High Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Goghari, Vina M.; Brett, Caroline; Tabraham, Paul; Johns, Louise; Valmaggia, Lucia; Broome, Matthew; Woolley, James; Bramon, Elvira; Howes, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to clarify the nature of spatial working memory difficulties in individuals at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis. We evaluated spatial working memory and intelligence in 96 individuals at UHR for psychosis, 28 patients with first episode psychosis (FEP), and 23 healthy controls. Fourteen UHR individuals developed a psychotic disorder during follow-up. Compared to controls, the UHR group was impaired in both the short-term maintenance of material and in the effective use of strategy, but not more immediate memory. These impairments were not as severe as those in the FEP group, as the UHR group performed better than the FEP group. A similar pattern of results was found for the intelligence measures. Discriminant function analyses demonstrated short-term maintenance of material significantly differentiated the UHR and healthy control groups even when accounting for full scale intelligence quotient (IQ); whereas full scale IQ significantly differentiated the UHR and FEP groups and FEP and control groups. Notably, within the UHR group, impaired spatial working memory performance was associated with lower global functioning, but not full scale IQ. The subgroup of UHR individuals who later developed psychosis was not significantly more impaired on any aspect of working memory performance than the group of UHR individuals who did not develop psychosis. Given, the relationship between spatial working memory deficits and functional outcome, these results indicate that cognitive remediation could be useful in individuals at UHR for psychosis to potentially improve functioning. PMID:24398256

  7. Clinical decision making in a high-risk primary care environment: a qualitative study in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Heneghan, Carl; Thompson, Matthew; Balla, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Objective Examine clinical reasoning and decision making in an out of hours (OOH) primary care setting to gain insights into how general practitioners (GPs) make clinical decisions and manage risk in this environment. Design Semi-structured interviews using open-ended questions. Setting A 2-month qualitative interview study conducted in Oxfordshire, UK. Participants 21 GPs working in OOH primary care. Results The most powerful themes to emerge related to dealing with urgent potentially high-risk cases, keeping patients safe and responding to their needs, while trying to keep patients out of hospital and the concept of ‘fire fighting’. There were a number of well-defined characteristics that GPs reported making presentations easy or difficult to deal with. Severely ill patients were straightforward, while the older people, with complex multisystem diseases, were often difficult. GPs stopped collecting clinical information and came to clinical decisions when high-risk disease and severe illness requiring hospital attention has been excluded; they had responded directly to the patient's needs and there was a reliable safety net in place. Learning points that GPs identified as important for trainees in the OOH setting included the importance of developing rapport in spite of time pressures, learning to deal with uncertainty and learning about common presentations with a focus on critical cues to exclude severe illness. Conclusions The findings support suggestions that improvements in primary care OOH could be achieved by including automated and regular timely feedback system for GPs and individual peer and expert clinician support for GPs with regular meetings to discuss recent cases. In addition, trainee support and mentoring to focus on clinical skills, knowledge and risk management issues specific to OOH is currently required. Investigating the stopping rules used for diagnostic closure may provide new insights into the root causes of clinical error in such a

  8. High risk of near-crash driving events following night-shift work.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael L; Howard, Mark E; Horrey, William J; Liang, Yulan; Anderson, Clare; Shreeve, Michael S; O'Brien, Conor S; Czeisler, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    Night-shift workers are at high risk of drowsiness-related motor vehicle crashes as a result of circadian disruption and sleep restriction. However, the impact of actual night-shift work on measures of drowsiness and driving performance while operating a real motor vehicle remains unknown. Sixteen night-shift workers completed two 2-h daytime driving sessions on a closed driving track at the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety: (i) a postsleep baseline driving session after an average of 7.6 ± 2.4 h sleep the previous night with no night-shift work, and (ii) a postnight-shift driving session following night-shift work. Physiological measures of drowsiness were collected, including infrared reflectance oculography, electroencephalography, and electrooculography. Driving performance measures included lane excursions, near-crash events, and drives terminated because of failure to maintain control of the vehicle. Eleven near-crashes occurred in 6 of 16 postnight-shift drives (37.5%), and 7 of 16 postnight-shift drives (43.8%) were terminated early for safety reasons, compared with zero near-crashes or early drive terminations during 16 postsleep drives (Fishers exact: P = 0.0088 and P = 0.0034, respectively). Participants had a significantly higher rate of lane excursions, average Johns Drowsiness Scale, blink duration, and number of slow eye movements during postnight-shift drives compared with postsleep drives (3.09/min vs. 1.49/min; 1.71 vs. 0.97; 125 ms vs. 100 ms; 35.8 vs. 19.1; respectively, P < 0.05 for all). Night-shift work increases driver drowsiness, degrading driving performance and increasing the risk of near-crash drive events. With more than 9.5 million Americans working overnight or rotating shifts and one-third of United States commutes exceeding 30 min, these results have implications for traffic and occupational safety. PMID:26699470

  9. High risk of near-crash driving events following night-shift work

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michael L.; Howard, Mark E.; Horrey, William J.; Liang, Yulan; Anderson, Clare; Shreeve, Michael S.; O’Brien, Conor S.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Night-shift workers are at high risk of drowsiness-related motor vehicle crashes as a result of circadian disruption and sleep restriction. However, the impact of actual night-shift work on measures of drowsiness and driving performance while operating a real motor vehicle remains unknown. Sixteen night-shift workers completed two 2-h daytime driving sessions on a closed driving track at the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety: (i) a postsleep baseline driving session after an average of 7.6 ± 2.4 h sleep the previous night with no night-shift work, and (ii) a postnight-shift driving session following night-shift work. Physiological measures of drowsiness were collected, including infrared reflectance oculography, electroencephalography, and electrooculography. Driving performance measures included lane excursions, near-crash events, and drives terminated because of failure to maintain control of the vehicle. Eleven near-crashes occurred in 6 of 16 postnight-shift drives (37.5%), and 7 of 16 postnight-shift drives (43.8%) were terminated early for safety reasons, compared with zero near-crashes or early drive terminations during 16 postsleep drives (Fishers exact: P = 0.0088 and P = 0.0034, respectively). Participants had a significantly higher rate of lane excursions, average Johns Drowsiness Scale, blink duration, and number of slow eye movements during postnight-shift drives compared with postsleep drives (3.09/min vs. 1.49/min; 1.71 vs. 0.97; 125 ms vs. 100 ms; 35.8 vs. 19.1; respectively, P < 0.05 for all). Night-shift work increases driver drowsiness, degrading driving performance and increasing the risk of near-crash drive events. With more than 9.5 million Americans working overnight or rotating shifts and one-third of United States commutes exceeding 30 min, these results have implications for traffic and occupational safety. PMID:26699470

  10. School Counsellors' Perceptions on Working with Student High-Risk Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Gregory E.; Jeffery, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The current exploratory-descriptive study used a survey design method to examine guidance counsellors' and educational psychologists' perceptions of their preparation, motivation, and effectiveness in preventing, assessing, and intervening into student high-risk behaviour. The study also explored training associated with addressing high-risk…

  11. Laptops for High-Risk Students: Empowerment and Personalization in a Standards-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Linda; Snow, Juna Z.

    2006-01-01

    "Cooltown@Roosevelt," an instructional technology program implemented in 2002-04 based on a five-year collaboration involving Vancouver School District in Washington state, Hewlett-Packard Corporation, and Comcast, provided high-risk students in six elementary classrooms with laptops and wireless internet access at school and at home. A two-year…

  12. Effective Strategies to Reduce High Risk Drinking among College Students and Residents in an Urban Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkley, Marsha; Zeigler, Donald W.

    2007-01-01

    An urban American university, Georgia Institute of Technology, established a campus-community coalition to reduce high risk drinking, its harms and second-hand effects among university students and residents of the Atlanta community. The Atlanta-based institution was part of a ten-year, ten-university project, A Matter of Degree (AMOD),…

  13. Better Work Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Looks at equipment, process, and training aspects of backpack vacuum cleaners that facilitate good ergonomics and high productivity levels, focusing on: designing new equipment for bodies and productivity; creating comfortable backpack harnesses; improving the work process via team training; and providing ergonomic training to ensure that backpack…

  14. Venues, patrons, and alcohol use dynamics: the creation of a high risk sexual environment.

    PubMed

    Balán, Iván C; Barreda, Victoria; Marone, Rubén; Avila, María Mercedes; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2014-11-01

    Venue-based HIV prevention interventions, especially in sex on premise venues, can disrupt high-risk sexual networks. However, prior to intervening, it is essential to understand the person-venue dynamics that contribute to HIV risk. As such, we conducted five ethnographic observations at each of six venues where alcohol is sold and sex occurs onsite (2 each porn theaters, sex clubs, and dance clubs) frequented by gay and other men who have sex with men (G&MSM) in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. Alcohol use, sexual behavior, and person-venue dynamics differed markedly across venue types. In dance clubs, substantial alcohol consumption often preceded visits to the darkroom for sex which, at times, included unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse. Condoms, although available, were not easily accessible. HIV prevention messaging was generally non-existent. These venues are in critical need of interventions to reduce HIV transmission risk. PMID:24691922

  15. Venues, Patrons, and Alcohol Use Dynamics: The Creation of a High Risk Sexual Environment

    PubMed Central

    Balán, Iván C.; Barreda, Victoria; Marone, Rubén; Ávila, María Mercedes; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Venue-based HIV prevention interventions, especially in sex on premise venues, can disrupt high-risk sexual networks. However, prior to intervening, it is essential to understand the person-venue dynamics that contribute to HIV risk. As such, we conducted five ethnographic observations at each of six venues where alcohol is sold and sex occurs onsite (2 each porn theaters, sex clubs, and dance clubs) frequented by gay and other men who have sex with men (G&MSM) in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. Alcohol use, sexual behavior, and person-venue dynamics differed markedly across venue types. In dance clubs, substantial alcohol consumption often preceded visits to the darkroom for sex which, at times, included unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse. Condoms, although available, were not easily accessible. HIV prevention messaging was generally non-existent. These venues are in critical need of interventions to reduce HIV transmission risk. PMID:24691922

  16. Five years of work-related injuries and fatalities in Minnesota. Agriculture: a high-risk industry.

    PubMed

    Brown, M; Parker, D; Seeland, E; Boyle, D; Wahl, G

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Minnesota Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation Study (MN FACE), a federally funded initiative to study fatal injuries in the workplace. The purpose of the program is to investigate various types of occupational fatalities and to identify risk factors that contribute to work-related fatalities. Initially, the MN FACE program only investigated fatalities related to falls, confined spaces, and electrocutions. In 1994, MN FACE also began investigating fatalities associated with agricultural work. Agriculture continues to be one of the nation's most hazardous industries, ranking fourth among industries in the United States at high risk for work-related fatalities. MN FACE investigated 46 agriculture-related fatalities during 1994-95. Forty-one percent of the fatalities involved tractors, and 66% of these accidents were tractor rollovers. Other leading causes of agricultural fatalities included grain bin and manure pit asphyxiations. PMID:9265823

  17. Leading as Emotional Management Work in High Risk Times: The Counterintuitive Impulses of Performativity and Passion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Jill

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores, through a case study of educational restructuring in Victoria, Australia, how school leaders in a public education system in Australia mediate reform discourses emphasizing managerial and market accountability and the emotional and messy work of teaching and leading. These accountability exercises were often seen by teachers…

  18. Multicultural Considerations: Working with Families of Developmentally Disabled and High Risk Children. The Hispanic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rocio DeMateo

    The paper first points out how important it is for professionals who work with families and infants with developmental problems to be aware of ethnic and cultural differences, and then goes on to discuss some values typically held by Hispanic Americans. Professionals should understand the family's immigration history and status in order to know…

  19. [Manicurists and pedicurists - occupation group at high risk of work-related dermatoses].

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Chomiczewska-Skóra, Dorota; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika; Krecisz, Beata

    2013-01-01

    In recent years occupational skin and respiratory diseases have been more and more frequently diagnosed in small production and service enterprises. The awareness of occupational exposure and its possible health effects among their workers and employers is not sufficient. Beauty salons, in addition to hairdressers and beauticians, frequently employ manicurists and pedicurists. The workers often happen to perform various activities interchangeably. the health status of beauty salons workers has rarely been assessed. The most numerous reports concern hairdressers. In this occupational group, the occurrence of skin lesions induced by wet work and frequent allergy to metals, hair dyes and bleaches and perm solutions has been emphasized, while information about health hazards for being a manicurist or pedicurist in beauty salons is seldom reported. The aim of this paper is to present professional activities (manicure and pedicure, methods of nail stylization), occupational exposure and literature data on work-related adverse health effects in manicurists and pedicurists. Wet work and exposure to solvents, fragrances, resins, metals, gum, detergents may cause skin disorders (contact dermatitis, urticaria, angioedema, photodermatoses), conjunctivitis, anaphylaxis, respiratory tract diseases, including asthma. The discussed occupations are also associated with the increased incidence of bacterial (particularly purulent), viral and fungal infections and cancer. PMID:24502122

  20. Exploring physical exposures and identifying high-risk work tasks within the floor layer trade

    PubMed Central

    McGaha, Jamie; Miller, Kim; Descatha, Alexis; Welch, Laurie; Buchholz, Bryan; Evanoff, Bradley; Dale, Ann Marie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Floor layers have high rates of musculoskeletal disorders yet few studies have examined their work exposures. This study used observational methods to describe physical exposures within floor laying tasks. Methods We analyzed 45 videos from 32 floor layers using Multimedia-Video Task Analysis software to determine the time in task, forces, postures, and repetitive hand movements for installation of four common flooring materials. We used the WISHA checklists to define exposure thresholds. Results Most workers (91%) met the caution threshold for one or more exposures. Workers showed high exposures in multiple body parts with variability in exposures across tasks and for different materials. Prolonged exposures were seen for kneeling, poor neck and low back postures, and intermittent but frequent hand grip forces. Conclusions Floor layers experience prolonged awkward postures and high force physical exposures in multiple body parts, which probably contribute to their high rates of musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:24274895

  1. The high-risk environment of homeless young adults: consequences for physical and sexual victimization.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Kimberly A; Beal, Morgan R

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about how the social environment of homeless youth contributes to their risk and how it varies for different types of victimization. As such, the current study examines the constructs of victimization theories in order to investigate the potential risk for physical and sexual victimization among homeless young adults. Results revealed that running at an earlier age, running more often, sleeping on the street, panhandling, deviant peers associations, and not having a family member in one's network are associated with more physical victimization. Being female, a sexual minority, having an unkempt physical appearance, panhandling, and having friends who traded sex are associated with more sexual victimization. Overall, we find that the constructs differed in their ability to explain sexual versus physical victimization. PMID:20229696

  2. Resting cortisol level, self-concept, and putative familial environment in adolescents at ultra high-risk for psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Carol, Emily E; Mittal, Vijay A

    2015-07-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that resting cortisol levels are elevated in patients with schizophrenia and closely tied to symptom severity. However, there is limited research on the biological stress system during the ultra high-risk (UHR) period immediately preceding the onset of psychosis, and cortisol has not been examined in relation to individual characteristics such as self-concept or potential stressors such as putative familial environment in this critical population. In the present study, salivary cortisol samples were collected on 37 UHR and 42 matched control adolescents, and these individuals were assessed with clinical interviews as well as a measure of self-concept. For a subsection of the sample (23 UHR and 20 control adolescents), a participating relative/caretaker was also assessed with an expressed emotion interview designed to gauge psychosocial environment. Consistent with previous studies, UHR participants exhibited elevated resting cortisol levels when compared with controls. In addition, UHR adolescents exhibited increased negative self-concept and their relatives/caretakers endorsed significantly fewer initial positive statements about the participant. Interestingly, a strong trend in the UHR group suggests that higher cortisol levels are associated with higher rates of critical statements from relatives/caretakers. Furthermore, elevated cortisol levels in the participants were associated with increased negative self-concept as well as fewer initial positive comments from relatives/caretakers. Results suggest that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) dysfunction is closely associated with both individual and environmental-level characteristics. Taken together, these findings support a neural diathesis-stress model of psychosis and future studies, designed to examine causal relationships, stand to inform both our understanding of pathogenic processes in the high-risk period as well as early intervention efforts. PMID:25880698

  3. Securing the User's Work Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardo, Nicholas P.

    2004-01-01

    High performance computing at the Numerical Aerospace Simulation Facility at NASA Ames Research Center includes C90's, J90's and Origin 2000's. Not only is it necessary to protect these systems from outside attacks, but also to provide a safe working environment on the systems. With the right tools, security anomalies in the user s work environment can be deleted and corrected. Validating proper ownership of files against user s permissions, will reduce the risk of inadvertent data compromise. The detection of extraneous directories and files hidden amongst user home directories is important for identifying potential compromises. The first runs of these utilities detected over 350,000 files with problems. With periodic scans, automated correction of problems takes only minutes. Tools for detecting these types of problems as well as their development techniques will be discussed with emphasis on consistency, portability and efficiency for both UNICOS and IRIX.

  4. Collaborative Work Environment for Operational Conjunction Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, F.; Christy, S.

    Conjunction Messages (CM) provided by JSpOC are complete and valuable data to evaluate the level of risk of conjunctions, decide and choose avoidance actions. Nevertheless, conjunction assessment remains a difficult task which requires Middle Man between the CM provider (JSpOC) and Owner/Operators. Operational collision threat characterization is now an essential component of space mission operations. Most spacecraft operators have some sort of a process to evaluate and mitigate high-risk conjunction events. As the size of the space object catalog increases, satellite operators will be faced with more conjunction events to evaluate. Thus more sophisticated collision threat characterization and collision avoidance strategies must be implemented thought Middle Man entities. CAESAR (Conjunction Analysis and Evaluation Service, Alerts and Recommendations) is the French Middle Man. CAESAR relies on a collaborative work environment between all members of CAESAR team and its subscribers. For CAESAR, the collaborative work environment is based on JAC software and a dedicated secure webserver SpOD Space Operational Data. JAC software is not the Main Flight Dynamics (FD) software used by CAESAR team, but it is a light friendly CM dedicated software to be used on a laptop by on-call teams or support dialogue between Middle Man and FD teams. The dedicated secure webserver is a key element to share data and information between actors. This paper presents the main feedbacks from CAESAR team operational experience with regards to its collaborative work environment components: - JAC software which is not a classical Flight Dynamics software, its MMI is designed to be very quickly taken over (by teams not using it on daily basis) while also offering all the expertise levels required by the Middle Man team. JAC is used by CAESAR on-call team and all FD teams who subscribed to CAESAR. JAC is also distributed by CNES and therefore already used by some operational teams for Conjunction

  5. Classifying individuals at high-risk for psychosis based on functional brain activity during working memory processing.

    PubMed

    Bendfeldt, Kerstin; Smieskova, Renata; Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Klöppel, Stefan; Schmidt, André; Walter, Anna; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Wrege, Johannes; Simon, Andor; Taschler, Bernd; Nichols, Thomas; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Lang, Undine E; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The psychosis high-risk state is accompanied by alterations in functional brain activity during working memory processing. We used binary automatic pattern-classification to discriminate between the at-risk mental state (ARMS), first episode psychosis (FEP) and healthy controls (HCs) based on n-back WM-induced brain activity. Linear support vector machines and leave-one-out-cross-validation were applied to fMRI data of matched ARMS, FEP and HC (19 subjects/group). The HC and ARMS were correctly classified, with an accuracy of 76.2% (sensitivity 89.5%, specificity 63.2%, p = 0.01) using a verbal working memory network mask. Only 50% and 47.4% of individuals were classified correctly for HC vs. FEP (p = 0.46) or ARMS vs. FEP (p = 0.62), respectively. Without mask, accuracy was 65.8% for HC vs. ARMS (p = 0.03) and 65.8% for HC vs. FEP (p = 0.0047), and 57.9% for ARMS vs. FEP (p = 0.18). Regions in the medial frontal, paracingulate, cingulate, inferior frontal and superior frontal gyri, inferior and superior parietal lobules, and precuneus were particularly important for group separation. These results suggest that FEP and HC or FEP and ARMS cannot be accurately separated in small samples under these conditions. However, ARMS can be identified with very high sensitivity in comparison to HC. This might aid classification and help to predict transition in the ARMS. PMID:26640767

  6. [Indoor environments, work and health].

    PubMed

    Abbritti, G

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, the activities of most of the working population are carried out in confined, non-industrial environments such as offices, hospitals, libraries, social and leisure centres and means of transport. Sub-optimal air quality in these confined spaces can lead to discomfort, ailments and even diseases. The impact and diffusion of these effects have led to the organisation and funding of large-scale epidemiological investigations in many countries and the nomination of working parties by governments, health agencies and international scientific societies. Over the past 20 years studies on indoor environments have identified sources of risk of various pollutants, established the levels of potentially dangerous concentrations and, for most of them, have provided effective measures. However, the effects of many biological agents and chemical mixtures still remain to be defined and effective guidelines are needed for high quality indoor air. Identifying and managing indoor risk factors presupposes a specific methodology: the specialist in occupational medicine can play a key role in risk assessment, in the early diagnosis of building-related illnesses and in the prevention of both short- and long-term effects. PMID:15584444

  7. Treatment of multiple myeloma with high-risk cytogenetics: a consensus of the International Myeloma Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Lonial, Sagar; Usmani, Saad; Siegel, David; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Chng, Wee-Joo; Moreau, Philippe; Attal, Michel; Kyle, Robert A.; Caers, Jo; Hillengass, Jens; San Miguel, Jesús; van de Donk, Niels W. C. J.; Einsele, Hermann; Bladé, Joan; Durie, Brian G. M.; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Mateos, María-Victoria; Palumbo, Antonio; Orlowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The International Myeloma Working Group consensus updates the definition for high-risk (HR) multiple myeloma based on cytogenetics Several cytogenetic abnormalities such as t(4;14), del(17/17p), t(14;16), t(14;20), nonhyperdiploidy, and gain(1q) were identified that confer poor prognosis. The prognosis of patients showing these abnormalities may vary with the choice of therapy. Treatment strategies have shown promise for HR cytogenetic diseases, such as proteasome inhibition in combination with lenalidomide/pomalidomide, double autologous stem cell transplant plus bortezomib, or combination of immunotherapy with lenalidomide or pomalidomide. Careful analysis of cytogenetic subgroups in trials comparing different treatments remains an important goal. Cross-trial comparisons may provide insight into the effect of new drugs in patients with cytogenetic abnormalities. However, to achieve this, consensus on definitions of analytical techniques, proportion of abnormal cells, and treatment regimens is needed. Based on data available today, bortezomib and carfilzomib treatment appear to improve complete response, progression-free survival, and overall survival in t(4;14) and del(17/17p), whereas lenalidomide may be associated with improved progression-free survival in t(4;14) and del(17/17p). Patients with multiple adverse cytogenetic abnormalities do not benefit from these agents. FISH data are implemented in the revised International Staging System for risk stratification. PMID:27002115

  8. Treatment of multiple myeloma with high-risk cytogenetics: a consensus of the International Myeloma Working Group.

    PubMed

    Sonneveld, Pieter; Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Lonial, Sagar; Usmani, Saad; Siegel, David; Anderson, Kenneth C; Chng, Wee-Joo; Moreau, Philippe; Attal, Michel; Kyle, Robert A; Caers, Jo; Hillengass, Jens; San Miguel, Jesús; van de Donk, Niels W C J; Einsele, Hermann; Bladé, Joan; Durie, Brian G M; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Mateos, María-Victoria; Palumbo, Antonio; Orlowski, Robert

    2016-06-16

    The International Myeloma Working Group consensus updates the definition for high-risk (HR) multiple myeloma based on cytogenetics Several cytogenetic abnormalities such as t(4;14), del(17/17p), t(14;16), t(14;20), nonhyperdiploidy, and gain(1q) were identified that confer poor prognosis. The prognosis of patients showing these abnormalities may vary with the choice of therapy. Treatment strategies have shown promise for HR cytogenetic diseases, such as proteasome inhibition in combination with lenalidomide/pomalidomide, double autologous stem cell transplant plus bortezomib, or combination of immunotherapy with lenalidomide or pomalidomide. Careful analysis of cytogenetic subgroups in trials comparing different treatments remains an important goal. Cross-trial comparisons may provide insight into the effect of new drugs in patients with cytogenetic abnormalities. However, to achieve this, consensus on definitions of analytical techniques, proportion of abnormal cells, and treatment regimens is needed. Based on data available today, bortezomib and carfilzomib treatment appear to improve complete response, progression-free survival, and overall survival in t(4;14) and del(17/17p), whereas lenalidomide may be associated with improved progression-free survival in t(4;14) and del(17/17p). Patients with multiple adverse cytogenetic abnormalities do not benefit from these agents. FISH data are implemented in the revised International Staging System for risk stratification. PMID:27002115

  9. Early Educational Intervention, Early Cumulative Risk, and the Early Home Environment as Predictors of Young Adult Outcomes within a High-Risk Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Kainz, Kirsten; Burchinal, Margaret; Wasik, Barbara H.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment were associated with young adult outcomes was investigated in a sample of 139 young adults (age 21) from high-risk families enrolled in randomized trials of early intervention. Positive effects of treatment were found for education attainment,…

  10. Bad apples or spoiled barrels? Multilevel modelling analysis of variation in high-risk prescribing in Scotland between general practitioners and between the practices they work in

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Bruce; Donnan, Peter T; Murphy, Douglas J; Makubate, Boikanyo; Dreischulte, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Primary care high-risk prescribing causes significant harm, but it is unclear if it is largely driven by individuals (a ‘bad apple’ problem) or by practices having higher or lower risk prescribing cultures (a ‘spoiled barrel’ problem). The study aimed to examine the extent of variation in high-risk prescribing between individual prescribers and between the practices they work in. Design, setting and participants Multilevel logistic regression modelling of routine cross-sectional data from 38 Scottish general practices for 181 010 encounters between 398 general practitioners (GPs) and 26 539 patients particularly vulnerable to adverse drug events (ADEs) of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) due to age, comorbidity or co-prescribing. Outcome measure Initiation of a new NSAID prescription in an encounter between GPs and eligible patients. Results A new high-risk NSAID was initiated in 1953 encounters (1.1% of encounters, 7.4% of patients). Older patients, those with more vulnerabilities to NSAID ADEs and those with polypharmacy were less likely to have a high-risk NSAID initiated, consistent with GPs generally recognising the risk of NSAIDs in eligible patients. Male GPs were more likely to initiate a high-risk NSAID than female GPs (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.16). After accounting for patient characteristics, 4.2% (95% CI 2.1 to 8.3) of the variation in high-risk NSAID prescribing was attributable to variation between practices, and 14.2% (95% CI 11.4 to 17.3) to variation between GPs. Three practices had statistically higher than average high-risk prescribing, but only 15.7% of GPs with higher than average high-risk prescribing and 18.5% of patients receiving such a prescription were in these practices. Conclusions There was much more variation in high-risk prescribing between GPs than between practices, and only targeting practices with higher than average rates will miss most high-risk NSAID prescribing. Primary care prescribing

  11. Early Learning Environments That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbell, Rebecca; Exelby, Betty

    Noting that the early care and education environment is a vital contribution to children's learning, this book examines the early childhood learning environment with the vision of making it a place where young children will be physically, emotionally, esthetically, and intellectually nurtured. The chapters are: (1) "The Power of the Environment…

  12. Assessing Work Environments for Career Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Paul R.; Daughton, Sally

    1984-01-01

    Reviews six work environment assessment approaches: ecological dimensions, behavior settings, dimensions of organizational structure, collective characteristics of people within an environment, functional or reinforcement properties, and psychosocial and social climate dimensions. Discusses implications for using these approaches in career…

  13. Level and Social Environment as Determinants of Perceived Work Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalesny, Mary D.; And Others

    Both the social and physical aspects of the environment have been examined as causes of work behaviors and attitudes, but recent studies concerning the effect of open plan offices have shown inconsistent results. To assess the relative contributions of organizational level and the social and physical work environment in explaining employee…

  14. Applying Technology in the Work Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Reed, Ed.

    A series of papers is presented from two symposia sponsored by the Work Environment and Technology Committee and offered at annual conferences of the President's Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities. The 1988 symposium was called "Applying Technology in the Work Environment" and the 1989 symposium was called "Reasonable…

  15. Model for a Healthy Work Environment.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    The Healthy Work Environment (HWE) Model, considered a model of standards of professional behaviors, was created to help foster an environment that is happy, healthy, realistic, and feasible. The model focuses on areas of PEOPLE and PRACTICE, where each letter of these words identifies core, professional qualities and behaviors to foster an environment amenable and conducive to accountability for one's behavior and action. Each of these characteristics is supported from a Christian, biblical perspective. The HWE Model provides a mental and physical checklist of what is important in creating and sustaining a healthy work environment in education and practice. PMID:27610916

  16. Rehabilitation Counselor Work Environment: Examining Congruence with Prototypic Work Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanskas, Stephen; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    2010-01-01

    The profession of rehabilitation counseling has undergone extensive empirical study. Absent from this research has been a theoretical basis for describing and understanding the profession and its associated work environment. The focus of this study was to further our understanding of the nature of the rehabilitation counselor's work environment…

  17. Chemical exposure reduction: Factors impacting on South African herbicide sprayers' personal protective equipment compliance and high risk work practices.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Rivas, Federico; Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The high exposure risks of workers to herbicides in low- and middle-income countries is an important public health concern because of the potential resulting negative impacts on workers' health. This study investigated workers' personal protective equipment (PPE) compliance as a risk mitigation measure; particularly workers who apply herbicides for Working for Water (WfW) - a South African invasive alien vegetation control programme. The study aim was to understand workers' low PPE compliance by analysing their risk perceptions of herbicide use, working conditions and socio-cultural context. Research methods included ethnographic observations, informal interviews, visual media, questionnaires and a focus group. Study results indicated that low PPE compliance persists despite workers' awareness of herbicide exposure risks and as a result of the influence from workers' socio-cultural context (i.e. gender dynamics and social status), herbicide risk perceptions and working conditions (i.e. environmental and logistical). Interestingly, teams comprised of mostly women had the highest compliance rate. These findings highlighted that given the complexity of PPE compliance, especially in countries with several economic and social constraints, exposure reduction interventions should not rely solely on PPE use promotion. Instead, other control strategies requiring less worker input for effectiveness should be implemented, such as elimination and substitution of highly hazardous pesticides, and altering application methods. PMID:26093240

  18. Home Health Agency Work Environments and Hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Linda; Lake, Eileen T.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: An important goal of home health care is to assist patients to remain in community living arrangements. Yet home care often fails to prevent hospitalizations and to facilitate discharges to community living, thus putting patients at risk of additional health challenges and increasing care costs. Objectives: To determine the relationship between home health agency work environments and agency-level rates of acute hospitalization and discharges to community living. Methods and Design: Analysis of linked Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Home Health Compare data and nurse survey data from 118 home health agencies. Robust regression models were used to estimate the effect of work environment ratings on between-agency variation in rates of acute hospitalization and community discharge. Results: Home health agencies with good work environments had lower rates of acute hospitalizations and higher rates of patient discharges to community living arrangements compared with home health agencies with poor work environments. Conclusion: Improved work environments in home health agencies hold promise for optimizing patient outcomes and reducing use of expensive hospital and institutional care. PMID:25215647

  19. Caudate Volume in Offspring at Ultra High Risk for Alcohol Dependence: COMT Val158Met, DRD2, Externalizing Disorders, and Working Memory*

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Shirley Y.; Lichenstein, Sarah; Wang, Shuhui; Carter, Howard; McDermott, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background There is emerging evidence that the increased susceptibility to developing alcohol and substance use disorders in those with a family history of Alcohol Dependence (AD) may be related to structural differences in brain circuits that influence the salience of rewards or modify the efficiency of information processing. Externalizing disorders of childhood including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct and Oppositional Disorders are a prominent feature of those with a positive family history. The caudate nuclei have been implicated in both the salience of rewards and in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence and these often antecedent childhood disorders. Methods Adolescent/young adult high and low-risk for AD offspring (N = 130) were studied using magnetic resonance imaging. Volumes of the caudate nucleus were obtained using manual tracing with BRAINS2 software and neuropsychological functioning determined. Childhood disorders were assessed as part of a long-term longitudinal follow-up that includes young adult assessment. Dopaminergic variation was assessed using genotypic variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and DRD2 genes. Results High-risk subjects showed poorer Working Memory functioning. Cau-date volume did not differ between high and low-risk subjects, but those with externalizing disorders of childhood showed reduced caudate volume. Variation in COMT and DRD2 genes was associated with Working Memory performance and caudate volume. Conclusions Caudate volume is reduced in association with externalizing disorders of childhood/adolescence. Working Memory deficits appear in familial high-risk offspring and those with externalizing disorders of childhood. The dopaminergic system appears to be involved in both working memory performance and externalizing disorders of childhood. PMID:25364629

  20. Sexual assault histories and evening drinking among young american men in a high-risk drinking environment.

    PubMed

    Mumford, Elizabeth A; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Romano, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    This study surveyed young American men traveling to Tijuana, Mexico from San Diego, California for a weekend night out, collecting responses both southbound at the outset of the evening and northbound upon return at the end of the evening. Among 650 males, we examined the relationship between sexual histories and attitudes and alcohol use, both historically and on their night in Tijuana. Respondents with a history of coercing sex drank more in Tijuana and were more likely to binge drink. Although estimating sexual assaults committed by these males on the evening in question was not possible, this research establishes the link between a history of sexual assault and the blood alcohol concentration of young men resulting from an evening in a timeout environment. PMID:20043253

  1. Challenges of Working in a Multicultural Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howland, Joan S.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses challenges faced when working in a multicultural library setting and discusses the need for library administration to create supportive environments. Highlights include fluctuating power dynamics; merging diverse opinions and approaches; overcoming perceived lack of empathy; tokenism; accountability; and transforming challenges into…

  2. Work Environment Predictors of Beginning Teacher Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Richard; O'Brien, Patrick; Goddard, Marion

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated elements of school environments that explain variance in burnout scores in a sample of university graduates from Brisbane, Australia, two years after they commenced work as teachers. Using a longitudinal survey methodology, 79 beginning teachers completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) on four occasions over a two-year…

  3. Work Environment and Disadvantagement. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searls, D.; Miskimins, R. W.

    The report describes a series of empirical evaluations of the work environment and its relation to the disadvantaged worker. Data were collected on 530 subjects in five different industries at both the supervisory and non-supervisory level, using a total of eight instruments, including measures of perceived vocational opportunity, self-concept,…

  4. Gendered Learning Environments in Managerial Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustavsson, Maria; Eriksson, Anna Fogelberg

    2010-01-01

    The aim is to investigate female and male managers' learning environments with particular focus on their opportunities for and barriers to learning and career development in the managerial work of a male-dominated industrial company. In the case study 42 managers, 15 women and 27 men in the company were interviewed. The findings demonstrate that…

  5. Contact lenses and the work environment.

    PubMed

    Mäkitie, J

    1984-01-01

    Controversial opinions have been presented about the use of contact lenses in industrial environments. Work environments contain few obstacles to the use of contact lenses, but many occupations are associated with the risk of excessive difficulties, spoilation , irritation, or complications. From the radiant energy the shorter (280 nm) ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths and the longer (1300 nm) infra-red (IR) wavelengths are absorbed by contact lenses, the absorption increases their temperature and may cause corneal complications. Protective glasses, however, absorb more than 99.5% of the UV and IR energy and thus provide sufficient protection for contact lens wearers exposed to UV or IR radiation. The advantages and risks of contact lenses in industrial work are discussed. PMID:6328841

  6. Far-field environment working group summary

    SciTech Connect

    Pearcy, E.C.; Cady, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of the potential impacts of underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes on the far-field environment.

  7. Creating healthy work environments: a strategic perspective.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Bonnie J

    2010-01-01

    Although I find Graham Lowe and Ben Chan's logic model and work environment metrics thought provoking, a healthy work environment framework must be more comprehensive and consider the addition of recommended diagnostic tools, vehicles to deliver the necessary change and a sustainability strategy that allows for the tweaking and refinement of ideas. Basic structure is required to frame and initiate an effective process, while allowing creativity and enhancements to be made by organizations as they learn. I support the construction of a suggested Canadian health sector framework for measuring the health of an organization, but I feel that organizations need to have some freedom in that design and the ability to incorporate their own indicators within the established proven drivers. Reflecting on my organization's experience with large-scale transformation efforts, I find that emotional intelligence along with formal leadership development and front-line engagement in Lean process improvement activities are essential for creating healthy work environments that produce the balanced set of outcomes listed in my hospital's Balanced Scorecard. PMID:20644349

  8. Staying Alive! Training High-Risk Teams for Self Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Kelley; Noe, Raymond; Weaver, Sallie

    2011-01-01

    Research examining teams working in high-risk operations has been lacking. The present symposium showcases research on team training that helps to optimize team performance in environments characterized by life or death situations arising spontaneously after long periods of mundane activity by pulling experts from diverse areas of industry: space flight, health care, and medical simulation.

  9. Canadian oncology nurse work environments: part II.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Debra; Conlon, Michael; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Olson, Karin; Cummings, Greta

    2012-03-01

    In the aftermath of healthcare restructuring, it is important to pay attention to nurses' perceptions of workplace and professional practice factors that attract nurses and influence their retention. Continuing constraints on cancer care systems make the issue of health human resources an ongoing priority. This paper presents the findings of a follow-up study of a cohort of Canadian oncology nurses that aimed to compare nurses' perceptions of their work environment, job satisfaction and retention over a two-year period. Participants of the follow-up survey represented 65% (397/615) of the initial cohort. Many similar perceptions about the work environment were found over two years; however, at follow-up a larger proportion of nurses reported an absence of enough RNs to provide quality care and a lack of support for innovative ideas. With respect to career status, only 6% (25/397) of the follow-up sample had left oncology nursing. However, the proportion of nurses declaring an intention to leave their current job increased from 6.4% (39/615) on the initial survey to 26% (102/397) on the follow-up survey. Findings suggest that decision-makers need to use both the growing body of workplace knowledge and the input from staff nurses to implement changes that positively influence nurse recruitment and retention. Future research should focus on the implementation and evaluation of strategies that address workplace issues such as nurse staffing adequacy, leadership and organizational commitment. PMID:22469763

  10. Deficient Suppression of Default Mode Regions during Working Memory in Individuals with Early Psychosis and at Clinical High-Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Fryer, Susanna L.; Woods, Scott W.; Kiehl, Kent A.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Roach, Brian J.; Ford, Judith M.; Srihari, Vinod H.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Mathalon, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The default mode network (DMN) is a set of brain regions typically activated at rest and suppressed during extrinsic cognition. Schizophrenia has been associated with deficient DMN suppression, though the extent to which DMN dysfunction predates psychosis onset is unclear. This study examined DMN suppression during working memory (WM) performance in youth at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis, early schizophrenia (ESZ) patients, and healthy controls (HC). We hypothesized that the DMN would show load-dependent suppression during WM retrieval in HC but not in ESZ, with CHR participants showing an intermediate pattern. Methods: fMRI data were collected from CHR (n = 32), ESZ (n = 22), and HC (n = 54) participants, ages 12–30. DMN regions were defined via seed-based connectivity analysis of resting-state fMRI data from an independent HC sample. Load-dependent deactivations of these DMN regions in response to WM probes were interrogated. Results: Healthy controls showed linear load-dependent increases in DMN deactivation. Significant Group-by-Load interactions were observed in DMN regions including medial prefrontal and lateral posterior parietal cortices. Group-by-Load effects in posterior DMN nodes resulted from less suppression at higher WM loads in ESZ relative to HC, with CHR differing from neither group. In medial prefrontal cortex, suppression of activity at higher WM loads was significantly diminished in both CHR and ESZ groups, relative to HC. In addition, investigation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activations revealed that ESZ activated right DLPFC significantly more than HC, with CHR differing from neither group. Conclusion: While HC showed WM load-dependent modulation of DMN suppression, CHR individuals had deficient higher-load DMN suppression that was similar to, but less pronounced than, the distributed suppression deficits evident in ESZ patients. These results suggest that DMN dysregulation associated with

  11. [Poisons for reproduction in work environment].

    PubMed

    Brochard, P; Cayrouse, C

    2006-10-01

    This article describes the lawful bases of the reprotoxic risk management in work environment, and sets out the recommendations of the French Société de Médecine du Travail (occupational medicine) for the medical supervision of pregnant wage-earners exposed to toxic substances as far as foetal development is concerned. We start with the description of the lawful bases, clarifying the various types of classification of toxic substances for reproduction, the particular regulation applying to reprotoxic categories 1 and 2, particularly with regard to the labelling of these products, the prohibition of availability to the general public, the principles of prevention and the guarantees of remuneration of the pregnant women exposed to this risk. Then, we present the recommendations worked out by the Société Française de Médecine du Travail, with regard to the medical supervision of pregnant wage-earners. They include: evaluation of the risk on the work place, evaluation of exposure, be it external or internal, presentation of methods of calculation of values guides and of recommendations transmitted to occupational doctors, before and during the pregnancy of their patients. To conclude, it is important to remain rigorous with this reprotoxic risk, by referring to the lawful bases at our disposal and supporting the scientific bases following epidemiologic studies. Adequate information must be given to women but also men pf procreation age. In spite of a well-defined lawful framework, watchfulness is required with the new products put on the market and the new scientific data. PMID:16987683

  12. The Los Angeles Area Business/Education Partnership. A Study of the Impact of a Community Based School to Work Program for High Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Laurel; And Others

    The Los Angeles Area Business/Education Partnership provides numerous services designed to encourage youths who have been identified as being at high risk of dropping out of school to complete high school and continue in a formal postsecondary education program. Among the services offered by the partnership are the following: clustered…

  13. Blinking supervision in a working environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morcego, Bernardo; Argilés, Marc; Cabrerizo, Marc; Cardona, Genís; Pérez, Ramon; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Gispets, Joan

    2016-02-01

    The health of the ocular surface requires blinks of the eye to be frequent in order to provide moisture and to renew the tear film. However, blinking frequency has been shown to decrease in certain conditions such as when subjects are conducting tasks with high cognitive and visual demands. These conditions are becoming more common as people work or spend their leisure time in front of video display terminals. Supervision of blinking frequency in such environments is possible, thanks to the availability of computer-integrated cameras. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to develop an algorithm for the detection of eye blinks and to test it, in a number of videos captured, while subjects are conducting a variety of tasks in front of the computer. The sensitivity of the algorithm for blink detection was found to be of 87.54% (range 30% to 100%), with a mean false-positive rate of 0.19% (range 0% to 1.7%), depending on the illumination conditions during which the image was captured and other computer-user spatial configurations. The current automatic process is based on a partly modified pre-existing eye detection and image processing algorithms and consists of four stages that are aimed at eye detection, eye tracking, iris detection and segmentation, and iris height/width ratio assessment.

  14. Cardiovascular state changes in simulated work environments

    PubMed Central

    Stuiver, Arjan; Mulder, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The usefulness of cardiovascular measures as indicators of changes in cognitive workload has been addressed in several studies. In this paper the question is explored whether cardiovascular patterns in heart rate, blood pressure, baroreflex sensitivity and HRV that are found are consistent within and between two simulated working environments. Two studies, were performed, both with 21 participants: one in an ambulance dispatch simulation and one in a driving simulator. In the ambulance dispatcher task an initial strong increase in blood pressure is followed by a moderate on-going increase in blood pressure during the next hour of task performance. This pattern is accompanied by a strong increase in baroreflex sensitivity while heart rate decreases. In the driving simulator study, blood pressure initially increases but decreases almost to baseline level in the next hour. This pattern is accompanied by a decrease in baroreflex sensitivity, while heart rate decreases. Results of both studies are interpreted in terms of autonomic control (related to both sympathetic and para-sympathetic effects), using a simplified simulation of a baroreflex regulation model. Interpretation of the results leads to the conclusion that the cardiovascular response patterns in both tasks are a combination of an initial defensive reaction, in combination with compensatory blood pressure control. The level of compensatory blood pressure control, however, is quite different for the two tasks. This helps to understand the differences in response patterns between the two studies in this paper and may be helpful as well for understanding differences in cardiovascular response patterns in general. A substantial part of the effects observed during task performance are regulatory effects and are not always directly related to workload manipulations. Making this distinction may also contribute to the understanding of differences in cardiovascular response patterns during cognitive workload. PMID

  15. Understanding the Importance of Gene and Environment in the Etiology and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in High-Risk Populations

    PubMed Central

    Samsom, Marsha; Trivedi, Tushar; Orekoya, Olubunmi; Vyas, Shraddha

    2016-01-01

    Current literature focuses on the complications and treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) while clustering environmental and genetic factors to explain the disease. Interventions proposed to reduce diabetes prevalence should focus predominantly on initiating active rapports of family members and promoting a more communication-oriented preventative approach between diabetics and non-diabetics. Due to varying risks in T2DM by race and ethnicity, these populations should follow race-appropriate guidelines to prevent further T2DM occurrence and complications. The review consists of information related to the genetic component of T2DM to help identify high-risk groups and focuses on the environmental aspect of the disease to help consider appropriate techniques to reduce disease burden. Genetic factors play important roles in the pathogenesis of diabetes and thus are an essential element of understanding the cause of the disease and possible methods of prevention. Focusing on high-risk groups with T2DM could have profound effects on the current health care situation. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology of diabetes in the United States and propose methods of preventing and delaying the development of T2DM in high-risk individuals. PMID:27376154

  16. Shift work in a security environment

    SciTech Connect

    Longhouser, G.A. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    Human beings are diurnal species, normally active by day and asleep by night. Yet over thirty million Americans struggle with work schedules that include an off-normal work effort. The railroads, law enforcement, health services, Department of Defense, factory workers, chemical plants and public services, communications and utility workers must provide some form of around-the-clock effort. Shift work has been around since the advent of recorded history. There has always been a need for some type of off-normal service and assistance. The impact of shift work is replete with tales and factual evidence of an increased personnel error rate; disorders, both personal and family, and of course, increased accident events. In recent memory, the Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant incident, Union Carbide`s explosion in Bhopal, and the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant catastrophe all occurred during off-normal working hours. Yet management overall has done little to correct the production-driven twelve hour, seven day week shift mentality of the nineteenth century. Most schedules in use today are nothing more than cosmetic variations of the old production schedules. This could be driven by a management consideration of the worker`s response to change coupled with a reluctant buy-in of responsibility for the effects of change. Florida Power Corporation has developed for its nuclear security force, a unique work schedule which attempts to employ the sound principles of circadian rhythms coupled with a comprehensive training program to counter the problems associated with shift work. The results over the last four years have seen a marked reduction in the generic problems of personnel errors, absenteeism, unscheduled overtime and turnover rates. Utilization and understanding of this scheduling process for rotational shift work needs to be assessed to determine if the benefits are site specific or provide an expected response to the problems of shift work.

  17. The WorkPlace distributed processing environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy; Henderson, Scott

    1993-01-01

    Real time control problems require robust, high performance solutions. Distributed computing can offer high performance through parallelism and robustness through redundancy. Unfortunately, implementing distributed systems with these characteristics places a significant burden on the applications programmers. Goddard Code 522 has developed WorkPlace to alleviate this burden. WorkPlace is a small, portable, embeddable network interface which automates message routing, failure detection, and re-configuration in response to failures in distributed systems. This paper describes the design and use of WorkPlace, and its application in the construction of a distributed blackboard system.

  18. A Safe and Healthful Work Environment

    PubMed Central

    McCullagh, Marjorie C.; Berry, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health nursing focuses on promotion and restoration of health, prevention of illness and injury, protection from work-related and environmental hazards, and corporate profitability. Quality education about the relationship between work and health is critical for nurses’ success regardless of work setting, and is consistent with Healthy People 2020 goals, but is lacking or limited in some programs. This report introduces an innovative occupational health nursing curriculum for students enrolled in baccalaureate nursing programs. The process of designing and pilot testing this novel curriculum, its alignment with nursing competencies, and its format and learning activities are described. Preparing professional nurses to understand the role of the occupational health nurse and the relationship between work and health is an essential curricular consideration for contemporary nursing education. PMID:26077879

  19. Crossing a border for a low-cost, high-risk environment: smoking status and excessive drinking among young adults in Tijuana.

    PubMed

    Mumford, Elizabeth; Gitchell, Joe G; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Romano, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the drinking and smoking behavior of 2,311 college-age adults traveling from San Diego, California, to Tijuana, Mexico (December 2006 to December 2008). We describe this Border sample's drinking history and smoking status and estimate multivariate models of evening drinking participation and, conditional on drinking, blood alcohol concentration. Noting limitations, we present implications for identifying young adults at high risk for alcohol and tobacco use, particularly females, and lay the foundation for further research examining young adults? alcohol and tobacco use in reduced price scenarios. PMID:20735192

  20. Workplace bullying, working environment and health.

    PubMed

    Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Elofsson, Stig; Gjerde, Maria; Magnusson Hanson, Linda; Theorell, Töres

    2012-01-01

    Improved work organisation could be of importance for decreased bullying in workplaces. Participants in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) responded to questions about work and workplace and whether they had been bullied during the past year in 2006. Those in worksites with at least five employees who did not report that they had been bullied in 2006 and without workplace change between 2006 and 2008 constituted the final sample (n=1,021 men and 1,182 women). Work characteristics and workplace factors in 2006 were used in multiple logistic regression as predictors of bullying in 2008. Separate analyses were performed for work characteristics and workplace factors respectively. Adjustments for demographic factors were made in all analyses. The question used for bullying was: "Are you exposed to personal persecution by means of vicious words or actions from your superiors or your workmates?" Such persecution any time during the past year was defined as bullying. For both genders organisational change and conflicting demands were identified as risk factors, and good decision authority as a protective factor. Dictatorial leadership, lack of procedural justice and attitude of expendability were male and lack of humanity a female risk factor for bullying. PMID:22453205

  1. Motto: We work for people and environment

    SciTech Connect

    Barcik, M.

    1995-12-31

    This target has been under Danfoss realization for over 60 years, both in Denmark and all over the world. The operational range of the enterprise: is very wide. Danfoss manufactures a large assortment of products, starting from heat automatic control systems, through heat metering devices, industrial and refrigeration automatic control, compressors, flow meters, frequency converters, control systems, and monitoring. The four mainstays of the business activity are based on: high quality products; advanced manufacturing technology; care of the environment, and engagement of the staff. Since 1992 Danfoss has been manufacturing heat radiator thermostats in Poland. A unique solution - namely the use of a gas thermostatic head secures the highest energy savings and operational reliability. In 1993, Danfoss as the sixth company in Poland and the first in its business field, gained a ISO 9002 certificate.

  2. The Relationship between Work Environment Attributes and Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, David; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A survey of over 400 Iowa and Missouri park and recreation professionals showed that work pressure, job clarity, and staff support were key work environment variables related to burnout. Implications for recreation administration are discussed. (Author/PP)

  3. Development of the Student Affairs Officers Work Environment Perception Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Derrick E.

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative study developed and validated a questionnaire to measure Student Affairs Officers' (SAO) perceptions of the work environment. A review of the literature identified five major categories and 25 elements having an impact on SAOs' perceptions of the work environment. The test instrument (questionnaire) was developed…

  4. Wage, Work Environment, and Staffing: Effects on Nurse Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Matthew D.; Ma, Chenjuan

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that hospitals with better nurse staffing and work environments have better nurse outcomes—less burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intention to leave the job. Many studies, however, have not accounted for wage effects, which may confound findings. By using a secondary analysis with cross-sectional administrative data and a four-state survey of nurses, we investigated how wage, work environment, and staffing were associated with nurse outcomes. Logistic regression models, with and without wage, were used to estimate the effects of work environment and staffing on burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intent to leave. We discovered that wage was associated with job dissatisfaction and intent to leave but had little influence on burnout, while work environment and average patient-to-nurse ratio still have considerable effects on nurse outcomes. Wage is important for good nurse outcomes, but it does not diminish the significant influence of work environment and staffing on nurse outcomes. PMID:25121923

  5. Wage, work environment, and staffing: effects on nurse outcomes.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Matthew D; Ma, Chenjuan

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that hospitals with better nurse staffing and work environments have better nurse outcomes-less burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intention to leave the job. Many studies, however, have not accounted for wage effects, which may confound findings. By using a secondary analysis with cross-sectional administrative data and a four-state survey of nurses, we investigated how wage, work environment, and staffing were associated with nurse outcomes. Logistic regression models, with and without wage, were used to estimate the effects of work environment and staffing on burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intent to leave. We discovered that wage was associated with job dissatisfaction and intent to leave but had little influence on burnout, while work environment and average patient-to-nurse ratio still have considerable effects on nurse outcomes. Wage is important for good nurse outcomes, but it does not diminish the significant influence of work environment and staffing on nurse outcomes. PMID:25121923

  6. Influence of Home and School Environments on Specific Dietary Behaviors Among Postpartum, High-Risk Teens, 27 States, 2007–2009

    PubMed Central

    Haire-Joshu, Debra L.; Schwarz, Cynthia D.; Tabak, Rachel G.; Joshu, Corinne E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to determine whether perceptions of the home and school food environments are related to food and beverage intakes of postpartum teens. Methods Our study was a baseline, cross-sectional analysis of 853 postpartum teens enrolled in a weight-loss intervention study across 27 states from 2007 through 2009. Eight-item scales assessed perceived accessibility and availability of foods and beverages in school and home environments. Associations between environments and intakes were assessed by using χ2 and using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations (GEE), respectively. Results Overall, 52% of teens perceived their school food environment as positive, and 68% of teens perceived their home food environment as positive. A positive school environment was independently associated with fruit consumption and 100% fruit juice consumption. A positive home environment was independently associated with fruit, vegetable, and water consumption and infrequent consumption of soda and chips (χ2 P < .05). Having only a positive school environment was associated with fruit consumption (GEE odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5–6.5), and having only a positive home environment was associated with fruit (GEE OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.6–5.6), vegetable (GEE OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.5–6.2), and water (GEE OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.7–4.0) consumption and infrequent consumption of soda (GEE OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3–0.7). Results for positive home and school environments were similar to those for positive home only. Conclusion Home and school environments are related to dietary behaviors among postpartum teens, with a positive home environment more strongly associated with healthful behaviors. PMID:25950575

  7. Perceived Risk of Dengue in Ones’ Living Environment as a Determinant of Behavior Change through Social Mobilization and Communication: Evidence from a High Risk Area in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Banneheke, Hasini; Paranavitane, Sarath; Jayasuriya, Vathsala; Banneheka, Sarath

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess community knowledge and behavioral impact of the social mobilization and communication strategy applied in a dengue high-risk area in Sri Lanka. Methods: A group of adults visiting selected primary care facilities in Colombo district were interviewed to collect socio-demographic data, attributes of knowledge regarding dengue and the responsive behaviors adopted by them following the dengue control program though the media and social marketing campaigns. These attributes were classified as ‘good’, ‘fair,’ or ‘poor’ by developing a composite scale for analysis and interpretation of data. Results: The primary source of information was television in the majority. The overall knowledge of the disease, vector and control methods was poor. The overall level of contribution to dengue control activities was good. Conclusion: Awareness of the disease and its complications had not contributed to favorable behavior changes. While the social mobilization and behavior change campaign in Sri Lanka had low impact on knowledge and behaviors, a better understating of community perceptions of DF and how these perceptions are formulated within the social and cultural context; would be useful to improve uptake. This knowledge would be valuable for program planners to strengthen dengue control activities in SL and other similar settings across the region. PMID:27308297

  8. Authentic leaders creating healthy work environments for nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2006-05-01

    Implementation of authentic leadership can affect not only the nursing workforce and the profession but the healthcare delivery system and society as a whole. Creating a healthy work environment for nursing practice is crucial to maintain an adequate nursing workforce; the stressful nature of the profession often leads to burnout, disability, and high absenteeism and ultimately contributes to the escalating shortage of nurses. Leaders play a pivotal role in retention of nurses by shaping the healthcare practice environment to produce quality outcomes for staff nurses and patients. Few guidelines are available, however, for creating and sustaining the critical elements of a healthy work environment. In 2005, the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses released a landmark publication specifying 6 standards (skilled communication, true collaboration, effective decision making, appropriate staffing, meaningful recognition, and authentic leadership) necessary to establish and sustain healthy work environments in healthcare. Authentic leadership was described as the "glue" needed to hold together a healthy work environment. Now, the roles and relationships of authentic leaders in the healthy work environment are clarified as follows: An expanded definition of authentic leadership and its attributes (eg, genuineness, trustworthiness, reliability, compassion, and believability) is presented. Mechanisms by which authentic leaders can create healthy work environments for practice (eg, engaging employees in the work environment to promote positive behaviors) are described. A practical guide on how to become an authentic leader is advanced. A research agenda to advance the study of authentic leadership in nursing practice through collaboration between nursing and business is proposed. PMID:16632768

  9. Measuring Work Environment and Performance in Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Temkin-Greener, Helena; Zheng, Nan (Tracy); Katz, Paul; Zhao, Hongwei; Mukamel, Dana B.

    2008-01-01

    Background Qualitative studies of the nursing home work environment have long suggested that such attributes as leadership and communication may be related to nursing home performance, including residents' outcomes. However, empirical studies examining these relationships have been scant. Objectives This study is designed to: develop an instrument for measuring nursing home work environment and perceived work effectiveness; test the reliability and validity of the instrument; and identify individual and facility-level factors associated with better facility performance. Research Design and Methods The analysis was based on survey responses provided by managers (N=308) and direct care workers (N=7,418) employed in 162 facilities throughout New York State. Exploratory factor analysis, Chronbach's alphas, analysis of variance, and regression models were used to assess instrument reliability and validity. Multivariate regression models, with fixed facility effects, were used to examine factors associated with work effectiveness. Results The reliability and the validity of the survey instrument for measuring work environment and perceived work effectiveness has been demonstrated. Several individual (e.g. occupation, race) and facility characteristics (e.g. management style, workplace conditions, staffing) that are significant predictors of perceived work effectiveness were identified. Conclusions The organizational performance model used in this study recognizes the multidimensionality of the work environment in nursing homes. Our findings suggest that efforts at improving work effectiveness must also be multifaceted. Empirical findings from such a line of research may provide insights for improving the quality of the work environment and ultimately the quality of residents' care. PMID:19330892

  10. Women's work environment and health: clerical workers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Meleis, A I; Messias, D K; Arruda, E N

    1996-02-01

    Although women are participating more in the formal workforce, the majority are employed primarily in low-income and low-status occupations. While work roles may provide women with some rewards, employment may also create many stressful demands on their daily lives. As part of an international study, 60 female Brazilian clerical workers responded to a self-administered questionnaire describing what they liked, disliked, and found stressful about the structural, physical, and social aspects of their work environment. Participants also identified strategies they used to cope with stress in the work environment. Dimensions of healthy environments identified in the data included utility, challenge, participation, safety, pleasing workplace, valuation, clarity of roles, and empowerment. Unhealthy environments were characterized by hazards, bureaucracy, devaluation, and economic constraints. Participants described their concerns about the effect of the environment on their physical and mental health, but tended to adopt a passive, resigned coping style rather than a proactive approach to co-creating a healthier work environment. The results and their relationship to healthy work environments are discussed within the context of the larger sociopolitical environment of Brazil. PMID:8552803

  11. Work environments and organizational effectiveness: A call for integration

    SciTech Connect

    Heerwagen, J.H.; Heubach, J.G.; Brown, B.W.; Sanchez, J.A.; Montgomery, J.C.; Weimer, W.C.

    1994-07-01

    In response to a request from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Analytical Chemistry Upgrades Program, a team was formed to (1) review work environment and productivity research, (2) report the research in a manner usable to organizational decision-makers, (3) identify Hanford Site facilities examples of the work environment principles and research, and (4) publish the review results in a referred journal. This report summarizes the work environment-organizational effectiveness research reviewed, provides the foundation for a publishable article, and outlines the integration of work environment research and organizational effectiveness in continuing improvement programs and strategic planning. The research cited in this review shows that the physical work environment offers a valuable tool that, used wisely, can contribute significantly to the performance of an organization, its bottom-line economics, and the well-being of all of its employees. This finding leads to one central recommendation: to derive the maximum benefit to the corporation, managers and designers must integrate organizational goals and programs with work environment design. While much of the research cited focuses on office environments, the results and design principles and practices are relevant to a full range of settings: laboratories, schools, hospitals, and factories. The major findings of the research reviewed are summarized below in four areas: (1) performance, (2) well-being, (3) image, and (4) turnover and recruitment.

  12. Authentic leadership, organizational culture, and healthy work environments.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to showcase the relationship among authentic leadership, organizational culture, and healthy work environments using a stress and coping lens. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted to determine what situations contribute to nurse manager stress, what coping strategies they utilize, what health outcomes they report, and what decision-making processes they follow to address stressful situations in their roles. A purposive sample of 21 nurse managers employed at 3 US acute care hospitals completed a demographic questionnaire and 14-question interview incorporating components of the Critical Decision Method. A secondary analysis of the data was conducted to identify differences in nurse manager narratives based upon differences in the organizational cultures where the managers worked. Of the 21 nurse managers studied, differences were evident in the organizational cultures reported. Nurse managers working in the positive organizational cultures (n = 12) generally worked in healthy work environments and engaged in more authentic leadership behaviors. Conversely, nurse managers working in the negative organizational cultures (n = 9) worked in unhealthy work environments and reported less optimism and more challenges engaging in authentic leadership practices. Organizational culture and leadership matter in creating and sustaining healthy work environments. Nurse managers play a pivotal role in creating these environments, yet they need supportive structures and resources to more effectively execute their roles. PMID:19542970

  13. A Qualitative Study of the Work Environments of Mexican Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Allison; Juarez, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of the nursing work environment are increasingly common in developed countries, but few exist in developing countries. Because of resource differences between the two contexts, researchers need to clarify what aspects of the work environments are similar and different. Objectives To study the perspectives of Mexican nurses about their work environments to determine similarities and differences to results from developed world studies. Design A secondary, directed content analysis of qualitative data from 46 Spanish language interviews using workplace-oriented themes Setting Purposively selected Mexican states from four regions of the country that reflect the country’s socioeconomic differences. Participants Practicing Mexican nurses with at least one year of clinical experience and currently working in nursing. Participants were recruited through convenience and snowball sampling techniques. Methods Initial data collection occurred in 2006 and 2008 during a broader study about professionalization processes that occurred in Mexican nursing between 1980 and 2005. The secondary, directed content analysis focused on an in-depth exploration of a central theme that emerged from the two original studies: The Workplace. The directed content analysis used themes from the global nursing work environment literature to structure the analysis: Professional relationships, organizational administrative practices, and quality of care and services. Results The three themes from the global literature were relevant for the Mexican context and a new one emerged related to hiring practices. By category, the same factors that created positive or negative perceptions of the work environment matched findings from other international studies conducted in developed countries. The descriptors of the category, however, had different conceptual meanings that illustrate the health system challenges in Mexico. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that studies that

  14. Paper, Piles, and Computer Files: Folklore of Information Work Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Laura J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews literature to form a folklore of information workspace and emphasizes the importance of studying folklore of information work environments in the context of the current shift toward removing work from any particular place via information systems, e-mail, and the Web. Discusses trends in workplace design and corporate culture. Contains 84…

  15. What Managers Do to Create Healthy Work Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroth, Michael; Boverie, Patricia; Zondlo, John

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to determine what successful managers do to create healthy work environments in a healthcare organization. Managers using exemplary behaviors were selected and interviewed based on employee satisfaction surveys, and focus groups were conducted with employees who worked for them. Effective…

  16. Physical Environment as a Resource in Information Work Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Laura

    1999-01-01

    Examines the role of physical surroundings and artifacts and how they contribute to the knowledge work occurring there, based on preliminary analysis of data collected in interviews and observations of a research group over a four-month period. General issues of the interaction between information work and environment can be revealed and applied…

  17. Impact of Virtual Work Environment on Traditional Team Domains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geroy, Gary D.; Olson, Joel; Hartman, Jackie

    2002-01-01

    Examines a virtual work team to determine the domains of the team and the effect the virtual work environment had on the domains. Discusses results of a literature review and a phenomenological heuristic case study, including the effects of post-modern philosophy and postindustrial society on changes in the marketplace. (Contains 79 references.)…

  18. Importance of work environments on hospital outcomes in nine countries

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Linda H.; Sloane, Douglas M.; Clarke, Sean; Poghosyan, Lusine; Cho, Eunhee; You, Liming; Finlayson, Mary; Kanai-Pak, Masako; Aungsuroch, Yupin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of hospital work environments on hospital outcomes across multiple countries. Design Primary survey data using a common instrument were collected from separate cross sections of 98 116 bedside care nurses practising in 1406 hospitals in 9 countries between 1999 and 2009. Main Outcome Measures Nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction, patient readiness for hospital discharge and quality of patient care. Results High nurse burnout was found in hospitals in all countries except Germany, and ranged from roughly a third of nurses to about 60% of nurses in South Korea and Japan. Job dissatisfaction among nurses was close to 20% in most countries and as high as 60% in Japan. Close to half or more of nurses in every country lacked confidence that patients could care for themselves following discharge. Quality-of-care rated as fair or poor varied from 11% in Canada to 68% in South Korea. Between one-quarter and one-third of hospitals in each country were judged to have poor work environments. Working in a hospital with a better work environment was associated with significantly lower odds of nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction and with better quality-of-care outcomes. Conclusions Poor hospital work environments are common and are associated with negative outcomes for nurses and quality of care. Improving work environments holds promise for nurse retention and better quality of patient care. PMID:21561979

  19. Selling sex in unsafe spaces: sex work risk environments in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The risk environment framework provides a valuable but under-utilised heuristic for understanding environmental vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers. Brothels have been shown to be safer than street-based sex work, with higher rates of consistent condom use and lower HIV prevalence. While entertainment venues are also assumed to be safer than street-based sex work, few studies have examined environmental influences on vulnerability to HIV in this context. Methods As part of the Young Women's Health Study, a prospective observational study of young women (15-29 years) engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, we conducted in-depth interviews (n = 33) to explore vulnerability to HIV/STI and related harms. Interviews were conducted in Khmer by trained interviewers, transcribed and translated into English and analysed for thematic content. Results The intensification of anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking efforts in Cambodia has increased the number of women working in entertainment venues and on the street. Our results confirm that street-based sex work places women at risk of HIV/STI infection and identify significant environmental risks related to entertainment-based sex work, including limited access to condoms and alcohol-related intoxication. Our data also indicate that exposure to violence and interactions with the police are mediated by the settings in which sex is sold. In particular, transacting sex in environments such as guest houses where there is little or no oversight in the form of peer or managerial support or protection, may increase vulnerability to HIV/STI. Conclusions Entertainment venues may also provide a high risk environment for sex work. Our results indicate that strategies designed to address HIV prevention among brothel-based FSWs in Cambodia have not translated well to street and entertainment-based sex work venues in which increasing numbers of women are working. There is an urgent

  20. A Multiagent Modeling Environment for Simulating Work Practice in Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; vanHoof, Ron

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we position Brahms as a tool for simulating organizational processes. Brahms is a modeling and simulation environment for analyzing human work practice, and for using such models to develop intelligent software agents to support the work practice in organizations. Brahms is the result of more than ten years of research at the Institute for Research on Learning (IRL), NYNEX Science & Technology (the former R&D institute of the Baby Bell telephone company in New York, now Verizon), and for the last six years at NASA Ames Research Center, in the Work Systems Design and Evaluation group, part of the Computational Sciences Division (Code IC). Brahms has been used on more than ten modeling and simulation research projects, and recently has been used as a distributed multiagent development environment for developing work practice support tools for human in-situ science exploration on planetary surfaces, in particular a human mission to Mars. Brahms was originally conceived of as a business process modeling and simulation tool that incorporates the social systems of work, by illuminating how formal process flow descriptions relate to people s actual located activities in the workplace. Our research started in the early nineties as a reaction to experiences with work process modeling and simulation . Although an effective tool for convincing management of the potential cost-savings of the newly designed work processes, the modeling and simulation environment was only able to describe work as a normative workflow. However, the social systems, uncovered in work practices studied by the design team played a significant role in how work actually got done-actual lived work. Multi- tasking, informal assistance and circumstantial work interactions could not easily be represented in a tool with a strict workflow modeling paradigm. In response, we began to develop a tool that would have the benefits of work process modeling and simulation, but be distinctively able to

  1. Teaching Art to High Risk Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossol, Monona

    The role of art therapy is considered in working with such high risk groups as the institutionalized, mentally retarded, elderly, visually impaired, physically handicapped, asthmatic, hyper- and hypo-active children, hearing impaired, and patients on mind altering drugs. The special risks of infectious diseases (such as serum hepatitis), and…

  2. Work environment and production development in Swedish manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Swedish manufacturing industry has previous held a leading position regarding the development of attractive industrial work environments, but increasing market competition has changed the possibilities to maintain the position. The purpose of this literature study is therefore to describe and analyze how Swedish manufacturing industry manages work environment and production development in the new millennium. The description and analysis is based on recently reported Swedish research and development. The gathered picture of how production systems generally are developed in Sweden strongly contrasts against the idealized theoretical and legal view of how production systems should be developed. Even if some of the researchers' and authorities' ambitions and demands may seem unrealistically high today, there still is a very large potential for improving the processes and tools for designing production systems and work environment. PMID:20828493

  3. Leading change to create a healthy and satisfying work environment.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Carolyn L; Krugman, Mary; Schloffman, Danielle H

    2013-01-01

    Nurse executives must take a leadership role in creating a healthy work environment for nurses and all disciplines. Engaging in partnerships and empowering clinical nurses to construct the solutions to barriers that may stand in the way of the goal of a satisfied and healthy workforce are important strategies toward success. This publication outlines many projects a 3-time Magnet-designated academic hospital has implemented, working with our shared leadership councils, to meet the standards for a healthy work environment. These initiatives, from the unit to the hospital level, included standardizing a culture change of uninterrupted meal breaks, the creation of intensive care unit Zen rooms, strategies to better manage increased patient volumes, best practices for facility design, enhancing physician-nurse relations, and a hospital wellness program. Data were benchmarked against national nurse and employee surveys to compare progress and report outcomes. Two important nursing organization structures that have contributed to the success of a healthy and satisfied nursing work environment include UEXCEL, a longstanding clinical nurse professional practice program, and the hospital's 11-year participation in the University HealthSystem Consortium/American Association of Colleges of Nursing National Post-Baccalaureate Nurse Residency Program. A highly engaged, well-educated, and committed nursing workforce, nurtured by a strong leadership team, has created a positive work environment characterized by low turnover and high retention. PMID:24022289

  4. Dental hygienists' work environment: motivating, facilitating, but also trying.

    PubMed

    Candell, A; Engström, M

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe dental hygienists' experiences of their physical and psychosocial work environment. The study was descriptive in design and used a qualitative approach. Eleven dental hygienists participated in the study and data were collected during spring 2008 using semi-structured interviews. The material was analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results showed that the dental hygienists experienced their work environment as motivating and facilitating, but at the same time as trying. The three categories revealed a theme: Being controlled in a modern environment characterized by good relationships. Motivating factors were the good relationship with co-workers, managers and patients, seeing the results of your work, having your own responsibility and making your own decisions. The new, pleasant and modern clinics, good cooperation between co-workers and varying duties were described as facilitating factors. The trying factors, as described by the dental hygienists, were above all being controlled by time limits or by some elements of the work, such as teamwork. The dental hygienists also felt stress because appointments were too-short. To conclude, the participants described their work environment as trying in several ways, despite the modern clinics and good relationships. PMID:20624190

  5. [Pregnancy and work environment. Practical guidelines for risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Carlstedt-Duke, Bodil; Gustavsson, Per

    2002-01-10

    Pregnant women are a natural part of the workforce in Sweden. A few types of exposure in the work environment are strictly regulated for pregnant women due to well-known risks of miscarriage, malformations or mental retardation in the child. However, a much larger number of types of exposure may pose risks for negative effects on the pregnancy. Chemical, physical and psychosocial factors may interact with personal medical conditions, and a risk assessment must always be performed with the individual in mind. This article addresses the most common questions about pregnancy and the work environment. According to Swedish law, an employer must perform an assessment of the risks in the work environment for the pregnant woman. If the work environment is considered to be hazardous, the particular exposure in question should be reduced or work tasks changed. If neither of these are possible, the woman has a right to compensation from the Social Insurance Office. Self-employed women are currently excluded from this right. PMID:11871167

  6. How Nurses Experience Their Work as a Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skår, Randi

    2010-01-01

    This article explores and illuminates the meaning of nurses' experiences with their work as a learning environment. A qualitative hermeneutic approach guided the research process and the analysis and interpretation of the transcribed interview-texts of eleven graduate nurses. Three core themes emerged from these informants' descriptions of their…

  7. Control and Information: Underlying Psychological Dimensions of the Work Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetrick, Lois E.; And Others

    A review of the literature on job analysis and job evaluation reveals several aspects of jobs which are important to organizations. To better explain the psychological dimensions of the work environment, three models of perceived job characteristics were compared using confirmatory factor analysis: Walsh, Taber, and Beehr's (1980) components of…

  8. Controlling Glare Problems in the VDT Work Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleifer, Lawrence M.; Sauter, Steven L.

    1985-01-01

    The sources and characteristics (light measurement, direct and indirect or reflected glare) of glare problems in the video display terminal work environment are described. Glare control measures, including the location and design of lighting systems, managing outdoor light and using screen filters and hoods, are reviewed. Five sources are given.…

  9. Work-Life Balance in an Outsourcing Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltshire, Dervent

    2013-01-01

    Empirical evidence has found an increase in work-life conflicts within outsourced environments. It is important to address the increase in conflict to reduce negative effects on businesses. Guided by the theoretical frameworks of the spillover, conflict management, and resource dependency theories, the purpose of the study was to examine how…

  10. Developing Skills: Realistic Work Environments in Further Education. FEDA Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Paul; Hughes, Maria

    To establish the prevalence and perceived value of realistic work environments (RWEs) in colleges and their use as learning resources, all further education (FE) sector colleges in Great Britain were surveyed in the summer of 1998. Of 175 colleges that responded to 2 questionnaires for senior college managers and RWE managers, 127 had at least 1…

  11. 40 CFR 35.6790 - High risk recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... described in 40 CFR 31.12. Requirements for Administering a Superfund State Contract (SSC) ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High risk recipients. 35.6790 Section... Actions Other Administrative Requirements for Cooperative Agreements § 35.6790 High risk recipients....

  12. 40 CFR 35.6790 - High risk recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... described in 40 CFR 31.12. Requirements for Administering a Superfund State Contract (SSC) ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High risk recipients. 35.6790 Section... Actions Other Administrative Requirements for Cooperative Agreements § 35.6790 High risk recipients....

  13. 40 CFR 35.6790 - High risk recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... described in 40 CFR 31.12. Requirements for Administering a Superfund State Contract (SSC) ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false High risk recipients. 35.6790 Section... Actions Other Administrative Requirements for Cooperative Agreements § 35.6790 High risk recipients....

  14. 40 CFR 35.6790 - High risk recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... described in 40 CFR 31.12. Requirements for Administering a Superfund State Contract (SSC) ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High risk recipients. 35.6790 Section... Actions Other Administrative Requirements for Cooperative Agreements § 35.6790 High risk recipients....

  15. 40 CFR 35.6790 - High risk recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... described in 40 CFR 31.12. Requirements for Administering a Superfund State Contract (SSC) ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High risk recipients. 35.6790 Section... Actions Other Administrative Requirements for Cooperative Agreements § 35.6790 High risk recipients....

  16. Impact of work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention in physical therapists

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoung-kwon; Seo, Dong-kwon; Lee, Jang-Tae; Lee, A-Ram; Jeon, Ha-Neul; Han, Dong-Uk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to provide basic data for solutions to reduce the turnover rate of physical therapists. It should help create efficient personnel and organization management by exploring the impact of the work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention and analyzing the correlation between them. [Subjects and Methods] A survey was conducted with 236 physical therapists working at medical institutions in the Daejeon and Chungcheong areas. For the analysis on the collected data, correlational and linear regression analyses were conducted using the SPSS 18.0 program and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. [Results] The results showed a statistically significant positive correlation between turnover intention and work-related stress but a statistically significant negative correlation respectively between turnover intention and work environment. Work-related stress (β=0.415) had a significant positive impact on turnover intention and work environment (β=−0.387) had a significant negative impact on turnover intention. [Conclusion] To increase satisfaction level with the profession as well as the workplace for physical therapists, improvement of the work environment was the most necessary primary improvement.

  17. From School to Work and from Work to School: Information Environments and Transferring Information Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study, based in a Scottish secondary school, aimed to examine the views of students who were completing work experience, on their information literacy practices, and the differences they found between the school and workplace information environments while on work experience. The views of guidance teachers were also explored.…

  18. Work environment factors affecting quality work in Swedish oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Pilgård, Göran; Söderfeldt, Björn; Hjalmers, Karin; Rosenquist, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how work environment influenced attitudes to and knowledge of quality among employees of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) clinics in Sweden. Data were collected with a questionnaire of 67 questions, related to quality management at the clinic, working situation, content of "good work", physical environment and health. 22 clinics with 297 employees responded, 65% of the clinics and 86% of the employees. A multiple regression analysis with the dependent variable "Attitude towards quality work" showed that only "work environment" (p = 0.010) revealed a significant association (p < 0.05). The personnel will have a more favourable attitude to quality work if they regard work environment to be important. Dental nurses and assistant nurses had more than four times more knowledge of the used quality management system than had the maxillo-facial surgeons. Women had nearly four times more knowledge of quality management than men. Clinic size was important, with better knowledge of quality management in bigger clinics. Soft demands were defined as demands for "flexibility, creativity, quality, service, engagement/commitment and ability to work together, and competence". Hard demands included economy as important, and emphasis on efficiency and productivity. There was a weak association with knowledge of quality management systems if soft demands increased, but negative if hard demands increased. In conclusion, mainly work environment was of significance for the attitude towards quality work among the employees of OMFS clinics in Sweden. Profession, gender, clinic size, and the hard demands were significantly associated with knowledge of the quality management system used. PMID:18973085

  19. Near-field environment/processes working group summary

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, W.M.

    1995-09-01

    This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of the near-field environment to geologic repositories for high-level nuclear waste. The near-field environment may be affected by thermal perturbations from the waste, and by disturbances caused by the introduction of exotic materials during construction of the repository. This group also discussed the application of modelling of performance-related processes.

  20. Stressful work environment and wellbeing: What comes first?

    PubMed

    Elovainio, Marko; Heponiemi, Tarja; Jokela, Markus; Hakulinen, Christian; Presseau, Justin; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Kivimäki, Mika

    2015-07-01

    The association between the psychosocial work environment, including job demands, job control, and organizational justice, and employee wellbeing has been well established. However, the exposure to adverse work environments is typically measured only using self-reported measures that are vulnerable to reporting bias, and thus any associations found may be explained by reverse causality. Using linear regression models and cross-lagged structural equation modeling (SEM), we tested the direction of the association between established job stress models (job demand control and organizational justice models) and 3 wellbeing indicators (psychological distress, sleeping problems, and job satisfaction) among 1524 physicians in a 4-year follow-up. Results from the longitudinal cross-lagged analyses showed that the direction of the association was from low justice to decreasing wellbeing rather than the reverse. Although the pattern was similar in job demands and job control, a reciprocal association was found between job control and psychological distress. PMID:25705911

  1. Managerial strategies for creating an effective work environment.

    PubMed

    Luse, Kimberly A

    2013-01-01

    To create a highly functioning medical imaging team, radiology managers must be able to analyze their departments and identify areas for improvement. This type of analysis means assessing front-line personnel who already work in the department, along with identifying staffing needs and recruiting talented new employees. In addition, managers must develop effective retention tools such as career ladders and mentorship programs to improve the overall working environment. This article discusses a variety of different strategies to help managers develop a more effective department. PMID:23547197

  2. Creating disability inclusive work environments for our aging nursing workforce.

    PubMed

    Matt, Susan B; Fleming, Susan E; Maheady, Donna C

    2015-06-01

    The workforce is aging, and the implications of an older nursing workforce are profound. As nurses age, injuries and disabilities are more prevalent. If disabilities were more commonly recognized and accommodated in the design of our nursing work environments, we could meet future needs. This article explores the literature on accommodations for an aging workforce, reports disabilities commonly seen in this population, and introduces universal design. PMID:26010282

  3. Psychosocial work environment and mental health among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Boschman, J S; van der Molen, H F; Sluiter, J K; Frings-Dresen, M H W

    2013-09-01

    We assessed psychosocial work environment, the prevalence of mental health complaints and the association between these two among bricklayers and construction supervisors. For this cross-sectional study a total of 1500 bricklayers and supervisors were selected. Psychosocial work characteristics were measured using the Dutch Questionnaire on the Experience and Evaluation of Work and compared to the general Dutch working population. Mental health effects were measured with scales to assess fatigue during work, need for recovery after work, symptoms of distress, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. The prevalence of self-reported mental health complaints was determined using the cut-off values. Associations between psychosocial work characteristics and self-reported mental health complaints were analysed using logistic regression. Total response rate was 43%. Compared to the general working population, bricklayers experienced statistically significant worse job control, learning opportunities and future perspectives; supervisors experienced statistically significant higher psychological demands and need for recovery. Prevalence of self-reported mental health effects among bricklayers and supervisors, respectively, were as follows: high need for recovery after work (14%; 25%), distress (5%, 7%), depression (18%, 20%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (11%, 7%). Among both occupations, high work speed and quantity were associated with symptoms of depression. Further, among construction supervisors, low participation in decision making and low social support of the direct supervisor was associated with symptoms of depression. The findings in the present study indicate psychosocial risk factors for bricklayers and supervisors. In each occupation a considerable proportion of workers was positively screened for symptoms of common mental disorders. PMID:23380530

  4. Reconsidering the Workplace: Faculty Perceptions of Their Work and Working Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to foreground the impact of the material environment on faculty activities, this study examines the dynamic intersections among faculty work practices, the academic workplace and professional identity. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 16 social science faculty at one public university in the United States, this study reveals the…

  5. Gardening work and heavy metals in urban environment.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, V; Lodi, V; Naldi, M; Gherardi, G; Violante, F S; Bonparola, M; Badiello, R; Raffi, G B

    1999-06-01

    Urban soil may be a source of occupational exposure to various pollutants in gardening and land cultivation. This paper presents data of a one-year follow-up of lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium, and vanadium in the environment of the city of Bologna. Samples of soil and leaves were collected at three locations; gardens from the inner-city high-traffic area, parks in moderate-traffic area, and parks in suburban, low-traffic area. The top and deeper layers of soil and leaves were mainly polluted by lead at all locations, which corresponded to the traffic density. Personal samplers recorded greater concentrations of airborne metals than did the area samplers but the values kept below the threshold limit established by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists for the working environment. Due to cumulative nature and interactive effects of toxic metals with other toxic and essential elements, long-term exposure to metals in the urban environment may be a health risk for occupationally exposed gardeners. PMID:10566193

  6. Effect assessment in work environment interventions: a methodological reflection.

    PubMed

    Neumann, W P; Eklund, J; Hansson, B; Lindbeck, L

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of issues for work environment intervention (WEI) researchers in light of the mixed results reported in the literature. If researchers emphasise study quality over intervention quality, reviews that exclude case studies with high quality and multifactorial interventions may be vulnerable to 'quality criteria selection bias'. Learning from 'failed' interventions is inhibited by both publication bias and reporting lengths that limit information on relevant contextual and implementation factors. The authors argue for the need to develop evaluation approaches consistent with the complexity of multifactorial WEIs that: a) are owned by and aimed at the whole organisation; and b) include intervention in early design stages where potential impact is highest. Context variety, complexity and instability in and around organisations suggest that attention might usefully shift from generalisable 'proof of effectiveness' to a more nuanced identification of intervention elements and the situations in which they are more likely to work as intended. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper considers ergonomics interventions from perspectives of what constitutes quality and 'proof". It points to limitations of traditional experimental intervention designs and argues that the complexity of organisational change, and the need for multifactorial interventions that reach deep into work processes for greater impact, should be recognised. PMID:20069488

  7. How can we improve the nursing work environment?

    PubMed

    Holden, Julie

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested by many recently that the nursing work environment needs to be altered to make it more responsive to both nurse and patient needs. One essential aspect of this change would be to increase patient safety. This article suggests that to improve patient safety as well as satisfaction of nurses, the culture of the nursing organization should be transformed into one of a "learning organization." Using this model of an organization, every member of the nursing organization would be encouraged to reach his or her greatest potential, the welfare of the team would become paramount, and a shared vision of where the organization needs to go would emerge, thus maximizing productivity, safety, and job satisfaction for all healthcare team members. This transformation could mean that the terms "Nursing Organizations" and "Learning Organizations" would not have to be oxymorons. PMID:16371823

  8. Hazards for farmers with disabilities: working in cold environments.

    PubMed

    Geng, Qiuqing; Stuthridge, Robert W; Field, William E

    2013-01-01

    In consequence of working in cold environments, agricultural workers may be exposed to higher risk of cold-related injuries, compared with the general population. These injuries can include tissue damage due to the exposure to subfreezing temperatures, more generalized symptoms caused by hypothermia, and secondary injuries caused by impaired performance. Risk of cold injury is increased for older workers and for those with disabling health conditions, both of which occur in above-average numbers in agriculture. Based on a selective review of the literature and case studies assembled by Purdue's Breaking New Ground Resource Center, an overview is presented of the mechanisms and symptoms of cold injuries, together with practical suggestions to help reduce risks of cold injuries for workers in agricultural settings. Special attention is given to potential risks to individuals with physical disabilities. PMID:23540305

  9. EWB: The Environment WorkBench Version 4.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Environment WorkBench EWB is a desktop integrated analysis tool for studying a spacecraft's interactions with its environment. Over 100 environment and analysis models are integrated into the menu-based tool. EWB, which was developed for and under the guidance of the NASA Lewis Research Center, is built atop the Module Integrator and Rule-based Intelligent Analytic Database (MIRIAD) architecture. This allows every module in EWB to communicate information to other modules in a transparent manner from the user's point of view. It removes the tedious and error-prone steps of entering data by hand from one model to another. EWB runs under UNIX operating systems (SGI and SUN workstations) and under MS Windows (3.x, 95, and NT) operating systems. MIRIAD, the unique software that makes up the core of EWB, provides the flexibility to easily modify old models and incorporate new ones as user needs change. The MIRIAD approach separates the computer assisted engineering (CAE) tool into three distinct units: 1) A modern graphical user interface to present information; 2) A data dictionary interpreter to coordinate analysis; and 3) A database for storing system designs and analysis results. The user interface is externally programmable through ASCII data files, which contain the location and type of information to be displayed on the screen. This approach provides great flexibility in tailoring the look and feel of the code to individual user needs. MIRIADbased applications, such as EWB, have utilities for viewing tabulated parametric study data, XY line plots, contour plots, and three-dimensional plots of contour data and system geometries. In addition, a Monte Carlo facility is provided to allow statistical assessments (including uncertainties) in models or data.

  10. Dysfunctional Scrum: Making it work in a matrixed environment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Daniel M.; Johnson, Ranata L.

    2011-05-16

    While we may be operating as dysfunctional Scrum teams at PNNL, where consistency of implementation will remain an ongoing goal, our experiences are showing a pattern of benefit from following the process as best we can. We have found value in socializing stories and user narratives to describe the user experience. We have teams that meet daily for 30 minutes and sit down while they do it, but it has proven valuable to them. We have had several successful teams deliver products even in our dysfunctional environment. Our ScrumMasters work multiple projects and strive for consistency but in our environment (R&D, engineering, and software development) we need to be adaptable and implement those aspects of the discipline that provide benefits to the teams and clients. Our implementations are not 'by the book,' but as long as teams and customers find value in it and our communication and quality of our software products are improved, then we expect to continue using Agile with Scrum.

  11. A case study: Integrated work environment and organizational change

    SciTech Connect

    Heubach, J.G.; Montgomery, J.C.; Weimer, W.C.; Heerwagen, J.H.

    1995-02-01

    The failure to integrate environmental and organizational interventions may help explain the lack of success of many change efforts. The high rate of failure for change efforts (50% to 90% failure rates) has been noted by many writers. While specific causes of failure are diverse, a common theme has been failure to consider the organization as a system. That is, either significant aspects of the organization were ignored during the intervention or potential impacts of changes on the elements were overlooked or underestimated. Our own training, technical literature, and professional culture lead us to limited understandings of complex organizations. Change agents must consider all relevant components of organizational performance if interventions are to be meaningful and successful. This study demonstrated the value of an integrated organizational intervention involving redesign of the physical environment, introduction of a new information system, work process improvement, and extended organizational development intervention. The outcomes were extremely positive. The cost of improvement efforts was found to be recaptured within a short time, easily justifying the expenditures. One conclusion from the study is that integrated interventions are very powerful. Integrating improvement of the physical environment with organizational development and technological innovation greatly enhances the likelihood of achieving a successful intervention.

  12. Work-to-Family Conflict, Positive Spillover, and Boundary Management: A Person-Environment Fit Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zheng; Powell, Gary N.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2009-01-01

    This study adopted a person-environment fit approach to examine whether greater congruence between employees' preferences for segmenting their work domain from their family domain (i.e., keeping work matters at work) and what their employers' work environment allowed would be associated with lower work-to-family conflict and higher work-to-family…

  13. Risk assessment of cattle handling on pasture using work environment screening tool.

    PubMed

    Geng, Qiuqing; Field, William E; Salomon, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Working with beef cattle in an open area or while on pasture has been shown to expose workers to a high risk of work-related injury. Prior research on this problem has been conducted using mail surveys, interviews, self-reporting of work practices and injury experiences, and summaries of published injury data, including media reports. Prior research on injury prevention has largely focused on worker education in a specific cultural or geographical setting. A pilot study was conducted to test the cross-cultural usability of the Working Environment Screening Tool in Agriculture (WEST-AG), a modification of the WEST, developed for Swedish industrial applications, to assess risk factors associated with farmers working with cattle being raised largely on pasture as compared with cattle raised in confined feeding operations. Swedish and English language versions of WEST-AG were developed and pilot-tested on a convenient sample of eight Swedish and eight Indiana farms that raise beef cattle primarily on pasture. On-site observations were conducted independently by Swedish and US agricultural safety professionals and documented using photography and a 15-risk-of-injury component on an 11-degree linear scale. Comparisons were made between independent observations documented from the Swedish and Indiana application of the WEST, including collective assessment of photographic record, and the results reported. Key findings included (a) a higher level of observed risks on Indiana farms studied as compared with their Swedish counterparts; (b) high levels of worker exposure to cattle, especially mature breeding bulls, on both sets of farms; (c) a higher frequency of self-reported farm-related injuries than anticipated on both Swedish and Indiana farms; (d) substantially different economic, social, cultural, and regulatory forces that influence small-operation Swedish and Indiana beef producers' decisions regarding adoption of safer work practices, including use of new and safer

  14. Otorhinolaryngology residency in Spain: training satisfaction, working environment and conditions.

    PubMed

    Oker, N; Alotaibi, N H; Herman, P; Bernal-Sprekelsen, M; Albers, A E

    2016-06-01

    Europe-wide efforts are being initiated to define quality standards and harmonize Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (ORL-HNS)-specialty-training by creating an European board examination. However, differences within and between countries remain and are underinvestigated making comparisons and further improvement more difficult. The study aimed at assessing quality of training, satisfaction and quality of life of residents and recent ORL-HNS specialists in Spain and to trace similarities and differences to France and Germany administering anonymous online-questionnaire to ORL-HNS-residents and recent specialists. 146 questionnaires were returned with answers of 75.6 % of residents, a mean age of 30 years and a female to male ratio of 1.46:1. The global satisfaction of training was high as 76 % would choose the same ENT training again, 86 % confirmed that responsibilities which were given to them were adapted to their level of training and 97 % felt well considered in their department. Ninety-two confirmed that helpful seniors contributed to a good work environment (75 %) and to a good organization within the department (69 %). The respondents spent on average 8.8 h per day at the hospital and covered on average 4.8 night duties or week-end shifts per month with mostly no post-day off (86 %). Seventy-four percent participated regularly at complementary training sessions. Research work was supported and guided in 59 %. This study is the first one, to our best of knowledge, to assess the ORL-HNS-training in Spain and to trace parallelisms and differences to other European countries, such as France and Germany. The satisfaction of training and supervision was high in Spain, but there are still efforts to make concerning resident's quality of life. Compared to France and Germany, satisfaction with ORL-HNS-training and the support and guidance provided by seniors was similar. Work conditions were comparable to those in France. Motivation, teaching and

  15. Food-and-beverage environment and procurement policies for healthier work environments.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Christopher D; Whitsel, Laurie P; Thorndike, Anne N; Marrow, Mary W; Otten, Jennifer J; Foster, Gary D; Carson, Jo Ann S; Johnson, Rachel K

    2014-06-01

    The importance of creating healthier work environments by providing healthy foods and beverages in worksite cafeterias, in on-site vending machines, and at meetings and conferences is drawing increasing attention. Large employers, federal and state governments, and hospital systems are significant purchasers and providers of food and beverages. The American Heart Association, federal government, and other organizations have created procurement standards to guide healthy purchasing by these entities. There is a need to review how procurement standards are currently implemented, to identify important minimum criteria for evaluating health and purchasing outcomes, and to recognize significant barriers and challenges to implementation, along with success stories. The purpose of this policy paper is to describe the role of food-and-beverage environment and procurement policy standards in creating healthier worksite environments; to review recently created national model standards; to identify elements across the standards that are important to consider for incorporation into policies; and to delineate issues to address as standards are implemented across the country. PMID:24801009

  16. Next Generation Integrated Environment for Collaborative Work Across Internets

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey B. Newman

    2009-02-24

    We are now well-advanced in our development, prototyping and deployment of a high performance next generation Integrated Environment for Collaborative Work. The system, aimed at using the capability of ESnet and Internet2 for rapid data exchange, is based on the Virtual Room Videoconferencing System (VRVS) developed by Caltech. The VRVS system has been chosen by the Internet2 Digital Video (I2-DV) Initiative as a preferred foundation for the development of advanced video, audio and multimedia collaborative applications by the Internet2 community. Today, the system supports high-end, broadcast-quality interactivity, while enabling a wide variety of clients (Mbone, H.323) to participate in the same conference by running different standard protocols in different contexts with different bandwidth connection limitations, has a fully Web-integrated user interface, developers and administrative APIs, a widely scalable video network topology based on both multicast domains and unicast tunnels, and demonstrated multiplatform support. This has led to its rapidly expanding production use for national and international scientific collaborations in more than 60 countries. We are also in the process of creating a 'testbed video network' and developing the necessary middleware to support a set of new and essential requirements for rapid data exchange, and a high level of interactivity in large-scale scientific collaborations. These include a set of tunable, scalable differentiated network services adapted to each of the data streams associated with a large number of collaborative sessions, policy-based and network state-based resource scheduling, authentication, and optional encryption to maintain confidentiality of inter-personal communications. High performance testbed video networks will be established in ESnet and Internet2 to test and tune the implementation, using a few target application-sets.

  17. Work Environment and Its Relationship to Quality Improvement: Health Care Providers' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Azza Hassan Mohamed; Abou Hashish, Ebtsam Aly

    2016-01-01

    There is a gap in understanding how work environment contributes to hospitals' readiness for quality improvement (QI) in developing countries; thus, diagnosing work environment problems in health care organizations is the initial step in designing strategies for QI in organizations. This study examines the relationship between nurses' and physicians' perspectives of the work environments and hospitals' climate for QI. Study results indicate that work environment is positively associated with hospitals' readiness for QI. PMID:27191372

  18. From Personal to Social: Learning Environments that Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Mar; Guilana, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    VLE (Virtual Learning Environments) are rapidly falling short to meet the demands of a networked society. Web 2.0 and social networks are proving to offer a more personalized, open environment for students to learn formally as they are already doing informally. With the irruption of social media into society, and therefore, education, many voices…

  19. Characteristics of the NICU Work Environment Associated With Breastfeeding Support

    PubMed Central

    Hallowell, Sunny G.; Spatz, Diane L.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Rogowski, Jeannette A.; Lake, Eileen T.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The provision of breastfeeding support in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) may assist a mother to develop a milk supply for the NICU infant. Human milk offers unique benefits and its provision unique challenges in this highly vulnerable population. The provision of breastfeeding support in this setting has not been studied in a large, multihospital study. We describe the frequency of breastfeeding support provided by nurses and examined relationships between NICU nursing characteristics, the availability of a lactation consultant (LC), and breastfeeding support. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN This was a secondary analysis of 2008 survey data from 6060 registered nurses in 104 NICUs nationally. Nurse managers provided data on LCs. These NICUs were members of the Vermont Oxford Network, a voluntary quality and safety collaborative. METHODS Nurses reported on the infants (n = 15,233) they cared for on their last shift, including whether breastfeeding support was provided to parents. Breastfeeding support was measured as a percentage of infants on the unit. The denominator was all infants assigned to all nurse respondents on that NICU. The numerator was the number of infants that nurses reported providing breastfeeding support. Nurses also completed the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI), a nationally endorsed nursing care performance measure. The NICU nursing characteristics include the percentages of nurses with a BSN or higher degree and with 5 or more years of NICU experience, an acuity-adjusted staffing ratio, and PES-NWI subscale scores. Lactation consultant availability was measured as any/none and in full-time equivalent positions per 10 beds. RESULTS The parents of 14% of infants received breastfeeding support from the nurse. Half of the NICUs had an LC. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant relationship between 2 measures of nurse staffing and breastfeeding support. A 1 SD higher acuity-adjusted staffing ratio was

  20. Faculty Work Practices in Material Environments: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Aaron M.; Berger, Joseph B.

    2011-01-01

    There is an extensive and well-developed body of literature on the nature of faculty work (e.g., Blackburn & Lawrence, 1996; Schuster & Finkelstein, 2006) that has examined numerous aspects of faculty work and sources of influence on that work (e.g., intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, personal characteristics, disciplinary affiliation,…

  1. Injury and the orchestral environment: part I. The role of work organisation and psychosocial factors in injury risk.

    PubMed

    Rickert, Dale L; Barrett, Margaret S; Ackermann, Bronwen J

    2013-12-01

    That orchestral musicians are exposed to a high risk of playing-related injury is well established, but despite this, little is known about how work organisation and psychosocial factors may contribute to this risk. Lack of research in this area is surprising considering the importance of these factors in managing occupational health risks in a wide range of other working populations. To address this, we conducted a qualitative study with the following aims: to investigate orchestral musicians' and managers' perceptions of those workplace environmental factors that contribute to injury, and to investigate the potential influence of work organisation and psychosocial factors on injury risk for orchestral musicians. Using a qualitative case-study methodology, in-depth, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 10 professional orchestral cellists (2 casual and 8 full-time members) from a single Australian orchestra. After initial data analysis, further interviews were undertaken with a set of 5 orchestral management staff as a means of data triangulation. All data were analysed using a "themes-based" analysis of narrative approach. The findings indicate that musicians perceive that stress in the orchestral environment increases injury risk. The perceived stressors were divided into two broad categories: psychosocial injury risks, which included performance stress and interpersonal relationships, and combined psychosocial/physical injury risks such as work organisation and lack of control. This article evaluates the findings in terms of existing literature and makes recommendations for better management of environmental injury risk for orchestral musicians. PMID:24337034

  2. Nurses in Practice: A Perspective on Work Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Marcella Z., Ed.; And Others

    A major portion of the collection of 20 readings authored by practicing professionals consists of field observations presented both as raw data (field notes) and as analyzed and organized data. About the work of nurses in a variety of settings, a recurrent theme is that work behavior is greatly influenced by organizational and structural elements…

  3. Prediction of Violence Perpetration Among High-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve; Skara, Silvana; Weiner, Michelle D.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To prospectively examine demographic background, personality, perceived environment, and behavior as violence perpetration predictors in emerging adulthood among high-risk adolescents using problem-behavior theory as a conceptual perspective. Methods: Self-report questionnaires were administered 5 years apart to 676 participants.…

  4. Scientists working to correct misinformation on radiation in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, P.; Whicker, W.

    1996-12-31

    Competing claims and conflicting data from the Chernobyl disaster, and other such accidents, have called into question the reliability and consistency of many studies on the behavior of radioactivity in the environment. What is needed, according to an ecologist and a statistician, are guidelines against which the design of radiation studies can be gauged.

  5. Usability of a Virtual Learning Environment Concerning Safety at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihamäki, Heli; Vilpola, Inka

    2004-01-01

    Most of the Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) design methods focus on producing content for a VLE. However, usability of the VLE is also of great importance. Several potential usability problems have been reported in recent e-learning conferences. These problems could have been avoided by applying usability engineering methods before the VLE was…

  6. The Influence of Substance Use, Social Sexual Environment, Psychosocial Factors, and Partner Characteristics on High-Risk Sexual Behavior Among Young Black and Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men Living with HIV: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Alexandra; Burrell-Piggott, Tiphani; Bleakley, Amy; Birnbaum, Jeffrey; Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Marie; Schrimshaw, Eric; Cohall, Alwyn; Ramjohn, Destiny

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the sexual risk behaviors of youths living with HIV/AIDS is critical to secondary prevention of HIV. As part of a larger qualitative study of youths living with HIV, in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 African American and Latino, HIV-infected young men who have sex with men, aged 16–24 years, living in New York City. The study explored the role of substance use, the social-sexual-environmental, and psychological contexts in which sexual risk behaviors occurred. Since learning of their HIV infection, the majority of participants had reduced their risky sexual behaviors; however, a subset (26%) of participants continued to have unprotected sex, in most cases with multiple partners. Substance use, the social environmental context of the sexual encounter, the psychological impact of HIV on sexual behavior, and partner characteristics were associated with high-risk sexual behaviors in this group. Among high-risk participants, factors associated with risky sexual behaviors clustered, with 57% reporting two or more factors. More intensive interventions are needed for this subset of youths living with HIV, including assessment and treatment for substance use and mental health issues, strategies for stress reduction, and partner interventions. PMID:21235387

  7. Development of the Competitive Work Environment Scale: A Multidimensional Climate Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Thomas D.; Nusbaum, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research suggests that competitive work environments may influence individual's attitudes, behaviors, stress, and performance. Unfortunately, adequate measures of competitive environments are lacking. This article traces the development of a new multidimensional competitive work environment scale. An initial 59-item pool covering five…

  8. Examining Middle School Students' Statistical Thinking While Working in a Technological Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scranton, Melissa Arnold

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of how students think in a technological environment. This was accomplished by exploring the differences in the thinking of students while they worked in a technological environment and comparing this to their work in a paper and pencil environment. The software program TinkerPlots:…

  9. The work compatibility improvement framework: an assessment of the worker-work environment interaction in the manufacturing sector.

    PubMed

    Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Magda M; A-Rehim, Amal D

    2008-08-01

    The manufacturing sector in the US is challenged by high health care costs and shortage of qualified workers, which are largely attributed to the degree of fit between the worker and work environment. In this regard, a healthy worker-work environment interface is a necessary and sufficient condition for the containment of health care costs and the retaining/attraction of highly qualified knowledge workers and should be based on the principles of optimum physical, cognitive and emotional health for the workers. In prior research, the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework (WCIF) was introduced as a vehicle to address these issues and was defined as the identification, improvement and maintenance of the well-being characteristics of the workforce and its interaction with the work environment through the application of engineering, medicine, management and human sciences methodologies, technologies and best practices. This paper advances WCIF by examining its applications in manufacturing with regard to the evaluation of working conditions impacting musculoskeletal/stress outcome measures. A study was conducted in a machining department of a bag packaging manufacturer in the Midwest of the United States. The work tasks were planned and executed with regard to the following aims: (1) to compute work compatibility as a function of work demands and energisers; (2) to establish whether the prevalence of musculoskeletal/stress disorders increases with a decrease in the quality of worker-work environment interface in terms of work compatibility level and other work factors such as shift and job category. A major finding is that a 'poor' work environment (a function of all work domains) results in musculoskeletal/stress disorders that are 105% and 67% higher than those for a 'good' work environment. The evening shift exhibited the poorest compatibility followed by the night shift relative to the day shift. Application of the work compatibility approach demonstrated the

  10. Characteristics of the work environment related to older employees' willingness to continue working: intrinsic motivation as a mediator.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Peter T

    2011-08-01

    The relationships between older employees' willingness to continue working and characteristics of the work environment for older workers were investigated, as well as a possible mediation by intrinsic motivation. 103 employees ages 50 to 65 years, from various sectors of the Dutch labor market, completed questionnaires that measured willingness to continue working, intrinsic motivation, organizational stimulation, work variety, work challenge, and job autonomy. Hierarchical regression analyses showed organizational stimulation, as well as the various job characteristics, were positively related to employees' willingness to continue working. Moreover, intrinsic motivation fully mediated the relationship of work variety with willingness to continue working and partially mediated the relationships of organizational stimulation, work challenge, and job autonomy with willingness to continue working. It was concluded that organizations can encourage older workers to work until age 65 and beyond by shifting their focus from extrinsic to intrinsic rewards. PMID:22049660

  11. Effectiveness in Work Roles: Employee Responses to Work Environments. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Robert P.

    A five-year study of effectiveness in work roles had four general objectives: (1) to assess associations between aspects of working conditions and indicators of employees' work role effectiveness; (2) to identify personal and situational characteristics that limit associations between working conditions and effectiveness; (3) to begin to map the…

  12. Flexible Work Arrangements: Accessibility in a University Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharafizad, Fleur; Paull, Megan; Omari, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    Attraction and retention of highly qualified employees has become an area of concern for Australian universities. It has been suggested that flexible work arrangements can be utilised to achieve this goal once the factors affecting their uptake have been identified. This mixed-method study of 495 academic and general staff at an Australian…

  13. The Collaborative School: A Work Environment for Effective Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stuart C.; Scott, James J.

    The benefits of a collaborative work setting--including such practices as mutual help, exchange of ideas, joint planning, and participative decision-making--have been consistently confirmed by studies of effective schools and successful businesses. However, teacher isolation remains the norm. Drawing on recent research and educators' firsthand…

  14. Group Work in a Technology-Rich Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Nikolai; Schulze, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses several components of successful language-learning methodologies--group work, task-based instruction, and wireless computer technologies--and examines how the interplay of these three was perceived by students in a second-year university foreign-language course. The technology component of our learning design plays a central…

  15. Seizing Workplace Learning Affordances in High-Pressure Work Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnaur, Dorina

    2010-01-01

    Work in call centres is often presented as a form of unskilled labour characterized by routinization, technological surveillance and tight management control aimed at reaching intensive performance targets. Beyond delivering business objectives, this control and efficiency strategy is often held to produce counterproductive effects with regard to…

  16. Tenure, Satisfaction, and Work Environment Flexibility of People with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiocchio, Francois; Frigon, Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    In the Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA), Dawis and Lofquist (1984) hypothesize that Employee satisfaction (ES) and flexibility of the work environment moderate the functional relationship between satisfaction in the work environment (WS) and the correspondence between job requirements and employees' abilities. In addition, they hypothesize that…

  17. External Environment Papers. Working Papers of Planning and Development Research. Working Paper 88-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TV Ontario, Toronto.

    These papers present the major issues and directions in five areas: (1) the socioeconomic and demographic environment (demography, the economies and labor forces of Canada and of Ontario, and the international and social environments); (2) education (K-12, postsecondary, adult, and the educational media resource market); (3) the broadcast…

  18. Hypersensitivity and the working environment for allergy nurses in sweden.

    PubMed

    Kalm-Stephens, Pia; Sterner, Therese; Kronholm Diab, Kerstin; Smedje, Greta

    2014-01-01

    Background. Allergy nurses are exposed to allergens and respiratory irritants, and there are no national guidelines addressing personnel safety when working with these agents. Objective. To investigate the prevalence of allergies, asthma, and hypersensitivity symptoms among allergy nurses and the use of protective equipment and measures when working with allergen concentrates and respiratory irritants. Methods. A questionnaire survey was performed among the members of the Swedish Association of Allergy Nurses. Results. Diagnosed asthma was reported by 17%, while 18% had allergy to pets, 28% had allergy to pollens, and 26% reported nasal symptoms. Fifty-one percent reported a history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms in their family. Exhaust ventilation was used by 24% during skin prick tests, 17% during allergen specific immunotherapy, and 33% when performing methacholine challenge tests. Tightly closed containers for disposable waste were used by 58% during skin prick tests, by 60% during immunotherapy, and by 40% during Pc provocation tests. Conclusion. Allergy nurses had a tendency to increased prevalence of lower respiratory symptoms, asthma, and allergic rhinitis and more than half of the nurses had a family history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the validity of these results. PMID:24803940

  19. Improving the work environment through the use of research instruments: an example.

    PubMed

    Sieloff, Christina Leibold

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several years, although the quality of the work environment has improved for registered nurses, there is much that still needs to be done. However, much of the published research conducted in relation to the quality of work environments has focused on the more traditional components of the work environment. To assess the nontraditional components of a work environment, it is critical that reliable and valid instruments be utilized in order to ensure that the data gathered is accurate and truly reflective of what exists within the work environment. This article will describe one instrument, the Sieloff-King Assessment of Group Outcome Attainment within Organizations, that has demonstrated reliability and validity. The application of this instrument in the improvement of the health care environment will be discussed. PMID:20023562

  20. High risk groups in oil shale workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.; Perry, B.W.; Marine, W.M.; Savitz, D.A.

    1984-04-01

    The workforce risks of a hypothetical one million barrels-per-day oil shale industry were estimated. The risks for the different workforce segments were compared and high risk groups were identified. Accidents and injuries were statistically described by rates for fatalities, for accidents with days lost from work, and for accidents with no days lost from work. Workforce diseases analyzed were cancers, silicosia, pneumoconiosis, chronic bronchitis, chronic airway obstruction, and high frequency hearing loss. A comparison of the workforce groups under different risk measures (occurrence, fatality, and life-loss expectancy) was performed. The miners represented the group with the largest fatality and the most serious accident rate, although the estimated rates were below the average industry-wide underground mining experience. Lung disease from inhalation exposure of about the nuisance dust threshold limit value presents a significant risk for future concerns. If future environmental dust exposure is at the 100 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ alpha-quartz level, safety improvements in the mining sector are of prime importance to reduce the oil shale worker's life-loss expectancy. 11 references, 1 figure, 11 tables.

  1. Career goals in the high risk adolescent.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Charlene; Woods, Charles; Barkin, Shari L

    2006-10-01

    Possessing a career goal might serve as a protective factor for an adolescent's healthy development. This could be especially important in adolescents who engage in high risk behaviors. The relationship between high risk adolescents' future career goals and selected predictor variables were examined. Almost half (49%) the students indicated a career goal. Students who reported a job were 5.1-fold more likely to have listed a future career goal. Females, those aged 18 years, and those whose mothers were employed were twice as likely to have a career goal. Considerations for fostering career goals for high risk students are warranted. PMID:16968962

  2. School Culture: A Validation Study and Exploration of Its Relationship with Teachers' Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ping

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed at exploring the relationship between school culture and teachers' work environment and further exploring the roles of school culture, teachers' efficacy, beliefs, and behaviors for character education, and teachers' work environment in the relationship between a character education intervention and…

  3. Teachers' Perceptions of Their Work Environment in Swedish Junior High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allodi, Mara Westling; Fischbein, Siv

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the organisational characteristics of junior high schools, to identify typologies of work environments and to explore the relationships between the type of work environment and how schools function. The educational profession and the role of teachers have been influenced by policies inspired by the principles…

  4. 75 FR 73946 - Worker Safety and Health Program: Safety Conscious Work Environment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... petition for rulemaking, published on October 16, 2009. 74 FR 53190. The vast majority of those comments... Part 851 Worker Safety and Health Program: Safety Conscious Work Environment AGENCY: Office of the... ``Safety-Conscious Work Environment'' guidelines as a model. DOE published this petition and a request...

  5. Design and Implementation of an Integrated Computer Working Environment for Doing Mathematics and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Andre; Kedzierska, Ewa; Ellermeijer, Ton

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report on the sustained research and development work at the AMSTEL Institute of the University of Amsterdam to improve mathematics and science education at primary and secondary school level, which has lead amongst other things to the development of the integrated computer working environment Coach 6. This environment consists of…

  6. High risk factors of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Camara, Soriba Naby; Yin, Tao; Yang, Ming; Li, Xiang; Gong, Qiong; Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Gang; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Aroun, Tajoo; Kuete, Martin; Ramdany, Sonam; Camara, Alpha Kabinet; Diallo, Aissatou Taran; Feng, Zhen; Ning, Xin; Xiong, Jiong-Xin; Tao, Jing; Qin, Qi; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Jing; Huang, Min; Guo, Yao; Gou, Shan-Miao; Wang, Bo; Liu, Tao; Olivier, Ohoya Etsaka Terence; Conde, Tenin; Cisse, Mohamed; Magassouba, Aboubacar Sidiki; Ballah, Sneha; Keita, Naby Laye Moussa; Souare, Ibrahima Sory; Toure, Aboubacar; Traore, Sadamoudou; Balde, Abdoulaye Korse; Keita, Namory; Camara, Naby Daouda; Emmanuel, Dusabe; Wu, He-Shui; Wang, Chun-You

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades, cancer has become one of the toughest challenges for health professionals. The epidemiologists are increasingly directing their research efforts on various malignant tumor worldwide. Of note, incidence of cancers is on the rise more quickly in developed countries. Indeed, great endeavors have to be made in the control of the life-threatening disease. As we know it, pancreatic cancer (PC) is a malignant disease with the worst prognosis. While little is known about the etiology of the PC and measures to prevent the condition, so far, a number of risk factors have been identified. Genetic factors, pre-malignant lesions, predisposing diseases and exogenous factors have been found to be linked to PC. Genetic susceptibility was observed in 10% of PC cases, including inherited PC syndromes and familial PC. However, in the remaining 90%, their PC might be caused by genetic factors in combination with environmental factors. Nonetheless, the exact mechanism of the two kinds of factors, endogenous and exogenous, working together to cause PC remains poorly understood. The fact that most pancreatic neoplasms are diagnosed at an incurable stage of the disease highlights the need to identify risk factors and to understand their contribution to carcinogenesis. This article reviews the high risk factors contributing to the development of PC, to provide information for clinicians and epidemiologists. PMID:27376795

  7. Academics in a New Work Environment: The Impact of New Public Management on Work Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Rui; Carvalho, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    New public management (NPM) approaches have informed policy in the public sector in advanced countries in the last decade. Some authors suggest that the main objective of NPM at the organisational level is to change the traditional way professionals are regulated. This study examines the impact of NPM on the working conditions of Portuguese higher…

  8. Impact of healthy work environments on new graduate nurses' environmental reality shock.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Marlene; Brewer, Brewer B; Maguire, Patricia

    2013-03-01

    Do healthy work environments (HWEs) facilitate new graduate transition into professional practice in hospitals? Are such environments related to a decrease in Environmental Reality Shock? Experienced nurses in 17 Magnet hospitals completed the Essentials of Magnetism II(©) (EOMII(©)) instrument that measures health of unit work environments. New graduates (N = 468) were then tracked with modified versions of the EOMII(©) from immediate post hire to 4, 8, and 12 months post hire to ascertain degree of Environmental Reality Shock. New graduate nurses have extremely high anticipations of unit work environments that would enable delivery of quality patient care. HWE is the most-significant variable in Environmental Reality Shock, number of related Issues and Concerns, and perceptions of quality of patient care. Suggestions of how to improve quality of unit work environments are offered. PMID:21498813

  9. Exploring Environment-Intervention Fit: A Study of a Work Environment Intervention Program for the Care Sector

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Louise Hardman; Aust, Birgit; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Targeting occupational health and safety interventions to different groups of employees and sectors is important. The aim of this study was to explore the environment-intervention fit of a Danish psychosocial work environment intervention program for the residential and home care sector. Focus group interviews with employees and interviews with mangers were conducted at 12 selected workplaces and a questionnaire survey was conducted with managers at all 115 workplaces. The interventions enhanced the probability of employees experiencing more “good” work days, where they could make a difference to the lives of clients. The interventions may therefore be characterized as culturally compelling and having a good fit with the immediate work environment of employees. The interventions furthermore seemed to fit well with the wider organizational environment and with recent changes in the societal and economic context of workplaces. However, some workplaces had difficulties with involving all employees and adapting the interventions to the organization of work. The findings suggest that flexibility and a variety of strategies to involve all employees are important aspects, if interventions are to fit well with the care sector. The focus on employees' conceptualization of a “good” work day may be useful for intervention research in other sectors. PMID:26380356

  10. Effect of a changing health care environment on social work leaders: obstacles and opportunities in hospital social work.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, T; Berger, C S

    2001-04-01

    The health care system is undergoing dramatic change in auspice, structure, and services delivery in response to an emphasis on market-driven, cost-containment strategies. Consequently, many hospital social work directors either have lost some of their administrative responsibilities or have expanded their span of control beyond social work services. This article examines the responses of social work administrators to the breadth of changes occurring throughout their hospitals; the major accomplishments of social work services within their facilities; and the failures, frustrations, and obstacles in the delivery of social work services. As a result of examining the relationship between their actual and anticipated behavior and changes in the hospital and external environment, the authors found that social work leaders in hospitals understand the complexities and challenges of the world around them. Overall, they have exhibited commitment, competence, and confidence in shaping organizational change. PMID:11329646

  11. Workplace gender composition and psychological distress: the importance of the psychosocial work environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health consequences of the gender segregated labour market have previously been demonstrated in the light of gender composition of occupations and workplaces, with somewhat mixed results. Associations between the gender composition and health status have been suggested to be shaped by the psychosocial work environment. The present study aims to analyse how workplace gender composition is related to psychological distress and to explore the importance of the psychosocial work environment for psychological distress at workplaces with different gender compositions. Methods The study population consisted of participants from the Northern Swedish Cohort with a registered workplace in 2007 when the participants were 42 years old (N = 795). Questionnaire data were supplemented with register data on the gender composition of the participants’ workplaces divided into three groups: workplaces with more women, mixed workplaces, and workplaces with more men. Associations between psychological distress and gender composition were analysed with multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for socioeconomic position, previous psychological distress, psychosocial work environment factors and gender. Logistic regression analyses (including interaction terms for gender composition and each work environment factor) were also used to assess differential associations between psychosocial work factor and psychological distress according to gender composition. Results Working at workplaces with a mixed gender composition was related to a higher likelihood of psychological distress compared to workplaces with more men, after adjustments for socioeconomic position, psychological distress at age 21, psychosocial work environment factors and gender. Psychosocial work environment factors did not explain the association between gender composition and psychological distress. Conclusions The association between gender composition and psychological distress cannot be

  12. Using mediation techniques to manage conflict and create healthy work environments.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Debra

    2004-01-01

    Healthcare organizations must find ways for managing conflict and developing effective working relationships to create healthy work environments. The effects of unresolved conflict on clinical outcomes, staff retention, and the financial health of the organization lead to many unnecessary costs that divert resources from clinical care. The complexity of delivering critical care services makes conflict resolution difficult. Developing collaborative working relationships helps to manage conflict in complex environments. Working relationships are based on the ability to deal with differences. Dealing with differences requires skill development and techniques for balancing interests and communicating effectively. Techniques used by mediators are effective for resolving disputes and developing working relationships. With practice, these techniques are easily transferable to the clinical setting. Listening for understanding, reframing, elevating the definition of the problem, and forming clear agreements can foster working relationships, decrease the level of conflict, and create healthy work environments that benefit patients and professionals. PMID:15461035

  13. Using evidence-based leadership initiatives to create a healthy nursing work environment.

    PubMed

    Nayback-Beebe, Ann M; Forsythe, Tanya; Funari, Tamara; Mayfield, Marie; Thoms, William; Smith, Kimberly K; Bradstreet, Harry; Scott, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to create a healthy nursing work environment in a military hospital Intermediate Care Unit (IMCU), a facility-level Evidence Based Practice working group composed of nursing.Stakeholders brainstormed and piloted several unit-level evidence-based leadership initiatives to improve the IMCU nursing work environment. These initiatives were guided by the American Association of Critical Care Nurses Standards for Establishing and Sustaining Healthy Work Environments which encompass: (1) skilled communication, (2) true collaboration, (3) effective decision making, (4) appropriate staffing, (5) meaningful recognition, and (6) authentic leadership. Interim findings suggest implementation of these six evidence-based, relationship-centered principals, when combined with IMCU nurses' clinical expertise, management experience, and personal values and preferences, improved staff morale, decreased staff absenteeism, promoted a healthy nursing work environment, and improved patient care. PMID:23759905

  14. Effects of Work Environment on Quality of Care in ICUs: A Multisite Survey in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiali; You, Liming; Zheng, Jing; Ross, Amy Miner; Liu, Ke

    2016-01-01

    This study estimated the effects of the work environment on the quality of care in intensive care units (ICUs). Nurses in ICUs with good work environments or high nurse staffing were significantly less likely to report poor or fair quality of care (odds ratio [OR] = 0.37-0.47), rationing of nursing care (OR = 0.38-0.76), and health care-associated infections (OR = 0.28-0.68). Favorable ICU work environments and adequate nurse staffing can predict better quality of care. PMID:26796973

  15. The quality of dental faculty work-life: report on the 2007 dental school faculty work environment survey.

    PubMed

    Haden, N Karl; Hendricson, William; Ranney, Richard R; Vargas, Adriana; Cardenas, Lina; Rose, William; Ross, Ridley; Funk, Edward

    2008-05-01

    This report is the third in a series of articles on the dental school work environment commissioned by the American Dental Education Association's Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education. The report is based on the most extensive research to date on faculty satisfaction in the dental school environment. The purpose of the study was to assess faculty perceptions and recommendations related to work environment, sources of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction, and professional development needs. More broadly, the study intends to provide insight into the "change readiness" of dental schools to move forward with curricular improvements and innovations. Findings are based on 1,748 responses from forty-nine U.S. dental schools obtained during the time frame of February to April 2007. The total number of respondents constituted 17 percent of all U.S. dental school faculty. The average response rate per school was thirty-six (21 percent). To elucidate the data in terms of issues related to the quality of faculty work-life based on demographics, the authors compared perceptions of various aspects of the work culture in academic dentistry among faculty with different academic ranks and academic degrees and by other variables such as age and gender, tenure versus non-tenure appointments, and full- versus part-time status. Quantitative and qualitative analyses show that the majority of faculty members described themselves as very satisfied to satisfied with their dental school overall and with their department as a place to work. Tenured associate professors expressed the greatest level of dissatisfaction. Opportunities for and support of professional development emerged as an area requiring substantially more attention from dental schools. The authors of the study suggest that dental school leaders use these findings to assess their individual dental school's work environment and to plan changes as needed. PMID:18451075

  16. Preventing and Investigating Horse-Related Human Injury and Fatality in Work and Non-Work Equestrian Environments: A Consideration of the Workplace Health and Safety Framework

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Meredith; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Attempts to reduce horse-related injuries and fatalities to humans have mostly focused on personal protective equipment like helmets. In organizational contexts, such technical interventions are considered secondary to reducing the frequency and severity of accidents. In this article, we describe the Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) framework that has been associated with reduced risks in industries and organisations. We consider how such a framework could be used to reduce horse-related risks in workplaces, as well as non-work equestrian competition and leisure environments. In this article, we propose that the simplicity and concepts of the WHS framework can provide risk mitigation benefits to both work and non-work equine identities. Abstract It has been suggested that one in five riders will be injured due to a fall from a horse, resulting in severe head or torso injuries. Attempts to reduce injury have primarily focussed on low level risk controls, such as helmets. In comparison, risk mitigation in high risk workplaces and sports is directed at more effective and preventative controls like training, consultation, safe work procedures, fit for purpose equipment and regular Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) monitoring. However, there has been no systematic consideration of the risk-reduction benefits of applying a WHS framework to reducing horse-related risks in workplaces, let alone competition or leisure contexts. In this article, we discuss the different dimensions of risk during human–horse interaction: the risk itself, animal, human and environmental factors and their combinations thereof. We consider the potential of the WHS framework as a tool for reducing (a) situation-specific hazards, and (b) the risks inherent in and arising from human–horse interactions. Whilst most—if not all—horses are unpredictable, the majority of horse-related injuries should be treated as preventable. The article concludes with a practical application of

  17. The association of Chinese hospital work environment with nurse burnout, job satisfaction, and intention to leave.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Feng; You, Li-Ming; Liu, Ke; Zheng, Jing; Fang, Jin-Bo; Lu, Min-Min; Lv, Ai-Li; Ma, Wei-Guang; Wang, Jian; Wang, Shu-Hong; Wu, Xue; Zhu, Xiao-Wen; Bu, Xiu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe nurse burnout, job satisfaction, and intention to leave and to explore the relationship of work environment to nursing outcomes in a sample of 9,698 nurses from 181 hospitals in China. Nurses reported moderate levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and high levels of reduced personal accomplishment. Nearly one-fifth of the nurses reported high levels of burnout on all three dimensions. Forty-five percent of the nurses were dissatisfied with their current job; these nurses were most dissatisfied with their salary. Five percent of nurses reported an intention to leave. Nurses reporting mixed and good work environments were less likely to report high burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intention to leave compared with those in poor work environments. The results suggest that high burnout and low job satisfaction are prominent problems for Chinese nurses, and improving work environment might be an effective strategy for better nursing outcomes in Chinese hospitals. PMID:24345617

  18. Work environment structure and psychological ownership: the mediating effects of control.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Jon L; O'Driscoll, Michael P; Coghlan, Anne-Marie

    2004-10-01

    Current theorists on the psychology of possession highlight control as an important route in the development of feelings of ownership. In the present article, the authors hypothesized that the extent to which individuals experience control over their job and work environment is positively associated with feelings of ownership for their job and the organization. The authors used supervisory report data on work environment structure and self-reports on experienced control and psychological ownership to test for the mediating effects of experienced control in the relationship between the work environment structure and psychological ownership. The authors found that experienced control mediates the relationship between 3 sources of work environment structure--technology, autonomy, and participative decision making--and psychological ownership of the job and (to a lesser extent) the organization. The authors proposed implications of the findings and directions of further research. PMID:15449699

  19. The Hospital Work Environment And Job Satisfaction of Newly Licensed Registered Nurses.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Lynn; Zhang, Ning Jackie

    2014-01-01

    In prior studies, newly licensed registered nurses (NLRNs) described their job as being stressful. Little is known about how the hospital work environment affects their job satisfaction. A random sample of NLRNs were surveyed to assess the influence of hospital work environment on job satisfaction. Perceptions of greater job difficulty, job demands, and patient load were significantly related to lower job satisfaction. In contrast, being White, working 12-hour shifts, working more hours, and having more job control, greater professional tenure, and a perception of a better initial orientation were significantly related to higher job satisfaction. PMID:26267960

  20. The Mediating Role of Affective Commitment in the Relation of the Feedback Environment to Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris-Watts, Christina; Levy, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    The Feedback Environment, as opposed to the formal performance appraisal process, is comprised of the daily interactions between members of an organization (Steelman, Levy, & Snell, in press). Relations between the feedback environment and work outcome variables such as Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) were examined through the mediating…

  1. Two Types of Learning Environment: Enabling and Constraining a Study of Care Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellstrom, Eva; Ekholm, Bodil; Ellstrom, Per-Erik

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to first elaborate on the notion of a learning environment based on an empirical study of care work. Second, to explore how aspects of a learning environment may differ between and within units in the same organization, and how to understand and explain such differences. Design/methodology/approach: The study…

  2. Teachers' Images of Their Schools and Perceptions of Their Work Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Darrell; Grady, Neville

    1998-01-01

    Describes development of the Images Through Metaphor Questionnaire and its application in an investigation of relationships between 162 (Tasmanian) teachers' images of their schools and their perceptions of their work environment as assessed by the School Level Environment Questionnaire. Results revealed a strong relationship between these…

  3. Age and work environment characteristics in relation to sleep: Additive, interactive and curvilinear effects.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Katharine R

    2016-05-01

    Although additive combinations of age and work environment characteristics have been found to predict sleep impairment, possible age x work environment interactions have been largely disregarded. The present study examined linear and curvilinear interactions of age with work environment measures in relation to sleep quality and duration. Survey data were collected from offshore day-shift personnel (N = 901). Main effects and interactions of the age terms with work environment measures (job demand, control, and social support, physical environment and strenuous work) were evaluated. Sleep duration was predicted by a curvilinear interaction, age(2)x job demand (p < .005), and by the age x social support interaction (p < .002); sleep quality was predicted by age x job demand (p < .002). Job control and physical environment showed significant additive effects. At a time when older employees are encouraged to remain in the workforce, the findings serve to increase understanding of how ageing and work demands jointly contribute to sleep impairment. PMID:26851463

  4. A social survey on the noise impact in open-plan working environments in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Kang, Jian; Jiao, Fenglei

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal noise impact in open-plan working environments in China, through a series of questionnaire surveys and acoustic measurements in typical open-plan working environments. It has been found that compared to other physical environmental factors in open-plan working environments, people are much less satisfied with the acoustic environment. The noise impact in the surveyed working environments is rather significant, in terms of sound level inside the office, understanding of colleagues' conversation, and the use of background music such as music players. About 30-50% of the interviewees think that various noise sources inside and outside offices are 'very disturbing' and 'disturbing', and the most annoying sounds include noises from outside, ventilation systems, office equipment, and keyboard typing. Using higher panels to separate work space, or working in enclosed offices, are regarded as effective improvement measures, whereas introducing natural sounds to mask unwanted sounds seems to be not preferable. There are significant correlations between the evaluation of acoustic environment and office symptoms, including hypersensitivity to loud sounds, easily getting tired and depression. There are also significant correlations between evaluation of various acoustics-related factors and certain statements relating to job satisfaction, including sensitivity to noise, as well as whether conversations could be heard by colleagues. PMID:23032568

  5. The impact of ADHD symptoms and global impairment in childhood on working disability in mid-adulthood: a 28-year follow-up study using official disability pension records in a high-risk in-patient population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Individuals with ADHD have been associated with more employment difficulties in early adulthood than healthy community controls. To examine whether this association is attributable specifically to disturbance of activity and attention (ADHD) or to psychopathology in general, we wanted to extend existing research by comparing the rate of mid-adulthood working disabilities for individuals diagnosed with ADHD as children with the rate for clinical controls diagnosed with either conduct disorder, emotional disorder or mixed disorder of conduct and emotions. Methods Former Norwegian child-psychiatric in-patients (n = 257) were followed up 17–39 years after hospitalization by record linkage to the Norwegian national registry of disability pension (DP) awards. Based on the hospital records, the patients were re-diagnosed according to ICD-10. Associations between the diagnoses, other baseline factors and subsequent DP were investigated using Kaplan–Meier survival analyses and logrank testing. Results At follow-up, 19% of the participants had received a DP award. In the logrank testing, ADHD was the only disorder associated with a subsequent DP, with 30% being disabled at follow-up (p = 0.01). Low psychosocial functioning (assessed by the Children’s Global Assessment Scale) at admission uniquely predicted future DP (p = 0.04). Conclusions ADHD in childhood was highly associated with later receiving a DP. Our finding of worse prognosis in ADHD compared with other internalizing and externalizing disorders in mid-adulthood supports the assumption of ADHD being specifically linked to working disability. Assessment of psychosocial functioning in addition to diagnostic features could enhance prediction of children who are most at risk of future disability. PMID:23083209

  6. Full-time dental faculty perceptions of satisfaction with the academic work environment.

    PubMed

    Froeschle, Mary Lynn; Sinkford, Jeanne C

    2009-10-01

    A significant factor in a faculty member's accepting or maintaining an academic appointment is the work environment. Assessing the work environment to identify characteristics that could increase faculty retention and recruitment could be valuable to an educational institution. This study assessed the academic dental work environment to identify positive and negative areas affecting career satisfaction. An online survey about departmental structure and individual work patterns was sent to the deans of fifty-two U.S. dental schools who then forwarded the survey to their faculty. Thirty-eight institutions (73 percent) and 451 full-time faculty members from those thirty-eight schools responded. Most dental faculty members in this survey intend to remain in academia for the next five to eight years. Slightly fewer male faculty members intend to remain in dental education for five to eight years than do female faculty members. Positive satisfaction aspects of the work environment listed by respondents included supportive chair/administration, working relationships with colleagues, and interactions with students. Negative satisfaction aspects of the work environment included low salary, long hours, and heavy workloads. Both positive aspects of job satisfaction and negative factors that impede productivity need to be analyzed within the framework of each institution to enact change for career enrichment, leading to increased faculty recruitment and retention. PMID:19805780

  7. Review article: Staff perception of the emergency department working environment: Integrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Amy; Abraham, Louisa; Greenslade, Jaimi; Thom, Ogilvie; Carlstrom, Eric; Wallis, Marianne; Crilly, Julia

    2016-02-01

    Employees in EDs report increasing role overload because of critical staff shortages, budgetary cuts and increased patient numbers and acuity. Such overload could compromise staff satisfaction with their working environment. This integrative review identifies, synthesises and evaluates current research around staff perceptions of the working conditions in EDs. A systematic search of relevant databases, using MeSH descriptors ED/EDs, Emergency room/s, ER/s, or A&E coupled with (and) working environment, working condition/s, staff perception/s, as well as reference chaining was conducted. We identified 31 key studies that were evaluated using the mixed methods assessment tool (MMAT). These comprised 24 quantitative-descriptive studies, four mixed descriptive/comparative (non-randomised controlled trial) studies and three qualitative studies. Studies included varied widely in quality with MMAT scores ranging from 0% to 100%. A key finding was that perceptions of working environment varied across clinical staff and study location, but that high levels of autonomy and teamwork offset stress around high pressure and high volume workloads. The large range of tools used to assess staff perception of working environment limits the comparability of the studies. A dearth of intervention studies around enhancing working environments in EDs limits the capacity to recommend evidence-based interventions to improve staff morale. PMID:26784282

  8. Review article: Staff perception of the emergency department working environment: Integrative review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Louisa; Greenslade, Jaimi; Thom, Ogilvie; Carlstrom, Eric; Wallis, Marianne; Crilly, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Employees in EDs report increasing role overload because of critical staff shortages, budgetary cuts and increased patient numbers and acuity. Such overload could compromise staff satisfaction with their working environment. This integrative review identifies, synthesises and evaluates current research around staff perceptions of the working conditions in EDs. A systematic search of relevant databases, using MeSH descriptors ED/EDs, Emergency room/s, ER/s, or A&E coupled with (and) working environment, working condition/s, staff perception/s, as well as reference chaining was conducted. We identified 31 key studies that were evaluated using the mixed methods assessment tool (MMAT). These comprised 24 quantitative‐descriptive studies, four mixed descriptive/comparative (non‐randomised controlled trial) studies and three qualitative studies. Studies included varied widely in quality with MMAT scores ranging from 0% to 100%. A key finding was that perceptions of working environment varied across clinical staff and study location, but that high levels of autonomy and teamwork offset stress around high pressure and high volume workloads. The large range of tools used to assess staff perception of working environment limits the comparability of the studies. A dearth of intervention studies around enhancing working environments in EDs limits the capacity to recommend evidence‐based interventions to improve staff morale. © 2016 The Authors. Emergency Medicine Australasia published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine PMID:26784282

  9. Person-centered work environments, psychological safety, and positive affect in healthcare: a theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Rathert, Cheryl; May, Douglas R

    2008-01-01

    We propose that in order to systematically improve healthcare quality, healthcare organizations (HCOs) need work environments that are person-centered: environments that support the careprovider as well as the patient. We further argue that HCOs have a moral imperative to provide a workplace where professional care standards can be achieved. We draw upon a large body of research from several disciplines to propose and articulate a theoretical framework that explains how the work environment should be related to the well-being of patients and careproviders, that is, the potential mediating mechanisms. Person-centered work environments include: 1. Climates for patient-centered care. 2. Climates for quality improvement. 3. Benevolent ethical climates. Such a work environment should support the provision of patient-centered care, and should lead to positive psychological states for careproviders, including psychological safety and positive affect. The model contributes to theory by specifying relationships between important organizational variables. The model can potentially contribute to practice by linking specific work environment attributes to outcomes for careproviders and patients. PMID:18839753

  10. The Effects of Training Design, Individual Characteristics and Work Environment on Transfer of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velada, Raquel; Caetano, Antonio; Michel, John W.; Lyons, Brian D.; Kavanagh, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to gain insight into some of the factors that determine the transfer of training to the work context. The present research examined the relationship between three types of predictors on transfer of training, including training design, individual characteristics and work environment. Data was collected at two points in time from 182…

  11. Cross-National Similarities and Differences in Employee Perceptions of Issues in the Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripley, David; Hudson, Irene; Turner, Robin; Osman-Gani, AAhad

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study examines cross-national similarities and differences in employee perceptions of issues in the work environment in 17 organizational work settings in seven Asia-Pacific countries; Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. Employees at these 17 sites indicated their degree of…

  12. Impact of Graduates from an Online Program in Their Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scagnoli, Norma; Stephens, Melissa; Anderson, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Online distance education programs are populated by adult learners who try to continue or complete their education without having to leave their jobs or places of residence. Their work environment becomes not just their working place, but also the lab where they apply new knowledge. The general expectation is that after graduation they will make…

  13. Work Environment and Japanese Fathers' Involvement in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii-Kuntz, Masako

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies mainly examined individual and family factors affecting Japanese fathers' involvement in child care. Along with these factors, we examine how work-related factors such as father-friendly environment at work, workplace's accommodation of parental needs, job stress, and autonomy are associated with Japanese men's…

  14. Working Memory Capacity and Mobile Multimedia Learning Environments: Individual Differences in Learning While Mobile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Peter E.; Mariano, Gina J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) on learning from an historical inquiry multimedia tutorial in stationary versus mobile learning environments using a portable digital media player (i.e., iPod). Students with low (n = 44) and high (n = 40) working memory capacity, as measured by the…

  15. Spaces for Geometric Work: Figural, Instrumental, and Discursive Geneses of Reasoning in a Technological Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez-Chacón, Inés Ma; Kuzniak, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this research was to assess the effect of a dynamic environment on relationships between the three geneses (figural, instrumental, and discursive) of Spaces for Geometric Work. More specifically, it was to determine whether the interactive geometry program GeoGebra could play a specific role in the geometric work of future…

  16. Determination of high-risk cargo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Leo A.; Smith, Douglas E.; Khan, Siraj M.

    1994-10-01

    The approach and methodology used in the determination of the type of cargo containing concealments of commercial quantities of narcotics such as cocaine and heroin is described. This high-risk cargo enters the United States through border crossings at land, seaports and airports. The volume and variety of cargos make it a complex and challenging task for the U.S. Customs Service.

  17. Student Assistance Programs and High Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casale, Jenni

    This manual discusses a method for developing a comprehensive drug abuse prevention and intervention program for students in special education. The first section contains introductory material regarding high risk students in general and implications for special education. The second section outlines material on specific types of high-risk…

  18. The High Risk Freshman Chemist Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Miles

    1977-01-01

    Reports on the long term comparison between a group of "high risk" college freshmen who were given a supplemental chemistry course and another group who did not have the course. The supplemental course was found to produce only a short term rise in students' grades. (MR)

  19. Micronutrient requirements of high-risk infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronutrient requirements are well-established for healthy full-term infants. However, few such recommendations exist for high-risk infants, including full-term infants with a variety of medical disorders or very preterm infants. Key micronutrients considered in this review are calcium, phosphorus,...

  20. Iowa Certified Nursing Assistants Study: Self-Reported Ratings of the Nursing Home Work Environment

    PubMed Central

    Culp, Kennith; Ramey, Sandra; Karlman, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Certified nursing assistants (CNAs) are the principal bedside caregivers in nursing homes, yet little is known about their perceptions of the work environment. This population-based, cross-sectional study used a mailed questionnaire to a random sample of Iowa CNAs (N = 584), representing 166 nursing homes. Of the respondents, 88.5% (n = 517) were currently employed in long-term care settings; however, 11.5% (n = 67) indicated they had left their jobs. When CNA responses were compared with those of other occupational groups, general workers reported higher scores on involvement, coworker cohesion, work pressure, and supervisor support. Those who left their CNA jobs rated their work environment as characteristic of excessive managerial control and task orientation. Results of this study emphasize the importance of the relationship between CNAs and their supervisors, CNAs’ need for greater autonomy and innovation, and the need for the work environment to change dramatically in the area of human resource management. PMID:20078021

  1. Relationship between Psychiatric Nurse Work Environments and Nurse Burnout in Acute Care General Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Nancy P.; Aiken, Linda H.; McClaine, Lakeetra; Hanlon, Alexandra L

    2010-01-01

    Following deinstitutionalization, inpatient psychiatric services moved from state institutions to general hospitals. Despite the magnitude of these changes, evaluations of the quality of inpatient care environments in general hospitals are limited. This study examined the extent to which organizational factors of the inpatient psychiatric environments are associated with psychiatric nurse burnout. Organizational factors were measured by an instrument endorsed by the National Quality Forum. Robust clustered regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between organizational factors in 67 hospitals and levels of burnout for 353 psychiatric nurses. Lower levels of psychiatric nurse burnout was significantly associated with inpatient environments that had better overall quality work environments, more effective managers, strong nurse-physician relationships, and higher psychiatric nurse-to-patient staffing ratios. These results suggest that adjustments in organizational management of inpatient psychiatric environments could have a positive effect on psychiatric nurses’ capacity to sustain safe and effective patient care environments. PMID:20144031

  2. Full shift arm inclinometry among dairy parlor workers: a feasibility study in a challenging work environment.

    PubMed

    Douphrate, David I; Fethke, Nathan B; Nonnenmann, Matthew W; Rosecrance, John C; Reynolds, Stephen J

    2012-05-01

    Over the last 20 years, the US dairy industry has experienced a significant transformation from small farm operations to an industrialization of the milking process. This transformation has resulted in improvements in process efficiency and product quality. Milking tasks in large-herd parlors are highly-repetitive involving awkward postures and high muscle loads of the upper extremity. Field-based direct measures of physical exposures have been limited in challenging work settings such as dairies. This study evaluated full-shift exposures of posture and motion of the upper extremity among large-herd parlor milkers using wireless inclinometry. Results suggest large-herd parlor workers may be exposed to high exposure levels (posture, movement velocity, repetition, and inadequate rest) associated with the development of shoulder pathology. Compared to other high-risk occupations involving shoulder-intensive work, parlor workers may have higher exposure levels. These findings warrant the need for continued field-based research with larger sample sizes to facilitate the development of cost-effective intervention strategies. PMID:22019358

  3. Systematic Work Environment Management: experiences from implementation in Swedish small-scale enterprises.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Kristina; Andersson, Ing-Marie; Rosén, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    Small-scale enterprises face difficulties in fulfilling the regulations for organising Systematic Work Environment Management. This study compared three groups of small-scale manufacturing enterprises with and without support for implementing the provision. Two implementation methods, supervised and network method, were used. The third group worked according to their own ideas. Twenty-three enterprises participated. The effects of the implementation were evaluated after one year by semi-structured dialogue with the manager and safety representative. Each enterprise was classified on compliance with ten demands concerning the provision. The work environment was estimated by the WEST-method. Impact of the implementation on daily work was also studied. At the follow-up, the enterprises in the supervised method reported slightly more improvements in the fulfilment of the demands in the provision than the enterprises in the network method and the enterprises working on their own did. The effect of the project reached the employees faster in the enterprises with the supervised method. In general, the work environment improved to some extent in all enterprises. Extensive support to small-scale enterprises in terms of advise and networking aimed to fulfil the regulations of Systematic Work Environment Management had limited effect - especially considering the cost of applying these methods. PMID:20424349

  4. The effect of the work environment on future sleep disturbances: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Linton, Steven J; Kecklund, Göran; Franklin, Karl A; Leissner, Lena C; Sivertsen, Børge; Lindberg, Eva; Svensson, Anna C; Hansson, Sven O; Sundin, Örjan; Hetta, Jerker; Björkelund, Cecilia; Hall, Charlotte

    2015-10-01

    Workers often attribute poor sleep to factors at work. Despite the large number of workers with sleep disturbances, there is a lack of consensus on the relationship between the work environment and sleep. The purpose of this systematic review therefore was to conduct a comprehensive evaluation. To this end, we employed standardized methods to systematically locate, review, and tabulate the results of prospective or randomized studies of the impact of work factors on sleep disturbances. From the 7981 articles located in five databases, 24 fulfilled our inclusion criteria and formed the base of the review including meta-analyses of the effect sizes. Results showed that the psychosocial work variables of social support at work, control, and organizational justice were related to fewer sleep disturbances, while high work demands, job strain, bullying, and effort-reward imbalance were related to more future sleep disturbances. Moreover, working a steady shift was associated with disturbances while exiting shift work was associated with less disturbed sleep. We conclude that psychosocial work factors and the scheduling of work have an impact on sleep disturbances and this might be utilized in the clinic as well as for planning work environments. Future research needs to employ better methodology and focus on underlying mechanisms. PMID:25645126

  5. It starts with a conversation: a community approach to creating healthy work environments.

    PubMed

    Longo, Joy; Dean, Amy; Norris, Shelby Darlene; Wexner, Suzette W; Kent, Leslie N

    2011-01-01

    A healthy work environment is needed to retain nurses. Among the factors that contribute to a healthy work environment are collaboration and communication. Through the leadership of the Palm Healthcare Foundation, Inc., a dialogue was started among health care stakeholders in Palm Beach County, Florida, resulting in a health care work force partnership community collaboration and initiatives to address the retention of nurses. One initiative was sponsoring a "train-the-trainer" program to raise awareness and provide skills for addressing factors that could affect work relationships, including emotional intelligence, generational differences, cultural competency and health literacy, employee crisis, and horizontal violence. A 6-month program evaluation was completed by the participants. A community approach provides a means for providers and educators to address common work force issues collaboratively. PMID:20839660

  6. Psychosocial work environment and incidence of severe depressive symptoms: prospective findings from a 5-year follow-up of the Danish work environment cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rugulies, Reiner; Bültmann, Ute; Aust, Birgit; Burr, Hermann

    2006-05-15

    The authors analyzed the impact of psychosocial work characteristics on the incidence of severe depressive symptoms among 4,133 (49% women) employees from a representative sample of the Danish workforce between 1995 and 2000. Psychosocial work characteristics at baseline included quantitative demands, influence at work, possibilities for development, social support from supervisors and coworkers, and job insecurity. Severe depressive symptoms were measured with the five-item Mental Health Inventory of the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, with a cutoff point of 52. Women with low influence at work (relative risk (RR) = 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 3.82) and low supervisor support (RR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.20, 3.43) were at increased risk for severe depressive symptoms after exclusion of cases at baseline and adjustment for sociodemographic factors, baseline depression score, and health behaviors. Further adjustments for socioeconomic position did not change the result substantially. Additional analyses showed that a one-standard deviation increase on the influence scale resulted in a 27% decreased risk of severe depressive symptoms. Among men, job insecurity predicted severe depressive symptoms (RR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.02, 4.07). The findings indicate that the work environment influences the risk of developing severe depressive symptoms and that different factors play a role for men and women. PMID:16571741

  7. Leading a multicultural work environment: reflections on the next frontier of nurse leadership.

    PubMed

    Washington, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Nurses face the challenge of leading in a diverse society. Is the cross section of present-day nurse leaders prepared to meet the needs of patients and a work environment represented by a broader range of social backgrounds, cultural traditions, and languages? Fundamental to leaders' ability to meet diverse needs is a new framework for understanding the meaning of leadership, in which the issue of diversity is paramount. This article explores how the word leadership expresses a more complex system, when responsibility to address human needs is emphasized, and care for multilingual and multiethnic patients by a diverse, committed work environment is a focus. Under the umbrella of diversity, the necessary knowledge to create such a work environment may lack depth or may even be absent. PMID:25714953

  8. Technology solutions for high-risk tasks in critical care.

    PubMed

    Baptiste, Andrea

    2007-06-01

    There are several high-risk nursing tasks in the critical care environment discussed in this article. These tasks include lateral transfers, repositioning patients up or side to side in bed, bed-to-chair or -wheelchair transfers, pericare of bariatric patients, toileting in bed, sustained limb holding for dressing wounds, and patient transport. Although many, if not all, of these tasks currently are performed manually, there are technological solutions available that undoubtedly can reduce the risks for caregiver and patient injuries. These solutions should be implemented in critical care to promote the safety of all involved in patient care. PMID:17512473

  9. How I treat high-risk myeloma.

    PubMed

    Lonial, Sagar; Boise, Lawrence H; Kaufman, Jonathan

    2015-09-24

    The treatment of patients with myeloma has dramatically changed over the past decade due in part to the development of new agents and myeloma-specific targets. Despite these advancements, a group for whom the long-term benefit remains less clear are patients with genetically or clinically defined high-risk myeloma. In order to successfully treat these patients, it is important to first identify these patients, treat them with aggressive combination therapy, and employ the use of aggressive long-term maintenance therapy. Future directions include the use of new immune-based treatments (antibodies or cellular-based therapies) as well as target-driven approaches. Until these treatment approaches are better defined, this review will provide a potential treatment approach for standard- and high-risk myeloma that can be followed using agents and strategies that are currently available with the goal of improving progression-free and overall survival for these patients today. PMID:26272217

  10. Changes in Hospital Nurse Work Environments and Nurse Job Outcomes: An Analysis of Panel Data

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Evan S.; Sloane, Douglas M.; Aiken, Linda H.; Fagin, Claire M.

    2013-01-01

    Background One strategy proposed to alleviate nursing shortages is the promotion of organizational efforts that will improve nurse recruitment and retention. Cross-sectional studies have shown that the quality of the nurse work environment is associated with nurse outcomes related to retention, but there have been very few longitudinal studies undertaken to examine this relationship. Objectives To demonstrate how rates of burnout, intention to leave, and job dissatisfaction changed in a panel of hospitals over time, and to explore whether these outcomes were associated with changes in nurse work environments. Methods A retrospective, two-stage panel design was chosen for this study. Survey data collected from large random samples of registered nurses employed in Pennsylvania hospitals in 1999 and 2006 were used to derive hospital-level rates of burnout, intentions to leave current positions, and job dissatisfaction, and to classify the quality of nurses’ work environments at both points in time. A two-period difference model was used to estimate the dependence of changes in rates of nurse burnout, intentions to leave, and job dissatisfaction on changes in nurse work environments between 1999 and 2006 in 137 hospitals, accounting for concurrent changes in nurse staffing levels. Results In general, nurse outcomes improved between 1999 and 2006, with fewer nurses reporting burnout, intentions to leave, and job dissatisfaction in 2006 as compared to 1999. Our difference models showed that improvements in work environment had a strong negative association with changes in rates of burnout (β =−6.42%, p<0.01) intentions to leave (β =−4.10%, p<0.01), and job dissatisfaction (β =−8.00%, p<0.01). Conclusions Improvements in nurse work environments over time are associated with lower rates of nurse burnout, intentions to leave current positions, and job dissatisfaction. PMID:22902135

  11. Evaluation of Risk Management Strategies for a Low-Cost, High-Risk Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert; Jorgensen, Edward J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes work in progress to define and implement a risk management process tailored to a low-cost, high-risk, NASA mission -the Microrover Flight Experiment (MFEX, commonly called the Mars microrover).

  12. Detection of High-Risk Atherosclerotic Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Fleg, Jerome L.; Stone, Gregg W.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Granada, Juan F.; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Kolodgie, Frank D.; Ohayon, Jacques; Pettigrew, Roderic; Sabatine, Marc S.; Tearney, Guillermo; Waxman, Sergio; Domanski, Michael J.; Srinivas, Pothur R.; Narula, Jagat

    2013-01-01

    The leading cause of major morbidity and mortality in most countries around the world is atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, most commonly caused by thrombotic occlusion of a high-risk coronary plaque resulting in myocardial infarction or cardiac death, or embolization from a high-risk carotid plaque resulting in stroke. The lesions prone to result in such clinical events are termed vulnerable or high-risk plaques, and their identification may lead to the development of pharmacological and mechanical intervention strategies to prevent such events. Autopsy studies from patients dying of acute myocardial infarction or sudden death have shown that such events typically arise from specific types of atherosclerotic plaques, most commonly the thin-cap fibroatheroma. However, the search in human beings for vulnerable plaques before their becoming symptomatic has been elusive. Recently, the PROSPECT (Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree) study demonstrated that coronary plaques that are likely to cause future cardiac events, regardless of angiographic severity, are characterized by large plaque burden and small lumen area and/or are thin-cap fibroatheromas verified by radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound imaging. This study opened the door to identifying additional invasive and noninvasive imaging modalities that may improve detection of high-risk atherosclerotic lesions and patients. Beyond classic risk factors, novel biomarkers and genetic profiling may identify those patients in whom noninvasive imaging for vulnerable plaque screening, followed by invasive imaging for risk confirmation is warranted, and in whom future pharmacological and/or device-based focal or regional therapies may be applied to improve long-term prognosis. PMID:22974808

  13. Core self-evaluations and job performance: the role of the perceived work environment.

    PubMed

    Kacmar, K Michele; Collins, Brian J; Harris, Kenneth J; Judge, Timothy A

    2009-11-01

    Using trait activation theory as a framework, the authors examined the moderating role of two situational variables-perceptions of organizational politics and perceptions of leader effectiveness-on the relationship between core self-evaluations and job performance. Results from two samples (N = 137 and N = 226) indicate that employee perceptions of their work environment moderated the relationship between their core self-evaluations and supervisor ratings of their performance. In particular, those with higher core self-evaluations received higher performance ratings in environments perceived as favorable than in environments perceived as unfavorable. PMID:19916664

  14. Drunken environments: a survey of bartenders working in pubs, bars and nightclubs.

    PubMed

    Tutenges, Sébastien; Bøgkjær, Trine; Witte, Maj; Hesse, Morten

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that bartenders play a key role in respect of the health and safety of patrons in nightlife environments. However, little is known of how bartenders themselves are affected by the environments in which they work, especially with regard to their exposure to violence, pressure to drink and stress. We used a cross-sectional survey to assess the experiences of bartenders (n = 424) working in pubs, bars and nightclubs in Denmark. 71% of the respondents reported drinking while working, 6% reported using other drugs than alcohol at work, and 33% reported drinking even when they did not feel like it because of pressure to drink at work. Verbal assaults and threats were common and associated with higher levels of perceived stress. Bartenders' work environment poses a risk for the development of alcohol use disorders. The fact that many bartenders consume significant quantities of alcohol during their working hours may pose a risk not only to their own safety, but also to that of their colleagues and patrons. PMID:24157511

  15. Approaching the Discriminatory Work Environment as Stressor: The Protective Role of Job Satisfaction on Health

    PubMed Central

    Di Marco, Donatella; López-Cabrera, Rocio; Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organizational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organizational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyze the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees’ health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male = 826, female = 764), employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees’ health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R2 = 0.17). This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers’ health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognize and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g., through training, diversity policies, etc.). On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g., providing mechanisms of voice) might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment. PMID:27625625

  16. Approaching the Discriminatory Work Environment as Stressor: The Protective Role of Job Satisfaction on Health.

    PubMed

    Di Marco, Donatella; López-Cabrera, Rocio; Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organizational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organizational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyze the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees' health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male = 826, female = 764), employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees' health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R (2) = 0.17). This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers' health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognize and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g., through training, diversity policies, etc.). On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g., providing mechanisms of voice) might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment. PMID:27625625

  17. Is working in culturally diverse working environment associated with physicians' work-related well-being? A cross-sectional survey study among Finnish physicians.

    PubMed

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Heponiemi, Tarja; Väänänen, Ari; Bergbom, Barbara; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko

    2014-08-01

    International mobility of health care professionals is increasing, though little is known about how working in a culturally diverse team affects the native physicians' psychosocial work environment. We examined Finnish physicians' perceptions of work-related wellbeing according to whether they had foreign-born colleagues (FBCs) in their work unit. We also examined whether work-related resources moderate the potential association between work-related wellbeing and working alongside FBCs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted for a random sample of physicians in Finland in 2010 (3826 respondents, response rate 55%). Analyses were restricted to native Finnish physicians working in public health care. The results were analyzed by ANCOVA. In unadjusted analyses, having FBCs was related to poor team climate (p<0.001) and poor job satisfaction (p=0.001). Those physicians who reported high procedural justice and high job control perceived also higher job satisfaction even if they had many FBCs in the work unit (p=0.007 for interaction between FBCs and procedural justice and p<0.001 for interaction between FBCs and job control). These associations were robust to adjustments for age, sex, health care sector, specialization, on-call duty, employment contract, full-time employment and leadership position. The results indicate that culturally diverse work units face challenges related to team climate and job satisfaction. The results also show that leadership plays an important role in culturally diverse work units. The potential challenges of culturally diverse teams for native physicians may be reduced by fair decision-making and by increasing physicians' job control. PMID:24602375

  18. Growing the Endowment in a High-Risk Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharp, Charles

    1997-01-01

    To increase the value of its endowment, a college or university must manage three separate but interdependent factors: endowment spending rate; investment policy; and fund-raising. Using lessons learned by other institutions, Oberlin College (Ohio) developed strategies for spending and investment that balance the institution's need for income, the…

  19. Does the Social Working Environment Predict Beginning Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Feelings of Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devos, Christelle; Dupriez, Vincent; Paquay, Leopold

    2012-01-01

    We investigate how the social working environment predicts beginning teachers' self-efficacy and feelings of depression. Two quantitative studies are presented. The results show that the goal structure of the school culture (mastery or performance orientation) predicts both outcomes. Frequent collaborative interactions with colleagues are related…

  20. Perception of Transfer Climate Factors in the Macro and Micro Organizational Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diggs, Byron Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to provide insight on the perceived transfer climate factors in the macro and micro organizational work environment that may influence an employee's willingness to transfer what was learned in a training program to the job. More specifically, the purpose of the study was to delineate descriptive patterns and…

  1. Students' Socio-Scientific Reasoning in an Astrobiological Context during Work with a Digital Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Lena; Redfors, Andreas; Rosberg, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In a European project--CoReflect--researchers in seven countries are developing, implementing and evaluating teaching sequences using a web-based platform (STOCHASMOS). The interactive web-based inquiry materials support collaborative and reflective work. The learning environments will be iteratively tested and refined, during different phases of…

  2. One Approach to Formulating and Evaluating Student Work Groups in Legal Environment of Business Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Joan E.; Carr, B. Nathaniel; Grota, Barbara L.

    2007-01-01

    The principal focus of this study is an investigation of whether students' grade point average (GPA) is a viable criterion for forming student work groups in the undergraduate Legal Environment of Business course. More specifically, the research focuses on the impact of: (1) GPA-homogeneous (HO) and GPA-heterogeneous (HE) groups upon student…

  3. Participation in Science Practices while Working in a Multimedia Case-Based Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hosun; Lundeberg, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how two female students participated in science practices as they worked in a multimedia case-based environment: interpreting simulated results, reading and writing multiple texts, role-playing, and Internet conferencing. Using discourse analysis, the following data were analyzed: students' published…

  4. Lessons learned on utilizing the SEI/CMM in the federal government work for others environment

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on lessons learned on utilizing the Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model in the federal government work for others environment. These viewgraphs outline: data systems research and development; what is the SEI/CMM; Data Systems Research and Development process improvement approach; accomplishments; and lessons learned.

  5. Stress in the Work Environment: An Examination of Social Support and Hardiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David E.; Campbell, David E.

    Stress in organizations continues to be of interests to researchers in industrial psychology, organizational behavior, and human resources development. This study examined the effects on stress of an individual's social support and hardiness in a work environment. Subjects were 90 employees of an industrial firm and 50 undergraduate students who…

  6. From Theory of Work Adjustment to Person-Environment Correspondence Counseling: Vocational Psychology as Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggerth, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that vocational psychology is, and has been, positive psychology. It provides an overview of the theory of work adjustment (TWA), one of the most robust and best validated theories in vocational psychology. It also provides an introduction to person-environment-correspondence (PEC) counseling, an extension of the TWA concepts…

  7. Teacher-Working-Environment Fit as a Framework for Burnout Experienced by Finnish Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyhalto, Kirsi; Pietarinen, Janne; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the kinds of episodes that challenge comprehensive school teachers' occupational well-being and cause burnout and how teachers perceive the relationship between themselves and their working environment in these episodes. Altogether, a selected group of 68 primary and secondary school teachers were…

  8. Employment, Work Conditions, and the Home Environment in Single-Mother Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lleras, Christy

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of employment status and work conditions on the quality of the home environment provided by single mothers of preschool-age children. Multivariate analyses were conducted using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The results indicate that employment status is not a significant predictor of the…

  9. Analysis of French Secondary School Teachers' Intention to Integrate Digital Work Environments into Their Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacurar, Ecaterina; Abbas, Nargis

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the effective use of Digital Work Environment (DWE) in France. A theoretical framework based on the pedagogical engineering approach is used to propose an hypothetical model, which results in an explained variable of intention for the pedagogical use of an educational technology. The sex, the teaching disciplines, the…

  10. Health promotion in the maritime work environment--training of leaders.

    PubMed

    Jezewska, Maria; Jaremin, Bogdan; Leszczyńska, Irena

    2007-01-01

    The essence of the project of pro-health attitudes promotion is the assumption that they contribute to a successful occupational career and reduce health and life hazards in the maritime work environment. The method chosen was to train students of the Maritime Academy in Gdynia, the future officers and potential health leaders among maritime employees. PMID:18350982

  11. Work Environment Practice Attitudes of Recent Black and Chicano Doctor of Pharmacy Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinert, Ansfried B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A study of work environments of graduates of the University of California School of Pharmacy indicates that minority pharmacists pursue different types of practice in different locations and receive different incomes than nonminority pharmacists, and that minority programs increase minority pharmacist representation in underserved areas. (JMD)

  12. A Phenomenological Study Examining the Impact of Unionized Environments on College Work Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strehlow, Betty

    2012-01-01

    For the last half century, faculty in higher education has embraced unionization in its profession in a significant way. Both administrators and faculty in unionized college environments have a stake in the interactions between the two entities and a vested interest in understanding the factors that can influence working relationships. Despite…

  13. The Design of the Virtual Company: Synergism of Learning and Working in a Networked Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westera, Wim; Sloep, Peter B.; Gerrissen, Jack F.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Virtual Company, a learning environment developed by the Open University (Netherlands) that is modeled after real companies to bridge the gap between learning and working by situating learning in a real-life business setting. Discusses problems in higher education, demands of society, and results of a pilot study. (Author/LRW)

  14. Academic Accreditation of Work-Based Learning in the Construction Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLernon, Tim; Hughes, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of work-based learning (WBL) to the education of construction students. The research draws on the experiences of part-time students and students on sandwich courses in a School of the Built Environment. The sandwich courses include a year in industry as the penultimate year of a four-year programme. This WBL…

  15. Human Interactive Analysis Using Video: Mapping the Dynamics of Complex Work Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, William R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Explains human interactive analysis as an architecture for using computer interactive technologies in the analysis of complex work environments. A project at the Naval Training Systems Center that used video-audio data to develop a multimedia database is described; the analysis and management of data are discussed; and decision processes are…

  16. Working Environment and the Research Productivity of Doctoral Students in Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kiwan; Karau, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of creative personality and creative working environment on the research productivity of doctoral students in business. Students in management doctoral programs (N = 200) participated in an online survey. The results show that faculty support was positively associated with research productivity. Among demographic…

  17. A Test of Holland's Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Kristine D.; Levinson, Edward M.; Palmer, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the validity of J. L. Holland's (1997) theory of vocational personalities and work environments. The sample consisted of 241 randomly selected members of the National Association of School Psychologists, each of whom completed a demographic data form, the Self-Directed Search-Revised (SDS-R; J. L. Holland, 1994) and a…

  18. Improving Work Environment Perceptions for Nurses Employed in a Rural Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasley, Susan L.; Sexton, Kathleen A.; Carroll, Cathryn A.; Cox, Karen S.; Riley, Michele; Ferriell, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Context: Effective recruitment and retention of professional nurses is a survival strategy for health care facilities, especially in rural areas. Purpose: This study examines the use of the Individual Workload Perception Scale to measure nurse satisfaction by a small rural hospital in order to make positive changes in the work environment for…

  19. The Publishing House: From Being to Becoming--The Developmental Dimension in Realistic Work Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to suggest that the "skills" or "employability" agenda which has long been anathema to the Humanities disciplines need not be the threat it appears to represent. This paper aims to examine the concept of realistic work environments and their focus, not only the provision of hard and soft skills, but also the…

  20. Linking Resident Satisfaction to Staff Perceptions of the Work Environment in Assisted Living: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikorska-Simmons, Elzbieta

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the relationship between resident satisfaction and staff perceptions of the work environment in assisted living. Staff perceptions were assessed at the facility level, using aggregate measures of staff job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and views of organizational culture. Design and Methods: The sample…

  1. Teaching MSW Social Work Practice in a Blended Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Shelley; Whitsett, Doni; Wood, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Blended learning is a newly emerging trend in higher education and is defined as the purposeful integration of synchronous and asynchronous learning to provide educational activities that maximize the benefits of each. This paper describes the development of a graduate social work foundation-year practice class in a blended online environment in…

  2. Teaching Severely Handicapped Students to Perform Meaningful Work in Nonsheltered Vocational Environments. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lou; And Others

    The paper criticizes the practice of providing sheltered occupational environments to severely handicapped individuals and considers ways in which public school programs and adult service systems can be arranged to maximize vocational functioning. Following an operational definition of meaningful work, the chapter analyzes reasons for the…

  3. How do the work environment and work safety differ between the dry and wet kitchen foodservice facilities?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Won; Ju, Se-Young; Go, Eun-Sun

    2012-01-01

    In order to create a worker-friendly environment for institutional foodservice, facilities operating with a dry kitchen system have been recommended. This study was designed to compare the work safety and work environment of foodservice between wet and dry kitchen systems. Data were obtained using questionnaires with a target group of 303 staff at 57 foodservice operations. Dry kitchen facilities were constructed after 2006, which had a higher construction cost and more finishing floors with anti-slip tiles, and in which employees more wore non-slip footwear than wet kitchen (76.7%). The kitchen temperature and muscular pain were the most frequently reported employees' discomfort factors in the two systems, and, in the wet kitchen, "noise of kitchen" was also frequently reported as a discomfort. Dietitian and employees rated the less slippery and slip related incidents in dry kitchens than those of wet kitchen. Fryer area, ware-washing area, and plate waste table were the slippery areas and the causes were different between the functional areas. The risk for current leakage was rated significantly higher in wet kitchens by dietitians. In addition, the ware-washing area was found to be where employees felt the highest risk of electrical shock. Muscular pain (72.2%), arthritis (39.1%), hard-of-hearing (46.6%) and psychological stress (47.0%) were experienced by employees more than once a month, particularly in the wet kitchen. In conclusion, the dry kitchen system was found to be more efficient for food and work safety because of its superior design and well managed practices. PMID:22977692

  4. Using a task analysis to describe nursing work in acute care patient environments.

    PubMed

    Battisto, Dina; Pak, Richard; Vander Wood, Melissa A; Pilcher, June J

    2009-12-01

    To improve the healthcare environment where nurses work and patients receive care, it is necessary to understand the elements that define the healthcare environment. Primary elements include (a) the occupants of the room and what knowledge, skills, and abilities they bring to the situation; (b) what tasks the occupants will be doing in the room; and (c) the characteristics of the built environment. To better understand these components, a task analysis from human factor research was conducted to study nurses as they cared for hospitalized patients. Multiple methods, including a review of nursing textbooks, observations, and interviews, were used to describe nurses' capabilities, nursing activities, and the environmental problems with current patient room models. Findings from this initial study are being used to inform the design and evaluation of an inpatient room prototype and to generate future research in improving clinical environments to support nursing productivity. PMID:19955968

  5. Communication, support and psychosocial work environment affecting psychological distress among working women aged 20 to 39 years in Japan.

    PubMed

    Honda, Ayumi; Date, Yutaka; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Honda, Sumihisa

    2016-01-29

    When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39 yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work. PMID:26320729

  6. Flexible workspace design and ergonomics training: impacts on the psychosocial work environment, musculoskeletal health, and work effectiveness among knowledge workers.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Michelle M; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; O'Neill, Michael J; Schleifer, Lawrence M

    2008-07-01

    A macroergonomics intervention consisting of flexible workspace design and ergonomics training was conducted to examine the effects on psychosocial work environment, musculoskeletal health, and work effectiveness in a computer-based office setting. Knowledge workers were assigned to one of four conditions: flexible workspace (n=121), ergonomics training (n=92), flexible workspace+ergonomics training (n=31), and a no-intervention control (n=45). Outcome measures were collected 2 months prior to the intervention and 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Overall, the study results indicated positive, significant effects on the outcome variables for the two intervention groups compared to the control group, including work-related musculoskeletal discomfort, job control, environmental satisfaction, sense of community, ergonomic climate, communication and collaboration, and business process efficiency (time and costs). However, attrition of workers in the ergonomics training condition precluded an evaluation of the effects of this intervention. This study suggests that a macroergonomics intervention is effective among knowledge workers in office settings. PMID:18462704

  7. Communication, support and psychosocial work environment affecting psychological distress among working women aged 20 to 39 years in Japan

    PubMed Central

    HONDA, Ayumi; DATE, Yutaka; ABE, Yasuyo; AOYAGI, Kiyoshi; HONDA, Sumihisa

    2015-01-01

    When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39 yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work. PMID:26320729

  8. Perceptions of work environment priorities: Are there any differences by company size? An ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Nordlöf, Hasse; Wijk, Katarina; Westergren, Karl-Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies suggest that the quality of handling occupational health and safety (OHS) activities differs between companies of different sizes. Company size is a proxy variable for other variables affecting OHS performance. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate if there is an association between company size and perceptions of work environment prioritizations. METHODS: Data from 106 small- and medium-sized Swedish manufacturing companies was collected. One manager and one safety delegate at each company rated different aspects of their companies’ work environment prioritizations with a 43-item questionnaire. Ratings were aggregated to a summary statistic for each company before analysis. RESULTS: No significant differences in perceptions of priority were found to be associated with company sizes. This is in contrast to earlier studies of objective differences. The respondents in small companies, however, showed significantly greater consensus in their ratings. CONCLUSIONS: Company size does not appear to be associated with perceptions of work environment prioritizations. Company size is an important proxy variable to study in order to understand what factors enable and obstruct safe and healthy workplaces. The work presented here should be viewed as an initial exploration to serve as direction for future academic work. PMID:26409368

  9. Psychosocial work environment and sickness absence among British civil servants: the Whitehall II study.

    PubMed Central

    North, F M; Syme, S L; Feeney, A; Shipley, M; Marmot, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study sought to examine the association between the psychosocial work environment and subsequent rates of sickness absence. METHODS. The analyses were based on a cohort of male and female British civil servants (n=9072). Rates of short spells (7 days) of sickness absence were calculated for different aspects of the psychosocial work environment, as measured by self-reports and personnel managers' ratings (external assessments). RESULTS. Low levels of work demands, control, and support were associated with higher rates of short and long spells of absence in men and, to a lesser extent, in women. The differences were similar for the self-reports and external assessments. After adjustment for grade of employment, the differences were diminished but generally remained significant for short spells. The combination of high demands and low control was only associated with higher rates of short spells in the lower grades. CONCLUSIONS. The psychosocial work environment predicts rates of sickness absence. Increased levels of control and support at work could have beneficial effects in terms of both improving the health and well-being of employees and increasing productivity. PMID:8604757

  10. The Importance of a High-Performance Work Environment in Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Dana Beth; Avgar, Ariel Chanan; Sugrue, Noreen M; Cooney-Miner, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the benefits of a high-performance work environment (HPWE) for employees, patients, and hospitals. Study Setting Forty-five adult, medical-surgical units in nine hospitals in upstate New York. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Data Collection Surveys were collected from 1,527 unit-based hospital providers (68.5 percent response rate). Hospitals provided unit turnover and patient data (16,459 discharge records and 2,920 patient surveys). Principal Findings HPWE, as perceived by multiple occupational groups on a unit, is significantly associated with desirable work processes, retention indicators, and care quality. Conclusion Our findings underscore the potential benefits for providers, patients, and health care organizations of designing work environments that value and support a broad range of employees as having essential contributions to make to the care process and their organizations. PMID:22716770

  11. Evaluation of Different Light Conditions in the Working Environment for Handling Photosensitive and Thermolabile Compounds.

    PubMed

    Hernandez Duran, Tania; Ravela, Neel; Sanchez Rivero, Sandra; De Jesus Castro Sandoval, Teresita; Hoogmartens, Jos; Pendela, Murali

    2015-01-01

    Lighting in the working environment plays a significant role on the degree of degradation of photosensitive, thermolabile compounds and on working efficiency. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are semiconductor light emitting devices that are promising artificial light sources with easy modulation of light wave signals and are also known for low heat generation. Therefore, the effect of polychromatic LED light was tested in the working environment using the drug compounds montelukast, nifedipine, and clavulanic acid, which are known to be photosensitive or thermolabile. As a control, other lighting sources like a sodium lamp, a classic (incandescent, tungsten) lamp, and indirect sunlight were also used in this study. All the experiments were carried out with methanolic solutions at room temperature. An Acquity UPLC/MS/MS system was used for quantification of the main analytes and degradation products. Under the tested conditions, LED lighting proved to be more suitable for handling photosensitive and thermolabile compounds. PMID:26651560

  12. Impact of Work Environments and Occupational Hazards on Smoking Intensity in Korean Workers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ju

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of work environments and occupational hazards on smoking intensity by occupation type in Korean workers. This study used the data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2009. The sample of this study included 3,769 adults who were aged 18 years or older and had an occupation of office work, sales, or manufacturing. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, the generalized linear models revealed that office workers and the sales force who had smoking co-workers at the workplace were more likely to smoke than those who did not. A dirty workplace and exposure to occupational noise were significant factors increasing the smoking intensity for manufacturers. A smoking cessation program considering physical work environments and co-workers' support should be developed for Korean workers. PMID:26681605

  13. Impact of Fatigue in Rheumatic Diseases in the Work Environment: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Deirdre; Fitzpatrick, Clodagh; O'Toole, Lynn; Doran, Michele; O'Shea, Finbar

    2015-11-01

    Fatigue is a symptom of arthritis that causes difficulty at work. An improved understanding of this symptom could assist its management in the work environment. The aim of this study was to explore people with rheumatic diseases' experiences of fatigue in work. A qualitative descriptive design was used with semi-structured interviews and a constant comparative method of data analysis. There were 18 participants, the majority of them female with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and working full-time. Three themes were identified: "Impact of fatigue on work performance" with cognition, mood and physical abilities being the main difficulties reported. In the second theme "Disclosure at Work" participants discussed disclosing their disease to employers but reported a lack of understanding of fatigue from colleagues. The final theme "work-based fatigue management strategies" included cognitive strategies and energy management techniques, which were mainly self-taught. In this study, fatigue was reported to impact on many areas of work performance with limited understanding from colleagues and employers. Interventions from health professionals to assist with development of work-related self-management skills are required to assist with symptom management in the work place. Such interventions should include education to employers and colleagues on the nature of fatigue in Rheumatic diseases. PMID:26516896

  14. Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change: a prospective study among Danish health care workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. Methods A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses examined change in BMI (more than +/− 2 kg/m2) as predicted by baseline psychosocial work factors (work pace, workload, quality of leadership, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, commitment, role clarity, and role conflicts) and five covariates (age, cohabitation, physical work demands, type of work position and seniority). Results Among women, high role conflicts predicted weight gain, while high role clarity predicted both weight gain and weight loss. Living alone also predicted weight gain among women, while older age decreased the odds of weight gain. High leadership quality predicted weight loss among men. Associations were generally weak, with the exception of quality of leadership, age, and cohabitation. Conclusion This study of a single occupational group suggested a few new risk factors for weight change outside the traditional work stress models. PMID:23327287

  15. Model-based metrics of human-automation function allocation in complex work environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, So Young

    Function allocation is the design decision which assigns work functions to all agents in a team, both human and automated. Efforts to guide function allocation systematically has been studied in many fields such as engineering, human factors, team and organization design, management science, and cognitive systems engineering. Each field focuses on certain aspects of function allocation, but not all; thus, an independent discussion of each does not address all necessary issues with function allocation. Four distinctive perspectives emerged from a review of these fields: technology-centered, human-centered, team-oriented, and work-oriented. Each perspective focuses on different aspects of function allocation: capabilities and characteristics of agents (automation or human), team structure and processes, and work structure and the work environment. Together, these perspectives identify the following eight issues with function allocation: 1) Workload, 2) Incoherency in function allocations, 3) Mismatches between responsibility and authority, 4) Interruptive automation, 5) Automation boundary conditions, 6) Function allocation preventing human adaptation to context, 7) Function allocation destabilizing the humans' work environment, and 8) Mission Performance. Addressing these issues systematically requires formal models and simulations that include all necessary aspects of human-automation function allocation: the work environment, the dynamics inherent to the work, agents, and relationships among them. Also, addressing these issues requires not only a (static) model, but also a (dynamic) simulation that captures temporal aspects of work such as the timing of actions and their impact on the agent's work. Therefore, with properly modeled work as described by the work environment, the dynamics inherent to the work, agents, and relationships among them, a modeling framework developed by this thesis, which includes static work models and dynamic simulation, can capture the

  16. Barotrauma-induced pneumocephalus experienced by a high risk patient after commercial air travel.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jisoon

    2013-08-01

    A 49-year-old female with a history of several neurosurgical and otolaryngologic procedures for occipital meningioma and cerebrospinal fluid leaks was diagnosed with pneumocephalus after a one hour flight on a domestic jet airliner. Despite multiple operations, the air appeared to enter the cranium through a weak portion of the skull base due to the low atmospheric pressure in the cabin. The intracranial air was absorbed with conservative management. The patient was recommended not to fly before a definite diagnostic work up and a sealing procedure for the cerebrospinal fluid leak site had been performed. Recent advances in aviation technology have enabled many people to travel by air, including individuals with medical conditions. Low cabin pressure is not dangerous to healthy individuals; however, practicing consultant neurosurgeons should understand the cabin environment and prepare high risk patients for safe air travel. PMID:24175032

  17. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  18. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  19. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  20. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  1. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  2. Parental employment and work-family stress: associations with family food environments.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Katherine W; Hearst, Mary O; Escoto, Kamisha; Berge, Jerica M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-08-01

    Parental employment provides many benefits to children's health. However, an increasing number of studies have observed associations between mothers' full-time employment and less healthful family food environments. Few studies have examined other ways in which parental employment may be associated with the family food environment, including the role of fathers' employment and parents' stress balancing work and home obligations. This study utilized data from Project F-EAT, a population-based study of a socio-demographically diverse sample of 3709 parents of adolescents living in a metropolitan area in the Midwestern United States, to examine cross-sectional associations between mothers' and fathers' employment status and parents' work-life stress with multiple aspects of the family food environment. Among parents participating in Project F-EAT, 64% of fathers and 46% of mothers were full-time employed, while 25% of fathers and 37% of mothers were not employed. Results showed that full-time employed mothers reported fewer family meals, less frequent encouragement of their adolescents' healthful eating, lower fruit and vegetable intake, and less time spent on food preparation, compared to part-time and not-employed mothers, after adjusting for socio-demographics. Full-time employed fathers reported significantly fewer hours of food preparation; no other associations were seen between fathers' employment status and characteristics of the family food environment. In contrast, higher work-life stress among both parents was associated with less healthful family food environment characteristics including less frequent family meals and more frequent sugar-sweetened beverage and fast food consumption by parents. Among dual-parent families, taking into account the employment characteristics of the other parent did not substantially alter the relationships between work-life stress and family food environment characteristics. While parental employment is beneficial for many

  3. Impact of Fatigue in Rheumatic Diseases in the Work Environment: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Deirdre; Fitzpatrick, Clodagh; O’Toole, Lynn; Doran, Michele; O’Shea, Finbar

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is a symptom of arthritis that causes difficulty at work. An improved understanding of this symptom could assist its management in the work environment. The aim of this study was to explore people with rheumatic diseases’ experiences of fatigue in work. A qualitative descriptive design was used with semi-structured interviews and a constant comparative method of data analysis. There were 18 participants, the majority of them female with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and working full-time. Three themes were identified: “Impact of fatigue on work performance” with cognition, mood and physical abilities being the main difficulties reported. In the second theme “Disclosure at Work” participants discussed disclosing their disease to employers but reported a lack of understanding of fatigue from colleagues. The final theme “work-based fatigue management strategies” included cognitive strategies and energy management techniques, which were mainly self-taught. In this study, fatigue was reported to impact on many areas of work performance with limited understanding from colleagues and employers. Interventions from health professionals to assist with development of work-related self-management skills are required to assist with symptom management in the work place. Such interventions should include education to employers and colleagues on the nature of fatigue in Rheumatic diseases. PMID:26516896

  4. Gynecological surveillance in high risk women.

    PubMed

    Dilley, James; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha

    2016-10-01

    In high-risk women, risk reducing surgery remains the cornerstone of prevention. However, the resulting premature menopause has led to continued efforts to develop effective screening strategies for those who wish to delay or avoid surgery. This review describes how the screening of women at risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer has evolved to its current state. Serial monitoring of CA125 is core to ovarian cancer screening and most recent studies have used the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Algorithm (ROCA) to interpret CA125 profile. The additional use of a second tumour marker, HE4, is reviewed. The results to date of key ovarian cancer screening studies in high-risk women are summarised ahead of their concluding findings due later in 2016. The role of both ultrasound and endometrial sampling in the management of women at increased risk of endometrial cancer is outlined. Exciting new methodology, which could help shape the future of screening is investigated. The article summarises the current recommendations and guidelines from recognised international bodies to aid the clinician with management of these women. PMID:26930388

  5. Nursing leadership in intensive care units and its relationship to the work environment 1

    PubMed Central

    Balsanelli, Alexandre Pazetto; Cunha, Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To establish whether there is any relationship between the work environment and nursing leadership at intensive care units (ICUs). METHOD: Correlational study conducted at four ICUs in southern São Paulo (SP), Brazil. The study population was comprised of 66 pairs (nurses and nursing technicians) established by lottery. The nurses responded to three instruments: 1) characterization; 2) a validated Portuguese version of the Nursing Work Index Revised (B-NWI-R); and 3) Grid & Leadership in Nursing: ideal behavior. The nursing technicians responded to 1) characterization and to 2) Grid and Leadership in Nursing: actual behavior, relative to the corresponding randomly-assigned nurse. The data were analyzed by means of analysis of variance (ANOVA) at p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: The work environment was not associated with actual nursing leadership (p = 0.852). The public or private nature of the institutions where the investigated ICUs were located had no significant effect on leadership (p = 0.437). Only the nurse-physician relationship domain stood out (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The choice of leadership styles by nurses should match the ICU characteristics. Leadership skills could be developed, and the work environment did not exert any influence on the investigated population. PMID:25806638

  6. Searching for justice for body and self in a coercive environment: sex work in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Jayasree, A K

    2004-05-01

    Sex workers in Kerala, India, live in a coercive environment and face violence from the police and criminals, lack of shelter, lack of childcare support and have many physical and mental health problems. This paper documents the environment in which women have been selling sex in Kerala since 1995, and their efforts to claim their rights. It is based on sex workers' own reports and experiences, a situation analysis and a needs assessment study by the Foundation for Integrated Research in Mental Health. Involvement in HIV/AIDS prevention projects first gave sex workers in Kerala an opportunity to come together. Some have become peer educators and distribute condoms but they continue to be harassed by police. Most anti-trafficking interventions, including rescue and rehabilitation, either criminalise or victimise sex workers, and sex workers reject them as a solution to sex work. They understand that the lack of sexual fulfillment in other relationships and their own lack of access to other work and resources are the reasons why commercial sex flourishes. Sex workers are not mere victims without agency. They have a right to bodily integrity, pleasure, livelihood, self-determination and a safe working environment. Sex workers are organising themselves for these objectives and demand decriminalisation of sex work. PMID:15242211

  7. Effects of the Physical Work Environment on Physiological Measures of Stress

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, J. F.; Verkuil, B.; Brosschot, J. F.; Kampschroer, K.; West, A.; Sterling, C.; Christie, I.C.; Abernethy, D.; Sollers, J. J.; Cizza, G.; Marques, A. H.; Sternberg, E. M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims In this study we investigated the effects of the physical work environment on two physiological measures of the stress response. Methods and Results Circadian variations in vagally mediated HRV and the morning rise in cortisol were evaluated in sixty participants working in a government building either in a traditional (individual offices and old cubicles; n=40) or a modern workspace (individualized cubicles with improved views and lighting; n=20). Results revealed significant linear (B = −1.03; CI: −1.05 to −1.01, p < .05) and quadratic (B = 1.001; CI: 1.0004 to 1.002, p < .05) trends by office type interactions for indices of vagally mediated HRV. Individuals in the old office space had flatter slopes and thus less circadian variation including less HRV at night, and a larger rise in cortisol upon awakening compared to those in the new office space. Conclusions These results indicate that physical features of the work environment may affect two aspects of the physiological stress response: circadian variations in HRV and the morning rise in cortisol. These findings have important social, economic, and public health implications for work environment risk factors on health. PMID:20404733

  8. Depression in employees in privately owned enterprises in China: is it related to work environment and work ability?

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Wang, Xinchao

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the individual and workplace factors related to depression and stress in a large privately owned enterprise in China. The cross-sectional study design involved 13 privately owned retail enterprises in China. A self-report survey was administered to 4,847 employees aged 18-54 recruited through the management boards of the 13 enterprises. A chi-square test was used to compare differences between the depressed and non-depressed groups on a number of demographic variables and chronic diseases. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess depression in relation to individual factors (work ability and resilience) and organisational environmental factors (workplace ethos and culture, psychosocial environment and health promotion policies and activities). Significant relationships were found between employee depression all personal factors, and one organisational environmental factor. Personal factors include poor work ability and low resilience, while workplace factors include workplace ethos and culture. The primary organisational environmental factor was a low level of enterprise ethos and culture. PMID:23528811

  9. Transplant Nurses' Work Environment: A Cross-Sectional Multi-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Kugler, Christiane; Akca, Selda; Einhorn, Ina; Rebafka, Anne; Russell, Cynthia L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Numerically, nurses represent the largest healthcare profession, thus setting norms for the quality and safety of direct patient care. Evidence of a global shortage of nurses in all clinical practice settings across different healthcare systems and countries has been documented. The aims of the present study were: (1) to assess work environments in a sample of German transplant nurses, and (2) to compare their statements with a US-based sample. MATERIAL AND METHODS In a cross-sectional study, 181 transplant nurses from 16 German transplant centers provided information on their work environments. The translated version of the Job Design (JD) and Job Satisfaction (JS) survey showed satisfactory internal consistency for the JD (0.78) and JS (0.93) subscales. German nurses' work environments were compared with 331 transplant nurses from the US. RESULTS The majority of transplant nurses were female (81.8%), 55.4% were age 21-40 years, and 78.1% were employed full-time. German (versus US) transplant nurses reported their job design to be best for 'skill varieties' (p≤0.0002), and worst for 'autonomy' (p≤0.01). Job satisfaction was best with 'opportunities for autonomy and growth' (p≤0.0001), and 'pay and benefits' (p≤0.0001) was lowest. A higher professional degree (OR 1.57; p≤0.03; 95% CI 1.19-2.86), and longer time in transplant (OR 1.24; p≤0.001; 95% CI 1.11-1.38) showed a positive impact on German transplant nurses' perceptions of 'job satisfaction'. Nurses with time-dependent working contracts perceived more stress negatively affecting job satisfaction (OR 1.13; p≤0.009; 95% CI 1.02-12.82). CONCLUSIONS German specialty nurses working in the field of solid organ transplantation rate their work environments with respect to job design and job satisfaction as satisfactory. Institutions' investment into satisfactory nurse work environments and specializing nurses might increase the quality of care, thus improving patient outcomes. PMID:27582230

  10. Health inequalities by wage income in Sweden: the role of work environment.

    PubMed

    Hemström, Orjan

    2005-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to explore the mediating role made by work environment to health inequalities by wage income in Sweden. Gender differences were also analysed. Data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions for the years 1998 and 1999 were analysed. Employed 20-64-year olds with a registered wage were included (nearly 6000 respondents). Sex-specific logistic regressions in relation to global self-rated health were applied. Those in the lowest income quintile had 2.4 times (men) and 4.3 times (women) higher probability of less than good health than did those in the highest quintile (adjusted for age, family status, country of birth, education level, smoking and full-time work). The mediating contribution of work environment factors to the health gradient by income was 25 per cent (men) and 29 per cent (women), respectively. This contribution was observed mainly from ergonomic and physical exposure, decision authority and skill discretion. Psychological demands did not contribute to such inequalities because mentally demanding work tasks are more common in high income as compared with low income jobs. Using sex-specific income quintiles, instead of income quintiles for the entire sample, gave very similar results. In conclusion, work environment factors can be seen as important mediators for the association between wage income and ill health in Sweden. A larger residual effect of income on health for women as compared with men suggests that one's own income from work is a more important determinant of women's than men's ill health in Sweden. PMID:15899322