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Sample records for high-strain-rate phenomena explomet

  1. A Determination Procedure for Element Elimination Criterion in Finite Element Analysis of High-Strain-Rate Impact/Penetration Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyunho; Lee, Hun-Joo; Yoo, Yo-Han; Lee, Woong

    A determination procedure for element elimination criterion in finite element simulation of high-strain-rate impact and penetration phenomena, occurring between tungsten heavy alloy long-rod penetrators and steel targets, has been presented with some demonstrations for the validity of the established criterion. The element elimination criterion for the two types of materials have been determined by comparing the simulated depth of penetration (DOP) and deformed shape of the penetrator with previously available experimental results. Although the criterion affects the simulated DOP significantly at the studied impact velocity of 1500m/s, once established, they are shown to be valid in predicting the DOP in the impact velocity range between 1100 and 1750m/s. The events of partial penetration with severe material deformation such as critical ricochet angle and ricochet phenomenology have also been successfully predicted using the established criterion in the similar impact velocity range. Thus it is suggested that the determination procedure for the suitable element erosion criterion is prerequisite in simulating high-strain-rate impact/penetration phenomena and the criterion established by the procedure is useful in fairly broad range of the velocity and for other similar high-strain-rate events.

  2. A high-strain-rate superplastic ceramic.

    PubMed

    Kim, B N; Hiraga, K; Morita, K; Sakka, Y

    2001-09-20

    High-strain-rate superplasticity describes the ability of a material to sustain large plastic deformation in tension at high strain rates of the order of 10-2 to 10-1 s-1 and is of great technological interest for the shape-forming of engineering materials. High-strain-rate superplasticity has been observed in aluminium-based and magnesium-based alloys. But for ceramic materials, superplastic deformation has been restricted to low strain rates of the order of 10-5 to 10-4 s-1 for most oxides and nitrides with the presence of intergranular cavities leading to premature failure. Here we show that a composite ceramic material consisting of tetragonal zirconium oxide, magnesium aluminate spinel and alpha-alumina phases exhibits superplasticity at strain rates up to 1 s-1. The composite also exhibits a large tensile elongation, exceeding 1,050 per cent for a strain rate of 0.4 s-1. The tensile flow behaviour and deformed microstructure of the material indicate that superplasticity is due to a combination of limited grain growth in the constitutive phases and the intervention of dislocation-induced plasticity in the zirconium oxide phase. We suggest that the present results hold promise for the application of shape-forming technologies to ceramic materials. PMID:11565026

  3. High strain rate behaviour of polypropylene microfoams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-del Río, T.; Garrido, M. A.; Rodríguez, J.; Arencón, D.; Martínez, A. B.

    2012-08-01

    Microcellular materials such as polypropylene foams are often used in protective applications and passive safety for packaging (electronic components, aeronautical structures, food, etc.) or personal safety (helmets, knee-pads, etc.). In such applications the foams which are used are often designed to absorb the maximum energy and are generally subjected to severe loadings involving high strain rates. The manufacture process to obtain polymeric microcellular foams is based on the polymer saturation with a supercritical gas, at high temperature and pressure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional injection moulding techniques which make it industrially feasible. However, the effect of processing conditions such as blowing agent, concentration and microfoaming time and/or temperature on the microstructure of the resulting microcellular polymer (density, cell size and geometry) is not yet set up. The compressive mechanical behaviour of several microcellular polypropylene foams has been investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.001 to 3000 s-1) in order to show the effects of the processing parameters and strain rate on the mechanical properties. High strain rate tests were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB). Polypropylene and polyethylene-ethylene block copolymer foams of various densities were considered.

  4. High strain rate behavior of polyurea compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Vasant S.; Milby, Christopher

    2012-03-01

    High-strain-rate response of three polyurea compositions with varying molecular weights has been investigated using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar arrangement equipped with aluminum bars. Three polyurea compositions were synthesized from polyamines (Versalink, Air Products) with a multi-functional isocyanate (Isonate 143L, Dow Chemical). Amines with molecular weights of 1000, 650, and a blend of 250/1000 have been used in the current investigation. These materials have been tested to strain rates of over 6000/s. High strain rate results from these tests have shown varying trends as a function of increasing strain. While higher molecular weight composition show lower yield, they do not show dominant hardening behavior at lower strain. On the other hand, the blend of 250/1000 show higher load bearing capability but lower strain hardening effects than the 600 and 1000 molecular weight amine based materials. Results indicate that the initial increase in the modulus of the blend of 250/1000 may lead to the loss of strain hardening characteristics as the material is compressed to 50% strain, compared to 1000 molecular weight amine based material.

  5. High Strain Rate Rheology of Polymer Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Adrian; Gough, Tim; Whiteside, Ben; Coates, Phil D.

    2009-07-01

    A modified servo electric injection moulding machine has been used in air-shot mode with capillary dies fitted at the nozzle to examine the rheology of a number of commercial polymers at wall shear strain rates of up to 107 s-1. Shear and extensional flow properties were obtained through the use of long and orifice (close to zero land length) dies of the same diameter. A range of polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene melts have been characterized; good agreement was found between the three techniques used in the ranges where strain rates overlapped. Shear viscosity of the polymers studied was found to exhibit a plateau above approximately 1×106 s-1. A relationship between the measured high strain rate rheological behaviour and molecular structure was noted, with polymers containing larger side groups reaching the rate independent plateau at lower strain rates than those with simpler structures.

  6. High strain rate damage of Carrara marble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doan, Mai-Linh; Billi, Andrea

    2011-10-01

    Several cases of rock pulverization have been observed along major active faults in granite and other crystalline rocks. They have been interpreted as due to coseismic pervasive microfracturing. In contrast, little is known about pulverization in carbonates. With the aim of understanding carbonate pulverization, we investigate the high strain rate (c. 100 s-1) behavior of unconfined Carrara marble through a set of experiments with a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. Three final states were observed: (1) at low strain, the sample is kept intact, without apparent macrofractures; (2) failure is localized along a few fractures once stress is larger than 100 MPa, corresponding to a strain of 0.65%; (3) above 1.3% strain, the sample is pulverized. Contrary to granite, the transition to pulverization is controlled by strain rather than strain rate. Yet, at low strain rate, a sample from the same marble displayed only a few fractures. This suggests that the experiments were done above the strain rate transition to pulverization. Marble seems easier to pulverize than granite. This creates a paradox: finely pulverized rocks should be prevalent along any high strain zone near faults through carbonates, but this is not what is observed. A few alternatives are proposed to solve this paradox.

  7. High Strain Rate Behavior of Polyurea Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Vasant; Milby, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    Polyurea has been gaining importance in recent years due to its impact resistance properties. The actual compositions of this viscoelastic material must be tailored for specific use. It is therefore imperative to study the effect of variations in composition on the properties of the material. High-strain-rate response of three polyurea compositions with varying molecular weights has been investigated using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar arrangement equipped with titanium bars. The polyurea compositions were synthesized from polyamines (Versalink, Air Products) with a multi-functional isocyanate (Isonate 143L, Dow Chemical). Amines with molecular weights of 1000, 650, and a blend of 250/1000 have been used in the current investigation. The materials have been tested up to strain rates of 6000/s. Results from these tests have shown interesting trends on the high rate behavior. While higher molecular weight composition show lower yield, they do not show dominant hardening behavior. On the other hand, the blend of 250/1000 show higher load bearing capability but lower strain hardening effects than the 600 and 1000 molecular weight amine based materials. Refinement in experimental methods and comparison of results using aluminum Split Hopkinson Bar is presented.

  8. High strain rate superplasticity in metals and composites

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, T.G.; Wadsworth, J.; Higashi, K.

    1993-07-01

    Superplastic behavior at very high strain rates (at or above 1 s{sup {minus}1}) in metallic-based materials is an area of increasing interest. The phenomenon has been observed quite extensively in metal alloys, metal-matrix composites (MMC), and mechanically-alloyed (MA) materials. In the present paper, experimental results on high strain rate behavior in 2124 Al-based materials, including Zr-modified 2124, SiC-reinforced 2124, MA 2124, and MA 2124 MMC, are presented. Except for the required fine grain size, details of the structural requirements of this phenomenon are not yet understood. Despite this, a systematic approach to produce high strain rate superplasticity (HSRS) in metallic materials is given in this paper. Evidences indicate that the presence of a liquid phase, or a low melting point region, at boundary interfaces is responsible for HSRS.

  9. Uncovering high-strain rate protection mechanism in nacre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zaiwang; Li, Haoze; Pan, Zhiliang; Wei, Qiuming; Chao, Yuh J.; Li, Xiaodong

    2011-11-01

    Under high-strain-rate compression (strain rate ~103 s-1), nacre (mother-of-pearl) exhibits surprisingly high fracture strength vis-à-vis under quasi-static loading (strain rate 10-3 s-1). Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism responsible for such sharply different behaviors in these two loading modes remains completely unknown. Here we report a new deformation mechanism, adopted by nacre, the best-ever natural armor material, to protect itself against predatory penetrating impacts. It involves the emission of partial dislocations and the onset of deformation twinning that operate in a well-concerted manner to contribute to the increased high-strain-rate fracture strength of nacre. Our findings unveil that Mother Nature delicately uses an ingenious strain-rate-dependent stiffening mechanism with a purpose to fight against foreign attacks. These findings should serve as critical design guidelines for developing engineered body armor materials.

  10. Uncovering high-strain rate protection mechanism in nacre.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zaiwang; Li, Haoze; Pan, Zhiliang; Wei, Qiuming; Chao, Yuh J; Li, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    Under high-strain-rate compression (strain rate approximately 10(3) s(-1)), nacre (mother-of-pearl) exhibits surprisingly high fracture strength vis-à-vis under quasi-static loading (strain rate 10(-3) s(-1)). Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism responsible for such sharply different behaviors in these two loading modes remains completely unknown. Here we report a new deformation mechanism, adopted by nacre, the best-ever natural armor material, to protect itself against predatory penetrating impacts. It involves the emission of partial dislocations and the onset of deformation twinning that operate in a well-concerted manner to contribute to the increased high-strain-rate fracture strength of nacre. Our findings unveil that Mother Nature delicately uses an ingenious strain-rate-dependent stiffening mechanism with a purpose to fight against foreign attacks. These findings should serve as critical design guidelines for developing engineered body armor materials. PMID:22355664

  11. High strain rate compression testing of glass fibre reinforced polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, R. A.; Langdon, G. S.; Cloete, T. J.; Nurick, G. N.

    2012-08-01

    This paper details an investigation of the high strain rate compression testing of GFPP with the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) in the through-thickness and in-plane directions. GFPP posed challenges to SHPB testing as it fails at relatively high stresses, while having relatively low moduli and hence mechanical impedance. The modifications to specimen geometry and incident pulse shaping in order to gather valid test results, where specimen equilibrium was achieved for SHPB tests on GFPP are presented. In addition to conventional SHPB tests to failure, SHPB experiments were designed to achieve specimen equilibration at small strains, which permitted the capture of high strain rate elastic modulus data. The strain rate dependency of GFPP's failure strengths in the in-plane and through-thickness direction is modelled using a logarithmic law.

  12. Uncovering high-strain rate protection mechanism in nacre

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zaiwang; Li, Haoze; Pan, Zhiliang; Wei, Qiuming; Chao, Yuh J.; Li, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    Under high-strain-rate compression (strain rate ∼103 s−1), nacre (mother-of-pearl) exhibits surprisingly high fracture strength vis-à-vis under quasi-static loading (strain rate 10−3 s−1). Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism responsible for such sharply different behaviors in these two loading modes remains completely unknown. Here we report a new deformation mechanism, adopted by nacre, the best-ever natural armor material, to protect itself against predatory penetrating impacts. It involves the emission of partial dislocations and the onset of deformation twinning that operate in a well-concerted manner to contribute to the increased high-strain-rate fracture strength of nacre. Our findings unveil that Mother Nature delicately uses an ingenious strain-rate-dependent stiffening mechanism with a purpose to fight against foreign attacks. These findings should serve as critical design guidelines for developing engineered body armor materials. PMID:22355664

  13. High strain rate behavior of pure metals at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Gabriel; Bonora, Nicola; Ruggiero, Andrew; Iannitti, Gianluca; Domenico, Gentile

    2013-06-01

    In many applications and technology processes, such as stamping, forging, hot working etc., metals and alloys are subjected to elevated temperature and high strain rate deformation process. Characterization tests, such as quasistatic and dynamic tension or compression test, and validation tests, such as Taylor impact and DTE - dynamic tensile extrusion -, provide the experimental base of data for constitutive model validation and material parameters identification. Testing material at high strain rate and temperature requires dedicated equipment. In this work, both tensile Hopkinson bar and light gas gun where modified in order to allow material testing under sample controlled temperature conditions. Dynamic tension tests and Taylor impact tests, at different temperatures, on high purity copper (99.98%), tungsten (99.95%) and 316L stainless steel were performed. The accuracy of several constitutive models (Johnson and Cook, Zerilli-Armstrong, etc.) in predicting the observed material response was verified by means of extensive finite element analysis (FEA).

  14. Magnetic Implosion for Novel Strength Measurements at High Strain Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.; Preston, D.L.; Bartsch, R.R.; Bowers, R.L.; Holtkamp, D.; Wright, B.L.

    1998-10-19

    Recently Lee and Preston have proposed to use magnetic implosions as a new method for measuring material strength in a regime of large strains and high strain rates inaccessible to previously established techniques. By its shockless nature, this method avoids the intrinsic difficulties associated with an earlier approach using high explosives. The authors illustrate how the stress-strain relation for an imploding liner can be obtained by measuring the velocity and temperature history of its inner surface. They discuss the physical requirements that lead us to a composite liner design applicable to different test materials, and also compare the code-simulated prediction with the measured data for the high strain-rate experiments conducted recently at LANL. Finally, they present a novel diagnostic scheme that will enable us to remove the background in the pyrometric measurement through data reduction.

  15. High-strain-rate deformation and comminution of silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, C. J.; Nesterenko, V. F.; Meyers, M. A.

    1998-05-01

    Granular flow of comminuted ceramics governs the resistance for penetration of ceramic armor under impact. To understand the mechanism of the granular flow, silicon carbide was subjected to high-strain, high-strain-rate deformation by radial symmetric collapse of a thick-walled cylinder by explosive. The deformation, under compressive stresses, was carried out in two stages: the first stage prefractured the ceramic, while a large deformation was accomplished in the second stage. The total tangential strain (-0.23) was accommodated by both homogeneous deformation (-0.10) and shear localization (-0.13). Three microstructures, produced by different processing methods, were investigated. The microstructural differences affected the microcrack propagation: either intergranular or transgranular fracture was observed, depending on the processing conditions. Nevertheless, the spacing between shear bands and the shear displacement within the shear bands were not significantly affected by the microstructure. Within the shear bands, the phenomenon of comminution occurred, and the thickness of the shear bands increased gradually with the shear strain. A bimodal distribution of fragments developed inside the shear bands. The comminution proceeded through the incorporation of fragments from the shear-band interfaces and the erosion of fragments inside the shear band. Outside the shear bands, an additional comminution mechanism was identified: localized bending generated comminution fronts, which transformed the fractured material into the comminuted material. The observed features of high-strain-rate deformation of comminuted SiC can be used for validation of computer models for penetration process.

  16. High strain-rate plastic flow in Fe and Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Raymond; Eggert, Jon; Rudd, Robert; Bolme, Cynthia; Collins, Gilbert

    2011-06-01

    Understanding the nature and time-dependence of material deformation at high strain rates is an important goal in condensed matter physics. Under dynamic loading, the rate of plastic strain is determined by the flow of dislocations through the crystal lattice and is a complex function of time, distance, sample purity, temperature, internal stresses, microstructure and strain rate. Under shock compression time-dependent plasticity is typically inferred by fitting elastic precursor stresses as a function of propagation distance with a phenomenologically based dislocation kinetics model. We employ a laser-driven ramp wave loading technique to compress 6-70 micron thick samples of bcc-Fe and fcc-Al over a strain rate range of 1e6-1e8 1/s. Our data show that for fixed sample thickness, stresses associated the onset of plasticity are highly dependent on the strain rate of compression and do not readily fit into the elastic stress - distance evolution descriptive of instantaneous shock loading. We find that the elastic stress at the onset of plasticity is well correlated with the strain rate at the onset of plastic flow for both shock- and ramp-wave experiments. Our data, combined with data from other dynamic compression platforms, reveal a sharp increase in the peak elastic stress at high strain rates, consistent with a transition in dislocation flow dominated by phonon drag. smith248@llnl.gov

  17. High-Strain-Rate Compression Testing of Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shazly, Mostafa; Prakash, Vikas; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) was employed to study the effect of strain rate on the dynamic material response of ice. Disk-shaped ice specimens with flat, parallel end faces were either provided by Dartmouth College (Hanover, NH) or grown at Case Western Reserve University (Cleveland, OH). The SHPB was adapted to perform tests at high strain rates in the range 60 to 1400/s at test temperatures of -10 and -30 C. Experimental results showed that the strength of ice increases with increasing strain rates and this occurs over a change in strain rate of five orders of magnitude. Under these strain rate conditions the ice microstructure has a slight influence on the strength, but it is much less than the influence it has under quasi-static loading conditions. End constraint and frictional effects do not influence the compression tests like they do at slower strain rates, and therefore the diameter/thickness ratio of the samples is not as critical. The strength of ice at high strain rates was found to increase with decreasing test temperatures. Ice has been identified as a potential source of debris to impact the shuttle; data presented in this report can be used to validate and/or develop material models for ice impact analyses for shuttle Return to Flight efforts.

  18. High-pressure, High-strain-rate Materials Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Kalantar, D; Belak, J; Bringa, E; Budil, K; Colvin, J; Kumar, M; Meyers, M; Rosolankova, K; Rudd, R; Schneider, M; Stolken, J; Wark, J

    2004-03-04

    A 3-year LDRD-ER project to study the response of shocked materials at high pressure and high strain rate has concluded. This project involved a coordinated effort to study single crystal samples that were shock loaded by direct laser irradiation, in-situ and post-recovery measurements, and molecular dynamics and continuum modeling. Laser-based shock experiments have been conducted to study the dynamic response of materials under shock loading materials at a high strain-rate. Experiments were conducted at pressures above the published Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL). The residual deformation present in recovered samples was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, and the response of the shocked lattice during shock loading was measured by in-situ x-ray diffraction. Static film and x-ray streak cameras recorded x-rays diffracted from lattice planes of Cu and Si both parallel and perpendicular to the shock direction. Experiments were also conducted using a wide-angle detector to record x-rays diffracted from multiple lattice planes simultaneously. This data showed uniaxial compression of Si (100) along the shock direction and 3-dimensional compression of Cu (100). In the case of the Si diffraction, there was a multiple wave structure observed. We present results of shocked Si and Cu obtained with a new large angle diffraction diagnostic, and discuss the results in the context of detailed molecular dynamics simulations and post-processing.

  19. Study of High Strain Rate Response of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilat, Amos

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the research was to continue the experimental study of the effect of strain rate on mechanical response (deformation and failure) of epoxy resins and carbon fibers/epoxy matrix composites, and to initiate a study of the effects of temperature by developing an elevated temperature test. The experimental data provide the information needed for NASA scientists for the development of a nonlinear, rate dependent deformation and strength models for composites that can subsequently be used in design. This year effort was directed into testing the epoxy resin. Three types of epoxy resins were tested in tension and shear at various strain rates that ranges from 5 x 10(exp -5), to 1000 per second. Pilot shear experiments were done at high strain rate and an elevated temperature of 80 C. The results show that all, the strain rate, the mode of loading, and temperature significantly affect the response of epoxy.

  20. Single chain stochastic polymer modeling at high strain rates.

    SciTech Connect

    Harstad, E. N.; Harlow, Francis Harvey,; Schreyer, H. L.

    2001-01-01

    Our goal is to develop constitutive relations for the behavior of a solid polymer during high-strain-rate deformations. In contrast to the classic thermodynamic techniques for deriving stress-strain response in static (equilibrium) circumstances, we employ a statistical-mechanics approach, in which we evolve a probability distribution function (PDF) for the velocity fluctuations of the repeating units of the chain. We use a Langevin description for the dynamics of a single repeating unit and a Lioville equation to describe the variations of the PDF. Moments of the PDF give the conservation equations for a single polymer chain embedded in other similar chains. To extract single-chain analytical constitutive relations these equations have been solved for representative loading paths. By this process we discover that a measure of nonuniform chain link displacement serves this purpose very well. We then derive an evolution equation for the descriptor function, with the result being a history-dependent constitutive relation.

  1. On the response of rubbers at high strain rates.

    SciTech Connect

    Niemczura, Johnathan Greenberg

    2010-02-01

    In this report, we examine the propagation of tensile waves of finite deformation in rubbers through experiments and analysis. Attention is focused on the propagation of one-dimensional dispersive and shock waves in strips of latex and nitrile rubber. Tensile wave propagation experiments were conducted at high strain-rates by holding one end fixed and displacing the other end at a constant velocity. A high-speed video camera was used to monitor the motion and to determine the evolution of strain and particle velocity in the rubber strips. Analysis of the response through the theory of finite waves and quantitative matching between the experimental observations and analytical predictions was used to determine an appropriate instantaneous elastic response for the rubbers. This analysis also yields the tensile shock adiabat for rubber. Dispersive waves as well as shock waves are also observed in free-retraction experiments; these are used to quantify hysteretic effects in rubber.

  2. High strain-rate response of injectable PAA hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong-Ru; Wang, Shih-Han; Chiang, Chia-Chin; Juang, Yun-Ching; Yu, Fu-Ann; Tsai, Liren

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogel materials have been widely considered as potential soft tissue replacements because of their high permeability, hydrophilicity, and biocompatibility, as well as their low coefficient of friction. Injectable (thermo-responsive) hydrogels can provide support and cushioning at irregularly shaped disease sites, and are thus suitable for use in treating osteoarthritis or degenerative disc disease. However, while some injectable hydrogels have been proven to sustain human body weight during daily activities, their mechanical properties under harsh dynamic conditions have not been well documented. A specified injectable polyacrylic acid (PAA) hydrogel was prepared for this study. To simulate sudden impacts or unexpected shocks to the PAA hydrogel, the split Hopkinson pressure bar technique was utilized. The dynamic responses of various hydrogels at confined high strain rates (100-2590 s(-1)) were presented. Hydrogel specimens with 3.37, 6.75, and 13.5% acrylic acid (AAc) concentrations were tested in the following three different material conditions: raw, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) swollen, and PBS swollen with elevated temperature (37 °C). The dynamic bulk moduli of the hydrogels varied from 1.55 to 47.8 MPa depending on the given hydrogel's AAc concentration and swollen condition. PMID:25816201

  3. High strain rate loading of polymeric foams and solid plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Richard D.; Chang, Peter C.; Fourney, William L.

    2000-04-01

    The split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) provided a technique to determine the high strain rate response for low density foams and solid ABS and polypropylene plastics. These materials are used in the interior safety panels of automobiles and crash test dummies. Because the foams have a very low impedance, polycarbonate bars were used to acquire the strain rate data in the 100 to 1600 l/s range. An aluminum SPHB setup was used to obtain the solid plastics data which covered strain rates of 1000 to 4000 l/s. The curves for peak strain rate versus peak stress for the foams over the test range studied indicates only a slight strain rate dependence. Peak strain rate versus peak stress curves for polypropylene shows a strain rate dependence up to about 1500 l/s. At that rate the solid poly propylene indicates no strain rate dependence. The ABS plastics are strain rate dependent up to 3500 l/s and then are independent at larger strain rates.

  4. Spall fracture in aluminium alloy at high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, K. D.; Rav, Amit; Sur, Amit; Kaushik, T. C.; Gupta, Satish C.

    2016-05-01

    Spall fracture strength and dynamic yield strength has been measured in 8mm thick target plates of aluminium alloy Al2024-T4 at high strain rates generated in three plate impact experiments carried out at impact velocities of 180 m/s, 370 m/s and 560m/s, respectively, using single stage gas gun facility. In each experiment, the free surface velocity history of the Al2024-T4 sample plate measured employing velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) is used to determine the spall strength and dynamic yield strength of this material. The spall strength of 1.11 GPa, 1.16 GPa and 1.43 GPa, determined from measured free surface velocity history of sample material in three experiments performed at impact velocity of 180 m/s, 370 m/s and 560 m/s, respectively, are higher than the quasi static value of 0.469 GPa and display almost linearly increasing trend with increasing impact velocity or equivalently with increasing strain rates. The average strain rates just ahead of the spall fracture are determined to be 1.9×10 4/s, 2.0×104/s and 2.5×104/s, respectively. The dynamic yield strength determined in the three experiments range from 0.383 GPa to 0.407 GPa, which is higher than the quasi static value of 0.324GPa.

  5. The effect of heat developed during high strain rate deformation on the constitutive modeling of amorphous polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, Keivan H.; Zamani, Jamal; Guedes, Rui M.; Ferreira, Fernando J.

    2016-02-01

    An adiabatic constitutive model is proposed for large strain deformation of polycarbonate (PC) at high strain rates. When the strain rate is sufficiently high such that the heat generated does not have time to transfer to the surroundings, temperature of material rises. The high strain rate deformation behavior of polymers is significantly affected by temperature-dependent constants and thermal softening. Based on the isothermal model which first was introduced by Mulliken and Boyce et al. (Int. J. Solids Struct. 43:1331-1356, 2006), an adiabatic model is proposed to predict the yield and post-yield behavior of glassy polymers at high strain rates. When calculating the heat generated and the temperature changes during the step by step simulation of the deformation, temperature-dependent elastic constants are incorporated to the constitutive equations. Moreover, better prediction of softening phenomena is achieved by the new definition for softening parameters of the proposed model. The constitutive model has been implemented numerically into a commercial finite element code through a user material subroutine (VUMAT). The experimental results, obtained using a split Hopkinson pressure bar, are supported by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and Decompose/Shift/Reconstruct (DSR) method. Comparison of adiabatic model predictions with experimental data demonstrates the ability of the model to capture the characteristic features of stress-strain curve of the material at very high strain rates.

  6. High strain rate modeling of ceramics and ceramic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, H. D.

    1994-07-01

    The high strain rate response of an AlN/AlN/Al composite manufactured by Lanxide Armor Products, Inc., has been studied through normal and pressure-shear plate impact experiments. Differences in the measured shear resistance, as a function of the impact configuration, motivated the examination of the material response by means of a microcracking multiple-plane model and a continuum elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model. Numerical simulations of the normal impact experiments do not support microcracking as the dominant inelastic mechanism. By contrast, an elasto-viscoplastic description of the material behavior predicts the main features of the normal stress history and the thickness dependence of the Hugoniot elastic limit. Nonetheless, the elasto-viscoplastic model cannot reproduce both the normal and pressure-shear experiments with a single set of model parameters. The inadequacy of the continuum elasto-viscoplastic model seems to result from the isotropic assumption embodied in its formulation. The shear resistance measured in the pressure-shear experiments is adequately predicted by a microcracking multiple-plane model. The agreement seems to hinge in the continuous shearing of the material on a micro-localized fashion, i.e. only one orientation becomes dominant and controls the inelastic shear deformation rate. This event does not occur in the normal impact configuration, in which the amount of inelasticity is primarily controlled by the elastic compressibility of the material. These findings explain the higher sensitivity to damage and microplasticity observed in the pressure-shear configuration, as well as the softer material response recorded in this configuration.

  7. Mechanical Solder Characterisation Under High Strain Rate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Karsten; Roellig, Mike; Wiese, Steffen; Wolter, Klaus-Juergen

    2010-11-01

    Using a setup for high strain rate tensile experiments the mechanical behavior of two lead-free tin based solders is investigated. The first alloy is SnAg1.3Cu0.5Ni. The second alloy has a higher silver content but no addition of Ni. Solder joints are the main electrical, thermal and mechanical interconnection technology on the first and second interconnection level. With the recent rise of 3D packaging technologies many novel interconnection ideas are proposed with innovative or visionary nature. Copper pillar, stud bump, intermetallic (SLID) and even spring like joints are presented in a number of projects. However, soldering will remain one of the important interconnect technologies. Knowing the mechanical properties of solder joints is important for any reliability assessment, especially when it comes to vibration and mechanical shock associated with mobile applications. Taking the ongoing miniaturization and linked changes in solder joint microstructure and mechanical behavior into account the need for experimental work on that issue is not satisfied. The tests are accomplished utilizing miniature bulk specimens to match the microstructure of real solder joints as close as possible. The dogbone shaped bulk specimens have a crucial diameter of 1 mm, which is close to BGA solder joints. Experiments were done in the strain rate range from 20 s-1 to 600 s-1. Solder strengthening has been observed with increased strain rate for both SAC solder alloys. The yield stress increases by about 100% in the investigated strain rate range. The yield level differs strongly. A high speed camera system was used to assist the evaluation process of the stress and strain data. Besides the stress and strain data extracted from the experiment the ultimate fracture strain is determined and the fracture surfaces are evaluated using SEM technique considering rate dependency.

  8. High Strain Rate Response of Sandwich Composites with Nanophased Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfuz, Hassan; Uddin, Mohammed F.; Rangari, Vijaya K.; Saha, Mrinal C.; Zainuddin, Shaik; Jeelani, Shaik

    2005-05-01

    Polyurethane foam materials have been used as core materials in a sandwich construction with S2-Glass/SC-15 facings. The foam material has been manufactured from liquid polymer precursors of polyurethane. The precursors are made of two components; part-A (diphenylmethane diisocyanate) and part-B (polyol). In one set of experiments, part-A was mixed with part-B to manufacture the foam. In another set, TiO2 nanoparticles have been dispersed in part-A through ultrasonic cavitation technique. The loading of nanoparticles was 3% by weight of the total polymer precursor. The TiO2 nanoparticles were spherical in shape, and were about 29 nm in diameter. Sonic cavitation was carried out with a vibrasound liquid processor at 20 kHz frequency with a power intensity of about 100 kW/m2. The two categories of foams manufactured in this manner were termed as neat and nanophased. Sandwich composites were then fabricated using these two categories of core materials using a co-injection resin transfer molding (CIRTM) technique. Test samples extracted from the panel were subjected to quasi-static as well as high strain rate loadings. Rate of loading varied from 0.002 s-1 to around 1300 s-1. It has been observed that infusion of nanoparticles had a direct correlation with the cell geometry. The cell dimensions increased by about 46% with particle infusion suggesting that nanoparticles might have worked as catalysts during the foaming process. Correspondingly, enhancement in thermal properties was also noticed especially in the TGA experiments. There was also a significant improvement in mechanical properties due to nanoparticle infusion. Average increase in sandwich strength and energy absorption with nanophased cores was between 40 60% over their neat counterparts. Details of manufacturing and analyses of thermal and mechanical tests are presented in this paper.

  9. Ultra-high strain rate behavior of FCC nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Ryan Scott

    This work addresses the influence of ultra-high strain rates loading observed in our world today via ballistics, explosions and astrophysical collisions on well-defined metal structures. There is a plentiful amount of research examining metals at a macroscopic level that are subjected to ballistics and explosions but observing the microstructure is difficult as those procedures are fairly destructive testing mechanisms. Therefore, to understand the true mechanisms that occur in these loading situations a more novel technique is necessary. Modifications were made to the Laser Spallation Technique in order to load structures under a single transient wave pulse. This study characterized FCC nanostructures shock loaded at extreme pressures, strain rates and temperatures. By utilizing nanostructures, extremely large values of stain could be produced within the structure. It was first observed that at lower laser fluence levels and subsequently low stress states that there was a chemical activation of the surface of Cu nanopillars. This occurred due to nanofacet formation on the surface of the nanopillars which left pristine Cu surfaces to recombine with the environment. Dislocation motion was also observed and clearly identified in Cu nanopillars, Cu nanobenches and Al nanopillars. Further studies analyzed Cu nanopillars subjected to higher laser fluence generated stress waves, which led to bending and axial shortening deformation. These deformations were observed at laser fluence values of 144 kJ/m2 for bending and 300 kJ/m 2 for bulging similar to that of Taylor Impact experiments. To explore an even more extreme loading environment, a specialized test setup was employed to cryogenically cool the copper nanopillars to a temperature of 83K in an attempt to elucidate brittle behavior. Under these loading conditions the nanopillars continued to deform in a ductile manner but with delayed onset of both bending deformation and bulging deformation compared to the room

  10. Quantifying fatigue generated in high strain rate cyclic loading of Norway spruce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmi, Ari; Salminen, Lauri; Hæggström, Edward

    2009-11-01

    Papermaking, especially mechanical pulping, consumes much energy. To reduce this energy consumption one has to understand and exploit the phenomena present during the pulping. An important phenomenon to understand is wood fatigue. We quantitatively measure the fatigue generated during high strain rate cyclic loading of spruce wood performed under conditions resembling those present during mechanical pulping. We impacted the samples with 5% strain pulses at 500 Hz. The radial direction stiffness drop in the samples was quantified by 500 kHz ultrasonic through-transmission postimpacting. The depth profile of the generated fatigue was also determined. A dependency of the amount of fatigue generated during cyclic straining on the moisture content was detected. A hypothesis about the temporal and spatial evolution of the fatigue during the process is presented. The results, supporting the hypothesis, provide insight into wood behavior under mechanical pulping conditions.

  11. A comparative study of high strain rate behavior of three martensitic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last, H. R.; Garrett, R. K.; Rajendran, A. M.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the high strain rate response of HY100, HY130 and AF1410 steels determined from the split Hopkinson bar and quasi-static experiments under room and high temperatures. Differences in the macroscopic high strain rate response of these steels were observed. Metallurgical fracture surface analysis provided insight into the microstructural response and the observed macroscopic behavior of each steel.

  12. The High-Strain Rate Loading of Structural Biological Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proud, W. G.; Nguyen, T.-T. N.; Bo, C.; Butler, B. J.; Boddy, R. L.; Williams, A.; Masouros, S.; Brown, K. A.

    2015-10-01

    The human body can be subjected to violent acceleration as a result of explosion caused by military ordinance or accident. Blast waves cause injury and blunt trauma can be produced by violent impact of objects against the human body. The long-term clinical manifestations of blast injury can be significantly different in nature and extent to those suffering less aggressive insult. Similarly, the damage seen in lower limbs from those injured in explosion incidents is in general more severe than those falling from height. These phenomena increase the need for knowledge of the short- and long-term effect of transient mechanical loading to the biological structures of the human body. This paper gives an overview of some of the results of collaborative investigation into blast injury. The requirement for time-resolved data, appropriate mechanical modeling, materials characterization and biological effects is presented. The use of a range of loading platforms, universal testing machines, drop weights, Hopkinson bars, and bespoke traumatic injury simulators are given.

  13. Materials design and processings for industrial high-strain-rate superplastic forming

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, H.; Higashi, K.

    2000-07-01

    The optimum materials design in microstructural control could be developed for the high-strain-rate superplastic materials in the industrial scale. In the present work, it is reported that the high-performance-engine pistons with near-net-shape can be fabricated by the superplastic forging technology in the high-strain-rate superplastic PM Al-Si based alloy, which is produced by using this optimum materials design.

  14. Dynamic high-temperature characterization of an iridium alloy in compression at high strain rates.

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Bo; Nelson, Kevin; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Bignell, John L.; Ulrich, G. B.; George, E. P.

    2014-06-01

    Iridium alloys have superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures, making them useful as structural materials for certain high-temperature applications. However, experimental data on their high-temperature high-strain-rate performance are needed for understanding high-speed impacts in severe elevated-temperature environments. Kolsky bars (also called split Hopkinson bars) have been extensively employed for high-strain-rate characterization of materials at room temperature, but it has been challenging to adapt them for the measurement of dynamic properties at high temperatures. Current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar techniques are not capable of obtaining satisfactory high-temperature high-strain-rate stress-strain response of thin iridium specimens investigated in this study. We analyzed the difficulties encountered in high-temperature Kolsky compression bar testing of thin iridium alloy specimens. Appropriate modifications were made to the current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar technique to obtain reliable compressive stress-strain response of an iridium alloy at high strain rates (300 10000 s-1) and temperatures (750ÀC and 1030ÀC). Uncertainties in such high-temperature high-strain-rate experiments on thin iridium specimens were also analyzed. The compressive stress-strain response of the iridium alloy showed significant sensitivity to strain rate and temperature.

  15. Impurity effects on high-temperature tensile ductility of iridium alloys at high strain rate

    SciTech Connect

    McKamey, C.G.; George, E.P.; Lee, E.H.; Ohriner, E.K.; Heatherly, L.; Cohron, J.W.

    1999-12-17

    The current study was undertaken to determine what effects, if any, larger amounts of certain impurities (Al,Cr,Fe,Ni, and Si) might have on the physical metallurgy and mechanical properties of the DOP-26 iridium alloy. This report summarizes the effects of these impurities on grain growth behavior and high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility. Comparisons are made to the grain growth behavior and high-strain-rate tensile properties of the DOP-26 alloy without intentional impurity additions.

  16. High Strain-Rate Compressive Behavior of Bulk Structural Adhesives: Epoxy and Methacrylate Adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Takashi; Nakai, Kenji; Yatim, Norfazrina Hayati Mohd

    The present paper describes the determination of high strain-rate compressive stress-strain loops for bulk specimens of two different epoxy and methacrylate structural adhesives on the standard split Hopkinson pressure bar with a tapered striker bar. The full compressive stress-strain data including unloading process are obtained over a wide range of strain rates from 10-3 to 103/s at room temperature. The effects of strain rate on the initial (secant) modulus, flow stress, dissipation energy and hysteresis loss ratio are studied. The experimental results show that both bulk structural adhesives exhibit highly strain-rate dependent viscoelastic behavior like polymeric materials.

  17. Energy absorption at high strain rate of glass fiber reinforced mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenu, Luigi; Forni, Daniele; Cadoni, Ezio

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the dynamic behaviour of cement mortars reinforced with glass fibers was studied. The influence of the addition of glass fibers on energy absorption and tensile strength at high strain-rate was investigated. Static tests in compression, in tension and in bending were first performed. Dynamic tests by means of a Modified Hopkinson Bar were then carried out in order to investigate how glass fibers affected energy absorption and tensile strength at high strain-rate of the fiber reinforced mortar. The Dynamic Increase Factor (DIF) was finally evaluated.

  18. Micro-Structural Response of DP 600 to High Strain Rate Deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamburg, Brian; Schneider, Judy; Jones, Stanley E.

    2008-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the micro-structural response of DP 600 subjected to high strain rate, ballistic impact tests. The ballistic tests were conducted using normal impact of a hardened steel penetrator into a 2 mm thick sheet of DP 600. The average strain rates produced from this test method are on the order of 10(exp 5)/s. Electron microscopy was used to investigate the microstructure before and after high strain rate deformation. A variation in material response was observed between tests conducted at 0.8 x 105 and 25 x 10(exp 5)/s.

  19. Micromechanics-Based Permeability Evolution in Brittle Materials at High Strain Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perol, Thibaut; Bhat, Harsha S.

    2016-08-01

    We develop a micromechanics-based permeability evolution model for brittle materials at high strain rates (≥ 100 s^{-1}). Extending for undrained deformation the mechanical constitutive description of brittle solids, whose constitutive response is governed by micro-cracks, we now relate the damage-induced strains to micro-crack aperture. We then use an existing permeability model to evaluate the permeability evolution. This model predicts both the percolative and connected regime of permeability evolution of Westerly Granite during triaxial loading at high strain rate. This model can simulate pore pressure history during earthquake coseismic dynamic ruptures under undrained conditions.

  20. Finite Element Modeling of the Behavior of Armor Materials Under High Strain Rates and Large Strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyzois, Ioannis

    For years high strength steels and alloys have been widely used by the military for making armor plates. Advances in technology have led to the development of materials with improved resistance to penetration and deformation. Until recently, the behavior of these materials under high strain rates and large strains has been primarily based on laboratory testing using the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus. With the advent of sophisticated computer programs, computer modeling and finite element simulations are being developed to predict the deformation behavior of these metals for a variety of conditions similar to those experienced during combat. In the present investigation, a modified direct impact Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus was modeled using the finite element software ABAQUS 6.8 for the purpose of simulating high strain rate compression of specimens of three armor materials: maraging steel 300, high hardness armor (HHA), and aluminum alloy 5083. These armor materials, provided by the Canadian Department of National Defence, were tested at the University of Manitoba by others. In this study, the empirical Johnson-Cook visco-plastic and damage models were used to simulate the deformation behavior obtained experimentally. A series of stress-time plots at various projectile impact momenta were produced and verified by comparison with experimental data. The impact momentum parameter was chosen rather than projectile velocity to normalize the initial conditions for each simulation. Phenomena such as the formation of adiabatic shear bands caused by deformation at high strains and strain rates were investigated through simulations. It was found that the Johnson-Cook model can accurately simulate the behavior of body-centered cubic (BCC) metals such as steels. The maximum shear stress was calculated for each simulation at various impact momenta. The finite element model showed that shear failure first occurred in the center of the cylindrical specimen and

  1. Tensile-strength apparatus applies high strain-rate loading with minimum shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotrill, H. E., Jr.; Mac Glashan, W. F., Jr.

    1966-01-01

    Tensile-strength testing apparatus employs a capillary bundle through which a noncompressible fluid is extruded and a quick-release valve system. This apparatus applies the test loads at relatively constant very high strain rates with minimal shock and vibration to the tensile specimen and apparatus.

  2. Atomic Scale Modeling of High Strain Rate Deformation and Failure of HCP Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenchery, Karoon; Agarwal, Garvit; Dongare, Avinash

    2015-06-01

    A fundamental understanding of the microstructure effects on the defect evolution at the atomic resolution and the related contribution to plasticity at the macro-scales is needed to obtain a reliable performance of metallic materials in extreme environments. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are carried out to characterize the dynamic evolution of defect/damage structures during the deformation and failure behavior of HCP (Mg, Ti) metallic systems (single crystal and nanocrystalline at high strain rates as well as under shock loading conditions. The evolution of various types of dislocations, twins, faults, etc. and the related deformation and failure response (nucleation and growth of voids/cracks) will be discussed. The effects of strain rates on relationships between the microstructure and the strength of these materials at high strain rates and the underlying micromechanisms related to deformation and failure will be discussed.

  3. High Strain Rate Characterization of Laminate Composites Using Direct-Tension Split Hopkinson Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkala, S.; Hommeida, A.; Brar, N. S.

    1999-06-01

    Data on high strain rate response of laminate composites is required to numerically simulate penetration/perforation events. Tension specimens of laminate composites can only be fabricated in dog-bone shape and, therefore, a direct tension Hopkinson bar configuration is more appropriate for acquiring high strain data. Launching a 6.35-mm wall thickness aluminum tube around 25.4 diameter aluminum incident bar produces the tension pulse in the incident bar. Ends of the composite specimens in the dog-bone configuration are placed in specially designed grips, which are screwed in the incident and transmitter bars. The configuration allows testing of specimens with threaded ends. Stress-strain data on 6061-T6 aluminum and titanium 6-4 at a strain rate of 10^3/s agree with the published data. High strain rate data on laminate composite specimens reinforced with graphite and glass fibers will be presented.

  4. High strain rate characterization of low-density low-strength materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawas, O.; Brar, N. S.; Brockman, R. A.

    1998-07-01

    The Conventional Split Hopkinson Bar (CSHB) is a reliable experimental technique for measuring high strain rate properties of high-strength materials. Attempts to use the CSHB for similar measurements in more compliant materials, such as plastics and foams, are limited by the maximum achievable strain and high noise-to-signal ratios. This work introduces an all-polymeric split Hopkinson bar (APSHB) experiment, which overcomes these limitations. The proposed method uses polymeric pressure bars to achieve a closer impedance match between the pressure bars and the specimen materials, thus providing both low noise-to-signal ratio data and a longer input pulse for higher maximum strain. Data reduction procedures for APSHB that account for the viscoelastic behavior of the pressure bars are presented. Comparing the high strain rate response of 1100 Al obtained from CSHB and APSHB validates these procedures. Stress-strain data at strain rates of 500-2000/s for polycarbonate, polyurethane foam, and styrofoam are presented.

  5. Transient x-ray diffraction with simultaneous imaging under high strain-rate loading

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, D.; E, J. C.; Zhao, F.; Luo, S. N.; Lu, L.; Li, B.; Qi, M. L.; Sun, T.; Fezzaa, K.; Chen, W.

    2014-11-15

    Real time, in situ, multiframe, diffraction, and imaging measurements on bulk samples under high and ultrahigh strain-rate loading are highly desirable for micro- and mesoscale sciences. We present an experimental demonstration of multiframe transient x-ray diffraction (TXD) along with simultaneous imaging under high strain-rate loading at the Advanced Photon Source beamline 32ID. The feasibility study utilizes high strain-rate Hopkinson bar loading on a Mg alloy. The exposure time in TXD is 2–3 μs, and the frame interval is 26.7–62.5 μs. Various dynamic deformation mechanisms are revealed by TXD, including lattice expansion or compression, crystal plasticity, grain or lattice rotation, and likely grain refinement, as well as considerable anisotropy in deformation. Dynamic strain fields are mapped via x-ray digital image correlation, and are consistent with the diffraction measurements and loading histories.

  6. Transient x-ray diffraction with simultaneous imaging under high strain-rate loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, D.; Lu, L.; Li, B.; Qi, M. L.; E, J. C.; Zhao, F.; Sun, T.; Fezzaa, K.; Chen, W.; Luo, S. N.

    2014-11-01

    Real time, in situ, multiframe, diffraction, and imaging measurements on bulk samples under high and ultrahigh strain-rate loading are highly desirable for micro- and mesoscale sciences. We present an experimental demonstration of multiframe transient x-ray diffraction (TXD) along with simultaneous imaging under high strain-rate loading at the Advanced Photon Source beamline 32ID. The feasibility study utilizes high strain-rate Hopkinson bar loading on a Mg alloy. The exposure time in TXD is 2-3 μs, and the frame interval is 26.7-62.5 μs. Various dynamic deformation mechanisms are revealed by TXD, including lattice expansion or compression, crystal plasticity, grain or lattice rotation, and likely grain refinement, as well as considerable anisotropy in deformation. Dynamic strain fields are mapped via x-ray digital image correlation, and are consistent with the diffraction measurements and loading histories.

  7. A Model for High-Strain-Rate Deformation of Uranium-Niobium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    F.L.Addessio; Q.H.Zuo; T.A.Mason; L.C.Brinson

    2003-05-01

    A thermodynamic approach is used to develop a framework for modeling uranium-niobium alloys under the conditions of high strain rate. Using this framework, a three-dimensional phenomenological model, which includes nonlinear elasticity (equation of state), phase transformation, crystal reorientation, rate-dependent plasticity, and porosity growth is presented. An implicit numerical technique is used to solve the evolution equations for the material state. Comparisons are made between the model and data for low-strain-rate loading and unloading as well as for heating and cooling experiments. Comparisons of the model and data also are made for low- and high-strain-rate uniaxial stress and uniaxial strain experiments. A uranium-6 weight percent niobium alloy is used in the comparisons of model and experiment.

  8. Computational Simulation of the High Strain Rate Tensile Response of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.

    2002-01-01

    A research program is underway to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain rate impact loads. Under these types of loading conditions, the material response can be highly strain rate dependent and nonlinear. State variable constitutive equations based on a viscoplasticity approach have been developed to model the deformation of the polymer matrix. The constitutive equations are then combined with a mechanics of materials based micromechanics model which utilizes fiber substructuring to predict the effective mechanical and thermal response of the composite. To verify the analytical model, tensile stress-strain curves are predicted for a representative composite over strain rates ranging from around 1 x 10(exp -5)/sec to approximately 400/sec. The analytical predictions compare favorably to experimentally obtained values both qualitatively and quantitatively. Effective elastic and thermal constants are predicted for another composite, and compared to finite element results.

  9. Hardness and phase analysis of IN 718 deformed at high strain rate.

    PubMed

    Renhof, L; Guder, S; Werner, E

    2004-06-01

    Specimens of the nickel base alloy IN 718 deformed at high strain rate (approximately 10 s(-1)), as realized in a screw press, have higher strength than parts forged conventionally in a hydraulic press. Microstructure analyses in light and transmission electron microscopes reveal the precipitation of very small Ni(3)Nb particles (gamma"-phase) to be the reason for the increased hardness. Several processing routes are discussed and analyzed in relation to the TTT-diagram of IN 718. PMID:14968288

  10. High strain rate response of UHP(FR)C in compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragov, Anatoly; Konstantinov, Alexandr; Lomunov, Andrey; Forni, Daniele; Riganti, Gianmario; Cadoni, Ezio

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the compression behaviour of the UHPFRC and its matrix (UHPC) under high strain rate. Two experimental set-ups were used for compression testing: a traditional Split Hopkinson Pressure Bars and a compression version of the Modified Hopkinson Bar. The tests were conducted, in the range of 100-500 s-1 on cylindrical specimens with both diameter and height of 20 mm. Results show significant increases in peak strength and dissipated energy.

  11. HIGH-STRAIN RATE RESPONSE OF ULTRA-FINE GRAINED COPPER: EXPERIMENTS AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Anuj; Kad, Bimal; Martin, Morgana; Thadhani, Naresh; Kenik, Edward A; Myers, Marc A.

    2008-07-01

    The high-strain rate response of ultra-fine grained (UFG) copper processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) was characterized by reverse Taylor impact and Hopkinson-bar experiments. Two types of copper samples are tested using Hopkinson bar: (a) cylindrical samples to investigate the response at high strain-rates,(b) hat shaped samples to compare the shear band characteristics in UFG copper with the ones that have been studied in coarse grained samples. This can be attributed to the high strain-rate sensitivity of the fine grained FCC metals. Upon impact, the samples were found to undergo heat induced static recrystallization at a calculated temperature of 360K, indicating that the UFG copper is thermally unstable. Reverse Taylor tests were conducted on as-received OFHC Cu rod and ECAP specimens with sequential ECAP passes (2 and 8). The dynamic deformations of the samples are modeled using AUTODYN-2D and a modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation was found to capture the dynamic response. Similar to the compression test results, the impacted front of the samples were found to recrystallize extensively and preferentially.

  12. Predictions of High Strain Rate Failure Modes in Layered Aluminum Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanikar, Prasenjit; Zikry, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    A dislocation density-based crystalline plasticity formulation, specialized finite-element techniques, and rational crystallographic orientation relations were used to predict and characterize the failure modes associated with the high strain rate behavior of aluminum layered composites. Two alloy layers, a high strength alloy, aluminum 2195, and an aluminum alloy 2139, with high toughness, were modeled with representative microstructures that included precipitates, dispersed particles, and different grain boundary distributions. Different layer arrangements were investigated for high strain rate applications and the optimal arrangement was with the high toughness 2139 layer on the bottom, which provided extensive shear strain localization, and the high strength 2195 layer on the top for high strength resistance The layer thickness of the bottom high toughness layer also affected the bending behavior of the roll-bonded interface and the potential delamination of the layers. Shear strain localization, dynamic cracking, and delamination are the mutually competing failure mechanisms for the layered metallic composite, and control of these failure modes can be used to optimize behavior for high strain rate applications.

  13. High-strain-rate characterization of TPOs and graphite/epoxy and graphite/peek composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brar, N. S.; Simha, H.; Pratap, A.

    2001-06-01

    Tensile and compressive stress-strain response of two types of TPOs and graphite-epoxy composites are investigated at strain rates in the range 0.001/s-1000/s. Specimen strain in the low strain rate regime 0.001-100/s was determined using an optical extensometer in conjunction with standard MTS machine. Tensile test at high strain rate were performed on newly developed tensile version of All- Polymeric Split Hopkinson Bar. Tensile TPO specimens in the dog-bone configuration are placed in specially designed grips fabricated from nylatron. Compression response of TPO specimens at high strain rate is determined using 25.4-mm diameter aluminum bars. Peak compressive stress increases from 10 MPa at a strain rate of 100/s to 35 MPa at a strain rate of 1000/s. Preliminary data on high strain rate tensile response of graphite-epoxy and graphite-peek composites are presented. These data are intended to develop a material model incorporating strain rate sensitivity for TPOs and to be used in car crash simulations.

  14. Influence of temperature on the high-strain-rate mechanical behavior of PBX 9501

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, G.T. III; Blumenthal, W.R.; Idar, D.J.; Cady, C.M.

    1998-07-01

    High-strain-rate (2000 s{sup {minus}1}) compression measurements utilizing a specially-designed Split-Hopkinson-Pressure Bar have been obtained as a function of temperature from {minus}55 to +50{degree}C for the plastic-bonded explosive PBX 9501. The PBX 9501 high-strain-rate data was found to exhibit similarities to other energetic, propellant, and polymer-composite materials as a function of strain rate and temperature. The high-rate response of the energetic was found to exhibit increased ultimate compressive fracture strength and elastic loading modulus with decreasing temperature. PBX 9501 exhibited nearly invariant fracture strains of {approximately}1.5 percent as a function of temperature at high-strain rate. The maximum compressive strength of PBX 9501 was measured to increase from {approximately}55 MPa at 50{degree}C to 150 MPa at {minus}55{degree}C. Scanning electron microscopic observations of the fracture mode of PBX 9501 deformed at high-strain revealed predominantly transgranular cleavage fracture of the HMX crystals. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. The chemical and mechanical behaviors of polymer / reactive metal systems under high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yubin

    As one category of energetic materials, impact-initiated reactive materials are able to release a high amount of stored chemical energy under high strain rate impact loading, and are used extensively in civil and military applications. In general, polymers are introduced as binder materials to trap the reactive metal powders inside, and also act as an oxidizing agent for the metal ingredient. Since critical attention has been paid on the metal / metal reaction, only a few types of polymer / reactive metal interactions have been studied in the literature. With the higher requirement of materials resistant to different thermal and mechanical environments, the understanding and characterization of polymer / reactive metal interactions are in great demand. In this study, PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene) 7A / Ti (Titanium) composites were studied under high strain rates by utilizing the Taylor impact and SHPB tests. Taylor impact tests with different impact velocities, sample dimensions and sample configurations were conducted on the composite, equipped with a high-speed camera for tracking transient images during the sudden process. SHPB and Instron tests were carried out to obtain the stress vs. strain curves of the composite under a wide range of strain rates, the result of which were also utilized for fitting the constitutive relations of the composite based on the modified Johnson-Cook strength model. Thermal analyses by DTA tests under different flow rates accompanied with XRD identification were conducted to study the reaction mechanism between PTFE 7A and Ti when only heat was provided. Numerical simulations on Taylor impact tests and microstructural deformations were also performed to validate the constitutive model built for the composite system, and to investigate the possible reaction mechanism between two components. The results obtained from the high strain rate tests, thermal analyses and numerical simulations were combined to provide a systematic study on

  16. Biologically inspired crack delocalization in a high strain-rate environment

    PubMed Central

    Knipprath, Christian; Bond, Ian P.; Trask, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Biological materials possess unique and desirable energy-absorbing mechanisms and structural characteristics worthy of consideration by engineers. For example, high levels of energy dissipation at low strain rates via triggering of crack delocalization combined with interfacial hardening by platelet interlocking are observed in brittle materials such as nacre, the iridescent material in seashells. Such behaviours find no analogy in current engineering materials. The potential to mimic such toughening mechanisms on different length scales now exists, but the question concerning their suitability under dynamic loading conditions and whether these mechanisms retain their energy-absorbing potential is unclear. This paper investigates the kinematic behaviour of an ‘engineered’ nacre-like structure within a high strain-rate environment. A finite-element (FE) model was developed which incorporates the pertinent biological design features. A parametric study was carried out focusing on (i) the use of an overlapping discontinuous tile arrangement for crack delocalization and (ii) application of tile waviness (interfacial hardening) for improved post-damage behaviour. With respect to the material properties, the model allows the permutation and combination of a variety of different material datasets. The advantage of such a discontinuous material shows notable improvements in sustaining high strain-rate deformation relative to an equivalent continuous morphology. In the case of the continuous material, the shockwaves propagating through the material lead to localized failure while complex shockwave patterns are observed in the discontinuous flat tile arrangement, arising from platelet interlocking. The influence of the matrix properties on impact performance is investigated by varying the dominant material parameters. The results indicate a deceleration of the impactor velocity, thus delaying back face nodal displacement. A final series of FE models considered the

  17. Biologically inspired crack delocalization in a high strain-rate environment.

    PubMed

    Knipprath, Christian; Bond, Ian P; Trask, Richard S

    2012-04-01

    Biological materials possess unique and desirable energy-absorbing mechanisms and structural characteristics worthy of consideration by engineers. For example, high levels of energy dissipation at low strain rates via triggering of crack delocalization combined with interfacial hardening by platelet interlocking are observed in brittle materials such as nacre, the iridescent material in seashells. Such behaviours find no analogy in current engineering materials. The potential to mimic such toughening mechanisms on different length scales now exists, but the question concerning their suitability under dynamic loading conditions and whether these mechanisms retain their energy-absorbing potential is unclear. This paper investigates the kinematic behaviour of an 'engineered' nacre-like structure within a high strain-rate environment. A finite-element (FE) model was developed which incorporates the pertinent biological design features. A parametric study was carried out focusing on (i) the use of an overlapping discontinuous tile arrangement for crack delocalization and (ii) application of tile waviness (interfacial hardening) for improved post-damage behaviour. With respect to the material properties, the model allows the permutation and combination of a variety of different material datasets. The advantage of such a discontinuous material shows notable improvements in sustaining high strain-rate deformation relative to an equivalent continuous morphology. In the case of the continuous material, the shockwaves propagating through the material lead to localized failure while complex shockwave patterns are observed in the discontinuous flat tile arrangement, arising from platelet interlocking. The influence of the matrix properties on impact performance is investigated by varying the dominant material parameters. The results indicate a deceleration of the impactor velocity, thus delaying back face nodal displacement. A final series of FE models considered the

  18. High-strain-rate, high-temperature biaxial testing of DOP-26 iridium

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1988-05-01

    High-strain-rate biaxial punch tests were performed on DOP-26 (Ir-0.3 wt.% tungsten) iridium-alloy disc given annealing and aging heat treatments. Test temperatures ranged between 600 and 1440/degree/C, and punch velocity was held constant at 45 m/s. Three types of samples were evaluated: Z-batch old-process discs, B-batch old-process discs, and B-batch new-process discs. The results indicate that batch-to-batch variations in ductility are significant and that new-process iridium is slightly more ductile than old-process material. 12 refs., 43 figs., 26 tabs.

  19. Microstructural Evolution of Ti-6Al-4V during High Strain Rate Conditions of Metal Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, Lei; Schneider, Judy

    2009-01-01

    The microstructural evolution following metal cutting was investigated within the metal chips of Ti-6Al-4V. Metal cutting was used to impose a high strain rate on the order of approx.10(exp 5)/s within the primary shear zone as the metal was removed from the workpiece. The initial microstructure of the parent material (PM) was composed of a bi-modal microstructure with coarse prior grains and equiaxed primary located at the boundaries. After metal cutting, the microstructure of the metal chips showed coarsening of the equiaxed primary grains and lamellar. These metallographic findings suggest that the metal chips experienced high temperatures which remained below the transus temperature.

  20. Simultaneous enhancement of toughness, ductility, and strength of nanocrystalline ceramics at high strain-rates

    SciTech Connect

    Mo Yifei; Szlufarska, Izabela

    2007-04-30

    Molecular dynamics simulations of tensile testing have been performed on nc-SiC. Reduction of grain size promotes simultaneous enhancement of ductility, toughness, and strength. nc-SiC fails by intergranular fracture preceded by atomic level necking. Conventionally, high strain-rate deformations of ceramics are limited by diffusion time scales, since diffusion prevents premature cavitation and failure. The authors report a nondiffusional mechanism for suppressing premature cavitation, which is based on unconstrained plastic flow at grain boundaries. Based on the composite's rule of mixture, they estimate Young's modulus of random high-angle grain boundaries in nc-SiC to be about 130 GPa.

  1. Environmental and high strain rate effects on composites for engine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Smith, G. T.

    1982-01-01

    The complex environmental and loading conditions experienced by many turbine engine components impose severe durability and damage tolerance requirements for component materials. Programs are being conducted to establish the structural performance of composite materials under anticipated engine operating environments. A description is presented of the results obtained in connection with several of these programs. A comparison of predicted and measured hygrothermal effects is considered along with hygrothermal effects on defect growth, high strain rate effects on composite mechanical properties, dynamic stress intensity factors for composites, and the indentation laws for composite impact analysis.

  2. Dynamic compressive behavior of Pr-Nd alloy at high strain rates and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Huanran; Cai Canyuan; Chen Danian; Ma Dongfang

    2012-07-01

    Based on compressive tests, static on 810 material test system and dynamic on the first compressive loading in split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tests for Pr-Nd alloy cylinder specimens at high strain rates and temperatures, this study determined a J-C type [G. R. Johnson and W. H. Cook, in Proceedings of Seventh International Symposium on Ballistics (The Hague, The Netherlands, 1983), pp. 541-547] compressive constitutive equation of Pr-Nd alloy. It was recorded by a high speed camera that the Pr-Nd alloy cylinder specimens fractured during the first compressive loading in SHPB tests at high strain rates and temperatures. From high speed camera images, the critical strains of the dynamic shearing instability for Pr-Nd alloy in SHPB tests were determined, which were consistent with that estimated by using Batra and Wei's dynamic shearing instability criterion [R. C. Batra and Z. G. Wei, Int. J. Impact Eng. 34, 448 (2007)] and the determined compressive constitutive equation of Pr-Nd alloy. The transmitted and reflected pulses of SHPB tests for Pr-Nd alloy cylinder specimens computed with the determined compressive constitutive equation of Pr-Nd alloy and Batra and Wei's dynamic shearing instability criterion could be consistent with the experimental data. The fractured Pr-Nd alloy cylinder specimens of compressive tests were investigated by using 3D supper depth digital microscope and scanning electron microscope.

  3. Experimental Results of High Pressure and High Strain Rate Tantalum Flow Stress on Omega and NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye-Sook; Arsenlis, A.; Barton, N.; Benedetti, L.; Huntington, C.; McNaney, J.; Orlikowski, D.; Prisbrey, S.; Remington, B.; Rudd, R.; Swift, D.; Weber, S.; Wehrenberg, C.; Comley, A.

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the high pressure, high strain rate plastic deformation dynamics of materials is an area of research of high interest to planetary formation dynamics, meteor impact dynamics, and inertial confinement fusion designs. Developing predictive theoretical and computational descriptions of such systems, however, has been a difficult undertaking. We have performed many experiments on Omega, LCLS and NIF to test Ta strength models at high pressures (~ up to 4 Mbar), high strain rates (~ 107 s-1) and high strains (>30%) under ramped compression conditions using Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability properties. These experiments use plasma drive to ramp compress the sample to higher pressure without shock-melting. We also studied lattice level strength mechanisms under shocked compression using a diffraction-based technique. Our studies show that the strength mechanisms from macro to micro scales are different from the traditional strength model predictions and that they are loading path dependent. We will report the experimental results. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA273.

  4. Investigating strength of materials at very high strain rates using magnetically driven expanding cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovinger, Zev; Nemirovsky, Ron; Avriel, Eyal; Dorogoy, Avraham; Ashuach, Yehezkel; Rittel, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic characterization of strength properties is done, in common practice by the means of a Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar (also named Kolsky-Bar) apparatus. In such systems, strain rates are limited up to ˜ 5 ṡ 103 sec-1. For higher strain rates, the strain rate hardening is assumed to be the same as that measured at lower rates, with no direct measurement to validate the assumptions used for this extrapolation. In this work we are using a pulsed current generator (PCG) to create electro-magnetic (EM) driving forces on expanding cylinders. Most standard techniques for creating EM driving forces on cylinders or rings, as reported in the literature, reach strain rates of 1e3-1e4. Using our PCG, characterized by a fast rise time, we reach strain rates of ˜1e5, thus paving the way to a standard technique to measure strength at very high strain rates. To establish the experimental technique, we conducted a numerical study of the expanding cylinder set up using 2D hydrodynamic simulations to reach the desired high strain rates.

  5. The dynamic Virtual Fields Method on rubbers at medium and high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sung-Ho; Siviour, Clive R.

    2015-09-01

    Elastomeric materials are widely used for energy absorption applications, often experiencing high strain rate deformations. The mechanical characterization of rubbers at high strain rates presents several experimental difficulties, especially associated with achieving adequate signal to noise ratio and static stress equilibrium, when using a conventional technique such as the split Hopkinson pressure bar. In the present study, these problems are avoided by using the dynamic Virtual Fields Method (VFM) in which acceleration fields, clearly generated by the non-equilibrium state, are utilized as a force measurement with in the frame work of the principle of virtual work equation. In this paper, two dynamic VFM based techniques are used to characterise an EPDM rubber. These are denoted as the linear and nonlinear VFM and are developed for (respectively) medium (drop-weight) and high (gas-gun) strain-rate experiments. The use of the two VFMs combined with high-speed imaging analysed by digital imaging correlation allows the identification of the parameters of a given rubber mechanical model; in this case the Ogden model is used.

  6. High Strain Rate Characterization of Plastics and Foams Using Polymeric Split Hopkinson Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawas, Omar; Brar, N. S.

    1997-07-01

    High strain rate and high/low temperature response of engineered plastics and foams is relevant and important for the design and development of fighter aircraft canopies, submarine interiors and automobile exterior and interior systems. The mechanical impedance of conventional split Hopkinson bar materials (aluminum or steel) is extremely large compared to those of plastic or foam specimens. To overcome this difficulty of impedance mismatch we have developed the Polymeric Split Hopkinson Bar (PSHB). A viscoelastic model for cast acrylic bar material, which relates stresses and strains as well as particle velocity and strain, is developed to account for the wave dispersion along the bar. The model is verified by comparing the stress strain data on 1100 aluminum and polycarbonate specimens obtained using PSHB and conventional aluminum SHB. Stress-strain data at a strain rate of 103/s on low strength polyurethane foam (density = 0.57 g/cm3) following this technique show that the foam has a recoverable compressive strain of 0.4 at a stress of 2.9 MPa. High strain rate (2x102-2x103/s) data on polycarbonate, generic elastomer, and styrofoam will also be presented.

  7. Texture Dependency of High Strain Rate Properties of Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielewski, Euan; Siviour, Clive; Petrinic, Nik

    2009-06-01

    Over the last few decades the characterisation of Titanium alloys has become increasingly important, mainly due to the requirement for better understanding of lightweight structural materials in aerospace applications. This trend is further strengthened by the emergence of new manufacturing and processing technologies promising Titanium alloys at a lower price, placing them within the range of automotive and consumer product manufacturers. A key aspect of fully understanding the behaviour of Titanium alloys is to determine how varying microstructure affects high strain rate properties. This paper reports the data from high strain rate characterisation tests that have been carried out on four Ti-6Al-4V plates with differing microstructures in both tension (longitudinal, transverse directions) and compression (longitudinal, transverse, through thickness directions). Tension and compression Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bars were used to achieve strain rates of 10^3 s-1. The data from these characterisation tests can then be used to evaluate the affect of microstructure on the anisotropic properties of Ti-6Al-4V.

  8. Predictions and Experimental Microstructural Characterization of High Strain Rate Failure Modes in Layered Aluminum Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanikar, Prasenjit

    Different aluminum alloys can be combined, as composites, for tailored dynamic applications. Most investigations pertaining to metallic alloy layered composites, however, have been based on quasi-static approaches. The dynamic failure of layered metallic composites, therefore, needs to be characterized in terms of strength, toughness, and fracture response. A dislocation-density based crystalline plasticity formulation, finite-element techniques, rational crystallographic orientation relations and a new fracture methodology were used to predict the failure modes associated with the high strain rate behavior of aluminum layered composites. Two alloy layers, a high strength alloy, aluminum 2195, and an aluminum alloy 2139, with high toughness, were modeled with representative microstructures that included precipitates, dispersed particles, and different grain boundary (GB) distributions. The new fracture methodology, based on an overlap method and phantom nodes, is used with a fracture criteria specialized for fracture on different cleavage planes. One of the objectives of this investigation, therefore, was to determine the optimal arrangements of the 2139 and 2195 aluminum alloys for a metallic layered composite that would combine strength, toughness and fracture resistance for high strain-rate applications. Different layer arrangements were investigated for high strain-rate applications, and the optimal arrangement was with the high toughness 2139 layer on the bottom, which provided extensive shear strain localization, and the high strength 2195 layer on the top for high strength resistance. The layer thickness of the bottom high toughness layer also affected the bending behavior of the roll-boned interface and the potential delamination of the layers. Shear strain localization, dynamic cracking and delamination were the mutually competing failure mechanisms for the layered metallic composite, and control of these failure modes can be optimized for high strain-rate

  9. Experimental and Computational Study of the Shearing Resistance of Polyurea at High Pressures and High Strain Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, Mica; Yavari, R.; Snipes, J. S.; Ramaswami, S.; Jiao, T.; Clifton, R. J.

    2015-02-01

    Mechanical response of polyurea, a nanophase segregated elastomeric co-polymer, is investigated using all-atom, equilibrium, molecular-dynamics methods and tools. Specifically, the effects of high pressure (1-30 GPa) and high strain rate (105-106 s-1) on the shearing resistance of polyurea are examined. Such loading conditions are encountered by polyurea coatings subjected to impact by high-velocity projectiles, shell shrapnel, and improvised explosive device fragments. Computed results are compared with their experimental counterparts obtained using the so-called pressure-shear plate impact experiments. Computed results have also been rationalized in terms of the nanosegregated polyurea microstructure consisting of rod-shaped, discrete, the so-called hard domains embedded in a highly compliant, the so-called soft matrix. By analyzing molecular-level microstructure and its evolution during high-rate deformation and under high imposed pressures, an attempt is made to identify and quantify main phenomena in viscous/inelastic deformation and microstructure-reorganization processes that are most likely responsible for the observed mechanical response of polyurea.

  10. The Compressive Behavior of Isocyanate-crosslinked Silica Aerogel at High Strain Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, H.; Lu, H.; Leventis, N.

    2006-01-01

    Aerogels are low-density, highly nano-porous materials. Their engineering applications are limited due to their brittleness and hydrophilicity. Recently, a strong lightweight crosslinked silica aerogel has been developed by encapsulating the skeletal framework of amine-modified silica aerogels with polyureas derived by isocyanate. The mesoporous structure of the underlying silica framework is preserved through conformal polymer coating, and the thermal conductivity remains low. Characterization has been conducted on the thermal, physical properties and the mechanical properties under quasi-static loading conditions. In this paper, we present results on the dynamic compressive behavior of the crosslinked silica aerogel (CSA) using a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). A new tubing pulse shaper was employed to help reach the dynamic stress equilibrium and constant strain rate. The stress-strain relationship was determined at high strain rates within 114-4386/s. The effects of strain rate, density, specimen thickness and water absorption on the dynamic behavior of the CSA were investigated through a series of dynamic experiments. The Young's moduli (or 0.2% offset compressive yield strengths) at a strain rate approx.350/s were determined as 10.96/2.08, 159.5/6.75, 192.2/7.68, 304.6/11.46, 407.0/20.91 and 640.5/30.47 MPa for CSA with densities 0.205, 0.454, 0.492, 0.551,0.628 and 0.731 g/cu cm, respectively. The deformation and failure behaviors of a native silica aerogel with density (0.472 g/cu cm ), approximately the same as a typical CSA sample were observed with a high speed digital camera. Digital image correlation technique was used to determine the surface strains through a series of images acquired using high speed photography. The relative uniform axial deformation indicated that localized compaction did not occur at a compressive strain level of approx.17%, suggesting most likely failure mechanism at high strain rate to be different from that under quasi

  11. The compressive behavior of isocyanate-crosslinked silica aerogel at high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, H.; Lu, H.; Leventis, N.

    2006-06-01

    Aerogels are low-density, highly nano-porous materials. Their engineering applications are limited due to their brittleness and hydrophilicity. Recently, a strong lightweight crosslinked silica aerogel has been developed by encapsulating the skeletal framework of amine-modified silica aerogels with polyureas derived by isocyanate. The mesoporous structure of the underlying silica framework is preserved through conformal polymer coating, and the thermal conductivity remains low. Characterization has been conducted on the thermal, physical properties and the mechanical properties under quasi-static loading conditions. In this paper, we present results on the dynamic compressive behavior of the crosslinked silica aerogel (CSA) using a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). A new tubing pulse shaper was employed to help reach the dynamic stress equilibrium and constant strain rate. The stress-strain relationship was determined at high strain rates within 114-4386 s-1. The effects of strain rate, density, specimen thickness and water absorption on the dynamic behavior of the CSA were investigated through a series of dynamic experiments. The Young’s moduli (or 0.2% offset compressive yield strengths) at a strain rate ˜350 s-1 were determined as 10.96/2.08, 159.5/6.75, 192.2/7.68, 304.6/11.46, 407.0/20.91 and 640.5/30.47 MPa for CSA with densities 0.205, 0.454, 0.492, 0.551, 0.628 and 0.731 g cm-3, respectively. The deformation and failure behaviors of a native silica aerogel with density (0.472 g cm-3), approximately the same as a typical CSA sample were observed with a high speed digital camera. Digital image correlation technique was used to determine the surface strains through a series of images acquired using high speed photography. The relative uniform axial deformation indicated that localized compaction did not occur at a compressive strain level of ˜17%, suggesting most likely failure mechanism at high strain rate to be different from that under quasi

  12. Quasi-Static and High Strain Rate Compressive Response of Injection-Molded Cenosphere/HDPE Syntactic Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharath Kumar, B. R.; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Luong, Dung D.; Gupta, Nikhil

    2016-07-01

    High strain rate compressive properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix syntactic foams containing cenosphere filler are investigated. Thermoplastic matrix syntactic foams have not been studied extensively for high strain rate deformation response despite interest in them for lightweight underwater vehicle structures and consumer products. Quasi-static compression tests are conducted at 10-4 s-1, 10-3 s-1 and 10-2 s-1 strain rates. Further, a split-Hopkinson pressure bar is utilized for characterizing syntactic foams for high strain rate compression. The compressive strength of syntactic foams is higher than that of HDPE resin at the same strain rate. Yield strength shows an increasing trend with strain rate. The average yield strength values at high strain rates are almost twice the values obtained at 10-4 s-1 for HDPE resin and syntactic foams. Theoretical models are used to estimate the effectiveness of cenospheres in reinforcing syntactic foams.

  13. Quasi-Static and High Strain Rate Compressive Response of Injection-Molded Cenosphere/HDPE Syntactic Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharath Kumar, B. R.; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Luong, Dung D.; Gupta, Nikhil

    2016-04-01

    High strain rate compressive properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix syntactic foams containing cenosphere filler are investigated. Thermoplastic matrix syntactic foams have not been studied extensively for high strain rate deformation response despite interest in them for lightweight underwater vehicle structures and consumer products. Quasi-static compression tests are conducted at 10-4 s-1, 10-3 s-1 and 10-2 s-1 strain rates. Further, a split-Hopkinson pressure bar is utilized for characterizing syntactic foams for high strain rate compression. The compressive strength of syntactic foams is higher than that of HDPE resin at the same strain rate. Yield strength shows an increasing trend with strain rate. The average yield strength values at high strain rates are almost twice the values obtained at 10-4 s-1 for HDPE resin and syntactic foams. Theoretical models are used to estimate the effectiveness of cenospheres in reinforcing syntactic foams.

  14. Modelling and Simulation of Dynamic Recrystallization (DRX) In OFHC Copper at Very High Strain Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Gabriel; Bonora, Nicola; Ruggiero, Andrew; Iannitti, Gianluca; Hörnqvist, Magnus; Mortazavi, Nooshin

    2015-06-01

    At high strain rates, the deformation process is essentially adiabatic and if the plastic work is large enough, dynamic recrystallization can occur. In this work, an examination on microstructure evolution in Dynamic Tensile Extrusion (DTE) test of OFHC copper, performed at 400 m/s, was carried out. EBSD investigations, along the center line of the fragment remaining in the extrusion die, showed a progressive elongation of the grains, and an accompanying development of a strong < 001 > + < 111 > dual fiber texture. Meta-dynamic discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred at larger strains, and it was showed that nucleation occurred during straining. A criterion, based on the evolution of Zener-Hollomon parameter during the dynamic deformation process, was proposed. Finally, DTE test was simulated using the modified Rusinek-Klepaczko constitutive model incorporating restoring effects induced by recrystallization processes.

  15. Microstructure Evolution of 1050 Commercial Purity Aluminum Processed by High-Strain-Rate Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Chen, Yadong; Ma, Fei; Hu, Haibo; Zhang, Qingming; Tang, Tiegang; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2015-11-01

    1050 commercial purity aluminum was first deformed by split-Hopkinson pressure bar. Two means of loading methods were conducted, namely uni-directional impact and multiaxial impact. The nominal strain rates reached 1.1 ×103 and 3.0 × 103/s, respectively, with the total strain 1.6 and 3.6. TEM observations reveal that the initial coarse grains are refined significantly. The majority of the structures in the deformed state are composed of elongated grains/cells whose width/length average grain sizes are 187/411 nm. However, the grains of multiaxial impacted sample are equiaxed with an average size of 517 nm. Dynamic recovery is suppressed during high-strain-rate deformation, so the dislocation configurations could not reach equilibrium states. High densities of dislocations are generated, forming several kinds of configurations. Interactions of dislocation substructures result in the refinement of grains.

  16. Improved Kolsky-bar design for mechanical characterization of materials at high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bo; Connelly, Kevin; Korellis, John; Lu, Wei-Yang; Antoun, Bonnie R.

    2009-11-01

    A Kolsky apparatus with numerous modifications has been designed for mechanical characterization of materials at high strain rates. These modifications include employing a highly precise optical table, pillow blocks with Frelon®-coated linear bearings as bar supports and a laser system for better precision bar alignment, etc. In addition, the striker bars were coated with Teflon® to minimize the friction with the gun barrel after removal of the conventional plastic sabots. This new design significantly simplifies the alignment process, improving the final alignment and calibration in the bar system; both are critical for validity and accuracy of the resulting data. An example of a dynamic experiment on a 6061 aluminum specimen by using this newly designed Kolsky bar is also presented.

  17. High Strain-Rate and Temperature Effects on the Response of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilat, Amos

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the research is to expand the experimental study of the effect of strain rate on mechanical response (deformation and failure) of epoxy resins and carbon fibers/epoxy matrix composites, to include elevated temperature tests. The experimental data provide the information needed for NASA scientists for the development of a nonlinear, strain rate and temperature dependent deformation and strength models for composites that can subsequently be used in design. This year effort was directed into the development and testing of the epoxy resin at elevated temperatures. Two types of epoxy resins were tested in shear at high strain rates of about 700 per second and elevated temperatures of 50 and 80 C. The results show that the temperature significantly affects the response of epoxy.

  18. High strain rate characterization of low-density low-strength materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawas, Omar

    The Split Hopkinson Bar (SHB) is a reliable experimental technique for measuring high strain rate properties of high-strength, ductile materials. Attempts to apply the SHB in measurement on more compliant materials, such as polymers and foams, are limited by the maximum achievable strain and high noise-to-signal ratios. This work introduces an all-polymeric split Hopkinson bar (APSHB) experiment, which overcomes these limitations. The proposed method uses polymeric pressure bars to achieve a closer impedance match between the pressure bars and the specimen material, thus providing both low signal-to-noise ratio data and a longer input pulse for higher maximum strain. The APSHB requires very careful data reduction procedures because of the viscoelastic behavior of the incident and transmitter pressure bars. The APSHB produces high-quality stress-strain data for a variety of compliant materials, including polycarbonate, elastomer, polyurethane, and styrofoam.

  19. Elastic precursor shock waves in tantalum at very high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowhurst, Jonathan; Armstrong, Michael; Gates, Sean; Radousky, Harry; Zaug, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    We have obtained data from micron-thick tantalum films using our ultrafast laser shock platform. By measuring free surface velocity time histories at breakout, and shock wave arrival times at different film thicknesses, we have been able to estimate the dependence of particle and shock velocities on propagation distances and strain rates. We will show how elastic precursor shock waves depend on strain rate in the regime up to and above 109 s-1. We find that while elastic amplitudes are very large at very early times decay occurs rapidly as propagation distance increases. Finally we will consider the prospects for using these data to obtain the dynamic strength of tantalum at these very high strain rates. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 with Laboratory directed Research and Development funding (12ERD042).

  20. Elastic precursor shock waves in tantalum at very high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowhurst, Jonathan; Armstrong, Michael; Radousky, Harry; Zaug, Joseph; Gates, Sean

    2015-03-01

    We have obtained data from micron-thick tantalum films using our ultrafast laser shock platform. By measuring free surface velocity time histories at breakout, and shock wave arrival times at different film thicknesses, we have been able to estimate the dependence of particle and shock velocities on propagation distances and strain rates. We will show how elastic precursor shock waves depend on strain rate in the regime up to and above 109 s-1. We find that while elastic amplitudes are very large at very early times decay occurs rapidly as propagation distance increases. Finally we will consider the prospects for using these data to obtain the dynamic strength of tantalum at these very high strain rates. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 with Laboratory directed Research and Development funding (12ERD042).

  1. Application of a nanosecond laser pulse to evaluate dynamic hardness under ultra-high strain rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radziejewska, Joanna

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents results of experimental tests of plastic metals deformation generated by a shock wave induced by laser pulse. Tests were carried out on the Nd:YAG laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm and the laser pulse of 10 ns duration. The shock wave generate by the laser pulse was used to induced local plastic deformation of the material surface. The study examined the possibility of application the process to develop a new method of measuring the dynamic hardness of materials under ultra-high strain rate. It has been shown that the shock wave induced by the laser pulse with an energy of 0.35-1.22 J causes a repeatable plastic deformation of surface of commercially available metals and alloys without thermal effects on the surfaces. Based on the knowledge of an imprint geometry, it is possible to evaluate the dynamic hardness of materials at strain rate in the range of 107 s-1.

  2. High strain rates effects in quasi-isentropic compression of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Ravelo, Ramon; Holian, Brad L; Germann, Timothy C

    2009-01-01

    We have performed large-scale molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of shock loading and quasi-isentropic compression in defective copper crystals, modeling the interatomic interactions with an embedded-atom method potential. For samples with a relatively low density of pre-existing defects, the strain rate dependence of the flow stress follows a power law in the 10{sup 9}-10{sup 12} s{sup -1} regime with an exponent of 0.40. For initially damaged, isotropic crystals the flow stress exhibits a narrow linear region in strain rate, which then bends over at high strain rates in a manner reminiscent of shear thinning in fluids. The MD results can be described by a modification of Eyring's theory of Couette shear flow in fluids.

  3. High Strain Rate Deformation Modeling of a Polymer Matrix Composite. Part 2; Composite Micromechanical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Recently applications have exposed polymer matrix composite materials to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under these extreme conditions. In this second paper of a two part report, a three-dimensional composite micromechanical model is described which allows for the analysis of the rate dependent, nonlinear deformation response of a polymer matrix composite. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive equations utilized to model the deformation response of a polymer are implemented within the micromechanics method. The deformation response of two representative laminated carbon fiber reinforced composite materials with varying fiber orientation has been predicted using the described technique. The predicted results compare favorably to both experimental values and the response predicted by the Generalized Method of Cells, a well-established micromechanics analysis method.

  4. High Strain-Rate Response of High Purity Aluminum at Temperatures Approaching Melt

    SciTech Connect

    Grunschel, S E; Clifton, R J; Jiao, T

    2010-01-28

    High-temperature, pressure-shear plate impact experiments were conducted to investigate the rate-controlling mechanisms of the plastic response of high-purity aluminum at high strain rates (10{sup 6} s{sup -1}) and at temperatures approaching melt. Since the melting temperature of aluminum is pressure dependent, and a typical pressure-shear plate impact experiment subjects the sample to large pressures (2 GPa-7 GPa), a pressure-release type experiment was used to reduce the pressure in order to measure the shearing resistance at temperatures up to 95% of the current melting temperature. The measured shearing resistance was remarkably large (50 MPa at a shear strain of 2.5) for temperatures this near melt. Numerical simulations conducted using a version of the Nemat-Nasser/Isaacs constitutive equation, modified to model the mechanism of geometric softening, appear to capture adequately the hardening/softening behavior observed experimentally.

  5. Modeling anisotropy plasticity : 3D Eulerian hydrocode simulations of high strain rate deformation processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Burkett, M. W.; Clancy, S. P.; Maudlin, P. J.; Holian, K. S.

    2001-01-01

    Previously developed constitutive models and solution algorithms for anisotropic elastoplastic material strength have been implemented in the three-dimensional Conejo hydrodynamics code. The anisotropic constitutive modeling is posed in an unrotated material frame of reference using the theorem of polar decomposition to obtain rigid body rotation. Continuous quadratic yield functions fitted from polycrystal simulations for a metallic hexagonal-close-packed structure were utilized. Simple rectangular shear problems, R-value problems, and Taylor cylinder impact data were used to verify and validate the implementation of the anisotropic model. A stretching rod problem (involving large strain and high strain-rate deformation) was selected to investigate the effects of material anisotropy. Conejo simulations of rod topology were compared for two anisotropic cases.

  6. Modeling Anisotropic Plasticity: 3D Eulerian Hydrocode Simulations of High Strain Rate Deformation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkett, Michael W.; Clancy, Sean P.; Maudlin, Paul J.; Holian, Kathleen S.

    2002-07-01

    Previously developed constitutive models and solution algorithms for anisotropic elastoplastic material strength have been implemented in the three-dimensional Conejo hydrodynamics code. The anisotropic constitutive modeling is posed in an unrotated material frame of reference using the theorem of polar decomposition to obtain rigid body rotation. Continuous quadratic yield functions fitted from polycrystal simulations for a metallic hexagonal-close-packed structure were utilized. Simple rectangular shear problems, R-Value problems, and Taylor cylinder impact data were used to verify and validate the implementation of the anisotropic model. A stretching rod problem (involving large strain and high strain-rate deformation) was selected to investigate the effects of material anisotropy. Conejo simulations of rod topology were compared for two anisotropic cases.

  7. LS-DYNA Implementation of Polymer Matrix Composite Model Under High Strain Rate Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Xia-Hua; Goldberg, Robert K.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2003-01-01

    A recently developed constitutive model is implemented into LS-DYNA as a user defined material model (UMAT) to characterize the nonlinear strain rate dependent behavior of polymers. By utilizing this model within a micromechanics technique based on a laminate analogy, an algorithm to analyze the strain rate dependent, nonlinear deformation of a fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite is then developed as a UMAT to simulate the response of these composites under high strain rate impact. The models are designed for shell elements in order to ensure computational efficiency. Experimental and numerical stress-strain curves are compared for two representative polymers and a representative polymer matrix composite, with the analytical model predicting the experimental response reasonably well.

  8. Ultrafast high strain rate acoustic wave measurements at high static pressure in a diamond anvil cell

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, M; Crowhurst, J; Reed, E; Zaug, J

    2008-02-04

    We have used sub-picosecond laser pulses to launch ultra-high strain rate ({approx} 10{sup 9} s{sup -1}) nonlinear acoustic waves into a 4:1 methanol-ethanol pressure medium which has been precompressed in a standard diamond anvil cell. Using ultrafast interferometry, we have characterized acoustic wave propagation into the pressure medium at static compression up to 24 GPa. We find that the velocity is dependent on the incident laser fluence, demonstrating a nonlinear acoustic response which may result in shock wave behavior. We compare our results with low strain, low strain-rate acoustic data. This technique provides controlled access to regions of thermodynamic phase space that are otherwise difficult to obtain.

  9. Effects of tissue preservation temperature on high strain-rate material properties of brain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiangyue; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Guan, Yabo; Shender, Barry; Paskoff, Glenn; Laud, Purushottam

    2011-02-01

    Postmortem preservation conditions may be one of factors contributing to wide material property variations in brain tissues in literature. The objective of present study was to determine the effects of preservation temperatures on high strain-rate material properties of brain tissues using the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). Porcine brains were harvested immediately after sacrifice, sliced into 2 mm thickness, preserved in ice cold (group A, 10 samples) and 37°C (group B, 9 samples) saline solution and warmed to 37°C just prior to the test. A SHPB with tube aluminum transmission bar and semi-conductor strain gauges were used to enhance transmitted wave signals. Data were gathered using a digital acquisition system and processed to obtain stress-strain curves. All tests were conducted within 4 h postmortem. The mean strain-rate was 2487±72 s(-1). A repeated measures model with specimen-level random effects was used to analyze log transformed stress-strain responses through the entire loading range. The mean stress-strain curves with ±95% confidence bands demonstrated typical power relationships with the power value of 2.4519 (standard error, 0.0436) for group A and 2.2657 (standard error, 0.0443) for group B, indicating that responses for the two groups are significantly different. Stresses and tangent moduli rose with increasing strain levels in both groups. These findings indicate that storage temperatures affected brain tissue material properties and preserving tissues at 37°C produced a stiffer response at high strain-rates. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate material properties obtained from appropriately preserved tissues to accurately predict the responses of brain using stress analyses models, such as finite element simulations. PMID:21055756

  10. Microstructure and nanohardness distribution in a polycrystalline Zn deformed by high strain rate impact

    SciTech Connect

    Dirras, G.; Ouarem, A.; Couque, H.; Gubicza, J.; Szommer, P.; Brinza, O.

    2011-05-15

    Polycrystalline Zn with an average grain size of about 300 {mu}m was deformed by direct impact Hopkinson pressure bar at a velocity of 29 m/s. An inhomogeneous grain structure was found consisting of a center region having large average grain size of 20 {mu}m surrounded by a fine-grained rim with an average grain size of 6 {mu}m. Transmission electron microscopy investigations showed a significant dislocation density in the large-grained area while in the fine-grained rim the dislocation density was negligible. Most probably, the higher strain yielded recrystallization in the outer ring while in the center only recovery occurred. The hardening effect of dislocations overwhelms the smaller grain size strengthening in the center part resulting in higher nanohardness in this region than in the outer ring. - Graphical Abstract: (a): EBSD micrograph showing the initial microstructure of polycrystalline Zn that was subsequently submitted to high strain rate impact. (b): an inhomogeneous grain size refinement was obtained which consists of a central coarse-grained area, surrounded by a fine-grained recrystallized rim. The black arrow points to the disc center. Research Highlights: {yields} A polycrystalline Zn specimen was submitted to high strain rate impact loading. {yields} Inhomogeneous grain refinement occurred due to strain gradient in impacted sample. {yields} A fine-grained recrystallized rim surrounded the coarse-grained center of specimen. {yields} The coarse-grained center exhibited higher hardness than the fine-grained rim. {yields} The higher hardness of the center was caused by the higher dislocation density.

  11. Analytical Modeling of the High Strain Rate Deformation of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Gilat, Amos

    2003-01-01

    The results presented here are part of an ongoing research program to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain rate impact loads. State variable constitutive equations originally developed for metals have been modified in order to model the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymeric matrix materials. To account for the effects of hydrostatic stresses, which are significant in polymers, the classical 5 plasticity theory definitions of effective stress and effective plastic strain are modified by applying variations of the Drucker-Prager yield criterion. To verify the revised formulation, the shear and tensile deformation of a representative toughened epoxy is analyzed across a wide range of strain rates (from quasi-static to high strain rates) and the results are compared to experimentally obtained values. For the analyzed polymers, both the tensile and shear stress-strain curves computed using the analytical model correlate well with values obtained through experimental tests. The polymer constitutive equations are implemented within a strength of materials based micromechanics method to predict the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymer matrix composites. In the micromechanics, the unit cell is divided up into a number of independently analyzed slices, and laminate theory is then applied to obtain the effective deformation of the unit cell. The composite mechanics are verified by analyzing the deformation of a representative polymer matrix composite (composed using the representative polymer analyzed for the correlation of the polymer constitutive equations) for several fiber orientation angles across a variety of strain rates. The computed values compare favorably to experimentally obtained results.

  12. High Strain Rate Testing of Rocks using a Split-Hopkinson-Pressure Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwiessler, Ruprecht; Kenkmann, Thomas; Poelchau, Michael; Nau, Siegfried; Hess, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic mechanical testing of rocks is important to define the onset of rate dependency of brittle failure. The strain rate dependency occurs through the propagation velocity limit (Rayleigh wave speed) of cracks and their reduced ability to coalesce, which, in turn, significantly increases the strength of the rock. We use a newly developed pressurized air driven Split-Hopkinson-Pressure Bar (SHPB), that is specifically designed for the investigation of high strain rate testing of rocks, consisting of several 10 to 50 cm long strikers and bar components of 50 mm in diameter and 2.5 meters in length each. The whole set up, composed of striker, incident- and transmission bar is available in aluminum, titanium and maraging steel to minimize the acoustic impedance contrast, determined by the change of density and speed of sound, to the specific rock of investigation. Dynamic mechanical parameters are obtained in compression as well as in spallation configuration, covering a wide spectrum from intermediate to high strain rates (100-103 s‑1). In SHPB experiments [1] one-dimensional longitudinal compressive pulses of diverse shapes and lengths - formed with pulse shapers - are used to generate a variety of loading histories under 1D states of stress in cylindrical rock samples, in order to measure the respective stress-strain response at specific strain rates. Subsequent microstructural analysis of the deformed samples is aimed at quantification fracture orientation, fracture pattern, fracture density, and fracture surface properties as a function of the loading rate. Linking mechanical and microstructural data to natural dynamic deformation processes has relevance for the understanding of earthquakes, landslides, impacts, and has several rock engineering applications. For instance, experiments on dynamic fragmentation help to unravel super-shear rupture events that pervasively pulverize rocks up to several hundred meters from the fault core [2, 3, 4]. The dynamic

  13. High-Strain-Rate Forming of Aluminum and Steel Sheets for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, Aashish; Stephens, Elizabeth V; Soulami, Ayoub; Davies, Richard W; Smith, Mark T

    2010-06-01

    The formability of aluminum alloy AA5182-O and DP600 steel sheets at high-strain-rates was investigated using an electrohydraulic forming (EHF) setup. Test sheets, ~150 mm diameter x 1 mm thick, were clamped around their circumference and subjected to a pressure-pulse (several 100's duration) generated by a high-energy (up to ~34 kJ) under-water electrical discharge. The real-time strain and strain-rate of the deforming sheets were quantified by the digital image correlation (DIC) technique using a pair of high-speed cameras (~15's per frame). Strain-rate amplification was observed when the sheets were deformed into a conical die, with the maximum in-plane strain-rate and strain for aluminum measured as ~1200 /s and ~0.2, respectively. The deformation behavior of the sheets was modeled using ABAQUS/finite element explicit code and better correlation, between the predicted and the experimental sheet deformation behavior, was observed when an alternate pressure-profile was used instead of the one available from the literature.

  14. High speed imaging for material parameters calibration at high strain rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasso, M.; Fardmoshiri, M.; Mancini, E.; Rossi, M.; Cortese, L.

    2016-05-01

    To describe the material behaviour at high strain rates dynamic experimental tests are necessary, and appropriate constitutive models are to be calibrated accordingly. A way to achieve this is through an inverse procedure, based on the minimization of an error function calculated as the difference between experimental and numerical data coming from Finite Element analysis. This approach, widely used in the literature, has a heavy computational cost associated with the minimization process that requires, for each variation of the material model parameters, the execution of FE calculations. In this work, a faster but yet effective calibration procedure is studied Experimental tests were performed on an aluminium alloy AA6061-T6, by means of a direct tension-compression Split Hopkinson bar. A fast camera with a resolution of 192 × 128 pixels and capable of a sample rate of 100,000 fps captured images of the deformation process undergone by the samples during the tests. The profile of the sample obtained after the image binarization and processing, was postprocessed to derive the deformation history; afterwards it was possible to calculate the true stress and strain, and carry out the inverse calibration by analytical computations. The results of this method were compared with the ones coming from the Finite Element approach.

  15. High strain rate mechanical properties of IM7/8551-7 graphite epoxy composite

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, B.M.; Vinson, J.R.; Hall, I.W.

    1995-12-31

    Polymer matrix composites offer excellent mechanical properties such as high specific strength and stiffness which make them attractive for many naval, aerospace and automotive structural components. Although they are candidate materials for many applications where high strain rate loading is probable, little is known of the material responses to shock loading for most composite materials. Because mechanical properties vary significantly with strain rate, the use of static properties in the analysis and design of structures which undergo dynamic loadings can on one hand lead to a very conservative overweight design, or on the other hand can lead to designs which fail prematurely and unexpectedly. The use of dynamic material properties will ensure the design of composite structures which are weight efficient and structurally sound when they are subjected to dynamic loads. In this study, a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar is used to obtain compressive mechanical properties of a unidirectional IM7/8551-7 graphite epoxy composite. For each of the three principal directions, the yield stress, yield strain, ultimate stress, ultimate strain, modulus of elasticity, elastic strain energy function and the total strain energy to failure are presented for strain rates varying from 49 sec{sup {minus}1} to 1430 sec{sup {minus}1}. The data from 72 tests are statistically analyzed, represented by equations, and discussed in some detail.

  16. Mechanical strength model for plastic bonded granular materials at high strain rates and large strains

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, R.V.; Scammon, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Modeling impact events on systems containing plastic bonded explosive materials requires accurate models for stress evolution at high strain rates out to large strains. For example, in the Steven test geometry reactions occur after strains of 0.5 or more are reached for PBX-9501. The morphology of this class of materials and properties of the constituents are briefly described. We then review the viscoelastic behavior observed at small strains for this class of material, and evaluate large strain models used for granular materials such as cap models. Dilatation under shearing deformations of the PBX is experimentally observed and is one of the key features modeled in cap style plasticity theories, together with bulk plastic flow at high pressures. We propose a model that combines viscoelastic behavior at small strains but adds intergranular stresses at larger strains. A procedure using numerical simulations and comparisons with results from flyer plate tests and low rate uniaxial stress tests is used to develop a rough set of constants for PBX-9501. Comparisons with the high rate flyer plate tests demonstrate that the observed characteristic behavior is captured by this viscoelastic based model. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Numerical implementation of a crystal plasticity model with dislocation transport for high strain rate applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayeur, Jason R.; Mourad, Hashem M.; Luscher, Darby J.; Hunter, Abigail; Kenamond, Mark A.

    2016-05-01

    This paper details a numerical implementation of a single crystal plasticity model with dislocation transport for high strain rate applications. Our primary motivation for developing the model is to study the influence of dislocation transport and conservation on the mesoscale response of metallic crystals under extreme thermo-mechanical loading conditions (e.g. shocks). To this end we have developed a single crystal plasticity theory (Luscher et al (2015)) that incorporates finite deformation kinematics, internal stress fields caused by the presence of geometrically necessary dislocation gradients, advection equations to model dislocation density transport and conservation, and constitutive equations appropriate for shock loading (equation of state, drag-limited dislocation velocity, etc). In the following, we outline a coupled finite element–finite volume framework for implementing the model physics, and demonstrate its capabilities in simulating the response of a [1 0 0] copper single crystal during a plate impact test. Additionally, we explore the effect of varying certain model parameters (e.g. mesh density, finite volume update scheme) on the simulation results. Our results demonstrate that the model performs as intended and establishes a baseline of understanding that can be leveraged as we extend the model to incorporate additional and/or refined physics and move toward a multi-dimensional implementation.

  18. High Strain Rate Deformation Modeling of a Polymer Matrix Composite. Part 1; Matrix Constitutive Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Recently applications have exposed polymer matrix composite materials to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under these extreme conditions. In this first paper of a two part report, background information is presented, along with the constitutive equations which will be used to model the rate dependent nonlinear deformation response of the polymer matrix. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive models which were originally developed to model the viscoplastic deformation of metals have been adapted to model the nonlinear viscoelastic deformation of polymers. The modified equations were correlated by analyzing the tensile/ compressive response of both 977-2 toughened epoxy matrix and PEEK thermoplastic matrix over a variety of strain rates. For the cases examined, the modified constitutive equations appear to do an adequate job of modeling the polymer deformation response. A second follow-up paper will describe the implementation of the polymer deformation model into a composite micromechanical model, to allow for the modeling of the nonlinear, rate dependent deformation response of polymer matrix composites.

  19. High strain rate and high temperature behaviour of metallic materials for jet engine turbine containment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálvez, F.; Cendón, D.; Enfedaque, A.; Sánchez-Gálvez, V.

    2006-08-01

    This work presents a study on the mechanical characterisation of the materials involved in air jet engine turbines. The final objective is to analyse the phenomenon of a turbine blade off failure, to verify the requirements of the case containment. The materials in the turbine are under high temperatures, ranging from 400circC to 800circC and when the fail of the blade occurs if impacts against the case, reaching strain rates up to 103 s - 1. To obtain the behaviour of the materials, testing at high strain rate and high temperature at one time is necessary. The experimental set-up used was a split Hopkinson pressure bar, with a high temperature furnace adapted. The bars used on the device were high strength nickel alloys with a cooling system to decrease the temperature of the measurement devices. The effect of wave dispersion due to the temperature gradient has been also studied to correct the measurements if necessary. The material tested has been the FV535 stainless steel used on the case. The full stress-strain curves at different temperatures and at strain rates up to 103 s-1 have been obtained. The experimental results show a marked influence of the strain rate and the temperature that cannot be neglected. The Johnson-Cook material model has been used to fit the results of the material tests.

  20. Mechanical strength model for plastic bonded granular materials at high strain rates and large strains

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, R.V.; Scammon, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    Modeling impact events on systems containing plastic bonded explosive materials requires accurate models for stress evolution at high strain rates out to large strains. For example, in the Steven test geometry reactions occur after strains of 0.5 or more are reached for PBX-950l. The morphology of this class of materials and properties of the constituents are briefly described. We then review the viscoelastic behavior observed at small strains for this class of material, and evaluate large strain models used for granular materials such as cap models. Dilatation under shearing deformations of the PBX is experimentally observed and is one of the key features modeled in cap style plasticity theories, together with bulk plastic flow at high pressures. We propose a model that combines viscoelastic behavior at small strains but adds intergranular stresses at larger strains. A procedure using numerical simulations and comparisons with results from flyer plate tests and low rate uniaxial stress tests is used to develop a rough set of constants for PBX-9501. Comparisons with the high rate flyer plate tests demonstrate the viscoelastic based model show that the observed characteristic behavior is captured by this model.

  1. Mechanical response of porcine skin under compression from low to high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Chiara; Butler, Ben; Williams, Alun; Brown, Katherine; Proud, William

    2013-06-01

    Uniaxial compression experiments were performed on fresh porcine skin samples at different strain rates to study the stress-strain response. Low strain rate experiments were performed with an Instron 5566, while high strain rates were achieved using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar system. Magnesium bars and semiconductor strain gauges were used respectively to maximize the signal transmission from porcine skin to the output bar and to allow the signal measurement. Skin samples were harvested from different area of the animal to investigate the heterogeneity of such material. The experimental results showed that the mechanical response of skin in compression is strongly dependent on the strain rate of loading and on the location from which the samples were collected. Specimens collected from the rump showed a stiffer response compared to samples harvested from the thigh. Finally, a histological analysis of the samples post compression was carried out to examine the extent of tissue damage as a function of strain rate. This work is supported by the Atomic Weapons Establishment, UK and The Royal British Legion Centre for Blast Injury Studies at Imperial College London, UK.

  2. Imploding Liner Material Strength Measurements at High-Strain and High Strain Rate

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch, R.R.; Lee, H.; Holtkamp, D.; Wright, B.; Stokes, J.; Morgan, D.; Anderson, W.; Broste, W.

    1998-10-18

    Imploding, cylindrical liners provide a unique, shockless means of simultaneously accessing high strain and high-strain-rate for measurement of strength of materials in plastic flow. The radial convergence in the liner geometry results in the liner thickening as the circumference becomes smaller. Strains of up to {approximately}1.25 and strain rates of up to {approximately}10{sup 6} sec{sup -1} can be readily achieved in a material sample placed inside of an aluminum driver liner, using the Pegasus II capacitor bank. This provides yield strength data at conditions where none presently exists. The heating from work done against the yield strength is measured with multichannel pyrometry from infrared radiation emitted by the material sample. The temperature data as a function of liner position are unfolded to give the yield strength along the strain, strain-rate trajectory. Proper design of the liner and sample configuration ensures that the current diffused into the sample adds negligible heating. An important issue, in this type of temperature measurement, is shielding of the pickup optics from other sources of radiation. At strains greater than those achievable on Pegasus, e.g. the LANL Atlas facility, some materials may be heated all the way to melt by this process. Recent data on 6061-T6 Aluminum will be compared with an existing model for strain and strain-rate heating. The liner configuration and pyrometry diagnostic will also be discussed.

  3. Mechanical and microstructural response of Ni sub 3 Al at high strain rate and elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Sizek, H.W.; Gray, G.T. III.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of strain rate and temperature on the substructure evolution and mechanical response of Ni{sub 3}Al will be presented. The strain rate response of Ni{sub 3}Al was studied at strain rates from 10{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1} (quasi-static) to 10{sup 4} s{sup {minus}1} using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. The Hopkinson Bar tests were conducted at temperatures ranging from 77K to 1273K. At high strain rates the flow strength increased significantly with increasing temperature, similar to the behavior observed at quasi-static rates. The work hardening rates increased with strain rate and varied with temperatures. The work hardening rates, appeared to be significantly higher than those found for Ni270. The substructure evolution was characterized utilizing TEM. The defect generation and rate sensitivity of Ni{sub 3}Al are also discussed as a function of strain rate and temperature. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  4. The Interaction of Dislocations and Radiation-Induced Obstacles at High-Strain Rate

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J A; Wirth, B D; Robach, J; Robertson, I

    2003-07-14

    Improved understanding of the plastic deformation of metals during high strain rate shock loading is key to predicting their resulting material properties. This paper presents the results of molecular dynamics simulations that identify the deformation modes of aluminum over a range of applied shear stresses and examines the interaction between dislocations and irradiation induced obstacles. These simulations show that while super-sonic dislocation motion can occur during impact loading, the finite dimensions of the materials render this motion transient. Larger applied loads do not stabilize supersonic dislocations, but instead lead an alternate deformation mode, namely twinning. Finally, the atomistic mechanisms that underlie the observed changes in the mechanical properties of metals as a function of irradiation are examined. Specifically, simulations of the interactions between moving edge dislocations and nanometer-sized helium bubbles provide insight into increases of the critical shear stresses but also reveal the effect of internal gas pressure on the deformation mode. The information gained in these studies provides fundamental insight into materials behavior, as well as important inputs for multi-scale models of materials deformation.

  5. High strain rate characterization of soft materials: past, present and possible futures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siviour, Clive

    2015-06-01

    The high strain rate properties of low impedance materials have long been of interest to the community: the very first paper by Kolsky on his eponymous bars included data from man-made polymers and natural rubber. However, it has also long been recognized that characterizing soft or low impedance specimens under dynamic loading presents a number of challenges, mainly owing to the low sound speed in, and low stresses supported by, these materials. Over the past 20 years, significant progress has been made in high rate testing techniques, including better experimental design, more sensitive data acquisition and better understanding of specimen behavior. Further, a new generation of techniques, in which materials are characterized using travelling waves, rather than in a state of static equilibrium, promise to turn those properties that were previously a drawback into an advantage. This paper will give an overview of the history of high rate characterization, the current state of the art after an exciting couple of decades and some of the techniques currently being developed that have the potential to offer increased quality data in the future.

  6. Plasticity induced by pre-existing defects during high strain-rate loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringa, Eduardo

    2014-03-01

    High strain-rate deformation of metals has been typically studied for perfect monocrystals. Computational advances now allow more realistic simulations of materials including defects, which lower the Hugoniot Elastic Limit, and lead to microstructures differing from the ones from perfect monocrystals. As pre-existing defects one can consider vacancy clusters, dislocation loops, grain boundaries, etc. New analysis tools allow analysis of dislocation densities and twin fractions, for both f.c.c. and b.c.c. metals. Recent results for defective single crystal Ta [Tramontina et al.., High Energy Den. Phys. 10, 9 (2014), and Ruestes et al., Scripta Mat. 68, 818 (2013)], and for polycrystalline b.c.c metals [Tang et al., Mat. Sci. Eng. A 580, 414 (2013), and Gunkelmann et al., Phys. Rev. B 86, 144111 (2012)] will be highlighted, alongside new results for nanocrystalline Cu, Ta, Fe, and Zr [Ruestes et al., Scripta Mat. 71, 9 (2014)]. This work has been carried out in collaboration with D. Tramontina, C. Ruestes, E. Millan, J. Rodriguez-Nieva, M.A. Meyers, Y. Tang, H. Urbassek, N. Gunkelmann, A. Stukowski, M. Ruda, G. Bertolino, D. Farkas, A. Caro, J. Hawreliak, B. Remington, R. Rudd, P. Erhart, R. Ravelo, T. Germann, N. Park, M. Suggit, S. Michalik, A. Higginbotham and J. Wark. Funding by PICT2008-1325 and SeCTyP U.N. Cuyo.

  7. Effect of high strain rates on peak stress in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Sunny, George; Yuan Fuping; Prakash, Vikas; Lewandowski, John

    2008-11-01

    The mechanical behavior of Zr{sub 41.25}Ti{sub 13.75}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 22.5} (LM-1) has been extensively characterized under quasistatic loading conditions; however, its mechanical behavior under dynamic loading conditions is currently not well understood. A Split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) and a single-stage gas gun are employed to characterize the mechanical behavior of LM-1 in the strain-rate regime of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 5}/s. The SHPB experiments are conducted with a tapered insert design to mitigate the effects of stress concentrations and preferential failure at the specimen-insert interface. The higher strain-rate plate-impact compression-and-shear experiments are conducted by impacting a thick tungsten carbide (WC) flyer plate with a sandwich sample comprising a thin bulk metallic glass specimen between two thicker WC target plates. Specimens employed in the SHPB experiments failed in the gage-section at a peak stress of approximately 1.8 GPa. Specimens in the high strain-rate plate-impact experiments exhibited a flow stress in shear of approximately 0.9 GPa, regardless of the shear strain-rate. The flow stress under the plate-impact conditions was converted to an equivalent flow stress under uniaxial compression by assuming a von Mises-like material behavior and accounting for the plane strain conditions. The results of these experiments, when compared to the previous work conducted at quasistatic loading rates, indicate that the peak stress of LM-1 is essentially strain rate independent over the strain-rate range up to 10{sup 5}/s.

  8. High-strain-rate brain injury model using submerged acute rat brain tissue slices.

    PubMed

    Sarntinoranont, Malisa; Lee, Sung J; Hong, Yu; King, Michael A; Subhash, Ghatu; Kwon, Jiwoon; Moore, David F

    2012-01-20

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has received increasing attention in recent years due to ongoing military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Sudden impacts or explosive blasts generate stress and pressure waves that propagate at high velocities and affect sensitive neurological tissues. The immediate soft tissue response to these stress waves is difficult to assess using current in vivo imaging technologies. However, these stress waves and resultant stretching and shearing of tissue within the nano- to microsecond time scale of blast and impact are likely to cause initial injury. To visualize the effects of stress wave loading, we have developed a new ex vivo model in which living tissue slices from rat brain, attached to a ballistic gelatin substrate, were subjected to high-strain-rate loads using a polymer split Hopkinson pressure bar (PSHPB) with real-time high-speed imaging. In this study, average peak fluid pressure within the test chamber reached a value of 1584±63.3 psi. Cavitation due to a trailing underpressure wave was also observed. Time-resolved images of tissue deformation were collected and large maximum eigenstrains (0.03-0.42), minimum eigenstrains (-0.33 to -0.03), maximum shear strains (0.09-0.45), and strain rates (8.4×10³/sec) were estimated using digital image correlation (DIC). Injury at 4 and 6 h was quantified using Fluoro-Jade C. Neuronal injury due to PSHPB testing was found to be significantly greater than injury associated with the tissue slice paradigm alone. While large pressures and strains were encountered for these tests, this system provides a controllable test environment to study injury to submerged brain slices over a range of strain rate, pressure, and strain loads. PMID:21970544

  9. Material Properties and Constitutive Modeling of Infant Porcine Cerebellum Tissue in Tension at High Strain Rate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kui; Zhao, Hui; Liu, Wenjun; Yin, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Background The mechanical characterization of infant porcine cerebellum tissue in tension at high strain rate is crucial for modeling traumatic cerebellum injury, which is in turn helpful for understanding the biomechanics of such injuries suffered in traffic accidents. Material and Method In this study, the infant porcine cerebellum tissue was given three loading velocities, ie, 2s-1, 20s-1 and 100s-1 with up to 30% strain to investigate the tensile properties. At least six tensile tests for each strain rate were validly performed. Fung, Gent, Ogden and exponential models were applied to fit the constitutive equations, so as to obtain material parameters from the experimental data. Results The Lagrange stress of infant porcine cerebellum tissue in tension appeared to be no more than 3000Pa at each loading velocity. More specifically, the Lagrange stress at 30% strain was (393.7±84.4)Pa, (928.3±56.3)Pa and (2582.4±282.2)Pa at strain rates of 2s-1, 20s-1 and 100s-1, respectively. Fung (0.833≤R2≤0.924), Gent (0.797≤R2≤0.875), Ogden (0.859≤R2≤0.944) and exponential (0.930≤R2≤0.972) models provided excellent fitting to experimental data up to 30% strain. Conclusions The infant cerebellum tissue shows a stiffer response with increase of the loading speed, indicating a strong strain-rate sensitivity. This study will enrich the knowledge on the material properties of infant brain tissue, which may augment the biofidelity of finite element model of human pediatric cerebellum. PMID:25830545

  10. The high-strain-rate and spallation response of tantalum, Ta-10W, and T-111

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, G.T. III; Rollett, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    The compressive true stress-true response of tantalum, Ta-10W, and T-111 were found to depend on the applied strain rate, in the range 0.001 to 7000 s{sup {minus}1}. The strain-rate sensitivities of the flow stress of tantalum, Ta-10W, and T-111 a 1% strain are 0.062, 0.031, and 0.024, respectively. The rates of strain hardening in Tantalum, Ta-10W, and T-111 are seen to exhibit differing behavior with increasing strain rate. The calculated average strain-hardening rate in tantalum, {Theta}, for the quasi-static (0.001 s{sup {minus}1}) data at 25{degrees}C is 2080 MPa/unit strain. The hardening rate at 3000s{sup {minus}1} at 25{degrees}C decreases to 846 MPa/unit strain. Normalizing the work hardening rate in tantalum with the Taylor Factor for a random polycrystal, ({Theta} / (3.07){sup 2}), yields work hardening rates of {mu}/276 at quasi-static strain rates and {mu}/680 at high-rates, assuming a shear modulus of 61 GPa for tantalum at room temperature. While the work hardening of all the tantalum-based materials are similar at quasi-static rates, alloying results in a small reduction in hardening rate. With increasing strain rate, the work hardening rate in tantalum decreases by approximately a factor of two compared to the alloys. Alloying tantalum with substitutional or interstitial elements is thought to result in increased edge dislocation storage and screw dislocation cross-slip due to interactions with the alloying elements at high strain rates. 28 refs.

  11. Influence of Temperature on the High-Strain-Rate Mechanical Behavior of PBX 9501 and PBXN-9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, G. T., III; Blumenthal, W. R.; Cady, C. M.; Idar, D. J.

    1997-07-01

    High-strain-rate (2000/s) compression measurements utilizing a specially-designed Split- Hopkinson-Pressure Bar have been obtained as a function of temperature from -55 to +75C or two polymer-bonded explosives: PBX 9501 and PBXN-9. The PBX 9501 and BXN-9 high-strain-rate data exhibit similarities to other energetic, propellant, and polymer- composite materials as a function of strain rate and temperature. The high-rate responses of the energetics were found to exhibit increased ultimate compressive fracture strengths and elastic loading modulus with decreasing temperature. PBX 9501 exhibited nearly invariant fracture strains of about 1.5 percent as a function of temperature at high-strain rate. The maximum compressive strengths of PBX 9501 and PBXN-9 were measured to increase from about 55 to 150 MPa and 10 to 80 MPa, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic observations of the fracture modes in PBX 9501 are discussed as a function of loading temperature at high-strain rate. The influence of temperature and strain rate on the constitutive responses of PBX 9501 and PBXN-9 are discussed in light of the temperature and rate dependency of their polymer binders and energetic constituents.

  12. High strain rate behavior of saturated and non-saturated sandstone: implications for earthquake mechanisms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aben, F. M.; Doan, M. L.; Gratier, J. P.; Renard, F.

    2015-12-01

    Damage zones of active faults control their resistance to rupture and transport properties. Hence, knowing the damage's origin is crucial to shed light on the (paleo)seismic behavior of the fault. Coseismic damage in the damage zone occurs by stress-wave loading of a passing earthquake rupture tip, resulting in dynamic (high strain rate) loading and subsequent dynamic fracturing or pulverization. Recently, interest in this type of damage has increased and several experimental studies were performed on dry rock specimens to search for pulverization-controlling parameters. However, the influence of fluids in during dynamic loading needs to be constrained. Hence, we have performed compressional dynamic loading experiments on water saturated and oven dried Vosges sandstone samples using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus. Due to the high porosity in these rocks, close to 20%, the effect of fluids should be clear. Afterwards, microstructural analyses have been applied on thin sections. Water saturated samples reveal dynamic mechanical behavior that follows linear poro-elasticity for undrained conditions: the peak strength of the sample decreases by 30-50% and the accumulated strain increases relative to the dry samples that were tested under similar conditions. The mechanical behavior of partially saturated samples falls in between. Microstructural studies on thin section show that fractures are restricted to some quartz grains while other quartz grains remain intact, similar to co-seismically damaged sandstones observed in the field. Most deformation is accommodated by inter-granular processes, thereby appointing an important role to the cement matrix in between grains. Intra-granular fracture damage is highest for the saturated samples. The presence of pore fluids in the rocks lower the dynamic peak strength, especially since fast dynamic loading does not allow for time-dependent fluid dissipation. Thus, fluid-saturated rocks would show undrained mechanical

  13. Closing an open system: Pore pressure changes in permeable edifice rock at high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, Michael J.; Wadsworth, Fabian B.

    2016-04-01

    porosity increases due to dilatant microcracking and local porosity decreases due to cataclastic pore collapse are balanced and the rock deforms without further changes to porosity or pore pressure. This will prevent potentially destabilising brittle failure deeper in the edifice during the high strain rates that may accompany unrest and, although it precludes the formation of efficient outgassing pathways in the form of fractures, undrained deformation in the compactant regime will prevent a reduction in porosity and permeability and may therefore facilitate lateral outgassing of the conduit into the country rock. We assess the conditions (strain rate and permeability) required for drained or undrained deformation by defining a dimensionless Darcy number. Closed system or undrained deformation is likely commonplace within a volcano (strain rates in the rock adjacent to an active volcanic system can be high and textural heterogeneities can serve as barriers to fluid flow) and therefore forms an important component for a complete understanding of the mechanical response of an edifice to the stress perturbations accompanying unrest.

  14. Experimental Techniques for Evaluating the Effects of Aging on Impact and High Strain Rate Properties of Triaxial Braided Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Roberts, Gary D.; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Gilat, Amos; Matrka, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    An experimental program is underway to measure the impact and high strain rate properties of triaxial braided composite materials and to quantify any degradation in properties as a result of thermal and hygroscopic aging typically encountered during service. Impact tests are being conducted on flat panels using a projectile designed to induce high rate deformation similar to that experienced in a jet engine fan case during a fan blade-out event. The tests are being conducted on as-fabricated panels and panels subjected to various numbers of aging cycles. High strain rate properties are being measured using a unique Hopkinson bar apparatus that has a larger diameter than conventional Hopkinson bars. This larger diameter is needed to measure representative material properties because of the large unit cell size of the materials examined in this work. In this paper the experimental techniques used for impact and high strain rate testing are described and some preliminary results are presented for both as-fabricated and aged composites.

  15. Molecular dynamic simulation of stress evolution analysis in Cu nanowire under ultra-high strain-rate simple tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuan-Ching; Pen, Dar-Jen; Chen, Jiun-Nan

    2014-04-01

    This study analyses the behaviour of atoms associated with the propagation of stress waves in Cu nanowires (NWs) during uniaxial tensile deformation using molecular dynamic simulation. Maximum local stress (MLS) and virial stress (VS) methods are adopted to express dynamic stress in ⟨100⟩ Cu NWs under tension. Simulation results indicated that the VS method enhances the averaging effect at ultra-high strain rates (above 1010 s-1), leading to serious undervaluation of yield stress. However, the MLS method provides superior prediction results for the dynamic mechanical responses of NWs under tension at the ultra-high strain rate than does the VS. At a strain rate of 7 × 1010 s-1, the double-peak stress phenomenon was observed in the stress-strain curve using the MLS method. The response time (Trs) to wave propagation, observed at an ultra-high strain rate, is responsible for the accumulation of the elastic stress that is applied at the beginning of tensile loading in a short period, producing the first stress peak. Following plastic deformation, the encounter of the wavefronts with the reduced tensile stress causes the fully constructive interference effect in the middle of the tensile NWs, producing the second stress peak. The results explain the dynamic mechanical behaviour of NWs, contributing to future applications of subsonic manufacturing.

  16. Ballistic Testing and High-Strain-Rate Properties of Hot Isostatically Pressed Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, YaBei; Nesterenko, Vitali F.; Indrakanti, Sastry S.

    2002-07-01

    Hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) Ti-6Al-4V powder based targets (including composites) have a good ballistic performance against long rod, conical and flat projectiles impact (velocity range approx 0.4 - 1km/s). Compared to baseline material (MIL-T-9047G), new features such as different shape of craters in long rod penetration tests were observed. The results of compression Hopkinson bar tests, cut from tested targets (final strain controlled tests and hat-shaped specimen tests) are presented with a goal to establish relations between ballistic performance and high strain rate properties of HIPed materials.

  17. Grain growth behavior and high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility of iridium alloy DOP-26

    SciTech Connect

    McKamey, C.G.; Gubbi, A.N.; Lin, Y.; Cohron, J.W.; Lee, E.H.; George, E.P.

    1998-04-01

    This report summarizes results of studies conducted to date under the Iridium Alloy Characterization and Development subtask of the Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program to characterize the properties of the new-process iridium-based DOP-26 alloy used for the Cassini space mission. This alloy was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the early 1980`s and is currently used by NASA for cladding and post-impact containment of the radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) heat sources which provide electric power for interplanetary spacecraft. Included within this report are data generated on grain growth in vacuum or low-pressure oxygen environments; a comparison of grain growth in vacuum of the clad vent set cup material with sheet material; effect of grain size, test temperature, and oxygen exposure on high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility; and grain growth in vacuum and high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility of welded DOP-26. The data for the new-process material is compared to available old-process data.

  18. The influence of morphology on the low- and high-strain-rate compaction response of CeO2 powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredenburg, D. A.; Koller, D. D.; Coe, Joshua D.; Kiyanda, C. B.

    2014-03-01

    The low- and high-strain-rate compaction response of three distinct morphology CeO2 powders was measured experimentally. At low-strain-rates, the compression path was found to vary with initial particle morphology as a result of differences in initial packing structure and particle rearrangement at low stresses. However, similar compression responses were observed at higher stresses under low-strain-rate loading. Dynamic experiments were performed at impact velocities between 0.15 and 0.78 km/s, and resulted in compaction stresses of 0.51-4.59 GPa in the powders. In contrast to the behavior observed at low stresses and low-strain-rates, dynamic loading resulted in a similar compaction response for all morphology powders. The dynamic results were treated with a Hayes equation of state augmented with a P-α compaction model, and good agreement between experimental and theoretical results was achieved. From the observed similarities in compressibility for the three morphology powders at elevated stresses at both low- and high-strain-rates, a relationship is proposed linking the measured strength properties at low-strain-rates to those controlling the compaction response under dynamic loading.

  19. High strain rate properties of an SiC{sub W}/2124-T6 aluminum composite at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Guden, M.; Hall, I.W.

    1998-07-03

    Metal matrix composites, (MMC`s) provide several important advantages over unreinforced metals and alloys. Among these, higher moduli and yield stresses and enhanced thermo-mechanical properties are normally considered important in structural applications of MMC`s. It is also possible that MMC`s may be exposed to loading conditions involving high strain rates during service, for example, components of a car in collision with another or turbine blades hit by ingestion of foreign objects. In such situations of rapidly increasing loading conditions, the material property response may be considerably different from that which applies during slow loading of normal quasi-static testing and, consequently, dynamic mechanical properties are of increasing interest and importance. Several studies involving dynamic deformation of a SiC{sub W}/2124-T6 Al MMC have already been conducted using tension, shear, compression and projectile impact testing. The purpose of the present study was to extend the high strain rate data to include high temperature effects. Mechanical test results and microstructural observations of features of dynamic deformation have been compared with data from the unreinforced alloy to obtain more complete information on the dynamic response of the composite.

  20. Investigation of laser shock induced ductile damage at ultra-high strain rate by using large scale MD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuq-Lelandais, Jean-Paul; Boustie, Michel; Soulard, Laurent; Berthe, Laurent; Bontaz-Carion, Joëlle; de Resseguier, Thibaut

    2011-06-01

    Laser driven shocks allow to investigate materials behavior at very high strain rate (107s-1) and presents a great interest for research applications. Microscopic simulations of ultra-short laser driven shock on micrometric Tantalum single-crystals have been performed by using the CEA-DAM Classical Molecular Dynamics code. This method, complementary to continuum models, provides an analysis the microscopic processes related to damage (ductile pore nucleation and growth) which occurs during spallation. This results are compared to spallation experiments data (VISAR signals, micro-tomography) obtained with the LULI100TW femtosecond laser in order to validate the MD behavior. Moreover, in the framework of a multi-scale approach, we show the possibility to use MD simulation to fit macroscopic damage models. This method is illustrated with an application to the parameters determination of the Kanel criterion. This also shows the high strain rates involved during damage process, around 109s-1, allow to approach the inter-atomic theoretical cohesion stress threshold.

  1. Investigation of laser shock induced ductile damage at ultra-high strain rate by using large scale MD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuq-Lelandais, Jean-Paul; Boustie, Michel; Soulard, Laurent; Berthe, Laurent; Bontaz-Carion, Joelle; de Resseguier, Thibaut

    2012-03-01

    Laser driven shocks allow an investigation of materials behavior at very high strain rate (107s-1) and present a great interest for research applications. Microscopic simulations of ultra-short laser driven shock on micrometric Tantalum single-crystals have been performed by using the CEADAM Classical Molecular Dynamics code. This method, complementary to continuum models, provides an analysis the microscopic processes related to damage (ductile pore nucleation and growth) which occurs during spallation. These results are compared to spallation experimental data (VISAR signals, micro-tomography) obtained with the LULI100TW femtosecond laser in order to validate the MD behavior. Moreover, in the framework of a multi-scale approach, we show the possibility to use MD simulation to fit macroscopic damage models. This method is illustrated with an application to the parameters determination of Kanel damage model parameters. This also shows the high strain rates involved during damage process, around 109s-1, can approach the inter-atomic theoretical cohesion stress threshold.

  2. Experimental investigation of the behaviour of tungsten and molybdenum alloys at high strain-rate and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scapin, Martina; Fichera, Claudio; Carra, Federico; Peroni, Lorenzo

    2015-09-01

    The introduction in recent years of new, extremely energetic particle accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) gives impulse to the development and testing of refractory metals and alloys based on molybdenum and tungsten to be used as structural materials. In this perspective, in this work the experimental results of a tests campaign on Inermet® IT180 and pure Molybdenum (sintered by two different producers) are presented. The investigation of the mechanical behaviour was performed in tension varying the strain-rates, the temperatures and both of them. Overall six orders of magnitude in strain-rate (between 10-3 and 103 s-1) were covered, starting from quasi-static up to high dynamic loading conditions. The high strain-rate tests were performed using a direct Hopkinson Bar setup. Both in quasi-static and high strain-rate conditions, the heating of the specimens was obtained with an induction coil system, controlled in feedback loop, based on measurements from thermocouples directly welded on the specimen. The temperature range varied between 25 and 1000°C. The experimental data were, finally, used to extract the parameters of the Zerilli-Armstrong model used to reproduce the mechanical behaviour of the investigated materials.

  3. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of the CoCrFeMnNi High Entropy Alloy Under High Strain Rate Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingfeng; Fu, Ao; Huang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Bin; Liu, Yong; Li, Zezhou; Zan, Xiang

    2016-07-01

    The equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy, which crystallizes in the face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure, was prepared by the spark plasma sintering technique. Dynamic compressive tests of the CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy were deformed at varying strain rates ranging from 1 × 103 to 3 × 103 s-1 using a split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. The dynamic yield strength of the CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy increases with increasing strain rate. The Zerilli-Armstrong (Z-A) plastic model was applied to model the dynamic flow behavior of the CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy, and the constitutive relationship was obtained. Serration behavior during plastic deformation was observed in the stress-strain curves. The mechanism for serration behavior of the alloy deformed at high strain rate is proposed.

  4. Mechanisms of large strain, high strain rate plastic flow in the explosively driven collapse of Ni-Al laminate cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olney, K. L.; Chiu, P. H.; Higgins, A.; Serge, M.; Weihs, T. P.; Fritz, G.; Stover, A.; Benson, D. J.; Nesterenko, V. F.

    2014-05-01

    Ni-Al laminates have shown promise as reactive materials due to their high energy release through intermetallic reaction. In addition to the traditional ignition methods, the reaction may be initiated in hot spots that can be created during mechanical loading. The explosively driven thick walled cylinder (TWC) technique was performed on two Ni-Al laminates composed of thin foil layers with different mesostructues: concentric and corrugated. These experiments were conducted to examine how these materials accommodate large plastic strain under high strain rates. Finite element simulations of these specimens with mesostuctures digitized from the experimental samples were conducted to provide insight into the mesoscale mechanisms of plastic flow. The dependence of dynamic behaviour on mesostructure may be used to tailor the hot spot formation and therefore the reactivity of the material system.

  5. Ballistic Testing and High-Strain-Rate Properties of Hot Isostatically Pressed Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yabei; Indrakanti, Sastry S.; Nesterenko, Vitali F.

    2001-06-01

    Good ballistic performance with long rod, conical and flat projectiles (velocity range 0.4 - 1km/s) of hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) Ti-6Al-4V powder based targets (including composites) was demonstrated in our previous work. Compared to baseline material (MIL-T-9047G), new features such as different shape of craters in long rod penetration tests, etc were observed. In addition, there is a large spread of the plug velocities of HIPed materials in some flat projectile penetration experiments. The results of compression Hopkinson bar tests, final strain controlled and hat-shaped specimen tests on material cut from impacted targets will be presented to establish relations between ballistic performance and high strain rate properties of HIPed materials. The different microstructures of shear induced fracture surfaces in samples with different ballistic performance will be discussed to explore the correlation between ballistic properties and fracture behavior.

  6. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of the CoCrFeMnNi High Entropy Alloy Under High Strain Rate Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingfeng; Fu, Ao; Huang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Bin; Liu, Yong; Li, Zezhou; Zan, Xiang

    2016-05-01

    The equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy, which crystallizes in the face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure, was prepared by the spark plasma sintering technique. Dynamic compressive tests of the CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy were deformed at varying strain rates ranging from 1 × 103 to 3 × 103 s-1 using a split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. The dynamic yield strength of the CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy increases with increasing strain rate. The Zerilli-Armstrong (Z-A) plastic model was applied to model the dynamic flow behavior of the CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy, and the constitutive relationship was obtained. Serration behavior during plastic deformation was observed in the stress-strain curves. The mechanism for serration behavior of the alloy deformed at high strain rate is proposed.

  7. Hydrostatic Stress Effects Incorporated Into the Analysis of the High-Strain-Rate Deformation of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2003-01-01

    Procedures for modeling the effect of high strain rate on composite materials are needed for designing reliable composite engine cases that are lighter than the metal cases in current use. The types of polymer matrix composites that are likely to be used in such an application have a deformation response that is nonlinear and that varies with strain rate. The nonlinearity and strain rate dependence of the composite response is primarily due to the matrix constituent. Therefore, in developing material models to be used in the design of impact-resistant composite engine cases, the deformation of the polymer matrix must be correctly analyzed. However, unlike in metals, the nonlinear response of polymers depends on the hydrostatic stresses, which must be accounted for within an analytical model. An experimental program has been carried out through a university grant with the Ohio State University to obtain tensile and shear deformation data for a representative polymer for strain rates ranging from quasi-static to high rates of several hundred per second. This information has been used at the NASA Glenn Research Center to develop, characterize, and correlate a material model in which the strain rate dependence and nonlinearity (including hydrostatic stress effects) of the polymer are correctly analyzed. To obtain the material data, Glenn s researchers designed and fabricated test specimens of a representative toughened epoxy resin. Quasi-static tests at low strain rates and split Hopkinson bar tests at high strain rates were then conducted at the Ohio State University. The experimental data confirmed the strong effects of strain rate on both the tensile and shear deformation of the polymer. For the analytical model, Glenn researchers modified state variable constitutive equations previously used for the viscoplastic analysis of metals to allow for the analysis of the nonlinear, strain-rate-dependent polymer deformation. Specifically, we accounted for the effects of

  8. A model for plasticity kinetics and its role in simulating the dynamic behavior of Fe at high strain rates

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, J D; Minich, R W; Kalantar, D H

    2007-03-29

    The recent diagnostic capability of the Omega laser to study solid-solid phase transitions at pressures greater than 10 GPa and at strain rates exceeding 10{sup 7} s{sup -1} has also provided valuable information on the dynamic elastic-plastic behavior of materials. We have found, for example, that plasticity kinetics modifies the effective loading and thermodynamic paths of the material. In this paper we derive a kinetics equation for the time-dependent plastic response of the material to dynamic loading, and describe the model's implementation in a radiation-hydrodynamics computer code. This model for plasticity kinetics incorporates the Gilman model for dislocation multiplication and saturation. We discuss the application of this model to the simulation of experimental velocity interferometry data for experiments on Omega in which Fe was shock compressed to pressures beyond the {alpha}-to-{var_epsilon} phase transition pressure. The kinetics model is shown to fit the data reasonably well in this high strain rate regime and further allows quantification of the relative contributions of dislocation multiplication and drag. The sensitivity of the observed signatures to the kinetics model parameters is presented.

  9. Microstructure, Bio-corrosion Behavior, and Corrosion Residual Strength of High Strain Rate Rolled Mg-4Zn Alloy Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Zhengyang; Chen, Jihua; Yan, Hongge; Su, Bin; Gong, Xiaole

    2016-05-01

    Microstructure, bio-corrosion behavior, and corrosion residual strength in 0.9 wt.% NaCl solution of the fine-grained Mg-4Zn alloy sheet prepared by high strain rate rolling are systematically investigated. The as-rolled alloy has fine homogenous dynamic recrystallization grains with the average grain size of 4.5 μm. It has different bio-corrosion behavior from the as-cast and is the most corrosion resistant except for pure Mg. Its in vitro strength loss is about 19% after 7 days immersion (the as-cast, 62%), and corrosion residual strength after 15 days immersion is 205 MPa. Its in vitro strength loss after 15, 30, and 60 days immersion are 24, 37, and 38% respectively. The as-rolled Mg-4Zn alloy is featured with the slighter in vitro loss of mechanical integrity due to uniform bio-corrosion and is desirable for the usage in the field of bone fixation.

  10. Nanovoid formation in cross-linked epoxy and poly(dicyclopentadiene) networks during high strain rate deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elder, Robert M.; Knorr, Daniel B., Jr.; Lenhart, Joseph L.; Andzelm, Jan W.; Sirk, Timothy W.

    2015-03-01

    Cross-linked polymer networks are widely used as structural and protective materials under extremes of temperature, pressure, or strain rate. In particular, substantial effort has been devoted to improving the high strain rate impact resistance of epoxy resins. Although epoxy resins are widely used in applications requiring impact resistance, epoxy resins with the strength and stiffness necessary in structural applications typically have poor toughness. Recent work showed that other chemistries in cross-linked polymers can overcome this trade-off between strength and toughness. Specifically, cross-linked polydicyclopentadiene (pDCPD) was found to have exceptional performance compared to epoxy resins, which is related to the high toughness of pDCPD. Based on the physicochemical properties of epoxy and pDCPD, it was hypothesized that the excellent toughness of pDCPD was due to the formation and growth of nanovoids during impact events. Void growth dissipates energy that otherwise would contribute to failure. We use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to quantify void formation in these cross-linked polymer networks and to examine the molecular-level properties of the voids. Our findings suggest methods to increase void formation and growth, which may improve toughness.

  11. Microstructural characteristics of adiabatic shear localization in a metastable beta titanium alloy deformed at high strain rate and elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Hongyi; Zeng, Weidong; Wang, Gui; Kent, Damon; Dargusch, Matthew

    2015-04-15

    The microstructural evolution and grain refinement within adiabatic shear bands in the Ti6554 alloy deformed at high strain rates and elevated temperatures have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy. No stress drops were observed in the corresponding stress–strain curve, indicating that the initiation of adiabatic shear bands does not lead to the loss of load capacity for the Ti6554 alloy. The outer region of the shear bands mainly consists of cell structures bounded by dislocation clusters. Equiaxed subgrains in the core area of the shear band can be evolved from the subdivision of cell structures or reconstruction and transverse segmentation of dislocation clusters. It is proposed that dislocation activity dominates the grain refinement process. The rotational recrystallization mechanism may operate as the kinetic requirements for it are fulfilled. The coexistence of different substructures across the shear bands implies that the microstructural evolution inside the shear bands is not homogeneous and different grain refinement mechanisms may operate simultaneously to refine the structure. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The microstructure within the adiabatic shear band was characterized by TEM. • No stress drops were observed in the corresponding stress–strain curve. • Dislocation activity dominated the grain refinement process. • The kinetic requirements for rotational recrystallization mechanism were fulfilled. • Different grain refinement mechanisms operated simultaneously to refine the structure.

  12. Use of Taylor Rod-on-Anvil Impact Experiments to Investigate High Strain Rate Behaviour in Polyolefins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucknall, David; Luce, Amanda; Kannan, Abhiram; Breidenich, Jennifer; Thadhani, Naresh

    2015-06-01

    The high strain rate deformation and mechano-lumination of various polyethylenes and polypropylene is studied using Taylor rod-on-anvil impact testing. Polypropylene and low density (LDPE), high density (HDPE), and ultra high molecular weight (UHMWPE) polyethylene samples were impacted against a hardened steel anvil at velocities ranging from 50-500 m/s. High-speed imaging, time-resolved spectroscopy, and thermal imaging are employed to track the macroscopic shape change and observe mechano-lumination and heating during impact. Additionally, electron spin resonance (ESR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurements were performed on recovered impacted samples to explain the observed deformation behavior in the various polyolefins. Time-resolved spectroscopy, coupled with ESR and GPC measurements indicate that chain scission occurs during the first few microseconds of the impact event. The observed macroscopic deformation that occurs after the observed mechano-illumination event is therefore influenced by the loss of mechanical strength associated with a drop in the molecular weight of the polymer.

  13. Incorporation of Mean Stress Effects into the Micromechanical Analysis of the High Strain Rate Response of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Gilat, Amos

    2002-01-01

    The results presented here are part of an ongoing research program, to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain rate impact loads. A micromechanics approach is employed in this work, in which state variable constitutive equations originally developed for metals have been modified to model the deformation of the polymer matrix, and a strength of materials based micromechanics method is used to predict the effective response of the composite. In the analysis of the inelastic deformation of the polymer matrix, the definitions of the effective stress and effective inelastic strain have been modified in order to account for the effect of hydrostatic stresses, which are significant in polymers. Two representative polymers, a toughened epoxy and a brittle epoxy, are characterized through the use of data from tensile and shear tests across a variety of strain rates. Results computed by using the developed constitutive equations correlate well with data generated via experiments. The procedure used to incorporate the constitutive equations within a micromechanics method is presented, and sample calculations of the deformation response of a composite for various fiber orientations and strain rates are discussed.

  14. Mechanical Behavior of Gamma-Met PX under Uniaxial Loading at Elevated Temperatures and High Strain Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shazly, Mostafa; Prakash, Vikas; Draper, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Gamma titanium aluminides have received considerable attention over the last decade. These alloys are known to have low density, good high temperature strength retention and good oxidation and corrosion resistance. However, poor ductility and low fracture toughness have been the key limiting factors in the full utilization of these alloys. More recently, a new generation of gamma titanium aluminide alloys, commonly referred to as Gamma-met PX, has been developed by GKSS, Germany. These alloys have been observed to have superior strength and better oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures when compared with conventional gamma titanium aluminides. The present paper discusses results of a study to understand the uniaxial mechanical behavior in both compression and tension of Gamma-Met PX at elevated temperatures and high strain rates. The compression and tensile tests are conducted using a modified split-Hopkinson bar apparatus at test temperatures ranging from room temperature to 900 C and strain rates of up to 3500/s. Under uniaxial compression, in the temperature range from room to 600 C, the flow stress is observed to be nearly independent of test temperature. However, at temperatures higher than 600 C thermal softening is observed at all strain rates with the rate of thermal softening increasing dramatically between 800 C and 900 C. The room temperature tensile tests show negligible strain-rate dependence on both yield stress and flow stress. With an increase in test temperature from room to 900 C the material shows a drop in both yield and flow stress at all levels of plastic strain. However, the measured flow stress is still higher when compared to nickel based super-alloys and other gamma titanium aluminides under similar test conditions. Also, no anomaly in yield stress is observed up to 900 C.

  15. Dislocation creep accommodated Grain Boundary Sliding: A high strain rate/low temperature deformation mechanism in calcite ultramylonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogowitz, Anna; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Grain boundary sliding (GBS) is an important grain size sensitive deformation mechanism that is often associated with extreme strain localization and superplasticity. Another mechanism has to operate simultaneously to GBS in order to prevent overlaps and voids between sliding grains. One of the most common accommodating mechanisms is diffusional creep but, recently, dislocation creep has been reported to operate simultaneous to GBS. Due to the formation of a flanking structure in nearly pure calcite marble on Syros (Cyclades, Greece) at lower greenschist facies conditions, an extremely fine grained ultramylonite developed. The microstructure of the layer is characterized by (1) calcite grains with an average grain size of 3.6 µm (developed by low temperature/high strain rate grain boundary migration recrystallization, BLG), (2) grain boundary triple junctions with nearly 120° angles and (3) small cavities preferentially located at triple junctions and at grain boundaries in extension. These features suggest that the dominant deformation mechanism was GBS. In order to get more information on the accommodation mechanism detailed microstructural and textural analyses have been performed on a FEI Quanta 3D FEG instrument equipped with an EDAX Digiview IV EBSD camera. The misorientation distribution curves for correlated and uncorrelated grains follow almost perfect the calculated theoretical curve for a random distribution, which is typical for polycrystalline material deformed by GBS. However, the crystallographic preferred orientation indicates that dislocation creep might have operated simultaneously. We also report Zener-Stroh cracks resulting from dislocation pile up, indicating that dislocation movement was active. We, therefore, conclude that the dominant deformation mechanism was dislocation creep accommodated grain boundary sliding. This is consistent with the observed grain size range that plots at the field boundary between grain size insensitive and grain

  16. Estimation of reliability and dynamic property for polymeric material at high strain rate using SHPB technique and probability theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Hyeok; Lee, Ouk Sub; Kim, Hong Min; Choi, Hye Bin

    2008-11-01

    A modified Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar technique with aluminum pressure bars and a pulse shaper technique to achieve a closer impedance match between the pressure bars and the specimen materials such as hot temperature degraded POM (Poly Oxy Methylene) and PP (Poly Propylene). The more distinguishable experimental signals were obtained to evaluate the more accurate dynamic deformation behavior of materials under a high strain rate loading condition. A pulse shaping technique is introduced to reduce the non-equilibrium on the dynamic material response by modulation of the incident wave during a short period of test. This increases the rise time of the incident pulse in the SHPB experiment. For the dynamic stress strain curve obtained from SHPB experiment, the Johnson-Cook model is applied as a constitutive equation. The applicability of this constitutive equation is verified by using the probabilistic reliability estimation method. Two reliability methodologies such as the FORM and the SORM have been proposed. The limit state function(LSF) includes the Johnson-Cook model and applied stresses. The LSF in this study allows more statistical flexibility on the yield stress than a paper published before. It is found that the failure probability estimated by using the SORM is more reliable than those of the FORM/ It is also noted that the failure probability increases with increase of the applied stress. Moreover, it is also found that the parameters of Johnson-Cook model such as A and n, and the applied stress are found to affect the failure probability more severely than the other random variables according to the sensitivity analysis.

  17. A Coupled Experiment-finite Element Modeling Methodology for Assessing High Strain Rate Mechanical Response of Soft Biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Rajkumar; Whittington, Wilburn R; Patnaik, Sourav S; Mao, Yuxiong; Begonia, Mark T; Williams, Lakiesha N; Liao, Jun; Horstemeyer, M F

    2015-01-01

    This study offers a combined experimental and finite element (FE) simulation approach for examining the mechanical behavior of soft biomaterials (e.g. brain, liver, tendon, fat, etc.) when exposed to high strain rates. This study utilized a Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) to generate strain rates of 100-1,500 sec(-1). The SHPB employed a striker bar consisting of a viscoelastic material (polycarbonate). A sample of the biomaterial was obtained shortly postmortem and prepared for SHPB testing. The specimen was interposed between the incident and transmitted bars, and the pneumatic components of the SHPB were activated to drive the striker bar toward the incident bar. The resulting impact generated a compressive stress wave (i.e. incident wave) that traveled through the incident bar. When the compressive stress wave reached the end of the incident bar, a portion continued forward through the sample and transmitted bar (i.e. transmitted wave) while another portion reversed through the incident bar as a tensile wave (i.e. reflected wave). These waves were measured using strain gages mounted on the incident and transmitted bars. The true stress-strain behavior of the sample was determined from equations based on wave propagation and dynamic force equilibrium. The experimental stress-strain response was three dimensional in nature because the specimen bulged. As such, the hydrostatic stress (first invariant) was used to generate the stress-strain response. In order to extract the uniaxial (one-dimensional) mechanical response of the tissue, an iterative coupled optimization was performed using experimental results and Finite Element Analysis (FEA), which contained an Internal State Variable (ISV) material model used for the tissue. The ISV material model used in the FE simulations of the experimental setup was iteratively calibrated (i.e. optimized) to the experimental data such that the experiment and FEA strain gage values and first invariant of stresses were in

  18. Experimental high strain-rate deformation products of carbonate-silicate rocks: Comparison with terrestrial impact materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Bogert, C. H.; Schultz, P. H.; Spray, J. G.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction. The response of carbonate to impact processes has thus far been investigated using a combination of thermodynamic modelling, shock experiments, and impact experiments. Localized shear deformation was suggested to play an important role in the failure of carbonate during some shock experiments [1,2], and was invoked to explain significant degassing of carbonates during oblique impact experiments [3]. The results of the impact experiments are at odds with experiments [4] that show back-reaction of CO2 with CaO and MgO could significantly reduce CO2 degassing during impact events. We performed a frictional-welding experiment in order to investigate the effects of high strain-rate deformation on carbonate-silicate target materials, exclusive of shock deformation effects, and to investigate the differing results of other experiments. Samples and Techniques. A frictional melting experiment was performed using dolomitic marble and quartzite samples to simulate conditions during an impact into carbonate-silicate target rocks. The experiment followed the method of Spray (1995) [5]. The 1.5 cm3 samples were mounted onto separate steel cylinders with epoxy. Using a Blacks FWH-3 axial friction-welding rig, the samples were brought into contact at room temperature and under dry conditions with ~5 MPa applied pressure. Contact was maintained for two seconds at 750 rpm for a sustained strain-rate of 102 to 103 s-1. Results. Vapor or fine dust escaped from the interface during the experiment. Immediately after sample separation, the interfaces were incandescent. Once cooled, opaque white material adhered to both the quartzite and dolomitic marble samples. Quartzite sample. Material was injected into cracks that formed in the quartzite sample. Cooling and crystallization of the friction products resulted in the formation of submicron-sized minerals such as periclase and Ca- and Ca,Mg-silicates (Fig. 1) including merwinite and åkermanite. While periclase was observed

  19. Laser shock compression of copper and copper-aluminum alloys: The slip to twinning transition in high-strain-rate deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Matthew Scott

    temperature effects were examined in terms of their influence on the threshold pressure. This methodology can be applied to other transitions such as martensitic transformations in steel, where increasing carbon content results in a change from lath (slipped) martensite to plate (twinned) martensite as described in Appendix A. (4) The spall behavior of these crystals was characterized and described analytically using a mechanistic analysis based on dislocations. Because shock compression generates plastic deformation, new insights into void growth mechanisms are enabled. Diffusion-based mechanisms are reviewed in terms of high-strain-rate phenomena and shown to be unfeasible at the time scales of these experiments.

  20. High strain rate superplasticity of a {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} whisker reinforced pure aluminium composite made by squeeze casting

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, T.; Tochigi, I.; Ai, K.; L`Esperance, G.; Hong, B.

    1996-05-15

    High strain rate superplasticity (HSRS) in ceramic whisker or particulate reinforced aluminum alloy composites is expected to offer an efficiently near-net shape forming technique to automobile, aerospace, and even semi-conductor industries, since the HSRS composites usually exhibit a total elongation of 250--600% at a high strain rate of about 0.1--10 s{sup {minus}1}. It is thought that primary deformation mechanism of the HSRS is grain boundary sliding since the composites have the fine grain size of 3{approximately}0.8 {micro}m. The purpose of this study is to develop a thermomechanical processing route to produce a fine microstructure and a HSRS in a {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} whisker reinforced 99.99% pure aluminum composite fabricated by squeeze casting. In addition, superplastic deformation mechanism of the composite are also discussed.

  1. Dynamic behavior and microstructural evolution during moderate to high strain rate hot deformation of a Fe-Ni-Cr alloy (alloy 800H)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yu; Di, Hongshuang; Zhang, Jiecen; Yang, Yaohua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to fundamentally understand the dynamic behavior of alloy 800H at moderate to high strain rate using hot compression tests and propose nucleation mechanism associated with dynamic crystallization (DRX). We firstly investigated the dynamic behavior of alloy 800H with industrial scale strain rates using hot compression tests and adiabatic correction was performed to correct as-measured flow curves. Secondly, a Johnson-Cook model was established by using the corrected data and could give a precise prediction of elevated temperature flow stress for the studied alloy. Finally, the nucleation mechanism of DRX grains at high strain rates was studied. The results showed that the predominant nucleation mechanism for DRX is the formation of "bulge" at parent grain boundary. Additionally, the fragmentation of original grain at low deformation temperatures and the twinning near the bulged regions at high deformation temperatures also accelerate the DRX process.

  2. Evaluation of hyperelastic models for the non-linear and non-uniform high strain-rate mechanics of tibial cartilage.

    PubMed

    Deneweth, Jessica M; McLean, Scott G; Arruda, Ellen M

    2013-06-21

    Accurate modeling of the high strain-rate response of healthy human knee cartilage is critical to investigating the mechanism(s) of knee osteoarthritis and other cartilage disorders. Osteoarthritis has been suggested to originate from regional shifts in joint loading during walking and other high strain-rate physical activities. Tibial plateau cartilage under compression rates analogous to walking exhibits a non-linear and location-dependent mechanical response. A constitutive model of cartilage that efficiently predicts the non-linear and non-uniform high strain-rate mechanics of tibial plateau cartilage is important for computational studies of osteoarthritis development. A transversely isotropic hyperelastic statistical chain model has been developed. The model's ability to simulate the 1-strain/s unconfined compression response of healthy human tibial plateau articular cartilage has been assessed, along with two other hyperelastic statistical chain models. The transversely isotropic model exhibited a superior fit to the non-linear stress-strain response of the cartilage. Furthermore, the model maintained its predictive capability after being reduced from four degrees of freedom to one. The remaining material constant of the model, which represented the local collagen density of the tissue, demonstrated a regional dependence in close agreement with physiological variations in collagen density and cartilage modulus in human knees. The transversely isotropic eight-chain network of freely jointed chains with a regionally-dependent material constant represents a novel and efficient approach for modeling the complex response of human tibial cartilage under high strain-rate compression. The anisotropy and microstructural variations of the cartilage matrix dictate the model's response, rendering it directly applicable to computational modeling of the human knee. PMID:23669276

  3. Study of extreme states of matter at high energy densities and high strain rates with powerful lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasyuk, I. K.; Pashinin, P. P.; Semenov, A. Yu; Khishchenko, K. V.; Fortov, V. E.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a review of the most important results of the experimental studies of thermonuclear plasma in conical targets, the generation of shock waves and of spallation phenomena in different materials is presented, all of which have been carried out at the laser facilities of the A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS since 1977.

  4. Dynamic High-temperature Testing of an Iridium Alloy in Compression at High-strain Rates: Dynamic High-temperature Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Song, B.; Nelson, K.; Lipinski, R.; Bignell, J.; Ulrich, G.; George, E. P.

    2014-08-21

    Iridium alloys have superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures, making them useful as structural materials for certain high-temperature applications. However, experimental data on their high-strain -rate performance are needed for understanding high-speed impacts in severe environments. Kolsky bars (also called split Hopkinson bars) have been extensively employed for high-strain -rate characterization of materials at room temperature, but it has been challenging to adapt them for the measurement of dynamic properties at high temperatures. In our study, we analyzed the difficulties encountered in high-temperature Kolsky bar testing of thin iridium alloy specimens in compression. We made appropriate modifications using the current high-temperature Kolsky bar technique in order to obtain reliable compressive stress–strain response of an iridium alloy at high-strain rates (300–10 000 s-1) and temperatures (750 and 1030°C). The compressive stress–strain response of the iridium alloy showed significant sensitivity to both strain rate and temperature.

  5. Dynamic High-temperature Testing of an Iridium Alloy in Compression at High-strain Rates: Dynamic High-temperature Testing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Song, B.; Nelson, K.; Lipinski, R.; Bignell, J.; Ulrich, G.; George, E. P.

    2014-08-21

    Iridium alloys have superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures, making them useful as structural materials for certain high-temperature applications. However, experimental data on their high-strain -rate performance are needed for understanding high-speed impacts in severe environments. Kolsky bars (also called split Hopkinson bars) have been extensively employed for high-strain -rate characterization of materials at room temperature, but it has been challenging to adapt them for the measurement of dynamic properties at high temperatures. In our study, we analyzed the difficulties encountered in high-temperature Kolsky bar testing of thin iridium alloy specimens in compression. We made appropriate modifications using themore » current high-temperature Kolsky bar technique in order to obtain reliable compressive stress–strain response of an iridium alloy at high-strain rates (300–10 000 s-1) and temperatures (750 and 1030°C). The compressive stress–strain response of the iridium alloy showed significant sensitivity to both strain rate and temperature.« less

  6. Dynamic behavior and constitutive modeling of magnesium alloys AZ91D and AZ31B under high strain rate compressive loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jing; Ahmad, Iram Raza; Shu, D. W.

    2014-03-01

    The dynamic stress-strain characteristics of magnesium alloys have not been sufficiently studied experimentally. Thus, the present work investigated compressive dynamic stress-strain characteristics of two representative magnesium alloys: AZ91D and AZ31B at high strain rates and elevated temperatures. In order to use the stress-strain characteristics in numerical simulations to predict the impact response of components, the stress-strain characteristics must be modeled. The most common approach is to use accepted constitutive laws. The results from the experimental study of the response of magnesium alloys AZ91D and AZ31B under dynamic compressive loading, at different strain rates and elevated temperatures are presented here. Johnson-Cook model was used to best fit the experimental data. The material parameters required by the model were obtained and the resultant stress-strain curves of the two alloys for each testing condition were plotted. It is found that the dynamic stress-strain relationship of both magnesium alloys are strain rate and temperature dependent and can be described reasonably well at high strain rates and room temperature by Johnson-Cook model except at very low strains. This might be due to the fact that the strain rate is not strictly constant in the early stage of deformation.

  7. The response of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) subjected to large strains, high strain rates, high pressures, a range in temperatures, and variations in the intermediate principal stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmquist, T. J.; Bradley, J.; Dwivedi, A.; Casem, D.

    2016-05-01

    This article presents the response of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) subjected to large strains, high strain rates, high pressures, a range in temperatures, and variations in the intermediate principal stress. Laboratory data from the literature, and new test data provided here, are used in the evaluation. The new data include uniaxial stress compression tests (at various strain rates and temperatures) and uniaxial stress tension tests (at low strain rates and ambient temperatures). The compression tests include experiments at ˙ɛ = 13,000 s-1, significantly extending the range of known strain rate data. The observed behavior of PMMA includes the following: it is brittle in compression at high rates, and brittle in tension at all rates; strength is dependent on the pressure, strain, strain rate, temperature, and the intermediate principal stress; the shear modulus increases as the pressure increases; and it is highly compressible. Also presented are novel, high velocity impact tests (using high-speed imaging) that provide insight into the initiation and evolution of damage. Lastly, computational constitutive models for pressure, strength, and failure are presented that provide responses that are in good agreement with the laboratory data. The models are used to compute several ballistic impact events for which experimental data are available.

  8. A comparison of the abilities of natural rubber (NR) and synthetic polyisoprene cis-1,4 rubber (IR) to crystallize under strain at high strain rates.

    PubMed

    Candau, Nicolas; Chazeau, Laurent; Chenal, Jean-Marc; Gauthier, Catherine; Munch, Etienne

    2016-02-01

    Strain induced crystallization (SIC) of a natural rubber (NR) and a synthetic rubber (IR) with a high amount of cis-1,4 units (98.6%) is studied, thanks to in situ wide angle X-ray (WAXS) experiments at room temperature performed in a large range of strain rates. During stretching at a low strain rate (4.2 × 10(-3) s(-1)), SIC in IR occurs at a larger stretching ratio than in NR. As a result, the crystallinity index at a given stretching ratio is lower in IR than in NR, in spite of the similar crosslink densities of the chains involved in the crystallization in both materials. This lower ability for crystallization in IR is attributed to the presence of branching along its backbone and its lower stereoregularity. Conversely, dynamic experiments performed at high strain rates (10(1)/10(2) s(-1)) show for both materials a similar ability to crystallize. This unexpected result is confirmed by monotonic tensile tests performed in a large range of strain rates. The reason is thermodynamic: the chain extension plays a predominant role compared to the role of the microstructure defects when the strain rate is high, i.e. when the kinetics of the crystallite nucleation forces the crystallization to occur at a large stretching ratio. A thermodynamic model enables qualitative reproduction of the experimental results. PMID:26750589

  9. Plastic flow and failure in HY100, HY130 and AF1410 alloy steels under high strain rate and impact loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, A. M.; Last, H. R.; Garrett, R. K., Jr.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results from impact experiments, constitutive/failure modeling, and metallurgical failure analyses for three steels: HY100, HY130, and AF1410. The main objectives of this effort are: (1) to obtain fundamental engineering data in terms of stress-strain curves up to failure at different temperatures and strain rates, (2) to evaluate the observed differences in the macroscopic behaviors through microscopic metallurgical studies, and (3) to describe the flow and failure behaviors using already available material strength and spall models. The high strain rate and impact experiments considered are the split Hopkinson bar (SHB) and the planar plate impact tests, respectively. In addition, the baseline data include quasi-static (QS) tests at low strain rates. The QS and SHB data provide stress-strain curves at different strain rates and temperatures. The experimental data illustrate the effects of two important loading parameters (strain rate and temperature) on the flow and failure behaviors of HY100, HY130, and AF1410 steels.

  10. Full Field Measurement of The Dynamic Response of AA6061-T6 Aluminum Alloy under High Strain Rate Compression and Torsion Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odoh, Daniel Oghenekewhe Oluwatobi

    The dynamic response of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy under high strain rate loading in compression and torsion loading conditions was studied using the split Hopkinson pressure bar, the Kolsky torsion bar, and the high speed digital image correlation system. AA6061-T6 alloy, the most widely used in the AA6000 series, is a multi-purpose Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy containing about 0.4 % wt. of Cu and other alloying additives. The properties of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy including medium to high strength, good fracture toughness, and high corrosion resistance make it to find application in high performance structures such as the automotive parts, panels, and armored carriers. In this work, the effect of strain rate during dynamic test on formation of adiabatic shear bands in AA6061-T6 alloy was investigated. A post deformation analysis of the tested specimen was performed in order to determine the damage evolution and strain localization along the narrow adiabatic shear bands within the specimen. The formation of an adiabatic shear band in the aluminum alloy tested was found to depend on the strain rate at which the test was conducted. Stress, strain, and strain rate data obtained from the elastic waves in the compression and torsion bar tests were also compared with those obtained using the high speed digital cameras. Results show good agreement between both measurement techniques with the 3D digital image correlation technique giving a slightly lower result. Scanning and electron microscopy results show that both deformed and transformed bands can be formed in AA6061-T6 alloy during dynamic loading. The type of adiabatic shear band formed depends on the strain rate at which test was performed.

  11. Elevated temperature tensile properties of irradiated 20/25/Nb stainless steel fuel pin cladding at low and high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravenor, J. G.; Douglas, J.

    1988-09-01

    Tensile specimens were prepared from 20/25/Nb stainless steel fuel pin cladding irradiated in a Commercial Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (CAGR) at temperatures in the range 622-866 K and integrated fast neutron doses up to 16 × 10 24n/ m2. The tests were performed in air at temperatures in the range 298-873 K at strain rates from 2 × 10 -5s-1 to 7.2 s -1. The tensile properties varied with irradiation temperature, test temperature and strain rate. At lower irradiation temperature, strengthening produced by fast neutron damage was accompanied by reduced elongation. Strengthening was also observed at higher irradiation temperatures, possibly due to precipitation phenomena. The maximum irradiation embrittlement was observed in tests at 873 K at low strain rates between 2 × 10 -4s-1 and 2 × 10 -5s-1. The failure mode of embrittled specimens irradiated at higher temperatures was characterized by prematurely ruptured ductile fibres, rather than by intergranular cracking.

  12. High strain rate deformation of layered nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Veysset, David; Singer, Jonathan P; Retsch, Markus; Saini, Gagan; Pezeril, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A; Thomas, Edwin L

    2012-01-01

    Insight into the mechanical behaviour of nanomaterials under the extreme condition of very high deformation rates and to very large strains is needed to provide improved understanding for the development of new protective materials. Applications include protection against bullets for body armour, micrometeorites for satellites, and high-speed particle impact for jet engine turbine blades. Here we use a microscopic ballistic test to report the responses of periodic glassy-rubbery layered block-copolymer nanostructures to impact from hypervelocity micron-sized silica spheres. Entire deformation fields are experimentally visualized at an exceptionally high resolution (below 10 nm) and we discover how the microstructure dissipates the impact energy via layer kinking, layer compression, extreme chain conformational flattening, domain fragmentation and segmental mixing to form a liquid phase. Orientation-dependent experiments show that the dissipation can be enhanced by 30% by proper orientation of the layers. PMID:23132014

  13. Talc lubrication at high strain rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doan, M.; Hirose, T.; Andreani, M.; Boullier, A.; Calugaru, D.; Boutareaud, S.

    2012-12-01

    Talc is a very soft material that has been found in small quantities in active fault zones. Its presence, even in small amount, has been demonstrated in numerous weak faults where microseismicity activity may also occur. Although talc properties have been investigated at low slip rate, its effects at coseismic rate have not been investigated. Here we show that a few weight percents of talc are enough to significantly alter the frictional behavior of natural serpentinite gouge at seismic slip rate. We performed high velocity friction experiments on wet powders mixing talc and serpentinite in varying proportions. At 1.3 m/s, pure natural serpentinite starts sliding with a high friction peak of 0.5 that falls exponentially to a steady-state value of ~0.2 over slip greater than 5 m. By introducing only 5%wt of talc, the initial peak in friction of serpentinite is cut-off: friction levels to 0.35 below 2 m of displacement before merging the exponential decay curve observed for pure serpentinite. For a larger amount of talc, friction curve becomes closer to the talc behavior, which exhibits a friction of 0.2, regardless of displacement. Increasing the amount of talc not only alters the mechanical properties of the mixture, it also changes deformation mechanism and the resulting microstructure. Below 5%wt of talc, deformation is accommodated by cataclastic comminution of serpentine grains, without any thermal decomposition. When talc is present in larger proportion, it accommodates slip with intense delamination. Principal slip zone is composed of serpentine grains smaller than 0.5 μm, 40 times smaller than the size of the initials serpentine grains. Talc grains inserted within the mixture shows extensive delamination after only 3 m of displacement. Talc lamellae are observed along the microscopic shear planes that pervade the principal slip zone and the remaining gouge. We infer that easy delamination of talc multiplies the number of talc grains and increases its surface contact with serpentine. Talc delamination also helps localizing shear during the formation of the principal shear zones. The dynamics of shear localization affects shear resistance at the onset of slip, which is crucial for rupture propagation.

  14. High strain rate deformation of layered nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Veysset, David; Singer, Jonathan P.; Retsch, Markus; Saini, Gagan; Pezeril, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A.; Thomas, Edwin L.

    2012-11-01

    Insight into the mechanical behaviour of nanomaterials under the extreme condition of very high deformation rates and to very large strains is needed to provide improved understanding for the development of new protective materials. Applications include protection against bullets for body armour, micrometeorites for satellites, and high-speed particle impact for jet engine turbine blades. Here we use a microscopic ballistic test to report the responses of periodic glassy-rubbery layered block-copolymer nanostructures to impact from hypervelocity micron-sized silica spheres. Entire deformation fields are experimentally visualized at an exceptionally high resolution (below 10 nm) and we discover how the microstructure dissipates the impact energy via layer kinking, layer compression, extreme chain conformational flattening, domain fragmentation and segmental mixing to form a liquid phase. Orientation-dependent experiments show that the dissipation can be enhanced by 30% by proper orientation of the layers.

  15. High strain-rate magnetoelasticity in Galfenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domann, J. P.; Loeffler, C. M.; Martin, B. E.; Carman, G. P.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the experimental measurements of a highly magnetoelastic material (Galfenol) under impact loading. A Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar was used to generate compressive stress up to 275 MPa at strain rates of either 20/s or 33/s while measuring the stress-strain response and change in magnetic flux density due to magnetoelastic coupling. The average Young's modulus (44.85 GPa) was invariant to strain rate, with instantaneous stiffness ranging from 25 to 55 GPa. A lumped parameters model simulated the measured pickup coil voltages in response to an applied stress pulse. Fitting the model to the experimental data provided the average piezomagnetic coefficient and relative permeability as functions of field strength. The model suggests magnetoelastic coupling is primarily insensitive to strain rates as high as 33/s. Additionally, the lumped parameters model was used to investigate magnetoelastic transducers as potential pulsed power sources. Results show that Galfenol can generate large quantities of instantaneous power (80 MW/m3 ), comparable to explosively driven ferromagnetic pulse generators (500 MW/m3 ). However, this process is much more efficient and can be cyclically carried out in the linear elastic range of the material, in stark contrast with explosively driven pulsed power generators.

  16. Paranormal phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    1996-08-01

    Critical analysis is given of some paranormal phenomena events (UFO, healers, psychokinesis (telekinesis))reported in Moldova. It is argued that correct analysis of paranormal phenomena should be made in the framework of electromagnetism.

  17. Colloidal Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russel, William B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Described is a graduate level engineering course offered at Princeton University in colloidal phenomena stressing the physical and dynamical side of colloid science. The course outline, reading list, and requirements are presented. (BT)

  18. Transport Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCready, Mark J.; Leighton, David T.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the problems created in graduate chemical engineering programs when students enter with a wide diversity of understandings of transport phenomena. Describes a two-semester graduate transport course sequence at the University of Notre Dame which focuses on fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer. (TW)

  19. High Strain Rate Tensile Testing of DOP-26 Iridium

    SciTech Connect

    Schneibel, Joachim H; Carmichael Jr, Cecil Albert; George, Easo P

    2007-11-01

    The iridium alloy DOP-26 was developed through the Radioisotope Power Systems Program in the Office of Nuclear Energy of the Department of Energy. It is used for clad vent set cups containing radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) heat sources which provide electric power for spacecraft. This report describes mechanical testing results for DOP-26. Specimens were given a vacuum recrystallization anneal of 1 hour at 1375 C and tested in tension in orientations parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction of the sheet from which they were fabricated. The tests were performed at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1090 C and strain rates ranging from 1 x 10{sup -3} to 50 s{sup -1}. Room temperature testing was performed in air, while testing at elevated temperatures was performed in a vacuum better than 1 x 10{sup -4} Torr. The yield stress (YS) and the ultimate tensile stress (UTS) decreased with increasing temperature and increased with increasing strain rate. Between 600 and 1090 C, the ductility showed a slight increase with increasing temperature. Within the scatter of the data, the ductility did not depend on the strain rate. The reduction in area (RA), on the other hand, decreased with increasing strain rate. The YS and UTS values did not differ significantly for the longitudinal and transverse specimens. The ductility and RA values of the transverse specimens were marginally lower than those of the longitudinal specimens.

  20. High Strain Rate Behavior of Polymer Matrix Composites Analyzed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2001-01-01

    Procedures for modeling the high-speed impact of composite materials are needed for designing reliable composite engine cases that are lighter than the metal cases in current use. The types of polymer matrix composites that are likely to be used in such an application have a deformation response that is nonlinear and that varies with strain rate. To characterize and validate material models that could be used in the design of impactresistant engine cases, researchers must obtain material data over a wide variety of strain rates. An experimental program has been carried out through a university grant with the Ohio State University to obtain deformation data for a representative polymer matrix composite for strain rates ranging from quasi-static to high rates of several hundred per second. This information has been used to characterize and validate a constitutive model that was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  1. Evolution of plastic anisotropy for high-strain-rate computations

    SciTech Connect

    Schiferl, S.K.; Maudlin, P.J.

    1994-12-01

    A model for anisotropic material strength, and for changes in the anisotropy due to plastic strain, is described. This model has been developed for use in high-rate, explicit, Lagrangian multidimensional continuum-mechanics codes. The model handles anisotropies in single-phase materials, in particular the anisotropies due to crystallographic texture--preferred orientations of the single-crystal grains. Textural anisotropies, and the changes in these anisotropies, depend overwhelmingly no the crystal structure of the material and on the deformation history. The changes, particularly for a complex deformations, are not amenable to simple analytical forms. To handle this problem, the material model described here includes a texture code, or micromechanical calculation, coupled to a continuum code. The texture code updates grain orientations as a function of tensor plastic strain, and calculates the yield strength in different directions. A yield function is fitted to these yield points. For each computational cell in the continuum simulation, the texture code tracks a particular set of grain orientations. The orientations will change due to the tensor strain history, and the yield function will change accordingly. Hence, the continuum code supplies a tensor strain to the texture code, and the texture code supplies an updated yield function to the continuum code. Since significant texture changes require relatively large strains--typically, a few percent or more--the texture code is not called very often, and the increase in computer time is not excessive. The model was implemented, using a finite-element continuum code and a texture code specialized for hexagonal-close-packed crystal structures. The results for several uniaxial stress problems and an explosive-forming problem are shown.

  2. High strain-rate testing of parachute materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gwinn, K.W.; Totten, J.J.; Waye, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    Research at Sandia National Laboratories has shown a strain rate dependence of many materials used in the production of parachutes. Differences in strength of 30% have been found between strain rates of 12 sec{sup {minus}1} and slow rates normally used to define material properties for lightweight nylon cloth. These structures are sometimes deployed in a rapid fashion and the loading is experienced in milliseconds; the production of material data in the same loading regime is required for full understanding of material response. Also, material behavior suitable for structural analysis of these structures is required for successful analysis. This is especially important when different materials are used in the same fabric structure. Determining the distribution of load to various portions of a nylon and Kevlar parachute requires the correct moduli and material behavior in the analytical model. The effect of strain rate on the material properties of nylon and Kevlar components commonly used in parachute construction are reported in this paper. These properties are suitable for use in analytical models of these fabric structures.

  3. High strain rate properties of unidirectional composites, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, I. M.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental methods were developed for testing and characterization of composite materials at strain rates ranging from quasi-static to over 500 s(sup -1). Three materials were characterized, two graphite/epoxies and a graphite/S-glass/epoxy. Properties were obtained by testing thin rings 10.16 cm (4 in.) in diameter, 2.54 cm (1 in.) wide, and six to eight plies thick under internal pressure. Unidirectional 0 degree, 90 degree, and 10 degree off-axis rings were tested to obtain longitudinal, transverse, and in-plane shear properties. In the dynamic tests internal pressure was applied explosively through a liquid and the pressure was measured with a calibrated steel ring. Strains in the calibration and specimen rings were recorded with a digital processing oscilloscope. The data were processed and the equation of motion solved numerically by the mini-computer attached to the oscilloscope. Results were obtained and plotted in the form of dynamic stress-strain curves. Longitudinal properties which are governed by the fibers do not vary much with strain rate with only a moderate (up to 20 percent) increase in modulus. Transverse modulus and strength increase sharply with strain rate reaching values up to three times the static values. The in-plane shear modulus and shear strength increase noticeably with strain rate by up to approximately 65 percent. In all cases ultimate strains do not vary significantly with strain rates.

  4. High strain rate fracture behavior of fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, Andrew; Iannitti, Gianluca; Testa, Gabriel; Limido, Jerome; Lacome, Jean; Olovsson, Lars; Ferraro, Mario; Bonora, Nicola

    2013-06-01

    Fused silica is a high purity synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide characterized by low thermal expansion coefficient, excellent optical qualities and exceptional transmittance over a wide spectral range. Because of its wide use in the military industry as window material, it may be subjected to high-energy ballistic impacts. Under such dynamic conditions, post-yield response of the ceramic as well as the strain rate related effects become significant and should be accounted for in the constitutive modeling. In this study, the procedure for constitutive model validation and model parameters identification, is presented. Taylor impact tests and drop weight tests were designed and performed at different impact velocities, from 1 to 100 m/s, and strain rates, from 102 up to 104 s-1. Numerical simulation of both tests was performed with IMPETUS-FEA, a general non-linear finite element software which offers NURBS finite element technology for the simulation of large deformation and fracture in materials. Model parameters were identified by optimization using multiple validation metrics. The validity of the parameters set determined with the proposed procedure was verified comparing numerical predictions and experimental results for an independent designed test consisting in a fused silica tile impacted at prescribed velocity by a steel sphere.

  5. High strain rate fracture behaviour of fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, A.; Iannitti, G.; Testa, G.; Limido, J.; Lacome, J. L.; Olovsson, L.; Ferraro, M.; Bonora, N.

    2014-05-01

    Fused silica is a high purity synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide characterized by low thermal expansion coefficient, excellent optical qualities and exceptional transmittance over a wide spectral range. Because of its wide use in the military industry as window material, it may be subjected to high-energy ballistic impacts. Under such dynamic conditions, post-yield response of the ceramic as well as the strain rate related effects become significant and should be accounted for in the constitutive modelling. In this study, the Johnson-Holmquist (J-H) model parameters have been identified by inverse calibration technique, on selected validation test configurations, according to the procedure described hereafter. Numerical simulations were performed with LS-DYNA and IMPETUS-FEA, a general non-linear finite element software which offers NURBS finite element technology for the simulation of large deformation and fracture in materials. In order to overcome numerical drawbacks associated with element erosion, a modified version of the J-H model is proposed.

  6. Characterisation of human diaphragm at high strain rate loading.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Piyush; Chawla, Anoop; Verma, Khyati; Mukherjee, Sudipto; Lalvani, Sanjeev; Malhotra, Rajesh; Mayer, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVC׳s) commonly results in life threating thoracic and abdominal injuries. Finite element models are becoming an important tool in analyzing automotive related injuries to soft tissues. Establishment of accurate material models including tissue tolerance limits is critical for accurate injury evaluation. The diaphragm is the most important skeletal muscle for respiration having a bi-domed structure, separating the thoracic cavity from abdominal cavity. Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm is a potentially serious injury which presents in different forms depending upon the mechanisms of the causative trauma. A major step to gain insight into the mechanism of traumatic rupture of diaphragm is to understand the high rate failure properties of diaphragm tissue. Thus, the main objective of this study was to estimate the mechanical and failure properties of human diaphragm at strain rates associated with blunt thoracic and abdominal trauma. A total of 23 uniaxial tensile tests were performed at various strain rates ranging from 0.001-200s(-1) in order to characterize the mechanical and failure properties on human diaphragm tissue. Each specimen was tested to failure at one of the four strain rates (0.001s(-1), 65s(-1), and 130s(-1), 190s(-1)) to investigate the effects of strain rate dependency. High speed video and markers placed on the grippers were used to measure the gripper to gripper displacement. Engineering stresses reported in the study is calculated from the ratio of force measured and initial cross sectional area whereas engineering strain is calculated from the ratio of the elongation to the undeformed length (gauge length) of the specimen.The results of this study showed that the diaphragm tissues is rate dependent with higher strain rate tests giving higher failure stress and higher failure strains. The failure stress for all tests ranged from 1.17MPa to 4.1MPa and failure strain ranged from 12.15% to 24.62%. PMID:27062242

  7. Dynamic Recrystallization During High-Strain-Rate Tension of Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, Nooshin; Bonora, Nicola; Ruggiero, Andrew; Hörnqvist Colliander, Magnus

    2016-06-01

    Discontinuous dynamic recrystallization can occur during dynamic tensile extrusion of copper, which is subjected to uniaxial tensile strains of ~5 and strain rates up to 106 s-1 in the extruded section. Through high-resolution transmission Kikuchi diffraction, we show that nucleation occurs through subgrain rotation and grain boundary bulging at boundaries between <001> and <111> oriented grains. The observed nuclei consist of subgrains with a size of approximately 200 to 400 nm.

  8. Coupled Phenomena in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsubara, Akira; Nomura, Kazuo

    1979-01-01

    Various phenomena in chemistry and biology can be understood through Gibbs energy utilization. Some common phenomena in chemistry are explained including neutralization, hydrolysis, oxidation and reaction, simultaneous dissociation equilibrium of two weak acids, and common ion effect on solubility. (Author/SA)

  9. Ion exchange phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  10. Imaging of snapping phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Guillin, R; Marchand, A J; Roux, A; Niederberger, E; Duvauferrier, R

    2012-01-01

    Snapping phenomena result from the sudden impingement between anatomical and/or heterotopical structures with subsequent abrupt movement and noise. Snaps are variously perceived by patients, from mild discomfort to significant pain requiring surgical management. Identifying the precise cause of snaps may be challenging when no abnormality is encountered on routinely performed static examinations. In this regard, dynamic imaging techniques have been developed over time, with various degrees of success. This review encompasses the main features of each imaging technique and proposes an overview of the main snapping phenomena in the musculoskeletal system. PMID:22744321

  11. Stress pulse phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    McGlaun, M.

    1993-08-01

    This paper is an introductory discussion of stress pulse phenomena in simple solids and fluids. Stress pulse phenomena is a very rich and complex field that has been studied by many scientists and engineers. This paper describes the behavior of stress pulses in idealized materials. Inviscid fluids and simple solids are realistic enough to illustrate the basic behavior of stress pulses. Sections 2 through 8 deal with the behavior of pressure pulses. Pressure is best thought of as the average stress at a point. Section 9 deals with shear stresses which are most important in studying solids.

  12. Quantum phenomena in superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.

    1987-08-01

    This paper contains remarks by the author on aspects of macroscopic quantum phenomena in superconductors. Some topics discussed are: Superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer (SLUGS), charge imbalance, cylindrical dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUIDS), Geophysics, noise theory, magnetic resonance with SQUIDS, and macroscopic quantum tunneling. 23 refs., 4 figs. (LSP)

  13. Membrane Transport Phenomena (MTP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1997-01-01

    The third semi-annual period of the MTP project has been involved with performing experiments using the Membrane Transport Apparatus (MTA), development of analysis techniques for the experiment results, analytical modeling of the osmotic transport phenomena, and completion of a DC-9 microgravity flight to test candidate fluid cell geometries. Preparations were also made for the MTP Science Concept Review (SCR), held on 13 June 1997 at Lockheed Martin Astronautics in Denver. These activities are detailed in the report.

  14. Wolf-Rayet phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    The properties of stars showing Wolf-Rayet phenomena are outlined along with the direction of future work. Emphasis is placed on the characteristics of W-R spectra. Specifically the following topics are covered: the absolute visual magnitudes; the heterogeneity of WN spectra; the existence of transition type spectra and compositions the mass loss rates; and the existence of very luminous and possibly very massive W-R stars. Also, a brief overview of current understanding of the theoretical aspects of stellar evolution and stellar winds and the various scenarios that have been proposed to understand W-R spectra are included.

  15. Experimental evaluation of the strength distribution of E-glass fibres at high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen

    1995-07-01

    A bimodal Weibull distribution function was applied to analyse the strength distribution of glass fibre bundles under tensile impact. The simulation was performed using a one-dimensional damage constitutive model. The results show that there were two concurrent flaw populations in the fracture process. The regression analysis using the bimodal Weibull distribution function was in good agreement with experiment.

  16. A Micromechanics Based Constitutive Model For Brittle Failure at High Strain Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, H. S.; Rosakis, A.; Sammis, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    The micromechanical damage mechanics formulated by Ashby and Sammis [1] and generalized by Desh- pande and Evans [2] has been extended to allow for a more generalized stress state and to incorporate an ex- perimentally motivated new crack growth (damage evo- lution) law that is valid over a wide range of loading rates. This law is sensitive to both the crack tip stress field and its time derivative. Incorporating this feature produces strain-rate sensitivity in the constitutive re- sponse. The model is also experimentally verified by predicting the failure strength of Dionysus-Pentelicon marble over strain rates ranging from ˜ 10-6 to 103 s-1. Model parameters determined from from quasi-static experiments were used to predict the failure strength at higher loading rates. Agreement with experimental results was excellent.

  17. High strain rate behavior of alloy 800H at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiei, E.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a new model using linear estimation of strain hardening rate vs. stress, has been developed to predict dynamic behavior of alloy 800H at high temperatures. In order to prove the accuracy and competency of the presented model, Johnson-Cook model pertaining modeling of flow stress curves was used. Evaluation of mean error of flow stress at deformation temperatures from 850 °C to 1050 °C and at strain rates of 5 S-1 to 20 S-1 indicates that the predicted results are in a good agreement with experimentally measured ones. This analysis has been done for the stress-strain curves under hot working condition for alloy 800H. However, this model is not dependent on the type of material and can be extended for any similar conditions.

  18. The effect of moisture content on the dynamic fragmentation of wet sand at high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Kun

    2014-03-01

    A comprehensive model is established to account for the instability onset of rapidly expanding granular shells subject to the explosion loadings generated by the detonation of the central explosives. The moisture content strongly influences the shock interactions in the wet particle beds and the ensuing evolvement of the granular compacts. A material model for granular materials which can account for the degree of saturation was incorporated into a non-linear dynamic simulation program to investigate the moisture of effect on the shock responses of wet granular materials. In conjunction with our instability model, the predicted instability diameters of the expanding dry/wet granular shells are in a good agreement with the experimental results. Particularly the postponed instability onset of the wet granular shell found both experimentally and analytically can largely be attributed to the significantly greater kinetic energy obtained by wet particles thanks to less energy of shock wave consumed in compacting the granular materials.

  19. Deformation and Shear Band Development in an Ultrahigh Carbon Steel During High Strain Rate Deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D R; Syn, C K; Sherby, O D

    2004-07-06

    The mechanical response of a pearlitic UHCS-1.3C steel deformed at approximately 4000 s{sup -1} to large strains ({var_epsilon} = -0.9) has been studied. Failure, at both the macroscopic and the microscopic levels has been evaluated, and the ability of the material to absorb energy in compression has been examined. Failure occurred by the development of a shear band. However before failure, extensive buckling of the carbide plates was observed and the UHCS-1.3C material exhibited significant potential for compressive ductility and energy absorption due to the distributed buckling of these plates. Strain localization during adiabatic shear band development resulted in the formation of austenite. Subsequent cooling produced a divorced-eutectoid transformation with associated deformation, which resulted in a microstructure consisting of 50 to 100 nm sized grains. The stress-strain behavior within the shear band has also been determined. The results are used to critically evaluate the maximum shear stress criterion of shear band development. New criteria for the development of shear bands are developed based on a strain energy concept.

  20. Dynamic tensile fracture of mortar at ultra-high strain-rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erzar, B.; Buzaud, E.; Chanal, P.-Y.

    2013-12-01

    During the lifetime of a structure, concrete and mortar may be exposed to highly dynamic loadings, such as impact or explosion. The dynamic fracture at high loading rates needs to be well understood to allow an accurate modeling of this kind of event. In this work, a pulsed-power generator has been employed to conduct spalling tests on mortar samples at strain-rates ranging from 2 × 104 to 4 × 104 s-1. The ramp loading allowed identifying the strain-rate anytime during the test. A power law has been proposed to fit properly the rate-sensitivity of tensile strength of this cementitious material over a wide range of strain-rate. Moreover, a specimen has been recovered damaged but unbroken. Micro-computed tomography has been employed to study the characteristics of the damage pattern provoked by the dynamic tensile loading.

  1. Dynamic tensile fracture of mortar at ultra-high strain-rates

    SciTech Connect

    Erzar, B. Buzaud, E.; Chanal, P.-Y.

    2013-12-28

    During the lifetime of a structure, concrete and mortar may be exposed to highly dynamic loadings, such as impact or explosion. The dynamic fracture at high loading rates needs to be well understood to allow an accurate modeling of this kind of event. In this work, a pulsed-power generator has been employed to conduct spalling tests on mortar samples at strain-rates ranging from 2 × 10{sup 4} to 4 × 10{sup 4} s{sup −1}. The ramp loading allowed identifying the strain-rate anytime during the test. A power law has been proposed to fit properly the rate-sensitivity of tensile strength of this cementitious material over a wide range of strain-rate. Moreover, a specimen has been recovered damaged but unbroken. Micro-computed tomography has been employed to study the characteristics of the damage pattern provoked by the dynamic tensile loading.

  2. Molecular simulation of dislocation motion in magnesium alloys under high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Peng; Cammarata, Robert; Falk, Michael

    Dislocation motion of < a>dislocations on the basal and the prismatic planes under simple shear was studied using molecular simulations in Mg/Al and Mg/Y alloys. The critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) was calculated at temperature from 0K to 500K with solute concentrations from 0 to 7 at.%. The strain rates of 106-108 s-1 used in the simulation correspond to experimental strain rates of 101-105 s-1 based on Orowan's equation. Basal slip is dominated by the < a>edge dislocations. Solute hardening to the CRSS follows a power law, cn, where c is the solute concentration. The exponent n transitions from close to 2/3 at low temperature to close to 1 at high temperature. Temperature and strain rate effects on the CRSS are captured by Kocks model based on thermally activated events. Prismatic slip is controlled by the < a>screw dislocation that cross-slips between the basal and the prismatic planes, in a locking-unlocking pattern. Temperature affects the slip kinetics through the diffusion of the screw dislocation on the basal plane, which leads to vacancy and loop generation. Solute softening was observed for both Mg/Al and Mg/Y alloys. The softening on prismatic slip is due to the solute pinning effect on the basal plane, and Al is more effective in softening.

  3. Modelling Deformation and Texture Evolution in OFHC Copper at Large Strain and High Strain Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonora, Nicola; Testa, Gabriel; Ruggiero, Andrew; Iannitti, Gianluca; Hörnqvist, Magnus; Mortazavi, Nooshin

    2015-06-01

    In this work, a two-scale approach to simulate high rate deformation and texture evolution in OFHC copper is presented. The modified Rusinek-Klepaczko material model was used to simulate the response of the material at continuum scale accounting for different deformation mechanisms occurring over an extensive range of strain rate and temperature. Material model parameters were determined from characterization test (mainly uniaxial tests) results. Successively, the model was validated simulating material deformation in Taylor anvil impact, symmetric Taylor impact (rod-on-rod) and dynamic tensile extrusion (DTE) tests. Texture evolution, under different deformation paths was simulated using the crystal plasticity package CPFEM and results were compared with those obtained by EBSD analysis. The possibility to incorporate the effect of grain size evolution and fragmentation at continuum scale is discussed.

  4. High temperature, high strain rate extrusion of ultrahigh-carbon steels

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D R; Syn, C K; Sherby, O D

    2000-08-23

    It is shown that high rate extrusion is a viable production process for obtaining desirable microstructures and mechanical properties in ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs). The coefficient of friction for extrusion was determined for the UHCSs as well as five other materials and shown to be a function of stress--decreasing with increasing stress. The extruded UHCSs deform by a diffusion-controlled dislocation creep process. Stacking fault energies have been calculated from the extrusion data and observed to decrease with increasing concentrations of silicon, aluminum and chromium. Microstructures are either ultrafine pearlite when extruded above the eutectoid temperature or ultrafine spheroidite when extruded below the eutectoid temperature. The resulting strength--ductility properties are shown to be superior to those obtained in high-strength low alloy steels.

  5. TRP 9904 - Constitutive Behavior of High Strength Multiphase Sheel Steel Under High Strain Rate Deformation

    SciTech Connect

    David Matlock; John Speer

    2005-03-31

    The focus of the research project was to systematically assess the strain rate dependence of strengthening mechanisms in new advanced high strength sheet steels. Data were obtained on specially designed and produced Duel Phase and TRIP steels and compared to the properties of automotive steels currently in use.

  6. Flow stress and material model study at high strain rate and low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, R.; Brar, N. S.

    1994-07-01

    The flow stress of M200 maraging steel, C1008 steel, and 6061-T6 aluminum at low temperatures to 123 K and at a strain rate of about 103 s-1 is measured using split Hopkinson bar (SHB). Liquid nitrogen is used to cool the specimen to the desired temperature. The flow stress of M200 increased to 1.93 GPa at 123 K, an increase of 22 percent compared to 1.58 GPa at room temperature. In the case of 6061-T6 aluminum the flow stress remains at about 390 MPa at temperatures in the range 293 to 123 K. For C1008 steel, the flow stress increased to 860 MPa at 123 K from its room temperature value of 610 MPa. The failure strain for C1008 steel at 123 K was 0.02, compared to 0.2 at room temperature, suggesting a ductile to brittle transition. The Johnson-Cook material model constant ``m'', which accounts for temperature effect, is 0.5 for C1008 at temperatures in the range 123 K to 950 K.

  7. Surface evolution effects observed in velocimetry of materials at high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro, Erik; Briggs, Matthew; Hull, Lawrence

    2014-03-01

    According to the accepted model for photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV), a particular probe measures the bulk (or average) motion of a surface moving along its beam axis. Utilizing this model, a surface's velocity vector may be reconstructed via a number of probes, at distinct angles of incidence, all of which view the same region on the surface. However, this approach does not account for localized effects of surface evolution, which may interact with PDV's interferometer in ways that are not yet fully appreciated. Consider, for example, that the material flow of a straining surface occurs tangent to the surface and may project along the beam axes of non-normal probes. We present a recent series of explosive tests, whose results suggest that non-normal PDV probes measure the effects of surface evolution as it projects along their beam axes. We believe that these effects have not been observed before. The implication is that PDV probes are capable of measuring the bulk motion of a surface, as well as measuring discrete events associated with surface evolution and failure.

  8. High-strain-rate compression and fracture of B sub 4 C-aluminum cermets

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The compressive behavior of liquid-metal infiltrated boron carbide-aluminum cermets were studied as a function of strain rate, composition, and microstructure. Hopkinson split pressure bar (HSPB) and quasi-static compression tests were conducted using dumb-bell-shaped specimens. Results showed cermet compressive strength to be independent of loading rate. Strength was also found to be independent of the aluminum alloy used to infiltrate pre-sintered 65 vol % B{sub 4}C pre-forms. compositions with the smallest phase size displayed the best strength and ductility. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  9. High strain rate deformation of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb in the duplex morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Maloy, S.A.; Gray, G.T. III

    1995-03-01

    The compressive deformation behavior of Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr in the duplex microstructural morphology has been studied at strain rates of 0.001/s and 2000/s over the temperature range from -196 to 1100{degrees}C. The material was cast, homogenized, extruded and heat treated to obtain the duplex microstructure. The yield stress is strain rate sensitive at 25{degrees}C and increases with temperature at a strain rate of 2000/s from 500 to 1100{degrees}C. TEM investigations reveal that deformation occurs in {gamma}-TiAl by means of [111]<112> twinning, 1/2<110> slip, and <101> superdislocations under all conditions depending on the orientation of the grain with respect to the deformation axis. Optical metallography reveals that twinning increases with increasing strain rate. TEM results revealing the dislocation substructure are used to explain the yield stress anomaly.

  10. Numerical analysis of high strain rate failure of electro-magnetically loaded steel sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erice, Borja; Mohr, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    Electro-magnetic forces provide a potentially power full means in designing dynamic experiments with active control of the loading conditions. This article deals with the development of computational models to simulate the thermo-mechanical response of electro-magnetically loaded metallic structures. The model assumes linear electromagnetic constitutive equations and time-independent electric induction to estimate the Joule heating and the Lorentz forces. The latter are then taken into account when evaluating stress equilibrium. A thermo-visco-plastic model with Johnson-Cook type of temperature and strain rate dependence and combined Swift-Voce hardening is used to evaluate the material's thermo-mechanical response. As a first application, the model is used to analyse the effect of electro-magnetic loading on the ductility of advanced high strength steels.

  11. Integrated experimental and computational studies of deformation of single crystal copper at high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, S.; Chandra, S.; Chavan, V. M.; Sharma, S.; Warrier, M.; Chaturvedi, S.; Patel, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Quasi-static (0.0033 s-1) and dynamic (103 s-1) compression experiments were performed on single crystal copper along ⟨100⟩ and ⟨110⟩ directions and best-fit parameters for the Johnson-Cook (JC) material model, which is an important input to hydrodynamic simulations for shock induced fracture, have been obtained. The deformation of single crystal copper along the ⟨110⟩ direction showed high yield strength, more strain hardening, and less strain rate sensitivity as compared to the ⟨100⟩ direction. Although the JC model at the macro-scale is easy to apply and describes a general response of material deformation, it lacks physical mechanisms that describe the influence of texture and initial orientation on the material response. Hence, a crystal plasticity model based on the theory of thermally activated motion of dislocations was used at the meso-scale, in which the evolution equations permit one to study and quantify the influence of initial orientation on the material response. Hardening parameters of the crystal plasticity model show less strain rate sensitivity along the ⟨110⟩ orientation as compared to the ⟨100⟩ orientation, as also shown by the JC model. Since the deformation process is inherently multiscale in nature, the shape changes observed in the experiments due to loading along ⟨100⟩ and ⟨110⟩ directions are also validated by molecular dynamics simulations at the nano-scale.

  12. Tensile behaviour of geopolymer-based materials under medium and high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menna, Costantino; Asprone, Domenico; Forni, Daniele; Roviello, Giuseppina; Ricciotti, Laura; Ferone, Claudio; Bozza, Anna; Prota, Andrea; Cadoni, Ezio

    2015-09-01

    Geopolymers are a promising class of inorganic materials typically obtained from an alluminosilicate source and an alkaline solution, and characterized by an amorphous 3-D framework structure. These materials are particularly attractive for the construction industry due to mechanical and environmental advantages they exhibit compared to conventional systems. Indeed, geopolymer-based concretes represent a challenge for the large scale uses of such a binder material and many research studies currently focus on this topic. However, the behaviour of geopolymers under high dynamic loads is rarely investigated, even though it is of a fundamental concern for the integrity/vulnerability assessment under extreme dynamic events. The present study aims to investigate the effect of high dynamic loading conditions on the tensile behaviour of different geopolymer formulations. The dynamic tests were performed under different strain rates by using a Hydro-pneumatic machine and a modified Hopkinson bar at the DynaMat laboratory of the University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland. The results are processed in terms of stress-strain relationships and strength dynamic increase factor at different strain-rate levels. The dynamic increase factor was also compared with CEB recommendations. The experimental outcomes can be used to assess the constitutive laws of geopolymers under dynamic load conditions and implemented into analytical models.

  13. The Contribution of the Expanding Shell Test to the Modeling of Elastoplaticity at High Strain Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorca, Fabrice; Buy, Francois

    2002-07-01

    The expanding shell test allows to load a material in the domain of high strain levels while strain rate is about 104s-1. This test submits an hemisphere to a radial expanding free flight, using a pyrotechnic device. The experiment (experimental apparatus, measurementsellipsis) is described with the difficulties encountered for the interpretation of the experimental data. Under some assumptions, the numerical transformation of radial velocities gives indications about the evolution of the strain, stress, strain rate and temperature rise, this last one being related to plastic work. We show how it is possible to associate both analytical and numerical approaches. Numerical simulation of the test is presented in a companion paper (see Buy01). Results obtained for copper, tantalum and TA6V4 are presented. The contribution of this test to the modeling of elastoplastic behavior is discussed and further works are proposed.

  14. High strain rate superplasticity in three contrasting fine grained aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, R.I.; Kim, J.S.; Zahid, G.H.; Prangnell, P.B.

    2000-07-01

    The superplastic properties and microstructures of three contrasting fine grained aluminum alloys were investigated. These included (1) a powder metallurgy MMC, (2) a severely deformed spray cast alloy, and (3) the Zn-22% Al eutectoid alloy. The results showed some differences in the details of behavior between the alloys. One of these was the presence of true work hardening, associated with dislocation activity, in the MMC, and its absence in the microduplex Zn-Al eutectoid alloy. In addition, the powder route MMC had the high threshold stress (up to 10 MPa) commonly encountered in such materials, whereas this was not the case with the cast and severely deformed alloy, indicating that the threshold stress was associated with the presence of ceramic particles in the MMC (oxide + reinforcement). In all the alloys, however, the m value tended to increase with temperature, and this led to a corresponding increase in elongation with temperature until the microstructure became destabilized. In the two predominantly single phase alloys studied this destabilization corresponded to the solvus temperature. The constantly changing m value indicates that there is no unique value of this parameter. The same was found to be true of the grain size exponent, p. The direct interpretation of apparent activation energies in terms of simple physical processes should be made with care in the light of the present results, as (1) the microstructures of two of the alloys were found to change continuously and significantly with small changes in temperature, and (2) the fact that m is a function of temperature necessarily implies that the apparent activation energy is a function of stress.

  15. Kinetics of the iron α -ɛ phase transition at high-strain rates: Experiment and model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadou, N.; de Resseguier, T.; Brambrink, E.; Vinci, T.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Huser, G.; Morard, G.; Guyot, F.; Miyanishi, K.; Ozaki, N.; Kodama, R.; Koenig, M.

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we investigate the kinetics of the iron α -ɛ transition under laser-driven ramp compression for deformation rates ranging from 3 to 9 ×107s-1 . As in previous work, we observe a plateau in the rear surface velocity profile at the transition. With increasing deformation rate the transition onset pressure raises from 11 to 25 GPa, while the plateau duration decreases. These kinetic effects are well reproduced by an Avrami-type kinetics model of nucleation and growth with a constant, nanosecond scale completion time, which suggests an isokinetic regime over the explored range of strain rates.

  16. Development of intermediate and high strain rate experimentation and material modeling for viscoplastic metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittington, Wilburn Ray

    This work presents a combined theoretical-experimental study of strain rate behavior in metals. The method is to experimentally calibrate and validate an Internal State Variable (ISV) constitutive model with a wide range of strain rate sensitivity. Therefore a practical apparatus and methodology for performing highly sought-after intermediate strain rate experimentation was created. For the first time in reported literature, the structure-property relations of Rolled Homogeneous Armor is quantified at the microscale and modeled with varying strain rates, temperatures, and stress states to capture plasticity and damage with a single set of constants that includes intermediate strain rates. A rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) was used as a material system to prove the methodology. In doing so, a newly implemented strain rate dependent nucleation parameter for RHA was implemented to transition the dominant damage mechanism from void growth to void nucleation as strain rate increased. The ISVs were utilized in finite element analysis for robust predictability of mechanical performance as well as predictability of microstructural evolution with regards to void size and number distribution. For intermediate strain rate experiments, robust load acquisition was achieved using a novel serpentine transmittal bar that allowed for long stress waves to traverse a short bar system; this system eliminated load- ringing that plagues servo-hydraulic systems. A direct hydraulic loading apparatus was developed to provide uniform strain rates throughout intermediate rate tests to improve on the current limitations of the state-of-the-art. Key recommendations on the advancement of predictive modeling of dynamic materials, as well as performing advanced dynamic experimentation, are elucidated.

  17. High strain rate properties of angle-ply composite laminates, part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, I. M.

    1991-01-01

    Angle-ply graphite/epoxy and graphite/S-glass/epoxy laminates were characterized in uniaxial tension at strain rates ranging from quasi-static to over 500 s(sup -1). Laminate ring specimens of +/-15(sub 2s), +/-22.5(sub 2s), +/-30(sub 2s), +/-45(sub 2s), +/-60(sub 2s), +/-67.5(sub 2s), and +/-75(sub 2s) degree layups were loaded under internal pressure. Results were presented in the form of stress-strain curves to failure. Properties determined included moduli, Poisson's ratios, strength, and ultimate strain. In all seven laminates for the two materials tested the modulus and strength increase with strain rate. The effect of strain rate varies with layup, being lowest for the fiber dominated +/-15(sub 2s) degree laminates and highest for the matrix dominated +/-75(sub 2s) degree laminates. The highest increments over the static values are 10 to 25 percent for the +/-15(sub 2s) degree layup and 200 to 275 percent for the +/-75(sub 2s) degree layup. Ultimate strains do not show any significant trends with strain rate. In almost all cases the ultimate strain values are within +/-20 percent of the mean value and in half of the cases the deviation from the mean are less than 10 percent.

  18. Coseismic Damage Generation in Fault Zones by Successive High Strain Rate Loading Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aben, F. M.; Doan, M. L.; Renard, F.; Toussaint, R.; Reuschlé, T.; Gratier, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Damage zones of active faults control both resistance to rupture and transport properties of the fault. Hence, knowing the rock damage's origin is important to constrain its properties. Here we study experimentally the damage generated by a succession of dynamic loadings, a process mimicking the stress history of a rock sample located next to an active fault. A propagating rupture generates high frequency stress perturbations next to its tip. This dynamic loading creates pervasive damage (pulverization), as multiple fractures initiate and grow simultaneously. Previous single loading experiments have shown a strain rate threshold for pulverization. Here, we focus on conditions below this threshold and the dynamic peak stress to constrain: 1) if there is dynamic fracturing at these conditions and 2) if successive loadings (cumulative seismic events) result in pervasive fracturing, effectively reducing the pulverization threshold to milder conditions. Monzonite samples were dynamically loaded (strain rate > 50 s-1) several times below the dynamic peak strength, using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus. Several quasi-static experiments were conducted as well (strain rate < 10-5-s). Samples loaded up to stresses above the quasi-static uniaxial compressive strength (qsUCS) systematically fragmented or pulverized after four successive loadings. We measured several damage proxies (P-wave velocity, porosity), that show a systematic increase in damage with each load. In addition, micro-computed tomography acquisition on several damage samples revealed the growth of a pervasive fracture network between ensuing loadings. Samples loaded dynamically below the qsUCS failed along one fracture after a variable amount of loadings and damage proxies do not show any a systematic trend. Our conclusions is that milder dynamic loading conditions, below the dynamic peak strength, result in pervasive dynamic fracturing. Also, successive loadings effectively lower the pulverization threshold of the rock. However, the peak loading stress must exceed the qsUCS of the rock, otherwise quasi-static fracturing occurs. Pulverized rocks found in the field are therefore witnesses of previous large earthquakes.

  19. Sensitivity of high strain rate of structural elements in relation to dynamics properties of material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruszka, Leopold; Vorobiov, Iurii S.; Ovcharova, Nataliia Iu.

    2015-09-01

    Protective structures such as process chambers, protective boxes, facing elements of vehicles, personal protection equipment, motors cases etc. widely used in modern technology has been tested in the following project. Under the influence of impact loads, the three-dimensional dynamic stress-strain state with finite dynamic displacements and deformations has arised. The deformations occur in the elastic- plastic stage. In the analysis of the high-rate deformations, the dynamic properties of the materials, which are determined based on experimental data should be taken into account. The dynamic stress state of structural elements depends essentially on the dynamic properties of the materials used. The problem is solved using the finite element method, which takes into account the specifics of the process. Boundary conditions in the element nodes must satisfy the equality movement as well as derivatives. The formed function allows to describe continuous and smooth stress changes. The numerical analysis of the dynamic stress-strain state of structural elements under impact loads, takes into account different dynamic properties of the materials. A series of numerical calculations allows to reveal the features of high-rate deformation elements of protective structures and makes recommendations to improve their dynamic strength under different loading conditions.

  20. High strain rate properties of off-axis composite laminates, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, I. M.

    1991-01-01

    Unidirectional off-axis graphite/epoxy and graphite/S-glass/epoxy laminates were characterized in uniaxial tension at strain rates ranging from quasi-static to over 500 s(sup -1). Laminate ring specimens were loaded by internal pressure with the tensile stress at 22.5, 30, and 45 degrees relative to the fiber direction. Results were presented in the form of stress-strain curves to failure. Properties determined included moduli, Poisson's ratios, strength, and ultimate strain. In all three laminates of both materials the modulus and strength increase sharply with strain rate, reaching values roughly 100, 150, and 200 percent higher than corresponding static values for the 22.5(sub 8), 30(sub 8), and 45(sub 8) degree laminates, respectively. In the case of ultimate strain no definite trends could be established, but the maximum deviation from the average of any value for any strain rate was less than 18 percent.

  1. Mechanical behavior of sand under high pressure and high strain rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Malek, S.; Meyer, L. W.; Herzig, N.

    2012-08-01

    Characterizing of the mechanical behavior of sand under impact loading is necessary to estimate the power of explosive mines. Using Hopkinson pressure bars for its characterization only low and limited pressures can be applied. Therefore the experiments were performed on a high energy drop weight machine, which produces a high pressure up to several GPa much closer to real explosive processes. The triaxial stress state was realized within a thick steel ring. Measurements of forces and displacement of the punch and also the tangential strain of the ring were performed and used for the analysis of stresses. The influence of water contents and compaction of sand were investigated. Constitutive equations were derived for the different conditions.

  2. High strain rate method of producing optimized fracture networks in reservoirs

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, Jeffery James; Antoun, Tarabay H.; Lomov, Ilya N.

    2015-06-23

    A system of fracturing a geological formation penetrated by a borehole. At least one borehole is drilled into or proximate the geological formation. An energetic charge is placed in the borehole. The energetic charge is detonated fracturing the geological formation.

  3. Experimental characterization and modelling of UO2 behavior at high temperatures and high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvo, Maxime; Sercombe, Jérôme; Ménard, Jean-Claude; Julien, Jérôme; Helfer, Thomas; Désoyer, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    This work presents an experimental characterization of uranium dioxide (UO2) in compression under Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) conditions. Pellet samples were tested at four temperatures (1100, 1350, 1550 and 1700 °C) and at a strain rate varying over 4 decades (10-4-10-3-10-2-10-1 /s). The experimental results show that the stress-strain curves cannot be fitted with a unique power law as it is the case at smaller strain rates (10-9-10-5 /s). A strain-hardening also appears in most of the tests. The microstructural observations show a pronounced evolution of the porosity at the pellet center during the tests. A hyperbolic sine model which accounts for volume variations (pore compressibility) was therefore proposed to describe the behavior of UO2 on a large range of temperatures (1100 - 1700 °C) and strain rates (10-9-10-1 /s). The Finite Element simulations of the compression tests lead to results (maximum stress, axial and hoop strain distribution, porosity distribution) in good agreement with the measurements. The model was then assessed on a database of more than two hundred creep tests.

  4. Mechanical Behaviour of Light Metal Alloys at High Strain Rates. Computer Simulation on Mesoscale Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skripnyak, Vladimir; Skripnyak, Evgeniya; Meyer, Lothar W.; Herzig, Norman; Skripnyak, Nataliya

    2012-02-01

    Researches of the last years have allowed to establish that the laws of deformation and fracture of bulk ultrafine-grained and coarse-grained materials are various both in static and in dynamic loading conditions. Development of adequate constitutive equations for the description of mechanical behavior of bulk ultrafine-grained materials at intensive dynamic influences is complicated in consequence of insufficient knowledge about general rules of inelastic deformation and nucleation and growth of cracks. Multi-scale computational model was used for the investigation of deformation and fracture of bulk structured aluminum and magnesium alloys under stress pulse loadings on mesoscale level. The increment of plastic deformation is defined by the sum of the increments caused by a nucleation and gliding of dislocations, the twinning, meso-blocks movement, and grain boundary sliding. The model takes into account the influence on mechanical properties of alloys an average grains size, grain sizes distribution of and concentration of precipitates. It was obtained the nucleation and gliding of dislocations caused the high attenuation rate of the elastic precursor of ultrafine-grained alloys than in coarse grained counterparts.

  5. Development of an Electromagnetic Acceleration Facility for Impact and Fracture Studies at High Strain Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahari, S.; Suryaprasad, I. V. V.; Shiv, N.; Madhavan, S.; Sijoy, C. D.; Chaturvedi, S.

    2011-07-01

    Experimental studies of strain time history and fracture & penetration resulting from the high velocity impact of solid projectiles on solid targets have been initiated. Design, fabrication, testing and commissioning of an electromagnetic impact facility driven by a capacitor bank have been carried out in this regard. The facility presently has an induction coil gun driving a cylindrical hollow/solid projectile on to a target. 3-7 kJ capacitor banks have been used to drive the launchers. The parameters of the coil gun are in consonance with a computer code developed in-house for the validation and optimization of the coil dimension and bank parameters. Systematic studies have been carried out for validation of code and understanding and benchmarking coil performance. Reproducible velocities of the order of 100 m/s have been successfully achieved with projectiles of masses 20 gm. Preliminary impact studies carried out on Alumnium target plates have given the strain time history.

  6. Deformation of polysynthetically twinned (PST) TiAl crystals at high strain rate and high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Z.; Gray, G.T. III; Yamaguchi, Masaharu

    1997-12-31

    Deformation microstructures in a 435{degree} <{bar 3}21> oriented polysynthetically twinned (PST) TiAl crystal deformed in compression at 3000 s{sup {minus}1} and 800 C was studied. Deformation of this PST crystal is characterized as follows: (1) Deformation of domains [III] and [IV] is dominated by 1/6[11{bar 2}](111) parallel twinning (twinning parallel to lamellar interfaces). Ordinary dislocations observed in these domains are found to be a complementary deformation mode. (2) Deformation of domains [II], [V] and [VI] is controlled by ordinary dislocation slip. Complementary deformation modes in these domains are ordinary dislocation slip, superdislocation slip and cross-twinning. (3) Domain [I] is not deformed after the specimen deforms up to {approximately}7% strain.

  7. Modeling anisotropic plasticity: Eulerian hydrocode applications of high strain-rate deformation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Clancy, S.P.; Burkett, M.W.; Maudlin, P.J.

    1998-02-01

    Previously developed constitutive models and solution algorithms for anisotropic elastoplastic material strength are implemented in the two dimensional MESA hydrodynamics code. Quadratic yield functions fitted from polycrystal simulations for a metallic hexagonal-close-packed structure are utilized. An associative flow strength formulation incorporating these yield functions is solved using a geometric normal return method. A stretching rod problem is selected to investigate the effects of material anisotropy on a tensile plastic instability (necking). The rod necking rate and topology are compared for MESA simulations performed for both isotropic and anisotropic cases utilizing the elastic-perfectly-plastic and the Mechanical Threshold Stress flow stress models.

  8. Modeling anisotropic plasticity: Eulerian hydrocode applications of high strain-rate deformation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Clancy, S.P.; Burkett, M.W.; Maudlin, P.J.

    1997-05-01

    Previously developed constitutive models and solution algorithms for anisotropic elastoplastic material strength are implemented in the two-dimensional MESA hydrodynamics code. Quadratic yield functions fitted from polycrystal simulations for a metallic hexagonal-close-packed structure are utilized. An associative flow strength formulation incorporating these yield functions is solved using a geometric normal return method. A stretching rod problem is selected to investigate the effects of material anisotropy on a tensile plastic instability (necking). The rod necking rate and topology are compared for MESA simulations performed for both isotropic and anisotropic cases utilizing the Mechanical Threshold Stress flow stress model.

  9. Modeling Anisotropic Plasticity: 3D Eulerian Hydrocode Simulations of High Strain Rate Deformation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkett, Michael; Clancy, Sean; Maudlin, Paul; Holian, Kathleen

    2001-06-01

    : Previously developed constitutive models and solution algorithms for anisotropic elastoplastic material strength has been implemented in the three-dimensional CONEJO hydrodynamics code. CONEJO is an explicit, Eulerian continuum mechanics code that is utilized to predict formation processes associated with material deformation at elevated strain-rates and is a code development project under the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) program. Some special features of CONEJO include a high-order advection algorithm, a material interface tracking scheme, and van Leer monotonic advection-limiting. The anisotropic constitutive modeling is posed in an unrotated material frame using the theorem of polar decomposition to describe rigid body rotation. An Euler-Rodrigues description is used to quantify the rigid body rotations. Continuous quadratic yield functions fitted from polycrystal simulations for a metallic hexagonal-close-packed structure were utilized. Associative flow formulations incorporating these yield functions were solved using a geometric normal return method. Simple rectangular shear problems, "R-value" problems, and Taylor cylinder impact test data were utilized to verify and validate the implementation of the anisotropic model. A "stretching rod" problem (involving large strain and strain-rate deformation) was selected to investigate the effects of material anisotropy for this deformation process. The rod necking rate and topology was compared for CONEJO simulations using several isotropic and anisotropic descriptions that utilized the Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) model.

  10. High strain rate superplasticity in a friction stir processed 7075 Al alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, R.S.; Mahoney, M.W.; McFaden, S.X.; Mara, N.A.; Mukherjee, A.K.

    1999-12-31

    In this paper, the authors report the first results using friction stir processing (FSP). In the last ten years, a new technique of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has emerged as an exciting solid state joining technique for aluminum alloys. This technique, developed by The Welding Institute (TWI), involves traversing a rotating tool that produces intense plastic deformation through a stirring action. The localized heating is produced by friction between the tool shoulder and the sheet top surface, as well as plastic deformation of the material in contact with the tool. This results in a stirred zone with a very fine grain size in a single pass. Mahoney et al. observed a grain size of 3 {micro}m in a 7075 Al alloy. This process can be easily adopted as a processing technique to obtain fine grain size. FSP of a commercial 7075 Al alloy resulted in significant enhancement of superplastic properties. The optimum superplastic strain rate was 10{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} at 490 C in the FSP 7075 Al alloy, an improvement of more than an order of magnitude in strain rate. The present results suggest an exciting possibility to use a simple FSP technique to enhance grain size dependent properties.

  11. Behaviour of metals at ultra-high strain rate by using femtosecond laser shockwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuq-Lelandais, J.-P.; Boustie, M.; Berthe, L.; De Rességuier, T.

    2012-08-01

    The mechanical behavior of materials under extreme conditions can be investigated by using laser driven shocks. Actually, femtosecond (fs) technologies allow to reach strong pressures over a very fast duration. This work is dedicated to characterize metals behavior in this ultra-short mode, (aluminum, tantalum), leading to an extreme dynamic solicitation in the target (>107s-1). The study includes the validation of experimental results obtained on the LULI 100TW facility by comparison with numerical model. Three modeling steps are considered. First, we characterize the pressure loading resulting from the fs laser-matter interaction, different from what happens in the classical nanosecond regime. Then, the shock wave propagation is observed through the target and particularly its pressure decay, strong in this regime. The elastic-plastic influence on the shock attenuation is discussed, particularly for tantalum which has a high elastic limit. Dynamic damage appears with spallation. Experimentally, spallation is characterized by VISAR measurements and post-test observations. Shots with different thicknesses have been carried out to determine the damage properties in function of strain rate. We show in this work that a simple instantaneous rupture criterion is not sufficient to reproduce the damage induced in the sample. Only the Kanel model, which includes damage kinetics, is able to reproduce experimental data (VISAR measurements, spall thickness). A generalization of this model to any strain rate can be performed by confronting these results to other shock generators data (ns laser driven shocks, plate impacts). One remarkable result is that every Kanel parameters follows a power law with strain rate in dynamic regime (105 to 108s-1) for both aluminum and tantalum.

  12. High pressure and high strain rate behavior of cementitious materials: Experiments and elastic/viscoplastic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Martin Jeffrey

    The goal of this dissertation was to experimentally investigate the high rate and high pressure mechanical response of a mortar and concrete mix and use or develop a constitutive model able to describe the observed behavior. Triaxial compression tests at a strain rate of 10-6/ s, and for confining pressures ranging from 0 to 0.5 GPa were conducted. Dynamic tests in the range 60/s to about 160/s under both unconfined and confined conditions were conducted using the University of Florida's 7.62 cin diameter split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). The data obtained in such tests allowed the quantification of the combined effects of confining pressure and strain rate on the deformation and strength of the materials. For mortar, dilatancy has been observed at high levels of the principal stress difference for both dynamic and quasi-static conditions. The unconfined dynamic compressive strengths are approximately double those of the quasi-static compressive strengths. Most of the confined SHPB mortar specimens showed very little damage post-test other than some chipping around the top edges, most likely due to localized tensile effects. For the concrete selected for this research. WES5000, quasi-static hydrostatic tests conducted up to a pressure of 0.5 GPa allowed for the accurate determination of the dependence of the bulk modulus on pressure and the correct estimation of the material's compaction properties when subjected to pressures in the range encountered in dynamic events. For confined quasi-static conditions, the material exhibited hardening behavior up to failure. Both compressibility and dilatancy regimes of the volumetric behavior were observed, the dilatancy threshold being highly dependent on the level of confinement. The unconfined dynamic strength is as high as 1.5 times the quasi-static strength, the material generally exhibiting far more cracking under similar loading conditions than was observed in mortar. The confined dynamic tests showed similar stress-strain response as the quasistatic tests conducted at the same level of confinement. A decrease in strain rate sensitivity with increasing confining pressure was observed. A new elastic/viscoplastic model that captures compressibility and dilatancy, as well as strain rate effects has been developed for concrete. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  13. Electromagnetic Radiation From The High Strain Rate Fracture Of Mild Carbon-Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, William; Calahan, Kenneth

    2005-07-01

    We present results of an experimental study of the back surface emission of electromagnetic radiation resulting from the impact fracture of mild carbon-steel at strain rates of approximates 10^6/s. We obtained time-domain measurements of two perpendicular components of the electric displacement vector at distances of up to 20 m from the targets. Spectral analysis of these data provides results that are consistent with theoretical predictions of the strain-rate dependence of the Misra Effect. We provide evidence that this phenomenon, that has only been reported previously during quasi-static measurements, is also present during explosive and impact fracture conditions. This work supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency under contract DTRA01-01-C-0033.

  14. Properties of heterogeneous energetic materials under high strain, high strain rate deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jing

    Heterogeneous energetic materials have many applications. Their dynamic behavior and microstructural evolution upon plastic deformation have remained not fully understood. The following heterogeneous materials were investigated in the this study: the pure PTFE (usually a mixture of crystalline and amorphous phases), PTFE-Sn, PTFE-Al, PTFE-Al-W, and carbon fibers filled Al alloy. Sample manufacturing processes involving ball milling and Cold Isostatic Pressing were employed. Quasi-static and Hopkinson bar tests were carried out to obtain the compressive strengths of composites. The Conventional Thick-walled Cylinder (TWC) method and newly developed small-scale Hopkinson bar based TWC experiments were conducted to investigate single shear bands and their assembly. Conventional and "soft" drop-weight tests were performed to examine the mechanical properties and the initiation of chemical reactions. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to detect the details of the microstructures and failure mechanisms of heterogeneous materials. New features in the dynamic behavior of heterogeneous materials were observed. They include the following: (1) Strain softening, instead of thermal softening, is the main mechanism in the initiation of shear bands in explosively driven TWC tests of solid PTFE. (2) Cold isostatically pressed PTFE-Sn samples were more stable with respect to shear localization than solid PTFE. (3) The dynamic collapse of solid PTFE-Al samples with different particle sizes was accomplished with the shear localization bands and cracks. (4) Force chains in the fine W and Al particles were attributed to the high strength of the porous PTFE-Al-W composite containing fine W particles in comparison with composites with coarse W particles. (5) Debonding of metal particles from the PTFE matrix and the fracture of the matrix were identified to be two major mechanisms for the failure of the PTFE-Al-W composites. (6) The formation of PTFE nano-fibers during high strain flow was detected. (7) The orientation of carbon fibers did not influence the strength and reaction of carbon fibers filled Al alloys, but the strength of carbon fibers did.

  15. Phenomena Associated with EIT Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, B. J.; Biesecker, D. A.; Gopalswamy, N.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We discuss phenomena associated with 'EIT Wave' transients. These phenomena include coronal mass ejections, flares, EUV/SXR dimmings, chromospheric waves, Moreton waves, solar energetic particle events, energetic electron events, and radio signatures. Although the occurrence of many phenomena correlate with the appearance of EIT waves, it is difficult to infer which associations are causal. The presentation will include a discussion of correlation surveys of these phenomena.

  16. Phenomena Associated With EIT Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, B. J.; Biesecker, D. A.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss phenomena associated with "EIT Wave" transients. These phenomena include coronal mass ejections, flares, EUV/SXR dimmings, chromospheric waves, Moreton waves, solar energetic particle events, energetic electron events, and radio signatures. Although the occurrence of many phenomena correlate with the appearance of EIT waves, it is difficult to mfer which associations are causal. The presentation will include a discussion of correlation surveys of these phenomena.

  17. MULTISCALE PHENOMENA IN MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    A. BISHOP

    2000-09-01

    This project developed and supported a technology base in nonequilibrium phenomena underpinning fundamental issues in condensed matter and materials science, and applied this technology to selected problems. In this way the increasingly sophisticated synthesis and characterization available for classes of complex electronic and structural materials provided a testbed for nonlinear science, while nonlinear and nonequilibrium techniques helped advance our understanding of the scientific principles underlying the control of material microstructure, their evolution, fundamental to macroscopic functionalities. The project focused on overlapping areas of emerging thrusts and programs in the Los Alamos materials community for which nonlinear and nonequilibrium approaches will have decisive roles and where productive teamwork among elements of modeling, simulations, synthesis, characterization and applications could be anticipated--particularly multiscale and nonequilibrium phenomena, and complex matter in and between fields of soft, hard and biomimetic materials. Principal topics were: (i) Complex organic and inorganic electronic materials, including hard, soft and biomimetic materials, self-assembly processes and photophysics; (ii) Microstructure and evolution in multiscale and hierarchical materials, including dynamic fracture and friction, dislocation and large-scale deformation, metastability, and inhomogeneity; and (iii) Equilibrium and nonequilibrium phases and phase transformations, emphasizing competing interactions, frustration, landscapes, glassy and stochastic dynamics, and energy focusing.

  18. Crystallization phenomena in slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orrling, Carl Folke

    2000-09-01

    The crystallization of the mold slag affects both the heat transfer and the lubrication between the mold and the strand in continuous casting of steel. In order for mold slag design to become an engineering science rather than an empirical exercise, a fundamental understanding of the melting and solidification behavior of a slag must be developed. Thus it is necessary to be able to quantify the phenomena that occur under the thermal conditions that are found in the mold of a continuous caster. The double hot thermocouple technique (DHTT) and the Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope used in this study are two novel techniques for investigating melting and solidification phenomena of transparent slags. Results from these techniques are useful in defining the phenomena that occur when the slag film infiltrates between the mold and the shell of the casting. TTT diagrams were obtained for various slags and indicated that the onset of crystallization is a function of cooling rate and slag chemistry. Crystal morphology was found to be dependent upon the experimental temperature and four different morphologies were classified based upon the degree of melt undercooling. Continuous cooling experiments were carried out to develop CCT diagrams and it was found that the amount and appearance of the crystalline fraction greatly depends on the cooling conditions. The DHTT can also be used to mimic the cooling profile encountered by the slag in the mold of a continuous caster. In this differential cooling mode (DCT), it was found that the details of the cooling rate determine the actual response of the slag to a thermal gradient and small changes can lead to significantly different results. Crystal growth rates were measured and found to be in the range between 0.11 mum/s to 11.73 mum/s depending on temperature and slag chemistry. Alumina particles were found to be effective innoculants in oxide melts reducing the incubation time for the onset of crystallization and also extending

  19. Weld pool phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Zacharia, T.; DebRoy, T.

    1994-09-01

    During welding, the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure are affected by the interaction of the heat source with the metal. The interaction affects the fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transfer in the weld pool, and the solidification behavior of the weld metal. In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of the weld pool transport processes and the solid state transformation reactions in determining the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure. The relation between the weld pool transport processes and the composition and structure is reviewed. Recent applications of various solidification theories to welding are examined to understand the special problems of weld metal solidification. The discussion is focussed on the important problems and issues related to weld pool transport phenomena and solidification. Resolution of these problems would be an important step towards a science based control of composition, structure and properties of the weld metal.

  20. Wave propagation phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenenboom, P. H. L.

    The phenomenon of wave propagation is encountered frequently in a variety of engineering disciplines. It has been realized that for a growing number of problems the solution can only be obtained by discretization of the boundary. Advantages of the Boundary Element Method (BEM) over domain-type methods are related to the reduction of the number of space dimensions and of the modelling effort. It is demonstrated how the BEM can be applied to wave propagation phenomena by establishing the fundamental relationships. A numerical solution procedure is also suggested. In connection with a discussion of the retarded potential formulation, it is shown how the wave propagation problem can be cast into a Boundary Integral Formulation (BIF). The wave propagation problem in the BIF can be solved by time-successive evaluation of the boundary integrals. The example of pressure wave propagation following a sodium-water reaction in a Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactor steam generator is discussed.

  1. Thermal Wave Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This map from the MGS Horizon Sensor Assembly (HORSE) shows middle atmospheric temperatures near the 1 mbar level of Mars between Ls 170 to 175 (approx. July 14 - 23, 1999). Local Mars times between 1:30 and 4:30 AM are included. Infrared radiation measured by the Mars Horizon Sensor Assembly was used to make the map. That device continuously views the 'limb' of Mars in four directions, to help orient the spacecraft instruments to the nadir: straight down.

    The map shows thermal wave phenomena that are caused by the large topographic variety of Mars' surface, as well the latitudinally symmetric behavior expected at this time of year near the equinox.

  2. Ultra-high-speed studies of shock phenomena in a miniaturized system: A preliminary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Trott, W.M.; Erickson, K.L.

    1997-09-01

    A laboratory-scale experimental test system for small-scale of shock phenomena has been assembled. This system uses a variety of miniature test platforms in which shock loading is provided by laser-driven flyer impact. Acceptor materials include thin-film explosives and high-density metal foils. Optical access is provided for high-speed optical diagnostics such as optically recording velocity interferometry and single-pulse Raman spectroscopy. The experimental assembly for Raman studies features a common laser source for both flyer generation and excitation of Raman scattering (to achieve high timing precision) and a detection scheme that uses the coupling fiber for the excitation source to collect with high efficiency backscattered Raman light. Preliminary system evaluation experiments indicate that detailed particle velocity studies of the dynamic material properties of high-density metals under short-pulse, high-strain-rate loading can be performed in a miniaturized test configuration. Single-pulse Raman studies on shock compressed thin film explosives also appear feasible if the thickness and grain structure of these films can be tailored to enhance the Raman scattering signal sufficiently. Possible improvements in the experimental design and a number of likely applications of these techniques are also discussed.

  3. Arcjet Cathode Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Haag, Thomas W.; Raquet, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Cathode tips made from a number of different materials were tested in a modular arcjet thruster in order to examine cathode phenomena. Periodic disassembly and examination, along with the data collected during testing, indicated that all of the tungsten-based materials behaved similarly despite the fact that in one of these samples the percentage of thorium oxide was doubled and another was 25 percent rhenium. The mass loss rate from a 2 percent thoriated rhenium cathode was found to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed using 2 percent thoriated tungsten. Detailed analysis of one of these cathode tips showed that the molten crater contained pure tungsten to a depth of about 150 microns. Problems with thermal stress cracking were encountered in the testing of a hafnium carbide tip. Post test analysis showed that the active area of the tip had chemically reacted with the propellant. A 100 hour continuous test was run at about 1 kW. Post test analysis revealed no dendrite formation, such as observed in a 30 kW arcjet lifetest, near the cathode crater. The cathodes from both this test and a previously run 1000 hour cycled test displayed nearly identical arc craters. Data and calculations indicate that the mass losses observed in testing can be explained by evaporation.

  4. Arcjet cathode phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Haag, Thomas W.; Raquet, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Cathode tips made from a number of different materials were tested in a modular arcjet thruster in order to examine cathode phenomena. Periodic disassembly and examination, along with the data collected during testing, indicated that all of the tungsten-based materials behaved similarly despite the fact that in one of these samples the percentage of thorium oxide was doubled and another was 25 percent rhenium. The mass loss rate from a 2 percent thoriated rhenium cathode was found to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed using 2 percent thoriated tungsten. Detailed analysis of one of these cathode tips showed that the molten crater contained pure tungsten to a depth of about 150 microns. Problems with thermal stress cracking were encountered in the testing of a hafnium carbide tip. Post test analysis showed that the active area of the tip had chemically reacted with the propellant. A 100 hour continuous test was run at about 1 kW. Post test analysis revealed no dendrite formation, such as observed in a 30 kW arcjet lifetest, near the cathode crater. The cathodes from both this test and a previously run 1000 hour cycled test displayed nearly identical arc craters. Data and calculations indicate that the mass losses observed in testing can be explained by evaporation.

  5. ON DETECTING TRANSIENT PHENOMENA

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, G.

    2013-08-10

    Transient phenomena are interesting and potentially highly revealing of details about the processes under observation and study that could otherwise go unnoticed. It is therefore important to maximize the sensitivity of the method used to identify such events. In this article, we present a general procedure based on the use of the likelihood function for identifying transients which is particularly suited for real-time applications because it requires no grouping or pre-processing of the data. The method makes use of all the information that is available in the data throughout the statistical decision-making process, and is suitable for a wide range of applications. Here we consider those most common in astrophysics, which involve searching for transient sources, events or features in images, time series, energy spectra, and power spectra, and demonstrate the use of the method in the case of a weak X-ray flare in a time series and a short-lived quasi-periodic oscillation in a power spectrum. We derive a fit statistic that is ideal for fitting arbitrarily shaped models to a power density distribution, which is of general interest in all applications involving periodogram analysis.

  6. Relaxation phenomena in disordered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciortino, F.; Tartaglia, P.

    1997-02-01

    In this article we discuss how the assumptions of self-similarity imposed on the distribution of independently relaxing modes, as well as on their amplitude and characteristic times, manifest in the global relaxation phenomena. We also review recent applications of such approach to the description of relaxation phenomena in microemulsions and molecular glasses.

  7. Teaching Optical Phenomena with Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, M.; Carvalho, P. Simeão

    2014-01-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a…

  8. Wave phenomena in sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhner-Böttcher, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Context: The dynamic atmosphere of the Sun exhibits a wealth of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. In the presence of strong magnetic fields, most spectacular and powerful waves evolve in the sunspot atmosphere. Allover the sunspot area, continuously propagating waves generate strong oscillations in spectral intensity and velocity. The most prominent and fascinating phenomena are the 'umbral flashes' and 'running penumbral waves' as seen in the sunspot chromosphere. Their nature and relation have been under intense discussion in the last decades. Aims: Waves are suggested to propagate upward along the magnetic field lines of sunspots. An observational study is performed to prove or disprove the field-guided nature and coupling of the prevalent umbral and penumbral waves. Comprehensive spectroscopic observations at high resolution shall provide new insights into the wave characteristics and distribution across the sunspot atmosphere. Methods: Two prime sunspot observations were carried out with the Dunn Solar Telescope at the National Solar Observatory in New Mexico and with the Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Teide Observatory on Tenerife. The two-dimensional spectroscopic observations were performed with the interferometric spectrometers IBIS and TESOS. Multiple spectral lines are scanned co-temporally to sample the dynamics at the photospheric and chromospheric layers. The time series (1 – 2.5 h) taken at high spatial and temporal resolution are analyzed according to their evolution in spectral intensities and Doppler velocities. A wavelet analysis was used to obtain the wave power and dominating wave periods. A reconstruction of the magnetic field inclination based on sunspot oscillations was developed. Results and conclusions: Sunspot oscillations occur continuously in spectral intensity and velocity. The obtained wave characteristics of umbral flashes and running penumbral waves strongly support the scenario of slow-mode magnetoacoustic wave propagation along

  9. Misconceptions of Emergent Semiconductor Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Katherine G.

    The semiconductor field of Photovoltaics (PV) has experienced tremendous growth, requiring curricula to consider ways to promote student success. One major barrier to success students may face when learning PV is the development of misconceptions. The purpose of this work was to determine the presence and prevalence of misconceptions students may have for three PV semiconductor phenomena; Diffusion, Drift and Excitation. These phenomena are emergent, a class of phenomena that have certain characteristics. In emergent phenomena, the individual entities in the phenomena interact and aggregate to form a self-organizing pattern that can be observed at a higher level. Learners develop a different type of misconception for these phenomena, an emergent misconception. Participants (N=41) completed a written protocol. The pilot study utilized half of these protocols (n = 20) to determine the presence of both general and emergent misconceptions for the three phenomena. Once the presence of both general and emergent misconceptions was confirmed, all protocols (N=41) were analyzed to determine the presence and prevalence of general and emergent misconceptions, and to note any relationships among these misconceptions (full study). Through written protocol analysis of participants' responses, numerous codes emerged from the data for both general and emergent misconceptions. General and emergent misconceptions were found in 80% and 55% of participants' responses, respectively. General misconceptions indicated limited understandings of chemical bonding, electricity and magnetism, energy, and the nature of science. Participants also described the phenomena using teleological, predictable, and causal traits, indicating participants had misconceptions regarding the emergent aspects of the phenomena. For both general and emergent misconceptions, relationships were observed between similar misconceptions within and across the three phenomena, and differences in misconceptions were

  10. Critical velocity phenomena and the LTP. [Lunar Transient Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srnka, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    When the relative velocity between magnetized plasma and neutral gas exceeds a critical value, the gas-plasma interaction is dominated by collective phenomena which rapidly excite and ionize the neutrals. The interaction of the solar wind with a large cloud (between 10 to the 24th and 10 to the 28th power neutrals) vented from the moon should be of this type. Line radiation from such an interaction can yield an apparent lunar surface brightness rivaling reflected sunlight levels over small areas, if the kinetic-energy flow density of the gas is sufficiently high. The aberrated solar-wind flow past the moon would enhance the visibility of such interactions near the lunar sunrise terminator, supporting the statistical studies which indicate that the 'Lunar Transient Phenomena' (anomalous optical phenomena on the moon) are significantly correlated with the position of the terminator on the lunar surface.

  11. Teaching optical phenomena with Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-11-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a relatively complex setup. Fortunately, nowadays it is possible to analyse optical phenomena in a simple and quantitative way using the freeware video analysis software ‘Tracker’. In this paper, we show the advantages of video-based experimental activities for teaching concepts in optics. We intend to show: (a) how easy the study of such phenomena can be, even at home, because only simple materials are needed, and Tracker provides the necessary measuring instruments; and (b) how we can use Tracker to improve students’ understanding of some optical concepts. We give examples using video modelling to study the laws of reflection, Snell’s laws, focal distances in lenses and mirrors, and diffraction phenomena, which we hope will motivate teachers to implement it in their own classes and schools.

  12. Undergraduates' understanding of cardiovascular phenomena.

    PubMed

    Michael, Joel A; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Modell, Harold I; Cliff, William; Horwitz, Barbara; McHale, Philip; Richardson, Daniel; Silverthorn, Dee; Williams, Stephen; Whitescarver, Shirley

    2002-12-01

    Undergraduates students in 12 courses at 8 different institutions were surveyed to determine the prevalence of 13 different misconceptions (conceptual difficulties) about cardiovascular function. The prevalence of these misconceptions ranged from 20 to 81% and, for each misconception, was consistent across the different student populations. We also obtained explanations for the students' answers either as free responses or with follow-up multiple-choice questions. These results suggest that students have a number of underlying conceptual difficulties about cardiovascular phenomena. One possible source of some misconceptions is the students' inability to apply simple general models to specific cardiovascular phenomena. Some implications of these results for teachers of physiology are discussed. PMID:12031940

  13. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  14. Visualizing Chemical Phenomena in Microdroplets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sunghee; Wiener, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Phenomena that occur in microdroplets are described to the undergraduate chemistry community. Droplets having a diameter in the micrometer range can have unique and interesting properties, which arise because of their small size and, especially, their high surface area-to-volume ratio. Students are generally unfamiliar with the characteristics of…

  15. Statistical phenomena in particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bisognano, J.J.

    1984-09-01

    Particle beams are subject to a variety of apparently distinct statistical phenomena such as intrabeam scattering, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, coherent instabilities, and radiofrequency noise diffusion. In fact, both the physics and mathematical description of these mechanisms are quite similar, with the notion of correlation as a powerful unifying principle. In this presentation we will attempt to provide both a physical and a mathematical basis for understanding the wide range of statistical phenomena that have been discussed. In the course of this study the tools of the trade will be introduced, e.g., the Vlasov and Fokker-Planck equations, noise theory, correlation functions, and beam transfer functions. Although a major concern will be to provide equations for analyzing machine design, the primary goal is to introduce a basic set of physical concepts having a very broad range of applicability.

  16. New phenomena searches at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Soha, Aron; /UC, Davis

    2006-04-01

    The authors report on recent results from the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment, which is accumulating data from proton-antiproton collisions with {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. The new phenomena being explored include Higgs, Supersymmetry, and large extra dimensions. They also present the latest results of searches for heavy objects, which would indicate physics beyond the Standard Model.

  17. Mathematical Modeling of Diverse Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Tensor calculus is applied to the formulation of mathematical models of diverse phenomena. Aeronautics, fluid dynamics, and cosmology are among the areas of application. The feasibility of combining tensor methods and computer capability to formulate problems is demonstrated. The techniques described are an attempt to simplify the formulation of mathematical models by reducing the modeling process to a series of routine operations, which can be performed either manually or by computer.

  18. Visualization of solidification front phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1993-01-01

    Directional solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental platform which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Because of the wide-spread use of this experimental technique in space-based research, it has become apparent that a better understanding of all the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible.

  19. Cathodic phenomena in aluminum electrowinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouteillon, J.; Poignet, J. C.; Rameau, J. J.

    1993-02-01

    Although aluminum is one of the world's highest production-volume primary metals, it is particularly costly to produce for a variety of factors, not the least of which are the expenses associated with electrolytic reduction. Based on the scale of global aluminum processing, even minor improvements in the electrowinning technology can result in significant savings of resources. Thus, from this perspective, the following reviews recent studies of cathodic phenomena in aluminum electrowinning.

  20. Ballistic projectile metallurgical issues and fundamentals: Aerosol production in rod penetration erosion and erosion phenomena associated with railgun development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Brenda I.

    The issue is derived from ballistic erosion as it relates to nanoparticle production and respiration of these particles as a health concern ballistic erosion and ballistic erosion as it relates to railgun performance. A common thread between these two issues is dynamic recrystallization (DRX). DRX has been demonstrated to be the dominant mechanism for solid-state flow associated with ballistic projectile/target penetration and interaction, friction-stir welding phenomena, and other high-strain rate deformation phenomena. Aerosol particulates collected on filters from ballistic penetration and erosion events for W-Ni-Co and W-Ni-Fe kinetic energy rod projectiles penetrating steel target plates were observed to be highly cytotoxic after 48 h exposure to human epithelial A549 lung cells. The aerosol consisted of micron-size Fe particulates and nanoparticulate aggregates consisting of W, Ni or W, Co and some Fe, characterized by SEM and TEM, and using energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectrometry by (EDS) for elemental analysis and mapping. Cytotoxic assays of micron and nano-size, manufactured metal particulates of W, Ni, Fe, and Co demonstrated that only the nanoparticulate elements demonstrated measurable cytotoxicity. Aluminum projectile (or armature) tribomaterial deposition onto copper conducting rails in an experimental solid-armature railgun system was observed, by optical, SEM and TEM. The extreme deformation at the aluminum/copper interface creates a solid-state flow regime by dynamic recrystallization which also leads to the erosion-product deposition. Melting of the low-temperature aluminum deposit also contributes to the rail damage and degradation of electromagnetic behavior. The creation of nano-grains by dynamic recrystallization allows for mixing at the aluminum/copper interface, and there is no evidence for traditional alloying.

  1. Correlated randomness and switching phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.

    2010-08-01

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines have no perfect metronome in time and no perfect spatial architecture-crystalline or otherwise. Nonetheless, as if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time and remarkably fine-tuned structures in space. Further, many of these processes and structures have the remarkable feature of “switching” from one behavior to another as if by magic. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many spatial and temporal patterns in biology, medicine, and economics and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enables a system to pass from one state to another. Inspired by principles developed by A. Nihat Berker and scores of other statistical physicists in recent years, we discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understand switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water’s anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not “outliers” (another Gladwell immortalization). Though more speculative, we support the idea of disease as arising from some kind of yet-to-be-understood complex switching phenomenon, by discussing data on selected examples, including heart disease and Alzheimer disease.

  2. Phenomena and Diosignes of Aratous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avgoloupis, S. I.

    2013-01-01

    Aratous (305-240B.C.) was a singular intellectual, writer and poet which engage himself to compose a very interesting astronomical poet, using the "Dactylous sixstage' style, the formal style of the ancient Greek Epic poetry. This astronomic poem of Aratous "Phenomena and Diosignes" became very favorite reading during the Alexandrine, the Romman and the Byzandin eras as well and had received many praises from significant poets and particularly from Hipparchous and from Theonas from Alexandria, an astronomer of 4rth century A.C.(in Greeks)

  3. Uranium Pyrophoricity Phenomena and Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    2000-04-20

    We have compiled a topical reference on the phenomena, experiences, experiments, and prediction of uranium pyrophoricity for the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) with specific applications to SNFP process and situations. The purpose of the compilation is to create a reference to integrate and preserve this knowledge. Decades ago, uranium and zirconium fires were commonplace at Atomic Energy Commission facilities, and good documentation of experiences is surprisingly sparse. Today, these phenomena are important to site remediation and analysis of packaging, transportation, and processing of unirradiated metal scrap and spent nuclear fuel. Our document, bearing the same title as this paper, will soon be available in the Hanford document system [Plys, et al., 2000]. This paper explains general content of our topical reference and provides examples useful throughout the DOE complex. Moreover, the methods described here can be applied to analysis of potentially pyrophoric plutonium, metal, or metal hydride compounds provided that kinetic data are available. A key feature of this paper is a set of straightforward equations and values that are immediately applicable to safety analysis.

  4. Nonstationary Phenomena in the Heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorelov, N. V.; Borovikov, S. N.; Ebert, R. W.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Kim, T. K.; Kryukov, I.; Richardson, J. D.; Suess, S. T.; Zank, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    As Voyagers (V1 and V2) are approaching the heliopause (HP), they keep delivering important information about the solar wind (SW) behavior which sometimes appears to be substantially different at V1 and V2 locations. We argue that the observed differences may be attributed to SW variations. In particular, negative values of the radial velocity component derived from V1 observations may be due to the presence of time-dependent magnetic barriers formed due to the slow/fast wind interactions in the vicinity of solar cycle minima. The inner heliosheath is the venue of wave interaction, MHD instabilities, and turbulence. We further investigate these phenomena in the HP vicinity using a new, based on the Ulysses observations, solar cycle model. We show that some puzzling observational data, such as the difference in the heliocentric distances at which V1 and V2 crossed the termination shock, may be attributed to time-dependent effects. We also use other time-dependent sets of observational boundary conditions, e.g., interplanetary scintillation and OMNI data. Phenomena affecting the stability and shape of the HP are also discussed in the context of our time-dependent simulations. The satisfaction of the 2-3 kHz radio emission criteria beyond the HP is analyzed. Numerical results are validated by their comparison with observational data.

  5. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Conrads, T.J.

    1998-09-29

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity.

  6. Comparison of Laboratory and Modeling Results for High Strain Rates in Support of the Source Physics Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A.; Rougier, E.; Broome, S.; Knight, E.; Pfeifle, T.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Source Physics Experiment program, conducted in Climax Stock Granite at the Nevada Test Site, will provide ground truth data to create and improve strong ground motion and seismic S-wave generation and propagation models. Modeling using advanced simulation codes will be performed both a priori and after each experiment; a key component in the predictive capability and ultimate validation of the models is the full understanding of the intervening geology between the source and instrumented bore holes including the geomechanical behavior of the site rock/structural features. Mechanical properties determined via laboratory testing of site rocks leads to the parameterization of constitutive models used in the simulations. The combined finite-discrete element method by Munjiza is an excellent tool to address a wide range of problems involving fracturing and fragmentation of solids and has been applied to many complex rock mechanics problems such as block caving, deep mining techniques, rock blasting, and seismic wave propagation. Since most of the problems involving fracture and fragmentation of solids are three dimensional, an improved 2D/3D FEM/DEM capability has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In this paper, Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar experiments, performed on the Climax Stock Granite by Sandia National Laboratories, are simulated using this improved 2D/3D FEM/DEM approach, implemented on LANL's MUNROU (Munjiza-Rougier) code and show excellent agreement.

  7. Characterization of unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced polyamide-6 thermoplastic composite under longitudinal compression loading at high strain rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploeckl, Marina; Kuhn, Peter; Koerber, Hannes

    2015-09-01

    In the presented work, an experimental investigation has been performed to characterize the strain rate dependency of unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced polyamide-6 composite for longitudinal compression loading. An end-loaded compression specimen geometry, suitable for contactless optical strain measurement via digital image correlation and dynamic loading in a split-Hopkinson pressure bar, was developed. For the dynamic experiments at a constant strain rate of 100 s-1 a modified version of the Dynamic Compression Fixture, developed by Koerber and Camanho [Koerber and Camanho, Composites Part A, 42, 462-470, 2011] was used. The results were compared with quasi-static test results at a strain rate of 3 · 10-4 s-1 using the same specimen geometry. It was found that the longitudinal compressive strength increased by 61% compared to the strength value obtained from the quasi-static tests.

  8. Energy approach to kinetics equations for dislocations and twins and its application for high strain rate collision problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, E. N.; Mayer, A. E.

    2015-11-01

    A computational plasticity model with accounting of coupled evolution of the dislocations and twins in metals under the dynamic loading is presented. The model is based on our previous results for the dislocation plasticity, but generalizes them and accounts mechanical twinning in addition. It includes equations of the mechanics of continua for elastic-plastic medium, where the plastic deformation tensor is determined through the structural defects evolution in the material. The model is self-consistent and allows determining of mechanical properties in wide range of strain rates and thermodynamic conditions as well as modification of the defect subsystems. The equations and parameters, its numerical implementation and some of obtained results are presented.

  9. Influence of high-strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior of Nl-, Fe-, and Ti- based aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, G.T. III

    1996-09-01

    The majority of the strength characterization studies on ordered intermetallics have concentrated on the assessment of strength and work-hardening at conventional strain rates. Although the influence of strain rate on the structure/property relationships of pure nickel, iron, and titanium and a variety of their alloys have been extensively studied, the effect of strain rate on the stress-strain response of Ni-, Fe-, and Ti-based aluminides remains poorly understood. Dynamic constitutive behavior is however relevant to high speed impact performance of these materials such as during foreign object damage in aerospace applications, high-rate forging, and localized deformation behavior during machining. The influence of strain rate, varied between 0.001 and 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}, and temperatures, between 77 & 800K, on the compressive mechanical behavior of Ni{sub 3}A1, NiAl, Fe{sub 3}Al, Fe-40Al-0.1B, Ti-24Al-11Nb, and Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb will be presented. In this paper the influence of strain rate on the anomalous temperature dependency of the flow stresses in these aluminides will be reviewed and compared between aluminides. The rate sensitivity and work hardening of each aluminide will be discussed as a function of strain rate and temperature and contrasted to each other and to the values typical for their respective disordered base metals. 66 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Effects of aspect ratio and specimen size on uniaxial failure stress of iron green bodies at high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroyanagi, Yuki; Nishida, Masahiro; Ogura, Takashi; Häggblad, H.-Å.; Jonsén, P.; Gustafsson, G.

    2015-09-01

    Powder metallurgy is used for the production of a number of mechanical parts and is an essential production method. These are great advantages such as product cost effectiveness and product uniqueness. In general, however parts created by powder metallurgy have low strength because of low density. In order to increase strength as well as density, new techniques such as high-velocity-compaction (HVC) was developed and further investigation has been conducted on improvement of techniques and optimum condition using computer simulation. In this study, the effects of aspect ratio and specimen size of iron green bodies on failure strength of uniaxial compression and failure behavior were examined using a split Hopkinson pressure Bar. The diameters of specimens were 12.5 mm and 25 mm the aspect ratios (thickness/diameter) were 0.8 and 1.2.