We investigated long-term effects of SCUBA diving on cognitive function using a battery of neuropsychometric tests: the Simple Reaction Time (REA), Symbol Digit Substitution (SDS), Digit Span Backwards (DSB), and Hand-Eye Coordination tests (EYE). A group (n?=?44) of experienced SCUBA divers with no history of decompression sickness was compared to non-diving control subjects (n?=?37), as well as to professional boxers (n?=?24), who are considered at higher risk of long term neurological damage. The REA was significantly shorter in SCUBA divers compared to the control subjects, and also more stable over the time course of the test. In contrast, the number of digits correctly memorized and reordered (DSB) was significantly lower for SCUBA divers compared to the control group. The results also showed that boxers performed significantly worse than the control group in three out of four tests (REA, DSB, EYE). While it may be concluded that accident-free SCUBA diving may have some long-term adverse effects on short-term memory, there is however, no evidence of general higher cognitive function deficiency. PMID:23902533
Hemelryck, W; Germonpré, P; Papadopoulou, V; Rozloznik, M; Balestra, C
The genetic variants leading to impairment of intellectual performance are highly diverse and are still poorly understood. ST3GAL3 encodes the Golgi enzyme ?-galactoside-?2,3-sialyltransferase-III that in humans predominantly forms the sialyl Lewis a epitope on proteins. ST3GAL3 resides on chromosome 1 within the MRT4 locus previously identified to associate with nonsyndromic autosomal recessive intellectual disability. We searched for the disease-causing mutations in the MRT4 family and a second independent consanguineous Iranian family by using a combination of chromosome sorting and next-generation sequencing. Two different missense changes in ST3GAL3 cosegregate with the disease but were absent in more than 1000 control chromosomes. In cellular and biochemical test systems, these mutations were shown to cause ER retention of the Golgi enzyme and drastically impair ST3Gal-III functionality. Our data provide conclusive evidence that glycotopes formed by ST3Gal-III are prerequisite for attaining and/or maintaining higher cognitive functions. PMID:21907012
Hu, Hao; Eggers, Katinka; Chen, Wei; Garshasbi, Masoud; Motazacker, M. Mahdi; Wrogemann, Klaus; Kahrizi, Kimia; Tzschach, Andreas; Hosseini, Masoumeh; Bahman, Ideh; Hucho, Tim; Muhlenhoff, Martina; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Najmabadi, Hossein; Ropers, H. Hilger; Kuss, Andreas W.
Background Intracranial arachnoid cysts have been shown to yield cognitive impairment over a range of basic mental functions, and these functions normalize after surgical cyst decompression. We wanted to investigate whether such cysts may also impair executive cognitive functions, and whether surgical cyst decompression leads to an improvement. Methods This study included 22 patients with arachnoid cysts and 13 control patients scheduled for low back surgery. All subjects were tested with Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) tests, assessing executive function 1 day before surgery and a minimum of 3 months after surgery. The data were analyzed according to scaled score computations based on raw scores provided by D-KEFS, adjusted for age, gender, and educational norms. Results Preoperatively, the patients with cysts group performed worse than the control group in verbal knowledge, mental flexibility, inhibitory capacity, problem solving, and planning skills. Postoperatively, the patients with cysts group significantly improved performance and were no longer different from the control group in the following subtests: inhibition, inhibition/switching, letter fluency, category switching, and total switching accuracy. The patients with cysts group also significantly improved performance in color naming, category fluency, and in the Tower test, but nevertheless remained impaired at follow-up compared with the control group. The control group did not show a similar improvement, except for the Tower test. Cyst size or postoperative volume reduction did not correlate with cognitive performance or postoperative improvement. Patients with left-sided temporal cysts performed poorer than patients with right-sided cysts on a complex verbal task demanding mental flexibility. Conclusions Arachnoid cysts seem to impair not only basic cognition, but also executive functions. Most of this impairment appears to be reversible after surgical cyst decompression. These results may have implications for future preoperative considerations for patients with intracranial arachnoid cysts. PMID:23985219
The study examined whether mental stimulation received in the workplace positively affects cognitive functioning and rate of cognitive change. Data taken from the VISAT (ageing, health and work) longitudinal study concerned 3237 workers who were seen three times (in 1996, 2001 and 2006) and who were aged between 32 and 62 years at baseline. Measures of cognitive stimulation both at
J. C. Marquié; L. Rico Duarte; P. Bessières; C. Dalm; C. Gentil; J. B. Ruidavets
and nonemotional versions of a facial Stroop task to investigate the effects of emotional stimuli on cognitive-word Stroop task, subjects are required to name the color in which a color word is displayed (Stroop, 1935 of conflict are high. In an event-related fMRI study of the color-word Stroop task, Kerns et al. (2004) found
This study examined cognitive function in males with type 2 diabetes who drank light to moderate levels of alcohol in comparison to abstainers. Patients who abstained from alcohol use (Abstainer; N = 99) were compared to patients who were current drinkers (Drinker; N = 20) with respect to demographic, clinical, and cognitive variables. There were no significant differences between the Drinker and Abstainer groups
Xiaoduo Fan; Amy ODonnell; Sant P. Singh; Ramona Pungan; Lawrence C. Perlmuter
Higher levels of cognitive reserve (CR) can be protective against the neuropsychological manifestation of neural injury across a variety of clinical disorders. However, the role of CR in the expression of neurocognitive deficits among persons infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is not well understood. Thirty-nine HCV-infected participants were classified as having either high (n=19) or low (n=20) CR based on educational attainment, oral word reading, and IQ scores. A sample of 40 demographically comparable healthy adults (HA) was also included. All participants completed the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB), Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), and Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Adult Version (BRIEF-A). Linear regression analyses, controlling for gender, depression and lifetime substance use disorders, found significant effects of HCV/CR group on verbal fluency, executive functions, and daily functioning T-scores, but not in learning or the BRIEF-A. Pairwise comparisons revealed that the HCV group with low CR performed significantly below the HCV high CR and HA cohorts, who did not differ from one another. Findings indicate that higher levels of CR may be a protective factor in the neurocognitive and real-world manifestation of neural injury commonly associated with HCV infection. PMID:24018902
Sakamoto, Maiko; Woods, Steven Paul; Kolessar, Michael; Kriz, Daniel; Anderson, J. Renee; Olavarria, Hannah; Sasaki, Anna W.; Chang, Michael; Flora, Kenneth D.; Loftis, Jennifer M.; Huckans, Marilyn
Accumulating evidence on the nature, function and acquisition of relational knowledge indicates a crucial role of such knowledge in higher cognitive processes. In this review, we specify the essential properties of relational knowledge, together with the role it plays in reasoning, categorisation, planning, quantification and language. Furthermore, we discuss the processes involved in its acquisition and how these processes have been implemented in contemporary neural network models. We present evidence demonstrating that relational knowledge integrates heuristic and analytic cognition, is important for symbolic processes and the creation of novelty, activates specific regions of the prefrontal cortex, and is the most recently evolved and slowest-developing cognitive process. Arguably, relational knowledge represents the core of higher cognition. PMID:20884275
Halford, Graeme S; Wilson, William H; Phillips, Steven
Chewing does not only crush food to aid swallowing and digestion; it also helps to relieve stress and regulate cognitive functions, including alertness and executive function. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving. In addition, it has been shown in the elderly that a decrease in the number of residual teeth is related to dementia onset. These findings suggest a link between chewing and maintaining memory and attention. Recently, many studies regarding the effects of chewing on memory and attention were conducted using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). When a working memory task was used, the middle frontal gyrus in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed greater activation in addition to producing higher alertness after chewing. Furthermore, using an attentional network test, reaction time shortened, and the anterior cingulate cortex and left frontal gyrus were both activated for the executive network. From these results, it is suggested that chewing elevates alertness, consequently leading to improvements in cognitive performance. In this review, we introduce findings concerning the effects of chewing on cognitive performance, and discuss the neuronal mechanisms underlying these effects. PMID:24371128
Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru
(e.g., looking at a spot of light) with a reward (e.g., a food item or fluid) or a punishment (e.g., a mild electric shock). Behaviors followed by positive reinforcements are more likely to be emitted qualify as cognition. For the purposes of this article, we can be satisfied with an intermediate position
Schall, Jeffrey D.
We predicted that students in a sociology course that included contemplative practices (i.e., mindfulness meditation) would show an increase in performance on higher level cognitive abilities (executive functions) over the semester compared to a control group of students. Change in executive functions performance was not significantly different…
Helber, Casey; Zook, Nancy A.; Immergut, Matthew
There is limited research on the association between participation in cognitively stimulating activity and cognitive function in older Hispanics. The main purpose of the present study was to explore whether frequency of cognitive activity and its association with cognitive function in Hispanics is comparable to that of non-Hispanics. In a multiethnic cohort of 1571 non-demented older adults, we assessed past and current cognitive activity, availability of cognitive resources in the home in childhood and middle age, and five domains of cognitive function. The measures of cognitive activity and cognitive resources had adequate reliability and validity in our subset of Hispanic participants (n = 81). Hispanics reported lower levels of education, lower frequency of cognitive activity and less cognitive resources than non-Hispanic White (n = 1102) and non-Hispanic Black (n = 388) participants. Despite these differences the strength of the association between cognitive activity and cognitive function was comparable across ethnic groups. Because Hispanics have lower frequency of cognitive activity, the benefit of cognitive activity to late life cognitive function may be potentially larger in this segment of the population. Thus, interventions aimed at increasing frequency of participation in cognitively stimulating activity may offer a potential target to reduce cognitive impairment in Hispanics. PMID:22676914
Marquine, Maria J.; Segawa, Eisuke; Wilson, Robert S.; Bennett, David A.; Barnes, Lisa L.
Complicated grief (CG) is increasingly recognized as a debilitating outcome of bereavement. Given the intensity of the stressor, its chronicity, and its association with depression, it is important to know the impact CG may have on cognitive functioning. This exploratory and descriptive study examined global and domain-specific cognitive functioning in a help-seeking sample of individuals with CG (n = 335) compared to a separately ascertained control sample (n = 250). Cognitive functioning was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Controlling for age, sex and education effects, CG participants had lower total MoCA, visuospatial and attention scores relative to control participants. The two groups did not differ significantly in the domains of executive function, language, memory or orientation. Age, sex, and education accounted for much of the variance in MoCA scores, while CG severity and chronicity accounted for a very small percentage of MoCA score variance. Major depression was not a significant predictor of MoCA scores. This study is consistent with previous work demonstrating lower attention and global cognitive performance in individuals with CG compared to control participants. This study newly identifies the visuospatial domain as a target for future studies investigating cognitive functioning in CG. PMID:25088285
Hall, Charles A; Reynolds, Charles F; Butters, Meryl; Zisook, Sidney; Simon, Naomi; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Lebowitz, Barry D; Begley, Amy; Mauro, Christine; Shear, M Katherine
Summary Adult cognition and age-related cognitive decline can be influenced by dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis with concomitant changes in cortisol levels. However, very little is known about the role of childhood cognition and educational attainment in this relationship. Using data from the British 1946 birth cohort, the present study investigated: (1) associations between cortisol levels and patterns and cognitive function in midlife; (2) direct and interactive effects of childhood cognition, educational attainment and cortisol on cognitive function in midlife. Verbal memory, letter search speed and reaction time were assessed at age 60–64 years. Salivary cortisol samples (wakening, 30 min after wakening and evening) were collected at the same age. Childhood cognitive ability was measured at ages 8, 11, and 15, and educational level was reported at age 26. Associations between cortisol, childhood cognition, educational attainment and cognitive function in midlife were tested using linear regression and structural equation modelling approaches. Higher evening cortisol level was associated with slower reaction time and lower verbal memory. These associations were independent of childhood cognition and education as well as a range of other potential confounders. Childhood cognition and education were not directly associated with evening cortisol. However, there was a significant interaction effect between childhood cognition and evening cortisol on reaction time (p = .002): higher evening cortisol was associated with slower reaction time only among those with low childhood cognitive ability. There was little evidence of associations between the other cortisol measures and cognitive function. PMID:25001968
Gaysina, Darya; Gardner, Michael P.; Richards, Marcus; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav
Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups.
Neuroprotective effects of phytoestrogen compounds (found in soy) have been demonstrated in animal research and cell culture studies. In particular, phytoestrogens have been shown to reduce Alzheimer's Disease (AD) related pathology, potentially alleviating risk of AD progression. In addition to their antioxidant properties, soy products also have the ability to affect cognition via interaction with estrogen receptors. However, observational studies and randomised controlled trials in humans have resulted in inconclusive findings within this domain. There are several possible reasons for these discrepant data. Studies which report no effect of phytoestrogens on cognition have mainly been carried out in European cohorts, with an average low dietary consumption. In contrast, investigation of Asian populations, with a higher general intake of tofu (a non-fermented soy product) have shown negative associations with cognitive function in those over the age of 65. Consideration of type of soy product is important, as in the latter sample, protective effects of tempe (fermented soy) were also observed. Limited data provide evidence that effects of phytoestrogens on cognition may be modified by dosage, duration of consumption and cognitive test used. Additionally, characteristics of the study population including age, gender, ethnicity and menopausal status appear to be mediating variables. Phytoestrogen treatment interventions have also shown time-limited positive effects on cognition. These findings are consistent with estrogen treatment studies, where initial positive short-term cognitive effects may occur, which reverse with long-term continuous use in elderly women. Well controlled, large scale studies are needed to assess the effects of phytoestrogens on the aging brain and provide further understanding of this association. PMID:24486046
Soni, Mira; Rahardjo, Tri Budi W; Soekardi, Rodiyah; Sulistyowati, Yenny; Lestariningsih; Yesufu-Udechuku, Amina; Irsan, Atik; Hogervorst, Eef
Objective This study was undertaken to assess the effects of atorvastatin on cognition and higher mental functions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods In this before and after comparison study with controls, group one included 55 subjects aged ?40 years requiring statins for\\u000a cardiovascular indications who were started on atorvastatin (10 mg\\/day). Group two assigned to receive placebo were men and\\u000a women chosen from the same geographical area
G. P. Parale; N. N. Baheti; P. M. Kulkarni; N. V. Panchal
Deficits in cognitive function may impact one's ability to attend to stimuli, think clearly, reason, and remember. Impaired cognitive function is a common complaint among older women presenting for treatment in both mental health and medical care settings, and differential diagnosis of type and extent of cognitive impairment is important for appropriate treatment planning and prognosis. Although overall gender differences
Peter C. Badgio; Blaise L. Worden
BACKGROUND Clinical trials yield discrepant information about the impact of hormone therapy on verbal memory and executive function. This issue is clinically relevant because declines in verbal memory are the earliest predictor of Alzheimer's disease and declines in executive function are central to some theories of normal, age-related changes in cognition. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials of hormone therapy (i.e. oral, transdermal, i.m.) and verbal memory, distinguishing studies in younger (i.e. ?65 years of age; n = 9) versus older (i.e. >65 years; n = 7) women and studies involving estrogen alone versus estrogen plus progestogen. Out of 32 placebo-controlled trials, 17 were included (13 had no verbal memory measures and 2 involved cholinergic manipulations). We also provide a narrative review of 25 studies of executive function (two trials), since there are insufficient clinical trial data for systematic review. RESULTS There is some evidence for a beneficial effect of estrogen alone on verbal memory in younger naturally post-menopausal women and more consistent evidence from small-n studies of surgically post-menopausal women. There is stronger evidence of a detrimental effect of conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate on verbal memory in younger and older post-menopausal women. Observational studies and pharmacological models of menopause provide initial evidence of improvements in executive function with hormone therapy. CONCLUSIONS Future studies should include measures of executive function and should address pressing clinical questions; including what formulation of combination hormone therapy is cognitively neutral/beneficial, yet effective in treating hot flashes in the early post-menopause. PMID:19468050
Maki, Pauline M.; Sundermann, Erin
The aim of the present paper is to summarize the research during the past decade regarding cognitive functioning in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Cognitive impairment in the acute phase of illness has been frequently reported. The findings are shown in different cognitive domains, such as executive functions, attention, memory and psychomotor speed. Fewer reports have investigated cognitive functioning in MDD in longitudinal studies. Some longitudinal reports show that the impairment observed in the acute phase of illness may be long lasting despite symptom reduction and recovery. However, findings regarding cognitive functioning in depression are divergent. Factors that might contribute to the divergent findings, such as depression subtype, severity and comorbidity are discussed. Clinical implications and focus of future research directions is highlighted.In conclusion, depression is associated with cognitive impairment in the acute phase of illness, and some reports indicate that this impairment might be long lasting despite symptom reduction and recovery. PMID:19826496
Hammar, Asa; Ardal, Guro
Objective Hypercholesterolemia is an early risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors may be involved in this disorder. Our objective was to determine the risk of mild cognitive impairment in a population of patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, a condition involving LDL receptors dysfunction and life long hypercholesterolemia. Methods Using a cohort study design, patients with (N=47) meeting inclusion criteria and comparison patients without familial hypercholesterolemia (N=70) were consecutively selected from academic specialty and primary care clinics respectively. All patients were older than 50 years. Those with disorders which could impact cognition, including history of stroke or transient ischemic attacks, were excluded from both groups. Thirteen standardized neuropsychological tests were performed in all subjects. Mutational analysis was performed in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and brain imaging was obtained in those with familial hypercholesterolemia and mild cognitive impairment. Results Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia showed a very high incidence of mild cognitive impairment compared to those without familial hypercholesterolemia (21.3% vs. 2.9%; p = 0.00). This diagnosis was unrelated to structural pathology or white matter disease. There were significant differences between the familial hypercholesterolemia and the no-familial hypercholesterolemia groups in several cognitive measures, all in the direction of worse performance for familial hypercholesterolemia patients, independent of apoE4 or apoE2 status. Conclusions Because prior studies have shown that older patients with sporadic hypercholesterolemia do not show higher incidence of mild cognitive impairment, the findings presented here suggest that early exposure to elevated cholesterol or LDL receptors dysfunction may be risk factors for mild cognitive impairment. PMID:20193836
Zambon, D.; Quintana, M.; Mata, P.; Alonso, R.; Benavent, J.; Cruz-Sanchez, F.; Gich, J.; Pocovi, M.; Civeira, F.; Capurro, S.; Bachman, D.; Sambamurti, K.; Nicholas, J.; Pappolla, M. A.
In summary, we have reviewed rCBF data in humans that suggest that mesoprefrontal dopaminergic activity is involved in human cognition. In patients with Parkinson's disease and possibly in patients with schizophrenia, prefrontal physiological activation during a cognitive task that appears to depend on prefrontal neural systems correlates positively with cognitive performance on the task and with clinical signs of dopaminergic function. It may be possible in the future to examine prefrontal dopamine metabolism directly during prefrontal cognition using positron emission tomography and tracers such as F-18 DOPA. 21 references.
Weinberger, D.R.; Berman, K.F.; Chase, T.N.
Graph-theoretical analyses of functional networks obtained with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have recently proven to be a useful approach for the study of the substrates underlying cognitive deficits in different diseases. We used this technique to investigate whether cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with changes in global and local network measures. Thirty-six healthy controls (HC) and 66 PD patients matched for age, sex, and education were classified as having mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or not based on performance in the three mainly affected cognitive domains in PD: attention/executive, visuospatial/visuoperceptual (VS/VP), and declarative memory. Resting-state fMRI and graph theory analyses were used to evaluate network measures. We have found that patients with MCI had connectivity reductions predominantly affecting long-range connections as well as increased local interconnectedness manifested as higher measures of clustering, small-worldness, and modularity. The latter measures also tended to correlate negatively with cognitive performance in VS/VP and memory functions. Hub structure was also reorganized: normal hubs displayed reduced centrality and degree in MCI PD patients. Our study indicates that the topological properties of brain networks are changed in PD patients with cognitive deficits. Our findings provide novel data regarding the functional substrate of cognitive impairment in PD, which may prove to have value as a prognostic marker. PMID:24639411
Baggio, Hugo-Cesar; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Segura, Bàrbara; Marti, Maria-José; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Compta, Yaroslau; Tolosa, Eduardo; Junqué, Carme
The goals of the present study were to assess the interrelationships among tasks from the MATRICS and CNTRACS batteries, to determine the degree to which tasks from each battery capture unique variance in cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, and to determine the ability of tasks from each battery to predict functional outcome. Subjects were 104 schizophrenia patients and 132 healthy control subjects recruited as part of the CNTRACS initiative. All subjects completed four CNTRACS tasks and two tasks from the MATRICS battery: Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia Symbol Coding and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test. Functional outcome was also assessed in the schizophrenia subjects. In both the patient and control groups, we found significant intercorrelations between all higher order cognitive tasks (episodic memory, goal maintenance, processing speed, verbal learning) but minimal relationships with the visual task. For almost all tasks, scores were significantly related to measures of functional outcome, with higher associations between CNTRACS tasks and performance-based measures of function and between one of the MATRICS tasks and self-reported functioning, relative to the other functioning measures. After regressing out variance shared by other tasks, we continued to observe group differences in performance among task residuals, particularly for measures of episodic memory from both batteries, although these residuals did not correlate as robustly with functional outcome as raw test scores. These findings suggest that there exists both shared and specific variance across cognitive tasks related to cognitive and functional impairments in schizophrenia and that measures derived from cognitive neuroscience can predict functional capacity and status in schizophrenia. PMID:24037621
Sheffield, Julia M; Gold, James M; Strauss, Milton E; Carter, Cameron S; MacDonald, Angus W; Ragland, J Daniel; Silverstein, Steven M; Barch, Deanna M
OBJECTIVES. To explore the relationship between cognitive functions, social functioning, and psychopathology in schizophrenia. METHODS. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, according to the ICD-10 criteria, were enrolled from the Department of Psychiatry of 2 postgraduate hospitals in Kolkata, India. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Research Foundation India-Social Functioning Index, and a cognitive test battery were administered. RESULTS. Regarding the 100 patients recruited into the study, 4 subtests (self-care, occupational role, social role, and family role) of the social functioning were found to be significantly correlated with cognitive functions. Cognitive function battery performance scores were more inversely correlated with negative symptoms than with positive symptoms. CONCLUSION. Positive and negative symptoms along with verbal fluency were able to predict social functioning. PMID:23807631
Santosh, S; Dutta Roy, D; Kundu, P S
The authors examined the structure and invariance of executive functions (EF) across (a) a continuum of cognitive status in 3 groups of older adults (cognitively elite [CE], cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and (b) a 3-year longitudinal interval. Using latent variable analyses (LIS-REL 8.80), the authors tested 3-factor models (“Inhibition”: Hayling [Burgess & Shallice, 1997], Stroop [Regard, 1981]; “Shifting”: Brixton [Burgess & Shallice, 1997], Color Trails [D’Elia et al., 1996]; and “Updating”: Reading and Computational Span [Salthouse & Babcock, 1991]) and 1-factor models within each group. Participants (initial N = 570; 53–90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study (Sample 3, Waves 1 and 2). Cross-sectionally, the authors observed a 3-factor EF structure especially for the CE group and 1-factor solutions for all 3 groups. Longitudinally, temporal invariance was supported for the 3-factor model (CE and CN groups) and the 1-factor model (CI and CN groups). Subgroups with higher cognitive status and greater 3-year stability performed better on EF factors than corresponding groups with lower cognitive status and less stability. Studies of EF structure, performance, dedifferentiation, and dysfunction will benefit from considering initial cognitive status and longitudinal stability. PMID:19899836
de Frias, Cindy M.; Dixon, Roger A.; Strauss, Esther
Interventions to improve the cognitive health of older adults are of critical importance. In the current study, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a pill-based nutraceutical (NT-020) that contained a proprietary formulation of blueberry, carnosine, green tea, vitamin D3, and Biovin to evaluate the impact on changes in multiple domains of cognitive functioning. One hundred and five cognitively intact adults aged 65-85 years of age (M=73.6 years) were randomized to receive NT-020 (n=52) or a placebo (n=53). Participants were tested with a battery of cognitive performance tests that were classified into six broad domains--episodic memory, processing speed, verbal ability, working memory, executive functioning, and complex speed at baseline and 2 months later. The results indicated that persons taking NT-020 improved significantly on two measures of processing speed across the 2-month test period in contrast to persons on the placebo whose performance did not change. None of the other cognitive ability measures were related to intervention group. The results also indicated that the NT-020 was well tolerated by older adults, and the presence of adverse events or symptoms did not differ between the NT-020 and placebo groups. Overall, the results of the current study were promising and suggest the potential for interventions like these to improve the cognitive health of older adults. PMID:24134194
Small, Brent J; Rawson, Kerri S; Martin, Christina; Eisel, Sarah L; Sanberg, Cyndy D; McEvoy, Cathy L; Sanberg, Paul R; Shytle, R Douglas; Tan, Jun; Bickford, Paula C
Background In dementia screening, most studies have focused on early cognitive impairment by comparing patients suffering from mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment with normal subjects. Few studies have focused on modifications over time of the cognitive function in the healthy elderly. The objective of the present study was to analyze the cognitive function changes of two different samples, born > 15 years apart. Method A first sample of 204 cognitively normal participants was recruited in the memory clinic of Broca hospital between 1991 and 1997. A second sample of 177 cognitively normal participants was recruited in 2008–2009 in the same institution. Both samples were from the same districts of Paris and were assessed with the same neuropsychological test battery. Mean cognitive test scores were compared between 1991 and 2008 samples, between < 80 years old and ? 80 years old in 1991 and 2008 samples, and finally between subjects < 80 year old of 1991 sample and subjects ? 80 years old of the 2008 sample. Means were compared with T-tests stratified on gender, age-groups and educational level. Results Cognitive scores were significantly higher in the 2008 sample. Participants < 80 years old outperformed those ? 80 in both samples. However, participants < 80 years old in 1991 sample and subjects ? 80 in the 2008 sample, born on average in 1923, performed mostly identically. Conclusion This study showed a significant increase of cognitive scores over time. Further, contemporary octogenarians in the later sample performed like septuagenarians in the former sample. These findings might be consistent with the increase in life expectancy and life span in good health. The study highlights the necessity to take into account factors which may contaminate and artificially inflate the age-related differences in favor of younger to the older adults. PMID:24244332
de Rotrou, Jocelyne; Wu, Ya-Huei; Mabire, Jean-Bernard; Moulin, Florence; de Jong, Laura W.; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Hanon, Olivier; Vidal, Jean-Sebastien
Depersonalization disorder (DPD) is a dissociative disorder characterized by a subjective sense of unreality and detachment, and has been associated with deficits in perception and short-term memory. In this study, 21 DPD and 17 healthy comparison participants free of psychiatric disorders were administered a comprehensive neuropsychologic battery. The groups did not differ in full-scale, verbal, and performance IQ (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), in working memory (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test), or in selective attention (Digit Span with Distracters). The DPD group performed significantly worse on immediate visual and verbal recall (Wechsler Memory Scale, Revised), but not on delayed recall. Dissociation severity was significantly correlated with processing slowness and distractibility. We conclude that DPD is associated with cognitive disruptions in early perceptual and attentional processes. PMID:18091191
Guralnik, Orna; Giesbrecht, Timo; Knutelska, Margaret; Sirroff, Beth; Simeon, Daphne
Arterial stiffness may be associated with cognitive function. In this study, pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured from the carotid to femoral (CF-PWV) and from the carotid to radial (CR-PWV) with the Complior SP System. Cognitive function was measured by 6 tests of executive function, psychomotor speed, memory, and language fluency. A total of 1433 participants were included (mean age 75 y, 43% men). Adjusting for age, sex, education, pulse rate, hemoglobin A1C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, cardiovascular disease history, smoking, drinking, and depression symptoms, a CF-PWV>12 m/s was associated with a lower Mini-Mental State Examination score (coefficient: -0.31, SE: 0.11, P=0.005), fewer words recalled on Auditory Verbal Learning Test (coefficient: -1.10, SE: 0.43, P=0.01), and lower score on the composite cognition score (coefficient: -0.10, SE: 0.05, P=0.04) and marginally significantly associated with longer time to complete Trail Making Test-part B (coefficient: 6.30, SE: 3.41, P=0.06), CF-PWV was not associated with Trail Making Test-part A, Digit Symbol Substation Test, or Verbal Fluency Test. No associations were found between CR-PWV and cognitive performance measures. Higher large artery stiffness was associated with worse cognitive function, and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations. PMID:23632267
Zhong, Wenjun; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Chappell, Richard J; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Acher, Charles W
Background Previous work suggested greater intellectual enrichment might moderate the negative impact of brain atrophy on cognition. This awaits confirmation in independent cohorts including investigation of the role of T2-lesion load (T2-LL), which is another important determinant of cognition in MS. We here thus aimed to test this cognitive reserve hypothesis by investigating whether educational attainment (EA) moderates the negative effects of both brain atrophy and T2-LL on cognitive function in a large sample of MS patients. Methods 137 patients participated in the study. Cognition was assessed by the “Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests.” T2-LL, normalized brain volume (global volume loss) and third ventricle width (regional volume loss) served as MRI markers. Results Both T2-LL and atrophy predicted worse cognition, with a stronger effect of T2-LL. Higher EA (as assessed by years of education) also predicted better cognition. Interactions showed that the negative effects of T2-LL and regional brain atrophy were moderated by EA. Conclusions In a cohort with different stages of MS, higher EA attenuated the negative effects of white matter lesion burden and third ventricle width (suggestive of thalamic atrophy) on cognitive performance. Actively enhancing cognitive reserve might thus be a means to reduce or prevent cognitive problems in MS in parallel to disease modifying drugs. PMID:24475309
Pinter, Daniela; Sumowski, James; DeLuca, John; Fazekas, Franz; Pichler, Alexander; Khalil, Michael; Langkammer, Christian; Fuchs, Siegrid; Enzinger, Christian
Background Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been\\u000a proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitive function through behavioral interventions\\u000a or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive\\u000a and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning
Giuseppe Pichierri; Peter Wolf; Kurt Murer; Eling D de Bruin
Past research on the role of cognitive distraction in sexual dysfunction typically has focused on males and has been conducted in the laboratory using artificial stimuli. In the current study, young adult women (N = 74) with coital experience completed questionnaires regarding cognitive distraction and their sexuality. Those women who reported greater cognitive distraction during sexual activity with a partner also reported relatively lower sexual esteem, less sexual satisfaction, less consistent orgasms, and higher incidence of pretending orgasm even after the women's general affect, sexual desire, general self-focus, general sexual attitudes, and body dissatisfaction were statistically controlled. Results are discussed with regard to directions for future research and implications for sex therapy. PMID:10693117
Dove, N L; Wiederman, M W
Military interest in the effects of nutritional factors on cognitive function has stimulated considerable research on a variety of food constituents. This paper will review the research on the amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine, caffeine and carbohydrate. It will focus on research that addresses the potential utility of these compounds in military applications, particularly the acute, as opposed to chronic,
Harris R Lieberman
The purpose of this study was to examine the beneficial effects of a new cognitive intervention program designed for the care and prevention of dementia, namely Learning Therapy. The training program used systematized basic problems in arithmetic and Japanese language as training tasks. In study 1, 16 individuals in the experimental group and 16 in the control group were recruited from a nursing home. In both groups, all individuals were clinically diagnosed with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. In study 2, we performed a single-blind, randomized controlled trial in our cognitive intervention program of 124 community-dwelling seniors. In both studies, the daily training program using reading and arithmetic tasks was carried out approximately 5 days a week, for 15 to 20 minutes a day in the intervention groups. Neuropsychological measures were determined simultaneously in the groups both prior to and after six months of the intervention. The results of our investigations indicate that our cognitive intervention using reading and arithmetic problems demonstrated a transfer effect and they provide convincing evidence that cognitive training maintains and improves the cognitive functions of dementia patients and healthy seniors. PMID:23412645
The purpose of this study was to examine the beneficial effects of a new cognitive intervention program designed for the care and prevention of dementia, namely Learning Therapy. The training program used systematized basic problems in arithmetic and Japanese language as training tasks. In study 1, 16 individuals in the experimental group and 16 in the control group were recruited from a nursing home. In both groups, all individuals were clinically diagnosed with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. In study 2, we performed a single-blind, randomized controlled trial in our cognitive intervention program of 124 community-dwelling seniors. In both studies, the daily training program using reading and arithmetic tasks was carried out approximately 5 days a week, for 15 to 20 minutes a day in the intervention groups. Neuropsychological measures were determined simultaneously in the groups both prior to and after six months of the intervention. The results of our investigations indicate that our cognitive intervention using reading and arithmetic problems demonstrated a transfer effect and they provide convincing evidence that cognitive training maintains and improves the cognitive functions of dementia patients and healthy seniors. PMID:23412645
Background More than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in 2010 in Ontario at a cost of $40 million. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with a few neurocognitive disorders. Objective To determine the clinical utility of B12 testing in patients with suspected dementia or cognitive decline. Methods Three questions were addressed: Is there an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and the onset of dementia or cognitive decline? Does treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation improve cognitive function in patients with dementia or cognitive decline and vitamin B12 deficiency? What is the effectiveness of oral versus parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation in those with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency? A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, from January 2002 until August 2012. Results Eighteen studies (7 systematic reviews and 11 observational studies) were identified to address the question of the association between B12 and the onset of dementia. Four systematic reviews were identified to address the question of the treatment of B12 on cognitive function. Finally, 3 randomized controlled trials were identified that compared oral B12 to intramuscular B12. Conclusions Based on very low quality evidence, there does appear to be an association between elevated plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamins) and the onset of dementia. Based on moderate quality evidence, but with less than optimal duration of follow-up, treatment with B12 supplementation does not appreciably change cognitive function. Based on low to moderate quality of evidence, treatment with vitamin B12 and folate in patients with mild cognitive impairment seems to slow the rate of brain atrophy. Based on moderate quality evidence, oral vitamin B12 is as effective as parenteral vitamin B12 in patients with confirmed B12 deficiency. Plain Language Summary Low levels of vitamin B12 have been associated with neurocognitive disorders. This evidence-based analysis assessed the usefulness of serum vitamin B12 testing as it relates to brain function. This review found very low quality evidence that suggests a connection between high plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamin metabolism in the body) and the onset of dementia. Moderate quality of evidence indicates treatment with vitamin B12 does not improve brain function. Moderate quality of evidence also indicates treatment using oral vitamin B12 supplements is as effective as injections of vitamin B12. PMID:24379897
Background: Age-related sensory and cognitive impairments have been related to functional performance in older adults. With regard to cognitive abilities, processing speed in particular may be strongly related to older adults’ abilities to perform everyday tasks. Identifying and comparing cognitive correlates of functional performance is particularly important in order to design interventions to promote independence and prevent functional disability. Objective:
Kimberly M. Wood; Jerri D. Edwards; Olivio J. Clay; Virginia G. Wadley; Daniel L. Roenker; Karlene K. Ball
Conscious mental states are states we are in some way aware of. I compare higher-order theories of consciousness, which explain consciousness by appeal to such higher-order awareness (HOA), and first-order theories, which do not, and I argue that higher-order theories have substantial explanatory advantages. The higher-order nature of our awareness of our conscious states suggests an analogy with the metacognition that figures in the regulation of psychological processes and behaviour. I argue that, although both consciousness and metacognition involve higher-order psychological states, they have little more in common. One thing they do share is the possibility of misrepresentation; just as metacognitive processing can misrepresent one's cognitive states and abilities, so the HOA in virtue of which one's mental states are conscious can, and sometimes does, misdescribe those states. A striking difference between the two, however, has to do with utility for psychological processing. Metacognition has considerable benefit for psychological processing; in contrast, it is unlikely that there is much, if any, utility to mental states' being conscious over and above the utility those states have when they are not conscious. PMID:22492758
A growing interest in cerebellar function and its involvement in higher cognition have prompted much research in recent years. Cerebellar presence in a wide range of cognitive functions examined within an increasing body of neuroimaging literature has been observed. We applied a meta-analytic approach, which employed the activation likelihood estimate method, to consolidate results of cerebellar involvement accumulated in different cognitive tasks of interest and systematically identified similarities among the studies. The current analysis included 88 neuroimaging studies demonstrating cerebellar activations in higher cognitive domains involving emotion, executive function, language, music, timing and working memory. While largely consistent with a prior meta-analysis by Stoodley and Schmahmann (: Neuroimage 44:489-501), our results extended their findings to include music and timing domains to provide further insights into cerebellar involvement and elucidate its role in higher cognition. In addition, we conducted inter- and intradomain comparisons for the cognitive domains of emotion, language, and working memory. We also considered task differences within the domain of verbal working memory by conducting a comparison of the Sternberg with the n-back task, as well as an analysis of the differential components within the Sternberg task. Results showed a consistent cerebellar presence in the timing domain, providing evidence for a role in time keeping. Unique clusters identified within the domain further refine the topographic organization of the cerebellum. PMID:23125108
E, Keren-Happuch; Chen, Shen-Hsing Annabel; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Desmond, John E
Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder which can result in renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular disease. Patients are at increased risk of stroke and neuroimaging studies note cerebrovascular pathology. This study provides a cognitive profile of a cohort of individuals with Fabry disease and investigates the impact of pain, age, renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular functioning on cognition and psychological functioning. Seventeen Fabry patients (12 males) with ages ranging 25 to 60 years (M = 46.6+11.8), and 15 age-matched healthy controls (M = 46.2+12.7) were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Fabry males demonstrated slower speed of information processing, reduced performance on measures of executive functions (verbal generation, reasoning, problem solving, perseveration), were more likely to show clinically significant reductions, and were more likely to report symptoms of anxiety and depression. Conversely, Fabry females performed at a similar level to controls. Correlational analyses indicated a link between cognitive and clinical measures of disease severity. PMID:25319043
Sigmundsdottir, Linda; Tchan, Michel C; Knopman, Alex A; Menzies, Graham C; Batchelor, Jennifer; Sillence, David O
Several approaches to the treatment of cognitive impairments and their functional consequences for persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder have been developed in recent years. This article focuses on the use of Cognitive adaptation training (CAT), a psychosocial intervention that seeks to bypass cognitive impairments in schizophrenia in an effort to improve functional outcomes. CAT relies on the use
NATALIE J. MAPLES; DAWN I. VELLIGAN
Purpose: To analyze the effects of cognition on function and to explore the potential of aerobic exercise for promoting cognitive and functional capacities. Design: Integrative review of literature. Methods: Studies were selected based on an extensive search of electronic databases and man- ual cross-referencing for 1980 to 2006, using the combination of key words: Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia, or cognitive
Fang Yu; Ann M. Kolanowski; Neville E. Strumpf; Paul J. Eslinger
Background. While many studies have investigated cognitive impairments in patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery, very few have closely evaluated presurgical cognitive functioning of bypass candidates. Methods. A battery of neuropsychologic tests was ad- ministered to a consecutive series of patients listed for bypass surgery (n 109). Cognitive function of bypass candidates was compared with that of a healthy
Christine S. Ernest; Barbara M. Murphy; Marian U. C. Worcester; Rosemary O. Higgins; Peter C. Elliott; Alan J. Goble; Michael R. Le Grande; James Tatoulis
Background/Aims Neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) can affect cognitive function. We assessed cognitive function and cognitive impairment among community-dwelling elderly in a multi-ethnic urban low-SES Asian neighborhood and compared them with a higher-SES neighborhood. Methods The study population involved all residents aged ?60 years in two housing estates comprising owner-occupied housing (higher SES) and rental flats (low SES) in Singapore in 2012. Cognitive impairment was defined as <24 on the Mini Mental State Examination. Demographic/clinical details were collected via questionnaire. Multilevel linear regression was used to evaluate factors associated with cognitive function, while multilevel logistic regression determined predictors of cognitive impairment. Results Participation was 61.4% (558/909). Cognitive impairment was found in 26.2% (104/397) of residents in the low-SES community and in 16.1% (26/161) of residents in the higher-SES community. After adjusting for other sociodemographic variables, living in a low-SES community was independently associated with poorer cognitive function (? = ?1.41, SD = 0.58, p < 0.01) and cognitive impairment (adjusted odds ratio 5.13, 95% CI 1.98–13.34). Among cognitively impaired elderly in the low-SES community, 96.2% (100/104) were newly detected. Conclusion Living in a low-SES community is independently associated with cognitive impairment in an urban Asian society. PMID:23277785
Wee, Liang En; Yeo, Wei Xin; Yang, Gui Rong; Hannan, Nazirul; Lim, Kenny; Chua, Christopher; Tan, Mae Yue; Fong, Nikki; Yeap, Amelia; Chen, Lionel; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat; Shen, Han Ming
Background\\/Aim: The current knowledge of how self-appraised memory and cognitive function relates to informant reports and neuropsychological performances in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is limited. Methods: Sixty-nine older community-dwelling subjects with MCI and 86 adults with normal cognition (NC) were evaluated on self-appraised (Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire) and objective performance of memory and cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination, Fuld Object Memory
Jenny C. C. Chung; David W. K. Man
Overall cognitive status can vary across an individual's life span in response to factors that promote either positive or negative neuroplasticity. Positive neuroplasticity refers to he physiological ability of the brain to form and strengthen dendritic connections, produce beneficial morphological changes, and increase cognitive reserve. Negative neuroplasticity refers to the same physiological ability of t he brain to atrophy and weaken dendritic connections, produce detrimental morphological changes, and decrease cognitive reserve. Factors that promote positive neuroplasticity include physical activity, education, social interaction, intellectual pursuits, and cognitive remediation. Factors that promote negative neuroplasticity include poor health, poor sleep hygiene, poor nutrition, substance abuse, and depression and anxiety. Implications for promoting positive neuroplasticity and avoiding negative neuroplasticity across the life span are emphasized to facilitate optimal cognitive health and ensure successful cognitive aging. PMID:20349891
Vance, David E; Roberson, Anthony J; McGuinness, Teena M; Fazeli, Pariya L
Background Reliable and valid written tests of higher cognitive function are difficult to produce, particularly for the assessment of clinical problem solving. Modified Essay Questions (MEQs) are often used to assess these higher order abilities in preference to other forms of assessment, including multiple-choice questions (MCQs). MEQs often form a vital component of end-of-course assessments in higher education. It is not clear how effectively these questions assess higher order cognitive skills. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of the MEQ to measure higher-order cognitive skills in an undergraduate institution. Methods An analysis of multiple-choice questions and modified essay questions (MEQs) used for summative assessment in a clinical undergraduate curriculum was undertaken. A total of 50 MCQs and 139 stages of MEQs were examined, which came from three exams run over two years. The effectiveness of the questions was determined by two assessors and was defined by the questions ability to measure higher cognitive skills, as determined by a modification of Bloom's taxonomy, and its quality as determined by the presence of item writing flaws. Results Over 50% of all of the MEQs tested factual recall. This was similar to the percentage of MCQs testing factual recall. The modified essay question failed in its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the MCQ frequently tested more than mere recall of knowledge. Conclusion Construction of MEQs, which will assess higher order cognitive skills cannot be assumed to be a simple task. Well-constructed MCQs should be considered a satisfactory replacement for MEQs if the MEQs cannot be designed to adequately test higher order skills. Such MCQs are capable of withstanding the intellectual and statistical scrutiny imposed by a high stakes exit examination. PMID:18045500
Palmer, Edward J; Devitt, Peter G
Seite 1/3 Press Release Fingerprints of higher brain functions Neuroscientists uncover novel during information processing, may be `fingerprints' of these basic calculations. Such basic calculations of brainwaves, also known as oscillations, are `spec- tral fingerprints' of canonical neuronal computations
Executive cognitive functions (ECFs) seem important for motivating change and self-regulation of problem drinking. Evidence for executive cognitive deficits have been found among heavy-drinking college students. Although college students who abuse alcohol often experience a variety of negative consequences related to their drinking behavior, executive cognitive dysfunction may interfere with recognizing consequences and responding skillfully to avoid future harm. Fifty
Arthur W. Blume; G. Alan Marlatt; Karen B. Schmaling
The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60–87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of “adequate” to “high” system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187
Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecka, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bures, Vladimir
Implicit or automatic detection of social signals, which discriminate animate, intentional objects in the environment, is essential for higher social cognition and its development. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we identified the neural substrate of detecting simple visual social signals and examined its functional link with the mechanism of inferring another's mental state. Healthy participants were presented with the eye-gaze shift (EG) and self-propelling motion (SP) under both implicit and explicit task conditions. They also performed a social role-playing game in which mental inference (MI) was implicitly prompted during the presentation of faces (implicit MI). Implicit detection of EG and SP activated the posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) bilaterally, whereas the right posterior superior temporal sulcus was activated during the explicit conditions. We revealed that the individual variation in neural response in the right pMTG during implicit eye-gaze detection explains the individual tendency to recruit the regions implicated in mental-state inference (medial prefrontal cortex, temporal pole and striatum) during the implicit MI task. Our results suggest that the implicit detection of visual social signals involves the pMTG and underlies the development of higher social cognition. PMID:23887806
Sugiura, Motoaki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Mano, Yoko; Sassa, Yuko; Kambara, Toshimune; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kawashima, Ryuta
Background Adherence to a Mediterranean diet may help prevent cognitive decline in older age, but studies are limited. We examined the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with cognitive function and decline. Methods We included 6,174 participants, aged 65+ years, from the cognitive sub-study of the Women’s Health Study. Women provided dietary information in 1998 and completed a cognitive battery 5 years later, followed by two assessments at 2-year intervals. The primary outcomes were composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. The alternate Mediterranean diet adherence 9-point-score was constructed based on intakes of: vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts, fish, red and processed meats, moderate alcohol, and the ratio of monounsaturated-to-saturated fats. Results After multivariable adjustment, the alternate Mediterranean diet score was not associated with trajectories of repeated cognitive scores (P-trend across quintiles=0.26 and 0.40 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively), nor with overall global cognition and verbal memory at older ages, assessed by averaging the three cognitive measures (P-trend=0.63 and 0.44, respectively). Among alternate Mediterranean diet components, higher monounsaturated-to-saturated fats ratio was associated with more favorable cognitive trajectories (P-trend=0.03 and 0.05 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively). Greater whole grain intake was not associated with cognitive trajectories, but was related to better average global cognition (P-trend=0.02). Conclusions In this large study of older women, we observed no association of the Mediterranean diet with cognitive decline. Relations between individual Mediterranean diet components, particularly whole grains, and cognitive function merit further study. PMID:23676264
Samieri, Cecilia; Grodstein, Francine; Rosner, Bernard A.; Kang, Jae H.; Cook, Nancy R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Willett, Walter C.; Okereke, Olivia I.
We study twist expansions for parton fragmentation functions based on the definition of the twist as an invariant matrix element of a light-cone, bilocal operator. The results are then applied to a method which might be used to extract higher twist effects in the fragmentation sector using both $e^+ e^-$, and $e^- p$ collisions. We discuss how to apply the later measurements to experiments at the Jefferson National Acceleration Facility.
Guanghua Xu; Ed V. Hungerford; Larry Pinsky
Background Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitive function through behavioral interventions or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments that are similar to cognitive impairments seen in aging. The aim was to identify potentially promising methods that might be used in future intervention type studies for older adults. Methods A systematic search was conducted for the Medline/Premedline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. The search was focused on older adults over the age of 65. To increase the number of articles for review, we also included those discussing adult patients with neurological impairments due to trauma, as these cognitive impairments are similar to those seen in the aging population. The search was restricted to English, German and French language literature without any limitation of publication date or restriction by study design. Cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions were defined as dual-tasking, virtual reality exercise, cognitive exercise, or a combination of these. Results 28 articles met our inclusion criteria. Three articles used an isolated cognitive rehabilitation intervention, seven articles used a dual-task intervention and 19 applied a computerized intervention. There is evidence to suggest that cognitive or motor-cognitive methods positively affects physical functioning, such as postural control, walking abilities and general functions of the upper and lower extremities, respectively. The majority of the included studies resulted in improvements of the assessed functional outcome measures. Conclusions The current evidence on the effectiveness of cognitive or motor-cognitive interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments is limited. The heterogeneity of the studies published so far does not allow defining the training methodology with the greatest effectiveness. This review nevertheless provides important foundational information in order to encourage further development of novel cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions, preferably with a randomized control design. Future research that aims to examine the relation between improvements in cognitive skills and the translation to better performance on selected physical tasks should explicitly take the relation between the cognitive and physical skills into account. PMID:21651800
There is overwhelming evidence for the existence of substantial genetic influences on individ- ual differences in general and specific cognitive abilities, especially in adults. The actual local- ization and identification of genes underlying variation in cognitive abilities and intelligence has only just started, however. Successes are currently limited to neurological mutations with rather severe cognitive effects. The current approaches to
Geus de E. J. C; Margaret J. Wright; Nicholas G. Martin; Dorret I. Boomsma
The creative reuse of existing neural components may have played a significant role in the evolutionary development of cognition. There are obvious evolutionary advantages to such redeployment, and the data presented here confirm three important empirical predictions of this account of the development of cognition: 1) A typical brain area will be used by many cognitive functions in diverse task categories, (2) evolutionarily older brain areas will be deployed in more cognitive functions, and (3) more recent cognitive functions will use more, and more widely scattered, brain areas. These findings have implications not just for our understanding of the evolutionary origins of cognitive function but also for the practice of both clinical and experimental neuroscience. PMID:17229971
Anderson, Michael L
The authors first examined the concurrent moderating role of lifestyle engagement on the relation between cognitive status (cognitively elite, cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and executive functioning (EF) in older adults. Second, the authors examined whether baseline participation in lifestyle activities predicted differential 4.5-year stabilities and transitions in cognitive status. Participants (initial N = 501; 53-90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. EF was represented by a 1-factor structure. Lifestyle activities were measured in multiple domains of engagement (e.g., cognitive, physical, and social). Two-wave status stability groups included sustained normal aging, transitional early impairment, and chronic impairment. Hierarchical regressions showed that baseline participation in social activities moderated cognitive status differences in EF. CI adults with high (but not low) social engagement performed equivalently to CN adults on EF. Longitudinally, logistic regressions showed that engagement in physical activities was a significant predictor of stability of cognitive status. CI adults who were more engaged in physical activities were more likely to improve in their cognitive status over time than their more sedentary peers. Participation in cognitive activities was a significant predictor of maintenance in a higher cognitive status group. Given that lifestyle engagement plays a detectable role in healthy, normal, and impaired neuropsychological aging, further research in activity-related associations and interventions is recommended. PMID:24323561
de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A
Computational Modeling of High-Level Cognition and Brain Function Marcel Adam Just,* Patricia A. Carpenter, and Sashank Varma Center for Cognitive Brain Imaging, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh key properties of cortical function into the design of the modeling system. Hum. Brain Mapping 8
Numerous factors related to health and diseases have been studied in relation to cognitive function. It has been shown that across the life span, systemic medical diseases can negatively impact cognitive function. Factors that influence the development of medical diseases, such as poor health habits, biological risk factors, hormones, genetic factors, exposure to environmental toxins, and certain treatments for disease,
Shari R. Waldstein; Merrill F. Elias
Although previous studies have documented neuropsychological deficits in children with end-stage renal disease, few have evaluated and compared the cognitive functioning and the school performance of children with renal failure. The current study evaluated the influence of chronic renal failure on cognitive functioning and school performance in children and adolescents with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis and after renal transplantation.
Kathleen W. Lawryl; Ben H. Brouhardl; Robert J. Cunningham
This article investigates whether computer use for leisure could mediate or moderate the relations between age and cognitive functioning. Findings supported smaller age differences in measures of cognitive functioning for people who reported spending more hours using a computer. Because of the cross-sectional design of the study, two alternative…
Drugs developed to treat cognitive impairments are proving popular with healthy college students seeking to boost their focus and productivity. Concerned observers have called these practices a form of cheating akin to athletes' use of steroids, with some proposing testing students' urine to deter "academic doping." The ease with which critics analogize the academic enterprise to competitive sport, and the impulse to crack down on students using study drugs, reflect the same social influences and trends that spur demand for these interventions-our hyper-competitive culture, the commodification of education, and our attraction to technological quick-fixes. Rather than focusing on the technologies that are being put to troubling uses, we would be better served reforming the culture that makes these practices attractive. PMID:23007891
Background: Cognitive impairment is increasingly recognized as a common adverse consequence of heart failure. Both Heart failure and cognitive impairment are associated with frequent hospitalization and increased mortality, particularly when they occur simultaneously. Objectives: To determine cognitive function and related factors in patients with heart failure. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we assessed 239 patients with heart failure. Data were collected by Mini Mental status Examination, Charlson comorbidity index and NYHA classification system. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, chi-square test, t-test and logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean score of cognitive function was 21.68 ± 4.51. In total, 155 patients (64.9%) had cognitive impairment. Significant associations were found between the status of cognitive impairment and gender (P < 0.002), education level (P < 0.000), living location (P < 0.000), marital status (P < 0.03), living arrangement (P < 0.001 ), employment status (P < 0.000), income (P < 0.02), being the head of family (P < 0.03), the family size (P < 0.02), having a supplemental insurance (P < 0.003) and the patient’s comorbidities (P < 0.02). However, in logistic regression analysis, only education and supplementary insurance could predict cognitive status which indicates that patients with supplementary insurance and higher education levels were more likely to maintain optimal cognitive function. Conclusions: More than a half of the subjects had cognitive impairment. As the level of patients cognitive functioning affects their behaviors and daily living activities, it is recommended that patients with heart failure should be assessed for their cognitive functioning.
Ghanbari, Atefeh; Moaddab, Fatemeh; Salari, Arsalan; Kazemnezhad Leyli, Ehsan; Sedghi Sabet, Mitra; Paryad, Ezzat
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show for the first time that levels of musical expertise stepwise modulate higher order brain functioning. This suggests that degree of training intensity drives such cerebral plasticity. Participants (non-musicians, amateurs, and expert musicians) listened to a comprehensive set of specifically composed string quartets with hierarchically manipulated endings. In particular, we implemented 2 irregularities at musical closure that differed in salience but were both within the tonality of the piece (in-key). Behavioral sensitivity scores (d') of both transgressions perfectly separated participants according to their level of musical expertise. By contrasting brain responses to harmonic transgressions against regular endings, functional brain imaging data showed compelling evidence for stepwise modulation of brain responses by both violation strength and expertise level in a fronto-temporal network hosting universal functions of working memory and attention. Additional independent testing evidenced an advantage in visual working memory for the professionals, which could be predicted by musical training intensity. The here introduced findings of brain plasticity demonstrate the progressive impact of musical training on cognitive brain functions that may manifest well beyond the field of music processing. PMID:22832388
Oechslin, Mathias S; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Lazeyras, François; Hauert, Claude-Alain; James, Clara E
This article describes a computational modeling architecture, 4CAPS, which is consistent with key properties of cortical function and makes good contact with functional neuroimaging results. Like earlier cognitive models such as SOAR, ACT-R, 3CAPS, and EPIC, the proposed cognitive model is implemented in a computer simulation that predicts observable variables such as human response times and error patterns. In addition, the proposed 4CAPS model accounts for the functional decomposition of the cognitive system and predicts fMRI activation levels and their localization within specific cortical regions, by incorporating key properties of cortical function into the design of the modeling system. PMID:10524604
Just, M A; Carpenter, P A; Varma, S
Background/ Objectives The relationship between late-life blood pressure (BP) and cognitive function in the elderly is poorly understood. Inconsistent results have been reported from existing studies. We report the results from a prospective cohort study on the association between BP and cognitive function in elderly African Americans. Design Prospective cohort study conducted from 1997 to 2009. Setting Community-based study in Indianapolis. Participants 3145 African Americans aged 65 years or older. Measurements At each assessment, participants’ cognitive function was measured by the Community Screening Interview for Dementia score. Other measurements included BP, height, weight, education level, antihypertensive medication use, alcohol use, smoking and histories of chronic medical conditions. Results 5995 longitudinal assessments contributed by 2721 participants with complete independent variables were analyzed using a semiparametric mixed effects model. Systolic BP around 135 mmHg and diastolic BP around 80 mmHg were associated with optimal cognitive function after adjusting for other variables (P = 0.019). Weight loss with body mass index less than 30 kg/m2 was significantly related to poorer cognitive performance (P < 0.001). Older age at first assessment, lower education level, smoking, histories of depression, stroke and diabetes mellitus were related to worse cognitive function, while taking antihypertensive medication and drinking alcohol were associated with higher cognitive scores. Conclusion Both high and low BP levels were associated with poorer cognitive performance. A joint optimal region of systolic and diastolic BP for cognitive function has been identified, which may provide useful clinical information on optimal BP control in cognitive health and lead to improved quality of life for the elderly. PMID:23647314
Liu, Hai; Gao, Sujuan; Hall, Kathleen S.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Lane, Kathleen A.; Callahan, Christopher M.; Hendrie, Hugh C.
and reward. We found that hyperdopaminergic DAT knockdown mutant mice have higher food and water intake; reward learning; hedonics; affect; pleasure; food intake; ingestive behavior; motivation; addiction hypothesis posits that dopamine mediates the sensory pleasure of food, drugs, and other rewards and suggests
Persons with heart failure (HF) are typically older and are at a much higher risk for developing cognitive impairment (CI) than persons without HF. Increasingly, CI is recognized as a significant, independent predictor of worse clinical outcomes, more frequent hospital readmissions, and higher mortality rates in persons with HF. CI can have devastating effects on ability to carry out HF effective self-care behaviors. If CI occurs, however, there are currently no evidence based guidelines on how to manage or improve cognitive function in this population. Improvement in cognition has been reported following some therapies in HF and is thought to be the consequence of enhanced cerebral perfusion and oxygenation, suggesting that CI may be amenable to intervention. Because there is substantial neuronal loss with dementia and no effective restorative therapies, interventions that slow, reverse, or prevent cognitive decline are essential. Aerobic exercise is documented to increase cerebral perfusion and oxygenation by promoting neuroplasticity and neurogenesis and, in turn, cognitive functioning. Few studies have examined exercise as a potential adjunct therapy for attenuating or alleviating cognitive decline in HF. In this review, the potential benefit of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in HF is presented along with future research directions. PMID:25105053
Gary, Rebecca A.; Brunn, Kathryn
Persons with heart failure (HF) are typically older and are at a much higher risk for developing cognitive impairment (CI) than persons without HF. Increasingly, CI is recognized as a significant, independent predictor of worse clinical outcomes, more frequent hospital readmissions, and higher mortality rates in persons with HF. CI can have devastating effects on ability to carry out HF effective self-care behaviors. If CI occurs, however, there are currently no evidence based guidelines on how to manage or improve cognitive function in this population. Improvement in cognition has been reported following some therapies in HF and is thought to be the consequence of enhanced cerebral perfusion and oxygenation, suggesting that CI may be amenable to intervention. Because there is substantial neuronal loss with dementia and no effective restorative therapies, interventions that slow, reverse, or prevent cognitive decline are essential. Aerobic exercise is documented to increase cerebral perfusion and oxygenation by promoting neuroplasticity and neurogenesis and, in turn, cognitive functioning. Few studies have examined exercise as a potential adjunct therapy for attenuating or alleviating cognitive decline in HF. In this review, the potential benefit of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in HF is presented along with future research directions. PMID:25105053
Gary, Rebecca A; Brunn, Kathryn
Purpose To examine how different activities performed during employment gaps are associated with later cognitive function and change. Method Five cognitive measures were used to indicate cognitive impairment of 18,259 respondents to the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (age 50-73) in 2004/5 or 2006/7. Using complete employment histories, employment gaps of six months or more between ages 25 and 65 were identified. Results Controlling for early-life socioeconomic status, school performance, and education, higher risk of cognitive impairment was associated with employment gaps described as unemployment (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.18, 95 % Confidence Interval [CI] 1.04, 1.35) and sickness (OR = 1.78, 95 % CI 1.52, 2.09). In contrast, lower risk of cognitive impairment was associated with employment gaps described as training (OR = 0.73, 95 % CI 0.52, 1.01) or maternity (OR = 0.65, 95 % CI 0.57, 0.79). In longitudinal mixed effects models, training and maternity spells were associated with lower two-year aging-related cognitive decline. Discussion Periods away from work described as unemployment or sickness are associated with lower cognitive function, whereas maternity and training spells are associated with better late-life cognitive function. Both causation and selection mechanisms may explain these findings. PMID:23889855
Leist, Anja K.; Glymour, M Maria; Mackenbach, Johan P; van Lenthe, Frank J; Avendano, Mauricio
Summary Cognitive impairment – one of the core symptoms of schizophrenia – has become a focus of research about schizophrenia in China and elsewhere. The main reason for the interest in cognitive functioning is that the degree of cognitive impairment is associated both with the current severity of the illness and with the prognosis of the illness due to its effect on individuals' ability to live independently and on their occupational and social functioning. The first study on cognitive function in schizophrenia in China was conducted in the late 1970s; more recently there has been a resurgence of interest in the area because of new information that has emerged as neuroimaging technologies have improved. The current review summarizes studies on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia conducted in China and proposes directions for future research in this area. PMID:24991166
LIU, Dengtang; WANG, Yingchan; XU, Yifeng; JIANG, Kaida
Donepezil, an acetycholinesterase inhibitor, or a placebo were given to 29 subjects with Down syndrome and no dementia. Measures of cognitive functioning and caregiver ratings indicated no improvement in any cognitive subtests (with the exception of language), behavioral scores, or caregiver ratings. Results suggest donepezil may improve language…
Johnson, N.; Fahey, C.; Chicoine, B.; Chong, G.; Gitelman, D.
The Effect of Cognitive Functioning, Age, and Molecular Variables on Brain Structure Among Carriers. Neurocognitive phenotype in fragile X premutation carriers (fXPCs) 2. Deformation based morphometry analysis 3 and female fXPCs Results might provide a bases for the aforementioned cognitive impairments and
Purpose: This cross-sectional study takes a unique look at the association between patterns of walking and cognitive functioning by examining whether older adults with mild cognitive impairment differ in terms of the community settings where they walk and the frequency, intensity, or duration of walking. Design and Methods: The sample was based on…
Prohaska, Thomas R.; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Satariano, William A.; Hunter, Rebecca; Bayles, Constance M.; Kurtovich, Elaine; Kealey, Melissa; Ivey, Susan L.
Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…
Resnick, Susan M.; And Others
Introduction The brain mechanisms of cognitive impairment in prodromal Huntington disease (prHD) are not well understood. Although striatal atrophy correlates with some cognitive abilities, few studies of prHD have investigated whether cortical gray matter morphometry correlates in a regionally specific manner with functioning in different cognitive domains. This knowledge would inform the selection of cognitive measures for clinical trials that would be most sensitive to the target of a treatment intervention. Method In this study, random forest analysis was used to identify neuroanatomical correlates of functioning in five cognitive domains including attention and information processing speed, working memory, verbal learning and memory, negative emotion recognition, and temporal processing. Participants included 325 prHD individuals with varying levels of disease progression and 119 gene-negative controls with a family history of HD. In intermediate analyses, we identified brain regions that showed significant differences between the prHD and the control groups in cortical thickness and striatal volume. Brain morphometry in these regions was then correlated with cognitive functioning in each of the domains in the prHD group using random forest methods. We hypothesized that different regional patterns of brain morphometry would be associated with performances in distinct cognitive domains. Results The results showed that performances in different cognitive domains that are vulnerable to decline in prHD were correlated with regionally specific patterns of cortical and striatal morphometry. Putamen and/or caudate volumes were top-ranked correlates of performance across all cognitive domains, as was cortical thickness in regions related to the processing demands of each domain. Conclusions The results underscore the importance of identifying structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) markers of functioning in different cognitive domains, as their relative sensitivity depends on the extent to which processing is called upon by different brain networks. The findings have implications for identifying neuroimaging and cognitive outcome measures for use in clinical trials. PMID:24653952
Harrington, Deborah L; Liu, Dawei; Smith, Megan M; Mills, James A; Long, Jeffrey D; Aylward, Elizabeth H; Paulsen, Jane S
Impaired cognitive function, along with positive and negative symptoms, is a core clinical feature of schizophrenia. Earlier studies suggest that impaired cognitive functioning should be assessed from the perspective of brain networks. The recently developed brainnetome approach to evaluating brain networks—an approach that was initially developed by Chinese scientists—provides a new methodology for studying this issue. In this paper we first introduce the concept of brainnetome. We then review recent progress in developing a brainnetome of impaired cognitive function in people with schizophrenia. The models of the relevant brain networks considered were created using data obtained from functional and anatomical brain imaging technologies at different levels of analysis: networks centered on regions of interest, networks related to specific cognitive functions, whole brain networks, and the attributes of brain networks. Finally, we discuss the current challenges and potential new directions for research about brainnetome.
Jiang, Tianzi; Zhou, Yuan
Public awareness of cognitive health is fairly recent compared to physical health. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training offers promise in augmenting cognitive brain performance in normal and clinical populations. Targeting higher-order cognitive functions, such as reasoning in particular, may promote generalized cognitive changes necessary for supporting the complexities of daily life. This data-driven perspective highlights cognitive and brain changes measured in randomized clinical trials that trained gist reasoning strategies in populations ranging from teenagers to healthy older adults, individuals with brain injury to those at-risk for Alzheimer's disease. The evidence presented across studies support the potential for Gist reasoning training to strengthen cognitive performance in trained and untrained domains and to engage more efficient communication across widespread neural networks that support higher-order cognition. The meaningful benefits of Gist training provide compelling motivation to examine optimal dose for sustained benefits as well as to explore additive benefits of meditation, physical exercise, and/or improved sleep in future studies. PMID:24808834
Chapman, Sandra B.; Mudar, Raksha A.
Antioxidant compounds, contained in fruit, vegetables and tea, have been postulated to have a protective effect against age-related cognitive decline by combating oxidative stress. However, recent research on this subject has been conflicting. The aim of this systematic review was to consider current epidemiological and longitudinal evidence for an association between habitual dietary intake of antioxidants and cognition, with consideration given to both cognitive functioning and risk for dementia and its subtypes, including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Searches of electronic databases were undertaken to identify peer-reviewed journal articles that reported on associations between antioxidant intakes (vitamins C, E, flavonoids, carotenoids) and cognitive function or risk for dementia. Eight cross-sectional and 13 longitudinal studies were identified and included in the review. There were mixed findings for the association between antioxidant intake, cognition and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Large heterogeneity in study design, differential control of confounders, insufficient measures of cognitive performance, and difficulties associated with dietary assessment may contribute to the inconsistent findings. Overall, findings do not consistently show habitual intakes of dietary antioxidants are associated with better cognitive performance or a reduced risk for dementia. Future intervention trials are warranted to elucidate the effects of a high intake of dietary antioxidants on cognitive functioning, and to explore effects within a whole dietary pattern. PMID:23881465
Crichton, Georgina E; Bryan, Janet; Murphy, Karen J
It is increasingly recognized that COPD is a multi-component disease, but little attention has been paid to its effects on cognition. Cognitive dysfunction is associated with increased disability of daily living and mortality. However, it remains to be elucidated in COPD. Our main findings are: 1) cognitive dysfunction in patients with COPD is related to the grade of activity of daily livings and hypoxemia, especially in exercise-induced hypoxemia; 2) cognitive impairment such as perception, attention and short memory are impaired; 3) attention function determined by Trail Making Test is improved by O2 inhalation with the increase in the prefrontal cortex oxygenation; 4) by 8 week exercise training, cognitive function in COPD is improved with the increase in the prefrontal circulation. PMID:24796104
Fujimoto, Shigeo; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Hirata, Kazuto
In this paper we argue that previous models of cognitive abilities (e.g. memory, analogy) have been constructed to satisfy functional requirements of implicit commonsense psychological theories held by researchers and nonresearchers alike. Rather than wor...
A. S. Gordon
The authors investigated the relation between alcohol consumption and cognitive function in a United Kingdom cohort study (4,272 men, 1,761 women) with median follow-up of 11 years. Measures of alcohol consumption were obtained at baseline (1985-1988) and four subsequent phases of data collection. Cognitive function (memory test, AH4, Mill-Hill, phonemic and semantic fluency) was assessed at phase 5 (1997-1999), when
Annie Britton; Archana Singh-Manoux; Michael Marmot
Objectives: The effect of testosterone (T) on sexual function in men is well established. However, less is known about its effects on cognitive function. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between T levels and sex-typed cognitive abilities in both eugonadal and hypogonadal men. Design: A single-blind placebo-controlled design was employed in this study. Methods: Thirty healthy
Daryl B. O'Connor; John Archer; W. Morton Hair; Frederick C. W. Wu
Evoked and induced event-related neural oscillations have recently been proposed as a key mechanism supporting higher-order cognition. Cognitive decay and abnormal electromagnetic sensory gating reliably distinguish schizophrenia (SZ) patients and healthy individuals, demonstrated in chronic (CHR) and first-admission (FA) patients. Not yet determined is whether altered event-related modulation of oscillatory activity is manifested at early stages of SZ, thus reflects and perhaps embodies the development of psychopathology, and provides a mechanism for the gating deficit. The present study compared behavioral and functional brain measures in CHR and FA samples. Cognitive test performance (MATRICS Consortium Cognitive Battery, MCCB), neuromagnetic event-related fields (M50 gating ratio), and oscillatory dynamics (evoked and induced modulation of 8-12Hz alpha) during a paired-click task were assessed in 35 CHR and 31 FA patients meeting the criteria for ICD-10 diagnoses of schizophrenia as well as 28 healthy comparison subjects (HC). Both patient groups displayed poorer cognitive performance, higher M50 ratio (poorer sensory gating), and less induced modulation of alpha activity than did HC. Induced alpha power decrease in bilateral posterior regions varied with M50 ratio in HC but not SZ, whereas orbitofrontal alpha power decrease was related to M50 ratio in SZ but not HC. Results suggest disruption of oscillatory dynamics at early stages of illness, which may contribute to deficient information sampling, memory updating, and higher cognitive functioning. PMID:24933246
Carolus, Almut M; Schubring, David; Popov, Tzvetan G; Popova, Petia; Miller, Gregory A; Rockstroh, Brigitte S
Existing research on the adverse health effects of exposure to pollution has devoted relatively little attention to the potential impact of ambient air pollution on cognitive function in older adults. We examined the cross-sectional association between residential concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 ?m or less (PM2.5) and cognitive function in older adults. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we analyzed data from the 2004 Health and Retirement Study, a large, nationally representative sample of US adults aged 50 years or older. We linked participant data with 2000 US Census tract data and 2004 census tract-level annual average PM2.5 concentrations. Older adults living in areas with higher PM2.5 concentrations had worse cognitive function (? = -0.26, 95% confidence interval: -0.47, -0.05) even after adjustment for community- and individual-level social and economic characteristics. Results suggest that the association is strongest for the episodic memory component of cognitive function. This study adds to a growing body of research highlighting the importance of air pollution to cognitive function in older adults. Improving air quality in large metropolitan areas, where much of the aging US population resides, may be an important mechanism for reducing age-related cognitive decline. PMID:24966214
Ailshire, Jennifer A; Crimmins, Eileen M
Bipolar disorder is associated with impairments in cognition, including difficulties in executive functioning, even when patients are euthymic (neither depressed nor manic). The purpose of this study was to assess changes in self-reported cognitive functioning in patients with bipolar disorder who participated in an open pilot trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Following MBCT, patients reported significant improvements in executive functioning, memory, and ability to initiate and complete tasks, as measured by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe). Changes in cognitive functioning were correlated with increases in mindful, nonjudgmental observance and awareness of thoughts, feelings, and sensations, and were not associated with decreases in depression. Improvements tended to diminish after termination of treatment, but some improvements, particularly those in executive functioning, persisted after 3 months. These results provide preliminary evidence that MBCT may be a treatment option that can be used as an adjunct to medication to improve cognitive functioning in bipolar disorder. PMID:22108398
Stange, Jonathan P; Eisner, Lori R; Hölzel, Britta K; Peckham, Andrew D; Dougherty, Darin D; Rauch, Scott L; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Lazar, Sara; Deckersbach, Thilo
The effect of regular exercise on cognitive functioning and personality was investigated in 32 subjects representing 4 discrete groups based on sex and age. Before and after a 10 week exercise programme of jogging, calisthenics, and recreational activities, a test battery was administered to assess functioning in a number of domains: intelligence (WAIS Digit Symbol and Block Design); brain function
R. J. Young
Biological rhythms are essential for the regulation of many life processes. Disturbances of the circadian rhythm are known to affect human health, performance and well-being and the negative consequences are numerous and widespread. Cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, pain, sleep disturbances and mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are common problems arising around the time of surgery or in the course of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment period. The importance of investigating prevention or treatment possibilities in these populations is significant due to the extent of the problems and the derived consequences on morbidity and mortality. Genetic predisposition to these problems is also an issue in focus. In this thesis we initially investigated whether the specific clock gene genotype PER(5/5) was associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction one week after non-cardiac surgery. We did not find any association, although this could have been due to the size of the study. Yet, if PER3(5/5) is associated with a higher incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, the risk seems to be only modestly increased and by less than 10%. Melatonin is a hormone with well-known chronobiotic and hypnotic effects. In addition, exogenous melatonin is also known to have anxiolytic, analgesic, antidepressant and positive cognitive effects. Based on the lack of studies investigating these effects of melatonin, we conducted the MELODY trial in which we investigated the effect of 6 mg oral melatonin on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, cognitive function and fatigue in patients with breast cancer in a three month time period after surgery. Melatonin had an effect on reducing the risk of developing depressive symptoms and also increased sleep efficiency perioperatively and total sleep time postoperatively. No effect was found on anxiety, sleep quality, sleepiness, general well-being or pain, however melatonin seemed to positively influence the ability to complete trial participation compared to placebo. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction was not a problem in this limited population. With regard to safety in our study, melatonin treatment for three months did not cause any serious adverse effects. Finally, we systematically reviewed the literature on the prophylactic or therapeutic effect of melatonin for depression or depressive symptoms in adult patients and assessed the safety of melatonin in these studies. The quantity, size and quality of trials investigating this question were not high and there was no clear evidence of an effect, although some studies were positive. In conclusion, further research is warranted with regard to the prophylactic effect and treatment effect of melatonin in depression, depressive symptoms, cognitive disturbances and symptom clusters of cancer patients in general. In addition, more hypothesis-generating studies with regard to the genetic heritability of POCD are needed. PMID:25186550
Hansen, Melissa Voigt
Background: Studies have reported declines with age in cognitive or physical functioning, but rarely identify whether these are parallel or linked events in the same study. Furthermore, most research in this area has focused on persons in late life rather than midlife. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine (1) if cognitive functioning was related to physical functioning
Kathleen Ford; MaryFran Sowers; Theresa E Seeman; Gail A. Greendale; Barbara Sternfeld; Susan A. Everson-Rose
Cardiac cycle time has been shown to affect pre-attentive brainstem startle processes, such as the magnitude of acoustically evoked reflexive startle eye blinks. These effects were attributed to baro-afferent feedback mechanisms. However, it remains unclear whether cardiac cycle time plays a role in higher startle-related cognitive processes, as…
Schulz, Andre; Reichert, Carolin F.; Richter, Steffen; Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Schachinger, Hartmut
Twenty studies of the effects of teacher questions on student achievement were reviewed. Internal validity of experiments and integrity of treatments were less adequate than population and ecological validity. Whether teachers used predominantly higher cognitive or predominantly fact questions was found to make little difference in achievement.…
Winne, Philip H.
Growing evidence has shown that psychometrically identified schizotypes among student populations have subtle cognitive impairments in several domains such as attention, working memory and executive function, but the possible association between psychometric schizotypy in adult populations and cognitive function has not been well documented. Here we examined the association between schizotypal traits as assessed by the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) and cognitive function including memory, attention, executive function, and general intelligence in 124 healthy adults. Cognitive functioning was assessed with the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). SPQ scores showed a significant inverse correlation with verbal IQ and the information, comprehension and similarities subtests. No correlation was found between SPQ scores and memory, attention, performance IQ, or executive functioning. These results indicate that schizotypal traits in healthy adults are associated with verbal IQ decrements, suggesting that schizotypal traits themselves, even at a non-clinical level, may play unfavorable roles in cognitive functioning, which is in line with the viewpoint that schizotypy is on a continuum with normality, with its extreme form being clinically expressed as schizophrenia. PMID:18849081
Noguchi, Hiroko; Hori, Hiroaki; Kunugi, Hiroshi
Cognitive impairment is common in severe obesity. Lack of physical activity is a likely contributor to impairment in this population, as many obese persons are inactive and physical activity has been positively and independently associated with cognitive function in healthy and medically-ill samples. This study investigated whether physical activity, measured by self-report of aerobic physical activity in 85 bariatric surgery candidates, was associated with cognitive function. A subset of 31 participants also completed objective activity monitoring. Steps/d and high-cadence min/week, representative of ambulatory moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), were calculated. Approximately one quarter of participants self-reported at least 30 min/d of aerobic MVPA, at least 5 d/week. Median steps/d was 7949 (IQR = 4572) and median MVPA min/week was 105 (IQR = 123). Cognitive deficits were found in 32% of participants (29% memory, 10% executive function, 13% language, 10% attention). Controlling for demographic and medical factors, self-reported aerobic physical activity was weakly correlated with lower attention (r = -0.21, p = 0.04) and executive function (r = -0.27, p < 0.01) and both self-reported aerobic physical activity and objectively-determined MVPA min/week were negatively correlated with memory (r = -0.20, p = 0.04; r = -0.46; p = 0.02, respectively). No other correlations between physical activity measures and cognitive function were significant. Contrary to expectations, greater levels of physical activity were not associated with better cognitive functioning. Such findings encourage future studies to clarify the association among cognitive function and physical activity in obese persons. PMID:24547736
Galioto, Rachel; King, Wendy C; Bond, Dale S; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Gunstad, John
We present an exploratory study of biologists’ ideas about higher-order cognition questions. We documented the conversations of biologists who were writing and reviewing a set of higher-order cognition questions. Using a qualitative approach, we identified the themes of these conversations. Biologists in our study used Bloom's Taxonomy to logically analyze questions. However, biologists were also concerned with question difficulty, the length of time required for students to address questions, and students’ experience with questions. Finally, some biologists demonstrated an assumption that questions should have one correct answer, not multiple reasonable solutions; this assumption undermined their comfort with some higher-order cognition questions. We generated a framework for further research that provides an interpretation of participants’ ideas about higher-order questions and a model of the relationships among these ideas. Two hypotheses emerge from this framework. First, we propose that biologists look for ways to measure difficulty when writing higher-order questions. Second, we propose that biologists’ assumptions about the role of questions in student learning strongly influence the types of higher-order questions they write. PMID:23463228
Lemons, Paula P.; Lemons, J. Derrick
Deficits in social/communications skills have been documented in schizophrenia, but it is unclear how these deficits relate to cognitive deficits and to everyday functioning. In the current study, social/communication skills performance was measured in 29 schizophrenia patients with a history of good vocational functioning (GVF) and 26 with a history of poor vocational functioning (PVF) using a role-play–based social skills assessment, the Maryland Assessment of Social Competence (MASC). A battery of standard cognitive tasks was also administered. MASC-indexed social skills were significantly impaired in PVF relative to GVF patients (odds ratio = 3.61, P < .001). Although MASC social skills performance was significantly associated with cognitive performance in domains of verbal ability, processing speed, and memory, the MASC nevertheless remained an independent predictor of vocational functioning even after controlling for cognitive performance. Social/communications skills predict vocational functioning history independently of cognitive performance, and social skills measures should be considered for inclusion in test batteries designed to predict everyday functioning in schizophrenia. PMID:17164469
Dickinson, Dwight; Bellack, Alan S.; Gold, James M.
The relations between mild cognitive impairment without dementia (MCI\\/CIND) and everyday functional abilities were examined using data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA). Individuals were identified with MCI\\/CIND if both caregiver report and clinician judgment agreed on the presence of cognitive impairment in the absence of dementia. Cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons indicated that individuals with MCI\\/CIND demonstrated
Holly Tuokko; Carolyn Morris; Patricia Ebert
The relationship between cognitive functioning and a performance-based measure of everyday problem-solving, the Everyday Problems Test (EPT), thought to index instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), was examined in 291 community-dwelling non-demented older adults. Performance on the EPT was found to vary according to age, cognitive status, and education. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, after adjusting for demographic and health
Catherine L. Burton; Esther Strauss; David F. Hultsch; Michael A. Hunter
In clinical samples, patients with severe psychiatric disorders are found to have cognitive impairments. Less is known whether\\u000a this applies to samples derived from the general population. We aimed to study cognitive functioning in a population-based\\u000a sample comprising individuals with schizophrenia, other non-affective psychoses, bipolar disorders, major depressive disorder,\\u000a and controls derived from the same population. The current analysis was
Annamari Tuulio-HenrikssonJonna; Jonna Perälä; Samuli I. Saarni; Erkki Isometsä; Seppo Koskinen; Jouko Lönnqvist; Jaana Suvisaari
High temporal resolution is necessary to resolve the rapidly changing patterns of brain activity that underlie mental function. Electroencephalography (EEG) provides temporal resolution in the millisecond range. However, traditional EEG technology and practice provide insufficient spatial detail to identify relationships between brain electrical events and structures and functions visualized by magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography. Recent advances help to overcome this problem by recording EEGs from more electrodes, by registering EEG data with anatomical images, and by correcting the distortion caused by volume conduction of EEG signals through the skull and scalp. In addition, statistical measurements of sub-second interdependences between EEG time-series recorded from different locations can help to generate hypotheses about the instantaneous functional networks that form between different cortical regions during perception, thought and action. Example applications are presented from studies of language, attention and working memory. Along with its unique ability to monitor brain function as people perform everyday activities in the real world, these advances make modern EEG an invaluable complement to other functional neuroimaging modalities. PMID:10466140
Gevins, A; Smith, M E; McEvoy, L K; Leong, H; Le, J
Background Measuring social inequalities in health is common; however, research examining inequalities in child cognitive function is more limited. We investigated household expenditure-related inequality in children’s cognitive function in Indonesia in 2000 and 2007, the contributors to inequality in both time periods, and changes in the contributors to cognitive function inequalities between the periods. Methods Data from the 2000 and 2007 round of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) were used. Study participants were children aged 7–14 years (n?=?6179 and n?=?6680 in 2000 and 2007, respectively). The relative concentration index (RCI) was used to measure the magnitude of inequality. Contribution of various contributors to inequality was estimated by decomposing the concentration index in 2000 and 2007. Oaxaca-type decomposition was used to estimate changes in contributors to inequality between 2000 and 2007. Results Expenditure inequality decreased by 45% from an RCI?=?0.29 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.36) in 2000 to 0.16 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.20) in 2007 but the burden of poorer cognitive function was higher among the disadvantaged in both years. The largest contributors to inequality in child cognitive function were inequalities in per capita expenditure, use of improved sanitation and maternal high school attendance. Changes in maternal high school participation (27%), use of improved sanitation (25%) and per capita expenditures (18%) were largely responsible for the decreasing inequality in children’s cognitive function between 2000 and 2007. Conclusions Government policy to increase basic education coverage for women along with economic growth may have influenced gains in children’s cognitive function and reductions in inequalities in Indonesia. PMID:24205322
Maika, Amelia; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Brinkman, Sally; Harper, Sam; Satriawan, Elan; Lynch, John W.
Motivated by the considerable success of alternative theories of gravity, we consider the toy model of a higher derivative Lagrangian theory, namely the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator studied in a recent paper by Hawking-Hertog. Its Euclidean Path Integral is studied with a certain detail and a pedagogical derivation of the propagator, which makes use of a Theorem due to Forman, is consequently proposed
Roberto Di Criscienzo; Sergio Zerbini
We describe six psychomotor, language, and neuropsychological sequential developmental evaluations in a boy who sustained a severe bifrontal traumatic brain injury (TBI) at 19 months of age. Visuospatial, drawing, and writing skills failed to develop normally. Gradually increasing difficulties were noted in language leading to reading and spontaneous speech difficulties. The last two evaluations showed executive deficits in inhibition, flexibility, and working memory. Those executive abnormalities seemed to be involved in the other impairments. In conclusion, early frontal brain injury disorganizes the development of cognitive functions, and interactions exist between executive function and other cognitive functions during development. PMID:21188227
Bonnier, Christine; Costet, Aurelie; Hmaimess, Ghassan; Catale, Corinne; Maillart, Christelle; Marique, Patricia
This paper describes the cognitive functioning of a community cohort of individuals presenting with a first episode of a schizophrenia spectrum psychosis. Data were obtained for 107 patients (mean age 25 years) following stabilization of acute psychotic symptoms, mostly with the use of novel antipsychotics, on measures of intellectual, memory, attentional and executive functioning using a standardized battery of cognitive measures, including WAIS III and WMS III. While patients generally performed in the average range across the majority of measures, deficits (Z-scores >1.0 S.D.) were observed on measures of speed of information processing (PASAT, WAIS III) and executive functions (Stroop Test and Trails B), with the greatest deficits observed on tests of processing speed (PASAT). Discrepancy scores between the NART and the WAIS suggest subtle but statistically significant declines in full scale and performance IQ following onset of psychosis. Differences in cognitive functioning between diagnostic groups were not supported. Comparison of the highest and lowest functioning patients with respect to the cognitive measures also did not support any demographic or clinical differences between these two subgroups. Our results suggest a relatively benign cognitive profile in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum psychosis, regardless of diagnosis, when most potential incidence cases in the community are included. The most severe deficits reported were on measures of speeded information processing, and level of performance did not distinguish between patients demographically or clinically. PMID:11711166
Townsend, L A; Malla, A K; Norman, R M
Objective To review the evidence base for measures of cognitive functioning frequently used within the field of pediatric psychology. Methods From a list of 47 measures identified by the Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Evidence-Based Assessment Task Force Workgroup, 27 measures were included in the review. Measures were organized, reviewed, and evaluated according to general domains of functioning (e.g.,
Jonathan M. Campbell; Ronald T. Brown; Sarah E. Cavanagh; Sarah F. Vess; Mathew J. Segall
There is a plethora of research suggesting that daily stressors and fatigue can have a significant effect on learning and various cognitive functions in young adults. Little is known, however, about how these effects impact learning and other neurocognitive functions in students with learning challenges when compared to their counterparts without…
Palmer, Laura K.; Economou, Peter; Cruz, Daniel; Abraham-Cook, Shannon; Huntington, Jodi S.; Maris, Marika; Makhija, Nita; Welsh, Toni; Maley, Larissa
In the cognitive test interpretation literature, a Rational/Intuitive, Indirect Empirical, or Combined approach is typically used to construct conceptual taxonomies of the functional (behavioral) similarities between subtests. To address shortcomings of these approaches, the functional requirements for 49 subtests from six individually…
Frisby, Craig L.; Parkin, Jason R.
Cognitive function is markedly impaired in most patients with schizophrenia. Antecedents of this impairment are evident in childhood. The cognitive disability is nearly fully developed at the first episode of psychosis in most patients. The contribution of cognitive impairment to outcome in schizophrenia, especially work function, has been established. Preliminary results indicate that cognitive function, along with disorganization symptoms, discriminate
Herbert Y. Meltzer; Susan R. McGurk
Background Smoking, physical inactivity, and poor diet, along with obesity, fasting glucose and blood pressure have been independently associated with poorer cognitive performance. Few studies have related scales representing a combination of these variables to multiple domains of cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between overall cardiovascular health, incorporating seven components, and cognitive function. Methods A cross-sectional analysis employing 972 participants, from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study was undertaken. Four health behaviors (body mass index, physical activity, diet, smoking) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were measured. Each was categorized according to the American Heart Association definitions for ideal cardiovascular health, except diet, for which two food scores were calculated. A Cardiovascular Health Score was determined by summing the number of cardiovascular metrics at ideal levels. Cognitive function was assessed using a thorough neuropsychological test battery. Results Cardiovascular Health Score was positively associated with seven out of eight measures of cognitive function, with adjustment for age, education, and gender. With further adjustment for cardiovascular and psychological variables, these associations remained significant for Visual-Spatial Memory, Working Memory, Scanning and Tracking, Executive Function and the Global Composite score (p<0.05 for all). Ideal levels of a number of health factors and behaviors were positively associated with global cognitive performance. Conclusion Increasing cardiovascular health, indexed by a higher number of metrics at ideal levels, is associated with greater cognitive performance. Smoking, physical activity, and diet are important components of cardiovascular health that impact upon cognition. PMID:24595096
Crichton, Georgina E.; Elias, Merrill F.; Davey, Adam; Alkerwi, Ala'a
Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the ill-defined relationship between sleep quality and multiple, specific domains of cognitive function in patients with cirrhosis. Methods: A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests (divided into six neurocognitive domains) and a standardized, validated measure of sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) were administered to patients with cirrhosis and without evidence of overt hepatic encephalopathy, recruited from liver transplant and advanced liver disease clinics (n = 34). An inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) control group (n = 23) was similarly recruited and evaluated to control for the secondary effect of a chronic illness on cognition. PSQI global and component scores were used to predict cognitive function in each neurocognitive domain, using linear regression Results: Global PSQI scores were significantly higher (indicating poorer sleep quality) in the cirrhosis group (median [range] = 10 [1-19]) than in IBD controls = 5 (1-14); p = 0.002). After controlling for age and education, short duration of sleep was associated with impaired memory for patients with cirrhosis; the use of soporific agents was associated with poor visual-perceptual function in patients with IBD. Conclusions: Poor sleep was associated with worsening of the already impaired cognitive function of patients with cirrhosis. Citation: Stewart CA; Auger R; Enders FTB; Felmlee-Devine D; Smith GE. The effects of poor sleep quality on cognitive function of patients with cirrhosis. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(1):21-26. PMID:24426816
Stewart, Charmaine A.; Auger, Robert; Enders, Felicity T. B.; Felmlee-Devine, Donna; Smith, Glenn E.
Our objectives for this report were to identify trajectories of youth gambling behavior, and to examine their relation to executive cognitive function (ECF) and associated problem behaviors. Philadelphia school children, enrolled at ages 10-12 years (n = 387; 49% male), completed three annual assessments of risk behaviors, ECF, impulsivity, problem behaviors and demographics. Across ages 10-15 years, using methods from Nagin et al., two groups were identified: Early Gamblers (n = 111) initiated early and continued in later assessments, and Later Gamblers (n = 276) initiated at later ages and gambled less. Betting money on cards and sports were the most frequently reported gambling behaviors. Using gambling group as outcome, final backward selection logistic regression model showed Early Gamblers are more likely male (P = 0.001), report more active coping (P = 0.042), impulsive behaviors (P ? 0.008), and have friends who gamble (P = 0.001). Groups were similar in ECF, parental monitoring, marital status, SES, and race. Early Gamblers had higher incidence of problem behaviors and drug use (all P ? 0.006). Two gambling groups were identified in early adolescence with Early Gamblers showing higher levels of impulsivity and comorbid problems but similar levels of ECF compared to Late Gamblers. As more gambling groups are identified through later adolescence, ECF may emerge as a relevant precursor of problem gambling at this later time. PMID:21698342
Betancourt, Laura M; Brodsky, Nancy L; Brown, Caitlin A; McKenna, Kathleen A; Giannetta, Joan M; Yang, Wei; Romer, Daniel; Hurt, Hallam
Introduction Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. However, many individuals diagnosed with MCI are found to have reverted to normal cognition on follow-up. This study investigated factors predicting or associated with reversion from MCI to normal cognition. Methods Our analyses considered 223 participants (48.9% male) aged 71–89 years, drawn from the prospective, population-based Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. All were diagnosed with MCI at baseline and subsequently classified with either normal cognition or repeat diagnosis of MCI after two years (a further 11 participants who progressed from MCI to dementia were excluded). Associations with reversion were investigated for (1) baseline factors that included diagnostic features, personality, neuroimaging, sociodemographics, lifestyle, and physical and mental health; (2) longitudinal change in potentially modifiable factors. Results There were 66 reverters to normal cognition and 157 non-reverters (stable MCI). Regression analyses identified diagnostic features as most predictive of prognosis, with reversion less likely in participants with multiple-domain MCI (p?=?0.011), a moderately or severely impaired cognitive domain (p?=?0.002 and p?=?0.006), or an informant-based memory complaint (p?=?0.031). Reversion was also less likely for participants with arthritis (p?=?0.037), but more likely for participants with higher complex mental activity (p?=?0.003), greater openness to experience (p?=?0.041), better vision (p?=?0.014), better smelling ability (p?=?0.040), or larger combined volume of the left hippocampus and left amygdala (p<0.040). Reversion was also associated with a larger drop in diastolic blood pressure between baseline and follow-up (p?=?0.026). Discussion Numerous factors are associated with reversion from MCI to normal cognition. Assessing these factors could facilitate more accurate prognosis of individuals with MCI. Participation in cognitively enriching activities and efforts to lower blood pressure might promote reversion. PMID:23544083
Sachdev, Perminder S.; Lipnicki, Darren M.; Crawford, John; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A.; Trollor, Julian N.; Wen, Wei; Draper, Brian; Slavin, Melissa J.; Kang, Kristan; Lux, Ora; Mather, Karen A.; Brodaty, Henry; Team, Ageing Study
The study tested the effect of aerobic exercise training on executive function in overweight children. Ninety-four sedentary, overweight but otherwise healthy children (mean age = 9.2 years, body mass index ? 85th percentile) were randomized to a low-dose (20 min/day exercise), high-dose (40 min/day exercise), or control condition. Exercise sessions met 5 day/wk for 15 weeks. The Cognitive Assessment System (CAS), a standardized test of cognitive processes, was administered individually before and following intervention. Analysis of covariance on posttest scores revealed effects on executive function. Group differences emerged for the CAS Planning scale (p = .03). Planning scores for the high-dose group were significantly greater than those of the control group. Exercise may prove to be a simple, yet important, method of enhancing aspects of children’s mental functioning that are central to cognitive and social development. PMID:18274222
Davis, Catherine L.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Boyle, Colleen A.; Waller, Jennifer L.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.; Gregoski, Mathew
By revealing how brain activity during cognitive performance changes as a function of aging, studies using positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are contributing to the development of a new discipline of Cognitive Neuroscience of Aging. This article reviews functional neuroimaging studies of cognitive aging in the domains of visual perception, episodic memory encoding and semantic memory retrieval, episodic memory retrieval, implicit memory, and working memory. The most consistent finding of these studies was that brain activity tends to be less lateralized in older adults than in younger adults. This finding is conceptualized in terms of a model called Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Old Adults (HAROLD). According to a compensation hypothesis, bihemispheric involvement could help counteract age-related neurocognitive decline, whereas, according to a dedifferentiation hypothesis, it reflects a difficulty in recruiting specialized neural mechanisms. PMID:11501741
Once a child is diagnosed with epilepsy, a primary concern is whether or not the child's behavior and cognitive abilities will be affected by the disease, by the drug prescribed for seizure control, or both. Direct cognitive effects by the epileptic condition have been described. On the other hand, cognitive effects in epilepsy have been attributed to antiepileptic drug therapy. Valproate is an antiepileptic drug of choice in managing the commonest childhood epilepsy syndromes. Although frequently prescribed in pediatric neurology practice, there have been relatively few studies investigating the cognitive effects of valproate therapy in children. Cognitive effects of valproate reported in normal adult volunteers and in adults with epilepsy cannot be generalized to the pediatric population. The results of investigations on children are less conclusive. Guidelines for antiepileptic drug trials in children have recently been formulated. Carefully designed studies are required in determining the cognitive effects of valproate in the pediatric population. Neuropsychological measures that are likely to assess subtle changes in higher brain functions crucial to learning in children should be employed. We propose a test battery to assess for cognitive changes associated with anticonvulsant therapy in children. PMID:8807423
Legarda, S B; Booth, M P; Fennell, E B; Maria, B L
We study the Feynman integral for the three-banana graph defined as the scalar two-point self-energy at three-loop order. The Feynman integral is evaluated for all identical internal masses in two space-time dimensions. Two calculations are given for the Feynman integral; one based on an interpretation of the integral as an inhomogeneous solution of a classical Picard-Fuchs differential equation, and the other using arithmetic algebraic geometry, motivic cohomology, and Eisenstein series. Both methods use the rather special fact that the Feynman integral is a family of regulator periods associated to a family of K3 surfaces. We show that the integral is given by a sum of elliptic trilogarithms evaluated at sixth roots of unity. This elliptic trilogarithm value is related to the regulator of a class in the motivic cohomology of the K3 family. We prove a conjecture by David Broadhurst that at a special kinematical point the Feynman integral is given by a critical value of the Hasse-Weil L-function of the K3 surface. This result is shown to be a particular case of Deligne's conjectures relating values of L-functions inside the critical strip to periods.
Spencer Bloch; Matt Kerr; Pierre Vanhove
The objective of our study is to introduce a fully automated, computational linguistic technique to quantify semantic relations between words generated on a standard semantic verbal fluency test and to determine its cognitive and clinical correlates. Cognitive differences between patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment are evident in their performance on the semantic verbal fluency test. In addition to the semantic verbal fluency test score, several other performance characteristics sensitive to disease status and predictive of future cognitive decline have been defined in terms of words generated from semantically related categories (clustering) and shifting between categories (switching). However, the traditional assessment of clustering and switching has been performed manually in a qualitative fashion resulting in subjective scoring with limited reproducibility and scalability. Our approach uses word definitions and hierarchical relations between the words in WordNet®, a large electronic lexical database, to quantify the degree of semantic similarity and relatedness between words. We investigated the novel semantic fluency indices of mean cumulative similarity and relatedness between all pairs of words regardless of their order, and mean sequential similarity and relatedness between pairs of adjacent words in a sample of patients with clinically diagnosed probable (n=55) or possible (n=27) Alzheimer’s disease or mild cognitive impairment (n=31). The semantic fluency indices differed significantly between the diagnostic groups, and were strongly associated with neuropsychological tests of executive function, as well as the rate of global cognitive decline. Our results suggest that word meanings and relations between words shared across individuals and computationally modeled via WordNet and large text corpora provide the necessary context to account for the variability in language-based behavior and relate it to cognitive dysfunction observed in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:22659109
Pakhomov, Serguei V.S.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Lim, Kelvin O.
Comparing the burden of aging across countries hinges on the availability of valid and comparable indicators. The Old Age Dependency Ratio allows only a limited assessment of the challenges of aging, because it does not include information on any individual characteristics except age itself. Existing alternative indicators based on health or economic activity suffer from measurement and comparability problems. We propose an indicator based on age variation in cognitive functioning. We use newly released data from standardized tests of seniors' cognitive abilities for countries from different world regions. In the wake of long-term advances in countries' industrial composition, and technological advances, the ability to handle new job procedures is now of high and growing importance, which increases the importance of cognition for work performance over time. In several countries with older populations, we find better cognitive performance on the part of populations aged 50+ than in countries with chronologically younger populations. This variation in cognitive functioning levels may be explained by the fact that seniors in some regions of the world experienced better conditions during childhood and adult life, including nutrition, duration and quality of schooling, lower exposure to disease, and physical and social activity patterns. Because of the slow process of cohort replacement, those countries whose seniors already have higher cognitive levels today are likely to continue to be at an advantage for several decades to come. PMID:22184241
Skirbekk, Vegard; Loichinger, Elke; Weber, Daniela
Comparing the burden of aging across countries hinges on the availability of valid and comparable indicators. The Old Age Dependency Ratio allows only a limited assessment of the challenges of aging, because it does not include information on any individual characteristics except age itself. Existing alternative indicators based on health or economic activity suffer from measurement and comparability problems. We propose an indicator based on age variation in cognitive functioning. We use newly released data from standardized tests of seniors' cognitive abilities for countries from different world regions. In the wake of long-term advances in countries’ industrial composition, and technological advances, the ability to handle new job procedures is now of high and growing importance, which increases the importance of cognition for work performance over time. In several countries with older populations, we find better cognitive performance on the part of populations aged 50+ than in countries with chronologically younger populations. This variation in cognitive functioning levels may be explained by the fact that seniors in some regions of the world experienced better conditions during childhood and adult life, including nutrition, duration and quality of schooling, lower exposure to disease, and physical and social activity patterns. Because of the slow process of cohort replacement, those countries whose seniors already have higher cognitive levels today are likely to continue to be at an advantage for several decades to come. PMID:22184241
Skirbekk, Vegard; Loichinger, Elke; Weber, Daniela
In recent years, special interest has been focused on impairments of executive functions in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). However, the majority of studies have not clearly separated deficits in executive functions from impairments in other cognitive processes involved in task solving. In the present study, working memory (WM) functions of 20 patients with OSAS were compared with those of 10 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy subjects. Cognitive functions were measured four times a day; each of these measurements was accompanied by an assessment of subjective and objective daytime sleepiness. To separate dysfunctions of WM from those of additionally involved processes, n-back tasks were applied embedded in a reaction-time-decomposition approach. Deficits in n-back tasks could be observed in OSAS patients in accuracy and reaction times. However, the slowing could already be observed in simple reaction time tasks. The drop in 1-back accuracy in the morning was related to daytime sleepiness. During the afternoon, accuracy of OSAS patients dropped in 2-back tasks, an effect which correlated neither with sleepiness nor with the extent of sleep apnoea or oxygen desaturation. In conclusion, our data reflect a complex perspective upon cognitive deficits in OSAS. Cross-group differences in processing time on the higher level WM task appeared to be attributable to slowing at a more elementary cognitive processing level. In contrast, reduced accuracy during the WM task in the OSAS group could not be explained by deficits in more elementary cognitive processes. PMID:18484964
Lis, Stefanie; Krieger, Stephan; Hennig, Dorothee; Röder, Christian; Kirsch, Peter; Seeger, Werner; Gallhofer, Bernd; Schulz, Richard
Rationale The investigation of putative effects of early life stress (ELS) in humans on later behavior and neurobiology is a fast developing field. While epidemiological and neurobiological studies paint a somber picture of negative outcomes, relatively little attention has been devoted to integrating the breadth of findings concerning possible cognitive and emotional deficits associated with ELS. Emerging findings from longitudinal studies examining developmental trajectories of the brain in healthy samples may provide a new framework to understand mechanisms underlying ELS sequelae. Objective The goal of this review was two-fold. The first was to summarize findings from longitudinal data on normative brain development. The second was to utilize this framework of normative brain development to interpret changes in developmental trajectories associated with deficits in cognitive and affective function following ELS. Results Five principles of normative brain development were identified and used to discuss behavioral and neural sequelae of ELS. Early adversity was found to be associated with deficits in a range of cognitive (cognitive performance, memory, and executive functioning) and affective (reward processing, processing of social and affective stimuli, and emotion regulation) functions. Conclusion Three general conclusions emerge: (1) higher-order, complex cognitive and affective functions associated with brain regions undergoing protracted postnatal development are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of ELS; (2) the amygdala is particularly sensitive to early ELS; and (3) several deficits, particularly those in the affective domain, appear to persist years after ELS has ceased and may increase risk for later psychopathology. PMID:20865251
Pechtel, Pia; Pizzagalli, Diego A.
The Space Flight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a self-administered battery of tests used on the International Space Station for evaluating cognitive functioning. Here, WinSCAT was used to assess cognitive functioning during extended head-down bed rest. Thirteen subjects who participated in 60 or 90 days of 6 deg head-down bed rest took WinSCAT during the pre-bed rest phase, the in-bed rest phase, and the post-bed rest (reconditioning) phase of study participation. After adjusting for individual baseline performance, 12 off-nominal scores were observed out of 351 total observations during bed rest and 7 of 180 during reconditioning. No evidence was found for systematic changes in off-nominal incidence as time in bed rest progressed, or during the reconditioning period. Cognitive functioning does not appear to be adversely affected by long duration head-down bed rest. Individual differences in underlying cognitive ability and motivation level are likely explanations for the current findings.
Seaton, Kimberly A.; Slack, Kelley J.; Sipes, Walter A.; Bowie, Kendra
Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) could play an important role in maintaining cognitive function in aging individuals. The omega-3 FA docosahexaenoic acid is a major constituent of neuronal membranes and, along with the other long-chain omega-3 FAs from fish such as eicosapentaentoic acid, has been shown to have a wide variety of beneficial effects on neuronal functioning, inflammation, oxidation and cell death, as well as on the development of the characteristic pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. Omega-3 FAs may prevent vascular dementia via salutary effects on lipids, inflammation, thrombosis and vascular function. Epidemiologic studies have generally supported a protective association between fish and omega-3 FA levels and cognitive decline. Some of the small, short-term, randomized trials of docosahexaenoic acid and/or eicosapentaentoic acid supplementation have found positive effects on some aspects of cognition in older adults who were cognitively intact or had mild cognitive impairment, although little effect was found in participants with Alzheimer’s disease. Large, long-term trials in this area are needed. PMID:20088735
Robinson, Jennifer G; Ijioma, Nkechinyere; Harris, William
Cognitive content and complexity were studied as functions of depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory in three groups of college students (N = 73): nondepressed, mildly depressed, and highly depressed. Subjects were administered six verions of Bieri's (Bieri, Atkins, Briar, Leaman, Miller, & Tripodi, 1966) Repertory Grid Test, on which they rated the three domains of persons in
J. M. Oliver; Judith McGee
To investigate the characteristics of PCBs that are linked to cognitive functioning, those congeners that were concurrently found in 271 Mohawk adolescents were grouped according to structure (dioxin-like or non-dioxin-like) and persistence (persistent or low-persistent). After the effects of the congener groups were orthogonalized, regression analyses (controlling for a number of variables found to be related to the cognitive outcomes) examined the relationship of each congener group to scores on three cognitive tests (the non-verbal Ravens Progressive Matrices, the Test of Memory and Learning, and the Woodcock Johnson – Revised). Five subtests from these cognitive tests were found to be associated with one or more PCB congener groups, most often at a moderate level. Two measures of long term memory (Delayed Recall and Long Term Retrieval) were associated with all four congener groups. Nevertheless, examination of the role of individual congeners in the significantly related congener groups revealed that almost all congeners associated with cognitive outcomes were non-dioxin-like and ortho-substituted. A notable exception was the Ravens test where scores were associated only with dioxin-like congeners. This finding adds to the limited evidence of neurotoxic effects of dioxin-like congeners. Auditory Processing was related only to the persistent congener group. The association of the non-persistent congener group with three cognitive test scores (Delayed Recall, Long Term Retrieval and Comprehension-knowledge) suggests that the Mohawk adolescents have experienced continuing or recent environmental exposure to PCBs that is sufficient to result in detectable cognitive decrements. Comparison of our findings with those of other human studies was limited by the relative lack of specificity of both PCB measures and cognitive outcome measures in much previous work. PMID:19465051
Newman, Joan; Gallo, Mia V.; Schell, Lawrence M.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Denham, Melinda; Deane, Glenn D.
Very low birth weight born children manifest a higher prevalence of motor and cognitive impairments than term children. Seventy-four prospectively enrolled children born < 1250 g underwent testing of motor (Zurich neuromotor assessment ZNA: timed motor performances and associated movements) and cognitive functions (Kaufman-ABC) at age six years. Children with cerebral palsy or mental retardation were excluded. Adaptive motor tasks (pegboard and dynamic balance) and visuomotor cognitive functions were specifically impaired, and a distinct correlation pattern between motor and cognitive abilities was detected. The adaptive fine motor task (pegboard) correlated with visuomotor functions of the Kaufman-ABC ("triangles", r = 0.35; "matrix analogies", r = 0.39), while pure motor tasks of the ZNA (repetitive, alternating, and sequential movements) did not in spite of impaired motor performance. Timed motor performance below the 10th percentile correlated strongly with cognitive delay (IQ < 85: adaptive fine motor: OR 6.0 [95% CI] 4.7-7.3; adaptive gross motor: OR 7.0 [CI 5.6-8.4]; static balance: OR 9.6 [CI 8.2-11.0]). In conclusion, motor deficits in children born < 1250 g without severe disabilities correlate with specific cognitive impairments, in particular of the visuomotor domain. The correlation pattern may indicate specific dysfunction in visuomotor transformation, the intermediate process between visual-perceptual input and motor output. Early assessment of both motor and cognitive functions using standardized assessment tools is important to determine the extent and combination of specific developmental disturbances and to tailor therapeutic intervention. PMID:16541362
Seitz, J; Jenni, O G; Molinari, L; Caflisch, J; Largo, R H; Latal Hajnal, B
Light regulates multiple non-visual circadian, neuroendocrine, and neurobehavioral functions, and conveys a strong stimulating signal for alert-ness and cognition. This review summarizes a series of neuroimaging studies investigating the brain mechanisms underlying the latter stimulating impact of light. Results of these studies are compatible with a scenario where light would first hit subcortical areas involved in arousal regulation before affecting cortical areas involved in the ongoing non-visual cognitive process, and then cognitive performance. Recent data demonstrated that the non-visual impact of light is most likely triggered via outputs from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC) expressing the photopigment melanopsin, which are maximally sensitive to blue light. In addition, the stimulating impact of light is intimately related to wakefulness regulation as it changes with circadian phase and sleep pressure. Finally, markers of inter-individual difference have also been described: age, PERIOD3 genotype, and psychiatric status. This review emphasizes the importance of light for human brain cognitive function and for cognition in general. PMID:25311026
Background Decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and higher serum creatinine (sCR) levels have been associated with longitudinal decline in global mental status measures. Longitudinal data describing change in multiple domains of cognitive functioning are needed in order to determine which specific abilities are most affected in individuals with impaired renal function. Methods We conducted a 5-year longitudinal study with 590 community-living individuals (mean age 62.1 years, 60.2% female, 93.2% white, 11.4% with diabetes mellitus, mean eGFR 78.4 mL/min/1.73 m²) free from dementia, acute stroke and end-stage renal disease. To measure longitudinal change-over-time, cognitive performance measures were regressed on eGFR adjusting for baseline eGFR and cognitive performance, comorbidity and vascular risk factors. Outcome measures were scores from 17 separate tests of cognitive abilities that were used to index 5 theoretically relevant domains: verbal episodic memory, visual-spatial organization and memory, scanning and tracking, working memory and similarities (abstract reasoning). Results Declines in eGFR values were associated with cognitive declines, when adjusted for eGFR and cognitive function scores at baseline. Change in renal functioning over time was related to change observed in global cognitive ability [b = 0.21SD decline per unit ln(eGFR), 95% CI: 0.04–0.38, P = .018], verbal episodic memory [b = 0.28 SD decline per unit ln(eGFR), 95% CI: 0.02–0.54, P = 0.038] and abstract reasoning [b = 0.36 SD decline per unit ln(eGFR), 95% CI: 0.04–0.67, P = 0.025]. Decline in cognitive functioning in association with declining renal functioning was observed despite statistical adjustment for demographic variables and CVD risk factors and the exclusion of persons with dementia or a history of acute stroke. Conclusions Early detection of mild to moderate kidney disease is an important public health concern with regard to cognitive decline. PMID:23166308
Davey, Adam; Elias, Merrill F.; Robbins, Michael A.; Seliger, Stephen L.; Dore, Gregory A.
This study investigated cognitive control of social and nonsocial information in autism using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and a neurotypical control group completed an oddball target detection task where target stimuli were either faces or nonsocial objects previously shown to be related…
Sabatino, Antoinette; Rittenberg, Alison; Sasson, Noah J.; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Bodfish, James W.; Dichter, Gabriel S.
Extant research findings allow several conclusions regarding the relationship between estrogen and cognitive functioning across the female life span. First, performance on tests of verbal memory fluctuates in concert with physiological changes in ovarian hormone production during the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Estrogen therapy (ET) prevents the decrease in verbal memory when administered immediately following
Barbara B. Sherwin
Emotion Responsivity, Social Cognition, and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia Jennifer R. Mathews been a defining feature in schizophrenia, but relatively little research has examined how emotion in schizophrenia. Participants were 40 outpatients with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 40
Background: Repeated experience of withdrawal from alcohol results in a kindling-like process leading to increased likelihood and severity of convulsions during detoxification. The aim of this study was to determine whether repeated withdrawals affect cognitive function. Methods: We investigated alcoholic patients undergoing detoxification in an inpatient setting, using tasks sensitive to dysfunction of prefrontal areas. The tasks applied were two
Theodora Duka; Julia M. Townshend; Kirsty Collier; David N. Stephens
Neuron Review Cognitive and Perceptual Functions of the Visual Thalamus Yuri B. Saalmann1 10.1016/j.neuron.2011.06.027 The thalamus is classically viewed as passively relaying information to the cortex. However, there is growing evidence that the thalamus actively regulates information transmission
Schizophrenia is widely regarded as the clinical outcome of aberrant neurodevelopment caused by a combination of genetic and non-genetic factors. Early Onset Schizophrenia (EOS) manifests in childhood or adolescence and represents a more severe variant of the Adult Onset form of the disorder (AOS). EOS offers a unique opportunity of exploring the impact of disease related mechanisms on the developmental trajectory of cognitive function. The present review focused on the domains of general intellectual ability (IQ), attention, executive function and memory. Significant methodological variability was noted across the different studies that examined these aspects of cognition in EOS patients. Despite this, a consistent pattern emergent from the data suggesting that (a) EOS patients compared to healthy children and adolescents show impairments of medium to large effect size in IQ, attention, memory and executive function (b) despite increased clinical severity, the cognitive profile of EOS patients is comparable to that of AOS patients (c) healthy adolescents show age-related improvement in their ability to perform tests of attention, memory and executive function; this is not present in EOS patients thus resulting in increased age-related deviance in patients’ performance. This apparent decline is mostly attributable to patients’ failure to acquire new information and to use more sophisticated cognitive strategies. PMID:20140271
The V.E.Ne.Re. Project (Virtual Executive NEuropsychological REhabilitation) consists in the constuction and validation of artificial environments based on Virtual Reality (VR) technologies, aimed for cognitive rehabilitation of executive functions (frontal lobe dysfunction; dysexecutive syndrome). Damasio (1994) pointed at the discrepancy between non immersive artificial lab tests and real life situations to explain the frequent diagnostic and therapeutic failures that occur
C Lo Priore; G Castelnuovo; D Liccione
Selenium is a trace element associated with antioxidant activity and is considered to be a protective agent against free radicals through enhanced enzyme activity. Studies on selenium and cognitive function or Alzheimer's disease have yielded inconsistent results. A cross-sectional survey of 2,000 rural Chinese aged 65 years or older from two provinces in the People's Republic of China was conducted
Sujuan Gao; Yinlong Jin; Kathleen S. Hall; Chaoke Liang; Frederick W. Unverzagt; Rongdi Ji; Jill R. Murrell; Jingxiang Cao; Jianzhao Shen; Feng Ma; Janetta Matesan; Bo Ying; Yibin Cheng; Jianchao Bian; Ping Li; Hugh C. Hendrie
A historical group of 45 children (4–18 years) and adults (18–39 years) with classical galactosemia had deficits of cognitive function that were variable and not related to the age at diagnosis or to severity of illness at presentation. There was a trend for patients to score highest on visual processing tasks. The standardized tests of speech and memory skills fell
Francine Ratner Kaufman; Cammie McBride-Chang; Franklin R. Manis; Jon A. Wolff; Marvin D. Nelson
Histories of violence and of hyperactivity are both characterized by poor cognitive-neuropsychological function. However, researchers do not know whether these histories combine in additive or interactive ways. The authors tested 303 male young adults from a community sample whose trajectories of teacher-rated physical aggression and motoric hyperactivity from kindergarten to age 15 were well defined. No significant interaction was found.
Jean R. Séguin; Daniel Nagin; Jean-Marc Assaad; Richard E. Tremblay
The Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized assessment system has been in use in worldwide clinical trials for over 20 years. It is a computer based system which assesses core aspects of human cognitive function including attention, information, working memory and long-term memory. It has been extensively validated and can be performed by a wide range of clinical populations including patients with various types of dementia. It is currently in worldwide use in clinical trials to evaluate new medicines, as well as a variety of programs involving the effects of age, stressors illnesses and trauma upon human cognitive function. Besides being highly sensitive to drugs which will impair or improve function, its utility has been maintained over the last two decades by constantly increasing the number of platforms upon which it can operate. Besides notebook versions, the system can be used on a wrist worn device, PDA, via tht telephone and over the internet. It is the most widely used automated cognitive function assessment system in worldwide clinical research. It has dozens of parallel forms and requires little training to use or administer. The basic development of the system wil be identified, and the huge databases (normative, patient population, drug effects) which have been built up from hundreds of clinical trials will be described. The system is available for use in virtually any environment or type of trial.
Wesnes, Keith A.
Several studies have suggested gender differences in cognitive function, but data on the association between sex hormones and cognitive function are contradictory. The aim of our randomized double-blind study was to explore the possible relations between cognitive function and serum levels of sex hormones, oxytocin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in postmenopausal women. Two-hundred healthy postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to receive estrogen, testosterone or placebo treatment for 1 month. The associations of spatial ability, verbal fluency and verbal memory with serum levels of estradiol, testosterone, estradiol/testosterone ratio, androstanediol, oxytocin and IGF-I were analyzed. Spatial ability showed a negative correlation with serum estradiol, estradiol/testosterone ratio, oxytocin levels and a positive association with androstanediol levels. Verbal fluency displayed a negative relationship with serum levels of testosterone, IGF-I and a positive with estradiol/testosterone ratio. Verbal memory displayed a positive correlation to androstanediol. Data suggest that not only absolute levels of sex hormones but also the balance between estrogen and testosterone and their metabolites may be important for cognitive function in women. PMID:22967437
Kocoska-Maras, Ljiljana; Rådestad, Angelique Flöter; Carlström, Kjell; Bäckström, Torbjörn; von Schoultz, Bo; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén
The NIH Toolbox Cognitive Function Battery (CFB) includes 7 tests covering 8 cognitive abilities considered to be important in adaptive functioning across the lifespan (from early childhood to late adulthood). Here we present data on psychometric characteristics in children (N = 208; ages 3–15 years) of a total summary score and composite scores reflecting two major types of cognitive abilities: “crystallized” (more dependent upon past learning experiences) and “fluid” (capacity for new learning and information processing in novel situations). Both types of cognition are considered important in everyday functioning, but are thought to be differently affected by brain health status throughout life, from early childhood through older adulthood. All three Toolbox composite scores showed excellent test-retest reliability, robust developmental effects across the childhood age range considered here, and strong correlations with established, “gold standard” measures of similar abilities. Additional preliminary evidence of validity includes significant associations between all three Toolbox composite scores and maternal reports of children’s health status and school performance. PMID:23952206
Akshoomoff, Natacha; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Bauer, Patricia J.; Dikmen, Sureyya; Gershon, Richard; Mungas, Dan; Slotkin, Jerry; Tulsky, David; Weintraub, Sandra; Zelazzo, Philip; Heaton, Robert K.
; physiology ; psychology ; Cognition ; physiology ; Female ; Health Status ; Humans ; Lung ; physiology ; Male speed (over 2.44 m), cognitive1 function (memory and reasoning), and self-reported physical and mental.16, 95 CI: 0.13, 0.19), memory (beta 0.09, 95 CI: 0.06, 0.12), reasoning (beta 0.16, 95 CI: 0.13, 0
Image quality of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the brain currently approximate gross anatomy as would be viewed at autopsy. During the first decade of the 21st Century incredible advances in image processing and quantification have occurred permitting more refined methods for studying brain-behavior-cognitive functioning. The current presentation overviews the current status of MRI methods for routine clinical assessment of brain pathology, how these techniques identify neuropathology and how pathological findings are quantified. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), functional MRI (fMRI), and resting state fMRI are all reviewed, emphasizing how these techniques permit an examination of brain function and connectivity. General regional relationships of brain function associated with cognitive control will be highlighted. PMID:24920351
Bigler, Erin D
Studies of the effects of physical fitness on cognition suggest that exercise can improve cognitive abilities in healthy older adults, as well as delay the onset of age-related cognitive decline. The mechanisms for the positive benefit of exercise and how these effects interact with other variables known to influence cognitive function (e.g., involvement in cognitive activities) are less well understood. The current study examined the associations between the physical fitness, cerebrovascular blood flow regulation and involvement in cognitive activities with neuropsychological function in healthy post-menopausal women. Methods: Forty-two healthy women between the ages of 55 and 90 were recruited. Physical fitness (V?O2 max), cerebrovascular reserve (cerebral blood flow during rest and response to an increase in end-tidal (i.e., arterial) PCO2), and cognitive activity (self-reported number and hours of involvement in cognitive activities) were assessed. The association of these variables with neuropsychological performance was examined through linear regression. Results: Physical fitness, cerebrovascular reserve and total number of cognitive activities (but not total hours) were independent predictors of cognitive function, particularly measures of overall cognitive performance, attention and executive function. In addition, prediction of neuropsychological performance was better with multiple variables than each alone. Conclusions: Cognitive function in older adults is associated with multiple factors, including physical fitness, cerebrovascular health and cognitive stimulation. Interestingly, cognitive stimulation effects appear related more to the diversity of activities, rather than the duration of activity. Further examination of these relationships is ongoing in a prospective cohort study. PMID:21048898
Eskes, Gail A.; Longman, Stewart; Brown, Allison D.; McMorris, Carly A.; Langdon, Kristopher D.; Hogan, David B.; Poulin, Marc
This study examined the influence of cognitivedistortion (e.g., catastrophizing, overgeneralization)on functional impairment among coronary heart disease(CHD) patients undergoing outpatient cardiacrehabilitation. Forty-two CHD patients completed a versionofthe Cognitive Errors Questionnaire (CEQ; Lefebvre,1981) shortly after hospital discharge at the initiationof the rehabilitation program. Functional impairmentwas assessed both pre- and postrehabilitation usingscales from the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP; Bergner etal., 1981) and a
Alan J. Christensen; Dawn L. Edwards; Patricia J. Moran; Rachael Burke; Patricia Lounsbury; Ellen E. I. Gordon
Abstract Objective. To evaluate the association between the number of teeth and cognitive functions adjusted for age and education level in a cohort of older adults living in Sweden. Materials and methods. The study employed a cross-sectional design in which 1147 individuals between 60-96 years underwent a clinical oral examination. The cognitive functions were assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clock-test. The level of education was obtained from a questionnaire. Data were subjected to Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed, grouping the different variables into pre-determined categories. Results. The co-variables age and education were significantly associated with the number of teeth (p < 0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the association between the number of teeth and the cognitive functions persisted even after adjusting for age and level of education. Conclusions. The findings suggest that the presence of teeth may be of importance for cognitive abilities in older adults. PMID:24479559
Nilsson, Helena; Berglund, Johan; Renvert, Stefan
In addition to the deficits in the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is substantial evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and neocortex play in spatial orientation. In this review we summarize the evidence that vestibular loss causes cognitive disorders, especially spatial memory deficits, in animals and humans and critically evaluate the evidence that these deficits are not due to hearing loss, problems with motor control, oscillopsia or anxiety and depression. We review the evidence that vestibular lesions affect head direction and place cells as well as the emerging evidence that artificial activation of the vestibular system, using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), can modulate cognitive function. PMID:24324413
Smith, Paul F.; Zheng, Yiwen
Exposure to organic solvents has been linked repeatedly to alterations in both personality and cognitive functioning. To assess the nature and extent of these changes more thoroughly, 32 workers with a history of exposure to mixtures of organic solvents and 32 age- and education-matched blue-collar workers with no history of exposure were assessed with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Although both groups were comparable on measures of general intelligence, significant differences were found in virtually all other cognitive domains tested (Learning and Memory, Visuospatial, Attention and Mental Flexibility, Psychomotor Speed). In addition, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories of exposed workers indicated clinically significant levels of depression, anxiety, somatic concerns and disturbances in thinking. The reported psychological distress was unrelated to degree of cognitive deficit. Finally, several exposure-related variables were associated with poorer performance on tests of memory and visuospatial ability.
Morrow, L.A.; Ryan, C.M.; Hodgson, M.J.; Robin, N. (Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (USA))
Objective To review the evidence base for measures of cognitive functioning frequently used within the field of pediatric psychology. Methods From a list of 47 measures identified by the Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Evidence-Based Assessment Task Force Workgroup, 27 measures were included in the review. Measures were organized, reviewed, and evaluated according to general domains of functioning (e.g., attention/executive functioning, memory). Results Twenty-two of 27 measures reviewed demonstrated psychometric properties that met “Well-established” criteria as set forth by the Assessment Task Force. Psychometric properties were strongest for measures of general cognitive ability and weakest for measures of visual-motor functioning and attention. Conclusions We report use of “Well-established” measures of overall cognitive functioning, nonverbal intelligence, academic achievement, language, and memory and learning. For several specific tests in the domains of visual-motor functioning and attention, additional psychometric data are needed for measures to meet criteria as “Well established.” PMID:18194973
Brown, Ronald T.; Cavanagh, Sarah E.; Vess, Sarah F.; Segall, Mathew J.
Background Few studies have applied multiple imaging modalities to examine cognitive correlates of white matter. We examined the utility of T2-weighted MRI-derived white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and diffusion tensor imaging-derived fractional anisotropy (FA) to predict cognitive functioning among older adults. Methods Quantitative MRI and neuropsychological evaluations were performed in 112 older participants from an ongoing study of the genetics of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in African Americans. Regional WMH volumes and FA were measured in multiple regions of interest. We examined the association of regional WMH and an FA summary score with cognitive test performance. Differences in WMH and FA were compared across diagnostic groups (i.e., normal controls, mild cognitive impairment, and probable AD). Results Increased WMH volume in frontal lobes was associated with poorer delayed memory performance. FA did not emerge as a significant predictor of cognition. White matter hyperintensity volume in the frontal and parietal lobes was increased in MCI participants and more so in AD patients relative to controls. Discussion These results highlight the importance of regionally-distributed small vessel cerebrovascular disease in memory performance and AD among African American older adults. White matter microstructural changes, quantified with DTI, appear to play a lesser role in our sample. PMID:22390883
Meier, Irene B.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Provenzano, Frank A.; Louie, Karmen S.; Wasserman, Ben T.; Griffith, Erica Y.; Hector, Josina T.; Allocco, Elizabeth; Brickman, Adam M.
Intrinsic Motivation in Schizophrenia: Relationships to Cognitive Function, Depression, Anxiety and their relationship to cognitive function, mood, and personality in schizophrenia. The authors used the Motivational were 66 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 44 healthy controls. Self
The common cause hypothesis of the relationship among age, sensory measures, and cognitive measures in very old adults was reevaluated. Both sensory function and processing speed were evaluated as mediators of the rela- tionship between age and cognitive function. Cognitive function was a latent variable that comprised 3 factors in- cluding memory, speed, and verbal ability. The sample was population
Kaarin J. Anstey; Mary A. Luszcz; Linnett Sanchez
Background Elevated levels of antibodies to Cytomegalovirus (CMV) have been associated with cognitive impairment, but the quantitative relationship between CMV antibody levels and domains of cognitive functioning in younger adults has not been established. Methods We measured IgG class antibodies to Cytomegalovirus in 521 individuals, mean age 32.8 years. Participants were selected for the absence of psychiatric disorder and of a serious medical condition that could affect brain functioning. Cognitive functioning was measured with the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test part A, and the WAIS III Letter Number Sequencing subtest. Linear regression analyses were used to measure the quantitative association between cognitive scores and Cytomegalovirus IgG antibody level. Logistic regression analyses were used to measure the odds of low cognitive scores and elevated antibody levels defined as an antibody level >?=?50th, 75th, and 90th percentile of the group. Results Higher levels of CMV antibodies were associated with lower performance on RBANS Total (coefficient ?1.03, p<.0002), Delayed Memory (coefficient ?0.94, p<.001), Visuospatial/Constructional (coefficient ?1.77, p<5×10?7), and Letter Number Sequencing (coefficient ?0.15, p<.03). There was an incremental relationship between the level of CMV antibody elevation and the odds of a low RBANS Total score. The odds of a low total cognitive score were 1.63 (95th % CI 1.01, 2.64; p<.045), 2.22 (95th % CI 1.33, 3.70; p<.002), and 2.46 (95th % CI 1.24, 4.86; p<.010) with a CMV antibody level greater than or equal to the 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile respectively. Conclusions Higher levels of Cytomegalovirus antibodies are associated with lower levels of cognitive functioning in non-elderly adults. Methods for the prevention and treatment of CMV infection should be evaluated to determine if they result in an improvement in cognitive functioning in otherwise healthy adults. PMID:24846058
Dickerson, Faith; Stallings, Cassie; Origoni, Andrea; Katsafanas, Emily; Schweinfurth, Lucy A. B.; Savage, Christina L. G.; Yolken, Robert
Objective To examine the association of cognitive function with the risk of incident mobility impairments and the rate of declining mobility in older adults. Design Prospective, observational cohort study. Setting Retirement communities across metropolitan Chicago. Participants 1154 ambulatory elders from two longitudinal studies without baseline clinical dementia or history of stroke or Parkinson’s disease. Measurements All participants underwent baseline cognitive testing and annual mobility exams. Mobility impairments were based on annual timed walking performance. A composite mobility measure which summarized gait and balance measures was used to examine the annual rate of mobility change. Results During follow-up of 4.5 years, 423 of 836 (50.6%) participants developed impaired mobility. In a proportional hazards model controlled for age, sex, education and race, each 1-unit higher level of baseline global cognition was associated with a reduction to about half in the risk of mobility impairments (HR=0.51, 95% CI 0.40, 0.66) and was similar to a participant being about 13 years younger at baseline. These results did not vary by sex or race and were unchanged in analyses controlling for BMI, physical activity, vascular diseases and risk factors. The level of cognition in 5 different cognitive abilities was also related to incident mobility impairment. Cognition showed similar associations with incident loss of the ability to ambulate. Linear mixed-effects models showed that global cognition at baseline was associated with the rate of declining mobility. Conclusions Among ambulatory elders, cognition is associated with incident mobility impairment and mobility decline. PMID:21606900
Buchman, Aron S.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Leurgans, Sue E.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Bennett, David A.
The elevation of kynurenic acid (KYNA) observed in schizophrenic patients may contribute to core symptoms arising from glutamate hypofunction, including cognitive impairments. Although increased KYNA levels reduce excitatory neurotransmission, KYNA has been proposed to act as an endogenous antagonist at the glycine site of the glutamate NMDA receptor (NMDAR) and as a negative allosteric modulator at the ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Levels of KYNA are elevated in CSF and the postmortem brain of schizophrenia patients, and these elevated levels of KYNA could contribute to NMDAR hypofunction and the cognitive deficits and negative symptoms associated with this disease. However, the impact of endogenously produced KYNA on brain function and behavior is less well understood due to a paucity of pharmacological tools. To address this issue, we identified PF-04859989, a brain-penetrable inhibitor of kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II), the enzyme responsible for most brain KYNA synthesis. In rats, systemic administration of PF-04859989 dose-dependently reduced brain KYNA to as little as 28% of basal levels, and prevented amphetamine- and ketamine-induced disruption of auditory gating and improved performance in a sustained attention task. It also prevented ketamine-induced disruption of performance in a working memory task and a spatial memory task in rodents and nonhuman primates, respectively. Together, these findings support the hypotheses that endogenous KYNA impacts cognitive function and that inhibition of KAT II, and consequent lowering of endogenous brain KYNA levels, improves cognitive performance under conditions considered relevant for schizophrenia. PMID:25100593
Kozak, Rouba; Campbell, Brian M; Strick, Christine A; Horner, Weldon; Hoffmann, William E; Kiss, Tamas; Chapin, Douglas S; McGinnis, Dina; Abbott, Amanda L; Roberts, Brooke M; Fonseca, Kari; Guanowsky, Victor; Young, Damon A; Seymour, Patricia A; Dounay, Amy; Hajos, Mihaly; Williams, Graham V; Castner, Stacy A
This study examined patterns of strengths and weaknesses in the neurocognitive performance of children with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The participants were 30 children with higher functioning ASD ranging from 6 to 11 years, and 60 typically developing (TD) children, who were matched with the children with higher functioning ASD in terms of age, gender, and maternal education. The TD children were drawn from the Finnish standardization sample for the NEPSY-II. The cognitive abilities of the children with higher functioning ASD were assessed with the WISC-III, and the neurocognitive performance of the children with higher functioning ASD and TD children on the NEPSY-II was compared. The children with higher functioning ASD were found to have strengths in verbal reasoning skills with respect to the population mean and weaknesses in set-shifting, verbal fluency, and narrative memory in comparison with the TD children. Minor weaknesses were also observed in facial memory and fine and visuomotor skills. PMID:24397431
Barron-Linnankoski, Sarianna; Reinvall, Outi; Lahervuori, Anne; Voutilainen, Arja; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Korkman, Marit
Background Cognitive functioning is important for managing work and life in general. However, subjective cognitive complaints (SCC), involving perceived difficulties with concentration, memory, decision making, and clear thinking are common in the general and working population and can be coupled with both lowered well-being and work ability. However, the relation between SCC and cognitive functioning across the adult age-span, and in the work force, is not clear as few population-based studies have been conducted on non-elderly adults. Thus, the present study aimed to test the relation between SCC and executive cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of employees. Methods Participants were 233 employees with either high (cases) or low (controls) levels of SCC. Group differences in neuropsychological test performance on three common executive cognitive tests were analysed through a set of analyses of covariance tests, including relevant covariates. Results & Conclusions In line with the a priori hypotheses, a high level of SCC was associated with significantly poorer executive cognitive performance on all three executive cognitive tests used, compared to controls with little SCC. Additionally, symptoms of depression, chronic stress and sleeping problems were found to play a role in the relations between SCC and executive cognitive functioning. No significant associations remained after adjusting for all these factors. The current findings contribute to an increased understanding of what characterizes SCC in the work force and may be used at different levels of prevention of- and intervention for SCC and related problems with executive cognitive functioning. PMID:24386185
Stenfors, Cecilia U. D.; Marklund, Petter; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Theorell, Tores; Nilsson, Lars-Goran
Research suggests that both working memory capacity and domain knowledge contribute to individual differences in higher-level cognition. This study evaluated three hypotheses concerning the interplay between these factors. The compensation hypothesis predicts that domain knowledge attenuates the influence of working memory capacity on higher-level cognition, whereas the rich-get-richer hypothesis predicts that working memory capacity enhances use of domain knowledge. The
David Z. Hambrick; Frederick L. Oswald
The study aimed to analyse emotional state, quality of life and cognitive functions in young hypogonadal men. Thirty-four males with hypogonadism (age 29.1 ± 10.5 years) and 34 age-matched healthy males (age 30.5 ± 11.0 years) were recruited. Their emotional state was evaluated by Profile of Mood States, quality of life - by WHO Brief Quality of Life Questionnaire - and cognitive functioning - by Trail Making Test and Digit Span Test of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. It was found that young men with hypogonadism had higher depression-dejection (13.1 ± 8.8 versus 7.4 ± 5.9, P = 0.003), fatigue-inertia (10.0 ± 5.8 versus 7.0 ± 4.9, P = 0.030), confusion-bewilderment (5.1 ± 4.6 versus 2.3 ± 3.1, P = 0.004) and lower vigour-activity (14.3 ± 5.1 versus 17.7 ± 4.3, P = 0.008) levels than age- and sex-matched controls. Quality of life psychological (13.1 ± 2.8 versus 15.1 ± 1.9, P = 0.005) and social (13.6 ± 2.4 versus 15.7 ± 2.0, P < 0.001) domains were significantly worse in men with hypogonadism than in controls. Cognitive functions were significantly worse (P < 0.001) in men with hypogonadism than in controls, showing worse executive function, attention, visual scanning abilities and psychomotor speed. A significant correlation was found between testosterone concentration and quality of life psychological domain. Cognitive functioning scores were significantly related with FT4 concentration. It is concluded that young hypogonadal patients have impaired emotional state and quality of life, but the most severe impairment was found in cognitive functioning. PMID:24313565
Lašait?, L; Ceponis, J; Preikša, R T; Zilaitien?, B
A cognitive engineering analysis of the Flight Management System (FMS) Vertical Navigation (VNAV) function has identified overloading of the VNAV button and overloading of the Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA) used by the VNAV function. These two types of overloading, resulting in modal input devices and ambiguous feedback, are well known sources of operator confusion, and explain, in part, the operational issues experienced by airline pilots using VNAV in descent and approach. A proposal to modify the existing VNAV design to eliminate the overloading is discussed. The proposed design improves pilot's situational awareness of the VNAV function, and potentially reduces the cost of software development and improves safety.
Sherry, Lance; Feary, Michael; Polson, Peter; Mumaw, Randall; Palmer, Everett
This article provides the beginning neuroeconomist with an introductory overview to the different methods used in human neuroscience. It describes basic strengths and weaknesses of each technique, points to examples of how each technique has been used in neuroeconomic studies, and provides key tutorial references that contain more detailed information. In addition to this overview, the article presents a framework that organizes human neuroscience methods functionally, according to whether they provide tests of the association between brain activity and cognition or behavior, or whether they test the necessity or the sufficiency of brain activity for cognition and behavior. This framework demonstrates the utility of a multi-method research approach, since converging evidence from tests of association, necessity and sufficiency provides the strongest inference regarding brain-behavior relationships. Set against this goal of converging evidence, human neuroscience studies in neuroeconomics currently rely far too heavily on methods that test association, most notably functional MRI. PMID:21796272
Kable, Joseph W.
An emerging literature indicates that HIV infection is associated with deficits in prospective memory (ProM), or the ability to execute a future intention. This literature offers evidence of neurobiological dissociability of ProM from other cognitive abilities and its incremental ecological validity as a predictor of poorer everyday functioning outcomes (e.g., medication nonadherence). The present study evaluated the hypothesis that ProM
Saurabh Gupta; Steven Paul Woods; Erica Weber; Matthew S. Dawson; Igor Grant
This study investigated the pattern of acute cognitive function of an ecologically valid sample of 58 consecutively admitted\\u000a adults completing a 24 day residential\\/day substance use disorder treatment program at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center and\\u000a its change over the 24 days of monitored abstinence. Participants were assessed at entry with the Repeatable Battery for the\\u000a Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) Form
Gregory W. Schrimsher; Jefferson D. Parker
Many prominent studies of infant cognition over the past two decades have relied on the fact that infants habituate to repeated stimuli – i.e. that their looking times tend to decline upon repeated stimulus presentations. This phenomenon had been exploited to reveal a great deal about the minds of preverbal infants. Many prominent studies of the neural bases of adult cognition over the past decade have relied on the fact that brain regions habituate to repeated stimuli – i.e. that the hemodynamic responses observed in fMRI tend to decline upon repeated stimulus presentations. This phenomenon has been exploited to reveal a great deal about the neural mechanisms of perception and cognition. Similarities in the mechanics of these two forms of habituation suggest that it may be useful to relate them to each other. Here we outline this analogy, explore its nuances, and highlight some ways in which the study of habituation in functional neuroimaging could yield novel insights into the nature of habituation in infant cognition – and vice versa. PMID:19104669
Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.; Scholl, Brian J.; Chun, Marvin M.
Breast cancer survivors experience cognitive difficulties following chemotherapy, yet the effects of these deficits on functional outcomes have not been systematically evaluated. This study assessed the relationships between postchemotherapy cognitive difficulties and functional outcomes. Forty-six women with breast cancer were seen at 1-month postchemotherapy; data were collected on cognitive functioning, psychological variables, and physical symptoms. Wilcoxon signed-rank analyses revealed cognitive
Stephanie A. Reid-Arndt; Albert Yee; Michael C. Perry; Catherine Hsieh
The rise in the aging driver population presents society with a significant challenge—how to maintain safety and mobility on the roads. On the one hand, older drivers pose a higher risk of an at-fault accident on a mile-for-mile basis; on the other hand, independent mobility is a significant marker of quality of life in aging. In this paper, we review the respective literatures on cognitive neuropsychology and ergonomics to suggest a previously unexplored synergy between these two fields. We argue that this conceptual overlap can form the basis for future solutions to what has been called “the older driver problem.” Such solutions could be found in a range of emerging driver assistance technologies offered by vehicle manufacturers, which have the potential to compensate for the specific cognitive decrements associated with aging that are related to driving. PMID:21748014
Young, Mark S.; Bunce, David
Objective Minority status has been implicated as a risk factor for disparate scores on cognitive function tests in older adults. Research on ethnicity and cognitive function has yielded socioeconomic status (SES), particularly education, as a primary reason for the discrepancy. Other factors, such as physical activity may provide insight into the relationship. Despite this knowledge, few studies have thoroughly examined the mediating characteristics of education or physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function in younger aged groups. Most research conducted focuses only on older adults during a time when degeneration of brain tissue may complicate the exploration of the relationships among ethnicity and cognitive function. The current research will expand existing knowledge about education, physical activity, and cognitive function in minority groups. Design The study presents data from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults (n=9,204, mean age +-sd=55.8+-3.1). Regression and mediation testing determined the mediating effects of education and physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function. Results Significant association between white ethnicity and higher scores on cognitive tests was evident as early as late middle age. The magnitude of the association significantly diminished on adjusting for education and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion Our data suggest a potential mediating role of education and physical activity on the ethnic differences in cognitive tests in late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults. Our findings suggest a need for studies to understand if adult education and culturally-appropriate physical activity interventions in middle age influence ethnic disparities in prevalence of cognitive impairment in old age. PMID:20401816
Masel, Meredith C.; Raji, Mukaila; Peek, M. Kristen
Computational modeling of functional brain networks in fMRI data has advanced the understanding of higher cognitive function. It is hypothesized that functional networks mediating higher cognitive processes are disrupted ...
Dauvermann, Maria R.
Although imaging studies suggest activation of cortical areas by vestibular input, there is little evidence of an adverse effect of non-veridical vestibular input on cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that degraded vestibular afferent input adversely affects cognition, we compared performance on a cognitive test battery in a group undergoing suprathreshold bilateral bipolar Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) with a control group receiving no GVS or subthreshold stimulation. The battery consisted of six cognitive tests as follows: reaction time, dual tasking, Stroop, mental rotation, perspective-taking and matching-to-sample, as well as a simple visuomotor (manual tracking) task. Subjects performed the test battery before, during and after suprathreshold GVS exposure or subthreshold stimulation. Suprathreshold GVS significantly increased error rate for the match-to-sample and perspective-taking tasks relative to the subthreshold group, demonstrating a negative effect of non-veridical vestibular input in these specific cognitive tasks. Reaction time, dual tasking, mental rotation and manual tracking were unaffected by GVS exposure. The adverse effect of suprathreshold GVS on perspective taking but not mental rotation is consistent with imaging studies, which have demonstrated that egocentric mental transformations (perspective taking) occur primarily in cortical areas that receive vestibular input (the parietal-temporal junction and superior parietal lobule), whereas object-based transformations (mental rotation) occur in the frontoparietal region. The increased error rate during the match-to-sample task is likely due to interference with hippocampal processing related to spatial memory, as suggested by imaging studies on vestibular patients. PMID:22076407
Dilda, Valentina; MacDougall, Hamish G; Curthoys, Ian S; Moore, Steven T
Background Gait ability and cognitive function are interrelated during both normal walking (NW) and dual-task walking (DTW), and gait ability is thus adversely affected by cognitive impairment in both situations. However, this association is insufficiently understood in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here, we conducted a study with MCI participants, to examine whether the association depends on walking conditions and MCI subtypes. Methods We classified 389 elderly adults into amnestic MCI (n?=?191) and non-amnestic MCI (n?=?198), assessed their cognitive functions, and administered gait experiments under NW and DTW conditions. Gait ability was defined as gait speed. Five aspects of cognitive function were assessed: processing speed, executive function, working memory, verbal memory, and visual memory. Results Regression analysis adjusted for covariates showed a significant association between cognitive functions and gait speed. Processing speed and executive function correlated with gait speed during both NW and DTW (p?.05). Gait speed during DTW was also significantly associated with working memory (p?.001). Visual memory was associated during NW and DTW, particularly for amnestic MCI participants (p?.05). Conclusions Our findings support the idea that the association between gait speed and cognitive function depends on walking condition and MCI subtypes. Additional studies are necessary to determine the neural basis for the disruption in gait control in older adults with MCI. PMID:24694100
OBJECTIVES Self-report of functional abilities is accorded significant weight in the clinical discrimination of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from dementia. However, it is unclear whether patients with MCI are fully aware of and provide reliable estimates of their functional status. Prior studies that examined accuracy of self-report of functional abilities in MCI have presented mixed findings. Common limitations of these studies include the use of informant report as the yardstick for ascertaining accuracy of patient self-report, and the failure to account for potential heterogeneity in awareness across functional domains. DESIGN Controlled, matched-samples, cross-sectional analysis. SETTING University medical and research centers. PARTICIPANTS 57 persons with amnestic MCI and 68 normal controls. MEASUREMENTS The study examined accuracy of self-report in MCI across five functional domains by comparing patients’ report of functioning to their performance on laboratory-based measures of function. RESULTS The discrepancy between self-report and objective performance was significantly higher in MCI patients compared to cognitively-normal peers only on financial abilities. Patients with MCI overestimated their abilities on this functional domain. MCI patients also tended to overestimate their driving abilities, though this was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION These findings provide evidence that awareness of functional difficulties is not a unitary construct; rather, it varies across functional domains. They also suggest that self-report of functional abilities in MCI may be, on the whole, as accurate as among cognitively-intact older adults. Even so, the self-objective discrepancies noted for both study groups suggest that supplementing self-report information with objective functional assessment might improve the detection of MCI. PMID:19467146
Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Griffith, H. Randall; Vance, David E.; Marson, Daniel C.; Ball, Karlene K.; Wadley, Virginia G.
Considerable evidence indicates that cognitive dysfunction and impairments in everyday life activities are common in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the relationship between these cognitive and functional deficits has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of cognitive dysfunction in the functional status of individuals with MS. Participants were 74 adults with MS and
Jessica H. Kalmar; Elizabeth A. Gaudino; Nancy B. Moore; June Halper; John DeLuca
Cognition has been studied extensively in schizophrenia in Western countries. Far less research is devoted, however, to cognitive functioning in brief psychotic disorder and schizophreniform disorder. Moreover, few studies have been performed in third world countries. In this study, we want to fill this gap by comparing the cognitive functioning of three groups of ambulant, first-episode patients with a non-affective
Malanda Ngoma; Kristof Vansteelandt; Philippe Delespaul; Lydia Krabbendam; Samuel Mampunza Ma Miezi; Joseph Peuskens
There is evidence that the cognitive effects of Alzheimer's disease can be seen decades before disease diagnosis. If this is the case, then the apolipoprotein E (APOE)*E4 allele might be expected to have effects on cognitive functioning earlier in the life span. To assess such effects, the authors examined data on the *E4 allele and cognitive functioning from a population
Anthony F. Jorm; Karen A. Mather; Peter Butterworth; Kaarin J. Anstey; Helen Christensen; Simon Easteal
Stressful or traumatic events have been shown to impair cognitive functioning on laboratory-based tasks due to stress-related intrusive thoughts and avoidance. However, research on the effects of stress on everyday cognitive functioning has been lacking. A sample of 909 undergraduates completed measures of perceived stress, PTSD symptoms, and everyday cognitive failures. The results revealed that both perceived stress and PTSD
Adriel Boals; Jonathan B. Banks
Background The influence of disease severity on cognitive and adaptive functioning in perinatally infected youth with (PHIV+/C) and without (PHIV+/NoC) a previous AIDS-defining illness (CDC Class C event), compared to perinatally exposed but uninfected youth (PHEU) is not well understood. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of cognitive and adaptive functioning in PHIV+/C (n=88), PHIV+/NoC (n=270), and PHEU (n=200) youth aged 7 to 16 years, from a multi-site prospective cohort study. Youth and caregivers completed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (ABAS-II) respectively. We compared means and rates of impairment between groups, and examined associations with other psychosocial factors. Results Overall mean scores on measures of cognitive and adaptive functioning were in the low average range for all three groups. After adjustment for covariates, mean full scale IQ (FSIQ) scores were significantly lower for the PHIV+/C group than the PHIV+/NoC and PHEU groups (mean=77.8 vs 83.4 and 83.3, respectively), while no significant differences were observed between the PHEU and PHIV+/NoC groups in any domain. Lower cognitive performance for the PHIV+/C group was primarily attributable to a prior diagnosis of encephalopathy. No significant differences between groups were observed in adaptive functioning. Conclusion For long-term survivors, youth with HIV infection and a prior CDC class C event have higher risk for cognitive but not adaptive impairment regardless of current health status; this finding appears attributable to a previous diagnosis of encephalopathy. Early preventive therapy may be critical in reducing risk of later neurodevelopmental impairments. PMID:22592486
Smith, Renee; Chernoff, Miriam; Williams, Paige L.; Malee, Kathleen M.; Sirois, Patricia A.; Kammerer, Betsy; Wilkins, Megan; Nichols, Sharon; Mellins, Claude; Usitalo, Ann; Garvie, Patricia; Rutstein, Richard
Background Poorer cognitive ability in youth is a risk factor for later mental health problems but it is largely unknown whether cognitive ability, in youth or in later life, is predictive of mental wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cognitive ability at age 11 years, cognitive ability in later life, or lifetime cognitive change are associated with mental wellbeing in older people. Methods We used data on 8191 men and women aged 50 to 87 years from four cohorts in the HALCyon collaborative research programme into healthy ageing: the Aberdeen Birth Cohort 1936, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921, the National Child Development Survey, and the MRC National Survey for Health and Development. We used linear regression to examine associations between cognitive ability at age 11, cognitive ability in later life, and lifetime change in cognitive ability and mean score on the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale and meta-analysis to obtain an overall estimate of the effect of each. Results People whose cognitive ability at age 11 was a standard deviation above the mean scored 0.53 points higher on the mental wellbeing scale (95% confidence interval 0.36, 0.71). The equivalent value for cognitive ability in later life was 0.89 points (0.72, 1.07). A standard deviation improvement in cognitive ability in later life relative to childhood ability was associated with 0.66 points (0.39, 0.93) advantage in wellbeing score. These effect sizes equate to around 0.1 of a standard deviation in mental wellbeing score. Adjustment for potential confounding and mediating variables, primarily the personality trait neuroticism, substantially attenuated these associations. Conclusion Associations between cognitive ability in childhood or lifetime cognitive change and mental wellbeing in older people are slight and may be confounded by personality trait differences. PMID:22970320
Gale, Catharine R.; Cooper, Rachel; Craig, Leone; Elliott, Jane; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus; Starr, John M.; Whalley, Lawrence J.; Deary, Ian J.
We analyzed national survey and linked Medicare enrollment data from 2004–2007 to examine the effects of expanded choice and benefits in Medicare Advantage on enrollment in Medicare Advantage or traditional Medicare. The availability of more plans was associated with increased Medicare Advantage enrollment when the number of options was small but decreased Medicare Advantage enrollment when the number became sufficiently high. Beneficiaries with low cognitive functioning were less responsive to the generosity of Medicare Advantage benefits in their decisions. Simplifying choice in Medicare Advantage and guiding beneficiaries to valuable options could improve enrollment decisions, strengthen value-based competition among plans, and extend the benefits of choice to seniors with impaired cognition. PMID:21852301
McWilliams, J. Michael; Afendulis, Christopher C.; McGuire, Thomas G.; Landon, Bruce E.
Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(?/?) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies. PMID:25244370
Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens
Solving cognitive issues in the exploration missions will require implementing results from both Human Behavior and Performance, and Space Human Factors Engineering. Operational and research cognitive requirements need to reflect a coordinated management approach with appropriate oversight and guidance from NASA headquarters. First, this paper will discuss one proposed management method that would combine the resources of Space Medicine and Space Human Factors Engineering at JSC, other NASA agencies, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Wyle Labs, and other academic or industrial partners. The proposed management is based on a Human Centered Design that advocates full acceptance of the human as a system equal to other systems. Like other systems, the human is a system with many subsystems, each of which has strengths and limitations. Second, this paper will suggest ways to inform exploration policy about what is needed for optimal cognitive functioning of the astronaut crew, as well as requirements to ensure necessary assessment and intervention strategies for the human system if human limitations are reached. Assessment strategies will include clinical evaluation and fitness-to-perform evaluations. Clinical intervention tools and procedures will be available to the astronaut and space flight physician. Cognitive performance will be supported through systematic function allocation, task design, training, and scheduling. Human factors requirements and guidelines will lead to well-designed information displays and retrieval systems that reduce crew time and errors. Means of capturing process, design, and operational requirements to ensure crew performance will be discussed. Third, this paper will describe the current plan of action, and future challenges to be resolved before a lunar or Mars expedition. The presentation will include a proposed management plan for research, involvement of various organizations, and a timetable of deliverables.
Fiedler, Edan; Woolford, Barbara
of cognitive disorders, such as neurofibromatosis type I. Mechanisms underlying long- term changes in synaptic associated with neurofi- bromatosis type I. Connecting Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms with LearningMolecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Cognitive Function: Implications for Psychiatric Disorders
Critical requirements for the hypothesis that executive functioning is a potential mediator of age-related effects on cognitive functioning are that variables assumed to reflect executive functioning represent a distinct construct and that age-related effects on other types of cognitive functioning are reduced when measures of executive functioning are statistically controlled. These issues were investigated in a study involving 261 adults
Timothy A. Salthouse; Thomas M. Atkinson; Diane E. Berish
Exercise has been shown to have positive effects on the brain and cognition in healthy older adults, though no study has directly examined possible cognitive benefits of formal exercise programs in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) living in structured facilities. Thirty one participants completed neuropsychological testing and measures of cardiovascular fitness at baseline and after 6 months of a structured exercise program that included aerobic and resistance training. While exercise improved cardiovascular fitness in persons with mild cognitive impairment, there was no improvement in cognitive function. Rather, mild cognitive impairment patients in this sample declined in performance on several tests sensitive to Alzheimer’s disease. Examined in the context of past work, it appears exercise may be beneficial prior to the onset of MCI, though less helpful after its onset. PMID:21244306
Miller, Lindsay A.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Busko, Susan; Potter, Vanessa; Juvancic-Heltzel, Judi; Istenes, Nancy; Glickman, Ellen; Gunstad, John
Background Cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health are important domains of function. Consistencies and inconsistencies in patterns of wellbeing across these domains may be informative about wellbeing in old age and the ways it is manifested amongst individuals. In this study we investigated whether there were groups of individuals with different profiles of scores across these domains. We also aimed to identify characteristics of any evident groups by comparing them on variables that were not used in identifying the groups. Methods The sample was the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, which included 1091 participants born in 1936. They are a community-dwelling, narrow-age-range sample of 70-year-olds. Most had taken part in the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 at an average age of 11, making available a measure of childhood intelligence. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to explore possible profiles using 9 variables indicating cognitive functioning, psychosocial wellbeing and health status. Demographic, personality, and lifestyle variables – none of which were used in the LCA – were used to characterize the resulting profile groups. Results We accepted a 3-group solution, which we labeled High Wellbeing (65.3%), Low Cognition (20.3%), and Low Bio-Psychosocial (14.5%). Notably, the High Wellbeing group had significantly higher childhood IQ, lower Neuroticism scores, and a lower percentage of current smokers than the other 2 groups. Conclusion The majority of individuals were functioning generally well; however, there was evidence of the presence of groups with different profiles, which may be explained in part in terms of cognitive ability differences. Results suggested that higher life-long intelligence, personality traits associated with less mental distress, and basic health practices such as avoiding smoking are important associates of wellbeing in old age. PMID:24754844
Background: Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2) is characterized by cerebellar atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, oculomotor apraxia, and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. The disease is caused by a recessive mutation in the senataxin gene. Since it is a very rare cerebellar disorder, no detailed examination of cognitive functions in AOA2 has been published to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile of a 54-year-old patient with AOA2. Methods: A broad range of neuropsychological examination protocol was administered including the following domains: short-term, working- and episodic-memories, executive functions, implicit sequence learning, and the temporal parameters of speech. Results: The performance on the Listening Span, Letter Fluency, Serial Reaction Time Task, and pause ratio in speech was 2 or more standard deviations (SD) lower compared to controls, and 1 SD lower on Backward Digit Span, Semantic Fluency, articulation rate, and speech tempo. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the pathogenesis of the cerebrocerebellar circuit in AOA2 is responsible for the weaker coordination of complex cognitive functions such as working memory, executive functions, speech, and sequence learning. PMID:23015802
Klivenyi, Peter; Nemeth, Dezso; Sefcsik, Tamas; Janacsek, Karolina; Hoffmann, Ildiko; Haden, Gabor Peter; Londe, Zsuzsa; Vecsei, Laszlo
Sucrose is not present in the internal milieu as such, so it is physically impossible that it may have a direct influence on cognitive functions, behaviour and knowledge. However, during the digestive process, disaccharides are released into monosaccharides, in the case of sucrose into glucose and fructose, which reach the liver via the portal vein. Finally, they go into bloodstream in the form of glucose and in some cases as very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). Brain needs almost exclusively a constant supply of glucose from the bloodstream. Adult brain requires about 140 g of glucose per day, which represents up to a 50% of total carbohydrates consumed daily in the diet. The consumption of a food or beverage enriched with sucrose has been associated with improved mental alertness, memory, reaction time, attention and ability to solve mathematical problems, as well as a reduction in the feeling of fatigue, both in healthy individuals and patients with Alzheimer disease. An adequate nutrition of brain contributes to structural and functional integrity of neurons. It has been shown that in major mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, depression and Alzheimer's disease, nutritional deficiencies at cellular level are implicated. At present, several studies highlight the need to improve understanding of the processes involved in the deterioration of cognitive functions and mechanisms through which, the nutritive components of the diet, particularly the sucrose, may modulate such functions. PMID:23834099
Zamora Navarro, Salvador; Pérez Llamas, Francisca
Summary Background Considering the high prevalence of dementia, it would be of great value to develop effective tools to improve cognitive function. We examined the effects of a human-type communication robot on cognitive function in elderly women living alone. Material/Methods In this study, 34 healthy elderly female volunteers living alone were randomized to living with either a communication robot or a control robot at home for 8 weeks. The shape, voice, and motion features of the communication robot resemble those of a 3-year-old boy, while the control robot was not designed to talk or nod. Before living with the robot and 4 and 8 weeks after living with the robot, experiments were conducted to evaluate a variety of cognitive functions as well as saliva cortisol, sleep, and subjective fatigue, motivation, and healing. Results The Mini-Mental State Examination score, judgement, and verbal memory function were improved after living with the communication robot; those functions were not altered with the control robot. In addition, the saliva cortisol level was decreased, nocturnal sleeping hours tended to increase, and difficulty in maintaining sleep tended to decrease with the communication robot, although alterations were not shown with the control. The proportions of the participants in whom effects on attenuation of fatigue, enhancement of motivation, and healing could be recognized were higher in the communication robot group relative to the control group. Conclusions This study demonstrates that living with a human-type communication robot may be effective for improving cognitive functions in elderly women living alone. PMID:22936190
Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Yamano, Emi; Ogikubo, Hiroki; Okazaki, Masatsugu; Kamimura, Kazuro; Konishi, Yasuharu; Emoto, Shigeru; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
Extant research findings allow several conclusions regarding the relationship between estrogen and cognitive functioning across the female life span. First, performance on tests of verbal memory fluctuates in concert with physiological changes in ovarian hormone production during the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Estrogen therapy (ET) prevents the decrease in verbal memory when administered immediately following the surgical removal of both ovaries in premenopausal women. Some, but relatively little evidence is available to support the idea that ET, initiated at the time of a natural or a surgical menopause for a few years, may protect against cognitive decline 30 years later and more research in this area is urgently needed. Finally, the evidence to date strongly suggests that the initiation of ET decades after the menopause has occurred does not protect against cognitive decline or dementia. Taken together, these findings support the so-called "window of opportunity" hypothesis which holds that ET will be neuroprotective only when administered closely in time to a natural or surgical menopause. PMID:22004260
Sherwin, Barbara B
In multiple sclerosis (MS) functional changes in connectivity due to cortical reorganization could lead to cognitive impairment (CI), or reflect a re-adjustment to reduce the clinical effects of widespread tissue damage. Such alterations in connectivity could result in changes in neural activation as assayed by executive function tasks. We examined cognitive function in MS patients with mild to moderate CI and age-matched controls. We evaluated brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the successful performance of the Wisconsin card sorting (WCS) task by MS patients, showing compensatory maintenance of normal function, as measured by response latency and error rate. To assess changes in functional connectivity throughout the brain, we performed a global functional brain network analysis by computing voxel-by-voxel correlations on the fMRI time series data and carrying out a hierarchical cluster analysis. We found that during the WCS task there is a significant reduction in the number of smaller size brain functional networks, and a change in the brain areas representing the nodes of these networks in MS patients compared to age-matched controls. There is also a concomitant increase in the strength of functional connections between brain loci separated at intermediate-scale distances in these patients. These functional alterations might reflect compensatory neuroplastic reorganization underlying maintenance of relatively normal cognitive function in the face of white matter lesions and cortical atrophy produced by MS. PMID:21152340
Helekar, Santosh A.; Shin, Jae C.; Mattson, Brandi J.; Bartley, Krystle; Stosic, Milena; Saldana-King, Toni; Montague, P. Read; Hutton, George J.
OBJECTIVE: Medication non-adherence has been a persistent problem over the past 3 decades; forgetting and being distracted from regular routines are the barriers most frequently cited by patients. Prior research on cognitive function and medication adherence has yielded mixed results. This report compares findings of 3 studies. DESIGN: All were longitudinal; two were randomized controlled intervention trials, one was descriptive. Samples of adult patients taking once daily lipid-lowering medication, diabetic patients with co-morbid conditions on complex regimens, and early-stage breast cancer patients on hormonal therapy completed similar batteries of standardized, valid neuropsychological tests at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adherence to medication regimens, over time, was tracked with electronic event monitors. RESULTS: Medication non-adherence was prevalent in all studies. Deficits in attention/mental flexibility and/or working memory predicted non-adherence in all studies; impaired executive function was related to poor adherence in 1 study. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that better mental efficiency may be the key to better medication adherence with any regimen and that targeted cognitive functions, which can be easily and quickly assessed, may identify patients at risk of poor adherence regardless of diagnosis or regimen. PMID:20063935
Stilley, Carol S.; Bender, Catherine M.; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Sereika, Susan; Ryan, Christopher M.
Executive function involves the efficient and adaptive engagement of the control processes of updating, shifting, and inhibition (Miyake, 2000) to guide behavior toward a goal. It is associated with decrements in many other cognitive functions due to aging (West, 1996; Raz, 2000) with itself particularly vulnerable to the effect of aging (Treitz et al., 2007). Cognitive training in the form of structural experience with executive coordination demands exhibited effective enhancement in the elderly (Hertzog et al., 2008). The current study was thus aimed at the development and evaluation of a training regime for executive function in the elderly. The breakfast cooking task of Craik and Bialystok (2006) was adapted into a multitasking training task in a session (pre-test vs. post-test) by group (control vs. training). In the training condition, participants constantly switched, updated, and planned in order to control the cooking of several foods and concurrently performed a table setting secondary task. Training gains were exhibited on task related measures. Transfer effect was selectively observed on the letter–number sequencing and digit symbol coding test. The cooking training produced short term increase in the efficiency of executive control processing. These effects were interpreted in terms of the process overlap between the training and the transfer tasks. PMID:21954388
Wang, Man-Ying; Chang, Chien-Yu; Su, Shou-Yi
Low carotenoid status (especially of the xanthophylls, lutein [L], and zeaxanthin [Z]) is common in older adults and has been associated with a number of degenerative diseases of the central nervous system ranging from retina (e.g., macular degeneration) to brain (e.g., Alzheimer's disease). In this study, we tested whether retinal measures of L + Z (macular pigment optical density [MPOD]), used as a surrogate for brain L + Z levels, were related to cognitive function when comparing healthy older adults with mildly cognitively impaired older adults. Twenty-four subjects with mild cognitive impairment were compared with 24 matched controls. Subjects were matched with respect to age, body mass index, ethnicity, sex, and smoking status. Degree of cognitive impairment and cognitive ability was determined via structured clinical interview. MPOD was measured psychophysically. In healthy older adults, MPOD was only related to visual-spatial and constructional abilities (p = 0.04). For subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), however, MPOD was broadly related to cognition including the composite score on the mini-mental state examination (p = 0.02), visual-spatial and constructional abilities (p = 0.04), language ability (p = 0.05), attention (p = 0.03), and the total scale on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (p = 0.03). It is possible that L/Z status may be more strongly related to cognition when individuals are considered with established onset of cognitive decline. PMID:24508218
Renzi, Lisa M; Dengler, Melissa J; Puente, Antonio; Miller, L Stephen; Hammond, Billy R
This intervention study compared an in-home cognitive training program to life story interview in 68 individuals with mild cognitive impairment or early-stage Alzheimer's disease. Family caregivers participated in sessions and reinforced learning between sessions. Analyses of covariance controlling for baseline levels were conducted. In comparison with the life story group, participants in the cognitive training group demonstrated significant improvement in all face-name association measures, several of the money-related tasks, and one of two event-related memory tasks. There were no differences in language outcomes or caregiver ratings of functional tasks except shopping. Caregivers in the life story group reported higher perceived satisfaction from being a caregiver. Comparison with earlier studies suggests in-home training is modestly more effective than office-based intervention. Results suggest that improvements are related to specific training and do not generalize to other tasks. Focusing on tasks of critical significance to participant and caregiver is recommended. PMID:24131045
Tappen, Ruth M; Hain, Debra
Cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia is an important target for novel therapies. Effectively measuring the cognitive effects of compounds in clinical trials of schizophrenia could be a major barrier to drug development. The Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) programme produced a consensus cognitive battery which is now widely used, however alternative assessments have advantages and disadvantages
Jennifer H. Barnett; Trevor W. Robbins; Verity C. Leeson; Barbara J. Sahakian; Eileen M. Joyce; Andrew D. Blackwell
OBJECTIVES Our primary aim was to examine whether preclinical disability in performance of cognitively-focused instrumental activities of daily living (C-IADL) tasks can discriminate between older adults with normal cognitive function and those with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The secondary purpose was to determine the two tasks with the strongest psychometric properties and assess their discriminative ability. Our goal was to generate diagnosis-relevant information about cognitive changes associated with MCI and DSM-5 Mild Neurocognitive Disorder. DESIGN Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from a cohort of individuals diagnosed with normal cognitive function or MCI. SETTING Private home locations in Pittsburgh, PA. PARTICIPANTS Older adults with remitted major depression (N=157). MEASUREMENTS Diagnosis of cognitive status was made by the Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at the University of Pittsburgh. Performance of 8 C-IADL was measured using the criterion-referenced, observation-based Performance Assessment of Self-Care Skills (PASS). RESULTS A total of 96 older adults with normal cognitive function (mean age=72.5, SD=5.9) and 61 older adults with MCI (mean age=75.5, SD=6.3) participated. The 8 C-IADL demonstrated 81% accuracy in discriminating cognitive status (area under curve 0.81, p<0.001). Two tasks (shopping and checkbook balancing) were the most discriminating (area under curve 0.80, p<0.001); they demonstrated similar ability, as the 8 C-IADL, to discriminate cognitive status. Assessing performance on these two C-IADL takes 10–15 minutes. CONCLUSION This is the first demonstration of the discriminative ability of preclinical disability in distinguishing MCI from cognitively normal older adults. These findings highlight potential tasks, when measured with the observation-based PASS, which demonstrate increased effort for individuals with MCI. These tasks may be considered when attempting to diagnose MCI or Mild Neurocognitive Disorder in clinical practice and research. PMID:24890517
Rodakowski, Juleen; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Butters, Meryl A.; Holm, Margo B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Rogers, Joan C.
With a longer life expectancy and an increased prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases, investigations on trajectories of cognitive aging have become exciting and promising. This study aimed to estimate the patterns of age-related cognitive decline and the potential associated factors of cognitive function in community-dwelling residents of Beijing, China. In this study, 1248 older adults aged 52-88 years [including 175 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects] completed a battery of neuropsychological scales. The personal information, including demographic information, medical history, eating habits, lifestyle regularity and leisure activities, was also collected. All cognitive function exhibited an agerelated decline in normal volunteers. Piece-wise linear fitting results suggested that performance on the Auditory Verbal Learning Test remained stable until 58 years of age and continued to decline thereafter. The decline in processing speed and executive function began during the early 50's. Scores on visual-spatial and language tests declined after 66 years of age. The decline stage of the general mental status ranged from 63 to 70 years of age. However, the MCI group did not exhibit an obvious age-related decline in most cognitive tests. Multivariate linear regression analyses indicated that education, gender, leisure activities, diabetes and eating habits were associated with cognitive abilities. These results indicated various trajectories of age-related decline across multiple cognitive domains. We also found different patterns of agerelated cognitive decline between MCI and normal elderly. These findings could help improve the guidance of cognitive intervention program and have implications for public policy issues. PMID:25212920
Li, He; Lv, Chenlong; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Kewei; Chen, Chuansheng; Gai, Guozhong; Hu, Liangping; Wang, Yongyan; Zhang, Zhanjun
Prenatal drug exposure (PDE) can undermine subsequent health and development. In a prospective longitudinal study we examine whether PDE moderates the link between stress reactivity and cognitive functioning in adolescence. Participants were 76 prenatally drug-exposed and 61 nonexposed (NE) community comparison African American youth (50% male, mean age 14.17 years) living in an urban setting. All participants completed neuropsychological and academic achievement tests (Children's Memory Scales, the California Verbal Learning Test - Children's version and the Wide Range Achievement Test 4) over the course of 1 day in a laboratory setting. Two mild stressors (Balloon Analog Risk Task - Youth and Behavioral Indicator of Resilience to Distress) were administered, with saliva samples (assayed for cortisol) collected pre- and poststress task. A higher percentage in the NE group, compared to the PDE group (26% vs. 12%, ?(2) = 4.70, d.f. = 1, n = 137, p = 0.03), exhibited task-related increases in salivary cortisol. PDE moderated the association between stress reactivity and 11 of 15 cognitive performance scales. In each case, the NE stress reactive group had better cognitive performance than either the NE lower cortisol reactive group or the PDE group regardless of stress reactivity status. Stress-related reactivity and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in adolescence may be disrupted by PDE, and the disruption may be linked to lower cognitive performance. PMID:24819393
Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Bento, Samantha P; Scaletti, Laura A; Koenig, James I; Granger, Douglas A; Black, Maureen M
Background\\/Aims: Recent studies suggest that vitamin D metabolites may be important for preserving cognitive function via specific neuroprotective effects. No large studies have examined the association between vitamin D status and cognition. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) test scores of 225 older outpatients who were diagnosed as having
C. Oudshoorn; N. van der Velde; E. M. Colin; T. J. M. van der Cammen
Background: Trataka, a type of yoga practice is considered to improve cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to test the effect of trataka on cognitive functions of the elderly. Materials and Methods: Elderly subjects were recruited based on inclusion and exclusion criteria (n = 60) and randomly divided using randomized block design into two groups: Trataka and wait list control group. Trataka (a visual cleansing technique) was given for a period of 1 month (26 days). The subjects in both groups were assessed on day 1 (pre- and postintervention in trataka group and after quiet sitting in control group) and on day 30 on Digit Span Test, Six Letter Cancellation Test (SLCT), and Trail Making Test-B (TMT-B). Results: Friedman's test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that at the 2nd follow-up there was significant improvement in digit span scores (z = ?3.35, P < 0.01) in the trataka group. SLCT scores (t = 5.08, P < 0.01) and TMT-B scores (t = ?4.26, P < 0.01) improved immediately after the practice of trataka (when baseline compared to first follow-up). At 1 month follow-up, trataka group showed significantly better performance in the SLCT test compared to baseline (t = ?3.93, P < 0.01) and TMT-B scores (t = 7.09, P < 0.01). Repeated measure analysis of variance (RM ANOVA) results also reiterated that there was significant interaction effect at the end of 1 month of trataka intervention as compared to control group on TMT-B and SLCT scores. Conclusions: The results of this study establish that Trataka can be used as a technique to enhance cognition in the elderly. PMID:25035618
Talwadkar, Shubhada; Jagannathan, Aarti; Raghuram, Nagarathna
Using the Algebraic Bethe Ansatz we consider the correlation functions of the integrable higher spin chains. We apply a method recently developed for the spin $\\frac 12$ Heisenberg chain, based on the solution of the quantum inverse problem. We construct a representation for the correlation functions on a finite chain for arbitrary spin. Then we show how the string solutions of the Bethe equations can be considered in the framework of this approach in the thermodynamic limit. Finally, a multiple integral representation for the spin 1 zero temperature correlation functions is obtained in the thermodynamic limit.
Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is ongoing. During late adolescence it is possible to disambiguate age- and education-related effects on the development of these processes. Here we assessed the degree to which higher educational attainment was related to performance on a cognitive control task, controlling for age. We then used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess the degree to which white matter microstructure might mediate this relationship. When covarying age, significant associations were found between educational attainment and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cingulum bundle (CB). Further, when covarying age, FA in these regions was associated with cognitive control. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the age-independent association between educational attainment and cognitive control was completely accounted for by FA in these regions. The uncinate fasciculus, a late-myelinated control region not implicated in cognitive control, did not mediate this effect. PMID:24033571
Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S.; Grieve, Stuart M.; Brickman, Adam M.
Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is ongoing. During late adolescence it is possible to disambiguate age- and education-related effects on the development of these processes. Here we assessed the degree to which higher educational attainment was related to performance on a cognitive control task, controlling for age. We then used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess the degree to which white matter microstructure might mediate this relationship. When covarying age, significant associations were found between educational attainment and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cingulum bundle (CB). Further, when covarying age, FA in these regions was associated with cognitive control. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the age-independent association between educational attainment and cognitive control was completely accounted for by FA in these regions. The uncinate fasciculus, a late-myelinated control region not implicated in cognitive control, did not mediate this effect. PMID:24033571
Noble, Kimberly G; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Grieve, Stuart M; Brickman, Adam M
Objectives: Blood pressure is an indicator of vascular health that has been associated with cognition and quality of life in older age. Few studies have examined blood pressure across everyday cognitive tasks, which may have superior predictive functional utility than traditional cognitive measures. We explored blood pressure as a predictor of everyday problem solving (EPS) performance in middle-aged and older
Sophie E. Yeung; Wendy Loken Thornton
Functional Analysis of Genes Implicated in Down Syndrome: 1. Cognitive Abilities in Mice be involved in specific cognitive func- tions. KEY WORDS: Chromosome 21; cognition; DCR-1; Down syndrome; fear Transpolygenic for Down Syndrome Chromosomal Region-1 (DCR-1) Caroline Chabert,1,5 Marc Jamon,2 Ameziane Cherfouh
Smith, Desmond J.
Computational modeling/cognitive robotics complements functional modeling/experimental psychology to the science of psychology from insights obtained by building and experimenting with cognitive robots. First to the science of psychology. Finally, the reciprocal interactions between computational modeling/cognitive
Memphis, University of
and cognition in bipolar disorder of a gene-environment interaction implicating genes known to exert and consequent cognitive disorder. The persistence of this association in late-life is examined. Methods a significant detrimental effect on cognitive functioning. Clinical studies show that children subject to abuse
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Baseline cognitive function was established for a study of pre- symptomatic cognitive decline in 1870 men from the general population aged 55–69 years as part of the third examination of the Caerphilly Study. Cognitive assessment included the AH4, a four choice serial reaction time task, a modified CAMCOG, MMSE, NART and various memory tests. Distributions and relationships with age, social
John E. J. Gallacher; Peter C. Elwood; Carole Hopkinson; Patrick M. A. Rabbitt; Brian T. Stollery; Peter M. Sweetnam; Carol Brayne; Felicia A. Huppert
For languages other than English there is a lack of empirical evidence about the cognitive profile of students entering higher education with a diagnosis of dyslexia. To obtain such evidence, we compared a group of 100 Dutch-speaking students diagnosed with dyslexia with a control group of 100 students without learning disabilities. Our study showed selective deficits in reading and writing (effect sizes for accuracy between d?=?1 and d?=?2), arithmetic (d?1), and phonological processing (d>0.7). Except for spelling, these deficits were larger for speed related measures than for accuracy related measures. Students with dyslexia also performed slightly inferior on the KAIT tests of crystallized intelligence, due to the retrieval of verbal information from long-term memory. No significant differences were observed in the KAIT tests of fluid intelligence. The profile we obtained agrees with a recent meta-analysis of English findings suggesting that it generalizes to all alphabetic languages. Implications for special arrangements for students with dyslexia in higher education are outlined. PMID:22719864
Impairment in executive cognition (EC) is now recognized as relatively common among older persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and may be predictive of the development of dementia. However, both MCI and executive functioning are broad and heterogeneous constructs. The present study sought to determine whether impairments in specific domains of EC are associated with specific subtypes of MCI. 124 MCI patients were divided into four subgroups (amnestic versus nonamnestic, and single- versus multiple-domain) based on their performance of widely-used neuropsychological screening tests. These patients and 68 normal elderly were administered 18 clinical and experimental tests of executive function. Principal components analysis suggested two highly reliable EC components, planning/problem-solving and working memory, and a less reliable third component, judgment. Planning/problem-solving and working memory, but not judgment, were impaired among the MCI patients. This was true even among those with Apure amnestic@ MCI, the least impaired group overall. Multiple-domain MCI patients had more severe impairments in planning/problem-solving and working memory than single-domain patients, leading to the supposition that they, not pure amnestic MCIs, are at highest risk of imminent dementia. PMID:19702414
Brandt, Jason; Aretouli, Eleni; Neijstrom, Eleanor; Samek, Jaclyn; Manning, Kevin; Albert, Marilyn S.; Bandeen-Roche, Karen
The objective of the present study was to assess the performance of lithium treated euthymic bipolar patients in tests measuring spatial working memory (SWM), planning, and verbal fluency and to delineate the influence of gender on cognitive functioning. Fifty-nine euthymic bipolar patients, treated with lithium carbonate for at least 5?yr, were studied. Patients and controls underwent a neuropsychological assessment. Bipolar patients had significantly worse results than the healthy controls in the spatial memory and planning as well as verbal fluency tests. We detected a gender-related imbalance in the SWM results. Deficits in SWM were observed in male-only comparisons but not in female-only comparisons. The SWM scores were significantly poorer in male patients than in male controls. In female-only comparisons, female patients did not have significantly poorer SWM results in any category than their controls. Bipolar women scored worse in some other tests. The present study points to the different patterns of neuropsychological disturbances in female and male patients and suggests that sex-dependent differences should be taken into account in order to tailor the therapeutic intervention aimed at the improvement of cognitive functions. PMID:24616627
Sleep disorders are associated with impaired cognition in the general population, but little attention has been given to the potential association between sleep and cognitive function in the dialysis population. This study investigated reported sleep difficulty and cognitive function scores in a national cohort of patients who initiated maintenance hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. The cognitive function scale of the Kidney
Nancy G. Kutner; Rebecca Zhang; Yijian Huang; Donald L. Bliwise
Greater amounts of physical activity (PA) and omega-3 fatty acids have both been independently associated with better cognitive performance. Because of the overlapping biological effects of omega-3 fatty acids and PA, fatty acid intake may modify the effects of PA on neurocognitive function. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining whether the ratio of serum omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid levels would moderate the association between PA and executive and memory functions in 344 participants (Mean age=44.42 years, SD=6.72). The Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ), serum fatty acid levels, and performance on a standard neuropsychological battery were acquired on all subjects. A principal component analysis reduced the number of cognitive outcomes to three factors: n-back working memory, Trail Making test, and Logical Memory. We found a significant interaction between PA and the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid serum levels on Trail Making performance and n-back performance, such that higher amounts of omega-3 levels offset the deleterious effects of lower amounts of PA. These effects remained significant in a subsample (n=299) controlling for overall dietary fat consumption. There were no significant additive or multiplicative benefits of higher amounts of both omega-3 and PA on cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids might mitigate the effect of lower levels of PA on cognitive performance. This study illuminates the importance of understanding dietary and PA factors in tandem when exploring their effects on neurocognitive health. PMID:24813150
Leckie, Regina L; Manuck, Stephen B; Bhattacharjee, Neha; Muldoon, Matthew F; Flory, Janine M; Erickson, Kirk I
Background\\/Aims: Previously we have shown that functional declines in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) correlate to global measures of cognitive decline. We now determine if the correlation between cognitive impairment and functional ability in PD is similar to that in AD using individual cognitive measures. Methods: 93 PD subjects and 124 AD\\/MCI subjects underwent the Functional Assessment Staging
M. N. Sabbagh; T. Lahti; D. J. Connor; J. N. Caviness; H. Shill; L. Vedders; P. Mahant; J. Samanta; R. S. Burns; V. G. H. Evidente; E. Driver-Dunckley; B. Reisberg; S. Bircea; C. H. Adler
in the Elderly (IQCODE; Jorm & Korten, 1988) relates to cognition and structural neuroimaging in a large as between the imaging variables and the IQCODE, did not differ across language-ethnic groups. (JINS, 2004 to understand the factors associated with decline of everyday functioning. There is a growing body of research
California at Davis, University of
Caffeine has been consumed since ancient times due to its beneficial effects on attention, psychomotor function, and memory. Caffeine exerts its action mainly through an antagonism of cerebral adenosine receptors, although there are important secondary effects on other neurotransmitter systems. Recently, functional MRI (fMRI) entered the field of neuropharmacology to explore the intracerebral sites and mechanisms of action of pharmacological agents. However, as caffeine possesses vasoconstrictive properties it may interfere with the mechanisms underlying the functional contrast in fMRI. Yet, only a limited number of studies dealt with the effect of caffeine on measures in fMRI. Even fewer neuroimaging studies examined the effects that caffeine exerts on cognition: Portas and colleagues used fMRI in an attentional task under different levels of arousal (sleep deprivation or caffeine administration), concluding that the thalamus is involved in mediating the interaction of attention and arousal. Bendlin and colleagues found caffeine to stabilize the extent of neuronal activation in repetitive word stem completion, counteracting the general task practice effect. Recently, Koppelstaetter and colleagues assessed the effect of caffeine on verbal working memory demonstrating a modulatory effect of caffeine on brain regions (medial frontopolar and anterior cingulate cortex) that have been associated with attentional and executive functions. This review surveys and discusses neuroimaging findings on 1) how caffeine affects the contrast underlying fMRI techniques, particularly the blood oxygen level dependent contrast (BOLD fMRI), and 2) how caffeine operates on neuronal activity underlying cognition, to understand the effect of caffeine on behavior and its neurobiological underpinnings. PMID:20182040
Koppelstaetter, Florian; Poeppel, Thorsten D; Siedentopf, Christian M; Ischebeck, Anja; Kolbitsch, Christian; Mottaghy, Felix M; Felber, Stephan R; Jaschke, Werner R; Krause, Bernd J
Late-life depression (LLD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are associated with medial temporal lobe structural abnormalities. However, the hippocampal functional connectivity (HFC) similarities and differences related to these syndromes when they occur alone or coexist are unclear. Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (R-fMRI) technique was used to measure left and right HFC in 72 elderly participants (LLD [n = 18], aMCI [n = 17], LLD with comorbid aMCI [n = 12], and healthy controls [n = 25]). The main and interactive relationships of LLD and aMCI on the HFC networks were determined, after controlling for age, gender, education and gray matter volumes. The effects of depressive symptoms and episodic memory deficits on the hippocampal functional connections also were assessed. While increased and decreased left and right HFC with several cortical and subcortical structures involved in mood regulation were related to LLD, aMCI was associated with globally diminished connectivity. Significant LLD–aMCI interactions on the right HFC networks were seen in the brain regions critical for emotion processing and higher-order cognitive functions. In the interactive brain regions, LLD and aMCI were associated with diminished hippocampal functional connections, whereas the comorbid group demonstrated enhanced connectivity. Main and interactive effects of depressive symptoms and episodic memory performance were also associated with bilateral HFC network abnormalities. In conclusion, these findings indicate that discrete hippocampal functional network abnormalities are associated with LLD and aMCI when they occur alone. However, when these conditions coexist, more pronounced vulnerabilities of the hippocampal networks occur, which may be a marker of disease severity and impending cognitive decline. By utilizing R-fMRI technique, this study provides novel insights into the neural mechanisms underlying LLD and aMCI in the functional network level. PMID:24273715
Xie, Chunming; Li, Wenjun; Chen, Gang; Ward, B. Douglas; Franczak, Malgorzata B.; Jones, Jennifer L.; Antuono, Piero G.; Li, Shi-Jiang; Goveas, Joseph S.
Presents an integrated view of contributions made by various sections within cognitive psychology in which problems of consciousness are addressed. Implications concerning the relationship between cognition and behavior are pointed out. (Author/RH)
An explosion of functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) studies investigating cortical activation in relation to higher cognitive processes, such as language, memory, and attention is underway worldwide involving adults, children and infants with typical and atypical cognition. The contemporary challenge of using fNIRS for cognitive neuroscience is to achieve systematic analyses of data such that they are universally interpretable, and thus may advance important scientific questions about the functional organization and neural systems underlying human higher cognition. Existing neuroimaging technologies have either less robust temporal or spatial resolution. Event Related Potentials and Magneto Encephalography (ERP and MEG) have excellent temporal resolution, whereas Positron Emission Tomography and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET and fMRI) have better spatial resolution. Using non-ionizing wavelengths of light in the near-infrared range (700-1000 nm), where oxy-hemoglobin is preferentially absorbed by 680 nm and deoxy-hemoglobin is preferentially absorbed by 830 nm (e.g., indeed, the very wavelengths hardwired into the fNIRS Hitachi ETG-400 system illustrated here), fNIRS is well suited for studies of higher cognition because it has both good temporal resolution (approximately 5s) without the use of radiation and good spatial resolution (approximately 4 cm depth), and does not require participants to be in an enclosed structure. Participants cortical activity can be assessed while comfortably seated in an ordinary chair (adults, children) or even seated in mom s lap (infants). Notably, NIRS is uniquely portable (the size of a desktop computer), virtually silent, and can tolerate a participants subtle movement. This is particularly outstanding for the neural study of human language, which necessarily has as one of its key components the movement of the mouth in speech production or the hands in sign language. The way in which the hemodynamic response is localized is by an array of laser emitters and detectors. Emitters emit a known intensity of non-ionizing light while detectors detect the amount reflected back from the cortical surface. The closer together the optodes, the greater the spatial resolution, whereas the further apart the optodes, the greater depth of penetration. For the fNIRS Hitachi ETG-4000 system optimal penetration / resolution the optode array is set to 2cm. Our goal is to demonstrate our method of acquiring and analyzing fNIRS data to help standardize the field and enable different fNIRS labs worldwide to have a common background. PMID:19638948
Shalinsky, Mark H; Kovelman, Iouila; Berens, Melody S; Petitto, Laura-Ann
The presence of dating violence victimization as well as its relation to psychiatric diagnosis and cognitive processes was examined in a sample of 155 adolescents hospitalized in a psychiatric facility. Participants and their parents completed semi-structured diagnostic interviews. Participants also completed self-report measures of dating violence victimization and cognitive functioning. Seventy-seven percent of adolescents who had initiated dating reported psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse by a dating partner over the past year. Victims of psychological abuse alone as well as physical and/or sexual violence endorsed higher rates of major depressive disorder compared to non-victims. Physical/sexual dating violence victims also endorsed significantly higher rates of PTSD and alcohol use disorders, more frequent co-occurrence of externalizing and internalizing disorders, and more frequent negative cognitive biases, relative to non-victimized adolescents. Findings suggest that psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents with dating violence histories represent a subgroup of adolescent inpatients with a particularly serious clinical picture. PMID:20824193
Rizzo, Christie J.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Spirito, Anthony; Thompson, Ariel
??These studies determined the effects of sodium chloride supplementation on serum and sweat sodium concentration, cardiovascular function, and physical and cognitive performance. Sweat sodium losses,… (more)
Pahnke, Matthew Daleon
Occupational injuries are common among firefighters who perform strenuous physical exertion in extreme heat. The thermal protective clothing (TPC) worn by firefighters inhibits normal thermoregulation, placing the firefighter at risk of hypohydration and hyperthermia that may result in cognitive decline. We tested whether cognitive function changes after treadmill exercise in TPC. In an initial study (Cog 1), ten healthy volunteers performed up to 50 min of treadmill exercise while wearing TPC in a heated room. A battery of neurocognitive tests evaluating short-term memory, sustained and divided attention, and reaction time was administered immediately before and after exercise. In a follow-up study (Cog 2), 19 healthy volunteers performed a similar exercise protocol with the battery of cognitive tests administered pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, and serially up to 120 min after exercise. Subjects performed 46.4 ± 4.6 and 48.1 ± 3.6 min of exercise in the Cog 1 and Cog 2, respectively. In both studies heart rate approached age predicted maximum, body mass was reduced 1.0-1.5 kg, and body core temperature increased to levels similar to what is seen after fire suppression. Neurocognitive test scores did not change immediately after exercise. Recall on a memory test was reduced 60 and 120 min after exercise. The mean of the 10 slowest reaction times increased in the 120 min after exercise. Fifty minutes of treadmill exercise in TPC resulted in near maximal physiologic strain but alterations in neurocognitive performance were not noted until an hour or more following exercise in TPC. PMID:21892644
Morley, Julia; Beauchamp, Gillian; Suyama, Joe; Guyette, Francis X; Reis, Steven E; Callaway, Clifton W; Hostler, David
and animal cognition utilizing the ontology. The IDA (Intelligent Distribution Agent) model of cognition of intelligence in animals is the search for cognitive processes in the animal mind. Such an approach For Intelligent Systems1 and Department of Biology2 The University of Memphis Memphis, TN 38152 USA The authors
Cognitive skills undergo protracted developmental changes resulting in proficiencies that are a hallmark of human cognition. One skill that develops over time is the ability to problem solve, which in turn relies on cognitive control and attention abilities. Here we use a novel multimodal neurocognitive network-based approach combining task-related fMRI, resting-state fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the
Kaustubh Supekar; Vinod Menon
Objective We examined functional performance on multiple indicators for two cognitive status groups: (a) not impaired controls (NIC) and (b) mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We identified functional markers associated with differences, changes, and stability in cognitive status. Method In the Victoria Longitudinal Study (VLS) we examined cognitive status group effects in (a) cross-sectional functional performance, (b) longitudinal stability, (c) longitudinal functional performance change, and (d) functional marker prediction of later cognitive status. We assembled markers from five continuous clusters of MCI-related functional factors: biological vitality, activity lifestyle, psychosocial affect, subjective health, and global cognition. We used a cross-sectional sample and a two-wave longitudinal sample, stratified by age (mid-old, old-old) and cognitive status (MCI, NIC). Results First, cross-sectional results showed that eight markers differentiated MCI and NIC adults, with the latter performing uniformly better. The groups differed on diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, positive and negative affect, MMSE, and the lifestyle indicators of self-maintenance, travel, and novel cognitive activities. Second, Wave1 to Wave2 stabilities in cognitive status classification were high. Third, several markers differentiated the stable (NIC-to-NIC, MCI-to-MCI) from the unstable (NIC-to-MCI, MCI-to-NIC) cognitive status groups. Fourth, five relevant markers for identifying older adults at risk for cognitive status changes were: diastolic blood pressure, self-maintenance activities, novel cognitive activities, positive affect, and global cognitive status. Conclusion Selected risk and protective factors differentiate persons classified with MCI from those not currently cognitively impaired, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. PMID:22251311
Dolcos, Sanda; MacDonald, Stuart W.S.; Braslavsky, Anna; Camicioli, Richard; Dixon, Roger A.
This paper presents the full generalization of the Cartesian coordinate-based higher-order theory for functionally graded materials developed by the authors during the past several years. This theory circumvents the problematic use of the standard micromechanical approach, based on the concept of a representative volume element, commonly employed in the analysis of functionally graded composites by explicitly coupling the local (microstructural) and global (macrostructural) responses. The theoretical framework is based on volumetric averaging of the various field quantities, together with imposition of boundary and interfacial conditions in an average sense between the subvolumes used to characterize the composite's functionally graded microstructure. The generalization outlined herein involves extension of the theoretical framework to enable the analysis of materials characterized by spatially variable microstructures in three directions. Specialization of the generalized theoretical framework to previously published versions of the higher-order theory for materials functionally graded in one and two directions is demonstrated. In the applications part of the paper we summarize the major findings obtained with the one-directional and two-directional versions of the higher-order theory. The results illustrate both the fundamental issues related to the influence of microstructure on microscopic and macroscopic quantities governing the response of composites and the technologically important applications. A major issue addressed herein is the applicability of the classical homogenization schemes in the analysis of functionally graded materials. The technologically important applications illustrate the utility of functionally graded microstructures in tailoring the response of structural components in a variety of applications involving uniform and gradient thermomechanical loading.
Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M.
Brain network topology provides valuable information on healthy and pathological brain functioning. Novel approaches for brain network analysis have shown an association between topological properties and cognitive functioning. Under the assumption that "stronger is better", the exploration of brain properties has generally focused on the connectivity patterns of the most strongly correlated regions, whereas the role of weaker brain connections has remained obscure for years. Here, we assessed whether the different strength of connections between brain regions may explain individual differences in intelligence. We analyzed-functional connectivity at rest in ninety-eight healthy individuals of different age, and correlated several connectivity measures with full scale, verbal, and performance Intelligent Quotients (IQs). Our results showed that the variance in IQ levels was mostly explained by the distributed communication efficiency of brain networks built using moderately weak, long-distance connections, with only a smaller contribution of stronger connections. The variability in individual IQs was associated with the global efficiency of a pool of regions in the prefrontal lobes, hippocampus, temporal pole, and postcentral gyrus. These findings challenge the traditional view of a prominent role of strong functional brain connections in brain topology, and highlight the importance of both strong and weak connections in determining the functional architecture responsible for human intelligence variability. PMID:24585433
Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Galli, Giulia; Polizzotto, Nicola Riccardo; Rossi, Alessandro; Rossi, Simone
Background It has been reported that oral health is poor in elderly populations and is associated with poor cognition and dementia. The objective of this study was to examine the association between tooth loss and cognitive function in a community-dwelling population in Japan. Methods We examined the association between tooth loss and cognitive function in 462 Japanese community-dwelling individuals. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was employed to measure global cognitive status. A multiple logistic regression analysis, with both crude and adjusted conditions for confounding factors, was used to assess the relationship between poor cognition and the number of remaining teeth. Results The overall prevalence of poor cognition (MMSE ? 23) in this study population was 5.6%. Subjects with poor cognition were significantly older, less educated, scored lower in intellectual activity, and had fewer remaining teeth than those with normal cognition. According to the multiple logistic regression analysis, a lower number of teeth (0–10) was found to be a significant independent risk factor (OR = 20.21, 95% confidence interval = 2.20 to 185.47) of cognitive impairment. Conclusions This cross-sectional study on a Japanese community-dwelling population revealed relationships between tooth loss and cognitive function. However, the interpretation of our results was hampered by a lack of data, including socioeconomic status and longitudinal observations. Future research exploring tooth loss and cognitive function is warranted. PMID:23800274
Adherence to a Mediterranean diet has recently been shown to protect against cognitive decline and dementia. It remains unclear, however, whether such protection extends to different ethnic groups and middle-aged individuals and how it might compare with adherence to the US Department of Agriculture's 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (measured with Healthy Eating Index 2005 [HEI 2005]). This study examined associations between diet quality, as assessed by the Mediterranean diet and HEI 2005, and cognitive performance in a sample of 1,269 Puerto Rican adults aged 45 to 75 years and living in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts. Dietary intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire specifically designed for and validated with this population. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed with a 0- to 9-point scale, and the HEI 2005 score was calculated with a maximum score of 100. Cognitive performance was measured with a battery of seven tests and the Mini Mental State Examination was used for global cognitive function. Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with higher Mini Mental State Examination score (P trend=0.012) and lower likelihood (odds ratio=0.87 for each additional point; 95% CI 0.80 to 0.94; P<0.001) of cognitive impairment, after adjustment for confounders. Similarly, individuals with higher HEI 2005 score had higher Mini Mental State Examination score (P trend=0.011) and lower odds of cognitive impairment (odds ratio=0.86 for each 10 points; 95% CI 0.74 to 0.99; P=0.033). In conclusion, high adherence to either the Mediterranean diet or the diet recommended by the US Department of Agriculture 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans can protect cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:23351632
Ye, Xingwang; Scott, Tammy; Gao, Xiang; Maras, Janice E; Bakun, Peter J; Tucker, Katherine L
Background The cerebellum is a brain region recognized primarily in the coordination of movement and related accessory motor functions. In addition, emerging evidence implicates the cerebellum in cognitive processes and suggests that this brain region may be subject to experience-dependent plastic changes in structure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of early environmental deprivation in the maturation of the cerebellum and aspects of cognitive development. Methods Structural MRI volumes of 12 cerebellar sub-regions from 31 previously-neglected and 30 typically developing children were compared to subjects’ corresponding neuropsychological test scores. Results Neglected children had smaller volume of the superior-posterior cerebellar lobes. Moreover, superior-posterior lobe volume was found to mediate neuropsychological test performance differences between groups, with larger volumes yielding better outcomes on tests of memory and planning. Conclusions These data support the importance of experience-dependent plastic changes in cerebellar structure and highlight the role of the cerebellum in higher cognitive functions. PMID:19660739
Bauer, Patrick M.; Hanson, Jamie L.; Pierson, Ronald K.; Davidson, Richard J.; Pollak, Seth D.
As longevity increases, so does the global prevalence of cognitive dysfunction. Numerous lifestyle and/or dietary interventions such as omega-3 fatty acids have been suggested to improve memory. Therefore, this study examined the consistency and strength of the impact of supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids on overall cognitive function using systematic reviews and meta-analytic methods. Of 905 studies retrieved from all searches, 12 randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. There were differences between studies reporting outcomes for single memory function parameters. Subgroup analysis of doses used (low versus high) indicated that subjects receiving low (<1.73 g/day) doses of omega-3 fatty acids had a significant reduction in cognitive decline rate (?0.07, 95% confidence interval ?0.01, ?0.02) but there was no evidence for beneficial effects at higher doses (+0.04, 95% confidence interval ?0.06, +0.14) compared with the placebo group. This study suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in preventing memory decline at lower doses.
Abubakari, Abdul-Razak; Naderali, Mohammad-Mahdi; Naderali, Ebrahim K
The delineation of the interrelationships between cognitive and physical functioning in older adults is critical to determining pathways to disability. By using longitudinal data from 395 initially high-functioning, community-dwelling older women in Baltimore, Maryland, from the Women's Health and Aging Study II (from 1994 to 2006), we simultaneously assessed associations of cognition with later physical functioning and associations of physical functioning with later cognition. The analysis included measures of global cognition and 2 cognitive domains (executive functioning and memory), as well as 2 measures of physical functioning (a Short Physical Performance Battery and a 4-meter test of usual walking speed). We found the strongest bidirectional associations of memory with physical functioning and less evidence of associations of physical functioning with executive functioning and global cognition. For a 1-standard deviation increase in walking speed, subsequent memory increased by 0.08 standard deviations (95% confidence interval: (0.03, 0.13)). For a 1-standard deviation increase in memory, subsequent walking speed increased by 0.07 standard deviations (95% confidence interval: 0.03, 0.10). Associations were similar in magnitude for models using a Short Physical Performance Battery. We did not find evidence that associations between cognitive and physical functioning varied over time. Our results suggest that cognition, and particularly memory, is associated with subsequent physical functioning and vice versa. PMID:25205829
Krall, Jenna R; Carlson, Michelle C; Fried, Linda P; Xue, Qian-Li
BackgroundChildhood neuromotor dysfunction is a risk factor for schizophrenia, a disorder in which cognitive deficits are prominent. The relationship between early neurodevelopment and adult cognition in schizophrenia remains unclear.
G. K. Murray; P. B. Jones; K. Moilanen; J. Veijola; J. Miettunen; T. D. Cannon; M. Isohanni
This thesis explores genetic algorithm and rule-based optimization techniques used by cognitive radios to make operating parameter decisions. Cognitive radios take advantage of intelligent control methods by using sensed ...
Newman, Timothy Ray
Increasing evidence suggests that disrupted temporal organization impairs behavior, cognition, and affect; further, disruption of circadian clock genes impairs sleep/wake cycle and social rhythms which may be implicated in mental disorders. Despite this strong evidence, a gap in understanding the neural mechanisms of this interaction obscures whether biological rhythms disturbances are the underlying causes or merely symptoms of these diseases. Here, we review current understanding, emerging concepts, gaps and opportunities pertinent to: (1) the neurobiology of the interactions between circadian oscillators and the neural circuits subserving higher brain function and behaviors of relevance to mental health, (2) the most promising approaches to determine how biological rhythms regulate brain function and behavior under normal and pathological conditions, (3) gaps and challenges to advancing knowledge on the link between disrupted circadian rhythms/sleep and psychiatric disorders, and (4) novel strategies for translation of basic science discoveries in circadian biology to clinical settings to define risk, prevent or delay onset of mental illnesses, design diagnostic tools and propose new therapeutic strategies. The review is organized around five themes pertinent to: (1) the impact of molecular clocks on physiology and behavior, (2) interactions between circadian signals and cognitive functions, (3) the interface of circadian rhythms with sleep (4) a clinical perspective on the relationship between circadian rhythm abnormalities and affective disorders, and (5) pre-clinical models of circadian rhythm abnormalities and mood disorders. PMID:19766673
Benca, Ruth; Duncan, Marilyn J.; Frank, Ellen; McClung, Colleen; Nelson, Randy J.; Vicentic, Aleksandra
There is evidence that having a stronger sense of positive well-being may be a potential resource for healthier aging as represented by slower physical decline, reduced risk of frailty and longer survival. However, it is unclear whether positive well-being is protective of another crucial component of healthy aging, cognitive function, or whether it has a bidirectional relationship with cognitive function. We use multilevel models with within-person centering to estimate the within- and between-person association between cognitive function and positive well-being in 4 waves of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), (N = 10985, aged 50–90 years at wave 1). Our findings show that, although most variation in cognitive function was explained by age, and most variation in well-being was explained by depression, small but significant associations between cognition and well-being remained after variation in age and depression were controlled. In models where cognition was the outcome, the association was mainly because of variation in mean levels of well-being between persons. In models where well-being was the outcome, the association was mainly because of within-person fluctuation in cognitive test performance. Exercise and depression were the most important moderating influences on the association between cognition and positive well-being. Depression had greater effect upon this association for those with higher well-being, but exercise protected cognitive performance against the adverse effects of lower well-being. PMID:24955999
This paper reports a comparison of a group of higher-and lower-achieving undergraduate chemistry students, 17 in total, as separated on their ability in stoichiometry. This exploratory study of 17 students investigated parallels and differences in the students' general and domain-specific cognitive abilities. Performance, strategies, and…
Gulacar, Ozcan; Eilks, Ingo; Bowman, Charles R.
Interviews 9th and 10th grade students (n=13) who studied an ecology unit and analyzed tape-recorded data for changes in organization of knowledge, represented by ideational networks and the development of higher cognitive operations. Provides insights into how students developed knowledge schemata, ideational networks, and the capacity to express…
Bischoff, Paul J.; Anderson, O. Roger
This paper examines the effects of using weblog technologies to support cooperative learning in higher education. The study focused on the effects of features embedded in weblogs on social interactions, time lags, and cognitive loads. A quasi-experimental control-group research design was adopted. The participants were 115 undergraduates who were…
Huang, Tien-Chi; Huang, Yueh-Min; Yu, Fu-Yun
Recent reports suggest a causal relationship between education and IQ, which has implications for cognitive development and aging-education may improve cognitive reserve. In two longitudinal cohorts, we tested the association between education and lifetime cognitive change. We then tested whether education is linked to improved scores on processing-speed variables such as reaction time, which are associated with both IQ and longevity. Controlling for childhood IQ score, we found that education was positively associated with IQ at ages 79 (Sample 1) and 70 (Sample 2), and more strongly for participants with lower initial IQ scores. Education, however, showed no significant association with processing speed, measured at ages 83 and 70. Increased education may enhance important later life cognitive capacities, but does not appear to improve more fundamental aspects of cognitive processing. PMID:23276218
Ritchie, Stuart J; Bates, Timothy C; Der, Geoff; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J
Eukaryotic cells are defined by the genetic information that is stored in their DNA. To function, this genetic information must be decoded. In doing this, the information encoded in DNA is copied first into RNA, during RNA transcription. Primary RNA transcripts are generated within transcription factories, where they are also processed into mature mRNAs, which then pass to the cytoplasm. In the cytoplasm these mRNAs can finally be translated into protein in order to express the genetic information as a functional product. With only rare exceptions, the cells of an individual multicellular eukaryote contain identical genetic information. However, as different genes must be expressed in different cell types to define the structure and function of individual tissues, it is clear that mechanisms must have evolved to regulate gene expression. In higher eukaryotes, mechanisms that regulate the interaction of DNA with the sites where nuclear functions are performed provide one such layer of regulation. In this chapter, I evaluate how a detailed understanding of nuclear structure and chromatin dynamics are beginning to reveal how spatial mechanisms link chromatin structure and function. As these mechanisms operate to modulate the genetic information in DNA, the regulation of chromatin function by nuclear architecture defines the concept of 'spatial epigenetics'. PMID:20822484
Jackson, Dean A
Ample evidence suggests that electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillatory activity is linked to a broad variety of perceptual, sensorimotor, and cognitive operations. However, few studies have investigated the delta band (0.5-3.5 Hz) during different cognitive processes. The aim of this review is to present data and propose the hypothesis that sustained delta oscillations inhibit interferences that may affect the performance of mental tasks, possibly by modulating the activity of those networks that should be inactive to accomplish the task. It is clear that two functionally distinct and potentially competing brain networks can be broadly distinguished by their contrasting roles in attention to the external world vs. the internally directed mentation or concentration. During concentration, EEG delta (1-3.5 Hz) activity increases mainly in frontal leads in different tasks: mental calculation, semantic tasks, and the Sternberg paradigm. This last task is considered a working memory task, but in neural, as well as phenomenological, terms, working memory can be best understood as attention focused on an internal representation. In the Sternberg task, increases in power in the frequencies from 1 to 3.90 Hz in frontal regions are reported. In a Go/No-Go task, power increases at 1 Hz in both conditions were observed during 100-300 ms in central, parietal and temporal regions. However, in the No-Go condition, power increases were also observed in frontal regions, suggesting its participation in the inhibition of the motor response. Increases in delta power were also reported during semantic tasks in children. In conclusion, the results suggest that power increases of delta frequencies during mental tasks are associated with functional cortical deafferentation, or inhibition of the sensory afferences that interfere with internal concentration. These inhibitory oscillations would modulate the activity of those networks that should be inactive to accomplish the task. PMID:24367301
Ample evidence suggests that electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillatory activity is linked to a broad variety of perceptual, sensorimotor, and cognitive operations. However, few studies have investigated the delta band (0.5–3.5 Hz) during different cognitive processes. The aim of this review is to present data and propose the hypothesis that sustained delta oscillations inhibit interferences that may affect the performance of mental tasks, possibly by modulating the activity of those networks that should be inactive to accomplish the task. It is clear that two functionally distinct and potentially competing brain networks can be broadly distinguished by their contrasting roles in attention to the external world vs. the internally directed mentation or concentration. During concentration, EEG delta (1–3.5 Hz) activity increases mainly in frontal leads in different tasks: mental calculation, semantic tasks, and the Sternberg paradigm. This last task is considered a working memory task, but in neural, as well as phenomenological, terms, working memory can be best understood as attention focused on an internal representation. In the Sternberg task, increases in power in the frequencies from 1 to 3.90 Hz in frontal regions are reported. In a Go/No-Go task, power increases at 1 Hz in both conditions were observed during 100–300 ms in central, parietal and temporal regions. However, in the No-Go condition, power increases were also observed in frontal regions, suggesting its participation in the inhibition of the motor response. Increases in delta power were also reported during semantic tasks in children. In conclusion, the results suggest that power increases of delta frequencies during mental tasks are associated with functional cortical deafferentation, or inhibition of the sensory afferences that interfere with internal concentration. These inhibitory oscillations would modulate the activity of those networks that should be inactive to accomplish the task. PMID:24367301
The Cognitive Function Analysis is a methodology supported by a mediating tool for the human-centered automation of safety-critical systems (4). It is based on a socio-cognitive model linking the artifact being designed, the user's activity, the task to be performed, and the organizational environment. Cognitive functions can be allocated to humans or machines. They are characterized by their role, context
Guy A. Boy
Purpose of the study Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with neuropsychiatric complaints. Previous studies have associated cognitive alterations with HCV infection but have often included confounding factors in their samples. This study compares the cognitive performance between patients with HCV infection (HCV patients) and a control group while excluding other factors that may cause cognitive impairment. Study design This cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2010 through June 2011. HCV infected patients and healthy individuals between the ages of 18 and 80?years were considered eligible. The exclusion criteria included well established causes of cognitive impairment such as depression and cirrhosis. Study participants underwent neuropsychological testing involving measures of attention, memory, abstraction, visuoconstructive abilities, and executive function. Results Of 138 initial patients, 47 were excluded because of their medical records, three refused to participate, 23 did not attend the consultation, and 32 were excluded because of having Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores >11. In all, 33 patients underwent neuropsychological testing; however, three were excluded because of having hypothyroidism, and one was excluded because of having a cobalamin deficiency. For the control group, of the 33 healthy individuals that were selected, four were excluded because of having BDI scores >11. Thus, the final analysis included 29 HCV patients and 29 control participants. The groups did not differ in education, age, or gender. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups regarding cognitive performance. Conclusions In this study using strict selection criteria, there was no evidence of an association between HCV infection and cognitive impairment. PMID:23625064
Abrantes, Jefferson; Torres, Daniel Simplicio; de Mello, Carlos Eduardo Brandao
BACKGROUND: Decrease in intrinsic motivation is a common complaint among elementary and junior high school students, and is related to poor academic performance. Since grade-dependent development of cognitive functions also influences academic performance by these students, we examined whether cognitive functions are related to the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation. METHODS: The study group consisted of 134 elementary
Kei Mizuno; Masaaki Tanaka; Sanae Fukuda; Kyoko Imai-Matsumura; Yasuyoshi Watanabe
AIMSTo examine the relation between birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years, and to examine whether this relation is independent of social class.METHODSRetrospective cohort study based on birth records from 1921 and cognitive function measured while at school at age 11 in 1932. Subjects were 985 live singletons born in the Edinburgh Royal Maternity and Simpson Memorial Hospital
S D Shenkin; J M Starr; A Pattie; M A Rush; L J Whalley; I J Deary
Aim: To examine the cognitive functioning of young people with pantothenate-kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) after pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS). PKAN is characterized by progressive generalized dystonia and has historically been associated with cognitive decline. With growing evidence that DBS can improve motor function in…
Mahoney, Rachel; Selway, Richard; Lin, Jean-Pierre
While it is known that children of schizophrenia parents perform more poorly on tests of cognitive functioning than children of normal parents, less certain is the degree to which such deficits predict schizophrenia outcome, whether cognitive functioning deteriorates during childhood in preschizophrenia individuals, and whether nongenetic etiologic factors (such as obstetric complications) contribute to these deficits. In the present study,
Tyrone D. Cannon; Carrie E. Bearden; J. Megginson Hollister; Isabelle M. Rosso; Laura E. Sanchez; Trevor Hadley
The heterozygote reeler mouse (HRM) shows many neuroanatomical and biochemical features that are also present in some human cognitive disorders, such as schizophrenia. In the present study, hippocampal dependent plasticity and cognitive function of the HRM were characterized in detail in an attempt to reveal phenotypic functional differences that result from Reelin haploinsufficiency. The HRM and wild type mice show
Shenfeng Qiu; Kimberly M. Korwek; Adeola R. Pratt-Davis; Melinda Peters; Mica Yael Bergman; Edwin J. Weeber
Objective Findings in the literature are inconsistent on the impact of congenital heart disease (CHD) on the psychological and cognitive functioning of children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to systematically review this empirical body of literature. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis to review studies on behavior problems and cognitive functioning in CHD. Results Only older children
Petra A. Karsdorp; Walter Everaerd; Merel Kindt; Barbara J. M. Mulder
Individual differences in cognitive performance increase from early to late adulthood, likely reflecting influences of a multitude of factors. We hypothesize that losses in neurochemical and anatomical brain resources in normal aging modulate the effects of common genetic variations on cognitive functioning. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that the function relating brain resources to cognition is nonlinear, so that genetic differences exert increasingly large effects on cognition as resources recede from high to medium levels in the course of aging. Direct empirical support for this hypothesis comes from a study by Nagel et al. (2008), who reported that the effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) gene on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and interacted with the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) gene. We conclude that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. Extensions of the hypothesis to other polymorphisms are discussed. (150 of 150 words) PMID:19225597
Lindenberger, Ulman; Nagel, Irene E.; Chicherio, Christian; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Backman, Lars
Experimental intravenous challenge of 8-week old cats with the Maryland isolate of feline immunodeficiency virus, Maryland isolate (FIV-MD) was investigated for its effects on cognitive and behavioral function at 12 months postinfection. Six cats infected with FIV-MD were compared with age-matched controls on several behavioral measures. These measures included an open field observation, locomotion tests, traversing planks of various widths for food reinforcement, and a spatial learning task. No group differences were observed on any measure of locomotion. Differences were present with exploratory and stationary activity in the open field observation, with infected cats exhibiting higher levels of exploratory activity and in less stationary activity compared with that of control cats. In the plank-walking experiment, infected cats were less able to successfully cross progressively narrower planks compared with control animals. A holeboard paradigm was constructed to test spatial learning and memory, in which cats were required to locate food reinforcement based on position in the holeboard array. As a group, FIV-infected cats committed more reference (exploring an unbaited cup) and working memory (returning to a previously visited baited cup) errors than control cats. The main difference demonstrated was a higher activity level and associated distractibility in FIV-infected cats that appears to be related to their overall deficient performance when learning new tasks. These results indicate that behavioral function is altered and cognition is quantitatively impaired in FIV-infected cats. PMID:10225221
Steigerwald, E S; Sarter, M; March, P; Podell, M
The assessment of mental health consumers' functional independence is a core duty of occupational therapists. Despite the clear impact of cognition on functional outcomes, it is not always routinely assessed. We sought to explore the relationship between cognition and functional independence as well as to describe which areas of performance were most challenging for the sample. Two hundred and twenty-five assessment reports were analysed. These included a "skills summary table" rating independence in a variety of basic and instrumental activities of daily living and a measure of cognition (using the Allen Cognitive Level test (ACL)). Rasch analysis was used to evaluate the internal validity of the "skills summary table" instrument and to construct person measures of functional independence. Correlational and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to explore relationships between functional independence, cognition, diagnosis, age and gender. Functional cognition explained 30% of the variance in functional independence. The most challenging areas of performance included medication management, money management, housework and cooking. This project confirms the importance of including routine assessment of functional cognition as a key element of functional independence and provides further evidence for the validity of observational assessment of basic and instrumental activities of daily living. PMID:23521900
Scanlan, Justin Newton; Still, Megan
Calibrated BOLD fMRI is a promising alternative to the classic BOLD contrast due to its reduced venous sensitivity and greater physiological specificity. The delayed adoption of this technique for cognitive studies may stem partly from a lack of information on the reproducibility of these measures in the context of cognitive tasks. In this study we have explored the applicability and reproducibility of a state-of-the-art calibrated BOLD technique using a complex functional task at 7 tesla. Reproducibility measures of BOLD, CBF, CMRO2 flow-metabolism coupling n and the calibration parameter M were compared and interpreted for three ROIs. We found an averaged intra-subject variation of CMRO2 of 8% across runs and 33% across days. BOLD (46% across runs, 36% across days), CBF (33% across runs, 46% across days) and M (41% across days) showed significantly higher intra-subject variability. Inter-subject variability was found to be high for all quantities, though CMRO2 was the most consistent across brain regions. The results of this study provide evidence that calibrated BOLD may be a viable alternative for longitudinal and cognitive MRI studies. PMID:25008001
Krieger, Steffen N; Gauthier, Claudine J; Ivanov, Dimo; Huber, Laurentius; Roggenhofer, Elisabeth; Sehm, Bernhard; Turner, Robert; Egan, Gary F
Objectives Few studies have explored the impact of different types of neglect on children’s development. Measures of cognition, language, behavior, and parenting stress were used to explore differences between children experiencing various forms of neglect, as well as to compare children with and without a history of early neglect. Methods Children, ages 3 to 10 years with a history of familial neglect (USN), were compared to children with a history of institutional rearing (IA) and children without a history of neglect using the Differential Abilities Scale, Test of Early Language Development, Child Behavior Checklist, and Parenting Stress Index. Factors predicting child functioning were also explored. Results Compared with youth that were not neglected, children with a history of USN and IA demonstrated lower cognitive and language scores and more behavioral problems. Both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were most common in the USN group. Externalizing behavior problems predicted parenting stress. Higher IQ could be predicted by language scores and an absence of externalizing behavior problems. When comparing the two neglect groups, shorter time spent in a stable environment, lower scores on language skills, and the presence of externalizing behavior predicted lower IQ. Conclusion These findings emphasize the importance of early stable, permanent placement of children who have been in neglectful and pre-adoptive international settings. While an enriching environment may promote resilience, children who have experienced early neglect are vulnerable to cognitive, language and behavioral deficits and neurodevelopmental and behavioral evaluations are required to identify those in need of intervention. PMID:23678396
Spratt, Eve G.; Friedenberg, Samantha L.; Swenson, Cynthia C.; LaRosa, Angela; De Bellis, Michael D.; Macias, Michelle M.; Summer, Andrea P.; Hulsey, Thomas C.; Runyan, Des K.; Brady, Kathleen T.
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of Dexmedetomidine combined with Dezocine on the cognition and hippocampal microglia activation of rats. Methods: Laparotomy was successfully performed in 48 rats which were then divided into Dexmedetomidine+Dezocine group and Dezocine group. Rats in Dexmedetomidine+dezocine group were infused with Dexmedetomidine and dezocine via the tail vein after anesthesia; rats in Dezocine group were infused with dezocine via the tail vein. After surgery, rats underwent detection of learning and memory functions at 1, 3, and 7 days after surgery, and the neuroglobin and norepinephrine expression was detected in the hippocampal microglia at the same time points. Results: 1, 3 and 7 days after surgery, the latency to escape in Dexmedetomidine+Dezocine group was significantly shorter than that in Dezocine group, and the number of cells positive for neuroglobin or norepinephrine in the CAL region of hippocampus of Dexmedetomidine+Dezocine group was also markedly higher than that of Dezocine group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Surgery and anesthesia have influence on the cognition of rats to a certain degree, and dexmedetomidine combined with dezocine can effectively improve the impaired cognition due to surgery and anesthesia, which may be attributed to the increase in the protective neuroglobin and norepinephrine in the hippocampus. PMID:25356140
Wan, Qiuxia; Xu, Lufeng; Bo, Yulong
The purpose of the present study was to provide basic data to identify which types of exercise promote health of older adults. To this end, this study investigated how exercise affects frailty, depression, and cognitive functions in older adults. Frailty, depression, and cognitive function assessed in the exercise participants, 164 older adult women. Results revealed that participants’ frailty and depression varied according to exercise participation time and frequency. In particular, dancing was more effective than other types of exercise in reducing frailty and depression. Exercise duration and frequency did not influence cognitive function, but results indicated that table tennis exerted a greater influence on cognitive function than other types of exercise did. In addition, cognitive function differed according to the degree of frailty participants displayed.
Jeoung, Bog Ja
Introduction Previous studies have identified hyperlipidemia as a potential risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. However, studies on cholesterol measured in late-life and cognitive function have been inconsistent. Few studies have explored nonlinear relationships or considered interactions with other biomarker measures. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 1,889 participants from four rural counties in the People’s Republic of China was included in this analysis. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and homocysteine levels were measured in fasting blood samples. A composite cognitive score was derived based on nine standardized cognitive test scores. Analysis of covariance models were used to investigate the association between biomarker measures and the composite cognitive scores. Results There was a significant interaction between the homocysteine quartile group and the cholesterol quartile group on cognitive scores (P=0.0478). In participants with normal homocysteine levels, an inverse U-shaped relationship between total cholesterol level and cognitive score was found, indicating that both low and high cholesterol levels were associated with lower cognitive scores. In participants with high homocysteine levels, no significant association between cholesterol and cognition was found. Conclusion The relationship between cholesterol levels and cognitive function depends upon homocysteine levels, suggesting an interactive role between cholesterol and homocysteine on cognitive function in the elderly population. Additional research is required to confirm our findings in other populations, and to explore potential mechanisms underlying the lipid–homocysteine interaction. PMID:25364240
Cheng, Yibin; Jin, Yinlong; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Su, Liqin; Yang, Lili; Ma, Feng; Hake, Ann M; Kettler, Carla; Chen, Chen; Liu, Jingyi; Bian, Jianchao; Li, Ping; Murrell, Jill R; Hendrie, Hugh C; Gao, Sujuan
Objective: The clinical relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cognitive function or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is not well-understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between serum BDNF and cognitive function and MCI, and determine whether serum BDNF level might be a useful biomarker for assessing risk for MCI in older people. Materials and Methods: A total of 4463 individuals aged 65?years or older (mean age 72?years) participating in the study. We measured performance in a battery of neuropsychological and cognitive function tests; serum BDNF concentration. Results: Eight hundred twenty-seven participants (18.8%) had MCI. After adjustment for sex, age, education level, diabetes, and current smoking, serum BDNF was associated with poorer performance in the story memory, and digit symbol substitution task scores. Serum BDNF was marginally associated with the presence of MCI (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.41, 1.00–1.99) when BDNF was 1.5 SD lower than the mean value standardized for sex and age, education level, diabetes, and current smoking. Conclusion: Low serum BDNF was associated with lower cognitive test scores and MCI. Future prospective studies should establish the discriminative value of serum BDNF for the risk of MCI. PMID:24782766
Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Anan, Yuya; Uemura, Kazuki; Lee, Sangyoon; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao
Obestatin has been proposed to have anorexigenic and anti-ghrelin actions. The objective was to study obestatin concentrations in relation to handgrip strength, functional capacity and cognitive state in old women. The prospective study included 110 women (age, 76.93 ± 6.32) from the Mataró Ageing Study. Individuals were characterized by anthropometric variables, grip strength, Barthel and assessment of cognitive impairment [Mini Cognoscitive Examination (MCE) Spanish version], depressive status by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and frailty by the Fried criteria. Obestatin was measured by IRMA. Obestatin showed negative correlation to handgrip at basal time point (r = -0.220, p = 0.023) and at 2-year follow-up (r = -0.344, p = 0.002). Obestatin, divided into quartiles, showed a negative lineal association with handgrip: 11.03 ± 4.88 kg in first, 8.75 ± 4.08 kg in second, 8.11 ± 3.66 kg in third and 7.61 ± 4.08 kg in fourth quartile (p = 0.018). Higher obestatin levels were associated to increased weakness (categorized by handgrip of frailty criteria): 2.24 ± 0.42 ng/ml in weak vs. 1.87 ± 0.57 ng/ml in non-weak (p = 0.01). The decrease of either MCE or Barthel scores at 2-year follow-up was significantly higher in individuals in the fourth quartile of obestatin in comparison with individuals in the first quartile (p = 0.046 and p = 0.019, respectively). No association was found between obestatin and GDS score and neither with frailty as a condition. Obestatin is associated to low muscle strength, and impaired functional and cognitive capacity in old women participating in the Mataró Ageing Study. PMID:23604919
Mora, Mireia; Granada, María Luisa; Palomera, Elisabet; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Puig-Domingo, Manel
In this paper we construct an atlas that captures functional characteristics of a cognitive process from a population of individuals. The functional connectivity is encoded in a low-dimensional embedding space derived from ...
In the present report, we describe a new dynamic field theory that captures the dynamics of visuo-spatial cognition. This theory grew out of the dynamic systems approach to motor control and development, and is grounded in neural principles. The initial application of dynamic field theory to issues in visuo-spatial cognition extended concepts of the motor approach to decision making in a sensori-motor context, and, more recently, to the dynamics of spatial cognition. Here we extend these concepts still further to address topics in visual cognition, including visual working memory for non-spatial object properties, the processes that underlie change detection, and the ‘binding problem’ in vision. In each case, we demonstrate that the general principles of the dynamic field approach can unify findings in the literature and generate novel predictions. We contend that the application of these concepts to visual cognition avoids the pitfalls of reductionist approaches in cognitive science, and points toward a formal integration of brains, bodies, and behavior. PMID:19173013
Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Spencer, John P.; Schoner, Gregor
The aim of our study was to explore whether or not different types of learners in a sensorimotor task possess characteristically different cognitive representations. Participants' sensorimotor adaptation performance was measured with a pointing paradigm which used a distortion of the visual feedback in terms of a left-right reversal. The structure of cognitive representations was assessed using a newly established experimental method, the Cognitive Measurement of Represented Directions. A post hoc analysis revealed inter-individual differences in participants' adaptation performance, and three different skill levels (skilled, average, and poor adapters) have been defined. These differences in performance were correlated with the structure of participants' cognitive representations of movement directions. Analysis of these cognitive representations revealed performance advantages for participants possessing a global cognitive representation of movement directions (aligned to cardinal movement axes), rather than a local representation (aligned to each neighboring direction). Our findings are evidence that cognitive representation structures play a functional role in adaptation performance. PMID:23007723
Lex, Heiko; Weigelt, Matthias; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas
The present study investigated the influence of cognitive, motor, and Karate (accordingly the guidelines of the German-Karate-Federation, DKV) training on the cognitive functioning and mental state of older people between 67 and 93?years of age. The three training groups each consisted of 12 elderly participants; the waiting control group included 9 participants. Before the training, participants were evaluated with cognitive measurements (cognitive speed: number-connection test, number–symbol test; memory performance: digit-span test, blocking-tapping test, figure test) and a measurement of emotional well-being. After this pre-testing they participated the specific training in on average sixteen 1-h training sessions. The cognitive training exercised inductive thinking ability, the motor training worked on easy stretching and mobilization techniques, and the Karate training taught tasks of self-defense, partner training, and Katas. After completion of the training sessions, all tests were applied again. The results show no significant difference in cognitive improvement dependent on group between the three training conditions. However a significant improvement was found in the emotional mental state measurement for the Karate group compared to the waiting control group. This result suggests that the integrated involvement in Karate leads to a feeling of self-worth and that, even in elderly people, integration of new sports helps to improve quality of life. PMID:22363311
Jansen, Petra; Dahmen-Zimmer, Katharina
Many computational models of the basal ganglia (BG) have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the BG, computational cognitive neuroscience (CCN) models have focused on how the BG can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on CCN models of the BG and how they use the neuroanatomy of the BG to account for cognitive and motor functions such as categorization, instrumental conditioning, probabilistic learning, working memory, sequence learning, automaticity, reaching, handwriting, and eye saccades. A total of 19 BG models accounting for one or more of these functions are reviewed and compared. The review concludes with a discussion of the limitations of existing CCN models of the BG and prescriptions for future modeling, including the need for computational models of the BG that can simultaneously account for cognitive and motor functions, and the need for a more complete specification of the role of the BG in behavioral functions. PMID:24367325
Helie, Sebastien; Chakravarthy, Srinivasa; Moustafa, Ahmed A.
This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates the impact of cognitive training and general mental stimulation on the cognitive and everyday functioning of older adults without known cognitive impairment. We examine transfer and maintenance of intervention effects, and the impact of training in group versus individual settings. Thirty-one randomised controlled trials were included, with 1806 participants in cognitive training groups and 386 in general mental stimulation groups. Meta-analysis results revealed that compared to active controls, cognitive training improved performance on measures of executive function (working memory, p=0.04; processing speed, p<0.0001) and composite measures of cognitive function (p=0.001). Compared to no intervention, cognitive training improved performance on measures of memory (face-name recall, p=0.02; immediate recall, p=0.02; paired associates, p=0.001) and subjective cognitive function (p=0.01). The impact of cognitive training on everyday functioning is largely under investigated. More research is required to determine if general mental stimulation can benefit cognitive and everyday functioning. Transfer and maintenance of intervention effects are most commonly reported when training is adaptive, with at least ten intervention sessions and a long-term follow-up. Memory and subjective cognitive performance might be improved by training in group versus individual settings. PMID:24607830
Kelly, Michelle E; Loughrey, David; Lawlor, Brian A; Robertson, Ian H; Walsh, Cathal; Brennan, Sabina
Behavioral studies have shown that human cognition is characterized by properties such as temporal scale invariance, heavy-tailed non-Gaussian distributions, and long-range correlations at long time scales, suggesting models of how (non observable) components of cognition interact. On the other hand, results from functional neuroimaging studies show that complex scaling and intermittency may be generic spatio-temporal properties of the brain at rest. Somehow surprisingly, though, hardly ever have the neural correlates of cognition been studied at time scales comparable to those at which cognition shows scaling properties. Here, we analyze the meanings of scaling properties and the significance of their task-related modulations for cognitive neuroscience. It is proposed that cognitive processes can be framed in terms of complex generic properties of brain activity at rest and, ultimately, of functional equations, limiting distributions, symmetries, and possibly universality classes characterizing them. PMID:24966818
Libon et al. (2010) provided evidence for three statistically determined clusters of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI): amnesic (aMCI), dysexecutive (dMCI), and mixed (mxMCI). The current study further examined dysexecutive impairment in MCI using the framework of Fuster's (1997) derailed temporal gradients, that is, declining performance on executive tests over time or test epoch. Temporal gradients were operationally defined by calculating the slope of aggregate letter fluency output across 15-s epochs and accuracy indices for initial, middle, and latter triads from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Mental Control subtest (Boston Revision). For letter fluency, slope was steeper for dMCI compared to aMCI and NC groups. Between-group Mental Control analyses for triad 1 revealed worse dMCI performance than NC participants. On triad 2, dMCI scored lower than aMCI and NCs; on triad 3, mxMCI performed worse versus NCs. Within-group Mental Control analyses yielded equal performance across all triads for aMCI and NC participants. mxMCI scored lower on triad 1 compared to triads 2 and 3. dMCI participants also performed worse on triad 1 compared to triads 2 and 3, but scored higher on triad 3 versus triad 2. These data suggest impaired temporal gradients may provide a useful heuristic for understanding dysexecutive impairment in MCI. PMID:22014116
Eppig, Joel; Wambach, Denene; Nieves, Christine; Price, Catherine C.; Lamar, Melissa; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Giovannetti, Tania; Bettcher, Brianne M.; Penney, Dana L.; Swenson, Rod; Lippa, Carol; Kabasakalian, Anahid; Bondi, Mark W.; Libon, David J.
Objective: Although cognitive deficits have been carefully studied in both schizophrenia disorders and alcohol use disorders, comparatively little is known about cognitive deficits in patients with dual diagnoses of schizophrenia and alcohol use disorders. The main objectives of this paper are: 1) to review the literature on cognitive functioning in patients with dual diagnoses of schizophrenia and alcohol use disorders,
Elizabeth Ralevski; Mayumi O. Gianoli; Melanie Russo; Rita Dwan; Rajiv Radhakrishnan
Aging is related to cognitive decline, and it has been reported that aging disrupts some resting state brain networks. However, most studies have focused on the default mode network and ignored other resting state networks. In this study, we measured resting state activity using fMRI and explored whether cognitive decline with aging is related to disrupted resting state networks. Independent
Keiichi Onoda; Masaki Ishihara; Shuhei Yamaguchi
Cognitive skills undergo protracted developmental changes resulting in proficiencies that are a hallmark of human cognition. One skill that develops over time is the ability to problem solve, which in turn relies on cognitive control and attention abilities. Here we use a novel multimodal neurocognitive network-based approach combining task-related fMRI, resting-state fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the maturation of control processes underlying problem solving skills in 7-9 year-old children. Our analysis focused on two key neurocognitive networks implicated in a wide range of cognitive tasks including control: the insula-cingulate salience network, anchored in anterior insula (AI), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, and the fronto-parietal central executive network, anchored in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). We found that, by age 9, the AI node of the salience network is a major causal hub initiating control signals during problem solving. Critically, despite stronger AI activation, the strength of causal regulatory influences from AI to the PPC node of the central executive network was significantly weaker and contributed to lower levels of behavioral performance in children compared to adults. These results were validated using two different analytic methods for estimating causal interactions in fMRI data. In parallel, DTI-based tractography revealed weaker AI-PPC structural connectivity in children. Our findings point to a crucial role of AI connectivity, and its causal cross-network influences, in the maturation of dynamic top-down control signals underlying cognitive development. Overall, our study demonstrates how a unified neurocognitive network model when combined with multimodal imaging enhances our ability to generalize beyond individual task-activated foci and provides a common framework for elucidating key features of brain and cognitive development. The quantitative approach developed is likely to be useful in investigating neurodevelopmental disorders, in which control processes are impaired, such as autism and ADHD. PMID:22319436
Supekar, Kaustubh; Menon, Vinod
The anterior cingulate and a collection of other prefrontal and parietal brain regions are implicated in error processing and cognitive control. The effects of different doses of alcohol on activity within these brain regions during an fMRI task where errors are frequently committed have not been fully explored. This study examined the impact of a placebo [Breath Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) = 0.00%], moderate (BrAC = 0.05%) and high (BrAC = 0.10%) doses of alcohol on brain hemodynamic activity during a functional MRI (fMRI) Go/No-Go task in thirty-eight healthy volunteers. Alcohol increased reaction time and false alarm errors in a dose-dependent manner. FMRI analyses showed alcohol decreased activity in anterior cingulate, lateral prefrontal cortex, insula and parietal lobe regions during false alarm responses to No-Go stimuli. These findings indicate that brain regions implicated in error processing are affected by alcohol and might provide a neural basis for alcohol's effects on behavioral performance. PMID:20958334
Anderson, Beth M; Stevens, Michael C; Meda, Shashwath; Jordan, Kathryn; Calhoun, Vince D; Pearlson, Godfrey D
This study examined event memory and suggestibility in 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of child maltreatment. A total of 322 children were interviewed about a play activity with an unfamiliar adult. Comprehensive measures of individual differences in trauma-related psychopathology and cognitive functioning were administered. Sexually and/or physically abused children obtained higher dissociation scores than neglected children, and sexually abused children were more likely to obtain a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder than physically abused children, neglected children, and children with no substantiated abuse histories. Overall, older children and children with better cognitive functioning produced more correct information and fewer memory errors. Abuse status per se did not significantly predict children's memory or suggestibility whether considered alone or in interaction with age. However, among highly dissociative children, more trauma symptoms were associated with greater inaccuracy, whereas trauma symptoms were not associated with increased error for children who were lower in dissociative tendencies. Implications of the findings for understanding eyewitness memory in maltreated children are discussed. PMID:21784433
Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Gail S; Eisen, Mitchell L; Qin, Jianjian
Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation
Yasuyuki Taki; Hiroshi Hashizume; Yuko Sassa; Hikaru Takeuchi; Michiko Asano; Kohei Asano; Ryuta Kawashima
The Relationship between Diffusion Tensor Tractography and Cognitive Functioning in Parkinson Institute Introduction Cognitive impairment is a common non-motor manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD score 0.700 0.725 0.750 0.775 0.800 ADCRightPosteriorInternalCapsule W W W WWW W W W W W W Â· Parkinson
We investigated the influence of the level of cognitive functioning on sequence-specific learning in Parkinson's disease (PD). This was done by examining the relationship between the scales for outcomes in Parkinson's disease-cognition [SCOPA-COG, Marinus, J., Visser, M., Verwey, N. A., Verhey, F. R. J., Middelkoop, H. A. M.,Stiggelbout, A., et…
Vandenbossche, Jochen; Deroost, Natacha; Soetens, Eric; Kerckhofs, Eric
Diabetes mellitus and depressive disorders are both common chronic diseases that increase functional disability and social burden. Cognitive impairment is a potentially debilitating feature of depression. Previous evidence indicates that the antidiabetic drug metformin could be suitable for diabetic patients with cognitive impairment. However, there is no direct evidence from clinical studies that metformin treatment improves cognitive function in diabetic patients suffering from depression. In the present study, 58 participants diagnosed with depression and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were recruited and divided into two groups, one treated with metformin and the other treated with placebo for 24 weeks. Cognitive function, depressive behaviour and diabetes improvement were evaluated. Chronic treatment with metformin for 24 weeks improved cognitive performance, as assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, in depressed patients with T2DM. In addition, metformin significantly improved depressive performance and changed the glucose metabolism in depressed patients with diabetes. Depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with cognitive performance in metformin-treated participants. Furthermore, associations were observed between the parameters of blood glucose metabolism and the depression phenotype. These findings suggest that chronic treatment with metformin has antidepressant behavioural effects and that improved cognitive function is involved in the therapeutic outcome of metformin. The results of the present study also raise the possibility that supplementary administration of antidiabetic medications may enhance the recovery of depression, comorbid with T2DM, through improvements in cognitive performance. PMID:24862430
Guo, Min; Mi, Jia; Jiang, Qiu-Ming; Xu, Jin-Mei; Tang, Ying-Ying; Tian, Geng; Wang, Bin
Background The contribution of cerebrovascular function to cognitive performance is gaining increased attention. Transcranial doppler (TCD) is portable, reliable, inexpensive and extremely well tolerated by young and clinical samples. It enables measurement of blood flow velocity in major cerebral arteries at rest and during cognitive tasks. Methods We systematically reviewed evidence for associations between cognitive performance and cerebrovascular function in children (0-18 years), as measured using TCD. A total of 2778 articles were retrieved from PsychInfo, Pubmed, and EMBASE searches and 25 relevant articles were identified. Results Most studies investigated clinical groups, where decreased blood flow velocities in infants were associated with poor neurological functioning, and increased blood flow velocities in children with Sickle cell disease were typically associated with cognitive impairment and lower intelligence. Studies were also identified assessing autistic behaviour, mental retardation and sleep disordered breathing. In healthy children, the majority of studies reported cognitive processing produced lateralised changes in blood flow velocities however these physiological responses did not appear to correlate with behavioural cognitive performance. Conclusion Poor cognitive performance appears to be associated with decreased blood flow velocities in premature infants, and increased velocities in Sickle cell disease children using TCD methods. However knowledge in healthy samples is relatively limited. The technique is well tolerated by children, is portable and inexpensive. It therefore stands to make a valuable contribution to knowledge regarding the underlying functional biology of cognitive performance in childhood. PMID:24602446
Background: Pulmonary function has been associated with some measures of cognitive performance, mostly in late adulthood. This study investigated whether this association is present for a range of cognitive measures, at three stages of adulthood, and whether it remains after controlling for demographic, health and lifestyle factors. Method: The relationship between forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1), a measure
Kaarin J. Anstey; Timothy D. Windsor; Anthony F. Jorm; Helen Christensen; Bryan Rodgers
Although evidence seems to indicate favorable effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on cognitive functions and mood in elderly healthy and demented women, some questions remain. For instance, the nature of the long term effect of HRT, e.g. in preventing cognitive decline is still unclear. In this respect, the addition of progestagens in combined HRT has been mentioned to oppose
Eef Hogervorst; Marjolein Boshuisen; Wim Riedel; Christine Willeken; Jelle Jolles
Despite significant gains in the fields of pediatric neuroimaging and developmental neurobiology, surprisingly little is known about the developing human brain or the neural bases of cognitive development. This paper addresses MRI studies of structural and functional changes in the developing human brain and their relation to changes in cognitive processes over the first few decades of human life. Based
B. J. Casey; Jay N. Giedd; Kathleen M. Thomas
Background. Tamoxifen is an anti-estrogen used in the treatment of breast cancer and to reduce the incidence of breast cancer in high risk women. Although the brain is an estrogen target organ and several studies have found a beneficial effect of estrogen on cognitive function, the effect of tamoxifen on cognition has not been reported. Therefore, we initiated a follow-up
Annlia Paganini-Hill; Linda J. Clark
Recent research has shown that performing approach versus avoidance behaviors (arm flexion vs. extension) effectively influences cognitive functioning. In another area, lateralized peripheral activations (left vs. right side) of the motivational systems of approach versus avoidance were linked to various performances in cognitive tasks. By…
Cretenet, Joel; Dru, Vincent
While research on social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia is quickly growing, relatively little is still known about the severity and correlates of these impairments. The few studies that have examined this issue suggest that social cognitive impairments may be positively related to psychiatric symptoms and negatively related to functioning. In the current analyses of 119 stable outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses, we sought to further characterize the nature of social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. Specifically, we examined 1) social cognitive impairments on four different social cognitive tasks including measures of emotional processing and Theory of Mind and 2) the demographic, symptom and functional correlates of these impairments. For three of the four social cognitive tasks examined, the majority of participants performed 1 or more SD worse than healthy controls, with variability in the degree of impairment across tasks. Contrary to expectation, correlations between social cognitive performance on each of the four tasks and clinical and functional features were few and weak, and for the most part did not replicate the previously reported relationship of social cognition to severity of symptoms or current functional status. PMID:23017655
Fiszdon, Joanna M.; Fanning, Jennifer R.; Johannesen, Jason K.; Bell, Morris D.
The use of cognitive neuroscience and functional brain neuroimaging to understand brain dysfunction in pediatric psychiatric disorders is discussed. Results show that bipolar youths demonstrate impairment in affective and cognitive neural systems and in these two circuits' interface. Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric…
Pavuluri, Mani N.; Sweeney, John A.
Gulf War (GW) deployed veterans have reported health symptoms since returning from the war that suggest dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS). These symptoms include memory and concentration difficulties, fatigue, and headaches. Leading hypotheses for the etiology of these cognitive complaints include psychological factors and\\/or exposures to chemicals with neurotoxic properties. In this study, cognitive functioning was compared in
Kimberly Sullivan; Maxine Krengel; Susan P. Proctor; Sherral Devine; Timothy Heeren; Roberta F. White
Ritchie 1 CAFFEINE, COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING AND WHITE MATTER LESIONS IN THE ELDERLY: ESTABLISHING of interest. Running title : caffeine and white matter lesions inserm-00457699,version1-19Feb2010 Author for a causal relationship between caffeine consumption and cognitive deterioration in the elderly. Methods
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Recent studies have demonstrated a clear association between changes in the microbiota and cognitive behavior. Intestinal dysbiosis, as modeled using GF mice (containing no microbiota), bacterial infection with an enteric pathogen, and administration of probiotics, can modulate cognitive behavior including learning and memory. This chapter will highlight recent findings in both human and animal studies indicating how changes in the composition and diversity of the microbiota can impact behavior and brain physiology in both disease states and in health. Cognitive behavior can not only be affected in cases of intestinal disease, but also manifests changes in extra-intestinal disease conditions. PMID:24997042
Gareau, Mélanie G
The cognitive and learning styles research domain is a highly complex one which has recently been the focus of rigour-relevance debates (Coffield et al. 2004; Evans and Sadler-Smith 2006; Rayner 2006). There is considerable support for the existence and value of style as a construct (Sternberg 1996) even though further work is needed to evidence…
Evans, Carol; Cools, Eva; Charlesworth, Zarina M.
The technical reports summarized in this paper were prepared as part of a project designed to determine what is known about the teaching of cognitive skills and to formulate questions relating to such teaching for further research. Topics discussed in the 22 reports include the following: (1) teaching thinking; (2) Aristotle's logic; (3) a…
Nickerson, R. S.
Background It is unclear whether physical activity in later life is beneficial for maintenance of cognitive function. We performed a systematic review examining the effects of exercise on cognitive function in older individuals, and present possible mechanisms whereby physical activity may improve cognition. Methods Sources consisted of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and the University of Washington, School of Medicine Library Database, with a search conducted on August 15, 2012 for publications limited to the English language starting January 1, 2000. Randomized controlled trials including at least 30 participants and lasting at least 6 months, and all observational studies including a minimum of 100 participants for one year, were evaluated. All subjects included were at least 60 years of age. Results Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-six studies reported a positive correlation between physical activity and maintenance or enhancement of cognitive function. Five studies reported a dose-response relationship between physical activity and cognition. One study showed a nonsignificant correlation. Conclusion The preponderance of evidence suggests that physical activity is beneficial for cognitive function in the elderly. However, the majority of the evidence is of medium quality with a moderate risk of bias. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the association between exercise and cognitive function and to determine which types of exercise have the greatest benefit on specific cognitive domains. Despite these caveats, the current evidence suggests that physical activity may help to improve cognitive function and, consequently, delay the progression of cognitive impairment in the elderly. PMID:24748784
Carvalho, Ashley; Rea, Irene Maeve; Parimon, Tanyalak; Cusack, Barry J
The majority of clinical trials of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for schizophrenia have used individual therapy to target positive symptoms. Promising results have been found, however, for group CBT interventions and other treatment targets like psychosocial functioning. CBT for functioning in schizophrenia is based on a cognitive model of functional outcome in schizophrenia that incorporates dysfunctional attitudes (eg, social disinterest, defeatist performance beliefs) as mediators between neurocognitive impairment and functional outcome. In this report, 18 clinical trials of CBT for schizophrenia that included measures of psychosocial functioning were reviewed, and two-thirds showed improvements in functioning in CBT. The cognitive model of functional outcome was also tested by examining the relationship between social disinterest attitudes and functional outcome in 79 people with schizophrenia randomized to either group cognitive-behavioral social skills training or a goal-focused supportive contact intervention. Consistent with the cognitive model, lower social disinterest attitudes at baseline and greater reduction in social disinterest during group therapy predicted better functional outcome at end of treatment for both groups. However, the groups did not differ significantly with regard to overall change in social disinterest attitudes during treatment, suggesting that nonspecific social interactions during group therapy can lead to changes in social disinterest, regardless of whether these attitudes are directly targeted by cognitive therapy interventions. PMID:19628761
Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Link, Peter C
Background Impairment of cognitive functioning has been reported in several studies in patients treated with chemotherapy. So far, no studies have been published on the effects of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors on cognitive functioning. We investigated the objective and subjective cognitive function of patients during treatment with VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR TKI). Methods Three groups of participants, matched on age, sex and education, were enrolled; 1. metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) or GIST patients treated with sunitinib or sorafenib (VEGFR TKI patients n?=?30); 2. patients with mRCC not receiving systemic treatment (patient controls n?=?20); 3. healthy controls (n?=?30). Sixteen neuropsychological tests examining the main cognitive domains (intelligence, memory, attention and concentration, executive functions and abstract reasoning) were administered by a neuropsychologist. Four questionnaires were used to assess subjective cognitive complaints, mood, fatigue and psychological wellbeing. Results No significant differences in mean age, sex distribution, education level or IQ were found between the three groups. Both patient groups performed significantly worse on the cognitive domains Learning & Memory and Executive Functions (Response Generation and Problem Solving) compared to healthy controls. However only the VEGFR TKI patients showed impairments on the Executive subdomain Response Generation. Effect sizes of cognitive dysfunction in patients using VEGFR TKI were larger on the domains Learning & Memory and Executive Functions, compared to patient controls. Both patients groups performed on the domain Attention & Concentration the same as the healthy controls. Longer duration of treatment on VEGFR TKI was associated with a worse score on Working Memory tasks. Conclusions Our data suggest that treatment with VEGFR TKI has a negative impact on cognitive functioning, specifically on Learning & Memory, and Executive Functioning. We propose that patients who are treated with VEGFR TKI are monitored and informed for possible signs or symptoms associated with cognitive impairment. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01246843. PMID:24661373
Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition, and social functioning. Eight young adults diagnosed with high-functioning autism completed 10 sessions across 5 weeks. Significant increases on social cognitive measures of theory of mind and emotion recognition, as well as in real life social and occupational functioning were found post-training. These findings suggest that the virtual reality platform is a promising tool for improving social skills, cognition, and functioning in autism. PMID:22570145
Kandalaft, Michelle R; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C; Allen, Tandra T; Chapman, Sandra B
This study investigated the effects of passive heat exposure on pre-frontal cortex oxygenation and cognitive functioning, specifically to examine whether the change in pre-frontal cortex oxygenation coincided with cognitive functioning during heat exposure. Eleven male students who participated in this study immersed their lower legs to the knees in three different water temperatures, 38 °C, 40 °C, and 42 °C water in an air temperature of 28 º C and 50 % relative humidity for 60 min. After 45 min of leg immersion they performed cognitive functioning tasks assessing their short-term memory while immersing their lower legs. There were higher rectal temperature ( P < 0.05) and higher increase of oxyhemoglobin in both left ( P < 0.05) and right ( P < 0.05) pre-frontal cortex at the final stage of 45-min leg immersion in the 42 °C condition with unaltered tissue oxygenation index among the three conditions ( P > 0.05). No statistical difference in cognitive functioning among the three conditions was observed with a higher increase of oxyhemoglobin during the cognitive functioning in the 42 °C condition for the left ( P = 0.05) and right ( P < 0.05) pre-frontal cortex. The findings of this study suggest, first, passive heat exposure increases oxygen delivery in the pre-frontal cortex to maintain pre-frontal cortex oxygenation; second, there is no evidence of passive heat exposure in cognitive functioning in this study; and third, the greater increases of oxyhemoglobin in the pre-frontal cortex during cognitive functioning at the hottest condition suggests a recruitment of available neural resources or greater effort to maintain the same performance at the same level as when they felt thermally comfortable.
Wijayanto, Titis; Toramoto, Sayo; Tochihara, Yutaka
This study investigated alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) and cognitive performance before and after physical effort, for 30 high-level track and field athletes (23 males and 7 females). Interbeat intervals were assessed at the baseline and during each task of a CogState cognitive battery (simple reaction time, choice reaction time, working memory, short-term memory and sustained attention). Time and
Caroline Di Bernardi Luft; Emílio Takase; David Darby
This study investigated alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) and cognitive performance before and after physical effort, for 30 high-level track and field athletes (23 males and 7 females). Interbeat intervals were assessed at the baseline and during each task of a CogState cognitive battery (simple reaction time, choice reaction time, working memory, short-term memory and sustained attention). Time and frequency domain measures of HRV were compared between conditions and between tasks. The results indicated differences in HRV between executive and non-executive tasks. There was a significant increase in sympathetic-modulation-related indices after physical effort. The differences between executive and non-executive tasks were the same in post-test. Correlations were found between HRV and cognitive performance, which differed by speed and accuracy. We conclude that HRV is related to cognitive demand and that the correlation between HRV and cognitive performance seems to be stronger after physical exercise. The results raise questions about the psychophysiological meaning of different HRV signals and this has implications for future research about the relationship between HRV and cognition. PMID:19632295
Luft, Caroline Di Bernardi; Takase, Emílio; Darby, David
Measures of functional competence have been introduced to supplement standard cognitive and neuropsychological evaluations in schizophrenia research and practice. Functional competence comprises skills and abilities that are more relevant to daily life and community adjustment. However, it is unclear whether relevance translates into significantly enhanced prediction of real-world outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the specific contribution of functional competence in predicting a key aspect of real-world outcome in schizophrenia: community independence. Demographic, clinical, cognitive, and functional competence data were obtained from 127 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and used to predict community independence concurrently and longitudinally after 10 months. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that demographic, clinical, and cognitive predictors accounted jointly for 35%–38% of the variance in community independence across assessment points. Functional competence data failed to add significantly to this validity. Considered separately from demographic and clinical predictors, cognitive and functional competence data accounted for significant amounts of outcome variance. However, the addition of functional competence to standard cognitive test data yielded a significant increase in validity only for concurrent and not for longitudinal prediction of community independence. The specific real-world validity of functional competence is modest, yielding information that is largely redundant with standard cognitive performance. PMID:18667392
Heinrichs, R. Walter; Ammari, Narmeen; Miles, Ashley A.; McDermid Vaz, Stephanie
The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and its functionally linked polysialyltransferases, ST8SIA2 and ST8SIA4, are crucial for synaptic plasticity. Variations in encoding genes have been associated with mental illness. Since cannabinoids can alter NCAM polysialylation, we hypothesized that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) might act as environmental 'second hit' regarding cognition of St8sia2(-/-) mice. These mice show per se minor behavioral abnormalities, consisting of reduced anxiety and mild cognitive deficits. Chronic ?9-THC treatment of juvenile male wildtype mice (St8sia2(+/+)) (7mg/kg every other day over 3 weeks) did not appreciably affect cognition. St8sia2(-/-) mice, however, displayed a synergistic negative consequence of ?9-THC on learning/memory, accompanied by polysialic acid-free NCAM-180 reduction in hippocampus and polysialic acid increase in dentate outer molecular layer. These synergistic effects became obvious only months after the last ?9-THC. We conclude that juvenile cannabis exposure may cause delayed but lasting damage on cognition in subjects genetically predisposed to altered NCAM polysialylation. PMID:25200516
Tantra, Martesa; Kröcher, Tim; Papiol, Sergi; Winkler, Daniela; Röckle, Iris; Jatho, Jasmin; Burkhardt, Hannelore; Ronnenberg, Anja; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Hildebrandt, Herbert
White matter lesions are often seen in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Evidence points to specific impairment of attentional, visuospatial, and executive functions; although both attention and executive functions are relatively unexplored in spastic CP. The few recent studies on language functions in mild or moderate CP point to well-functioning language. The presence of specific cognitive impairments may, in
Zwecker M, Levenkrohn S, Fleisig Y, Zeilig G, Ohry A, Adunsky A. Mini-Mental State Examination, cognitive FIM instrument, and the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment: relation to functional outcome of stroke patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:342-5. Objectives: To compare 3 cognitive tests, used on admission, for predicting discharge functional outcome and to assess the efficacy of these tests in
Manuel Zwecker; Shalom Levenkrohn; Yudit Fleisig; Gabi Zeilig; Avi Ohry; Abraham Adunsky
Density functional theory (DFT) is an exact alternative formulation of quantum mechanics, in which it is possible to calculate the total energy, the spin and the charge density of many-electron systems in the ground state. In practice, it is necessary to use uncontrolled approximations that can mainly be verified against experimental data. Atoms and ions are simple systems, where the approximations of DFT can be easily tested. We have calculated within DFT the total energies, spin and higher ionization energies of all the ions of elements with 1 $\\leq$ Z $\\leq$ 29. We find the calculations in close agreement with experiment, with an error of typically less than ca. 1% for 1 $\\leq$ Z $\\leq$ 29. Surprisingly, the error depends on the electronic configuration of the ion in both local spin density approximation (LSDA) and Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof general gradient approximation (PBE-GGA) and independent of both self-interaction correction (SIC) and relativistic corrections. Larger errors are found for systems in whi...
Argaman, Uri; Kraisler, Eli
The data on the structure and gene composition in completely sequenced plastid (predominantly chloroplast) genomes of higher plants and algae are reviewed. In higher plants, genome structure and gene composition are highly conserved. Plastid genomes of algae are less conserved and contain several unique genes, which are not found in chloroplast DNAs of higher plants. Plastid genomes encode proteins involved
M. S. Odintsova; N. P. Yurina
Recent interest in the early course of schizophrenia accentuated altered cognition prior to the onset. Ultrahigh risk (UHR) individuals with attenuated positive symptoms and transient psychotic episodes demonstrate neurocognitive deficits across multiple domains such as memory, executive functioning, and processing speed which are consistent with similar disturbances identified in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation (CR) approaches representing a broad set of activities are aimed to restore or improve cognitive functioning. CR proved to be effective in modulating the cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia but is rarely used in ultrahigh risk individuals. From the clinical prospective, a better understanding of cognitive functioning in at-risk states is essential for the development of optimal early intervention models. In the review, we highlight the intervention targets, notably the specific cognitive deficits in at risk individuals which preceed the transition to psychosis and emphasize the need of the additional studies using CR approaches in UHR group aiming to enhance cognition and therefore mediate functional improvement. PMID:24089689
Korsakova, Natalya; Agius, Mark
Estrogen and serotonin play vital roles in the mechanism of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Cognitive deficit in the premenstrual phase contributes to impaired life function among women with PMDD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties in cognitive control and working memory (WM) in PMDD and to explore the effects of gonadotropic hormone and polymorphism of serotonin 1A receptor (HTR1A; rs6295) on cognitive deficit in PMDD. Women with PMDD completed diagnostic interviewing, questionnaire assessment, the Go/Nogo task, 2-back and 3-back tasks, and gonadotropic hormone analysis in the premenstrual and follicular phases. Further, they were followed up for two menstrual cycles to confirm two consecutive symptomatic cycles. A total of 59 subjects with PMDD and 74 controls completed all evaluation, fulfilled the criteria, and entered into the final analysis. The results demonstrated cognitive control and WM decline in the premenstrual among women with PMDD. The G/G genotype of HTR1A (rs6295) was found to be associated with impaired WM in the premenstrual phase and premenstrual decline of cognitive function. It also contributed to the vulnerability of cognitive function to the menstrual cycle effect and PMDD effect. As the G/G genotype of HTR1A (rs6295) involves in reducing serotonin neurotransmission, our results provide insight into the serotonin mechanism of cognitive function among women with PMDD. PMID:24158751
Yen, Ju-Yu; Tu, Hung-Pin; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Long, Cheng-Yu; Ko, Chih-Hung
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the distribution of cognitive function in elderly people and to assess the impact of clinical manifestations of atherosclerotic disease on this distribution. DESIGN--Single centre population based cross sectional door to door study. SETTING--Ommoord, a suburb of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. SUBJECTS--4971 subjects aged 55 to 94 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Cognitive function as measured by the mini mental state examination. RESULTS--The overall participation rate in the study was 80%. Cognitive test data were available for 90% of the participants. Increasing age and lower educational level were associated with poorer cognitive function. Previous vascular events, presence of plaques in the carotid arteries, and presence of peripheral arterial atherosclerotic disease were associated with worse cognitive performance independent of the effects of age and education. On average the differences were moderate; however, they reflected the net result of a shift of the total population distribution of cognitive function towards lower values. Thereby, they resulted in a considerable increase in the proportion of subjects with scores indicative of dementia. CONCLUSIONS--These findings are compatible with the view that atherosclerotic disease accounts for considerable cognitive impairment in the general population. PMID:8025427
Breteler, M. M.; Claus, J. J.; Grobbee, D. E.; Hofman, A.
Background: Little is known about the association between physical fitness and cognitive function in very elderly people (over 80 years of age). Objectives: To evaluate that relationship in 85-year-old community-dwelling individuals. Methods: Out of 207 participants (90 males, 117 females) who were 85 years old and community-dwelling, 205 completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for evaluating cognitive function. The numbers
Y. Takata; T. Ansai; I. Soh; Y. Kimura; Y. Yoshitake; K. Sonoki; S. Awano; S. Kagiyama; A. Yoshida; I. Nakamichi; T. Hamasaki; T. Torisu; K. Toyoshima; T. Takehara
Objectives: To examine the association of cognitive function with use of non-prescribed therapies for managing acute and chronic conditions, and to determine whether use of non-prescribed therapies changes over time in relation to baseline cognitive function.Methods: 200 community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older were recruited from three counties in south central North Carolina. Repeated measures of daily symptoms and treatment
Ha T. Nguyen; Joseph G. Grzywacz; Sara A. Quandt; Rebecca H. Neiberg; Wei Lang; Kathryn Altizer; Eleanor P. Stoller; Ronny A. Bell; Thomas A. Arcury
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection results in a chronic course of disease progression and eventual death. With this disease progression comes decreases in health-related quality of life and cognitive function in many patients. We evaluated the construct and discriminant validity of the Medical Outcomes Study four-item and six-item cognitive function scale in a sample of 162 patients with HIV disease.
D. A. Revicki; K. Chan; F. Gevirtz
Few studies have examined the association of race with change in cognitive function in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We studied the rate of decline in global and specific measures of cognitive function in a cohort of 410 older African-Americans and whites with clinically diagnosed AD. Persons were examined annually for an average of 3.5 years, and follow-up participation among survivors exceeded
Lisa L. Barnes; Robert S. Wilson; Yan Li; David W. Gilley; David A. Bennett; Denis A. Evans
Background\\/Aims: Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by variability in the onset and progression of cognitive, functional and behavioral symptoms. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic correlates of symptom variability in persons with moderate-to-advanced AD. Methods: Repeated measures of cognition, function and behavior were collected from institutionalized persons with AD over 12 months. Candidate genes were assayed. Results:
Debra L. Schutte; David Reed; Susan DeCrane; Anne L. Ersig
Background\\/Objectives:Data from human studies that have investigated the association between vitamin D status and cognitive function in elderly adults are conflicting. The objective of this study was to assess vitamin D status (reflected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)) in older European subjects (n=387; aged 55–87 years) and examine its association with measures of cognitive function.Subjects\\/Methods:Serum 25(OH)D was assessed using enzyme-linked
K M Seamans; T R Hill; L Scully; N Meunier; M Andrillo-Sanchez; A Polito; I Hininger-Favier; D Ciarapica; E E A Simpson; B J Stewart-Knox; J M O'Connor; C Coudray; K D Cashman
Cognitive impairment and cannabis use are common among patients with schizophrenia. However, the moderating role of cannabis on cognition remains unclear. We sought to examine cognitive performance as a function of cannabis use patterns in schizophrenia. A secondary aim was to determine the effects of cumulative cannabis exposure on cognition. Cognition was assessed in male outpatients with current cannabis dependence (n=18) and no current cannabis use disorders (n=29). We then parsed non-current users into patients with lifetime cannabis dependence (n=21) and no lifetime cannabis dependence (n=8). Finally, as an exploratory analysis, we examined relationships between cumulative cannabis exposure and cognition in lifetime dependent patients. Cross-sectional comparisons suggest that lifetime cannabis users demonstrate better processing speed than patients with no lifetime dependence. Exploratory analyses indicated that patients with current dependence exhibited robust negative relationships between cumulative cannabis exposure and cognition; these associations were absent in former users. Cannabis status has minimal effects on cognition in males with schizophrenia. However, cumulative cannabis exposure significantly impairs cognition in current, but not former users, suggesting that the state dependent negative effects of cannabis may be reversed with sustained abstinence. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:23246245
Rabin, Rachel A; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; George, Tony P
Executive function mediated by prefrontally driven distributed networks is frequently impaired by traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a result of diffuse axonal injury and focal lesions. In addition to executive cognitive functions such as planning and working memory, the effects of TBI impact social cognition and motivation processes. To encourage application of cognitive neuroscience methods to studying recovery from TBI,
Keith Cicerone; Harvey Levin; James Malec; Donald Stuss; John Whyte
Methods: We conducted longitudinal surveys and clini- cal assessment of cognitive function in a random sample of 2212 community-dwelling African Americans 65 years and older. We identified 1900 participants without evi- dence of cognitive impairment at baseline, 1617 of whom had subsequent follow-up information, and 946 of whom had blood pressure measurements. Cognitive function was measured at baseline and at
Michael D. Murray; Sujuan Gao; Rebecca M. Evans; Frederick W. Unverzagt; Kathleen S. Hall; Hugh Hendrie
We examined cross-sectionally which lipid profiles are associated with better cognitive function among those aged 80 and older-free of dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating ? 0.5), functionally independent and community-dwelling. Our cohort consisted of 193 participants from the “Keys to Optimal Cognitive Aging (KOCOA) Project”, a prospective cohort study in Okinawa, Japan. Higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratios were associated with higher scores in memory performance after controlling for confounders. Further research is required to clarify the associations among LDL-C levels, TG/HDL-C ratios, and healthy cognitive aging. PMID:23207484
Katsumata, Yuriko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Higashiuesato, Yasushi; Yasura, Shotoku; Ohya, Yusuke; Willcox, D. Craig; Dodge, Hiroko H.
Objective?To evaluate the relationship between cognitive functioning and medication adherence in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection.?Methods?Children and adolescents, ages 3–18 (N = 1,429), received a cognitive evaluation and adherence assessment. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify associations between adherence and cognitive status, adjusting for potential confounding factors.?Results?Children's average cognitive performance was within the low-average range; 16% of children were cognitively impaired (MDI/FSIQ <70). Cognitive status was not associated with adherence to full medication regimens; however, children with borderline/low average cognitive functioning (IQ 70–84) had increased odds of nonadherence to the protease inhibitor class of antiretroviral therapy. Recent stressful life events and child health characteristics, such as HIV RNA detectability, were significantly associated with nonadherence.?Conclusion?Cognitive status plays a limited role in medication adherence. Child and caregiver psychosocial and health characteristics should inform interventions to support adherence. PMID:18647794
Williams, Paige L.; Montepiedra, Grace; Nichols, Sharon; Sirois, Patricia A.; Storm, Deborah; Farley, John; Kammerer, Betsy
To determine whether treatment with raloxifene has a beneficial effect on cognitive function in postmenopausal women, 50 postmenopausal women were randomized to receive raloxifene 60 mg, or placebo, for eight weeks. Participants completed pre- and post-treatment assessment of cognitive and psychological function including the Beck Anxiety and Beck Depression inventories, the SF-36 Scale of physical and emotional well-being, five tests of cognitive function including Block Design and Digit Span subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III), the Logical Memory and Paired Associates subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III, and the Digit Cancellation test. Results showed no significant effect attributable to eight weeks of treatment with raloxifene on cognitive, psychological, or health variables. PMID:15266884
Haskell, Sally G; Richardson, Emily D
Grossberg's neural modeling principles of learning, perception, cognition, and motor control are presented as the basis for construction of a neurological model of sensory-motor problem solving. The pattern of problem solving is assumed to be universal, thus is sought in the higher-order shift from the child's use of an additive strategy to the adolescent's use of a proportions strategy to solve the Pouring Water Task (Suarez and Rhonheimer, 1974). Possible neurological principles involved in this shift and in the process of psychological equilibration are discussed as are possible educational implications.
Lawson, Anton E.
Olfactory dysfunction is a very early symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and olfactory dysfunction has also been found in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The goal of the present study was to compare odor identification ability and self-reported olfactory functioning in patients with different types of MCI. We included 104 elderly participants classified into two groups: patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and elderly controls (EC). Based on their performance in neuropsychological testing the study population was divided into four groups of participants based on cognitive features: amnestic MCI single domain (11), amnestic MCI multiple domain (19), non-amnestic MCI single domain (21) and non-amnestic MCI multiple domain (13), respectively. The MCI patients were compared to 40 elderly controls (EC) controls with no cognitive deficit. Comparison for odor identification revealed a significant difference between amnestic MCI multiple domain patients and the EC group. No other group comparison was significant. Statistical analyses for self-reported olfactory functioning revealed no significant group differences between any subgroup of MCI patients and the control group. Correlational analyses indicated that odor identification ability was related to cognition whereas no relationship was found for self-reported olfactory functioning. The present study showed that amnestic MCI patients with additional deficits in other cognitive domains have a specific odor identification impairment. Together with cognitive testing, olfactory testing may more accurately help predict whether or not a patient with MCI will convert to AD in the near future. PMID:19214830
Lehrner, Johann; Pusswald, Gisela; Gleiss, Andreas; Auff, Eduard; Dal-Bianco, Peter
This study investigated the impact of mild-moderate dehydration on alcohol-induced deteriorations in cognitive functions. Sixteen healthy males participated in a single-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design study involving 4 experimental trials (separated by ?7 d). In each trial, participants were dehydrated by 2.5% body mass through exercise. After 1 h recovery in a thermo-neutral environment (22 ± 2 °C, 60-70% relative humidity) 4 tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were administered to the participants (test 1). In two of the trials, participants were provided with water equivalent to either 50% or 150% body mass loss and given salt (NaCl) capsules (50 mmol/L). A set volume of alcohol or placebo was then consumed in each trial, incorporating the conditions: dehydration-placebo (DP), dehydration-alcohol (DA), partial rehydration-alcohol (PA), and full rehydration-alcohol (FA). The same 4 CANTAB tasks were then re-administered (test 2). Subjective ratings of mood and estimates of alcohol intoxication and driving impairment were also recorded in each trial. Alcohol consumption caused deterioration on 3 of the 4 CANTAB measures (viz., choice reaction time, executive function and response inhibition). This reduction in performance was exacerbated when participants were dehydrated compared to trials where full rehydration occurred. Subjective ratings of impairment and intoxication were not significantly different between any of the trials where alcohol was consumed; however ratings for alcohol trials were significantly higher than in the placebo trial. These findings suggest that rehydration after exercise that causes fluid loss can attenuate alcohol-related deterioration of cognitive functions. This may pose implications for post match fluid replacement if a moderate amount of alcohol is also consumed. PMID:23352231
Irwin, Christopher; Leveritt, Michael; Shum, David; Desbrow, Ben
Deficits in social cognition are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, little is known about how such deficits affect functional outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between social cognition and functional outcomes in patients with TBI. We studied this relationship in 20 patients with TBI over the course of 1 year post-injury. Patients completed neurocognitive assessments and social cognition tasks. The social cognition tasks included an emotion-perception task and three theory of mind tasks: the Faux Pas test, Reading the Mind in the Eyes (Eyes) test, and the Moving-Shapes paradigm. The Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique was used to assess functional outcomes. Compared with our database of normal subjects, patients showed impairments in all social cognition tasks. Multiple regression analysis revealed that theory of mind ability as measured by the Eyes test was the best predictor of the cognitive aspects of functional outcomes. The findings of this pilot study suggest that the degree to which a patient can predict what others are thinking is an important measure that can estimate functional outcomes over 1 year following TBI.
Ubukata, Shiho; Tanemura, Rumi; Yoshizumi, Miho; Sugihara, Genichi; Murai, Toshiya; Ueda, Keita
It is still unclear whether deep brain stimulation targeted to the bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) affects cognitive function in Parkinson's disease (PD). This prospective study was aimed to systemically evaluate the impact of bilateral STN-DBS on motor and cognitive functions in patients with PD. This study included totally 11 Japanese patients with medically intolerant PD. Neurological and cognitive status was precisely evaluated before and 1 year after bilateral STN-DBS, using unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS), levodopa equivalent doses, mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Japanese adult reading test (JART), repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS), and Wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised (WAIS-R). Preoperative RBANS and WAIS-R identified cognitive dysfunction that could not be detected by MMSE and JART. Before surgery, PD patients had significantly impaired immediate memory and attention. Motor function significantly improved 1 year after bilateral STN-DBS. Bilateral STN-DBS did not affect any score on cognitive examinations. However, postoperative improvements of total score on RBANS and performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) scores on WAIS-R were closely related to those of UPDRS part III off (R(2) = 0.61, P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.39, P < 0.05, respectively). These findings strongly suggest that bilateral STN-DBS may significantly improve cognitive function in a certain subgroup of patients whose therapeutic effects on motor function are prominent. PMID:24872253
Asahi, Takashi; Nakamichi, Naomi; Takaiwa, Akiko; Kashiwazaki, Daina; Koh, Masaki; Dougu, Nobuhiro; Takashima, Shutaro; Tanaka, Kortaro; Kuroda, Satoshi
The current renewal of interest in empathy is closely connected to the recent neurobiological discovery of mirror neurons. Although the concept of empathy has been widely deployed, we shall focus upon one main psychological function it serves: enabling us to understand other peoples' intentions. In this essay we will draw on neuroscientific, psychological, and philosophical literature in order to investigate the relationships between mirror neurons and empathy as to intention understanding. Firstly, it will be explored whether mirror neurons are the neural basis of our empathic capacities: a vast array of empirical results appears to confirm this hypothesis. Secondly, the higher level capacity of reenactive empathy will be examined and the question will be addressed whether philosophical analysis alone is able to provide a foundation for this more abstract level of empathy. The conclusion will be drawn that both empirical evidence and philosophical analysis can jointly contribute to the clarification of the concept of empathy. PMID:23583460
Corradini, Antonella; Antonietti, Alessandro
Rett syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting mainly females, is caused by a mutation of the MeCP2 gene. Girls with Rett syndrome manifest diverse behavioral and cognitive phenotypes, and the reasons for this variability remain unknown. In addition, girls with Rett syndrome often have epileptic seizures and abnormal EEGs, the characteristics of which differ with the patient. The aim of the
Aglaia Vignoli; Rosa Angela Fabio; Francesca La Briola; Samantha Giannatiempo; Alessandro Antonietti; Silvia Maggiolini; Maria Paola Canevini
Cognitive imaging was investigated as one factor associated with the development of the University of New Mexico from an undergraduate teaching institution toward becoming a nationally-ranked graduate research university. A longitudinal, ethnohistorical study was undertaken for the 1967-1978 period. The qualitative research methodology involved an…
Bjork, Lars G.
Background: A classification scheme and general set of criteria for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were recently proposed by a multidisciplinary group of experts who met at an international symposium on MCI. One of the proposed criteria included preserved basic activities of daily living and minimal impairment in complex instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Objective: To investigate whether older
Catherine L. Burton; Esther Strauss; David Bunce; Michael A. Hunter; David F. Hultsch
Schizophrenics have among the highest rates of cigarette smoking. Some studies indicate that cigarette smoking or nicotine may ameliorate some of the cognitive or theoretically related neurophysiological deficits seen in schizophrenic patients. This study investigated the effects of nicotine nasal spray on measures of attention, verbal memory, and visual–spatial memory in schizophrenic patients who were chronic smokers, using a double-blind
Robert C Smith; Jessy Warner-Cohen; Melissa Matute; Erin Butler; Erin Kelly; Sumathi Vaidhyanathaswamy; Alea Khan
The field of memory and sleep is controversial and extremely interesting, and the relationships between thought processes, i.e. cognition and sleep, have recently been examined in a variety of clinical and basic research settings, as well as being the object of intense interest by the general public. For example, there are data which demonstrate that insomnia, as well as specific
T Roth; J. A Costa e Silva; M. H Chase
This study tests the hypothesis that resistance to interference as measured by Stroop Color and Word Test is related to psychopathology. College student subjects were classified into three groups on the basis of their Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) profile high points. Subjects' cognitive interference scores significantly…
Golden, Charles J.; Golden, Ellen E.
Objective: To examine the association between retinopathy and cognitive decline or brain lesions and volumes in older women. Methods: This study included 511 women aged 65 and older who were simultaneously enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study and the Sight Examination Study. In this analysis, we examined the link between retinopathy, assessed using fundus photography (2000–2002), cognitive performance over time assessed by the modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MSE) (1996–2007), and white matter hyperintensities and lacunar infarcts in the basal ganglia. Results: Presence of retinopathy was associated with poorer 3MSE scores (mean difference = 1.01, SE: 0.43) (p = 0.019) over a 10-year follow-up period and greater ischemic volumes in the total brain (47% larger, p = 0.04) and the parietal lobe (68% larger, p = 0.01) but not with measures of regional brain atrophy. Conclusions: The correspondence we found between retinopathy and cognitive impairment, along with larger ischemic lesion volumes, strengthens existing evidence that retinopathy as a marker of small vessel disease is a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease that may influence cognitive performance and related brain changes. Retinopathy may be useful as a clinical tool if it can be shown to be an early marker related to neurologic outcomes. PMID:22422889
Espeland, M.A.; Klein, B.E.; Casanova, R.; Gaussoin, S.A.; Jackson, R.D.; Millen, A.E.; Resnick, S.M.; Rossouw, J.E.; Shumaker, S.A.; Wallace, R.; Yaffe, K.
TWO EXPERIMENTS WERE CONDUCTED TO STUDY THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A CHILD'S TOLERANCE FOR DELAY OF GRATIFICATION AND HIS ABILITY TO CONSERVE NUMBER AND PICTURES. OTHER MEASURES OF COGNITION ALSO WERE USED. TOLERANCE FOR DELAY OF GRATIFICATION WAS MEASURED BY THE CHILD'S DECISION TO RECEIVE A PACK OF CANDY AND A TOY ON THE DAY OF TESTING OR TO…
Background Higher visual functions can be defined as cognitive processes responsible for object recognition, color and shape perception, and motion detection. People with impaired higher visual functions after unilateral brain lesion are often tested with paper pencil tests, but such tests do not assess the degree of interaction between the healthy brain hemisphere and the impaired one. Hence, visual functions are not tested separately in the contralesional and ipsilesional visual hemifields. Methods A new measurement setup, that involves real-time comparisons of shape and size of objects, orientation of lines, speed and direction of moving patterns, in the right or left visual hemifield, has been developed. The setup was implemented in an immersive environment like a hemisphere to take into account the effects of peripheral and central vision, and eventual visual field losses. Due to the non-flat screen of the hemisphere, a distortion algorithm was needed to adapt the projected images to the surface. Several approaches were studied and, based on a comparison between projected images and original ones, the best one was used for the implementation of the test. Fifty-seven healthy volunteers were then tested in a pilot study. A Satisfaction Questionnaire was used to assess the usability of the new measurement setup. Results The results of the distortion algorithm showed a structural similarity between the warped images and the original ones higher than 97%. The results of the pilot study showed an accuracy in comparing images in the two visual hemifields of 0.18 visual degrees and 0.19 visual degrees for size and shape discrimination, respectively, 2.56° for line orientation, 0.33 visual degrees/s for speed perception and 7.41° for recognition of motion direction. The outcome of the Satisfaction Questionnaire showed a high acceptance of the battery by the participants. Conclusions A new method to measure higher visual functions in an immersive environment was presented. The study focused on the usability of the developed battery rather than the performance at the visual tasks. A battery of five subtasks to study the perception of size, shape, orientation, speed and motion direction was developed. The test setup is now ready to be tested in neurological patients. PMID:25069675
Difficulties with thinking and problem solving are very common among breast cancer survivors. We tested a computerized cognitive training program for 41 breast cancer survivors. The training program was associated with significant improvements in thinking and problem-solving skills. Our findings demonstrate potential for our online, home-based cognitive training program to improve cognitive difficulties among breast cancer survivors. Background A majority of breast cancer (BC) survivors, particularly those treated with chemotherapy, experience long-term cognitive deficits that significantly reduce quality of life. Among the cognitive domains most commonly affected include executive functions (EF), such as working memory, cognitive flexibility, multitasking, planning, and attention. Previous studies in other populations have shown that cognitive training, a behavioral method for treating cognitive deficits, can result in significant improvements in a number of cognitive skills, including EF. Materials and Methods In this study, we conducted a randomized controlled trial to investigate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a novel, online EF training program in long-term BC survivors. A total of 41 BC survivors (21 active, 20 wait list) completed the 48 session training program over 12 weeks. The participants were, on average, 6 years after therapy. Results Cognitive training led to significant improvements in cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency and processing speed, with marginally significant downstream improvements in verbal memory as assessed via standardized measures. Self-ratings of EF skills, including planning, organizing, and task monitoring, also were improved in the active group compared with the wait list group. Conclusions Our findings suggest that EF skills may be improved even in long-term survivors by using a computerized, home-based intervention program. These improvements may potentially include subjective EF skills, which suggest a transfer of the training program to real-world behaviors. PMID:23647804
Kesler, Shelli; Hosseini, S. M. Hadi; Heckler, Charles; Janelsins, Michelle; Palesh, Oxana; Mustian, Karen; Morrow, Gary
We examined the relationship of cognitive and functional measures with life space (a measure of spatial mobility examining extent of movement within a person’s environment) in older adults, and investigated the potential moderating role of personal control beliefs. Internal control beliefs reflect feelings of competence and personal agency, while attributions of external control imply a more dependent or passive point of view. Participants were 2,737 adults from the ACTIVE study, with a mean age of 74 years. Females comprised 76% of the sample, with good minority representation (27% African American). In multiple regression models controlling for demographic factors, cognitive domains of memory, reasoning, and processing speed were significantly associated with life space (p<.001 for each), and reasoning ability appeared most predictive (B=.117). Measures of everyday function also showed significant associations with life space, independent from the traditional cognitive measures. Interactions between cognitive function and control beliefs were tested, and external control beliefs moderated the relationship between memory and life space, with the combination of high objective memory and low external control beliefs yielding the highest life space (t=?2.07; p=.039). In conclusion, older adults with better cognitive function have a larger overall life space. Performance-based measures of everyday function may also be useful in assessing the functional outcome of life space. Additionally, subjective external control beliefs may moderate the relationship between objective cognitive function and life space. Future studies examining the relationships between these factors longitudinally appear worthwhile to further elucidate the interrelationships of cognitive function, control beliefs, and life space. PMID:21875217
Sartori, Andrea C.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Clay, Olivio J.; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Rebok, George W.; Crowe, Michael
Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group). The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease (CERAD-K). Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of dance exercise on cognitive function and cardiometabolic risk factors. Compared with the control group, the exercise group significantly improved in verbal fluency (p = 0.048), word list delayed recall (p = 0.038), word list recognition (p = 0.007), and total CERAD-K score (p = 0.037). However, no significance difference was found in body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol between groups over the 6-month period. In the present study, six months of dance exercise improved cognitive function in older adults with metabolic syndrome. Thus, dance exercise may reduce the risk for cognitive disorders in elderly people with metabolic syndrome. Key points Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. Aerobic exercise improves cognitive function in elderly people and contributes to the prevention of degenerative neurological disease and brain damage. Dance sport is a form of aerobic exercise that has the additional benefits of stimulating the emotions, promoting social interaction, and exposing subjects to acoustic stimulation and music. In the present study, dance exercise for a 6-month period improved cognitive function in older adults with MS. In particular, positive effects were observed in verbal fluency, word list delayed recall, word list recognition, and the total CERAD-K score. Our data suggest that the implementation of dance exercise programs may be an effective means of prevention and treatment of cognitive disorders. PMID:24149557
Kim, Se-Hong; Kim, Minjeong; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Lim, Hyun-Kook; Kang, Sung-Goo; Cho, Jung-hyoun; Park, Seo-Jin; Song, Sang-Wook
Background Cognitive remediation (CRT) affects functioning but the extent and type of cognitive improvements necessary are unknown. Aim To develop and test models of how cognitive improvement transfers to work behaviour using the data from a current service. Method Participants (N49) with a support worker and a paid or voluntary job were offered CRT in a Phase 2 single group design with three assessments: baseline, post therapy and follow-up. Working memory, cognitive flexibility, planning and work outcomes were assessed. Results Three models were tested (mediation — cognitive improvements drive functioning improvement; moderation — post treatment cognitive level affects the impact of CRT on functioning; moderated mediation — cognition drives functioning improvements only after a certain level is achieved). There was evidence of mediation (planning improvement associated with improved work quality). There was no evidence that cognitive flexibility (total Wisconsin Card Sorting Test errors) and working memory (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III digit span) mediated work functioning despite significant effects. There was some evidence of moderated mediation for planning improvement if participants had poorer memory and/or made fewer WCST errors. The total CRT effect on work quality was d = 0.55, but the indirect (planning-mediated CRT effect) was d = 0.082 Conclusion Planning improvements led to better work quality but only accounted for a small proportion of the total effect on work outcome. Other specific and non-specific effects of CRT and the work programme are likely to account for some of the remaining effect. This is the first time complex models have been tested and future Phase 3 studies need to further test mediation and moderated mediation models. PMID:22503640
Wykes, Til; Reeder, Clare; Huddy, Vyv; Taylor, Rumina; Wood, Helen; Ghirasim, Natalia; Kontis, Dimitrios; Landau, Sabine
Objectives. We examined the association between individual and clustered lifestyle behaviors in middle age and later in cognitive functioning. Methods. Middle-aged participants (n?=?2430) in the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydant study self-reported their low physical activity, sedentary behavior, alcohol use, smoking, low fruit and vegetable consumption, and low fish consumption. We assessed cognition 13 years later via 6 neuropsychological tests. After standardization, we summed the scores for a composite cognitive measure. We estimated executive functioning and verbal memory scores using principal component analysis. We estimated the mean differences (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) in cognitive performance by the number of unhealthy behaviors using analysis of covariance. We identified latent unhealthy behavior factor via structural equation modeling. Results. Global cognitive function and verbal memory were linearly, negatively associated with the number of unhealthy behaviors: adjusted mean differences?=?-0.36 (95% CI?=?-0.69, -0.03) and -0.46 (95% CI?=?-0.80, -0.11), respectively, per unit increase in the number of unhealthy behaviors. The latent unhealthy behavior factor with low fruit and vegetable consumption and low physical activity as main contributors was associated with reduced verbal memory (RMSEA?=?0.02; CFI?=?0.96; P?=?.004). No association was found with executive functioning. Conclusions. Comprehensive public health strategies promoting healthy lifestyles might help deter cognitive aging. PMID:25211733
Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Andreeva, Valentina A; Lassale, Camille; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar
Cardiac surgery involving extra-corporeal circulation can lead to cognitive dysfunction. As such surgery is associated with signs of inflammation and pro-inflammatory mediators activate tryptophan oxidation to neuroactive kynurenines which modulate NMDA receptor function and oxidative stress, we have measured blood concentrations of kynurenines and inflammatory markers in 28 patients undergoing coronary arterial graft surgery and, for comparison, 28 patients undergoing non-bypass thoracic surgery. A battery of cognitive tests was completed before and after the operations. The results show increased levels of tryptophan with decreased levels of kynurenine, anthranilic acid and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid associated with bypass, and a later increase in kynurenic acid. Levels of neopterin and lipid peroxidation products rose after surgery in non-bypass patients whereas tumour necrosis factor-? and S100B levels increased after bypass. Changes of neopterin levels were greater after non-bypass surgery. Cognitive testing showed that the levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenic acid and the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, correlated with aspects of post-surgery cognitive function, and were significant predictors of cognitive performance in tasks sensitive to frontal executive function and memory. Thus, anaesthesia and major surgery are associated with inflammatory changes and alterations in tryptophan oxidative metabolism which predict, and may play a role in, post-surgical cognitive function. PMID:21819405
Forrest, Caroline M; Mackay, Gillian M; Oxford, Lynn; Millar, Keith; Darlington, L Gail; Higgins, Michael J; Stone, Trevor W
Aged canines (dogs) accumulate human-type beta-amyloid (Abeta) in diffuse plaques in the brain with parallel declines in cognitive function. We hypothesized that reducing Abeta in a therapeutic treatment study of aged dogs with preexisting Abeta pathology and cognitive deficits would lead to cognitive improvements. To test this hypothesis, we immunized aged beagles (8.4-12.4 years) with fibrillar Abeta(1-42) formulated with aluminum salt (Alum) for 2.4 years (25 vaccinations). Cognitive testing during this time revealed no improvement in measures of learning, spatial attention, or spatial memory. After extended treatment (22 vaccinations), we observed maintenance of prefrontal-dependent reversal learning ability. In the brain, levels of soluble and insoluble Abeta(1-40) and Abeta(1-42) and the extent of diffuse plaque accumulation was significantly decreased in several cortical regions, with preferential reductions in the prefrontal cortex, which is associated with a maintenance of cognition. However, the amount of soluble oligomers remained unchanged. The extent of prefrontal Abeta was correlated with frontal function and serum anti-Abeta antibody titers. Thus, reducing total Abeta may be of limited therapeutic benefit to recovery of cognitive decline in a higher mammalian model of human brain aging and disease. Immunizing animals before extensive Abeta deposition and cognitive decline to prevent oligomeric or fibrillar Abeta formation may have a greater impact on cognition and also more directly evaluate the role of Abeta on cognition in canines. Alternatively, clearing preexisting Abeta from the brain in a treatment study may be more efficacious for cognition if combined with a second intervention that restores neuron health. PMID:18385314
Head, Elizabeth; Pop, Viorela; Vasilevko, Vitaly; Hill, MaryAnn; Saing, Tommy; Sarsoza, Floyd; Nistor, Michaela; Christie, Lori-Ann; Milton, Saskia; Glabe, Charles; Barrett, Edward; Cribbs, David
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging technique, we performed online brain mapping of gamers, practiced to voluntary (cognitively) control their heart rate, the parameter that operated a competitive virtual gameplay in the adaptive feedback loop. With the default start picture, the regions of interest during the formation of optimal cognitive strategy were as follows: Brodmann areas 19, 37, 39 and 40, i.e. cerebellar structures (vermis, amygdala, pyramids, clivus). "Localization" concept of the contribution of the cerebellum to cognitive processes is discussed. PMID:23658903
Rezakova, M V; Mazhirina, K G; Pokrovskiy, M A; Savelov, A A; Savelova, O A; Shtark, M B
Docosahexaenoic acid is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid that is found in large quantity in the brain and which has repeatedly been observed to be related in positive ways to both cognitive function and cardiovascular health. The mechanisms through which docosahexaenoic acid affects cognition are not well understood, but in this article, we propose a hypothesis that integrates the positive effects of docosahexaenoic acid in the cognitive and cardiovascular realms through the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is known to regulate vital functions such as heart rate and respiration, and has also been linked to basic cognitive components related to arousal and attention. We review the literature from this perspective, and delineate the predictions generated by the hypothesis. In addition, we provide new data showing a link between docosahexaenoic acid and fetal heart rate that is consistent with the hypothesis. PMID:18930644
Gustafson, Kathleen M.; Colombo, John; Carlson, Susan E.
Background and Aims: Schizophrenia leads to significant personal costs matched by high economic costs. Cognitive function is a strong predictor of disabilities in schizophrenia, which underpin these costs. This study of cognitive remediation therapy (CRT), which has been shown to improve cognition and reduce disability in schizophrenia, aims to investigate associations between improvements in cognition and cost changes. Methods: Eighty-five participants with schizophrenia were randomized to receive CRT or treatment as usual and were assessed at baseline, posttherapy, and 6 month follow-up. Four structural equation models investigated associations between changes in cognitive function and costs of care. Results: All 4 models provided a good fit. Improvement in 3 individual cognitive variables did not predict total cost changes (model 1). But improvement in a single latent cognition factor was associated with a reduction in depression, which in turn was associated with reduced subsequent total costs (model 2). No significant associations with constituent daycare and special accommodation cost changes were apparent with 3 individual cognitive change variables (model 3). But improvement in a single latent cognitive change variable was associated with subsequent reductions in both daycare and special accommodation costs (model 4). Conclusion: This study exemplifies a method of using cost changes to investigate the effects and mechanisms of CRT and suggests that executive function change may be an important target if we are to reduce disability and resultant health and social care costs. PMID:24682210
Reeder, Clare; Harris, Victoria; Pickles, Andrew; Patel, Anita; Cella, Matteo; Wykes, Til
The decrease in testosterone (T) production in aging men has been well documented. Because the majority of circulating estradiol\\u000a (E2) in men arises through aromatization of T, levels of E2 decrease as well with increasing age. It is also clear that some proportion of men develop impairments in aspects of cognition,\\u000a particularly in explicit memory and language abilities with normal
Barbara B. Sherwin
Bipolar disorder is characterized by a functional imbalance between hyperactive ventral/limbic areas and hypoactive dorsal/cognitive brain regions potentially contributing to affective and cognitive symptoms. Resting-state studies in bipolar disorder have identified abnormal functional connectivity between these brain regions. However, most of these studies used a seed-based approach, thus restricting the number of regions that were analyzed. Using data-driven approaches, researchers identified resting state networks whose spatial maps overlap with frontolimbic areas such as the default mode network, the frontoparietal networks, the salient network, and the meso/paralimbic network. These networks are specifically engaged during affective and cognitive tasks and preliminary evidence suggests that functional connectivity within and between some of these networks is impaired in bipolar disorder. The present study used independent component analysis and functional network connectivity approaches to investigate functional connectivity within and between these resting state networks in bipolar disorder. We compared 30 euthymic bipolar I disorder patients and 35 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Inter-network connectivity analysis revealed increased functional connectivity between the meso/paralimbic and the right frontoparietal network in bipolar disorder. This abnormal connectivity pattern did not correlate with variables related to the clinical course of the disease. The present finding may reflect abnormal integration of affective and cognitive information in ventral-emotional and dorsal-cognitive networks in euthymic bipolar patients. Furthermore, the results provide novel insights into the role of the meso/paralimbic network in bipolar disorder. PMID:25343370
Lois, Giannis; Linke, Julia; Wessa, Michele
Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. PMID:21170334
Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta
A fundamental goal of the analysis of fMRI data is to locate areas of brain activation that can differentiate various cognitive tasks. Traditionally, researchers have approached fMRI analysis through characterizing the relationship between cognitive variables and individual brain voxels. In recent years, multivariate approaches (analyze more than one voxel at once) to fMRI data analysis have gained importance. But in majority of the multivariate approaches, the voxels used for classification are selected based on prior biological knowledge or discriminating power of individual voxels. We used sequential floating forward search (SFFS) feature selection approach for selecting the voxels and applied it to distinguish the cognitive states of whether a subject is doing a reasoning or a counting task. We obtained superior classifier performance by using the sequential approach as compared to selecting the features with best individual classifier performance. We analyzed the problem of over-fitting in this extremely high dimensional feature space with limited training samples. For estimating the accuracy of the classifier, we employed various estimation methods and discussed their importance in this small sample scenario. Also we modified the feature selection algorithm by adding spatial information to incorporate the biological constraint that spatially nearby voxels tends to represent similar things.
Yang, Ye; Pal, Ranadip; O'Boyle, Michael
Objective:Childhood overweight and obesity have increased substantially in the past two decades, raising concerns about their psychosocial and cognitive consequences. We examined the associations between academic performance (AP), cognitive functioning (CF), and increased BMI in a nationally representative sample of children.Methods and Procedures:Participants were 2,519 children aged 8–16 years, who completed a brief neuropsychological battery and measures of height and
Yanfeng Li; Qi Dai; James C. Jackson; Jian Zhang
\\u000a Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) who have acquired functional communication strategies – particularly more\\u000a cognitively able individuals at or beyond the elementary school age group – may be candidates for talk-based therapies similar\\u000a to those employed with children and adults with mental health disorders, such as anxiety (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy,\\u000a CBT). While talk-based therapies are widely used in
Jeffrey J. Wood; Cori Fujii; Patricia Renno
In a longitudinal study, the authors explore the course of general cognition in anorexia nervosa (AN) over time and compare general cognitive problems, executive function deficits, attentional problems and visuomotor dysfunctions across AN individuals and healthy controls. A community-based sample of adolescent onset AN cases (n?=?40–47) was contrasted with an age-, sex- and school matched comparison group (n?=?47–51) on the
I. Carina Gillberg; Maria Råstam; Elisabet Wentz; Christopher Gillberg
Aim This study aimed to examine the cross-sectional association between cognitive function and elder abuse. Methods The Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP) is a population-based study conducted in a geographically defined community (n = 8,932). We identified 238 CHAP participants who had elder abuse reported to a social services agency. Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (perceptual speed), and both immediate and delayed recall of the East Boston Memory Test (episodic memory). An index of global cognitive function scores was derived by averaging the z-scores of all tests. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of cognitive function domains and risk of elder abuse. Results After adjusting for confounders, lowest tertiles of global cognition (odd's ratio, OR 4.18, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 2.44–7.15), MMSE (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.93–4.57), episodic memory (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.49–3.43) and perceptual speed (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.51–3.73) were associated with increased risk of elder abuse. The lowest levels of global cognitive function were associated with an increased risk of physical abuse (OR 3.56, 95% CI 1.08–11.67), emotional abuse (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.41–6.44), caregiver neglect (OR 6.24, 95% CI 2.68–14.54), and financial exploitation (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.88–7.32). Conclusion Lower levels of global cognitive function, MMSE, episodic memory and perceptual speed are associated with an increased risk of elder abuse. PMID:22095098
Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; Rajan, Kumar; Evans, Denis A.
Background: While neuropsychological deficits have been reported in healthy individuals who use street cannabis, data in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are lacking. Given that MS is associated with cognitive deterioration, the aim of this study was to determine the neuropsychological effects of cannabis use in this population. Methods: Two groups, each of 25 patients with MS (cannabis users and nonusers), were administered the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in MS battery of neuropsychological tests, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Group-matching and regression analysis were used to control for the effects of age, sex, education, premorbid intelligence, disability, and disease course and duration on cognitive function. Results: Cannabis users performed significantly more poorly than nonusers on measures of information processing speed, working memory, executive functions, and visuospatial perception. They were also twice as likely as nonusers to be classified as globally cognitively impaired. There were no between-group differences on the HADS measures of depression and anxiety or lifetime SCID-I psychiatric diagnoses. Conclusion: This cross-sectional study provides empirical evidence that prolonged use of inhaled or ingested street cannabis in patients with MS is associated with poorer performance on cognitive domains commonly affected in this population. Whatever subjective benefits patients may derive from using street cannabis (e.g., pain and spasticity relief) should be weighed against the associated cognitive side effects. PMID:21444900
Honarmand, Kimia; Tierney, Mary C.; O'Connor, Paul
The cerebellum has been implicated in both sensorimotor and cognitive function, but is known to undergo volumetric declines with advanced age. Individual differences in regional cerebellar volume may therefore provide insight into performance variability across the lifespan, as has been shown with other brain structures and behaviors. Here, we investigated whether there are regional age differences in cerebellar volume in young and older adults, and whether these volumes explain, in part, individual differences in sensorimotor and cognitive task performance. We found that older adults had smaller cerebellar volume than young adults; specifically, lobules in the anterior cerebellum were more impacted by age. Multiple regression analyses for both age groups revealed associations between sensorimotor task performance in several domains (balance, choice reaction time, and timing) and regional cerebellar volume. There were also relationships with working memory, but none with measures of general cognitive or executive function. Follow-up analyses revealed several differential relationships with age between regional volume and sensorimotor performance. These relationships were predominantly selective to cerebellar regions that have been implicated in cognitive functions. Therefore, it may be the cognitive aspects of sensorimotor task performance that are best explained by individual differences in regional cerebellar volumes. In sum, our results demonstrate the importance of regional cerebellar volume with respect to both sensorimotor and cognitive performance, and we provide additional insight into the role of the cerebellum in age-related performance declines. PMID:23625382
Bernard, Jessica A.; Seidler, Rachael D.
The recent theory of sequential games and selection functions by Escardó & Oliva is extended to games in which players move simultaneously. The Nash existence theorem for mixed-strategy equilibria of finite games is generalized to games defined by selection functions. A normal form construction is given, which generalizes the game-theoretic normal form, and its soundness is proved. Minimax strategies also generalize to the new class of games, and are computed by the Berardi-Bezem-Coquand functional, studied in proof theory as an interpretation of the axiom of countable choice. PMID:23750111
Preprint of Visser, W. (1996). Two functions of analogical reasoning in design: A cognitive-psychology of analogical reasoning in design A cognitive-psychology approach Willemien Visser, Ergonomics Psychology of "ill- defined" problem solving, i.e. design. It examines the question from a cognitive-psychology
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
The goal of cognitive neuroscience is to identify the mapping between brain function and mental processing. In this paper, I examine the strategies that have been used to identify such mappings, and argue that they may be fundamentally unable to identify selective structure-function mappings. I argue that in order to understand the functional anatomy of mental processes, it will be necessary to move from the brain mapping strategies that the field has employed towards a search for selective associations. This will require a greater focus on the structure of cognitive processes, which can be achieved through the development of formal ontologies that describe the structure of mental processes. I outline the Cognitive Atlas project, which is developing such ontologies, and show how this knowledge could be used in conjunction with data mining approaches to more directly relate mental processes and brain function. PMID:25076977
Poldrack, Russell A.
Cigarette smoking and cognitive function in human immunodeficiency virus seropositive women Short running title: Smoking and cognition in women with HIV Valerie Wojna1,2 , Lizbeth Robles1 , Richard L the official views of NCRR or NIH. #12;Abstract Cigarette smoking alters the immune system and may improve
Lasalde Dominicc, Jose A. - Department of Biology, Universidad de Puerto Rico
As higher education grapples with addressing the 21st century needs of learners, technology is a pervasive concern. Waters (2012) painted a picture of three historical "screens," namely the television screen, the computer monitor, and today's mobile device screen. As mobile devices become increasingly commonplace in the workplace and on the…
Gradel, Kathleen; Edson, Alden J.
Current views of the activities inherent in the vacuole as a multifunctional compartment in higher plant cells are outlined. The available data indicate that the vacuole is involved in ion homeostasis of the cytosol, storing products of the primary and secondary metabolism, osmoregulation, generation of defense responses of plant cells under biotic and abiotic stress, and programmed cell death. Transport
I. M. Andreev
A steady stream of research has fueled excitement in the field of synthetic biology. Logic gates, oscillators, and memory elements constructed using genetic and biochemical components have all been demonstrated. However, the nagging question remains as to how higher levels of complexity can be designed into these synthetic systems. A recent paper from Collins' group provides some answers to this question. PMID:15491797
Simpson, Michael L
No studies have identified the direct effect of changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) on cognitive function at rest and during exercise. In this study, we manipulated CBF using hypercapnic gas to examine whether an increase in CBF improves cognitive function during prolonged exercise. The speed and the accuracy of cognitive function were assessed using the Stroop color-word test. After the Stroop test at rest, the subjects began exercising on a cycling ergometer in which the workload was increased by 0.5 kilopond every minute until a target heart rate of 140 beats/min was achieved. Then, the subjects continued to cycle at a constant rate for 50 min. At four time points during the exercise (0, 10, 20, 50 min), the subjects performed a Stroop test with and without hypercapnic respiratory gas (2.0% CO2), with a random order of the exposures in the two tests. Despite a decrease in the mean blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCA Vmean), the reaction time for the Stroop test gradually decreased during the prolonged exercise without any loss of performance accuracy. In addition, the hypercapnia-induced increase in MCA Vmean produced neither changes in the reaction time nor error in the Stroop test during exercise. These findings suggest that the changes in CBF are unlikely to affect cognitive function during prolonged exercise. Thus, we conclude that improved cognitive function may be due to cerebral neural activation associated with exercise rather than global cerebral circulatory condition. PMID:25263210
Ogoh, Shigehiko; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Hirasawa, Ai; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Hirose, Norikazu; Hashimoto, Takeshi
Patients with cognitive deficit have poor oral health and fewer teeth than cognitive normal elderly. The aim of the study was to investigate potential differences in masticatory function between elderly with dementia and those with normal cognitive function. Fifty-five patients (age >61; 82.05 ± 3.53) were enrolled in the study. Twenty-five subjects cognitively normal (10 females/15 males; 81.04 ± 4.89 years), were randomly selected and were assigned to Control Group. Thirty subjects (15 females/15 males; 83.16 ± 6.017 with cognitive impairments were randomly selected from hospitalized patients (Medically Assisted Residences RSA) and were assigned to Test Group. MMSE test, B-ADL and number of teeth were evaluated for each subject. The number of teeth in relation to levels of schooling is not resulted significative. In the cognitively impaired group 26 subjects had fewer than 20 teeth (86.6%); in the cognitively normal group 9 subjects had fewer than 20 teeth (36%). The correlation between number of teeth and age in both groups is significative (p<0.05). There is also a significative correlation between subjects with renal diseases and type II diabetes and number of teeth (p<0.05). Finally a significative correlation is present between number of teeth and sex of the patients (p<0.05) (Table 1). The results of the Wilcoxon’s test revealed a significative correlation between MMSE in the two groups (p<0.01). There is also a significative correlation between the two groups and the educational background (p<0.01). The results of the study shows a clear correlation between tooth loss and cognitive function in elderly of L’Aquila. PMID:24955179
Mummolo, Stefano; Ortu, Eleonora; Necozione, Stefano; Monaco, Annalisa; Marzo, Giuseppe
To develop targeted intervention strategies for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, we first need to identify early markers of brain changes that occur before the onset of cognitive impairment. Here, we examine changes in resting-state brain function in humans from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. We compared longitudinal changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), assessed by 15O-water PET, over a mean 7 year period between participants who eventually developed cognitive impairment (n = 22) and those who remained cognitively normal (n = 99). Annual PET assessments began an average of 11 years before the onset of cognitive impairment in the subsequently impaired group, so all participants were cognitively normal during the scanning interval. A voxel-based mixed model analysis was used to compare groups with and without subsequent impairment. Participants with subsequent impairment showed significantly greater longitudinal rCBF increases in orbitofrontal, medial frontal, and anterior cingulate regions, and greater longitudinal decreases in parietal, temporal, and thalamic regions compared with those who maintained cognitive health. These changes were linear in nature and were not influenced by longitudinal changes in regional tissue volume. Although all participants were cognitively normal during the scanning interval, most of the accelerated rCBF changes seen in the subsequently impaired group occurred within regions thought to be critical for the maintenance of cognitive function. These changes also occurred within regions that show early accumulation of pathology in Alzheimer's disease, suggesting that there may be a connection between early pathologic change and early changes in brain function. PMID:24227712
Goh, Joshua O.; An, Yang; Kraut, Michael A.; O'Brien, Richard J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Resnick, Susan M.
BACKGROUND: Although patients with Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD) often have impaired social functioning, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of psychosocial treatment for these patients. We examined whether adding group cognitive behavioral therapy (group-CBT) to medication would improve both the depressive symptoms and the social functioning of patient with mild TRD, and whether any improvements would be maintained over one
Miki Matsunaga; Yasumasa Okamoto; Shin-ichi Suzuki; Akiko Kinoshita; Shinpei Yoshimura; Atsuo Yoshino; Yoshihiko Kunisato; Shigeto Yamawaki
This contribution presents key functionalities and design approaches of a distributed system architecture as it is studied in the framework of the European E2R II project. An emphasis is laid on policy based self-governance, distributed reconfiguration concepts and corresponding cognitive support functionalities; this support is necessary to assure context awareness in the equipment in order to facilitate (enable) distributed decision
Markus Muck; Sophie Gault; Didier Bourse; Konstantinos Tsagkaris; Panagiotis Demestichas; Zachos Boufidis; Makis Stamatelatos; Nancy Alonistioti
Objective: This study investigated the role of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in relation to externalizing and internalizing mental health problems, academic functioning, and social functioning among young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: In all, 57 youth ages 10 to 14 participated in the study. Parents…
Becker, Stephen P.; Langberg, Joshua M.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS) can be differentiated from each other and from typically developing children on their cognitive profiles. The present study included a total of 45 participants: children with autism (high-functioning autism or Asperger's…
Planche, Pascale; Lemonnier, Eric
Background: Although neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have implicated the frontal cortex and subcortical structures in the pathophysiology of the disorder, few studies have examined cognitive function in patients with OCD on tasks validated in the assessment of frontal lobe and subcortical dysfunction.Methods: The accuracy and latency of executive and visual memory function was assessed in 23
Rosemary Purcell; Paul Maruff; Michael Kyrios; Christos Pantelis
Our analysis of Anglo American, Native American, and Hispanic adolescents confirms several predictions derived from a cognitive?functional theory of television's socialization effects. The major predictions that learning and functionality evaluations of observed values lead to acceptance were supported for each of the three ethnic groups. As the theory predicts, adolescents accepted values observed in television when they recognized them (a
Alexis Tan; Leigh Nelson; Qingwen Dong; Gerdean Tan
Objectives. To investigate whether the positive relation between socioeconomic position (SEP) across the life course and later life cognitive function observed in Western populations exists in former communist countries with apparently smaller income inequalities. Method. Structural equation modeling analysis of cross-sectional data on 30,846 participants aged 45–78 years in four Central and Eastern European centers: Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania), and six Czech towns from the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study. SEP was measured using self-reported childhood (maternal education, household amenities), adult (education), and older adult (current material circumstances) indicators. Latent variable for cognition was constructed from word recall, animal naming, and letter search. Results. Associations between SEP measures over the life course and cognition were similar across study centers. Education had the strongest direct association with cognition, followed by current material circumstances. Indirect path from education to cognition, mediated by current SEP, was small. Direct path from mother’s education to cognition was significant but modest, and partially mediated by later SEP measures, particularly education. Discussion. In these Eastern European populations, late life cognition reflected life course socioeconomic trajectories similarly to findings in Western countries. PMID:24598045
Background: Both cognitive function and gait speed are important correlates of disability. However, little is known about the combined effect of cognitive function and gait speed on multiple domains of disability as well as about the role of gait speed in the association between cognitive function and late-life disability. Objective: To investigate (1) how cognition and habitual gait speed are
Hsu-Ko Kuo; Suzanne G. Leveille; Yau-Hua Yu; William P. Milberg
Alzheimer's disease is a common problem in our elderly population. Although research is leading to improvements in our understanding of the underlying biology, we still have little understanding of the environmental risk factors associated with this disorder. Caffeine, an easily modifiable environmental factor, may have a protective effect on the likelihood of developing Alzheimer's disease. This article reviews the association between caffeine from both a biologic and epidemiologic perspective. Further studies are needed to determine whether caffeine consumption could have a major affect on the development of Alzheimer's disease or age-related cognitive decline. PMID:19230121
Rosso, Andi; Mossey, Jana; Lippa, Carol F
Research has been fertile in producing studies on pedagogical change and innovation through technology in Higher Education Institutions, namely the integration of the social media in pedagogical practice. However, there is a lack of studies on the integration of the social media in the particular field of lectures. In this context, commonly…
Andrade, Antonio; Castro, Cornelia; Ferreira, Sergio Andre
We examined how responses to aversive pictures affected performance and stimulus-locked event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded during a demanding cognitive task. Numeric Stroop stimuli were brief ly presented to either left or right visual hemifield (LVF and RVF, respectively) after a centrally presented aversive or neutral picture from the International Affective Picture System. Subjects indicated whether a quantity value from each Stroop stimulus matched the preceding Stroop stimulus while passively viewing the pictures. After aversive pictures, responses were more accurate for LVF Stroops and less accurate for RVF Stroops. Early-latency extrastriate attention-dependent visual ERPs were enhanced for LVF Stroops. The N2 ERP was enhanced for LVF Stroops over the right frontal and parietal scalp sites. Slow potentials (300-800 msec) recorded over the frontal and parietal regions showed enhanced picture related modulation and amplitude for LVF Stroops. These results suggest that emotional responses to aversive pictures selectively facilitated right hemisphere processing during higher cognitive task performance. PMID:15814010
Simon-Thomas, Emiliana R; Role, Kemi O; Knight, Robert T
Background Cognitive dysfunction is clearly recognized in bipolar patients, but the degree of impairment varies due to methodological factors as well as heterogeneity in patient populations. The goal of this study was to evaluate cognitive functioning in bipolar patients and to assess its association with depressive symptoms. Post hoc the relationship with lifetime alcohol use disorder was explored. Methodology/Principal Findings The study included 110 bipolar patients and 75 healthy controls. Patients with severe depressive symptoms, (hypo)manic symptoms and current severe alcohol use disorder were excluded. Diagnoses were evaluated via the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Cognitive functioning was measured in domains of psychomotor speed, speed of information processing, attentional switching, verbal memory, visual memory, executive functioning and an overall mean score. Severity of depression was assessed by the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-self rating. Patients were euthymic (n?=?46) or with current mild (n?=?38) or moderate (n?=?26) depressive symptoms. Cognitive impairment was found in 26% (z-score 2 or more above reference control group for at least one domain) of patients, most prominent in executive functioning (effect size; ES 0.49) and speed of information processing (ES 0.47). Depressive symptoms were associated with dysfunction in psychomotor speed (adjusted beta 0.43; R2 7%), speed of information processing (adjusted beta 0.36; R2 20%), attentional switching (adjusted beta 0.24; R2 16%) and the mean score (adjusted beta 0.23; R2 24%), but not with verbal and visual memory and executive functioning. Depressive symptoms explained 24% of the variance in the mean z-score of all 6 cognitive domains. Comorbid lifetime alcohol use (n?=?21) was not associated with cognitive dysfunction. Conclusions/Significance Cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder is more severe in patients with depressive symptoms, especially regarding speed and attention. Therefore, interpretation of cognitive functioning in patients with depressive symptoms should be cautious. No association was found between cognitive functioning and lifetime comorbid alcohol use disorder. PMID:20927392
van der Werf-Eldering, Marieke J.; Burger, Huibert; Holthausen, Esther A. E.; Aleman, Andre; Nolen, Willem A.
Objective An inverse relationship between blood pressure and cognitive function has been found in adults, but limited data are available in adolescents and young adults. We examined the prospective relation between blood pressure and cognitive function in adolescence. Methods We examined the association between BP measured at the ages of 12–15 years in school surveys and cognitive endpoints measured in the Seychelles Child Development Study at ages 17 (n=407) and 19 (n=429) years, respectively. We evaluated multiple domains of cognition based on subtests of the Cambridge Neurological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), the Woodcock Johnson Test of Scholastic Achievement (WJTA), the Finger Tapping test (FT) and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT). We used age-, sex- and height-specific z-scores of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Results Six out of the 21 cognitive endpoints tested were associated with BP. However, none of these associations were found to hold for both males and females or for different subtests within the same neurodevelopmental domain or for both SBP and DBP. Most of these associations disappeared when analyses were adjusted for selected potential confounding factors such as socio-economic status, birth weight, gestational age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, blood glucose, and total n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fats. Conclusions Our findings do not support a consistent association between BP and subsequent performance on tests assessing various cognitive domains in adolescents. PMID:23572201
Lyngdoh, Tanica; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Kobrosly, Roni; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Huber, Brittany; Davidson, Philip W.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Strain, JJ; Myers, Gary J.; Bovet, Pascal
As human lifespan increases, a greater fraction of the population is suffering from age-related cognitive impairments, making it important to elucidate a means to combat the effects of aging. Here we report that exposure of an aged animal to young blood can counteract and reverse pre-existing effects of brain aging at the molecular, structural, functional and cognitive level. Genome-wide microarray analysis of heterochronic parabionts--in which circulatory systems of young and aged animals are connected--identified synaptic plasticity-related transcriptional changes in the hippocampus of aged mice. Dendritic spine density of mature neurons increased and synaptic plasticity improved in the hippocampus of aged heterochronic parabionts. At the cognitive level, systemic administration of young blood plasma into aged mice improved age-related cognitive impairments in both contextual fear conditioning and spatial learning and memory. Structural and cognitive enhancements elicited by exposure to young blood are mediated, in part, by activation of the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (Creb) in the aged hippocampus. Our data indicate that exposure of aged mice to young blood late in life is capable of rejuvenating synaptic plasticity and improving cognitive function. PMID:24793238
Villeda, Saul A; Plambeck, Kristopher E; Middeldorp, Jinte; Castellano, Joseph M; Mosher, Kira I; Luo, Jian; Smith, Lucas K; Bieri, Gregor; Lin, Karin; Berdnik, Daniela; Wabl, Rafael; Udeochu, Joe; Wheatley, Elizabeth G; Zou, Bende; Simmons, Danielle A; Xie, Xinmin S; Longo, Frank M; Wyss-Coray, Tony
We examined whether modulation of functional connectivity by cognitive state differed between pre-adolescent children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and age and IQ-matched control children. Children underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during two states, a resting state followed by a sustained attention task. A voxel-wise method was used to characterize functional connectivity at two levels, local (within a voxel's 14 mm neighborhood) and distant (outside of the voxel's 14 mm neighborhood to the rest of the brain) and regions exhibiting Group × State interaction were identified for both types of connectivity maps. Distant functional connectivity of regions in the left frontal lobe (dorsolateral [BA 11, 10]; supplementary motor area extending into dorsal anterior cingulate [BA 32/8]; and premotor [BA 6, 8, 9]), right parietal lobe (paracentral lobule [BA 6]; angular gyrus [BA 39/40]), and left posterior middle temporal cortex (BA 19/39) showed a Group × State interaction such that relative to the resting state, connectivity reduced (i.e., became focal) in control children but increased (i.e., became diffuse) in ASD children during the task state. Higher state-related increase in distant connectivity of left frontal and right angular gyrus predicted worse inattention in ASD children. Two graph theory measures (global efficiency and modularity) were also sensitive to Group × State differences, with the magnitude of state-related change predicting inattention in the ASD children. Our results indicate that as ASD children transition from an unconstrained to a sustained attentional state, functional connectivity of frontal and parietal regions with the rest of the brain becomes more widespread in a manner that may be maladaptive as it was associated with attention problems in everyday life. PMID:23986678
You, Xiaozhen; Norr, Megan; Murphy, Eric; Kuschner, Emily S.; Bal, Elgiz; Gaillard, William D.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Vaidya, Chandan J.
This review will provide an overview of the non-drug based approaches that have been demonstrated to enhance cognitive function of the compromised brain, primarily focussed on the two most widely adopted paradigms of environmental enrichment and enhanced physical exercise. Environmental enrichment involves the generation of novelty and complexity in animal housing conditions which facilitates enhanced sensory and cognitive stimulation as well as physical activity. In a wide variety of animal models of brain disorders, environmental enrichment and exercise have been found to have beneficial effects, including cognitive enhancement, delayed disease onset, enhanced cellular plasticity and associated molecular processes. Potential cellular and molecular mechanisms will also be discussed, which have relevance for the future development of 'enviromimetics', drugs which could mimic or enhance the beneficial effects of environmental stimulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22766390
Pang, Terence Y C; Hannan, Anthony J
Herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1) causes cold sores, keratitis and rarely, fatal encephalitis. The infection is lifelong, with sensory ganglia serving as reservoirs of latent infection. Recently, exposure to HSV-1 has also been repeatedly associated with reduced cognitive function among healthy individuals without prior encephalitis. Though HSV-1 does not elevate risk for schizophrenia (SZ) per se, exposure is likewise associated with impaired cognitive functions among SZ patients. The range of cognitive changes observed in HSV-1 exposed persons has not been investigated systematically, nor is it known whether interaction between HSV-1 exposure and SZ related factors contributes to the impairment among SZ patients. Persons with or without schizophrenia/schizophreniform disorder (N = 298 total, DSM IV criteria) were assessed for HSV-1 exposure using serum HSV-1 antibody titers. The Penn Computerized Neurocognitive battery was used to assess eight cognitive domains with respect to accuracy and speed. There were no significant case-control differences in HSV-1 exposure. The SZ/schizophreniform disorder cases were significantly impaired in all cognitive domains compared with the controls. HSV-1 exposure was also associated with reduced cognitive function in the entire sample, but the magnitude of the effects and their patterns differed from the SZ related changes. Further, statistically significant interactions between HSV-1 exposure and SZ case status were not detected. HSV-1 exposure does not elevate risk for SZ, but it is associated with reduced function in specific cognitive domains regardless of SZ diagnostic status. An 'epidiagnostic' model for the association is proposed to explain the results. PMID:23920011
Thomas, Pramod; Bhatia, Triptish; Gauba, Deepak; Wood, Joel; Long, Colleen; Prasad, Konasale; Dickerson, Faith B; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Yolken, Robert H; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; Deshpande, Smita N
Herpes Simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1) causes cold sores, keratitis and rarely, fatal encephalitis. The infection is life long, with sensory ganglia serving as reservoirs of latent infection. Recently, exposure to HSV-1 has also been repeatedly associated with reduced cognitive function among healthy individuals without prior encephalitis. Though HSV-1 does not elevate risk for schizophrenia (SZ) per se, exposure is likewise associated with impaired cognitive functions among SZ patients. The range of cognitive changes observed in HSV-1 exposed persons has not been investigated systematically, nor is it known whether interaction between HSV-1 exposure and SZ related factors contributes to the impairment among SZ patients. Persons with or without schizophrenia/schizophreniform disorder (N = 298 total, DSM IV criteria) were assessed for HSV-1 exposure using serum HSV-1 antibody titers. The Penn Computerized Neurocognitive battery was used to assess eight cognitive domains with respect to accuracy and speed. There were no significant case-control differences in HSV-1 exposure. The SZ/schizophreniform disorder cases were significantly impaired in all cognitive domains compared with the controls. HSV-1 exposure was also associated with reduced cognitive function in the entire sample, but the magnitude of the effects and their patterns differed from the SZ related changes. Further, statistically significant interactions between HSV-1 exposure and SZ case status were not detected. HSV-1 exposure does not elevate risk for SZ, but it is associated with reduced function in specific cognitive domains regardless of SZ diagnostic status. An ‘epidiagnostic’ model for the association is proposed to explain the results. PMID:23920011
Thomas, Pramod; Bhatia, Triptish; Gauba, Deepak; Wood, Joel; Long, Colleen; Prasad, Konasale; Dickerson, Faith B; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Yolken, Robert H; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; Deshpande, Smita N
Authors studied impairment of cognitive functions in 180 patients, aged 56-74 years, with chronic blood flow deficiency in the vertebrobasilar territory. Along with neurological examination, we used MRI of the brain and the cervical spine, MRI-angiography, ultrasound Doppler method, EEG, ECG, clinical and biochemical blood testing. Cognitive functions were assessed using standard neuropsychological tests (a word retrieval test, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Frontal Assessment battery, the Schulte test, the Landolt test, Wechsler tests, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and others). Neuropsychological performance was assessed before and after treatment with cavinton (25 mg intravenous during 10 days and then 10 mg 3 times daily during 3 months). The treatment improved cognitive function and the effect remained for more than 3 months. PMID:23739435
Skoromets, A A; Aliev, K T; Lalayan, T V; Pugachova, E L; Smolko, D G
This study investigated whether children aged between 8 and 12 years born very preterm (VPT) and/or at very low birth weight (VLBW) performed lower than same-aged term-born controls in cognitive and behavioral aspects of three executive functions: inhibition, working memory, and shifting. Special attention was given to sex differences. Fifty-two VPT/VLBW children (26 girls, 50%) born in the cohort of 1998-2003 and 36 same-aged term-born children (18 girls, 50%) were recruited. As cognitive measures, children completed tasks of inhibition (Color-Word Interference Test, D-KEFS; Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001), working memory (digit span backwards, HAWIK-IV; Petermann & Petermann, 2008), and shifting (Trail Making Test, number-letter-switching, D-KEFS; Delis et al., 2001). As behavioral measures, mothers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF; Gioia, Isquith, Guy, & Kenworthy, 2000). Scales of interest were inhibit, working memory, and shift. Analyses of the cognitive aspects of executive functions revealed that VPT/VLBW children performed significantly lower than controls in the shifting task but not in the working memory and inhibition tasks. Analyses of behavioral aspects of executive functions revealed that VPT/VLBW children displayed more problems than the controls in working memory in everyday life but not in inhibition and shifting. No sex differences could be detected either in cognitive or behavioral aspects of executive functions. To conclude, cognitive and behavioral measures of executive functions were not congruent in VPT/VLBW children. In clinical practice, the combination of cognitive and behavioral instruments is required to disclose children's executive difficulties. PMID:23458400
Ritter, Barbara Catherine; Perrig, Walter; Steinlin, Maja; Everts, Regula
Functionally graded materials (FGM's) are a new generation of engineered materials wherein the microstructural details are spatially varied through nonuniform distribution of the reinforcement phase(s). Engineers accomplish this by using reinforcements with different properties, sizes, and shapes, as well as by interchanging the roles of the reinforcement and matrix phases in a continuous manner (ref. 1). The result is a microstructure that produces continuously or discretely changing thermal and mechanical properties at the macroscopic or continuum scale. This new concept of engineering the material's microstructure marks the beginning of a revolution both in the materials science and mechanics of materials areas since it allows one, for the first time, to fully integrate the material and structural considerations into the final design of structural components. Functionally graded materials are ideal candidates for applications involving severe thermal gradients, ranging from thermal structures in advanced aircraft and aerospace engines to computer circuit boards. Owing to the many variables that control the design of functionally graded microstructures, full exploitation of the FGM's potential requires the development of appropriate modeling strategies for their response to combined thermomechanical loads. Previously, most computational strategies for the response of FGM's did not explicitly couple the material's heterogeneous microstructure with the structural global analysis. Rather, local effective or macroscopic properties at a given point within the FGM were first obtained through homogenization based on a chosen micromechanics scheme and then subsequently used in a global thermomechanical analysis.
Aboudi, J.; Pindera, M. J.; Arnold, Steven M.
Alteration in lung function at high altitude influences exercise capacity, worsens hypoxia, and may predispose to high-altitude illness. The effect of high altitude on lung function and mechanisms responsible for these alterations remain unclear. Seven adult male mountaineers were followed prospectively during a climbing expedition to Mount Everest, Nepal. Measurements of spirometry and respiratory muscle function were performed for the duration of the expedition, during changes in altitude between 3450 and 7200 meters (m). Measurements included the forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)), maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) in 12 seconds, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), and respiratory muscle endurance (Tlim). At an altitude of 3450 m, the FVC initially increased (9%) over 24 h, followed by a significant decline; the FEV(1), MVV, MIP, and MEP showed similar progressive decline. At 5350 m, FVC increased by 21% over the first 48 h, then decreased. The FVC, FEV(1), MVV, MIP, and MEP initially increased and then gradually diminished over time. Respiratory muscle endurance (Tlim) decreased over the first three days at 3450 m but then remained unchanged. MVV decreased at lower altitude followed by a slight increase and then a significant decline. Compared with baseline, we observed a fluctuating course for spirometric measurements, respiratory muscle strength, and endurance at high altitude. Initial transient increases in parameters occurred on ascent to each new altitude followed by a gradual decline during prolonged stay. PMID:17393241
Sharma, Sat; Brown, Bryce
Introduction Intact cognitive functioning is necessary for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to understand the value of healthy lifestyle guidelines, to make informed decisions and subsequently act on it. Nevertheless, brain abnormalities and cognitive impairment have been found in patients with COPD. To date, it remains unknown which cognitive domains are affected and what the possible consequences are of cognitive impairment. Therefore, objectives of the study described are to determine neuropsychological functioning in patients with COPD, and its influence on health status, daily functioning and pulmonary rehabilitation outcome. Furthermore, structural and functional brain abnormalities and the relationship with cognitive and daily functioning will be explored. Methods and analysis A longitudinal observational comparative study will be performed in 183 patients with COPD referred for pulmonary rehabilitation and in 90 healthy control participants. Demographic and clinical characteristics, activities of daily living and knowledge about COPD will be assessed. Baseline cognitive functioning will be compared between patients and controls using a detailed neuropsychological testing battery. An MRI substudy will be performed to compare brain abnormalities between 35 patients with COPD with cognitive impairment and 35 patients with COPD without cognitive impairment. Patients will be recruited between November 2013 and November 2015. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the University Hospital Maastricht and Maastricht University (NL45127.068.13/METC 13-3-035) and is registered in the Dutch trial register. All participants will provide written informed consent and can withdraw from the study at any point in time. Assessment and home visit data material will be managed anonymously. The results obtained can be used to optimise patient-oriented treatment for cognitively impaired patients with COPD. The findings will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed journals and through research conferences. PMID:24589828
Cleutjens, Fiona A H M; Wouters, Emiel F M; Dijkstra, Jeanette B; Spruit, Martijn A; Franssen, Frits M E; Vanfleteren, Lowie E G W; Ponds, Rudolf W H M; Janssen, Daisy J A
Individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have deficits in cognitive control, but how they change with treatment is unclear. Seven patients with AUD and anxiety from an open-label trial of disulfiram plus lorazepam performed a multisensory Stroop task during fMRI (both pre and post initiation of treatment), and were compared to nine healthy controls (HCs) (n = 16; Albuquerque, NM; years 2009-2012). Evoked BOLD signal and resting state functional connectivity were compared (HC vs. AUD; Scan 1 vs. Scan 2). AUD demonstrated hyperactivity and altered connectivity in the cognitive control network compared to HC, but treatment did not normalize function. PMID:25290463
Wilcox, Claire E; Mayer, Andrew R; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Ling, Josef; Dekonenko, Charlene; Cumbo, Heather
Apart from motor control the cerebellum has been implicated in higher cortical functions such as memory, fronto-executive\\u000a functions, visuoconstructive skills and emotion. Clinical descriptions of hereditary ataxias mention cognitive impairment\\u000a to a variable extent. Systematic neuropsychological studies are limited. Regarding the neuropathological pattern in different\\u000a SCA types, cognitive deficits in hereditary ataxias are not likely to be contingent upon cerebellar
A systematic review was conducted to evaluate whether chocolate or its constituents were capable of influencing cognitive function and/or mood. Studies investigating potentially psychoactive fractions of chocolate were also included. Eight studies (in six articles) met the inclusion criteria for assessment of chocolate or its components on mood, of which five showed either an improvement in mood state or an attenuation of negative mood. Regarding cognitive function, eight studies (in six articles) met the criteria for inclusion, of which three revealed clear evidence of cognitive enhancement (following cocoa flavanols and methylxanthine). Two studies failed to demonstrate behavioral benefits but did identify significant alterations in brain activation patterns. It is unclear whether the effects of chocolate on mood are due to the orosensory characteristics of chocolate or to the pharmacological actions of chocolate constituents. Two studies have reported acute cognitive effects of supplementation with cocoa polyphenols. Further exploration of the effect of chocolate on cognitive facilitation is recommended, along with substantiation of functional brain changes associated with the components of cocoa. PMID:24117885
Scholey, Andrew; Owen, Lauren
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with mood and cognitive deficits in children and young adults. Evidence suggests that the effects of early-life adversity persist throughout adulthood; however, the impact of CSA on cognition in older adults is largely unknown. This study investigated cognitive function in older adults with a reported history of CSA. Data are from a population-based study (The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing) of 6,912 adults aged 50 years and older. Participants answered questions about CSA as part of a stressful life events questionnaire. Global cognition, executive function, memory (both objective and self-rated), attention, and processing speed were measured via a comprehensive battery of tests. Anxiety and depression, other childhood adversity, health behaviours, chronic disease, and medication use were also assessed. Of the total sample, 6.5% reported CSA. These individuals were more likely to have experienced other forms of childhood adversity and to exhibit poor mental health compared to those who reported no history of CSA. Multivariate regression analyses revealed, however, that CSA was associated with better global cognition, memory, executive function, and processing speed, despite poorer psychological health in this group. Future studies should aim to investigate possible reasons for this finding. PMID:24265204
Feeney, Joanne; Kamiya, Yumiko; Robertson, Ian H; Kenny, Rose Anne
Treatment-related cognitive impairments have been reported for survivors of childhood leukemia following prophylactic central nervous system (CNS) treatment with 2400 cGy craniospinal irradiation and intrathecal chemotherapy. The present study was designed to prospectively evaluate cognitive functioning of 24 children prior to CNS prophylaxis of 1800 cGy of craniospinal irradiation and intrathecal drugs, and at intervals of 1 and 4-5 years. At diagnosis, prior to CNS treatment, all 24 subjects performed in the average range of intelligence, as measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scales. Subjects continued to perform in the average range with no significant declines at the 1-year follow-up. Significant declines in cognitive functioning, however, were found at the 4- to 5-year follow-up period, with five subjects (21%) performing in the low average or borderline levels of intelligence. Of the 19 subjects performing in the average range, five showed significant discrepancies between Verbal and Performance IQ scores. Nine subjects exhibited poor performance on a subtest cluster assessing perceptual and attentional processes. With regard to school experiences, 50% of the subjects had received some type of special education services. The findings indicate the need for annual evaluations of cognitive functioning in long-term survivors of childhood leukemia who received 1800 cGy craniospinal irradiation, to identify potential cognitive late effects of treatment requiring appropriate special education services.
Rubenstein, C.L.; Varni, J.W.; Katz, E.R. (Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, CA (USA))
Background Few studies have examined the short-term course of cognitive impairments in bipolar disorder (BD). Key questions are whether trajectories in symptoms covary with cognitive function and whether BD is associated with increased intra-individual variability in cognitive abilities. Method Forty-two out-patients with BD and 49 normal comparison (NC) subjects were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests at baseline, 6, 12 and 26 weeks, along with concurrent ratings of depressive and manic symptom severity. Mixed-effects regressions were used to model relationships between time, diagnosis and symptom severity on composite cognitive performance. Within-person variance in cognitive functioning across time was calculated for each subject. Results BD patients had significantly worse performance in cognitive ability across time points, but both groups showed significant improvement in cognitive performance over repeated assessments (consistent with expected practice effects). BD was associated with significantly greater intra-individual variability in cognitive ability than NCs; within-person variation was negatively related to baseline cognitive ability in BD but not NC subjects. Changes in affective symptoms over time did not predict changes in cognitive ability. Conclusions Moderate changes in affective symptoms did not covary with cognitive ability in BD. The finding of elevated intra-individual variability in BD may reduce capacity to estimate trajectories of cognitive ability in observational and treatment studies. PMID:22152983
Depp, C. A.; Savla, G. N.; Vergel de Dios, L. A.; Mausbach, B. T.; Palmer, B. W.
Background Animal and human studies suggest that stress experienced early in life has detrimental consequences on brain development, including brain regions involved in cognitive function. Cognitive changes are cardinal features of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Early-life trauma is a major risk factor for these disorders. Only few studies have measured the long-term consequences of childhood trauma on cognitive function in healthy adults. Methods In this pilot study, we investigated the relationship between childhood trauma exposure and cognitive function in 47 healthy adults, who were identified as part of a larger study from the general population in Wichita, KS. We used the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and the Wide-Range-Achievement-Test (WRAT-3) to examine cognitive function and individual achievement. Type and severity of childhood trauma was assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression on CANTAB measures with primary predictors (CTQ scales) and potential confounders (age, sex, education, income). Results Specific CTQ scales were significantly associated with measures of cognitive function. Emotional abuse was associated with impaired spatial working memory performance. Physical neglect correlated with impaired spatial working memory and pattern recognition memory. Sexual abuse and physical neglect were negatively associated with WRAT-3 scores. However, the association did not reach the significance level of p < 0.01. Conclusions Our results suggest that physical neglect and emotional abuse might be associated with memory deficits in adulthood, which in turn might pose a risk factor for the development of psychopathology. PMID:20630071
Previous studies could show a complex relationship between alcohol consumption and cognition but also with processes of ageing both social and biological. Acute effects of alcohol during intoxication include clinical signs such as excitation and reduced inhibition, slurred speech, and increased reaction time but also cognitive dysfunction, especially deficits in memory functions. However, these cognitive deficits during alcohol intoxication are reversible while patients with alcohol addiction and chronic alcohol intake show severe impairments of cognitive functions especially deficits in executive functions. Frontal executive impairments in these patients include deficits in problem solving, abstraction, planning, organizing, and working memory.Additionally, gender specific deficits are relevant for the course of the disease and its concomitant health problems with female alcoholics showing a higher vulnerability for cognitive dysfunction and brain atrophy at earlier stages of alcoholism history. PMID:23868552
Weiss, Elisabeth; Singewald, Evelin M; Ruepp, Beatrix; Marksteiner, Josef
Context Strategies to improve the course of recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) have great public health relevance. To reduce the risk of relapse/recurrence after acute phase Cognitive Therapy (CT), a continuation phase model of therapy (C-CT) may improve outcomes. Objectives To test the efficacy of C-CT and fluoxetine (FLX) for relapse prevention in a placebo (PBO) controlled randomized trial and compare the durability of prophylaxis after discontinuation of treatments. Design A sequential, three stage design with: acute phase (all patients received 12 weeks of CT), 8 month experimental phase (responders at higher risk were randomized to C-CT, FLX, or PBO), and 24 months of longitudinal, post-treatment follow-up. Setting Two university-based specialty clinics. Patients 523 adults with recurrent MDD began acute phase CT, of which 241 “higher risk” responders were randomized and 181 subsequently entered the follow-up. Interventions CT responders at higher risk for relapse were randomized to receive 8 months of C-CT (n = 86), FLX (n = 86) or PBO (n = 69). Main Outcome Measures Survival analyses of relapse/recurrence rates, as determined by “blinded” evaluators using DSM-IV criteria and the LIFE interview. Results As predicted, the C-CT or FLX groups were significantly less likely to relapse than the PBO group across 8 months. Relapse/recurrence rates for C-CT and FLX were nearly identical during the 8 months of treatment, although C-CT patients were more likely to accept randomization, stayed in treatment longer, and attended more sessions than those in FLX/PBO. Contrary to prediction, relapse/recurrence rates following the discontinuation of C-CT and FLX did not differ. Conclusions Relapse risk was reduced by both C-CT and FLX in an “enriched” randomization sampling only CT responders. The preventive effects of C-CT were not significantly more ‘durable’ than those of FLX after treatment was stopped, suggesting that some higher risk patients may require alternate longer-term interventions. PMID:24005123
Jarrett, Robin B.; Minhajuddin, Abu; Gershenfeld, Howard; Friedman, Edward S.; Thase, Michael E.
There is accumulating evidence for involvement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. A primary function supported by the PFC is working memory (WM). Findings from WM studies in schizophrenia can provide insight into the nature of clinical symptoms and cognitive deficits associated with this disorder, as well as begin to suggest areas of underlying neuropathology. To
Heather M. Conklin; Clayton E. Curtis; Monica E. Calkins; William G. Iacono
Cognitive dysfunction is a common manifestation of primary brain tumors. We evaluated the association between early cognitive dysfunction and prognosis in a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Ninety-one patients who completed neuropsychological assessment after tumor resection but before further treatment were identified in the MD Anderson Neuropsychology database. The relationship between performance on cognitive testing and survival was evaluated using not only Cox proportional hazards models that included clinical factors such as age and KPS but also the Kaplan-Meier method. Median survival time from surgery was 20.7 months. Rates of impairment on cognitive testing ranged from 7.1% for Similarities, to 60.0% for Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised Total Recall. As continuous variables, the Clinical Trial Battery Composite, Trail Making Test Part B, and Controlled Oral Word Association test were associated with survival. Impairment on the Trail Making Test Part B, Controlled Oral Word Association, Similarities, and Digit Span were associated with mortality. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated the survival impact of these tests on the group as a whole and in select patient subgroups defined by classification by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA). Cognitive impairment as measured by specific neuropsychological tests is independently associated with poor prognosis in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, and this effect remains significant even within patient subgroups defined by RTOG RPA class. Executive function and attention are the cognitive domains most closely associated with prognosis in this analysis. PMID:22508762
Johnson, Derek R; Sawyer, Allison M; Meyers, Christina A; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Wefel, Jeffrey S
This study sought to characterize neuropsychological functioning in MJ-using adolescents and emerging adults (ages 18–26) and to investigate whether gender moderated these effects. Data were collected from 59 teens and emerging adults including MJ users (n = 23, 56% female) and controls (n = 35, 50% female) aged 18–26 (M = 21 years). Exclusionary criteria included independent Axis I disorders (besides SUD), and medical and neurologic disorders. After controlling for reading ability, gender, subclinical depressive symptoms, body mass index, and alcohol and other drug use, increased MJ use was associated with slower psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p< .01), less efficient sustained attention (p< .05), and increased cognitive inhibition errors (p< .03). Gender significantly moderated the effects of MJ on psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p< .003) in that males had a more robust negative relationship. The current study demonstrated that MJ exposure was associated with poorer psychomotor speed, sustained attention and cognitive inhibition in a dose-dependent manner in young adults, findings that are consistent with other samples of adolescent MJ users. Male MJ users demonstrated greater cognitive slowing than females. Future studies need to examine the neural substrates underlying with these cognitive deficits and whether cognitive rehabilitation or exercise interventions may serve as a viable treatments of cognitive deficits in emerging adult MJ users. PMID:22613255
Lisdahl, Krista M.; Price, Jenessa S.
The present study examines the epidemiological evidence for a causal relationship between caffeine consumption and cognitive deterioration in the elderly. Using a population of 641 elderly persons, we examined cognitive functioning, caffeine consumption, magnetic resonance imaging volumetrics, and other factors known to affect cognitive performance. Our findings demonstrate the association between caffeine consumption and lower cognitive change over time to be statistically significant for women only, taking into account multiple confounders, to be dose-dependent and temporarily related (caffeine consumption precedes cognitive change). Mean log transformed white matter lesion/cranial volume ratios were found to be significantly lower in women consuming more than 3 units of caffeine per day after adjustment for age (-1.23 SD=0.06) than in women consuming 2-3 units (-1.04 SD=0.04) or one unit or less (-1.04 SD=0.07, -35% in cm3 compared to low drinkers). This observation is coherent with biological assumptions that caffeine through adenosine is linked to amyloid accumulation and subsequently white matter lesion formation. The significant relationship observed between caffeine intake in women and lower cognitive decline is highly likely to be a true causal relationship and not a spurious association. PMID:20164564
Ritchie, Karen; Artero, Sylvaine; Portet, Florence; Brickman, Adam; Muraskin, Jordan; Beanino, Ephrem; Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Carrière, Isabelle
Objectives To evaluate the effect of depression and cognition on function in older adults with amnestic and nonamnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI; nonaMCI). Design The study uses baseline data from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center. Setting Data was collected at multiple Alzheimer’s Disease Centers in the United States. Participants The sample included a total of 3117 individuals with MCI, mean age = 74.37 years, SD = 9.37 (aMCI n =2488; nonaMCI n = 629). Measurements The 10-item Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) assessed function. Results Depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale), memory impairment (Logical Memory II), and processing speed decrements (Digit Symbol Substitution Test) were significantly associated with functional impairment (p < .001). Processing speed partially mediated the effect of depression on function and fully mediated the effect of executive dysfunction on function (p < .001) in the total MCI and aMCI subsample, while in the nonaMCI subsample processing speed mediated the effect of executive function but not the effect of depression (p = .20) on function. Conclusions The findings show that processing speed is central to the effect that depression and executive dysfunction have on functional impairment in cognitively impaired older adults. Future studies are needed to better understand the physiological underpinnings in age-related and disease-specific decrements in processing speed, and to address the problems in the assessment of processing speed in clinical samples. PMID:23567401
Brown, Patrick J.; Liu, Xinhua; Sneed, Joel R.; Pimontel, Monique A.; Devanand, D.P.; Roose, Steven P.
Vitamin D is an important calcium-regulating hormone with diverse functions in numerous tissues, including the brain. Increasing evidence suggests that vitamin D may play a role in maintaining cognitive function and that vitamin D deficiency may accelerate age-related cognitive decline. Using aging rodents, we attempted to model the range of human serum vitamin D levels, from deficient to sufficient, to test whether vitamin D could preserve or improve cognitive function with aging. For 5–6 mo, middle-aged F344 rats were fed diets containing low, medium (typical amount), or high (100, 1,000, or 10,000 international units/kg diet, respectively) vitamin D3, and hippocampal-dependent learning and memory were then tested in the Morris water maze. Rats on high vitamin D achieved the highest blood levels (in the sufficient range) and significantly outperformed low and medium groups on maze reversal, a particularly challenging task that detects more subtle changes in memory. In addition to calcium-related processes, hippocampal gene expression microarrays identified pathways pertaining to synaptic transmission, cell communication, and G protein function as being up-regulated with high vitamin D. Basal synaptic transmission also was enhanced, corroborating observed effects on gene expression and learning and memory. Our studies demonstrate a causal relationship between vitamin D status and cognitive function, and they suggest that vitamin D-mediated changes in hippocampal gene expression may improve the likelihood of successful brain aging. PMID:25267625
Latimer, Caitlin S.; Brewer, Lawrence D.; Searcy, James L.; Chen, Kuey-Chu; Popovic, Jelena; Kraner, Susan D.; Thibault, Olivier; Blalock, Eric M.; Landfield, Philip W.; Porter, Nada M.
Evidence of the relationship between altered cognitive function and depleted Fe status is accumulating in women of reproductive age but the degree of Fe deficiency associated with negative neuropsychological outcomes needs to be delineated. Data are limited regarding this relationship in university women in whom optimal cognitive function is critical to academic success. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between body Fe, in the absence of Fe-deficiency anaemia, and neuropsychological function in young college women. Healthy, non-anaemic undergraduate women (n 42) provided a blood sample and completed a standardised cognitive test battery consisting of one manual (Tower of London (TOL), a measure of central executive function) and five computerised (Bakan vigilance task, mental rotation, simple reaction time, immediate word recall and two-finger tapping) tasks. Women's body Fe ranged from - 4·2 to 8·1 mg/kg. General linear model ANOVA revealed a significant effect of body Fe on TOL planning time (P= 0·002). Spearman's correlation coefficients showed a significant inverse relationship between body Fe and TOL planning time for move categories 4 (r - 0·39, P= 0·01) and 5 (r - 0·47, P= 0·002). Performance on the computerised cognitive tasks was not affected by body Fe level. These findings suggest that Fe status in the absence of anaemia is positively associated with central executive function in otherwise healthy college women. PMID:22676919
Blanton, Cynthia A; Green, Michael W; Kretsch, Mary J
Vitamin D is an important calcium-regulating hormone with diverse functions in numerous tissues, including the brain. Increasing evidence suggests that vitamin D may play a role in maintaining cognitive function and that vitamin D deficiency may accelerate age-related cognitive decline. Using aging rodents, we attempted to model the range of human serum vitamin D levels, from deficient to sufficient, to test whether vitamin D could preserve or improve cognitive function with aging. For 5-6 mo, middle-aged F344 rats were fed diets containing low, medium (typical amount), or high (100, 1,000, or 10,000 international units/kg diet, respectively) vitamin D3, and hippocampal-dependent learning and memory were then tested in the Morris water maz