Sample records for higher cognitive functions

  1. Long term effects of recreational SCUBA diving on higher cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Hemelryck, W; Germonpré, P; Papadopoulou, V; Rozloznik, M; Balestra, C

    2014-12-01

    We investigated long-term effects of SCUBA diving on cognitive function using a battery of neuropsychometric tests: the Simple Reaction Time (REA), Symbol Digit Substitution (SDS), Digit Span Backwards (DSB), and Hand-Eye Coordination tests (EYE). A group (n?=?44) of experienced SCUBA divers with no history of decompression sickness was compared to non-diving control subjects (n?=?37), as well as to professional boxers (n?=?24), who are considered at higher risk of long term neurological damage. The REA was significantly shorter in SCUBA divers compared to the control subjects, and also more stable over the time course of the test. In contrast, the number of digits correctly memorized and reordered (DSB) was significantly lower for SCUBA divers compared to the control group. The results also showed that boxers performed significantly worse than the control group in three out of four tests (REA, DSB, EYE). While it may be concluded that accident-free SCUBA diving may have some long-term adverse effects on short-term memory, there is however, no evidence of general higher cognitive function deficiency. PMID:23902533

  2. Cognitive control forms a foundation for higher cog-nitive functions such as attention, memory retrieval, and

    E-print Network

    lower level or more automatic processes to ensure that our resulting actions will be in line with our retrieval, and language production and comprehension. Cognitive con- trol allows us to coordinate or direct to the incorrect and conflicting automatic word-reading response ("blue"). Behavioral studies have shown

  3. Protective Effects of Higher Cognitive Reserve for Neuropsychological and Daily Functioning Among Individuals Infected with Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Maiko; Woods, Steven Paul; Kolessar, Michael; Kriz, Daniel; Anderson, J. Renee; Olavarria, Hannah; Sasaki, Anna W.; Chang, Michael; Flora, Kenneth D.; Loftis, Jennifer M.; Huckans, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Higher levels of cognitive reserve (CR) can be protective against the neuropsychological manifestation of neural injury across a variety of clinical disorders. However, the role of CR in the expression of neurocognitive deficits among persons infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is not well understood. Thirty-nine HCV-infected participants were classified as having either high (n=19) or low (n=20) CR based on educational attainment, oral word reading, and IQ scores. A sample of 40 demographically comparable healthy adults (HA) was also included. All participants completed the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB), Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), and Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Adult Version (BRIEF-A). Linear regression analyses, controlling for gender, depression and lifetime substance use disorders, found significant effects of HCV/CR group on verbal fluency, executive functions, and daily functioning T-scores, but not in learning or the BRIEF-A. Pairwise comparisons revealed that the HCV group with low CR performed significantly below the HCV high CR and HA cohorts, who did not differ from one another. Findings indicate that higher levels of CR may be a protective factor in the neurocognitive and real-world manifestation of neural injury commonly associated with HCV infection. PMID:24018902

  4. Protective effects of higher cognitive reserve for neuropsychological and daily functioning among individuals infected with hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Maiko; Woods, Steven Paul; Kolessar, Michael; Kriz, Daniel; Anderson, J Renee; Olavarria, Hannah; Sasaki, Anna W; Chang, Michael; Flora, Kenneth D; Loftis, Jennifer M; Huckans, Marilyn

    2013-10-01

    Higher levels of cognitive reserve (CR) can be protective against the neuropsychological manifestation of neural injury across a variety of clinical disorders. However, the role of CR in the expression of neurocognitive deficits among persons infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is not well understood. Thirty-nine HCV-infected participants were classified as having either high (n?=?19) or low (n?=?20) CR based on educational attainment, oral word reading, and IQ scores. A sample of 40 demographically comparable healthy adults (HA) was also included. All participants completed the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, and Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Adult Version (BRIEF-A). Linear regression analyses, controlling for gender, depression, and lifetime substance use disorders, found significant effects of HCV/CR group on verbal fluency, executive functions, and daily functioning T scores, but not in learning or the BRIEF-A. Pairwise comparisons revealed that the HCV group with low CR performed significantly below the HCV high CR and HA cohorts, who did not differ from one another. Findings indicate that higher levels of CR may be a protective factor in the neurocognitive and real-world manifestation of neural injury commonly associated with HCV infection. PMID:24018902

  5. Cognitive function\\/dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lennart Hansson

    2000-01-01

    Several recent observations show that elevated blood pressure (BP) increases the risk of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) or reduced cognitive function. In a 15-year follow-up of a population-based cohort of elderly individuals that prior to developing AD such subjects had significantly higher systolic and diastolic BPs than those who remained mentally intact during follow-up(1).In a 20-year follow-up data on 999 men

  6. Nogo-A-deficient Transgenic Rats Show Deficits in Higher Cognitive Functions, Decreased Anxiety, and Altered Circadian Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Petrasek, Tomas; Prokopova, Iva; Sladek, Martin; Weissova, Kamila; Vojtechova, Iveta; Bahnik, Stepan; Zemanova, Anna; Schönig, Kai; Berger, Stefan; Tews, Björn; Bartsch, Dusan; Schwab, Martin E.; Sumova, Alena; Stuchlik, Ales

    2014-01-01

    Decreased levels of Nogo-A-dependent signaling have been shown to affect behavior and cognitive functions. In Nogo-A knockout and knockdown laboratory rodents, behavioral alterations were observed, possibly corresponding with human neuropsychiatric diseases of neurodevelopmental origin, particularly schizophrenia. This study offers further insight into behavioral manifestations of Nogo-A knockdown in laboratory rats, focusing on spatial and non-spatial cognition, anxiety levels, circadian rhythmicity, and activity patterns. Demonstrated is an impairment of cognitive functions and behavioral flexibility in a spatial active avoidance task, while non-spatial memory in a step-through avoidance task was spared. No signs of anhedonia, typical for schizophrenic patients, were observed in the animals. Some measures indicated lower anxiety levels in the Nogo-A-deficient group. Circadian rhythmicity in locomotor activity was preserved in the Nogo-A knockout rats and their circadian period (tau) did not differ from controls. However, daily activity patterns were slightly altered in the knockdown animals. We conclude that a reduction of Nogo-A levels induces changes in CNS development, manifested as subtle alterations in cognitive functions, emotionality, and activity patterns. PMID:24672453

  7. Cognitive functioning and anxiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. Eysenck; Colin MacLeod; Andrew Mathews

    1987-01-01

    Various possible differences in cognitive functioning between those high and low in trait anxiety are considered. Particular emphasis is paid to the hypothesis that individuals high in trait anxiety tend to approach threatening stimuli, whereas those low in trait anxiety tend to avoid such stimuli. The evidence indicates that there are such differences in the processing of threatening stimuli as

  8. Meditation in Higher Education: Does It Enhance Cognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helber, Casey; Zook, Nancy A.; Immergut, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We predicted that students in a sociology course that included contemplative practices (i.e., mindfulness meditation) would show an increase in performance on higher level cognitive abilities (executive functions) over the semester compared to a control group of students. Change in executive functions performance was not significantly different…

  9. Cognitive function in subclinical hypothyroidism in elderly

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Sarita; Sachan, Shivam; Misra, Vatsala; Varma, Anurag; Saxena, Piyush

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To study the association of cognitive function with subclinical hypothyroidism in elderly. Materials and Methods: It's a cross-sectional, case-control study of 103 patients (?65 years) who met the criteria for subclinical hypothyroidism. Similarly 103 age, sex and education-matched healthy controls were taken. Serum TSH, free T3 and free T4 were measured. Cognitive functions were assessed by using Folstein Mini Mental Examination (MMSE) and clock drawing test. Results: Out of the 103 diagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism cases, cognitive impairment (by MMSE) was found in 33 (30.9%) while it was present in only 15 (14.54%) out of 103 controls (P = 0.003), cognitive impairment (by CDT) was present in 32 patients (31.06%) out of 103 cases while it was present in 26 patients (25.24%) out of 103 controls (P > 0.05, insignificant). Mean TSH of subclinical hypothyroidism with cognitive impairment was 7.67 ± 1.22 mIU/liter and without cognitive impairment was 6.47 ± 0.98 mIU/liter (P value = 0.0001, significant) Conclusions: Prevalence of cognitive impairment was significantly higher in subclinical hypothyroidism as compared to controls. Presence of cognitive impairment correlated with the level of TSH; as TSH increased cognitive function declined. PMID:25364675

  10. What Is Meant by "Higher-Order Cognitive Skills."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipman, Susan F.

    This paper discusses higher-order cognitive skills, provides examples of appropriate test item content in various subject areas, and describes higher-level cognitive skills which might be tested by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Higher-order cognitive skills are said to be more difficult to measure than simpler skills;…

  11. HOMOCYSTEINE AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevention and treatment of age-related cognitive impairment and dementia is one of the greatest and most elusive challenges of our time. The prevalence of dementia increases exponentially with age, as does the prevalence of those with micronutrient deficiency. Several studies have shown that el...

  12. Cognitive Control and Attentional Functions

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, Melissa-Ann; Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Fan, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control is essential to flexible, goal-directed behavior under uncertainty, yet its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Because attentional functions are known to allocate mental resources and prioritize the information to be processed by the brain, we propose that the attentional functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control and the interactions among them contribute to cognitive control in the service of uncertainty reduction. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between cognitive control and attentional functions. We used the Majority Function Task (MFT) to manipulate uncertainty in order to evoke cognitive control along with the Revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R) to measure the efficiency and the interactions of attentional functions. A backwards, stepwise regression model revealed that performance on the MFT could be significantly predicted by attentional functions and their interactions as measured by the ANT-R. These results provide preliminary support for our theory that the attentional functions may be involved in the implementation of cognitive control as required to reduce uncertainty, though further investigation is needed. PMID:23792472

  13. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups. PMID:25419131

  14. Exercise, cognitive function, and aging.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jill N

    2015-06-01

    Increasing the lifespan of a population is often a marker of a country's success. With the percentage of the population over 65 yr of age expanding, managing the health and independence of this population is an ongoing concern. Advancing age is associated with a decrease in cognitive function that ultimately affects quality of life. Understanding potential adverse effects of aging on brain blood flow and cognition may help to determine effective strategies to mitigate these effects on the population. Exercise may be one strategy to prevent or delay cognitive decline. This review describes how aging is associated with cardiovascular disease risks, vascular dysfunction, and increasing Alzheimer's disease pathology. It will also discuss the possible effects of aging on cerebral vascular physiology, cerebral perfusion, and brain atrophy rates. Clinically, these changes will present as reduced cognitive function, neurodegeneration, and the onset of dementia. Regular exercise has been shown to improve cognitive function, and we hypothesize that this occurs through beneficial adaptations in vascular physiology and improved neurovascular coupling. This review highlights the potential interactions and ideas of how the age-associated variables may affect cognition and may be moderated by regular exercise. PMID:26031719

  15. Exercise, Cognitive Function, and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jill N.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the lifespan of a population is often a marker of a country's success. With the percentage of the population over 65 yr of age expanding, managing the health and independence of this population is an ongoing concern. Advancing age is associated with a decrease in cognitive function that ultimately affects quality of life. Understanding…

  16. Cognitive Processes Influencing Marital Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Ileana

    This paper reviews the literature on the role of mediating cognitive factors in marital functioning and satisfaction. Types and patterns of causal attributions of distressed and nondistressed couples are compared and the effectiveness of various intervention models is discussed. The materials also discuss the role of unfulfilled expectations as a…

  17. Placebo Sleep Affects Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether…

  18. Placebo sleep affects cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-05-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether perceived sleep quality affects cognitive functioning, 164 participants reported their previous night's sleep quality. They were then randomly assigned to 1 of 2 sleep quality conditions or 2 control conditions. Those in the "above average" sleep quality condition were informed that they had spent 28.7% of their total sleep time in REM, whereas those in the "below average" sleep quality condition were informed that they had only spent 16.2% of their time in REM sleep. Assigned sleep quality but not self-reported sleep quality significantly predicted participants' scores on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test and Controlled Oral Word Association Task. Assigned sleep quality did not predict participants' scores on the Digit Span task, as expected, nor did it predict scores on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, which was unexpected. The control conditions showed that the findings were not due to demand characteristics from the experimental protocol. These findings supported the hypothesis that mindset can influence cognitive states in both positive and negative directions, suggesting a means of controlling one's health and cognition. PMID:24417326

  19. Functional status of thyroid and cognitive functions after menopause.

    PubMed

    Bojar, Iwona; Owoc, Alfred; Gujski, Mariusz; Witczak, Mariusz; Gnatowski, Maciej; Walecka, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Background Thyroid activity plays a role in cognition. However, the relation between the functional state of thyroid and neuropsychiatric changes proceeding with age among people without clinical symptoms of thyroid dysfunction is still unknown. The aim of this study was analysis of cognitive function levels in reference to thyroid examination: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxin (TT4), triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPO-AB), and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-AB), TSH receptor antibodies (AB-TSHR) in women after menopause. Material and Methods A group of 383 women was recruited for the study. The inclusion criteria were: minimum two years after the last menstruation and no dementia signs on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Computerized battery of Central Nervous System Vital Signs (CNS VS) test was used to diagnostic cognitive functions. The blood plasma values were determined: TSH, FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, TPO-AB, Tg-AB, and AB-TSHR. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and analysis of variance in STATISTICA software. Results In women after menopause, TSH was negatively correlated with NCI results, executive functions, complex attention, and cognitive flexibility. FT4 was positively correlated with results of psychomotor speed. TT3 and TT4 were negatively correlated with results of memory and verbal memory. Furthermore, TT4 was negatively correlated with NCI, executive functions, and cognitive flexibility. TPO-AB was negatively correlated with results of memory, verbal memory, and psychomotor speed. Tg-AB was positively correlated with results of reaction time. AB-TSHR was negatively correlated with NCI results, memory, executive functions, psychomotor speed, complex attention, and cognitive flexibility. Conclusions Our study supports the importance of thyroid functionality in cognitive functioning in a group of women after menopause. The values of TSH, TT3, TT4, TPO-AB, and AB-TSHR were higher and FT4 was lower in examined women. The results were poorer in examination of cognitive functions measured with a battery of CNS-VS tests. PMID:26042394

  20. Functional Status of Thyroid and Cognitive Functions after Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Bojar, Iwona; Owoc, Alfred; Gujski, Mariusz; Witczak, Mariusz; Gnatowski, Maciej; Walecka, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Background Thyroid activity plays a role in cognition. However, the relation between the functional state of thyroid and neuropsychiatric changes proceeding with age among people without clinical symptoms of thyroid dysfunction is still unknown. The aim of this study was analysis of cognitive function levels in reference to thyroid examination: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxin (TT4), triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPO-AB), and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-AB), TSH receptor antibodies (AB-TSHR) in women after menopause. Material/Methods A group of 383 women was recruited for the study. The inclusion criteria were: minimum two years after the last menstruation and no dementia signs on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Computerized battery of Central Nervous System Vital Signs (CNS VS) test was used to diagnostic cognitive functions. The blood plasma values were determined: TSH, FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, TPO-AB, Tg-AB, and AB-TSHR. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and analysis of variance in STATISTICA software. Results In women after menopause, TSH was negatively correlated with NCI results, executive functions, complex attention, and cognitive flexibility. FT4 was positively correlated with results of psychomotor speed. TT3 and TT4 were negatively correlated with results of memory and verbal memory. Furthermore, TT4 was negatively correlated with NCI, executive functions, and cognitive flexibility. TPO-AB was negatively correlated with results of memory, verbal memory, and psychomotor speed. Tg-AB was positively correlated with results of reaction time. AB-TSHR was negatively correlated with NCI results, memory, executive functions, psychomotor speed, complex attention, and cognitive flexibility. Conclusions Our study supports the importance of thyroid functionality in cognitive functioning in a group of women after menopause. The values of TSH, TT3, TT4, TPO-AB, and AB-TSHR were higher and FT4 was lower in examined women. The results were poorer in examination of cognitive functions measured with a battery of CNS-VS tests. PMID:26042394

  1. Phytoestrogens and cognitive function: a review.

    PubMed

    Soni, Mira; Rahardjo, Tri Budi W; Soekardi, Rodiyah; Sulistyowati, Yenny; Lestariningsih; Yesufu-Udechuku, Amina; Irsan, Atik; Hogervorst, Eef

    2014-03-01

    Neuroprotective effects of phytoestrogen compounds (found in soy) have been demonstrated in animal research and cell culture studies. In particular, phytoestrogens have been shown to reduce Alzheimer's Disease (AD) related pathology, potentially alleviating risk of AD progression. In addition to their antioxidant properties, soy products also have the ability to affect cognition via interaction with estrogen receptors. However, observational studies and randomised controlled trials in humans have resulted in inconclusive findings within this domain. There are several possible reasons for these discrepant data. Studies which report no effect of phytoestrogens on cognition have mainly been carried out in European cohorts, with an average low dietary consumption. In contrast, investigation of Asian populations, with a higher general intake of tofu (a non-fermented soy product) have shown negative associations with cognitive function in those over the age of 65. Consideration of type of soy product is important, as in the latter sample, protective effects of tempe (fermented soy) were also observed. Limited data provide evidence that effects of phytoestrogens on cognition may be modified by dosage, duration of consumption and cognitive test used. Additionally, characteristics of the study population including age, gender, ethnicity and menopausal status appear to be mediating variables. Phytoestrogen treatment interventions have also shown time-limited positive effects on cognition. These findings are consistent with estrogen treatment studies, where initial positive short-term cognitive effects may occur, which reverse with long-term continuous use in elderly women. Well controlled, large scale studies are needed to assess the effects of phytoestrogens on the aging brain and provide further understanding of this association. PMID:24486046

  2. Functional Decline in Cognitive Impairment – The Relationship between Physical and Cognitive Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tung Wai Auyeung; Timothy Kwok; Jenny Lee; Ping Chung Leung; Jason Leung; Jean Woo

    2008-01-01

    Background: Physical function decline is associated with dementia, which might either be mediated by the coexisting sarcopenia or directly related to the impaired cognition. Our objectives are to examine the relationship between cognitive function and performance-based physical function and to test the hypothesis that cognitive function is related to poor physical function independent of muscle mass. Methods: We measured muscle

  3. Epigenetics, genomic mutations and cognitive function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abraham Reichenberg; Jonathan Mill; James H. MacCabe

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. There is growing interest in the role of single genes in cognitive functions. Association studies are the most commonly applied method in this field. This method assumes that the genetic information affecting cognitive processes is “static” and unchanging. However, there is accumulating evidence that dynamic genomic and epigenetic alterations can modulate complex cognitive processes, and influence susceptibility to disorders

  4. The Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience of Functional Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental cognitive neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that examines the relationships between biological development and cognitive ability. In the past decade, there has been ongoing refinement of concepts and methodology related to the study of "functional connectivity" among distributed brain regions believed to underlie cognition and…

  5. Computer-assisted cognitive remediation in patients with schizophrenia : effects on symptoms, cognition and psychosocial functioning 

    E-print Network

    MacLeod, Joanne Louise

    2013-07-02

    Background: Cognitive remediation is a behavioural intervention that aims to improve cognitive functioning with the goal of durability and generalisation. Although evidence suggests that computer-assisted cognitive ...

  6. On higher spin partition functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccaria, Matteo; Tseytlin, Arkady A.

    2015-07-01

    We observe that the partition function of the set of all free massless higher spins s = 0, 1, 2, 3,... in flat space is equal to one: the ghost determinants cancel against the ‘physical’ ones or, equivalently, the (regularized) total number of degrees of freedom vanishes. This reflects large underlying gauge symmetry and suggests analogy with supersymmetric or topological theory. The Z = 1 property extends also to the AdS background, i.e. the 1-loop vacuum partition function of Vasiliev theory is equal to 1 (assuming a particular regularization of the sum over spins); this was noticed earlier as a consistency requirement for the vectorial AdS/CFT duality. We find that Z = 1 is true also in the conformal higher spin theory (with higher-derivative {\\partial }2s kinetic terms) expanded near flat or conformally flat S4 background. We also consider the partition function of free conformal theory of symmetric traceless rank s tensor field which has 2-derivative kinetic term but only scalar gauge invariance in flat 4d space. This non-unitary theory has Weyl-invariant action in curved background and it corresponds to ‘partially massless’ field in AdS5. We discuss in detail the special case of s = 2 (or ‘conformal graviton’), compute the corresponding conformal anomaly coefficients and compare them with previously found expressions for generic representations of conformal group in 4 dimensions.

  7. Experimental case studies to engage higher cognitive skills

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William H. Guilford (University of Virginia Biomedical Engineering)

    2009-12-01

    Instructors often find it difficult to write questions that are open ended in nature (4) and that engage students at higher levels of cognitive complexity, for example, Bloom's taxonomic levels of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation (1). As a consequence, typical pedagogical settings seldom challenge students to engage in learning on those levels. As these higher levels of cognition are generally expected of graduate students, we sought to engage and evaluate graduate students by supplying raw, generally unpublished experimental data from a faculty member as "experimental case studies" requiring their analysis, their creation of tools, and their evaluation against each other and existing literature.

  8. Cognitive Functioning in Major Depression – A Summary

    PubMed Central

    Hammar, Åsa; Årdal, Guro

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to summarize the research during the past decade regarding cognitive functioning in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Cognitive impairment in the acute phase of illness has been frequently reported. The findings are shown in different cognitive domains, such as executive functions, attention, memory and psychomotor speed. Fewer reports have investigated cognitive functioning in MDD in longitudinal studies. Some longitudinal reports show that the impairment observed in the acute phase of illness may be long lasting despite symptom reduction and recovery. However, findings regarding cognitive functioning in depression are divergent. Factors that might contribute to the divergent findings, such as depression subtype, severity and comorbidity are discussed. Clinical implications and focus of future research directions is highlighted.In conclusion, depression is associated with cognitive impairment in the acute phase of illness, and some reports indicate that this impairment might be long lasting despite symptom reduction and recovery. PMID:19826496

  9. Physical and cognitive function 1 Running title: Physical and cognitive function

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Physical and cognitive function 1 29.12.2008 Running title: Physical and cognitive function Physical and cognitive function in midlife: reciprocal effects? A 5-year follow-up of the Whitehall II of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. 3 National Research and Development Centre of Welfare and Health

  10. Active teaching for higher cognitive learning in science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Tobin; William Capie; Antonio Bettencourt

    1988-01-01

    The paper reviews research related to teaching and learning higher cognitive level objectives in science from a constructivist perspective. The literature supports an active model of teaching whereby all students are provided with opportunities for overt engagement in learning tasks. Factors associated with the learner, delivery of instruction and task management interact to influence the quality of learning in classrooms.

  11. Cognitive and Academic Functioning in Maltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, Joseph C.; Barth, Richard P.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines cognitive functioning and academic achievement in maltreated children. The data are from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a national probability study of children receiving child welfare services due to alleged child maltreatment. Assessments of the cognitive and academic functioning of school-age…

  12. Cognitive Functions and Depression in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Farup, Per G; Hestad, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Background. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with depression and depression with impaired cognitive functions. The primary aim was to study associations between depression and cognitive functions in patients with IBS. Methods. IBS (according to the Rome III criteria), cognitive functions (evaluated with a set of neuropsychological tests), and depression (measured with Beck Depression Inventory II and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Scale) were analysed in patients with idiopathic depression and in patients with unspecified neurological symptoms. Results. 18 and 48 patients with a mean age of 47 and 45 years were included in the "Depression" and "Neurological" group, respectively. In the "Depression" group, the degree of depression was significantly higher in patients with IBS than in those without. Depression was associated with impaired cognitive function in 6 out of 17 neuropsychological tests indicating reduced set shifting, verbal fluency, attention, and psychomotor speed. IBS was statistically significantly associated with depression but not with any of the tests for cognitive functions. Conclusions. IBS was associated with depression but not with impaired cognitive functions. Since the idiopathic depression was associated with cognitive deficits, the findings could indicate that the depression in patients with IBS differs from an idiopathic depression. PMID:26089869

  13. Cognitive Functions and Depression in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Farup, Per G.; Hestad, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Background. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with depression and depression with impaired cognitive functions. The primary aim was to study associations between depression and cognitive functions in patients with IBS. Methods. IBS (according to the Rome III criteria), cognitive functions (evaluated with a set of neuropsychological tests), and depression (measured with Beck Depression Inventory II and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Scale) were analysed in patients with idiopathic depression and in patients with unspecified neurological symptoms. Results. 18 and 48 patients with a mean age of 47 and 45 years were included in the “Depression” and “Neurological” group, respectively. In the “Depression” group, the degree of depression was significantly higher in patients with IBS than in those without. Depression was associated with impaired cognitive function in 6 out of 17 neuropsychological tests indicating reduced set shifting, verbal fluency, attention, and psychomotor speed. IBS was statistically significantly associated with depression but not with any of the tests for cognitive functions. Conclusions. IBS was associated with depression but not with impaired cognitive functions. Since the idiopathic depression was associated with cognitive deficits, the findings could indicate that the depression in patients with IBS differs from an idiopathic depression. PMID:26089869

  14. MicroCog: Assessment of Cognitive Functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Elwood

    2001-01-01

    MicroCog: Assessment of Cognitive Functioning version 2.1 (Powell, D. H., Kaplan, E. F., Whitla, D., Catlin, R., and Funkenstein, H. H. (1993). The Psychological corporation, San Antonio, TX.) is one of the first computerized assessment batteries commercially developed to detect early signs of cognitive impairment. This paper reviews its psychometric characteristics and relates them to its clinical utility. It concludes

  15. Mesocortical dopaminergic function and human cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, D.R.; Berman, K.F.; Chase, T.N.

    1988-01-01

    In summary, we have reviewed rCBF data in humans that suggest that mesoprefrontal dopaminergic activity is involved in human cognition. In patients with Parkinson's disease and possibly in patients with schizophrenia, prefrontal physiological activation during a cognitive task that appears to depend on prefrontal neural systems correlates positively with cognitive performance on the task and with clinical signs of dopaminergic function. It may be possible in the future to examine prefrontal dopamine metabolism directly during prefrontal cognition using positron emission tomography and tracers such as F-18 DOPA. 21 references.

  16. Towards a concept of disorders of “higher vestibular function

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Thomas; Strupp, Michael; Dieterich, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vestibular disorders are commonly characterized by a combination of perceptual, ocular motor, postural, and vegetative manifestations, which cause the symptoms of vertigo, nystagmus, ataxia, and nausea. Multisensory convergence and numerous polysynaptic pathways link the bilaterally organized central vestibular network with limbic, hippocampal, cerebellar, and non-vestibular cortex structures to mediate “highercognitive functions. Anatomical classification of vestibular disorders: The traditional classification of vestibular disorders is based on the anatomical site of the lesion. While it distinguishes between the peripheral and the central vestibular systems, certain weaknesses become apparent when applied clinically. There are two reasons for this: first, peripheral and central vestibular disorders cannot always be separated by the clinical syndrome; second, a third category, namely disorders of “higher vestibular function”, is missing. These disorders may be caused by peripheral as well as central vestibular lesions. Functional classification: Here we discuss a new concept of disorders of higher vestibular function which involve cognition and more than one sensory modality. Three conditions are described that exemplify such higher disorders: room tilt illusion, spatial hemineglect, and bilateral vestibulopathy all of which present with deficits of orientation and spatial memory. Conclusions: Further elaboration of such disorders of higher multisensory functions with respect to lesion site and symptomatology is desirable. The room tilt illusion and spatial hemineglect involve vestibular and visual function to the extent that both conditions can be classified as either disorders of higher vestibular or of higher visual functions. A possible way of separating these disorders in a first step is to determine whether the causative lesion site affects the vestibular or the visual system. For the vestibular system this lesion site may be peripheral or central. The criterion of “higher function” is fulfilled if cognition or senses other than the primarily affected one come into play. PMID:24917796

  17. Cognitive function at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Kramer, A F; Coyne, J T; Strayer, D L

    1993-06-01

    The effects of altitude on human performance and cognition were evaluated in a field study performed on Mount Denali in Alaska during the summer of 1990. Climbers performed a series of perceptual, cognitive, and sensory-motor tasks before, during, and after climbing the West Buttress route on Denali. Relative to a matched control group that performed the tasks at sea level, the climbers showed deficits of learning and retention in perceptual and memory tasks. Furthermore, climbers performed more slowly on most tasks than did the control group, suggesting long-term deficits that may be attributed to repeated forays to high altitudes. PMID:8349291

  18. Nicotinic systems and cognitive function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward D. Levin

    1992-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have been found to be important for maintaining optimal performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. In humans, nicotine-induced improvement of rapid information processing is particularly well documented. In experimental animals nicotine has been found to improve learning and memory on a variety of tasks, while the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine has been found to impair memory performance.

  19. Probabilistic Higher Order Differential Attack and Higher Order Bent Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsu Iwata; Kaoru Kurosawa

    1999-01-01

    . We first show that a Feistel type block cipher is broken ifthe round function is approximated by a low degree vectorial Booleanfunction. The proposed attack is a generalization of the higher orderdifferential attack to a probabilistic one. We next introduce a notion ofhigher order bent functions in order to prevent our attack. We then showtheir explicit constructions.1

  20. Cognitively challenging physical activity benefits executive function in overweight children.

    PubMed

    Crova, Claudia; Struzzolino, Ilaria; Marchetti, Rosalba; Masci, Ilaria; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Forte, Roberta; Pesce, Caterina

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the association between aerobic fitness and executive function and the impact of enhanced, cognitively challenging physical activity on executive function in overweight and lean children. Seventy children aged 9-10 years were assigned to either a 6-month enhanced physical education programme including cognitively demanding (open skill) activities or curricular physical education only. Pre- and post-intervention tests assessed aerobic capacity (Leger test) and two components of executive function: inhibition and working memory updating (random number generation task). Indices of inhibition and memory updating were compared in higher- and lower-fit children and intervention effects were evaluated as a function of physical activity programme (enhanced vs. curricular) and weight status (lean vs. overweight). Results showed better inhibition in higher- than lower-fit children, extending the existing evidence of the association between aerobic fitness and executive function to new aspects of children's inhibitory ability. Overweight children had more pronounced pre- to post-intervention improvements in inhibition than lean children only if involved in enhanced physical education. Such intervention effects were not mediated by aerobic fitness gains. Therefore, the cognitive and social interaction challenges inherent in open skill tasks, even though embedded in a low-dose physical activity programme, may represent an effective means to promote cognitive efficiency, especially in overweight children. PMID:24015968

  1. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research. PMID:26078711

  2. Pulse wave velocity and cognitive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wenjun; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Chappell, Richard J; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Acher, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    Arterial stiffness may be associated with cognitive function. In this study, pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured from the carotid to femoral (CF-PWV) and from the carotid to radial (CR-PWV) with the Complior SP System. Cognitive function was measured by 6 tests of executive function, psychomotor speed, memory, and language fluency. A total of 1433 participants were included (mean age 75 y, 43% men). Adjusting for age, sex, education, pulse rate, hemoglobin A1C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, cardiovascular disease history, smoking, drinking, and depression symptoms, a CF-PWV>12 m/s was associated with a lower Mini-Mental State Examination score (coefficient: -0.31, SE: 0.11, P=0.005), fewer words recalled on Auditory Verbal Learning Test (coefficient: -1.10, SE: 0.43, P=0.01), and lower score on the composite cognition score (coefficient: -0.10, SE: 0.05, P=0.04) and marginally significantly associated with longer time to complete Trail Making Test-part B (coefficient: 6.30, SE: 3.41, P=0.06), CF-PWV was not associated with Trail Making Test-part A, Digit Symbol Substation Test, or Verbal Fluency Test. No associations were found between CR-PWV and cognitive performance measures. Higher large artery stiffness was associated with worse cognitive function, and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations. PMID:23632267

  3. Cognitive functioning in depersonalization disorder.

    PubMed

    Guralnik, Orna; Giesbrecht, Timo; Knutelska, Margaret; Sirroff, Beth; Simeon, Daphne

    2007-12-01

    Depersonalization disorder (DPD) is a dissociative disorder characterized by a subjective sense of unreality and detachment, and has been associated with deficits in perception and short-term memory. In this study, 21 DPD and 17 healthy comparison participants free of psychiatric disorders were administered a comprehensive neuropsychologic battery. The groups did not differ in full-scale, verbal, and performance IQ (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), in working memory (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test), or in selective attention (Digit Span with Distracters). The DPD group performed significantly worse on immediate visual and verbal recall (Wechsler Memory Scale, Revised), but not on delayed recall. Dissociation severity was significantly correlated with processing slowness and distractibility. We conclude that DPD is associated with cognitive disruptions in early perceptual and attentional processes. PMID:18091191

  4. [Cognitive function related to temporal lobe epilepsy: advances in research on new cognitive function].

    PubMed

    Yamano, Mitsuhiko; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2013-05-01

    The importance of neuropsychological examinations in epilepsy care and, especially, in epilepsy surgery is centered on the following roles: they offer a means to confirm the epileptic focus by multi-modal preoperative assessments and they help to assess postoperative functional changes based on preoperative cognitive functions. Furthermore, assessments of the cognitive functions of patients with epilepsy using various tests aid in providing comprehensive medical care. Thus far, research on cognitive functions related to temporal lobe epilepsy has focused on memory, language, and general intelligence. However, the concept of social cognitive function has been recently proposed in the field of neuropsychology. This cognitive function, proposed by Brothers in 1990, is a collective term for functions needed in social life; these include functions required to interpret the expressions, feelings, and intentions of others and to form and maintain smooth human relationships while making decisions necessary for self-survival. These functions mainly involve facial expression recognition and decision-making. Findings of research on neural mechanisms underlying social cognitive functions have emphasized the roles of the cerebral limbic system, such as the amygdalo-hippocampal complexes, and the emotional system in the ventromedial prefrontal area. Studies on social cognitive functions in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy are being pursued currently. Early-onset right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis is the key substrate determining a severe deficit in recognizing emotional facial expressions and decision-making. In the future, neuropsychological examinations of social cognition, in addition to those of global intelligence, memory, and verbal function, will contribute to the provision of comprehensive medical care to patients with epilepsy. PMID:23667120

  5. Organizational Perspective on Cognitive Control Functioning and Cognitive-Affective Balance in Maltreated Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieder, Carolyn; Cicchetti, Dante

    1989-01-01

    Examined the relation between a history of maltreatment and cognitive control functioning in two groups of preschool and early school-age maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Maltreated children showed developmentally impaired cognitive control functioning on a number of tasks. (RH)

  6. Survivorship: Cognitive Function, Version 1.2014

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J.; O’Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D.; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R.; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common complaint among cancer survivors and may be a consequence of the tumors themselves or direct effects of cancer-related treatment (eg, chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, radiation). For some survivors, symptoms persist over the long term and, when more severe, can impact quality of life and function. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides assessment, evaluation, and management recommendations for cognitive dysfunction in survivors. Nonpharmacologic interventions (eg, instruction in coping strategies; management of distress, pain, sleep disturbances, and fatigue; occupational therapy) are recommended, with pharmacologic interventions as a last line of therapy in survivors for whom other interventions have been insufficient. PMID:24994918

  7. Survivorship: cognitive function, version 1.2014.

    PubMed

    Denlinger, Crystal S; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Friedman, Debra L; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J; O'Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L; Urba, Susan G; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A

    2014-07-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common complaint among cancer survivors and may be a consequence of the tumors themselves or direct effects of cancer-related treatment (eg, chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, radiation). For some survivors, symptoms persist over the long term and, when more severe, can impact quality of life and function. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides assessment, evaluation, and management recommendations for cognitive dysfunction in survivors. Nonpharmacologic interventions (eg, instruction in coping strategies; management of distress, pain, sleep disturbances, and fatigue; occupational therapy) are recommended, with pharmacologic interventions as a last line of therapy in survivors for whom other interventions have been insufficient. PMID:24994918

  8. Relational processing in higher cognition: Implications for analogy, capacity and cognitive development.

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Bill

    and cognitive development. Paper presented to workshop on analogy, New Bulgarian University, Sofia, Bulgaria cognition: Implications for analogy, capacity and cognitive development. In this paper we will present levels of cognitive development, and accounts for processing loads in cognitive tasks, within a common

  9. Higher-order generic functions for CLOS

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, J.E.

    1992-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for developing higher-order generic functions within the Common Lisp Object System similar to the ones in Common Lisp for processing sequences. The framework consist of several CLOS classes which define a protocol that allows other classes to inherit default methods for many higher-order generic functions. These generic functions provide an elegant and uniform framework for processing CLOS objects that primarily represent collections of other objects.

  10. An Ontology for Comparative Cognition 36 An Ontology for Comparative Cognition: A Functional Approach

    E-print Network

    Cook, Robert

    An Ontology for Comparative Cognition 36 An Ontology for Comparative Cognition: A Functional introduce an ontology for the study of how animals think, as well as a comprehensive model of human and animal cognition utilizing the ontology. The IDA (Intelligent Distribution Agent) model of cognition

  11. Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Hamid R.; Bates, Kristyn A.; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S.; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R.; Rodrigues, Mark A.; Bird, Sabine M.; Brown, Belinda M.; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Foster, Jonathan K.; Martins, Ian J.; Lautenschlager, Nicola T.; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M.; Martins, Ralph N.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34–87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

  12. Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Hamid R; Bates, Kristyn A; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Rodrigues, Mark A; Bird, Sabine M; Brown, Belinda M; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mehta, Pankaj D; Foster, Jonathan K; Martins, Ian J; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M; Martins, Ralph N

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34-87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

  13. Vitamin B12 and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in 2010 in Ontario at a cost of $40 million. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with a few neurocognitive disorders. Objective To determine the clinical utility of B12 testing in patients with suspected dementia or cognitive decline. Methods Three questions were addressed: Is there an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and the onset of dementia or cognitive decline? Does treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation improve cognitive function in patients with dementia or cognitive decline and vitamin B12 deficiency? What is the effectiveness of oral versus parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation in those with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency? A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, from January 2002 until August 2012. Results Eighteen studies (7 systematic reviews and 11 observational studies) were identified to address the question of the association between B12 and the onset of dementia. Four systematic reviews were identified to address the question of the treatment of B12 on cognitive function. Finally, 3 randomized controlled trials were identified that compared oral B12 to intramuscular B12. Conclusions Based on very low quality evidence, there does appear to be an association between elevated plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamins) and the onset of dementia. Based on moderate quality evidence, but with less than optimal duration of follow-up, treatment with B12 supplementation does not appreciably change cognitive function. Based on low to moderate quality of evidence, treatment with vitamin B12 and folate in patients with mild cognitive impairment seems to slow the rate of brain atrophy. Based on moderate quality evidence, oral vitamin B12 is as effective as parenteral vitamin B12 in patients with confirmed B12 deficiency. Plain Language Summary Low levels of vitamin B12 have been associated with neurocognitive disorders. This evidence-based analysis assessed the usefulness of serum vitamin B12 testing as it relates to brain function. This review found very low quality evidence that suggests a connection between high plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamin metabolism in the body) and the onset of dementia. Moderate quality of evidence indicates treatment with vitamin B12 does not improve brain function. Moderate quality of evidence also indicates treatment using oral vitamin B12 supplements is as effective as injections of vitamin B12. PMID:24379897

  14. DHEA and cognitive function in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Marcello; De Vita, Francesca; Fisichella, Alberto; Colizzi, Elena; Provenzano, Sandra; Lauretani, Fulvio; Luci, Michele; Ceresini, Graziano; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Caffarra, Paolo; Valenti, Giorgio; Ceda, Gian Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The adrenal prohormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate conjugate (DHEAS) steadily decrease with age by 10% per decade reaching a nadir after the age of 80. Both DHEA and DHEAS (DHEA/S) exert many biological activities in different tissues and organs. In particular, DHEA and DHEAS are produced de novo in the brain, hence their classification as neurosteroids. In humans, the brain-to-plasma ratios for DHEA and DHEAS are 4-6.5 and 8.5, respectively, indicating a specific neuroendocrine role for these hormones. DHEA/S stimulates neurite growth, neurogenesis and neuronal survival, apoptosis, catecholamine synthesis and secretion. Together with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-glucocorticoid properties, it has been hypothesized a neuroprotective effect for DHEA/S. We conducted an accurate research of the literature using PubMed. In the period of time between 1994 and 2013, we selected the observational human studies testing the relationship between DHEA/S and cognitive function in both sexes. The studies are presented according to the cross-sectional and longitudinal design and to the positive or neutral effects on different domains of cognitive function. We also analysed the Clinical Trials, available in the literature, having cognitive domains as the main or secondary outcome. Although the cross-sectional evidence of a positive association between DHEA/S and cognitive function, longitudinal studies and RCTs using DHEA oral treatment (50mg/day) in normal or demented adult-older subjects, have produced conflicting and inconsistent results. In summary, the current data do not provide clear evidence for the usefulness of DHEA treatment to improve cognitive function in adult-older subjects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Essential role of DHEA'. PMID:24794824

  15. Parathyroid Hormone, Cognitive Function and Dementia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lourida, Ilianna; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Dickens, Chris M.; Soni, Maya; Ku?ma, El?bieta; Kos, Katarina; Llewellyn, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic factors are increasingly recognized to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. Abnormal parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels play a role in neuronal calcium dysregulation, hypoperfusion and disrupted neuronal signaling. Some studies support a significant link between PTH levels and dementia whereas others do not. Methods We conducted a systematic review through January 2014 to evaluate the association between PTH and parathyroid conditions, cognitive function and dementia. Eleven electronic databases and citation indexes were searched including Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Hand searches of selected journals, reference lists of primary studies and reviews were also conducted along with websites of key organizations. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts of identified studies. Data extraction and study quality were performed by one and checked by a second reviewer using predefined criteria. A narrative synthesis was performed due to the heterogeneity of included studies. Results The twenty-seven studies identified were of low and moderate quality, and challenging to synthesize due to inadequate reporting. Findings from six observational studies were mixed but suggest a link between higher serum PTH levels and increased odds of poor cognition or dementia. Two case-control studies of hypoparathyroidism provide limited evidence for a link with poorer cognitive function. Thirteen pre-post surgery studies for primary hyperparathyroidism show mixed evidence for improvements in memory though limited agreement in other cognitive domains. There was some degree of cognitive impairment and improvement postoperatively in observational studies of secondary hyperparathyroidism but no evident pattern of associations with specific cognitive domains. Conclusions Mixed evidence offers weak support for a link between PTH, cognition and dementia due to the paucity of high quality research in this area. PMID:26010883

  16. Chronic Ambient Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Bruce R.; Crane, Julian; Garrett, Nick; Woods, David L.; Bates, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposures to hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) have been inconclusively linked to a variety of negative cognitive outcomes. We investigated possible effects on cognitive function in an urban population with chronic, low-level exposure to H2S. Methods Participants were 1,637 adults, aged 18-65 years from Rotorua city, New Zealand, exposed to ambient H2S from geothermal sources. Exposures at homes and workplaces were estimated from data collected by summer and winter H2S monitoring networks across Rotorua in 2010/11. Metrics for H2S exposure at the time of participation and for exposure over the last 30 years were calculated. H2S exposure was modeled both as continuous variables and as quartiles of exposure covering the range of 0 – 64 ppb (0-88 ?g/m3). Outcomes were neuropsychological tests measuring visual and verbal episodic memory, attention, fine motor skills, psychomotor speed and mood. Associations between cognition and measures of H2S exposure were investigated with multiple regression, while covarying demographics and factors known to be associated with cognitive performance. Results The consistent finding was of no association between H2S exposure and cognition. Quartiles of H2S exposure had a small association with simple reaction time: higher exposures were associated with faster response times. Similarly, for digit symbol, higher H2S exposures tended to be marginally associated with better performance. Conclusion The results provide evidence that chronic H2S exposure, at the ambient levels found in and around Rotorua, is not associated with impairment of cognitive function. PMID:24548790

  17. Measurement of the Cognitive Functional Complexity of Software

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingxu Wang; Jingqiu Shao

    2003-01-01

    One of the central problems in software engineering is its inherited complexity. It is recognized that cognitive informatics plays an important role in understanding the fundamental characteristics of software. This paper models the cognitive weights of basic control structures of software, and develops a new concept of cognitive functional size for measuring software complexity. Comparative case studies between the cognitive

  18. Maturation of Widely Distributed Brain Function Subserves Cognitive Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatriz Luna; Keith R. Thulborn; Douglas P. Munoz; Elisha P. Merriam; Krista E. Garver; Nancy J. Minshew; Matcheri S. Keshavan; Christopher R. Genovese; William F. Eddy; John A. Sweeney

    2001-01-01

    Cognitive and brain maturational changes continue throughout late childhood and adolescence. During this time, increasing cognitive control over behavior enhances the voluntary suppression of reflexive\\/impulsive response tendencies. Recently, with the advent of functional MRI, it has become possible to characterize changes in brain activity during cognitive development. In order to investigate the cognitive and brain maturation subserving the ability to

  19. Sensory and Cognitive Factors Influencing Functional Ability in Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly M. Wood; Jerri D. Edwards; Olivio J. Clay; Virginia G. Wadley; Daniel L. Roenker; Karlene K. Ball

    2005-01-01

    Background: Age-related sensory and cognitive impairments have been related to functional performance in older adults. With regard to cognitive abilities, processing speed in particular may be strongly related to older adults’ abilities to perform everyday tasks. Identifying and comparing cognitive correlates of functional performance is particularly important in order to design interventions to promote independence and prevent functional disability. Objective:

  20. Coupled cognitive and functional change in Alzheimer's disease and the influence of depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Devanand, D P; Stern, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), cognition and function are only moderately correlated in cross-sectional studies, and studies of their longitudinal association are less common. One potential non-cognitive contributor to function is depression, which has been associated with poorer clinical outcomes. The current study investigated longitudinal associations between functional abilities, cognitive status, and depressive symptoms in AD. 517 patients diagnosed with probable AD and enrolled in The Multicenter Study of Predictors of Disease Course in Alzheimer's Disease were included. Patients were followed at 6-month intervals over 5.5 years. Longitudinal changes in the Blessed Dementia Rating Scale, modified Mini-Mental State Exam, and the depression subscale of the Columbia University Scale for Psychopathology in AD were examined in a multivariate latent growth curve model that controlled for gender, age, education, and recruitment site. Results showed that cognition and function worsened over the study period, whereas depressive symptoms were largely stable. Rates of change in cognition and function were correlated across participants and coupled within participants, indicating that they travel together over time. Worse initial cognitive status was associated with faster subsequent functional decline, and vice versa. Higher level of depressive symptoms was associated with worse initial functioning and faster subsequent cognitive and functional decline. These findings highlight the importance of both cognitive and psychiatric assessment for functional prognosis. Targeting both cognitive and depressive symptoms in the clinical treatment of AD may have incremental benefit on functional abilities. PMID:23302654

  1. Functional Relationships for Investigating Cognitive Processes

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Anthony A.

    2013-01-01

    Functional relationships (from systematic manipulation of critical variables) are advocated for revealing fundamental processes of (comparative) cognition—through examples from my work in psychophysics, learning, and memory. Functional relationships for pigeon wavelength (hue) discrimination revealed best discrimination at the spectral points of hue transition for pigeons—a correspondence (i.e., functional relationship) similar to that for humans. Functional relationships for learning revealed: Item-specific or relational learning in matching to sample as a function of the pigeons’ sample-response requirement, and same/different abstract-concept learning as a function of the training set size for rhesus monkeys, capuchin monkeys, and pigeons. Functional relationships for visual memory revealed serial position functions (a 1st order functional relationship) that changed systematically with retention delay (a 2nd order relationship) for pigeons, capuchin monkeys, rhesus monkeys, and humans. Functional relationships for rhesus-monkey auditory memory also revealed systematic changes in serial position functions with delay, but these changes were opposite to those for visual memory. Functional relationships for proactive interference revealed interference that varied as a function of a ratio of delay times. Functional relationships for change detection memory revealed (qualitative) similarities and (quantitative) differences in human and monkey visual short term memory as a function of the number of memory items. It is concluded that these findings were made possible by varying critical variables over a substantial portion of the manipulable range to generate functions and derive relationships. PMID:23174335

  2. Measuring cognitive function in MDD: emerging assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Russo, Manuela; Mahon, Katie; Burdick, Katherine E

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive impairment is emerging as an important therapeutic target in patients with psychiatric illnesses, including major depressive disorder (MDD). The objective of this general overview is to briefly review the evidence for cognitive impairment in MDD and to summarize a representative sample of cognitive assessment tools currently available to assess cognitive function in depressed patients. Study results in MDD patients with cognitive dysfunction are somewhat inconsistent, likely due to the heterogeneity of the disorder as well as the use of diverse assessment tools. Measuring cognitive changes in this population is challenging. Cognitive symptoms are typically less severe than in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, requiring greater sensitivity than afforded by existing tools. Preliminary evidence suggests antidepressant treatments may improve cognitive functioning as a direct result of ameliorating depressive symptoms; however, any procognitive effects have not been elucidated. To evaluate antidepressant efficacy in MDD patients with cognitive dysfunction, a standardized cognitive battery for use in clinical trials is essential. PMID:25421437

  3. [Improving functional outcome of schizophrenia with cognitive remediation].

    PubMed

    Franck, Nicolas; Demily, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    The functional outcome of schizophrenia is partly conditioned by cognitive disorders associated with this disease. The functional outcome of schizophrenia depends not only on psychotropic medications, but also on non-pharmacological measures and in particular on cognitive remediation. All patients suffering from schizophrenia should benefit from a multidisciplinary functional evaluation including neuropsychological assessment. The restitution of the functional evaluation's results values preserved skills rather than deficits. Cognitive remediation should be considered when cognitive disorders have a functional impact. It reduces the impact of the patient's cognitive disorders and improves the success of his/her concrete projects. PMID:25544348

  4. [Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].

    PubMed

    Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Ma?gorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders. PMID:17471820

  5. Cognitive functioning and cortisol profiles in first episode major depression.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Pia Berner; Murison, Robert; Lund, Anders; Hammar, Åsa

    2015-08-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is often associated with high levels of stress and disturbances in the Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) system, yielding high levels of cortisol, in addition to cognitive dysfunction. Previous studies have shown a relationship between cortisol profile and cognitive functioning in recurrent MDD in general. More specifically, the association between hypercortisolism and cognitive functioning, such as memory and Executive Functioning (EF), and also more recently cortisol suppression has been explored. However, no studies have investigated these relationships in patients diagnosed with first episode MDD. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between cortisol levels before and after the Dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and cognitive function in first episode MDD patients. Twenty-one patients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for a first episode of MDD diagnosis were included in the study. The control group was matched for age, gender and education level. Cortisol was measured in saliva collected with Salivette sampling devices. Saliva samples were collected 4 times during a 24 hours period over two consecutive days: at awakening, after 45 minutes, after 7 hours and at 11 pm. Dexamethasone (1.0 mg) was given orally on Day 1 at 11 pm. The neuropsychological test battery consisted of standardized tests measuring executive functioning (EF) and memory functioning. Cortisol levels did not differ significantly between patients and controls on Day 1, except for the last sample before Dexamethasone administration, where the control group showed higher levels. Both groups showed suppression after Dexamethasone. On Day 2 there was a significant difference between groups at the third sample, showing a significantly lower level in the control group, suggesting that the controls have a more effective suppression profile than the patients. There were no significant correlations between cortisol levels before or after Dexamethasone and cognitive measures. The results indicate impairment on HPA-axis functioning in first episode MDD patients, with less suppression functioning compared to healthy controls, but no relationship between cortisol profile and cognitive functioning in EF or Memory. PMID:26032571

  6. Cognitive Function Predicts 24-Month Weight Loss Success Following Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Alosco, Michael; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Paul, Robert; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, James E.; Gunstad, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinically significant cognitive impairment, particularly in attention/executive and memory function, is found in many patients undergoing bariatric surgery. These difficulties have previously been linked to decreased weight loss 12 months post-surgery, but more protracted examination of this relationship has not yet been conducted. Objectives The current study prospectively examined the independent contribution of cognitive function to weight loss 24 months following bariatric surgery. Given the rapid rate of cognitive improvement observed following surgery, postoperative cognitive function (i.e., cognition 12 weeks following surgery, controlling for baseline cognition) was expected to predict lower body mass index (BMI) and higher percent total weight loss (%WL) at 24-month follow-up. Setting Data were collected by three sites of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) parent project. Methods Fifty-seven individuals enrolled in the LABS project undergoing bariatric surgery completed cognitive evaluation at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 months. %WL and BMI were calculated for 24-month postoperative follow-up. Results Better cognitive function 12 weeks following surgery predicted higher %WL and lower BMI at 24 months, and specific domains of attention/executive and memory function were robustly related to decreased BMI and greater %WL at 24 months. Conclusions Results demonstrate that cognitive performance shortly after bariatric surgery predicts greater long-term %WL and lower BMI 24 months following bariatric surgery. Further work is needed to clarify the degree to which this relationship is mediated by adherence to postoperative guidelines. PMID:23816443

  7. Compensatory mechanisms in higher-educated subjects with Alzheimer's disease: a study of 20 years of cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Amieva, Hélène; Mokri, Hind; Le Goff, Mélanie; Meillon, Céline; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Stern, Yaakov; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2014-04-01

    A better knowledge of long-term trajectories of cognitive decline is a central feature of the study of the process leading to Alzheimer's dementia. Several factors may mitigate such decline, among which is education, a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. The aim of our work was to compare the pattern and duration of clinical trajectories before Alzheimer's dementia in individuals with low and high education within the PAQUID cohort involving 20 years of follow-up. The sample comprises 442 participants with incident Alzheimer's disease (27.2% were male)--171 with low education (mean age=86.2 years; standard deviation=5.3 years) and 271 with higher education (mean age=86.5; standard deviation=5.4)--and 442 control subjects matched according to age, sex and education. At each visit and up to the 20-year follow-up visit, several cognitive and clinical measures were collected and incident cases of Alzheimer's disease clinically diagnosed. The evolution of clinical measures in pre-demented subjects and matched controls was analysed with a semi-parametric extension of the mixed effects linear model. The results show that the first signs of cognitive decline occurred 15 to 16 years before achieving dementia threshold in higher-educated subjects whereas signs occurred at 7 years before dementia in low-educated subjects. There seemed to be two successive periods of decline in higher-educated subjects. Decline started ?15 to 16 years before dementia with subtle impairment restricted to some cognitive tests and with no impact during the first 7 to 8 years on global cognition, cognitive complaints, or activities of daily living scales. Then, ?7 years before dementia, global cognitive abilities begin to deteriorate, along with difficulties dealing with complex activities of daily living, the increase in self-perceived difficulties and depressive symptoms. By contrast, lower-educated subjects presented a single period of decline lasting ?7 years, characterized by decline concomitantly affecting specific and more global cognitive function along with alteration in functional abilities. This study demonstrates how early cognitive symptoms may emerge preceding Alzheimer's dementia particularly in higher-educated individuals, for whom decline occurred up to 16 years before dementia. It also demonstrates the protective role of education in the clinical trajectory preceding Alzheimer's dementia. We suggest that the initial decline in cognition occurs at the onset of comparable Alzheimer's disease pathology in both groups, and is associated with immediate decline to dementia in the lower education group. In contrast, higher education protects against further cognitive decline for ?7 years until pathology becomes more severe. PMID:24578544

  8. A cognitive neurobiological account of deception: evidence from functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Sean A; Hunter, Mike D; Farrow, Tom F D; Green, Russell D; Leung, David H; Hughes, Catherine J; Ganesan, Venkatasubramanian

    2004-01-01

    An organism may use misinformation, knowingly (through deception) or unknowingly (as in the case of camouflage), to gain advantage in a competitive environment. From an evolutionary perspective, greater tactical deception occurs among primates closer to humans, with larger neocortices. In humans, the onset of deceptive behaviours in childhood exhibits a developmental trajectory, which may be regarded as 'normal' in the majority and deficient among a minority with certain neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). In the human adult, deception and lying exhibit features consistent with their use of 'higher' or 'executive' brain systems. Accurate detection of deception in humans may be of particular importance in forensic practice, while an understanding of its cognitive neurobiology may have implications for models of 'theory of mind' and social cognition, and societal notions of responsibility, guilt and mitigation. In recent years, functional neuroimaging techniques (especially functional magnetic resonance imaging) have been used to study deception. Though few in number, and using very different experimental protocols, studies published in the peer-reviewed literature exhibit certain consistencies. Attempted deception is associated with activation of executive brain regions (particularly prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices), while truthful responding has not been shown to be associated with any areas of increased activation (relative to deception). Hence, truthful responding may comprise a relative 'baseline' in human cognition and communication. The subject who lies may necessarily engage 'higher' brain centres, consistent with a purpose or intention (to deceive). While the principle of executive control during deception remains plausible, its precise anatomy awaits elucidation. PMID:15590616

  9. Cognition and functional outcome among deaf and hearing people with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Horton, Heather K; Silverstein, Steven M

    2007-08-01

    Recent research has highlighted the relationships between impairments in cognitive functioning and poorer functional outcomes among people with schizophrenia (PWS). The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend this work by testing the relationships between cognition and functional outcome among deaf adults with schizophrenia. Empirical findings from deafness-oriented research reveals enhanced abilities in certain aspects of visual-spatial processing compared to hearing people. Sixty-five PWS (34 deaf, 31 hearing) were assessed using measures of verbal and visual memory, attention, and visual processing. The first hypothesis tested whether cognition predicted functional outcome in a similar fashion for both deaf and hearing subjects (n=63). For all subjects, higher levels of cognitive ability were associated with higher levels of functional outcome, and the strongest predictors of outcome were verbal memory and visual-spatial memory (recall condition) (VSM recall). However, the deaf and hearing groups did show different patterns of relationships between cognition and functioning when all cognitive variables were examined. The second hypothesis was that deaf subjects would display superior performance in early visual processing, visual-spatial memory (copy condition) (VSM copy), and VSM recall. Deaf subjects displayed superior performance on each task; however, no significant differences emerged. Deaf subjects outperformed hearing subjects in an unexpected domain (word memory/recognition). This study extends prior work in the area of cognition and schizophrenia and indicates that deaf and hearing subjects may benefit from interventions that address different domains of cognition. PMID:17560083

  10. Press Release Fingerprints of higher brain functions

    E-print Network

    Tübingen, Universität

    Seite 1/3 Press Release Fingerprints of higher brain functions Neuroscientists uncover novel during information processing, may be `fingerprints' of these basic calculations. Such basic calculations of brainwaves, also known as oscillations, are `spec- tral fingerprints' of canonical neuronal computations

  11. Novel television-based cognitive training improves working memory and executive function.

    PubMed

    Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bureš, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60-87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of "adequate" to "high" system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

  12. Novel Television-Based Cognitive Training Improves Working Memory and Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bureš, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60–87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of “adequate” to “high” system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

  13. Depression, Cognition, and Self-Appraisal of Functional Abilities in HIV: An Examination of Subjective Appraisal Versus Objective Performance

    PubMed Central

    Thames, April D.; Becker, Brian W.; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Hines, Lindsay J.; Foley, Jessica M.; Ramezani, Amir; Singer, Elyse J.; Castellon, Steven A.; Heaton, Robert K.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    Depression frequently co-occurs with HIV infection and can result in self-reported overestimates of cognitive deficits. Conversely, genuine cognitive dysfunction can lead to an under-appreciation of cognitive deficits. The degree to which depression and cognition influence self-report of capacity for instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) requires further investigation. This study examined the effects of depression and cognitive deficits on self-appraisal of functional competence among 107 HIV-infected adults. As hypothesized, higher levels of depression were found among those who over-reported problems in medication management, driving, and cognition when compared to those who under-reported or provided accurate self-assessments. In contrast, genuine cognitive dysfunction was predictive of under-reporting of functional deficits. Together, these results suggest that over-reliance on self-reported functional status poses risk for error when diagnoses require documentation of both cognitive impairment and associated functional disability in everyday life. PMID:21331979

  14. From social-signal detection to higher social cognition: an fMRI approach.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Mano, Yoko; Sassa, Yuko; Kambara, Toshimune; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-09-01

    Implicit or automatic detection of social signals, which discriminate animate, intentional objects in the environment, is essential for higher social cognition and its development. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we identified the neural substrate of detecting simple visual social signals and examined its functional link with the mechanism of inferring another's mental state. Healthy participants were presented with the eye-gaze shift (EG) and self-propelling motion (SP) under both implicit and explicit task conditions. They also performed a social role-playing game in which mental inference (MI) was implicitly prompted during the presentation of faces (implicit MI). Implicit detection of EG and SP activated the posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) bilaterally, whereas the right posterior superior temporal sulcus was activated during the explicit conditions. We revealed that the individual variation in neural response in the right pMTG during implicit eye-gaze detection explains the individual tendency to recruit the regions implicated in mental-state inference (medial prefrontal cortex, temporal pole and striatum) during the implicit MI task. Our results suggest that the implicit detection of visual social signals involves the pMTG and underlies the development of higher social cognition. PMID:23887806

  15. Comparison of Cognitive Functions Between Male and Female Medical Students: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Guragain, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are gender differences in cognitive abilities. The major enigma is whether males or females perform better in various cognitive tasks. The reports were found to be contradictory. Studies have shown that oestrogen and testosterone accentuate cognitive functions. But the effects of progesterone on cognitive functions are still contradictory. Objective: To assess and compare the cognitive functions between male and female students. Methods: This study was conducted on healthy male (n=21) and female (n=21) volunteers who were aged between 19-37 years. Cognitive functions which were assessed in males (one time) and females (two times: during preovulatory and postovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle) were attentional: visual reaction time (VRT) and Go/No-Go VRT; perceptual: fast counting (FC), executive: Erisken Flanker Test (EFT) and Stroop Test (ST), and working memory. Data were compared by using Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Cognitive functions in female preovulatory phase were comparable to male cognitive functions. In addition, the female postovulatory phase cognitive functions were also similar to those of males in all the tasks, except those seen in VRT and ST. Male performed better than females in VRT (M: 331.66 ms, IQR: 286.99-375.33 vs. M: 367.8 ms, IQR: 340.66-435.66; p=0.05). However, in ST, females showed higher accuracies in reading colour interferences than males (M: 100%, IQR: 95.12-100 vs. M: 95.24%, IQR: 86.36-100; p=0.04). In addition, males showed trend of a poorer performance than females in Go/No-Go VRT, ST colour reading normal time and interference time and in working-memory time. Conclusion: Male cognitive functions were comparable to female preovulatory phase cognitive functions. However, females, during postovulatory phase of their cycle, may have advantages in executive tasks (Stroop test) and disadvantages in attentional tasks (VRT), as compared to males. PMID:25120970

  16. Social cognition and functional outcome in schizophrenia: The moderating role of cardiac vagal tone.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Holly K; Sun, Jane C; Green, Michael F; Kee, Kimmy S; Lee, Junghee; Sergi, Mark; Sholty, Gretchen L; Mathis, Kristopher I; Jetton, Christopher; Williams, Terrance J; Kern, Robert; Horan, William; Fiske, Alan; Subotnik, Kenneth L; Ventura, Joseph; Hellemann, Gerhard; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Yee, Cindy M

    2014-11-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia face significant challenges in daily functioning, and although social cognition predicts how well patients respond to these challenges, associated physiological mechanisms remain unspecified. The present study draws from polyvagal theory and tested the hypothesis that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an established indicator of the capacity to self-regulate and adapt to environmental demands, combines with social cognition to predict functional outcome. Using data from 41 schizophrenia patients and 36 healthy comparison subjects, we replicated group differences in RSA and social cognition and also demonstrated that RSA and social cognition interact to predict how effectively patients manage work and independent living activities. Specifically, RSA did not enhance functional outcomes when social cognition was already strong, but higher levels of RSA enabled effective role functioning when social-cognitive performance was impaired. Jointly, RSA and social cognition accounted for 40% of the variance in outcome success, compared with 21% when evaluating social cognition alone. As polyvagal theory suggests, physiological flexibility and self-regulatory capacity may compensate for poorer social-cognitive skills among schizophrenia patients. PMID:25314266

  17. Semantic memory functional MRI and cognitive function after exercise intervention in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Smith, J Carson; Nielson, Kristy A; Antuono, Piero; Lyons, Jeri-Annette; Hanson, Ryan J; Butts, Alissa M; Hantke, Nathan C; Verber, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with early memory loss, Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, inefficient or ineffective neural processing, and increased risk for AD. Unfortunately, treatments aimed at improving clinical symptoms or markers of brain function generally have been of limited value. Physical exercise is often recommended for people diagnosed with MCI, primarily because of its widely reported cognitive benefits in healthy older adults. However, it is unknown if exercise actually benefits brain function during memory retrieval in MCI. Here, we examined the effects of exercise training on semantic memory activation during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Seventeen MCI participants and 18 cognitively intact controls, similar in sex, age, education, genetic risk, and medication use, volunteered for a 12-week exercise intervention consisting of supervised treadmill walking at a moderate intensity. Both MCI and control participants significantly increased their cardiorespiratory fitness by approximately 10% on a treadmill exercise test. Before and after the exercise intervention, participants completed an fMRI famous name discrimination task and a neuropsychological battery, Performance on Trial 1 of a list-learning task significantly improved in the MCI participants. Eleven brain regions activated during the semantic memory task showed a significant decrease in activation intensity following the intervention that was similar between groups (p-values ranged 0.048 to 0.0001). These findings suggest exercise may improve neural efficiency during semantic memory retrieval in MCI and cognitively intact older adults, and may lead to improvement in cognitive function. Clinical trials are needed to determine if exercise is effective to delay conversion to AD. PMID:23803298

  18. Cognitive function in midlife and beyond: physical and cognitive activity related to episodic memory and executive functions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pai-Lin

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the relationships between physical activity (PA), cognitive activity, and cognitive function for the purpose of developing future brain-fitness programs. A sample of 2,305 participants (age?=?50-84, mean age: 63.1 years) was selected from the Midlife in the United States longitudinal study for analysis. The strength of the associations between the dependent variables (episodic memory and executive functions) and independent variables (three domains of PA and cognitive activity) were determined by hierarchical regression. Episodic memory regressed positively on leisure-time PA (LPA) and cognitive activity. Executive functions regressed positively on LPA and Cognitive activity, but negatively on job-related PA (JPA). The interaction effect (JPA?×?Cognitive activity) was nonsignificant. Community-dwelling participants are encouraged to engage in more LPA and cognitive activity to increase brain fitness. Further research may explore the distinctive effects of JPA. PMID:25888534

  19. Homocysteine and Cognitive Function in Geriatric Depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Alexopoulos; S. Topalidis; G. Irmisch; K. Prehn; S. U. Jung; K. Poppe; H. Sebb; R. Perneczky; A. Kurz; S. Bleich; S. C. Herpertz

    2010-01-01

    Background\\/Objectives: Cognitive dysfunction is a common aspect of the spectrum of symptoms of geriatric depression. High homocysteine levels have been linked to cognitive decline in neuropsychiatric disorders. The present study investigated possible associations between cognitive impairment observed in geriatric depression and homocysteine levels. Methods: The performance of 25 mentally healthy individuals and 40 patients with geriatric depression in terms of

  20. Measuring Cognitive Function: An Empirical Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of a Cognitive Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witta, E. Lea; Sivo, Stephen A.

    Herzog and Wallace (A. Herzog and R. Wallace, 1997) discussed a measure designed to assess the cognitive functioning of older adults who participated in the study formerly known as the Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD). The measure derived from four well-known tests of cognitive functioning, but improves on them by combining…

  1. Common and specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: relationships to function

    E-print Network

    of the leading causes of disability in the United States (Ormel et al., 2008). Therefore, cognitionCommon and specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: relationships to function Julia M in schizophrenia, and to determine the ability of tasks from each battery to predict functional outcome. Subjects

  2. Computational modeling of high-level cognition and brain function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel Adam Just; Patricia A. Carpenter; Sashank Varma

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a computational modeling architecture, 4CAPS, which is consistent with key properties of cortical function and makes good contact with functional neuroimaging results. Like earlier cognitive models such as SOAR, ACT-R, 3CAPS, and EPIC, the proposed cognitive model is implemented in a computer simulation that predicts observable variables such as human response times and error patterns. In addition,

  3. Association of Lung Function with Cognitive Decline and Dementia: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Pathan, Sajidkhan S.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Knopman, David S.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Alonso, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies reported a higher risk of cognitive decline and dementia among individuals with impaired lung function. However, many did not adjust for important confounders or did not include women and nonwhites. Methods We studied 10,975 men and women aged 47–70 (23% African-Americans), enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Pulmonary function tests and a cognitive assessment, including the Delayed Word Recall, the Digit Symbol Substitution, and the World Fluency Tests, were done in 1990–92. Repeated cognitive assessments were performed in 1996–98 for the entire cohort, and in 1993–95 and 2004–06 in 904 eligible individuals. Dementia hospitalization was ascertained through 2005. Results In analysis adjusted for lifestyles, APOE genotype, and cardiovascular risk factors, impaired lung function was associated with worse cognitive function at baseline. No association was found between lung function and cognitive decline over time. Impaired lung function at baseline was associated with higher risk of dementia hospitalization during follow-up, particularly among younger individuals. The hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of dementia hospitalization were 1.6 (0.9, 2.8) and 2.1 (1.2, 3.7) comparing the lowest to the highest quartile of forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity, respectively. Presence of a restrictive ventilatory pattern, but not of an obstructive pattern, was associated with reduced cognitive scores and higher dementia risk. Conclusion Reduced lung function was associated with worse performance in cognitive assessments and with an increased risk of dementia hospitalization. Future research should determine whether maintaining optimal pulmonary health might prevent cognitive impairment and dementia. PMID:21244584

  4. Cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function in middle age

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Na; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Yaffe, Kristine; Bryan, Nick; Launer, Lenore J.; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Sidney, Stephen; Demerath, Ellen; Thomas, William; Bouchard, Claude; He, Ka; Reis, Jared; Sternfeld, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether greater cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with better cognitive function 25 years later. Methods: We studied 2,747 participants in the community-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study of black and white men and women aged 18 to 30 years at recruitment in 1985–1986 (baseline year 0). Symptom-limited maximal treadmill test durations at years 0 and 20 provided measures of CRF. Cognitive tests at year 25 measured verbal memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test [RAVLT]), psychomotor speed (Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST]), and executive function (Stroop Test). Results: Per minute of baseline CRF, the RAVLT was 0.12 words recalled higher (standard error [SE] = 0.03, p < 0.0001), the DSST was 0.92 digits higher (SE = 0.13, p < 0.0001), and the Stroop Test score was 0.52 lower (better performance, SE = 0.11, p < 0.0001), after accounting for race, sex, age, education, and clinical center. Compared with the lowest quartile of CRF, each cognitive test was 21% to 34% of an SD better in the highest CRF quartile. Further adjustment for lifestyle and clinical measures attenuated coefficients for RAVLT and DSST slightly, while the coefficient predicting the Stroop Test lost more than half its value (p = 0.07). Analysis in the subset of 1,957 participants who also completed the year-20 treadmill test showed that 20-year change in CRF was positively associated only with DSST (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Better verbal memory and faster psychomotor speed at ages 43 to 55 years were clearly associated with better CRF 25 years earlier. PMID:24696506

  5. Dynamic reorganization of brain functional networks during cognition.

    PubMed

    Bola, Micha?; Sabel, Bernhard A

    2015-07-01

    How does cognition emerge from neural dynamics? The dominant hypothesis states that interactions among distributed brain regions through phase synchronization give basis for cognitive processing. Such phase-synchronized networks are transient and dynamic, established on the timescale of milliseconds in order to perform specific cognitive operations. But unlike resting-state networks, the complex organization of transient cognitive networks is typically not characterized within the graph theory framework. Thus, it is not known whether cognitive processing merely changes the strength of functional connections or, conversely, requires qualitatively new topological arrangements of functional networks. To address this question, we recorded high-density EEG while subjects performed a visual discrimination task. We conducted an event-related network analysis (ERNA) where source-space weighted functional networks were characterized with graph measures. ERNA revealed rapid, transient, and frequency-specific reorganization of the network's topology during cognition. Specifically, cognitive networks were characterized by strong clustering, low modularity, and strong interactions between hub-nodes. Our findings suggest that dense and clustered connectivity between the hub nodes belonging to different modules is the "network fingerprint" of cognition. Such reorganization patterns might facilitate global integration of information and provide a substrate for a "global workspace" necessary for cognition and consciousness to occur. Thus, characterizing topology of the event-related networks opens new vistas to interpret cognitive dynamics in the broader conceptual framework of graph theory. PMID:25828884

  6. PERFORMANCE OF A COMPUTER-BASED ASSESSMENT OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION MEASURES IN TWO COHORTS OF SENIORS

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Katula, Jeffrey A.; Rushing, Julia; Kramer, Arthur F.; Jennings, Janine M.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Nadkarni, Neelesh K.; Reid, Kieran F.; Castro, Cynthia M.; Church, Timothy; Kerwin, Diana R.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Marottoli, Richard A.; Rushing, Scott; Marsiske, Michael; Rapp, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Computer-administered assessment of cognitive function is being increasingly incorporated in clinical trials, however its performance in these settings has not been systematically evaluated. Design The Seniors Health and Activity Research Program (SHARP) pilot trial (N=73) developed a computer-based tool for assessing memory performance and executive functioning. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Seniors (LIFE) investigators incorporated this battery in a full scale multicenter clinical trial (N=1635). We describe relationships that test scores have with those from interviewer-administered cognitive function tests and risk factors for cognitive deficits and describe performance measures (completeness, intra-class correlations). Results Computer-based assessments of cognitive function had consistent relationships across the pilot and full scale trial cohorts with interviewer-administered assessments of cognitive function, age, and a measure of physical function. In the LIFE cohort, their external validity was further demonstrated by associations with other risk factors for cognitive dysfunction: education, hypertension, diabetes, and physical function. Acceptable levels of data completeness (>83%) were achieved on all computer-based measures, however rates of missing data were higher among older participants (odds ratio=1.06 for each additional year; p<0.001) and those who reported no current computer use (odds ratio=2.71; p<0.001). Intra-class correlations among clinics were at least as low (ICC?0.013) as for interviewer measures (ICC?0.023), reflecting good standardization. All cognitive measures loaded onto the first principal component (global cognitive function), which accounted for 40% of the overall variance. Conclusion Our results support the use of computer-based tools for assessing cognitive function in multicenter clinical trials of older individuals. PMID:23589390

  7. The Effects of Exercise Under Hypoxia on Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Soichi; Hatamoto, Yoichi; Sudo, Mizuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Higaki, Yasuki

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cognitive function improves during a single bout of moderate exercise. In contrast, exercise under hypoxia may compromise the availability of oxygen. Given that brain function and tissue integrity are dependent on a continuous and sufficient oxygen supply, exercise under hypoxia may impair cognitive function. However, it remains unclear how exercise under hypoxia affects cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise under different levels of hypoxia on cognitive function. Twelve participants performed a cognitive task at rest and during exercise at various fractions of inspired oxygen (FIO2: 0.209, 0.18, and 0.15). Exercise intensity corresponded to 60% of peak oxygen uptake under normoxia. The participants performed a Go/No-Go task requiring executive control. Cognitive function was evaluated using the speed of response (reaction time) and response accuracy. We monitored pulse oximetric saturation (SpO2) and cerebral oxygenation to assess oxygen availability. SpO2 and cerebral oxygenation progressively decreased during exercise as the FIO2 level decreased. Nevertheless, the reaction time in the Go-trial significantly decreased during moderate exercise. Hypoxia did not affect reaction time. Neither exercise nor difference in FIO2 level affected response accuracy. An additional experiment indicated that cognitive function was not altered without exercise. These results suggest that the improvement in cognitive function is attributable to exercise, and that hypoxia has no effects on cognitive function at least under the present experimental condition. Exercise-cognition interaction should be further investigated under various environmental and exercise conditions. PMID:23675496

  8. Selective Role of the Catalytic PI3K Subunit p110? in Impaired Higher Order Cognition in Fragile X Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gross, Christina; Raj, Nisha; Molinaro, Gemma; Allen, Amanda G; Whyte, Alonzo J; Gibson, Jay R; Huber, Kimberly M; Gourley, Shannon L; Bassell, Gary J

    2015-05-01

    Distinct isoforms of the PI3K catalytic subunit have specialized functions in the brain, but their role in cognition is unknown. Here, we show that the catalytic subunit p110? plays an important role in prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent cognitive defects in mouse models of Fragile X syndrome (FXS), an inherited intellectual disability. FXS is caused by loss of function of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which binds and translationally represses mRNAs. PFC-selective knockdown of p110?, an FMRP target that is translationally upregulated in FXS, reverses deficits in higher cognition in Fmr1 knockout mice. Genetic full-body reduction of p110? in Fmr1 knockout mice normalizes excessive PI3K activity, restores stimulus-induced protein synthesis, and corrects increased dendritic spine density and behavior. Notably, adult-onset PFC-selective Fmr1 knockdown mice show impaired cognition, which is rescued by simultaneous p110? knockdown. Our results suggest that FMRP-mediated control of p110? is crucial for neuronal protein synthesis and cognition. PMID:25921527

  9. Cognitive Training Improves Sleep Quality and Cognitive Function among Older Adults with Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Haimov, Iris; Shatil, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia. Design Participants (n?=?51) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n?=?34) or to an active control group (n?=?17). The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated. Setting Community setting: residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65–85). Interventions Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia. Results Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency) and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming). Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved “avoiding distractions” is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep. Conclusions New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and maintenance of sleep in older adults with insomnia. Lasting and personalized cognitive training is particularly indicated to generate the type of learning necessary for combined cognitive and sleep enhancements in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00901641 PMID:23577218

  10. Pulmonary Function Impairment May be An Early Risk Factor for Late-Life Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Aspelund, Thor; Jonsdottir, Maria K.; Jonsson, Palmi V.; Harris, Tamara B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Low pulmonary function (PF) is associated with poor cognitive function and dementia. There are few studies of change in PF in mid-life and late-life cognitive status. Design and Participants We studied this is 3,665 subjects from AGES-Reykjavik Study who had at least one measure of forced expiratory volume/ 1 sec (FEV1) and were cognitively tested on average 23 years later. A subset of 1,281 subjects had two or three measures of FEV1 acquired over a 7.8 year period. PF was estimated as FEV1/Height2. Rate of PF decline was estimated as the slope of decline over time. Cognitive status was measured with continuous scores of memory, speed of processing, and executive function, and as the dichotomous outcomes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Results Lower PF measured in mid-life predicted lower memory, speed of processing, executive function, and higher likelihood of MCI and dementia 23 years later. Decrease of PF over a 7.8-year period in mid-life was not associated with lower cognitive function or dementia. Conclusion Reduced PF measured in mid-life may be an early marker of later cognitive problems. Additional studies characterizing early and late PF changes are needed. PMID:23311554

  11. Higher risk of progression to dementia in mild cognitive impairment cases who revert to normal

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Rosebud O.; Knopman, David S.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Cha, Ruth H.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Christianson, Teresa J.H.; Geda, Yonas E.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Tangalos, Eric G.; Rocca, Walter A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate rates of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia and of reversion from MCI to being cognitively normal (CN) in a population-based cohort. Methods: Participants (n = 534, aged 70 years and older) enrolled in the prospective Mayo Clinic Study of Aging were evaluated at baseline and every 15 months to identify incident MCI or dementia. Results: Over a median follow-up of 5.1 years, 153 of 534 participants (28.7%) with prevalent or incident MCI progressed to dementia (71.3 per 1,000 person-years). The cumulative incidence of dementia was 5.4% at 1 year, 16.1% at 2, 23.4% at 3, 31.1% at 4, and 42.5% at 5 years. The risk of dementia was elevated in MCI cases (hazard ratio [HR] 23.2, p < 0.001) compared with CN subjects. Thirty-eight percent (n = 201) of MCI participants reverted to CN (175.0/1,000 person-years), but 65% subsequently developed MCI or dementia; the HR was 6.6 (p < 0.001) compared with CN subjects. The risk of reversion was reduced in subjects with an APOE ?4 allele (HR 0.53, p < 0.001), higher Clinical Dementia Rating Scale–Sum of Boxes (HR 0.56, p < 0.001), and poorer cognitive function (HR 0.56, p < 0.001). The risk was also reduced in subjects with amnestic MCI (HR 0.70, p = 0.02) and multidomain MCI (HR 0.61, p = 0.003). Conclusions: MCI cases, including those who revert to CN, have a high risk of progressing to dementia. This suggests that diagnosis of MCI at any time has prognostic value. PMID:24353333

  12. The kidney disease quality of life cognitive function subscale and cognitive performance maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cognitive impairment is common but often undiagnosed in patients with end-stage renal disease, in part reflecting limited validated and easily administered tools to assess cognitive function in dialysis patients. Accordingly, we assessed the utility of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life ...

  13. Assessment of Higher Order Thinking Skills. Current Perspectives on Cognition, Learning and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraw, Gregory, Ed.; Robinson, Daniel H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This volume examines the assessment of higher order thinking skills from the perspectives of applied cognitive psychology and measurement theory. The volume considers a variety of higher order thinking skills, including problem solving, critical thinking, argumentation, decision making, creativity, metacognition, and self-regulation. Fourteen…

  14. Social Cognition in Psychosis: Multidimensional Structure, Clinical Correlates, and Relationship With Functional Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Francesco; Horan, William P.; Kern, Robert S.; Green, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Social cognitive impairments are common, detectable across a wide range of tasks, and appear to play a key role in explaining poor outcome in schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. However, little is known about the underlying factor structure of social cognition in people with psychotic disorders due to a lack of exploratory factor analyses using a relatively comprehensive social cognitive assessment battery. In a sample of 85 outpatients with psychosis, we examined the factor structure and clinical/functional correlates of eight indexes derived from five social cognition tasks that span the domains of emotional processing, social perception, attributional style, and Theory of Mind. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors with relatively low inter-correlations that explained a total of 54% of the variance: (1) Hostile attributional style, (2) Lower-level social cue detection, and (3) Higher-level inferential and regulatory processes. None of the factors showed significant correlations with negative symptoms. Factor 1 significantly correlated with clinical symptoms (positive, depression-anxiety, agitation) but not functional outcome, whereas Factors 2 and 3 significantly correlated with functional outcome (functional capacity and real-world social and work functioning) but not clinical symptoms. Furthermore, Factor 2 accounted for unique incremental variance in functional capacity, above and beyond non-social neurocognition (measured with MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery) and negative symptoms. Results suggest that multiple separable dimensions of social cognition can be identified in psychosis, and these factors show distinct patterns of correlation with clinical features and functional outcome. PMID:21112743

  15. Walking and the Preservation of Cognitive Function in Older Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prohaska, Thomas R.; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Satariano, William A.; Hunter, Rebecca; Bayles, Constance M.; Kurtovich, Elaine; Kealey, Melissa; Ivey, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This cross-sectional study takes a unique look at the association between patterns of walking and cognitive functioning by examining whether older adults with mild cognitive impairment differ in terms of the community settings where they walk and the frequency, intensity, or duration of walking. Design and Methods: The sample was based on…

  16. Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

  17. Cognitive Adequacy in a Dialogic Functional Discourse Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, J. Lachlan

    2012-01-01

    Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG), as a theory of the organization of natural languages, seeks to attain pragmatic, typological and cognitive adequacy. The attempt to achieve cognitive adequacy has been fraught with problems stemming from the vagueness of the concept and the difficulty of adapting to trends in psycholinguistics. Specifically,…

  18. Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and physiological (heart…

  19. Cognitive Predictors of Everyday Functioning in Older Adults: Results From the ACTIVE Cognitive Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rebok, George W.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Willis, Sherry L.; Brandt, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The present study sought to predict changes in everyday functioning using cognitive tests. Methods. Data from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly trial were used to examine the extent to which competence in different cognitive domains—memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, and global mental status—predicts prospectively measured everyday functioning among older adults. Coefficients of determination for baseline levels and trajectories of everyday functioning were estimated using parallel process latent growth models. Results. Each cognitive domain independently predicts a significant proportion of the variance in baseline and trajectory change of everyday functioning, with inductive reasoning explaining the most variance (R2 = .175) in baseline functioning and memory explaining the most variance (R2 = .057) in changes in everyday functioning. Discussion. Inductive reasoning is an important determinant of current everyday functioning in community-dwelling older adults, suggesting that successful performance in daily tasks is critically dependent on executive cognitive function. On the other hand, baseline memory function is more important in determining change over time in everyday functioning, suggesting that some participants with low baseline memory function may reflect a subgroup with incipient progressive neurologic disease. PMID:21558167

  20. Role of Dietary Protein and Thiamine Intakes on Cognitive Function in Healthy Older People: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Freda; Charlton, Karen; Walton, Karen; McMahon, Anne-Therese

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of nutritional interventions to prevent and maintain cognitive functioning in older adults has been gaining interest due to global population ageing. A systematic literature review was conducted to obtain and appraise relevant studies on the effects of dietary protein or thiamine on cognitive function in healthy older adults. Studies that reported on the use of nutritional supplementations and/or populations with significant cognitive impairment were excluded. Seventeen eligible studies were included. Evidence supporting an association between higher protein and/or thiamine intakes and better cognitive function is weak. There was no evidence to support the role of specific protein food sources, such as types of meat, on cognitive function. Some cross-sectional and case-control studies reported better cognition in those with higher dietary thiamine intakes, but the data remains inconclusive. Adequate protein and thiamine intake is more likely associated with achieving a good overall nutritional status which affects cognitive function rather than single nutrients. A lack of experimental studies in this area prevents the translation of these dietary messages for optimal cognitive functioning and delaying the decline in cognition with advancing age. PMID:25849949

  1. The value of assessing cognitive function in drug development

    PubMed Central

    Wesnes, Keith A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the value and utility of measuring cognitive function in the development of new medicines by reference to the most widely used automated system in clinical research. Evidence is presented from phase 1 to 3 of the nature and quality of the information that can be obtained by applying the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment system to ongoing clinical trials. Valuable evidence can be obtained even in the first trial in which a novel compound is administered to man. One application of such testing is to ensure that novel compounds are relatively free from cognition-impairing properties, particularly in relation to competitor products. Another is to ensure that unwanted interactions with alcohol and other medications do not occur, or, if they do, to put them in context. In many patient populations, cognitive dysfunction occurs as a result of the disease process, and newer medicines which can treat the symptoms of the disease without further impairing function can often reveal benefits as the disease-induced cognitive dysfunction is reduced. Another major application is to identify benefits for compounds designed to enhance cognitive function. Such effects can be sought in typical phase 1 trials, or a scopolamine model of the core deficits of Alzheimer's disease can be used to screen potential antidernentia drugs. Ultimately, of course, such effects can be demonstrated using properly validated and highly sensitive automated procedures in the target populations. The data presented demonstrate that the concept of independently assessing a variety of cognitive functions is crucial in helping differentiate drugs, types of dementia, and different illnesses. Such information offers a unique insight into how the alterations to various cognitive functions will manifest themselves in everyday behavior. This reveals a major limitation of scales that yield a single score, because such limited information does not permit anything but a quantitative interpretation; and the concept of “more” cognitive function or “less” is manifestly inappropriate for something as complex and diverse as the interplay between cognitive function and human behavior. Finally, the next generations of cognitive testing are described. Testing via the telephone has just been introduced and will have dramatic effects on the logistics of conducting cognitive testing in large patient trials. Testing via the Internet is not far off either, and will come fully into play as the proportion of homes connected to the Internet increases in Europe and North America. There are no sound reasons for not wishing to include cognitive function testing in the development protocol of any novel medicine. PMID:22033754

  2. Modelling generic cognitive functions with operational Hebbian cell assemblies

    E-print Network

    Wennekers, Thomas

    Modelling generic cognitive functions with operational Hebbian cell assemblies Thomas Wennekers1(0)1752-23-3593 Fax: +44(0)1752-23-3349 Email: Thomas.Wennekers@plymouth.ac.uk 2 Department of Neural Information

  3. [Cognitions and functioning in euthymic bipolar patients: screening and treatment].

    PubMed

    Bellivier, Frank

    2012-12-01

    Persistent cognitive deficits in euthymic bipolar patients are now well documented. Indeed, several studies and meta-analyzes clearly establish the existence of cognitive deficits in specific domains: attention (in particular sustained attention), Memory (in particular verbal memory) and executive functions. The impact of cognitive deficits on patient's functioning is also well documented and their role appear to be more important than expected by comparison with the impairment related to thymic residual symptoms. The development of specific cognitive remediation strategies is therefore a major hope for improving the quality of remission and functional outcome. The aetiology of these deficits remains poorly understood. However, the implication of factors related to the biological/genetic vulnerability to bipolar disorder is likely well as a "neurotoxic" effects of major mood episodes, in particular acute manic episodes that seems to play a important role in the worsening of these deficits over time. This further stresses the importance maintenance strategies for long-term functional outcome. PMID:23395229

  4. Cognitive function in older adults according to current socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Michael; Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Woody, Parker; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive function may be influenced by education, socioeconomic status, sex, and health status. Furthermore, aging interacts with these factors to influence cognition and dementia risk in late life. Factors that may increase or decrease successful cognitive aging are of critical importance, particularly if they are modifiable. The purpose of this study was to determine if economic status in late life is associated with cognition independent of socioeconomic status in early life. Cross-sectional demographic, socioeconomic, and cognitive function data were obtained in 2592 older adults (average age 71.6 years) from the Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed with linear regression modeling. Cognitive function, as measured with a test of processing speed, was significantly associated with poverty index scores after adjusting for educational attainment as an estimate of childhood socioeconomic status, ethnic background, age, health status, and sex (P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that current economic status is independently associated with cognitive function in adults over age 60 years. PMID:25565407

  5. Nicotinic acetylcholine involvement in cognitive function in animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. D. Levin; Barbara B. Simon

    1998-01-01

    Nicotinic cholinergic systems are involved with several important aspects of cognitive function including attention, learning\\u000a and memory. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors are located in many regions of the brain, including areas important for cognitive\\u000a function such as the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Nicotinic agonists have been found in rodent and non-human primate studies\\u000a to improve performance on a variety of memory

  6. Controlling human striatal cognitive function via the frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    van Schouwenburg, Martine R; O'Shea, Jacinta; Mars, Rogier B; Rushworth, Matthew F S; Cools, Roshan

    2012-04-18

    Cognitive flexibility is known to depend on the striatum. However, the striatum does not act in isolation to bias cognitive flexibility. In particular, cognitive flexibility also implicates the frontal cortex. Here we tested the hypothesis that the human frontal cortex controls cognitive flexibility by regulating striatal function via topographically specific frontostriatal connections. To this end, we exploited a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol over frontal cortex that is known to increase dopamine release in the striatum. This intervention was combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the functional and topographic specificity of its consequences at the whole brain level. Participants were scanned both before and after off-line TMS while performing a cognitive switching task that is known to depend on a specific striatal substructure, the putamen. Frontal stimulation perturbed task-specific functional signals in the putamen, while reducing fronto-striatal functional connectivity. There were no such effects of TMS over the medial parietal cortex. These data strengthen the hypothesis that cognitive flexibility involves topographic frontal control of striatal function. PMID:22514324

  7. Social-cognitive functioning and schizotypal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joseph; Shean, Glenn

    2006-05-01

    The authors examined the relationship between social cognition and a feature of schizotypal personality referred to as magical ideation, defined broadly as the presence and intensity of illogical beliefs about causality and the nature of reality. The measures of social cognition used in this study were the Character Intention Task (CIT) and the adult version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Regression analyses indicated that understanding of character intentions, as measured by CIT scores, and ability to identify emotions on the Eyes test were related to non-realistic beliefs. Principal components analysis of the Magical Ideation Scale generated 3 factors: Occult Beliefs, Non-Realism, and New Age Ideas. Results indicated that impaired understanding of character intentions and ability to identify emotions on the Eyes test were related to non-realistic beliefs. Understanding the cognitive impairments associated with schizotypal characteristics can facilitate development of more targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:16916074

  8. The cognitive control network: Integrated cortical regions with dissociable functions.

    PubMed

    Cole, Michael W; Schneider, Walter

    2007-08-01

    Consensus across hundreds of published studies indicates that the same cortical regions are involved in many forms of cognitive control. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that these coactive regions form a functionally connected cognitive control network (CCN). Network status was identified by convergent methods, including: high inter-regional correlations during rest and task performance, consistently higher correlations within the CCN than the rest of cortex, co-activation in a visual search task, and mutual sensitivity to decision difficulty. Regions within the CCN include anterior cingulate cortex/pre-supplementary motor area (ACC/pSMA), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), inferior frontal junction (IFJ), anterior insular cortex (AIC), dorsal pre-motor cortex (dPMC), and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). We used a novel visual line search task which included periods when the probe stimuli were occluded but subjects had to maintain and update working memory in preparation for the sudden appearance of a probe stimulus. The six CCN regions operated as a tightly coupled network during the 'non-occluded' portions of this task, with all regions responding to probe events. In contrast, the network was differentiated during occluded search. DLPFC, not ACC/pSMA, was involved in target memory maintenance when probes were absent, while both regions became active in preparation for difficult probes at the end of each occluded period. This approach illustrates one way in which a neuronal network can be identified, its high functional connectivity established, and its components dissociated in order to better understand the interactive and specialized internal mechanisms of that network. PMID:17553704

  9. Cardiac Modulation of Startle: Effects on Eye Blink and Higher Cognitive Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Andre; Reichert, Carolin F.; Richter, Steffen; Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac cycle time has been shown to affect pre-attentive brainstem startle processes, such as the magnitude of acoustically evoked reflexive startle eye blinks. These effects were attributed to baro-afferent feedback mechanisms. However, it remains unclear whether cardiac cycle time plays a role in higher startle-related cognitive processes, as…

  10. Cognitive Functioning Is Related to Physical Functioning in a Longitudinal Study of Women at Midlife

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen Ford; MaryFran Sowers; Theresa E Seeman; Gail A. Greendale; Barbara Sternfeld; Susan A. Everson-Rose

    2010-01-01

    Background: Studies have reported declines with age in cognitive or physical functioning, but rarely identify whether these are parallel or linked events in the same study. Furthermore, most research in this area has focused on persons in late life rather than midlife. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine (1) if cognitive functioning was related to physical functioning

  11. Effects of topiramate on cognitive function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P J Thompson; S A Baxendale; J S Duncan; J W A S Sander

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo explore the impact of topiramate on tests of intellect and other cognitive processes.METHODSThis was a retrospective study. The neuropsychological test scores of 18 patients obtained before and after the introduction of treatment with topiramate (median dose 300 mg) were compared with changes in test performance of 18 patients who had undergone repeat neuropsychological assessments at the same time intervals.

  12. Complex Relationships of Nicotinic Receptor Actions and Cognitive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Edward D.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine has been shown in a variety of studies to improve cognitive function including learning, memory and attention. Nicotine both stimulates and desensitizes nicotinic receptors, thus acting both as an agonist and a net antagonist. The relative roles of these two actions for nicotine-induced cognitive improvement have not yet been fully determined. We and others have found that acute nicotinic antagonist treatment can improve learning and attention. Nicotine acts on a variety of nicotinic receptor subtypes. The relative role and interactions of neuronal nicotinic receptor subtypes for cognition also needs to be better characterized. Nicotine acts on nicotinic receptors in a wide variety of brain areas. The role of some of these areas such as the hippocampus has been relatively well studied but other area like the thalamus, which has the densest nicotinic receptor concentration are still only partially characterized. In a series of studies we characterized nicotinic receptor actions, anatomic localization and circuit interactions, which are critical to nicotine effects on the cognitive functions of learning, memory and attention. The relative role of increases and decreases in nicotinic receptor activation by nicotine were determined in regionally specific studies of the hippocampus, the amygdala, the frontal cortex and the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus with local infusions of antagonists of nicotinic receptor subtypes (?7 and ?4?2). The understanding of the functional neural bases of cognitive function is fundamental to the more effective development of nicotinic drugs for treating cognitive dysfunction. PMID:23928190

  13. Down syndrome: Cognitive and behavioral functioning across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Grieco, Julie; Pulsifer, Margaret; Seligsohn, Karen; Skotko, Brian; Schwartz, Alison

    2015-06-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) commonly possess unique neurocognitive and neurobehavioral profiles that emerge within specific developmental periods. These profiles are distinct relative to others with similar intellectual disability (ID) and reflect underlying neuroanatomic findings, providing support for a distinctive phenotypic profile. This review updates what is known about the cognitive and behavioral phenotypes associated with DS across the lifespan. In early childhood, mild deviations from neurotypically developing trajectories emerge. By school-age, delays become pronounced. Nonverbal skills remain on trajectory for mental age, whereas verbal deficits emerge and persist. Nonverbal learning and memory are strengths relative to verbal skills. Expressive language is delayed relative to comprehension. Aspects of language skills continue to develop throughout adolescence, although language skills remain compromised in adulthood. Deficits in attention/executive functions are present in childhood and become more pronounced with age. Characteristic features associated with DS (cheerful, social nature) are personality assets. Children are at a lower risk for psychopathology compared to other children with ID; families report lower levels of stress and a more positive outlook. In youth, externalizing behaviors may be problematic, whereas a shift toward internalizing behaviors emerges with maturity. Changes in emotional/behavioral functioning in adulthood are typically associated with neurodegeneration and individuals with DS are higher risk for dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Individuals with DS possess many unique strengths and weaknesses that should be appreciated as they develop across the lifespan. Awareness of this profile by professionals and caregivers can promote early detection and support cognitive and behavioral development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25989505

  14. Social/communication skills, cognition, and vocational functioning in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Dwight; Bellack, Alan S; Gold, James M

    2007-09-01

    Deficits in social/communications skills have been documented in schizophrenia, but it is unclear how these deficits relate to cognitive deficits and to everyday functioning. In the current study, social/communication skills performance was measured in 29 schizophrenia patients with a history of good vocational functioning (GVF) and 26 with a history of poor vocational functioning (PVF) using a role-play-based social skills assessment, the Maryland Assessment of Social Competence (MASC). A battery of standard cognitive tasks was also administered. MASC-indexed social skills were significantly impaired in PVF relative to GVF patients (odds ratio = 3.61, P < .001). Although MASC social skills performance was significantly associated with cognitive performance in domains of verbal ability, processing speed, and memory, the MASC nevertheless remained an independent predictor of vocational functioning even after controlling for cognitive performance. Social/communications skills predict vocational functioning history independently of cognitive performance, and social skills measures should be considered for inclusion in test batteries designed to predict everyday functioning in schizophrenia. PMID:17164469

  15. Relationships between cognitive and social functioning in preschool children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Emmerich; Rodney R. Cocking; Irving E. Sigel

    1979-01-01

    Examined short-term longitudinal relationships between test measures of cognitive processes and ratings of classroom behaviors observed during free play. Ss were 64 35–57 mo old middle-class preschoolers, 34 boys and 30 girls. Magnification of the same covariation pattern over time was used as an index of reciprocal influences between cognitive and social functioning. Analyses differentiated between the static (individually stable)

  16. Cohort Changes in Cognitive Function among Danish Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Engberg, Henriette; Christensen, Kaare; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Jeune, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aim The objective was to examine cohort changes in cognitive function in 2 cohorts of centenarians born 10 years apart. Methods The Longitudinal Study of Danish Centenarians comprises all Danes reaching the age of 100 in the period April 1, 1995 through May 31, 1996. A total of 207 out of 276 persons participated (75%). The Danish 1905 Cohort Survey includes all individuals born in 1905. In total, 225 out of 364 persons who reached the age of 100 in the cohort participated in the most recent 2005 follow-up (62%). In both cohorts, cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Results There were no significant differences in cognitive score between the two centenarian birth cohorts. However, modest tendencies were seen towards better cognitive functioning for the centenarians in the 1905 cohort living at home compared to the home-dwelling ones in the 1895 cohort and worse cognitive performance for the centenarians in the 1905 group living in nursing homes compared to the nursing home dwellers in the 1895 cohort. Conclusion The increasing number of centenarians may not entail larger proportions of cognitively impaired individuals in this extreme age group. PMID:18679030

  17. The Effects of Clozapine, Risperidone, and Olanzapine on Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert Y. Meltzer; Susan R. McGurk

    1999-01-01

    Cognitive function is markedly impaired in most patients with schizophrenia. Antecedents of this impairment are evident in childhood. The cognitive disability is nearly fully developed at the first episode of psychosis in most patients. The contribution of cognitive impairment to outcome in schizophrenia, especially work function, has been established. Preliminary results indicate that cognitive function, along with disorganization symptoms, discriminate

  18. Is Executive Cognitive Function Associated with Youth Gambling?

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, Nancy L.; Brown, Caitlin A.; McKenna, Kathleen A.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Yang, Wei; Romer, Daniel; Hurt, Hallam

    2011-01-01

    Our objectives for this report were to identify trajectories of youth gambling behavior, and to examine their relation to executive cognitive function (ECF) and associated problem behaviors. Philadelphia school children, enrolled at ages 10–12 years (n = 387; 49% male), completed three annual assessments of risk behaviors, ECF, impulsivity, problem behaviors and demographics. Across ages 10–15 years, using methods from Nagin et al., two groups were identified: Early Gamblers (n = 111) initiated early and continued in later assessments, and Later Gamblers (n = 276) initiated at later ages and gambled less. Betting money on cards and sports were the most frequently reported gambling behaviors. Using gambling group as outcome, final backward selection logistic regression model showed Early Gamblers are more likely male (P = 0.001), report more active coping (P = 0.042), impulsive behaviors (P ? 0.008), and have friends who gamble (P = 0.001). Groups were similar in ECF, parental monitoring, marital status, SES, and race. Early Gamblers had higher incidence of problem behaviors and drug use (all P ? 0.006). Two gambling groups were identified in early adolescence with Early Gamblers showing higher levels of impulsivity and comorbid problems but similar levels of ECF compared to Late Gamblers. As more gambling groups are identified through later adolescence, ECF may emerge as a relevant precursor of problem gambling at this later time. PMID:21698342

  19. Educational differences in the cognitive functioning of grandmothers caring for grandchildren in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hey Jung

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the effects of grandchild care on the cognitive functioning of Korean grandmothers and the moderating role of education. Data were drawn from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA), a nationally representative sample of middle-aged and older adults (N = 2,341). Contrary to much of the current literature, grandchild care was found to be potentially beneficial for grandmothers. For the entire sample, child care had instantaneous effects on grandmothers' cognition, although there were no longitudinal effects. However, when the sample was divided into grandmothers with higher and lower education, child care was both instantaneously and longitudinally beneficial to cognition for grandmothers with higher education. For less educated grandmothers, child care did not have either immediate or lagged effects on cognition. The results partially support the "Use It or Lose It" hypothesis and the "Scaffolding Theory of Cognitive Aging," suggesting that engagement in social activities is beneficial to cognitive health in later life. Results are congruent with previous studies noting that the effects of grandchild care on grandparents are contingent on various conditions and factors such as the educational level of grandparents. PMID:25651581

  20. Factors Predicting Reversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Normal Cognitive Functioning: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Perminder S.; Lipnicki, Darren M.; Crawford, John; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A.; Trollor, Julian N.; Wen, Wei; Draper, Brian; Slavin, Melissa J.; Kang, Kristan; Lux, Ora; Mather, Karen A.; Brodaty, Henry; Team, Ageing Study

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. However, many individuals diagnosed with MCI are found to have reverted to normal cognition on follow-up. This study investigated factors predicting or associated with reversion from MCI to normal cognition. Methods Our analyses considered 223 participants (48.9% male) aged 71–89 years, drawn from the prospective, population-based Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. All were diagnosed with MCI at baseline and subsequently classified with either normal cognition or repeat diagnosis of MCI after two years (a further 11 participants who progressed from MCI to dementia were excluded). Associations with reversion were investigated for (1) baseline factors that included diagnostic features, personality, neuroimaging, sociodemographics, lifestyle, and physical and mental health; (2) longitudinal change in potentially modifiable factors. Results There were 66 reverters to normal cognition and 157 non-reverters (stable MCI). Regression analyses identified diagnostic features as most predictive of prognosis, with reversion less likely in participants with multiple-domain MCI (p?=?0.011), a moderately or severely impaired cognitive domain (p?=?0.002 and p?=?0.006), or an informant-based memory complaint (p?=?0.031). Reversion was also less likely for participants with arthritis (p?=?0.037), but more likely for participants with higher complex mental activity (p?=?0.003), greater openness to experience (p?=?0.041), better vision (p?=?0.014), better smelling ability (p?=?0.040), or larger combined volume of the left hippocampus and left amygdala (p<0.040). Reversion was also associated with a larger drop in diastolic blood pressure between baseline and follow-up (p?=?0.026). Discussion Numerous factors are associated with reversion from MCI to normal cognition. Assessing these factors could facilitate more accurate prognosis of individuals with MCI. Participation in cognitively enriching activities and efforts to lower blood pressure might promote reversion. PMID:23544083

  1. Cognitive function in hot environments: a question of methodology.

    PubMed

    Gaoua, N

    2010-10-01

    The physiological responses of thermal stress and its consequences on health have been well documented. However, the effect on cognitive function remains equivocal despite a substantial number of studies conducted in the area. Methodological discrepancies across different studies have made it difficult to conclude whether or not heat exposure per se has an adverse effect upon cognitive function and under what specific environmental and physiological conditions these alterations appear. This article gives an overview of the different confounding factors that have made it difficult to make conclusive interpretations. In addition, the current state of knowledge is presented and discussed with reference to the Global Workspace theory. Although previously presented conclusions are promising, much remains to be completed before understanding the mechanisms that could explain the relationship between heat exposure and cognitive function. Finally, recommendations are presented for further research in this area. PMID:21029192

  2. Critical Periods of Brain Growth and Cognitive Function in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Catharine R.; O'Callaghan, Finbar J.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Law, Catherine M.; Martyn, Christopher N.

    2004-01-01

    There is evidence that IQ tends to be higher in those who were heavier at birth or who grew taller in childhood and adolescence. Although these findings imply that growth in both foetal and postnatal life influences cognitive performance, little is known about the relative importance of brain growth during different periods of development. We…

  3. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Cognitive Function in a Cohort of Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Power, Melinda C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Alexeeff, Stacey E.; Coull, Brent A.; Spiro, Avron; Schwartz, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Background Traffic-related particles induce oxidative stress and may exert adverse effects on central nervous system function, which could manifest as cognitive impairment. Objective We assessed the association between black carbon (BC), a marker of traffic-related air pollution, and cognition in older men. Methods A total of 680 men (mean ± SD, 71 ± 7 years of age) from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study completed a battery of seven cognitive tests at least once between 1996 and 2007. We assessed long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution using a validated spatiotemporal land-use regression model for BC. Results The association between BC and cognition was nonlinear, and we log-transformed BC estimates for all analyses [ln(BC)]. In a multivariable-adjusted model, for each doubling in BC on the natural scale, the odds of having a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score ? 25 was 1.3 times higher [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1 to 1.6]. In a multivariable-adjusted model for global cognitive function, which combined scores from the remaining six tests, a doubling of BC was associated with a 0.054 SD lower test score (95% CI, ?0.103 to ?0.006), an effect size similar to that observed with a difference in age of 1.9 years in our data. We found no evidence of heterogeneity by cognitive test. In sensitivity analyses adjusting for past lead exposure, the association with MMSE scores was similar (odds ratio = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.7), but the association with global cognition was somewhat attenuated (?0.038 per doubling in BC; 95% CI, ?0.089 to 0.012). Conclusions Ambient traffic-related air pollution was associated with decreased cognitive function in older men. PMID:21172758

  4. Improved Serum Leptin and Ghrelin Following Bariatric Surgery Predict Better Postoperative Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Bariatric surgery is associated with improved cognitive function, but the mechanisms underlying these gains remain poorly understood. Disturbed leptin and ghrelin systems are common in obese individuals and are associated with impaired cognitive function in other samples. Bariatric surgery has been shown to improve serum leptin and ghrelin levels, and these changes may underlie postoperative cognitive improvements. Methods Eighty-four patients completed a computerized cognitive test battery prior to bariatric surgery and at 12 months postoperatively. Participants also submitted to an 8-hour fasting blood draw to quantify serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations at these same time points. Results Baseline cognitive impairments and disturbed leptin and ghrelin levels improved at the 12-month follow-up compared to presurgery. Higher leptin levels were associated with worse attention/executive function at baseline; no such findings emerged for ghrelin. Regression analyses controlling for baseline factors and demographic characteristics showed that both decreased leptin and increased ghrelin following surgery was associated with better attention/executive function at the 12-month follow-up. These effects diminished after controlling for the postoperative change in body mass index (BMI); however, BMI change did not predict 12-month cognitive function. Conclusions Improvements in leptin and ghrelin levels following bariatric surgery appear to contribute to postoperative cognitive benefits. These gains may involve multiple mechanisms, such as reduced inflammation and improved glycemic control. Future studies that employ neuroimaging are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms and determine whether the effects of bariatric surgery on leptin and ghrelin levels can attenuate adverse brain changes and/or risk of dementia in severely obese individuals. PMID:25628737

  5. Effects of "diagnosis threat" on cognitive and affective functioning long after mild head injury.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Lana J; Fernandes, Myra A

    2011-03-01

    Persistent cognitive complaints are common following a mild head injury (MHI), but deficits are rarely detected on neuropsychological tests. Our objective was to examine the effect of symptom expectation on self-report and cognitive performance measures in MHI individuals. Prior research suggests that when MHI participants are informed they may experience cognitive difficulties, they perform worse on neuropsychological tests compared to MHI participants who are uninformed. In this study, undergraduate students with and without a prior MHI were either informed that the study's purpose was to investigate the effects of MHI on cognitive functioning ("diagnosis threat" condition) or merely informed that their cognitive functioning was being examined, with no mention of status ("neutral" condition). "Diagnosis threat" MHIs self-reported more attention failures compared to "diagnosis threat" controls and "neutral" MHIs, and more memory failures compared to "diagnosis threat" controls. In the "neutral" condition, MHIs reported higher anxiety levels compared to controls and compared to "diagnosis threat" MHIs. Regardless of condition, MHIs performed worse on only one neuropsychological test of attention span. "Diagnosis threat" may contribute to the prevalence and persistence of cognitive complaints made by MHI individuals found in the literature, but may not have as strong of an effect on neuropsychological measures. PMID:21138607

  6. Improving functional disability and cognition in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Javier; García-Gorostiaga, Inés; Gomez-Beldarrain, Maria Angeles; Díez-Cirarda, María; Ojeda, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the efficacy of an integrative cognitive training program (REHACOP) to improve cognition, clinical symptoms, and functional disability of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: Forty-two patients diagnosed with PD in Hoehn & Yahr stages 1 to 3 were randomly assigned to either the cognitive training group (REHACOP) or the control group (occupational activities) for 3 months (3 sessions, 60 min/wk). Primary outcomes were change on processing speed, verbal memory, visual memory, executive functioning, and theory of mind. Secondary outcomes included changes on neuropsychiatric symptoms, depression, apathy, and functional disability. The trial was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02118480). Results: No baseline group differences were found. Bootstrapped analysis of variance results showed significant differences in the mean change scores between the REHACOP group and control group in processing speed (0.13 [SE = 0.07] vs ?0.15 [SE = 0.09], p = 0.025), visual memory (0.10 [SE = 0.10] vs ?0.24 [SE = 0.09], p = 0.011), theory of mind (1.00 [SE = 0.37] vs ?0.27 [SE = 0.29], p = 0.013), and functional disability (?5.15 [SE = 1.35] vs 0.53 [SE = 1.49], p = 0.012). Conclusions: Patients with PD receiving cognitive training with REHACOP demonstrated statistically significant and clinically meaningful changes in processing speed, visual memory, theory of mind, and functional disability. Future studies should consider the long-term effect of this type of intervention. These findings support the integration of cognitive training into the standard of care for patients with PD. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with PD, an integrative cognitive training program improves processing speed, visual memory, theory of mind, and functional disability. PMID:25361785

  7. Automated Semantic Indices Related to Cognitive Function and Rate of Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Pakhomov, Serguei V.S.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Lim, Kelvin O.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study is to introduce a fully automated, computational linguistic technique to quantify semantic relations between words generated on a standard semantic verbal fluency test and to determine its cognitive and clinical correlates. Cognitive differences between patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment are evident in their performance on the semantic verbal fluency test. In addition to the semantic verbal fluency test score, several other performance characteristics sensitive to disease status and predictive of future cognitive decline have been defined in terms of words generated from semantically related categories (clustering) and shifting between categories (switching). However, the traditional assessment of clustering and switching has been performed manually in a qualitative fashion resulting in subjective scoring with limited reproducibility and scalability. Our approach uses word definitions and hierarchical relations between the words in WordNet®, a large electronic lexical database, to quantify the degree of semantic similarity and relatedness between words. We investigated the novel semantic fluency indices of mean cumulative similarity and relatedness between all pairs of words regardless of their order, and mean sequential similarity and relatedness between pairs of adjacent words in a sample of patients with clinically diagnosed probable (n=55) or possible (n=27) Alzheimer’s disease or mild cognitive impairment (n=31). The semantic fluency indices differed significantly between the diagnostic groups, and were strongly associated with neuropsychological tests of executive function, as well as the rate of global cognitive decline. Our results suggest that word meanings and relations between words shared across individuals and computationally modeled via WordNet and large text corpora provide the necessary context to account for the variability in language-based behavior and relate it to cognitive dysfunction observed in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:22659109

  8. Omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive function in women

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jennifer G; Ijioma, Nkechinyere; Harris, William

    2010-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) could play an important role in maintaining cognitive function in aging individuals. The omega-3 FA docosahexaenoic acid is a major constituent of neuronal membranes and, along with the other long-chain omega-3 FAs from fish such as eicosapentaentoic acid, has been shown to have a wide variety of beneficial effects on neuronal functioning, inflammation, oxidation and cell death, as well as on the development of the characteristic pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. Omega-3 FAs may prevent vascular dementia via salutary effects on lipids, inflammation, thrombosis and vascular function. Epidemiologic studies have generally supported a protective association between fish and omega-3 FA levels and cognitive decline. Some of the small, short-term, randomized trials of docosahexaenoic acid and/or eicosapentaentoic acid supplementation have found positive effects on some aspects of cognition in older adults who were cognitively intact or had mild cognitive impairment, although little effect was found in participants with Alzheimer’s disease. Large, long-term trials in this area are needed. PMID:20088735

  9. Decreased Motor Function Is Associated with Poorer Cognitive Function in Elderly with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Berroa, Elizabeth; Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Heymann, Anthony; Schmeidler, James; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sano, Mary; Koifmann, Keren; Preiss, Rachel; Hoffman, Hadas; Schnaider Beeri, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Impaired motor function has been associated with cognitive impairment and dementia, but this relationship is poorly understood in elderly with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We thus investigated it in a large sample (n = 726) of cognitively normal elderly with T2D. Methods In this cross-sectional study, hierarchical linear regressions assessed correlations of 3 motor measures (timed walk, grip strength, and self-reported motor difficulties) with episodic memory, attention/working memory, semantic categorization, executive function, and overall cognition controlling for demographics. Results Longer timed walk and weaker grip strength were associated with poorer performance in all cognitive domains except episodic memory. Conclusions Associations of motor and cognitive functions in T2D and non-T2D samples are consistent. A lack of association of motor function with episodic memory may suggest non-Alzheimer's disease-related underlying mechanisms. PMID:24926308

  10. A Feynman integral via higher normal functions

    E-print Network

    Spencer Bloch; Matt Kerr; Pierre Vanhove

    2015-03-26

    We study the Feynman integral for the three-banana graph defined as the scalar two-point self-energy at three-loop order. The Feynman integral is evaluated for all identical internal masses in two space-time dimensions. Two calculations are given for the Feynman integral; one based on an interpretation of the integral as an inhomogeneous solution of a classical Picard-Fuchs differential equation, and the other using arithmetic algebraic geometry, motivic cohomology, and Eisenstein series. Both methods use the rather special fact that the Feynman integral is a family of regulator periods associated to a family of K3 surfaces. We show that the integral is given by a sum of elliptic trilogarithms evaluated at sixth roots of unity. This elliptic trilogarithm value is related to the regulator of a class in the motivic cohomology of the K3 family. We prove a conjecture by David Broadhurst that at a special kinematical point the Feynman integral is given by a critical value of the Hasse-Weil L-function of the K3 surface. This result is shown to be a particular case of Deligne's conjectures relating values of L-functions inside the critical strip to periods.

  11. Modulation of Higher-Order Olfaction Components on Executive Functions in Humans.

    PubMed

    Fagundo, Ana B; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Islam, Mohammed Anisul; de la Torre, Rafael; Pastor, Antoni; Casanueva, Felipe F; Crujeiras, Ana B; Granero, Roser; Baños, Rosa; Botella, Cristina; Fernández-Real, Jose M; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Menchón, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The prefrontal (PFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) appear to be associated with both executive functions and olfaction. However, there is little data relating olfactory processing and executive functions in humans. The present study aimed at exploring the role of olfaction on executive functioning, making a distinction between primary and more cognitive aspects of olfaction. Three executive tasks of similar difficulty were used. One was used to assess hot executive functions (Iowa Gambling Task-IGT), and two as a measure of cold executive functioning (Stroop Colour and Word Test-SCWT and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-WCST). Sixty two healthy participants were included: 31 with normosmia and 31 with hyposmia. Olfactory abilities were assessed using the ''Sniffin' Sticks'' test and the olfactory threshold, odour discrimination and odour identification measures were obtained. All participants were female, aged between 18 and 60. Results showed that participants with hyposmia displayed worse performance in decision making (IGT; Cohen's-d = 0.91) and cognitive flexibility (WCST; Cohen's-d between 0.54 and 0.68) compared to those with normosmia. Multiple regression adjusted by the covariates participants' age and education level showed a positive association between odour identification and the cognitive inhibition response (SCWT-interference; Beta = 0.29; p = .034). The odour discrimination capacity was not a predictor of the cognitive executive performance. Our results suggest that both hot and cold executive functions seem to be associated with higher-order olfactory functioning in humans. These results robustly support the hypothesis that olfaction and executive measures have a common neural substrate in PFC and OFC, and suggest that olfaction might be a reliable cognitive marker in psychiatric and neurologic disorders. PMID:26083418

  12. Modulation of Higher-Order Olfaction Components on Executive Functions in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Fagundo, Ana B.; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Islam, Mohammed Anisul; de la Torre, Rafael; Pastor, Antoni; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Granero, Roser; Baños, Rosa; Botella, Cristina; Fernández-Real, Jose M.; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Menchón, José M.; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The prefrontal (PFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) appear to be associated with both executive functions and olfaction. However, there is little data relating olfactory processing and executive functions in humans. The present study aimed at exploring the role of olfaction on executive functioning, making a distinction between primary and more cognitive aspects of olfaction. Three executive tasks of similar difficulty were used. One was used to assess hot executive functions (Iowa Gambling Task-IGT), and two as a measure of cold executive functioning (Stroop Colour and Word Test-SCWT and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-WCST). Sixty two healthy participants were included: 31 with normosmia and 31 with hyposmia. Olfactory abilities were assessed using the ‘‘Sniffin’ Sticks’’ test and the olfactory threshold, odour discrimination and odour identification measures were obtained. All participants were female, aged between 18 and 60. Results showed that participants with hyposmia displayed worse performance in decision making (IGT; Cohen’s-d = 0.91) and cognitive flexibility (WCST; Cohen’s-d between 0.54 and 0.68) compared to those with normosmia. Multiple regression adjusted by the covariates participants’ age and education level showed a positive association between odour identification and the cognitive inhibition response (SCWT-interference; Beta = 0.29; p = .034). The odour discrimination capacity was not a predictor of the cognitive executive performance. Our results suggest that both hot and cold executive functions seem to be associated with higher-order olfactory functioning in humans. These results robustly support the hypothesis that olfaction and executive measures have a common neural substrate in PFC and OFC, and suggest that olfaction might be a reliable cognitive marker in psychiatric and neurologic disorders. PMID:26083418

  13. Beyond Functional Architecture in Cognitive Neuropsychology: A Reply to Coltheart David C. Plaut

    E-print Network

    Plaut, David C.

    Beyond Functional Architecture in Cognitive Neuropsychology: A Reply to Coltheart (2010) David C) argued that Cognitive Neuropsychology has had a limited impact on Cognitive Science due to a nearly Cognitive Neuropsychology is concerned only with studying the mind, in terms of its "functional architecture

  14. Cognitive functioning in young children with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cato, M. Allison; Mauras, Nelly; Ambrosino, Jodie; Bondurant, Aiden; Conrad, Amy L.; Kollman, Craig; Cheng, Peiyao; Beck, Roy W.; Ruedy, Katrina J.; Aye, Tandy; Reiss, Allan L.; White, Neil H.; Hershey, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess cognitive functioning in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine whether glycemic history influences cognitive function. Research Design and Methods Neuropsychological evaluation of 216 children (healthy controls, n = 72; T1D, n = 144) ages 4-10yrs across five DirecNet sites. Cognitive domains included IQ, Executive Functions, Learning and Memory, and Processing Speed. Behavioral, mood, parental IQ data and T1D glycemic history since diagnosis were collected. Results The cohorts did not differ in age, gender or parent IQ. Median T1D duration was 2.5yrs and average onset age was 4yrs. After covarying age, gender, and parental IQ, the IQ and the Executive Functions domain scores trended lower (both p = .02, not statistically significant adjusting for multiple comparisons) with T1D relative to controls. Children with T1D were rated by parents as having more depressive and somatic symptoms (p < 0.001). Learning and memory (p = 0.46) and processing speed (p = 0.25) were similar. Trends in the data supported that the degree of hyperglycemia was associated with Executive Functions, and to a lesser extent, Child IQ and Learning and Memory. Conclusions Differences in cognition are subtle in young children with T1D within 2 years of onset. Longitudinal evaluations will help determine whether these findings change or become more pronounced with time. PMID:24512675

  15. Cognitive functioning in young children with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cato, M Allison; Mauras, Nelly; Ambrosino, Jodie; Bondurant, Aiden; Conrad, Amy L; Kollman, Craig; Cheng, Peiyao; Beck, Roy W; Ruedy, Katrina J; Aye, Tandy; Reiss, Allan L; White, Neil H; Hershey, Tamara

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cognitive functioning in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine whether glycemic history influences cognitive function. Neuropsychological evaluation of 216 children (healthy controls, n = 72; T1D, n = 144) ages 4-10 years across five DirecNet sites. Cognitive domains included IQ, Executive Functions, Learning and Memory, and Processing Speed. Behavioral, mood, parental IQ data, and T1D glycemic history since diagnosis were collected. The cohorts did not differ in age, gender or parent IQ. Median T1D duration was 2.5 years and average onset age was 4 years. After covarying age, gender, and parental IQ, the IQ and the Executive Functions domain scores trended lower (both p = .02, not statistically significant adjusting for multiple comparisons) with T1D relative to controls. Children with T1D were rated by parents as having more depressive and somatic symptoms (p < .001). Learning and memory (p = .46) and processing speed (p = .25) were similar. Trends in the data supported that the degree of hyperglycemia was associated with Executive Functions, and to a lesser extent, Child IQ and Learning and Memory. Differences in cognition are subtle in young children with T1D within 2 years of onset. Longitudinal evaluations will help determine whether these findings change or become more pronounced with time. PMID:24512675

  16. Cognitive predictors of functional decline in vascular dementia

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Angela L.; Cahn-Weiner, Deborah; Boyle, Patricia; Paul, Robert H.; Moser, David J.; Gordon, Norman; Cohen, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Background This study examined changes in cognitive-functional relationships in vascular dementia (VaD) over the course of one year. Methods Twenty-four patients with probable VaD were administered the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS). Caregivers completed an informant-based measure of instrumental (IADL) and basic activities of daily living (BADL). Follow-up assessment was conducted one-year post-baseline. Results Logistic regression revealed that changes in the DRS Initiation/Perseveration and DRS Memory subscales were significantly associated with declines in IADLs and BADLs, respectively. Conclusions Among patients with VaD, longitudinal changes in IADLs and BADLs are most strongly associated with changes in executive functioning and memory abilities, respectively. Findings suggest that different cognitive functions subserve complex instrumental and rote, habituated basic functional activities, and neuropsychological screening measures are useful in the prediction of such functional changes. PMID:16906630

  17. Regional functional connectivity predicts distinct cognitive impairments in Alzheimer’s disease spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, Kamalini G.; Hinkley, Leighton B.; Beagle, Alexander J.; Mizuiri, Danielle; Dowling, Anne F.; Honma, Susanne M.; Finucane, Mariel M.; Scherling, Carole; Miller, Bruce L.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Vossel, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding neural network dysfunction in neurodegenerative disease is imperative to effectively develop network-modulating therapies. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), cognitive decline associates with deficits in resting-state functional connectivity of diffuse brain networks. The goal of the current study was to test whether specific cognitive impairments in AD spectrum correlate with reduced functional connectivity of distinct brain regions. We recorded resting-state functional connectivity of alpha-band activity in 27 patients with AD spectrum ? 22 patients with probable AD (5 logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia, 7 posterior cortical atrophy, and 10 early-onset amnestic/dysexecutive AD) and 5 patients with mild cognitive impairment due to AD. We used magnetoencephalographic imaging (MEGI) to perform an unbiased search for regions where patterns of functional connectivity correlated with disease severity and cognitive performance. Functional connectivity measured the strength of coherence between a given region and the rest of the brain. Decreased neural connectivity of multiple brain regions including the right posterior perisylvian region and left middle frontal cortex correlated with a higher degree of disease severity. Deficits in executive control and episodic memory correlated with reduced functional connectivity of the left frontal cortex, whereas visuospatial impairments correlated with reduced functional connectivity of the left inferior parietal cortex. Our findings indicate that reductions in region-specific alpha-band resting-state functional connectivity are strongly correlated with, and might contribute to, specific cognitive deficits in AD spectrum. In the future, MEGI functional connectivity could be an important biomarker to map and follow defective networks in the early stages of AD. PMID:25180158

  18. Immigrant Status and Cognitive Functioning in Late Life: An Examination of Gender Variations in the Healthy Immigrant Effect

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Terrence D.; Angel, Jacqueline L.; Balistreri, Kelly S.; Herrera, Angelica P.

    2014-01-01

    Although some research suggests that the healthy immigrant effect extends to cognitive functioning, it is unclear whether this general pattern varies according to gender. We use six waves of data collected from the original cohort of the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to estimate a series of linear growth curve models to assess variations in cognitive functioning trajectories by nativity status and age at migration to the U.S.A. among women and men. Our results show, among women and men, no differences in baseline cognitive status (intercepts) between early- (before age 20) and late-life (50 and older) immigrants and U.S.-born individuals of Mexican-origin. We also find, among women and men, that middle-life (between the ages of 20 and 49) immigrants tend to exhibit higher levels of baseline cognitive functioning than the U.S.-born. Our growth curve analyses suggest that the cognitive functioning trajectories (slopes) of women do not vary according to nativity status and age at migration. The cognitive functioning trajectories of early- and late-life immigrant men are also similar to those of U.S.-born men; however, those men who migrated in middle-life tend to exhibit slower rates of cognitive decline. A statistically significant interaction term suggests that the pattern for middle-life migration is more pronounced for men (or attenuated for women). In other words, although women and men who migrated in middle-life exhibit higher levels of baseline cognitive functioning, immigrant men tend to maintain this advantage for a longer period of time. Taken together, these patterns confirm that gender is an important conditioning factor in the association between immigrant status and cognitive functioning. PMID:22609085

  19. Cognitive-Neuropsychological Function in Chronic Physical Aggression and Hyperactivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean R. Séguin; Daniel Nagin; Jean-Marc Assaad; Richard E. Tremblay

    2004-01-01

    Histories of violence and of hyperactivity are both characterized by poor cognitive-neuropsychological function. However, researchers do not know whether these histories combine in additive or interactive ways. The authors tested 303 male young adults from a community sample whose trajectories of teacher-rated physical aggression and motoric hyperactivity from kindergarten to age 15 were well defined. No significant interaction was found.

  20. Functional Internet Literacy: Required Cognitive Skills with Implications for Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of typical Internet use provide the basis for defining "functional Internet literacy." Internet use commonly includes communication, information, recreation, and commercial activities. Technical competence with connectivity, security, and downloads is a prerequisite for using the Internet for such activities. Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive

  1. Cognitive Function in Early Onset Schizophrenia: A Selective Review

    PubMed Central

    Frangou, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia is widely regarded as the clinical outcome of aberrant neurodevelopment caused by a combination of genetic and non-genetic factors. Early Onset Schizophrenia (EOS) manifests in childhood or adolescence and represents a more severe variant of the Adult Onset form of the disorder (AOS). EOS offers a unique opportunity of exploring the impact of disease related mechanisms on the developmental trajectory of cognitive function. The present review focused on the domains of general intellectual ability (IQ), attention, executive function and memory. Significant methodological variability was noted across the different studies that examined these aspects of cognition in EOS patients. Despite this, a consistent pattern emergent from the data suggesting that (a) EOS patients compared to healthy children and adolescents show impairments of medium to large effect size in IQ, attention, memory and executive function (b) despite increased clinical severity, the cognitive profile of EOS patients is comparable to that of AOS patients (c) healthy adolescents show age-related improvement in their ability to perform tests of attention, memory and executive function; this is not present in EOS patients thus resulting in increased age-related deviance in patients’ performance. This apparent decline is mostly attributable to patients’ failure to acquire new information and to use more sophisticated cognitive strategies. PMID:20140271

  2. An automated system for assessing cognitive function in any environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesnes, Keith A.

    2005-05-01

    The Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized assessment system has been in use in worldwide clinical trials for over 20 years. It is a computer based system which assesses core aspects of human cognitive function including attention, information, working memory and long-term memory. It has been extensively validated and can be performed by a wide range of clinical populations including patients with various types of dementia. It is currently in worldwide use in clinical trials to evaluate new medicines, as well as a variety of programs involving the effects of age, stressors illnesses and trauma upon human cognitive function. Besides being highly sensitive to drugs which will impair or improve function, its utility has been maintained over the last two decades by constantly increasing the number of platforms upon which it can operate. Besides notebook versions, the system can be used on a wrist worn device, PDA, via tht telephone and over the internet. It is the most widely used automated cognitive function assessment system in worldwide clinical research. It has dozens of parallel forms and requires little training to use or administer. The basic development of the system wil be identified, and the huge databases (normative, patient population, drug effects) which have been built up from hundreds of clinical trials will be described. The system is available for use in virtually any environment or type of trial.

  3. Cognitive functioning, neurologic status and brain imaging in classical galactosemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francine Ratner Kaufman; Cammie McBride-Chang; Franklin R. Manis; Jon A. Wolff; Marvin D. Nelson

    1995-01-01

    A historical group of 45 children (4–18 years) and adults (18–39 years) with classical galactosemia had deficits of cognitive function that were variable and not related to the age at diagnosis or to severity of illness at presentation. There was a trend for patients to score highest on visual processing tasks. The standardized tests of speech and memory skills fell

  4. Cognitive functioning in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tzvi Gil; Avraham Calev; David Greenberg; Sol Kugelmass; Bernard Lerer I

    1990-01-01

    Twelve Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) patients, 12 psychiatric patients matched for severity of psychopathology, and 12 normal controls were assessed for cognitive functioning by means of a comprehensive test battery. Both patient groups felt subjectively more impaired than normals. Performance on measures of intelligence, organicity, verbal fluency, memory, and attention was significantly poorer in patients than in normals. The performance

  5. Gender Characteristics of Cerebral Hemodynamics during Complex Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misteli, Maria; Duschek, Stefan; Richter, Andre; Grimm, Simone; Rezk, Markus; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Boeker, Heinz; Seifritz, Erich; Schuepbach, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Functional Transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) has been applied to assess peak mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MFV) with a high temporal resolution during cognitive activation. Yet, little attention has been devoted to gender-related alterations of MFV, including spectral analysis. In healthy subjects, fTCD was used to investigate a series…

  6. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Reveals the

    E-print Network

    Murray, Scott

    magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been extensively used to study the neural sub- strates of the handBehavioral/Systems/Cognitive Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Reveals the Neural Substrates the everyday act of reaching out to pick up a coffee cup seems like a single fluid action, arguably

  7. PATH57 Altered structural and functional network connectivity predicts cognitive function after traumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Sharp; Powell J Leech R; V Bonnelle; C F Beckmann; X De Boissezon; R Greenwood; K Kinnunen

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in cognitive impairments that limit recovery. The key pathophysiological predictors of recovery are uncertain, but the disruption of brain networks by diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is likely to be important. Here we use MRI to investigate the effect of TBI on structural and functional connections within cognitive brain networks. We studied 21 patients after

  8. Serum Phospholipid Docosahexaenonic Acid Is Associated with Cognitive Functioning during Middle Adulthood12

    PubMed Central

    Muldoon, Matthew F.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Sheu, Lei; Yao, Jeffrey K.; Conklin, Sarah M.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Existing evidence links greater dietary intake of fish and (n-3) PUFA to better early brain development and lowered risk of cognitive disorders in late life. The mechanisms for these associations remain unclear and may be related to specific (n-3) fatty acids and may concern cognitive function generally rather than only early brain development and age-related cognitive dysfunction. In this investigation, we tested potential associations between (n-3) fatty acids in serum phospholipids and major dimensions of cognitive functioning in mid-life adults. Participants were 280 community volunteers between 35 and 54 y of age, free of major neuropsychiatric disorders, and not taking fish oil supplements. Dietary biomarkers were ?-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenonic acid (DHA) in serum phospholipids measured using GC. Five major dimensions of cognitive functioning were assessed with a 75-min battery of neuropsychological tests. In covariate adjusted regression models, higher DHA (mol %) was related to better performance on tests of nonverbal reasoning and mental flexibility, working memory, and vocabulary (P ? 0.05). These associations were generally linear. Associations between DHA and nonverbal reasoning and working memory persisted with additional adjustment for participant education and vocabulary scores (P ? 0.05). Neither EPA nor ALA was notably related to any of the 5 tested dimensions of cognitive performance. Among the 3 key (n-3) PUFA, only DHA is associated with major aspects of cognitive performance in nonpatient adults <55 y old. These findings suggest that DHA is related to brain health throughout the lifespan and may have implications for clinical trials of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:20181791

  9. Contribution of Physical Fitness, Cerebrovascular Reserve and Cognitive Stimulation to Cognitive Function in Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Eskes, Gail A.; Longman, Stewart; Brown, Allison D.; McMorris, Carly A.; Langdon, Kristopher D.; Hogan, David B.; Poulin, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the effects of physical fitness on cognition suggest that exercise can improve cognitive abilities in healthy older adults, as well as delay the onset of age-related cognitive decline. The mechanisms for the positive benefit of exercise and how these effects interact with other variables known to influence cognitive function (e.g., involvement in cognitive activities) are less well understood. The current study examined the associations between the physical fitness, cerebrovascular blood flow regulation and involvement in cognitive activities with neuropsychological function in healthy post-menopausal women. Methods: Forty-two healthy women between the ages of 55 and 90 were recruited. Physical fitness (V?O2 max), cerebrovascular reserve (cerebral blood flow during rest and response to an increase in end-tidal (i.e., arterial) PCO2), and cognitive activity (self-reported number and hours of involvement in cognitive activities) were assessed. The association of these variables with neuropsychological performance was examined through linear regression. Results: Physical fitness, cerebrovascular reserve and total number of cognitive activities (but not total hours) were independent predictors of cognitive function, particularly measures of overall cognitive performance, attention and executive function. In addition, prediction of neuropsychological performance was better with multiple variables than each alone. Conclusions: Cognitive function in older adults is associated with multiple factors, including physical fitness, cerebrovascular health and cognitive stimulation. Interestingly, cognitive stimulation effects appear related more to the diversity of activities, rather than the duration of activity. Further examination of these relationships is ongoing in a prospective cohort study. PMID:21048898

  10. Cognitive function and endogenous cytokine levels in children with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Abu Faddan, N H; Shehata, G A; Abd Elhafeez, H A; Mohamed, A O; Hassan, H S; Abd El Sameea, F

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about how hepatitis C (HCV) infection affects cognitive function in children. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of HCV infection on cognitive function of children with normal liver functions and their relationships to endogenous IFN-?, IL-6 and TNF-?. IFN-?, IL-6 and TNF-? were measured and the Arabic version of the Stanford-Binet test used to assess cognitive functions in 35 children with HCV infection and 23 controls. Serum levels of IL-6 and IFN-? were significantly higher in patients compared to controls. There was a significant effect on vocabulary, comprehension, and abstract visual reasoning, quantitative reasoning and bead memory tests, as well as total short-term memory and intelligence quotient in patients compared to controls. There was a significant positive correlation between IFN-? and IL-6. Also there were significant negative correlations between IFN-? and Abstract visual reasoning test, Quantitative reasoning test, Bead memory test, Total short-term memory and Intelligence quotient; and between IL-6 and Abstract visual reasoning test, Quantitative reasoning test and Intelligence quotient. There was no significant correlation between TNF-? and any of the cognitive functions. Cytokine levels were not related to demographic characteristics of the patients or viral load (PCR). Children with chronic hepatitis C infection in its early stages showed signs of cognitive impairment, with the memory tasks being mostly affected. There was a significant correlation between endogenous cytokines and cognitive impairment in these children. Further studies are needed to define the effect of successful antiviral treatment. PMID:25496114

  11. Functional disconnection and social cognition in schizophrenia 

    E-print Network

    Mukherjee, Prerona

    2011-11-25

    Introduction Social and emotional functions play a key role in schizophrenia. Both positive symptoms, such as hallucinations and persecutory delusions, as well as negative symptoms such as social withdrawal, and flattened ...

  12. The grounding of higher order concepts in action and language: a cognitive robotics model.

    PubMed

    Stramandinoli, Francesca; Marocco, Davide; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we present a neuro-robotic model that uses artificial neural networks for investigating the relations between the development of symbol manipulation capabilities and of sensorimotor knowledge in the humanoid robot iCub. We describe a cognitive robotics model in which the linguistic input provided by the experimenter guides the autonomous organization of the robot's knowledge. In this model, sequences of linguistic inputs lead to the development of higher-order concepts grounded on basic concepts and actions. In particular, we show that higher-order symbolic representations can be indirectly grounded in action primitives directly grounded in sensorimotor experiences. The use of recurrent neural network also permits the learning of higher-order concepts based on temporal sequences of action primitives. Hence, the meaning of a higher-order concept is obtained through the combination of basic sensorimotor knowledge. We argue that such a hierarchical organization of concepts can be a possible account for the acquisition of abstract words in cognitive robots. PMID:22386502

  13. Objectively-Measured Physical Activity and Cognitive Functioning in Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Marinac, Catherine R.; Godbole, Suneeta; Kerr, Jacqueline; Natarajan, Loki; Patterson, Ruth E.; Hartman, Sheri J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To explore the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and cognitive functioning in breast cancer survivors. Methods Participants were 136 postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. Cognitive functioning was assessed using a comprehensive computerized neuropsychological test. 7-day physical activity was assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. Linear regression models examined associations of minutes per day of physical activity at various intensities on individual cognitive functioning domains. The partially adjusted model controlled for primary confounders (model 1), and subsequent adjustments were made for chemotherapy history (model 2), and BMI (model 3). Interaction and stratified models examined BMI as an effect modifier. Results Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was associated with Information Processing Speed. Specifically, ten minutes of MVPA was associated with a 1.35-point higher score (out of 100) on the Information Processing Speed domain in the partially adjusted model, and a 1.29-point higher score when chemotherapy was added to the model (both p<.05). There was a significant BMI x MVPA interaction (p=.051). In models stratified by BMI (<25 vs. ?25 kg/m2), the favorable association between MVPA and Information Processing Speed was stronger in the subsample of overweight and obese women (p<.05), but not statistically significant in the leaner subsample. Light-intensity physical activity was not significantly associated with any of the measured domains of cognitive function. Conclusions MVPA may have favorable effects on Information Processing Speed in breast cancer survivors, particularly among overweight or obese women. Implications for Cancer Survivors Interventions targeting increased physical activity may enhance aspects of cognitive function among breast cancer survivors. PMID:25304986

  14. Alterations in cognitive and psychological functioning after organic solvent exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, L.A.; Ryan, C.M.; Hodgson, M.J.; Robin, N. (Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Exposure to organic solvents has been linked repeatedly to alterations in both personality and cognitive functioning. To assess the nature and extent of these changes more thoroughly, 32 workers with a history of exposure to mixtures of organic solvents and 32 age- and education-matched blue-collar workers with no history of exposure were assessed with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Although both groups were comparable on measures of general intelligence, significant differences were found in virtually all other cognitive domains tested (Learning and Memory, Visuospatial, Attention and Mental Flexibility, Psychomotor Speed). In addition, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories of exposed workers indicated clinically significant levels of depression, anxiety, somatic concerns and disturbances in thinking. The reported psychological distress was unrelated to degree of cognitive deficit. Finally, several exposure-related variables were associated with poorer performance on tests of memory and visuospatial ability.

  15. From ear to uncertainty: vestibular contributions to cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Paul F.; Zheng, Yiwen

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the deficits in the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is substantial evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and neocortex play in spatial orientation. In this review we summarize the evidence that vestibular loss causes cognitive disorders, especially spatial memory deficits, in animals and humans and critically evaluate the evidence that these deficits are not due to hearing loss, problems with motor control, oscillopsia or anxiety and depression. We review the evidence that vestibular lesions affect head direction and place cells as well as the emerging evidence that artificial activation of the vestibular system, using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), can modulate cognitive function. PMID:24324413

  16. Association between Cytomegalovirus Antibody Levels and Cognitive Functioning in Non-Elderly Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Faith; Stallings, Cassie; Origoni, Andrea; Katsafanas, Emily; Schweinfurth, Lucy A. B.; Savage, Christina L. G.; Yolken, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Elevated levels of antibodies to Cytomegalovirus (CMV) have been associated with cognitive impairment, but the quantitative relationship between CMV antibody levels and domains of cognitive functioning in younger adults has not been established. Methods We measured IgG class antibodies to Cytomegalovirus in 521 individuals, mean age 32.8 years. Participants were selected for the absence of psychiatric disorder and of a serious medical condition that could affect brain functioning. Cognitive functioning was measured with the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test part A, and the WAIS III Letter Number Sequencing subtest. Linear regression analyses were used to measure the quantitative association between cognitive scores and Cytomegalovirus IgG antibody level. Logistic regression analyses were used to measure the odds of low cognitive scores and elevated antibody levels defined as an antibody level >?=?50th, 75th, and 90th percentile of the group. Results Higher levels of CMV antibodies were associated with lower performance on RBANS Total (coefficient ?1.03, p<.0002), Delayed Memory (coefficient ?0.94, p<.001), Visuospatial/Constructional (coefficient ?1.77, p<5×10?7), and Letter Number Sequencing (coefficient ?0.15, p<.03). There was an incremental relationship between the level of CMV antibody elevation and the odds of a low RBANS Total score. The odds of a low total cognitive score were 1.63 (95th % CI 1.01, 2.64; p<.045), 2.22 (95th % CI 1.33, 3.70; p<.002), and 2.46 (95th % CI 1.24, 4.86; p<.010) with a CMV antibody level greater than or equal to the 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile respectively. Conclusions Higher levels of Cytomegalovirus antibodies are associated with lower levels of cognitive functioning in non-elderly adults. Methods for the prevention and treatment of CMV infection should be evaluated to determine if they result in an improvement in cognitive functioning in otherwise healthy adults. PMID:24846058

  17. Higher-order functions in aesthetic EC encodings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James McDermott; Jonathan Byrne; John Mark Swafford; Michael O'Neill; Anthony Brabazon

    2010-01-01

    The use of higher-order functions, as a method of abstraction and re-use in EC encodings, has been the subject of relatively little research. In this paper we introduce and give motivation for the ideas of higher-order functions, and describe their general advantages in EC encodings. We implement grammars using higher-order ideas for two problem domains, music and 3D architectural design,

  18. Facial affect recognition: A mediator between cognitive and social functioning in psychosis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Addington; Huma Saeedi; Donald Addington

    2006-01-01

    BackgroundFacial affect recognition has been implicated in the relationship between cognition and social functioning. This 1-year longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that facial affect recognition mediates the relationship between cognitive and social functioning.

  19. J Alzheimers Dis . Author manuscript Caffeine, cognitive functioning, and white matter lesions in the elderly

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    J Alzheimers Dis . Author manuscript Page /1 6 Caffeine, cognitive functioning, and white matter Objective The present study examines the epidemiological evidence for a causal relationship between caffeine examining cognitive functioning, caffeine consumption, magnetic resonance imaging volumetrics and other

  20. The dystrophin gene and cognitive function in the general population.

    PubMed

    Vojinovic, Dina; Adams, Hieab Hh; van der Lee, Sven J; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Brouwer, Rutger; van den Hout, Mirjam Cgn; Oole, Edwin; van Rooij, Jeroen; Uitterlinden, Andre; Hofman, Albert; van IJcken, Wilfred Fj; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; van Ommen, GertJan B; Ikram, M Arfan; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Amin, Najaf

    2015-06-01

    The aim of our study is to investigate whether single-nucleotide dystrophin gene (DMD) variants associate with variability in cognitive functions in healthy populations. The study included 1240 participants from the Erasmus Rucphen family (ERF) study and 1464 individuals from the Rotterdam Study (RS). The participants whose exomes were sequenced and who were assessed for various cognitive traits were included in the analysis. To determine the association between DMD variants and cognitive ability, linear (mixed) modeling with adjustment for age, sex and education was used. Moreover, Sequence Kernel Association Test (SKAT) was used to test the overall association of the rare genetic variants present in the DMD with cognitive traits. Although no DMD variant surpassed the prespecified significance threshold (P<1 × 10(-4)), rs147546024:A>G showed strong association (?=1.786, P-value=2.56 × 10(-4)) with block-design test in the ERF study, while another variant rs1800273:G>A showed suggestive association (?=-0.465, P-value=0.002) with Mini-Mental State Examination test in the RS. Both variants are highly conserved, although rs147546024:A>G is an intronic variant, whereas rs1800273:G>A is a missense variant in the DMD which has a predicted damaging effect on the protein. Further gene-based analysis of DMD revealed suggestive association (P-values=0.087 and 0.074) with general cognitive ability in both cohorts. In conclusion, both single variant and gene-based analyses suggest the existence of variants in the DMD which may affect cognitive functioning in the general populations. PMID:25227141

  1. Neurocognitive performance of children with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders on the NEPSY-II.

    PubMed

    Barron-Linnankoski, Sarianna; Reinvall, Outi; Lahervuori, Anne; Voutilainen, Arja; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Korkman, Marit

    2015-01-01

    This study examined patterns of strengths and weaknesses in the neurocognitive performance of children with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The participants were 30 children with higher functioning ASD ranging from 6 to 11 years, and 60 typically developing (TD) children, who were matched with the children with higher functioning ASD in terms of age, gender, and maternal education. The TD children were drawn from the Finnish standardization sample for the NEPSY-II. The cognitive abilities of the children with higher functioning ASD were assessed with the WISC-III, and the neurocognitive performance of the children with higher functioning ASD and TD children on the NEPSY-II was compared. The children with higher functioning ASD were found to have strengths in verbal reasoning skills with respect to the population mean and weaknesses in set-shifting, verbal fluency, and narrative memory in comparison with the TD children. Minor weaknesses were also observed in facial memory and fine and visuomotor skills. PMID:24397431

  2. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination–Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The “MFDF” dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the “WNC” dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44–0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults. PMID:26035243

  3. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination-Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The "MFDF" dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the "WNC" dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults. PMID:26035243

  4. Nutritional influences on cognitive function: mechanisms of susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Leigh Gibson, E; Green, Michael W

    2002-06-01

    The impact of nutritional variation, within populations not overtly malnourished, on cognitive function and arousal is considered. The emphasis is on susceptibility to acute effects of meals and glucose loads, and chronic effects of dieting, on mental performance, and effects of cholesterol and vitamin levels on cognitive impairment. New developments in understanding dietary influences on neurohormonal systems, and their implications for cognition and affect, allow reinterpretation of both earlier and recent findings. Evidence for a detrimental effect of omitting a meal on cognitive performance remains equivocal: from the outset, idiosyncrasy has prevailed. Yet, for young and nutritionally vulnerable children, breakfast is more likely to benefit than hinder performance. For nutrient composition, despite inconsistencies, some cautious predictions can be made. Acutely, carbohydrate-rich-protein-poor meals can be sedating and anxiolytic; by comparison, protein-rich meals may be arousing, improving reaction time but also increasing unfocused vigilance. Fat-rich meals can lead to a decline in alertness, especially where they differ from habitual fat intake. These acute effects may vary with time of day and nutritional status. Chronically, protein-rich diets have been associated with decreased positive and increased negative affect relative to carbohydrate-rich diets. Probable mechanisms include diet-induced changes in monoamine, especially serotoninergic neurotransmitter activity, and functioning of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis. Effects are interpreted in the context of individual traits and susceptibility to challenging, even stressful, tests of performance. Preoccupation with dieting may impair cognition by interfering with working memory capacity, independently of nutritional status. The change in cognitive performance after administration of glucose, and other foods, may depend on the level of sympathetic activation, glucocorticoid secretion, and pancreatic beta-cell function, rather than simple fuelling of neural activity. Thus, outcomes can be predicted by vulnerability in coping with stressful challenges, interacting with nutritional history and neuroendocrine status. Functioning of such systems may be susceptible to dietary influences on neural membrane fluidity, and vitamin-dependent cerebrovascular health, with cognitive vulnerability increasing with age. PMID:19087403

  5. Computational Neuropsychiatry - Schizophrenia as a Cognitive Brain Network Disorder

    E-print Network

    Dauvermann, Maria R.

    Computational modeling of functional brain networks in fMRI data has advanced the understanding of higher cognitive function. It is hypothesized that functional networks mediating higher cognitive processes are disrupted ...

  6. Cognitive recovery and predictors of functional outcome 1 year after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Sigurdardottir, Solrun; Andelic, Nada; Roe, Cecilie; Schanke, Anne-Kristine

    2009-09-01

    Outcome studies on traumatic brain injury (TBI) have shown that functional status can be predicted by demographic, injury severity, and trauma-related factors. Concurrent cognitive functions as one of the determinants of functional outcome is less documented. This study evaluated the effects of concurrent neuropsychological measures on functional outcome 1 year after injury. Neuropsychological data, employment status, self-reported fatigue, and the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) were collected from 115 persons with TBI (ranging from mild to severe) at 3 and 12 months postinjury. Principal components analysis was conducted with the neuropsychological measures and three components emerged. Multiple regression analysis, controlling for demographic and injury severity related factors, was used to test the effects of cognitive components at 12 months on functional outcome (GOSE). One year after injury, 64% were categorized as "good recovery" and 36% as "moderate disability" according to GOSE. Good functional recovery depended on shorter duration of posttraumatic amnesia, less fatigue, absence of intracranial pathology, higher education, and better performance on cognitive measures. The predictive values of Verbal/Reasoning and Visual/Perception components are supported; each added significantly and improved prediction of functional outcome. The Memory/Speed component showed a near-significant relationship to outcome. PMID:19602303

  7. Low Cognitive Functioning in Nondemented 80+-Year-Old Twins Is Not Heritable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrill, Stephen A.; Johansson, Boo; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Berg, Stig; Plomin, Robert; Ahern, Frank; McClearn, Gerald E.

    2001-01-01

    Studied the genetic influence of low cognitive functioning in 200 pairs of twins aged at least 80 years and identified as not demented. Results suggest that the heritability of low cognitive functioning in this group was nonsignificant, but above-average cognitive functioning shows substantial group heritability. (SLD)

  8. A Cognitive Engineering Analysis of the Vertical Navigation (VNAV) Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherry, Lance; Feary, Michael; Polson, Peter; Mumaw, Randall; Palmer, Everett

    2001-01-01

    A cognitive engineering analysis of the Flight Management System (FMS) Vertical Navigation (VNAV) function has identified overloading of the VNAV button and overloading of the Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA) used by the VNAV function. These two types of overloading, resulting in modal input devices and ambiguous feedback, are well known sources of operator confusion, and explain, in part, the operational issues experienced by airline pilots using VNAV in descent and approach. A proposal to modify the existing VNAV design to eliminate the overloading is discussed. The proposed design improves pilot's situational awareness of the VNAV function, and potentially reduces the cost of software development and improves safety.

  9. Evaluation of postprocedure cognitive function using 3 distinct standard sedation regimens for endoscopic procedures.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Tobie J; Bonds, Raymond L; Hodges, Kedrin; Goettle, Brooks B; Dobson, D Anne Marie; Maye, John P

    2014-04-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation was to evaluate postprocedure cognitive function associated with 3 distinct standard sedation regimens used for endoscopic procedures. A secondary aim was to identify complications requiring provider interventions. Subjects scheduled for colonoscopies were approached for enrollment the day of their procedure. A convenience sample of 96 subjects was randomly assigned. Cognitive function was recorded on the day of surgery using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and 24 and 48 hours postoperatively using the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status (TICS). The propofol plus fentanyl group had a mean TICS score of 34.53 at 24 hours compared with 34.96 at 48 hours (P = .017). The midazolam plus fentanyl group had a mean TICS score of 34.76 at 24 hours compared with 36.26 at 48 hours (P = .004). The propofol-alone group had a mean TICS score of 35.09 at 24 hours compared with 35.98 at 48 hours (P = .924). The results of this investigation indicate that the sedation regimen of propofol alone has the least impact on postprocedure cognitive function. Additionally, the number of jaw lift interventions was significantly higher in both groups who received fentanyl. PMID:24902456

  10. Social Engagement and Cognitive Function in Old Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin R. Krueger; Robert S. Wilson; Julia M. Kamenetsky; Lisa L. Barnes; Julia L. Bienias; David A. Bennett

    2009-01-01

    We examined the association of diverse measures of social engagement with level of function in multiple cognitive domains in 838 persons without dementia who had a mean age of 80.2 (SD = 7.5). Social network size, frequency of social activity, and level of perceived social support were assessed in linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, and other covariates. Social activity

  11. Cognitive function and nigrostriatal markers in abstinent methamphetamine abusers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris-Ellyn Johanson; Kirk A. Frey; Leslie H. Lundahl; Pamela Keenan; Nancy Lockhart; John Roll; Gantt P. Galloway; Robert A. Koeppe; Michael R. Kilbourn; Trevor Robbins; Charles R. Schuster

    2006-01-01

    Objective  Preclinical investigations have established that methamphetamine (MA) produces long-term changes in dopamine (DA) neurons in the striatum. Human studies have suggested similar effects and correlated motor and cognitive deficits. The present study was designed to further our understanding of changes in brain function in humans that might result from chronic high dose use of MA after at least 3 months of

  12. Brief Report: Social and Communication Abilities and Disabilities in Higher Functioning Individuals with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saulnier, Celine A.; Klin, Ami

    2007-01-01

    Individuals with higher functioning autism (HFA) fail to translate their cognitive potential into real-life adaptation, and the severity of their symptoms is considerable despite their intellectual ability. This paper reports on a subsample from a larger study (A. Klin et al., in press) analyzed here by autism spectrum subtypes. It focuses on the…

  13. Driving into the Sunset: Supporting Cognitive Functioning in Older Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Young, Mark S.; Bunce, David

    2011-01-01

    The rise in the aging driver population presents society with a significant challenge—how to maintain safety and mobility on the roads. On the one hand, older drivers pose a higher risk of an at-fault accident on a mile-for-mile basis; on the other hand, independent mobility is a significant marker of quality of life in aging. In this paper, we review the respective literatures on cognitive neuropsychology and ergonomics to suggest a previously unexplored synergy between these two fields. We argue that this conceptual overlap can form the basis for future solutions to what has been called “the older driver problem.” Such solutions could be found in a range of emerging driver assistance technologies offered by vehicle manufacturers, which have the potential to compensate for the specific cognitive decrements associated with aging that are related to driving. PMID:21748014

  14. Effect of Purpose in Life on the Relation Between Alzheimer Disease Pathologic Changes on Cognitive Function in Advanced Age

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Patricia A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Wilson, Robert S.; Yu, Lei; Schneider, Julie A.; Bennett, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Context Purpose in life is associated with a substantially reduced risk of Alzheimer disease (AD), but the neurobiologic basis of this protective effect remains unknown. Objective To test the hypothesis that purpose in life reduces the deleterious effects of AD pathologic changes on cognition in advanced age. Design A longitudinal, epidemiologic, clinicopathologic study of aging was conducted that included detailed annual clinical evaluations and brain autopsy. Participants Two hundred forty-six community-based older persons from the Rush Memory and Aging Project participated. Main Outcome Measures Purpose in life was assessed via structured interview, and cognitive function was evaluated annually and proximate to death. On postmortem examination, 3 indexes of AD pathologic features were quantified: global AD pathologic changes, amyloid, and tangles. The associations of disease pathologic changes and purpose in life with cognition were examined using linear regression and mixed models. Results Purpose in life modified the association between the global measure of AD pathologic changes and cognition (mean [SE] parameter estimate, 0.532 [0.211]; P=.01), such that participants who reported higher levels of purpose in life exhibited better cognitive function despite the burden of the disease. Purpose in life also reduced the association of tangles with cognition (parameter estimate, 0.042 [0.019]; P=.03), and the protective effect of purpose in life persisted even after controlling for several potentially confounding variables. Furthermore, in analyses examining whether purpose in life modified the association between AD pathologic effects and the rate of cognitive decline, we found that higher levels of purpose in life reduced the effect of AD pathologic changes on cognitive decline (parameter estimate, 0.085 [0.039]; P=.03). Conclusion Higher levels of purpose in life reduce the deleterious effects of AD pathologic changes on cognition in advanced age. PMID:22566582

  15. The effect of computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cognitive function for stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, In-Seok; Yoon, Jung-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation (CACR) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on cognitive function in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] We enrolled 20 patients and divided them into CACR and rTMS groups. CACR and rTMS were performed thrice a week for 4 weeks. Cognitive function was measured with the Korean Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) and Lowenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment-Geriatric (LOTCA-G) before and after treatment. The independent samples t-test was performed to test the homogeneity of K-MMSE and LOTCA-G before treatment and compare the differences in cognitive improvement between the CACR and rTMS groups. A paired samples t-test was used to compare cognitive function before and after treatment. [Results] Cognitive function of both the groups significantly improved after the intervention based on the K-MMSE and LOTCA-G scores. While the LOTCA-G score improved significantly more in the CACR group than in the rTMS group, no significant difference was seen in the K-MMSE scores. [Conclusion] We showed that CACR is more effective than rTMS in improving cognitive function after stroke. PMID:25931728

  16. Haptoglobin 1-1 Genotype Is Associated With Poorer Cognitive Functioning in the Elderly With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Heymann, Anthony; Schmeidler, James; Guerrero-Berroa, Elizabeth; Sano, Mary; Preiss, Rachel; Koifman, Keren; Hoffman, Hadas; Levy, Andrew; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Schnaider-Beeri, Michal

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Haptoglobin (Hp) genotype (Hp 1-1, 1-2, or 2-2) is associated with risk for type 2 diabetes complications, but its relationship with cognitive compromise, a growing concern in type 2 diabetes, has rarely been studied. This study investigated whether Hp genotype is associated with cognitive function in cognitively normal elderly diabetic subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Relationships of Hp genotype with episodic memory, semantic categorization, attention/working memory and executive function, and an overall cognitive score were examined in subjects from the Israel Diabetes and Cognitive Decline (IDCD) study. RESULTS In the present analysis, 812 subjects participated (84 with Hp 1-1, 335 with Hp 1-2, and 393 with Hp 2-2 genotypes). Average was 72.9 years of age (SD 4.7), and Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) was 28.0 (SD 1.8). Compared with subjects with Hp 1-2 genotype, Hp 1-1 subjects performed significantly worse in semantic categorization (F = 7.03; P = 0.008) and the overall cognitive score (F = 5.57; P = 0.02). A separate stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that compared with subjects with Hp 2-2 genotype, Hp 1-1 subjects performed significantly worse in semantic categorization (F = 4.18; P = 0.04) and the overall cognitive score (F = 4.70; P = 0.03). The contribution of cardiovascular risk factors to cognition was significantly higher in subjects with Hp 1-1 genotype compared with Hp 2 carriers (Hp 1-2 and Hp 2-2) in the semantic categorization (P = 0.009) and attention/working memory (P = 0.002) cognitive domains. CONCLUSIONS Compared with Hp 2 carriers, those with Hp 1-1 genotype present lower cognitive performance. Stronger relationships between cardiovascular risk factors and cognition in the latter group may suggest an underlying vascular mechanism. PMID:23990521

  17. Histamine-selective H3 receptor ligands and cognitive functions: an overview.

    PubMed

    Vohora, Divya

    2004-07-01

    This review presents a link between histamine and cognition and provides an overview on the effect of histamine and selective ligands of histamine receptors on experimental models for learning, memory and cognitive functions, with a special focus on recently developed H(3) receptor ligands. Studies suggest a tremendous potential for H(3) antagonists in cognitive function disorders. PMID:15243869

  18. Brief Report: Feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Adults with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Perry, Timothy D.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.; Penn, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with…

  19. Cognitive Functioning in 8- to 18-Month-Old Drug-Exposed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Alessandri, Steven M.; Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the cognitive functioning in 236 infants at 8 and 18 months of age. Thirty-seven infants were heavily exposed to cocaine in-utero, 30 were lightly exposed, and 169 were not exposed to cocaine. Cognitive functioning was evaluated with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (2nd ed.; N. Bayley, 1993) at both ages. Infant information processing was also assessed with an infant-controlled habituation procedure. Results indicated that (a) infants of cocaine-abusing women had higher neonatal medical and environmental risk scores; (b) at 8 months, exposure groups did not differ in Psychomotor Development Index, Mental Development Index (MDI) scores, or recovery to a novel stimulus; and (c) infants heavily exposed to cocaine or high environmental risk had a decrease in MDI scores from 8 to 18 months. These results were obtained when neonatal medical and environmental risk, as well as polydrug exposure, were controlled. PMID:9597365

  20. In vivo functions of carotenoids in higher plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BARBARA DEMMIG. ADAMS; ADAM M. GILMORE; WILLIAM W. ADAMS

    1996-01-01

    The function of the long-chain, highly unsaturated carotenoids of higher plants in photo- protection is becoming increasingly well understood, while at the same time their function in other proc- esses, such as light collection, needs to be reex- amined. Recent progress in this area has been fueled by more accurate determinations of the photophysi- cal properties of these molecules, as

  1. Social Cognitive Impairments and Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Are There Subtypes With Distinct Functional Correlates?

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Morris D.; Corbera, Silvia; Johannesen, Jason K.; Fiszdon, Joanna M.; Wexler, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Social cognitive impairments and negative symptoms are core features of schizophrenia closely associated with impaired community functioning. However, little is known about whether these are independent dimensions of illness and if so, whether individuals with schizophrenia can be meaningfully classified based on these dimensions (SANS) and potentially differentially treated. Five social cognitive measures plus Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores in a sample of 77 outpatients produced 2 distinct factors—a social cognitive factor and a negative symptom factor. Factor scores were used in a cluster analysis, which yielded 3 well-defined groupings—a high negative symptom group (HN) and 2 low negative symptom groups, 1 with higher social cognition (HSC) and 1 with low social cognition (LSC). To make these findings more practicable for research and clinical settings, a rule of thumb for categorizing using only the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test and PANSS negative component was created and produced 84.4% agreement with the original cluster groups. An additional 63 subjects were added to cross validate the rule of thumb. When samples were combined (N = 140), the HSC group had significantly better quality of life and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores, higher rates of marriage and more hospitalizations. The LSC group had worse criminal and substance abuse histories. With 2 common assessment instruments, people with schizophrenia can be classified into 3 subgroups that have different barriers to community integration and could potentially benefit from different treatments. PMID:21976710

  2. Social cognitive impairments and negative symptoms in schizophrenia: are there subtypes with distinct functional correlates?

    PubMed

    Bell, Morris D; Corbera, Silvia; Johannesen, Jason K; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Wexler, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    Social cognitive impairments and negative symptoms are core features of schizophrenia closely associated with impaired community functioning. However, little is known about whether these are independent dimensions of illness and if so, whether individuals with schizophrenia can be meaningfully classified based on these dimensions (SANS) and potentially differentially treated. Five social cognitive measures plus Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores in a sample of 77 outpatients produced 2 distinct factors--a social cognitive factor and a negative symptom factor. Factor scores were used in a cluster analysis, which yielded 3 well-defined groupings--a high negative symptom group (HN) and 2 low negative symptom groups, 1 with higher social cognition (HSC) and 1 with low social cognition (LSC). To make these findings more practicable for research and clinical settings, a rule of thumb for categorizing using only the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test and PANSS negative component was created and produced 84.4% agreement with the original cluster groups. An additional 63 subjects were added to cross validate the rule of thumb. When samples were combined (N = 140), the HSC group had significantly better quality of life and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores, higher rates of marriage and more hospitalizations. The LSC group had worse criminal and substance abuse histories. With 2 common assessment instruments, people with schizophrenia can be classified into 3 subgroups that have different barriers to community integration and could potentially benefit from different treatments. PMID:21976710

  3. Who would have thought that 'Jaws' also has brains? Cognitive functions in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Schluessel, V

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation of brain structures, function and higher cognitive abilities most likely have contributed significantly to the evolutionary success of elasmobranchs, but these traits remain poorly studied when compared to other vertebrates, specifically mammals. While the pallium of non-mammalian vertebrates lacks the mammalian neocortical organization responsible for all cognitive abilities of mammals, several behavioural and neuroanatomical studies in recent years have clearly demonstrated that elasmobranchs, just like teleosts and other non-mammalian vertebrates, can nonetheless solve a multitude of cognitive tasks. Sharks and rays can learn and habituate, possess spatial memory; can orient according to different orientation strategies, remember spatial and discrimination tasks for extended periods of time, use tools; can imitate and learn from others, distinguish between conspecifics and heterospecifics, discriminate between either visual objects or electrical fields; can categorize visual objects and perceive illusory contours as well as bilateral symmetry. At least some neural correlates seem to be located in the telencephalon, with some pallial regions matching potentially homologous areas in other vertebrates where similar functions are being processed. Results of these studies indicate that the assessed cognitive abilities in elasmobranchs are as well developed as in teleosts or other vertebrates, aiding them in fundamental activities such as food retrieval, predator avoidance, mate choice and habitat selection. PMID:24889655

  4. Lateralization of Cognitive Functions in Aphasia after Right Brain Damage

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ji-Wan; Hwang, Yu Mi; Sim, Hyunsub

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The lateralization of cognitive functions in crossed aphasia in dextrals (CAD) has been explored and compared mainly with cases of aphasia with left hemisphere damage. However, comparing the neuropsychological aspects of CAD and aphasia after right brain damage in left-handers (ARL) could potentially provide more insights into the effect of a shift in the laterality of handedness or language on other cognitive organization. Thus, this case study compared two cases of CAD and one case of ARL. Materials and Methods The following neuropsychological measures were obtained from three aphasic patients with right brain damage (two cases of CAD and one case of ARL); language, oral and limb praxis, and nonverbal cognitive functions (visuospatial neglect and visuospatial construction). Results All three patients showed impaired visuoconstructional abilities, whereas each patient showed a different level of performances for oral and limb praxis, and visuospatial neglect. Conclusion Based on the analysis of these three aphasic patients' performances, we highlighted the lateralization of language, handedness, oral and limb praxis, visuospatial neglect and visuospatial constructive ability in aphasic patients with right brain damage. PMID:22476990

  5. Functional neuroimaging of social and nonsocial cognitive control in autism.

    PubMed

    Sabatino, Antoinette; Rittenberg, Alison; Sasson, Noah J; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Bodfish, James W; Dichter, Gabriel S

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated cognitive control of social and nonsocial information in autism using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and a neurotypical control group completed an oddball target detection task where target stimuli were either faces or nonsocial objects previously shown to be related to circumscribed interests in autism. The ASD group demonstrated relatively increased activation to social targets in right insular cortex and in left superior frontal gyrus and relatively decreased activation to nonsocial targets related to circumscribed interests in multiple frontostriatal brain regions. Findings suggest that frontostriatal recruitment during cognitive control in ASD is contingent on stimulus type, with increased activation for social stimuli and decreased activation for nonsocial stimuli related to circumscribed interests. PMID:23636715

  6. Cognitive Functioning in Space Exploration Missions: A Human Requirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiedler, Edan; Woolford, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Solving cognitive issues in the exploration missions will require implementing results from both Human Behavior and Performance, and Space Human Factors Engineering. Operational and research cognitive requirements need to reflect a coordinated management approach with appropriate oversight and guidance from NASA headquarters. First, this paper will discuss one proposed management method that would combine the resources of Space Medicine and Space Human Factors Engineering at JSC, other NASA agencies, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Wyle Labs, and other academic or industrial partners. The proposed management is based on a Human Centered Design that advocates full acceptance of the human as a system equal to other systems. Like other systems, the human is a system with many subsystems, each of which has strengths and limitations. Second, this paper will suggest ways to inform exploration policy about what is needed for optimal cognitive functioning of the astronaut crew, as well as requirements to ensure necessary assessment and intervention strategies for the human system if human limitations are reached. Assessment strategies will include clinical evaluation and fitness-to-perform evaluations. Clinical intervention tools and procedures will be available to the astronaut and space flight physician. Cognitive performance will be supported through systematic function allocation, task design, training, and scheduling. Human factors requirements and guidelines will lead to well-designed information displays and retrieval systems that reduce crew time and errors. Means of capturing process, design, and operational requirements to ensure crew performance will be discussed. Third, this paper will describe the current plan of action, and future challenges to be resolved before a lunar or Mars expedition. The presentation will include a proposed management plan for research, involvement of various organizations, and a timetable of deliverables.

  7. Does Domain Knowledge Moderate Involvement of Working Memory Capacity in Higher-Level Cognition? A Test of Three Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, D.Z.; Oswald, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that both working memory capacity and domain knowledge contribute to individual differences in higher-level cognition. This study evaluated three hypotheses concerning the interplay between these factors. The compensation hypothesis predicts that domain knowledge attenuates the influence of working memory capacity on higher-level…

  8. LOCFAS-Assessed Evolution of Cognitive and Behavioral Functioning in a Sample of Pediatric Patients With Severe Acquired Brain Injury in the Postacute Phase.

    PubMed

    Villa, Federica; Colombo, Katia; Pastore, Valentina; Locatelli, Federica; Molteni, Erika; Galbiati, Sara; Galbiati, Susanna; Strazzer, Sandra

    2014-11-01

    We studied 86 patients with severe acquired brain injuries of different etiology, aged 0 to 18 years, in a condition of vegetative state or minimally conscious state. During neurorehabilitation, we administered the Level of Cognitive Functioning Assessment Scale every 2 weeks in order to describe and compare the progressive improvement in their cognitive-behavioral functioning and responsiveness in different etiologies. Patients with traumatic brain injury showed more favorable clinical outcomes. The higher the level of functioning at the first evaluation, the better the outcome, and the higher the Glasgow Coma Scale score, the higher the Level of Cognitive Functioning Assessment Scale level reached at the end of hospitalization. Patients with an apparently stable clinical picture, too, showed a change in their ability to interact with the environment. This study underlines the importance of an individualized and early cognitive-behavioral intervention protocol that can reveal minimal and fluctuating responses. PMID:25370863

  9. Utility of TICS-M for the assessment of cognitive function in older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Celeste A. de Jager; Marc M. Budge; Robert Clarke

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Routine screening of high-risk elderly people for early cognitive impairment is constrained by the limitations of currently available cognitive function tests. The Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status is a novel instrument for assess- ment of cognitive function that can be administered in person or by telephone. Objective To evaluate the determinants and utility of TICS-M (13-item modified version)

  10. Research and Teaching: Promoting the Use of Higher-Order Cognitive Skills in Qualitative Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jason Justice

    2008-05-01

    A study was conducted to promote higher order cognitive skills (HOCS) in a chemistry class using the GOAL (Gather, Organize, Analyze, and Learn) method. Students were assigned four qualitative problems specifically designed to be solved with the method over the course of the semester outside of normal homework and testing. The problems served as a platform to encourage students to use HOCS in their Learn responses. The study focused on students' use of HOCS in these Learn responses regardless of whether HOCS were used in the actual solving of the problems or not. The results of this study suggest that consistent use of the Learn response in problem solving promotes reflection with an accompanied increase in use of HOCS by students during a semester.

  11. Cognitive function and other non-motor features in non-demented Parkinson's disease motor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Herman, Talia; Weiss, Aner; Brozgol, Marina; Wilf-Yarkoni, Adi; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2015-08-01

    Among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), a wide range of non-motor symptoms (NMS) are evident. We assessed markers of NMS and explored their behavioral correlates with the tremor-dominant (TD) and postural instability gait difficulty (PIGD) subtypes. 110 non-demented patients with PD were evaluated and stratified into the PIGD and TD subtypes and, using stricter criteria, into predominant subgroups: p-PIGD (n = 31) and p-TD (n = 32). Non-motor signs that were assessed included cognitive function (pen and paper and a computerized battery), autonomic function (NMSQest and SCOPA-AUT), mood, and sleep. Health-related quality of life was evaluated using the PDQ-39. The p-PIGD subgroup had a higher score on the NMSQest (p = 0.033) and a higher score (i.e., worse) on the PDQ-39 (p-PIGD: 26.28 ± 12.47; p-TD: 16.93 ± 12.22; p = 0.004), compared to the p-TD subgroup, while these measures did not differ in the larger PIGD and TD group. The p-PIGD subgroup used more sleep medications compared to the p-TD subgroup (1.0 ± 1.39 vs. 0.41 ± 0.94, p = 0.05, respectively). Most cognitive scores were similar in both subgroups; however, the visuospatial components of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the computerized catch game were significantly worse among the p-PIGD subgroup. Mild associations were found between certain non-motor symptoms, but not cognitive function, and the PIGD score. Non-demented patients from the PIGD subtype experience more non-motor symptoms and poorer quality of life compared to the TD subtype. These findings suggest that the clinical management of non-motor and motor symptoms in patients with PD may be enhanced by a personalized approach. PMID:25490941

  12. Cognitive functioning after pallidotomy for refractory Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Perrine, K.; Dogali, M.; Fazzini, E.; Sterio, D.; Kolodny, E.; Eidelberg, D.; Devinsky, O.; Beric, A.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Earlier approaches to pallidotomy for refractory Parkinson's disease had significant complication rates. More recent approaches show fewer complications, but the effect of pallidotomy on cognition is unclear. The current study was conducted to examine the neuropsychological effects of unilateral pallidotomy.?METHODS—Neuropsychological testing was performed on patients with medically refractory, predominantly unilateral Parkinson's disease at baseline and after unilateral ventral pallidotomy (n=28) or after an equivalent period without surgery in control patients (n=10).?RESULTS—Pallidotomy patients showed no significant changes from baseline to retesting relative to the control group for any measure. Across all of the tests administered, only five of the surgery patients showed a significant decline, and of these five none declined on more than one test. Depression did not relate to preoperative or postoperative cognition. The pallidotomy group showed a significant improvement in motor functioning and activities of daily living whereas the control group did not. These measures were not associated with the neuropsychological test scores at baseline or retest.?CONCLUSIONS—Stereotactic unilateral ventral pallidotomy does not seem to produce dramatic cognitive declines in most patients.?? PMID:9703163

  13. Microinfarcts, brain atrophy, and cognitive function: the HAAS autopsy study

    PubMed Central

    Launer, Lenore J; Hughes, Timothy M; White, Lon R

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To study the association of microinfarcts (MBI) to ante-mortem global cognitive function (CF), and to investigate whether brain weight (BW), Alzheimer’s lesions (neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) or neuritic plaques (NP) mediate the association. Methods Subjects are 437 well-characterized male decedents from the Honolulu Asia Aging Autopsy Study. Brain pathology was ascertained with standardized methods, CF was measured by the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI)and data were analyzed using formal mediation analyses, adjusted for age at death, time between last CF measure and death, education, and head size. Based on ante-mortem diagnoses, demented and non-demented subjects were examined together and separately. Results In those with no dementia, MBI were strongly associated with the last ante-mortem CF score; this was significantly mediated by BW, and not NFT or NP. In contrast, among those with an ante-mortem diagnosis of dementia, NFT had the strongest associations with BW and with CF, and MIB were modestly associated with CF. Interpretation This suggests microinfarct pathology is a significant and independent factor contributing to brain atrophy and cognitive impairment, particularly before dementia is clinically evident. The role of vascular damage as initiator, stimulator, or additive contributor to neurodegeneration may differ depending on when in the trajectory towards dementia the lesions develop. PMID:22162060

  14. Higher anticholinergic drug scale (ADS) scores are associated with peripheral but not cognitive markers of cholinergic blockade. Cross sectional data from 21 Norwegian nursing homes

    PubMed Central

    Kersten, Hege; Molden, Espen; Willumsen, Tiril; Engedal, Knut; Wyller, Torgeir Bruun

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study evaluated a presumed gradual decline in cognitive function in nursing home residents when the anticholinergic drug scale (ADS) score increased above 3. Method The study population was recruited from 21 nursing homes in Norway. Criteria for inclusion were ADS score???3 and no severe dementia, defined as Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score < 3. Primary cognitive end points were CERAD 10?word lists for recall and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Secondary end points were activity of daily living (ADL), mouth dryness and serum anticholinergic activity (SAA). The patients were stratified into subgroups according to ADS score, i.e. a reference group with score 3 and test groups with scores 4, 5 or ?6. End points were compared by analyses of covariance (ancova). Results Overall, 230 of the 1101 screened nursing home residents (21%) had an ADS score ?3. After exclusion 101 residents were recruited and among these, 87 managed to participate in the study. No significant differences were detected in cognitive function or ADL when ADS increased above 3 (P > 0.10), but in vivo (mouth dryness) and in vitro (SAA) measures of peripheral anticholinergic activity were significantly higher in patients with an ADS score ?6 (P < 0.01). Conclusion The present study does not support a progressive decline in cognitive function with ADS score above 3. This might indicate that the ADS score model has limited potential to predict the clinical risk of central anticholinergic side effects in frail elderly patients receiving multiple anticholinergic drugs. PMID:22924454

  15. Gait and risk of falls associated with frontal cognitive functions at different stages of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Flávia Gomes de Melo; Stella, Florindo; de Andrade, Larissa Pires; Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira; Gobbi, Sebastião; Costa, José Luiz Riani; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken

    2012-09-01

    The decline in frontal cognitive functions contributes to alterations of gait and increases the risk of falls in patients with dementia, a category which included Alzheimer's disease (AD). The objective of the present study was to compare the gait parameters and the risk of falls among patients at different stages of AD, and to relate these variables with cognitive functions. This is a cross-sectional study with 23 patients with mild and moderate AD. The Clinical Dementia Rating was used to classify the dementia severity. The kinematic parameters of gait (cadence, stride length, and stride speed) were analyzed under two conditions: (a) single task (free gait) and (b) dual task (walking and counting down). The risk of falls was evaluated using the Timed Up-and-Go test. The frontal cognitive functions were evaluated using the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) and the Symbol Search Subtest. The patients who were at the moderate stage suffered reduced performance in their stride length and stride speed in the single task and had made more counting errors in the dual task and still had a higher fall risk. Both the mild and the moderate patients exhibited significant decreases in stride length, stride speed and cadence in the dual task. Was detected a significant correlation between CDT, FAB, and stride speed in the dual task condition. We also found a significant correlation between subtest Similarities, FAB and cadence in the dual task condition. The dual task produced changes in the kinematic parameters of gait for the mild and moderate AD patients and the gait alterations are related to frontal cognitive functions, particularly executive functions. PMID:22360785

  16. Cognitive functioning in socially anxious adults: insights from the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery

    PubMed Central

    Troller-Renfree, Sonya V.; Barker, Tyson V.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Theory suggests that individuals with social anxiety manifest unique patterns of cognition with less efficient fluid cognition and unperturbed crystallized cognition; however, empirical support for these ideas remains inconclusive. The heterogeneity of past findings may reflect unreliability in cognitive assessments or the influence of confounding variables. The present study examined the relations among social anxiety and performance on the reliable, newly established NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. Results indicate that high socially anxious adults performed as well as low anxious participants on all measures of fluid cognition. However, high socially anxious adults demonstrated enhanced crystallized cognitive abilities relative to a low socially anxious comparison group.

  17. To rise and to fall: functional connectivity in cognitively normal and cognitively impaired patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gorges, Martin; Müller, Hans-Peter; Lulé, Dorothée; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive decline is a burdensome extra-motor symptom associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed at investigating intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of the brain in cognitively unimpaired (PD-CU) and impaired PD patients (PD-CI) compared with age-matched healthy controls. "Resting-state" functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired in 53 subjects, that is, 14 PD-CU patients, 17 PD-CI patients, and 22 control subjects. Cognition and cognitive status for patient classification were assessed using detailed neuropsychological testing. In PD-CU patients versus controls, we demonstrated significantly increased iFC (hyperconnectivity) presenting as network expansions in cortical, limbic, and basal ganglia-thalamic areas. Significantly, decreased iFC in PD-CI patients compared with control subjects was observed, predominantly between major nodes of the default mode network. In conclusion, the increased iFC might be the initial manifestation of altered brain function preceding cognitive deficits. Hyperconnectivity could be an adaptive (compensatory) mechanism by recruiting additional resources to maintain normal cognitive performance. As PD-related pathology progresses, functional disruptions within the default mode networks seem to be considerably associated with cognitive decline. PMID:25623332

  18. Association between adjuvant regional radiotherapy and cognitive function in breast cancer patients treated with conservation therapy.

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Osamu; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Eisho; Sugawara, Yuriko; Akechi, Tatsuo; Wada, Noriaki; Imoto, Shigeru; Murakami, Koji; Ogawa, Asao; Akabayashi, Akira; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2014-06-01

    Although protracted cognitive impairment has been reported to occur after radiotherapy even when such therapy is not directed to brain areas, the mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated whether breast cancer patients exposed to local radiotherapy showed lower cognitive function mediated by higher plasma interleukin (IL)-6 levels than those unexposed. We performed the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) and measured plasma IL-6 levels for 105 breast cancer surgical patients within 1 year after the initial therapy. The group differences in each of the indices of WMS-R were investigated between cancer patients exposed to adjuvant regional radiotherapy (n = 51) and those unexposed (n = 54) using analysis of covariance. We further investigated a mediation effect by plasma IL-6 levels on the relationship between radiotherapy and the indices of WMS-R using the bootstrapping method. The radiotherapy group showed significantly lower Immediate Verbal Memory Index and Delayed Recall Index (P = 0.001, P = 0.008, respectively). Radiotherapy exerted an indirect effect on the lower Delayed Recall Index of WMS-R through elevation of plasma IL-6 levels (bootstrap 95% confidence interval = -2.6626 to -0.0402). This study showed that breast cancer patients exposed to adjuvant regional radiotherapy in conservation therapy might have cognitive impairment even several months after their treatment. The relationship between the therapy and the cognitive impairment could be partially mediated by elevation of plasma IL-6 levels. PMID:24756915

  19. Prenatal drug exposure moderates the association between stress reactivity and cognitive function in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Bento, Samantha P; Scaletti, Laura A; Koenig, James I; Granger, Douglas A; Black, Maureen M

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal drug exposure (PDE) can undermine subsequent health and development. In a prospective longitudinal study we examine whether PDE moderates the link between stress reactivity and cognitive functioning in adolescence. Participants were 76 prenatally drug-exposed and 61 nonexposed (NE) community comparison African American youth (50% male, mean age 14.17 years) living in an urban setting. All participants completed neuropsychological and academic achievement tests (Children's Memory Scales, the California Verbal Learning Test - Children's version and the Wide Range Achievement Test 4) over the course of 1 day in a laboratory setting. Two mild stressors (Balloon Analog Risk Task - Youth and Behavioral Indicator of Resilience to Distress) were administered, with saliva samples (assayed for cortisol) collected pre- and poststress task. A higher percentage in the NE group, compared to the PDE group (26% vs. 12%, ?(2) = 4.70, d.f. = 1, n = 137, p = 0.03), exhibited task-related increases in salivary cortisol. PDE moderated the association between stress reactivity and 11 of 15 cognitive performance scales. In each case, the NE stress reactive group had better cognitive performance than either the NE lower cortisol reactive group or the PDE group regardless of stress reactivity status. Stress-related reactivity and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in adolescence may be disrupted by PDE, and the disruption may be linked to lower cognitive performance. PMID:24819393

  20. Association between adjuvant regional radiotherapy and cognitive function in breast cancer patients treated with conservation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shibayama, Osamu; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Eisho; Sugawara, Yuriko; Akechi, Tatsuo; Wada, Noriaki; Imoto, Shigeru; Murakami, Koji; Ogawa, Asao; Akabayashi, Akira; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2014-01-01

    Although protracted cognitive impairment has been reported to occur after radiotherapy even when such therapy is not directed to brain areas, the mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated whether breast cancer patients exposed to local radiotherapy showed lower cognitive function mediated by higher plasma interleukin (IL)-6 levels than those unexposed. We performed the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) and measured plasma IL-6 levels for 105 breast cancer surgical patients within 1 year after the initial therapy. The group differences in each of the indices of WMS-R were investigated between cancer patients exposed to adjuvant regional radiotherapy (n = 51) and those unexposed (n = 54) using analysis of covariance. We further investigated a mediation effect by plasma IL-6 levels on the relationship between radiotherapy and the indices of WMS-R using the bootstrapping method. The radiotherapy group showed significantly lower Immediate Verbal Memory Index and Delayed Recall Index (P = 0.001, P = 0.008, respectively). Radiotherapy exerted an indirect effect on the lower Delayed Recall Index of WMS-R through elevation of plasma IL-6 levels (bootstrap 95% confidence interval = ?2.6626 to ?0.0402). This study showed that breast cancer patients exposed to adjuvant regional radiotherapy in conservation therapy might have cognitive impairment even several months after their treatment. The relationship between the therapy and the cognitive impairment could be partially mediated by elevation of plasma IL-6 levels. PMID:24756915

  1. Higher Serum Vitamin D3 Levels Are Associated with Better Cognitive Test Performance in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Oudshoorn; N. van der Velde; E. M. Colin; T. J. M. van der Cammen

    2008-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Recent studies suggest that vitamin D metabolites may be important for preserving cognitive function via specific neuroprotective effects. No large studies have examined the association between vitamin D status and cognition. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) test scores of 225 older outpatients who were diagnosed as having

  2. Intraoperative cerebral high intensity transient signals and postoperative cognitive function: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kristin K; Wigginton, Jeremy B.; Babikian, Viken L; Pochay, Val E.; Crittenden, Michael D.; Rudolph, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Microemboli during surgery have been hypothesized to cause postoperative cognitive changes. The purpose of this article was to systematically review the available literature related to intraoperative microemboli, measured with transcranial Doppler ultrasound and postoperative cognitive function. The literature remains largely undecided on the role of microemboli and cognitive impairment after surgery, because most studies underpowered to show a relationship. PMID:18723157

  3. Computational modeling/cognitive robotics complements functional modeling/experimental psychology

    E-print Network

    Memphis, University of

    Computational modeling/cognitive robotics complements functional modeling/experimental psychology to the science of psychology from insights obtained by building and experimenting with cognitive robots. First to the science of psychology. Finally, the reciprocal interactions between computational modeling/cognitive

  4. Beyond Functional Architecture in Cognitive Neuropsychology: A Reply to Coltheart (2010)

    E-print Network

    Plaut, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Beyond Functional Architecture in Cognitive Neuropsychology: A Reply to Coltheart (2010) David C We (Patterson & Plaut, 2009) argued that cognitive neuropsychology has had a limited impact is misplaced because cognitive neuropsychology is concerned only with studying the mind, in terms of its

  5. Cognitive Function in Late Life Depression: Relationships to Depression Severity, Cerebrovascular

    E-print Network

    Cognitive Function in Late Life Depression: Relationships to Depression Severity, Cerebrovascular depression (LLD). To understand the influence of LLD on cognition, it is important to determine if deficits in a number of cognitive domains are relatively independent, or mediated by depression- related deficits

  6. Higher Integrability for Minimizers of the Mumford-Shah Functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Philippis, Guido; Figalli, Alessio

    2014-08-01

    We prove higher integrability for the gradient of local minimizers of the Mumford-Shah energy functional, providing a positive answer to a conjecture of De Giorgi (Free discontinuity problems in calculus of variations. Frontiers in pure and applied mathematics, North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp 55-62, 1991).

  7. Functional architecture of higher plant photosystem II supercomplexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Caffarri; Roman Kou?il; Sami Kereïche; Egbert J. Boekema; Roberta Croce

    2009-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it to homogeneity. In this work, homogeneous preparations ranging from a newly identified particle composed by a monomeric core

  8. Cognitive reserve is associated with the functional organization of the brain in healthy aging: a MEG study

    PubMed Central

    López, María E.; Aurtenetxe, Sara; Pereda, Ernesto; Cuesta, Pablo; Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Bruña, Ricardo; Niso, Guiomar; Maestú, Fernando; Bajo, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of elderly people in the population has increased rapidly in the last century and consequently “healthy aging” is expected to become a critical area of research in neuroscience. Evidence reveals how healthy aging depends on three main behavioral factors: social lifestyle, cognitive activity, and physical activity. In this study, we focused on the role of cognitive activity, concentrating specifically on educational and occupational attainment factors, which were considered two of the main pillars of cognitive reserve (CR). Twenty-one subjects with similar rates of social lifestyle, physical and cognitive activity were selected from a sample of 55 healthy adults. These subjects were divided into two groups according to their level of CR; one group comprised subjects with high CR (9 members) and the other one contained those with low CR (12 members). To evaluate the cortical brain connectivity network, all participants were recorded by Magnetoencephalography (MEG) while they performed a memory task (modified version of the Sternberg's Task). We then applied two algorithms [Phase Locking Value (PLV) and Phase Lag Index (PLI)] to study the dynamics of functional connectivity. In response to the same task, the subjects with lower CR presented higher functional connectivity than those with higher CR. These results may indicate that participants with low CR needed a greater “effort” than those with high CR to achieve the same level of cognitive performance. Therefore, we conclude that CR contributes to the modulation of the functional connectivity patterns of the aging brain. PMID:24982632

  9. Cognitive reserve is associated with the functional organization of the brain in healthy aging: a MEG study.

    PubMed

    López, María E; Aurtenetxe, Sara; Pereda, Ernesto; Cuesta, Pablo; Castellanos, Nazareth P; Bruña, Ricardo; Niso, Guiomar; Maestú, Fernando; Bajo, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of elderly people in the population has increased rapidly in the last century and consequently "healthy aging" is expected to become a critical area of research in neuroscience. Evidence reveals how healthy aging depends on three main behavioral factors: social lifestyle, cognitive activity, and physical activity. In this study, we focused on the role of cognitive activity, concentrating specifically on educational and occupational attainment factors, which were considered two of the main pillars of cognitive reserve (CR). Twenty-one subjects with similar rates of social lifestyle, physical and cognitive activity were selected from a sample of 55 healthy adults. These subjects were divided into two groups according to their level of CR; one group comprised subjects with high CR (9 members) and the other one contained those with low CR (12 members). To evaluate the cortical brain connectivity network, all participants were recorded by Magnetoencephalography (MEG) while they performed a memory task (modified version of the Sternberg's Task). We then applied two algorithms [Phase Locking Value (PLV) and Phase Lag Index (PLI)] to study the dynamics of functional connectivity. In response to the same task, the subjects with lower CR presented higher functional connectivity than those with higher CR. These results may indicate that participants with low CR needed a greater "effort" than those with high CR to achieve the same level of cognitive performance. Therefore, we conclude that CR contributes to the modulation of the functional connectivity patterns of the aging brain. PMID:24982632

  10. Omega-3 fatty acids moderate effects of physical activity on cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Leckie, Regina L; Manuck, Stephen B; Bhattacharjee, Neha; Muldoon, Matthew F; Flory, Janine M; Erickson, Kirk I

    2014-07-01

    Greater amounts of physical activity (PA) and omega-3 fatty acids have both been independently associated with better cognitive performance. Because of the overlapping biological effects of omega-3 fatty acids and PA, fatty acid intake may modify the effects of PA on neurocognitive function. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining whether the ratio of serum omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid levels would moderate the association between PA and executive and memory functions in 344 participants (Mean age=44.42 years, SD=6.72). The Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ), serum fatty acid levels, and performance on a standard neuropsychological battery were acquired on all subjects. A principal component analysis reduced the number of cognitive outcomes to three factors: n-back working memory, Trail Making test, and Logical Memory. We found a significant interaction between PA and the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid serum levels on Trail Making performance and n-back performance, such that higher amounts of omega-3 levels offset the deleterious effects of lower amounts of PA. These effects remained significant in a subsample (n=299) controlling for overall dietary fat consumption. There were no significant additive or multiplicative benefits of higher amounts of both omega-3 and PA on cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids might mitigate the effect of lower levels of PA on cognitive performance. This study illuminates the importance of understanding dietary and PA factors in tandem when exploring their effects on neurocognitive health. PMID:24813150

  11. Nutritional and socio-economic determinants of cognitive function and educational achievement of Aboriginal schoolchildren in rural Malaysia

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    's cognitive development(8,9) . Needless to say, poor socio-economic status is a strong inhibitor limitingNutritional and socio-economic determinants of cognitive function and educational achievement influencing the cognitive function and educational achievement of these children. Cognitive function

  12. Sex Dependence of Cognitive Functions in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    ?ojko, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the performance of lithium treated euthymic bipolar patients in tests measuring spatial working memory (SWM), planning, and verbal fluency and to delineate the influence of gender on cognitive functioning. Fifty-nine euthymic bipolar patients, treated with lithium carbonate for at least 5?yr, were studied. Patients and controls underwent a neuropsychological assessment. Bipolar patients had significantly worse results than the healthy controls in the spatial memory and planning as well as verbal fluency tests. We detected a gender-related imbalance in the SWM results. Deficits in SWM were observed in male-only comparisons but not in female-only comparisons. The SWM scores were significantly poorer in male patients than in male controls. In female-only comparisons, female patients did not have significantly poorer SWM results in any category than their controls. Bipolar women scored worse in some other tests. The present study points to the different patterns of neuropsychological disturbances in female and male patients and suggests that sex-dependent differences should be taken into account in order to tailor the therapeutic intervention aimed at the improvement of cognitive functions. PMID:24616627

  13. Psychiatric and Cognitive Functioning in Adolescent Inpatients with Histories of Dating Violence Victimization

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Christie J.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Spirito, Anthony; Thompson, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    The presence of dating violence victimization as well as its relation to psychiatric diagnosis and cognitive processes was examined in a sample of 155 adolescents hospitalized in a psychiatric facility. Participants and their parents completed semi-structured diagnostic interviews. Participants also completed self-report measures of dating violence victimization and cognitive functioning. Seventy-seven percent of adolescents who had initiated dating reported psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse by a dating partner over the past year. Victims of psychological abuse alone as well as physical and/or sexual violence endorsed higher rates of major depressive disorder compared to non-victims. Physical/sexual dating violence victims also endorsed significantly higher rates of PTSD and alcohol use disorders, more frequent co-occurrence of externalizing and internalizing disorders, and more frequent negative cognitive biases, relative to non-victimized adolescents. Findings suggest that psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents with dating violence histories represent a subgroup of adolescent inpatients with a particularly serious clinical picture. PMID:20824193

  14. Cognitive Function and Control of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Satyajeet; Kim, Nami; Desai, Anjali; Komaragiri, Mahathi; Baxi, Namrata; Jassil, Navinder; Blessinger, Megan; Khan, Maliha; Cole, Robert; Desai, Nayan; Terrigno, Rocco; Hunter, Krystal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been associated with impairment of cognitive function. Studies show a strong negative correlation between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and cognitive function in adult patients above the mean age of 60 years. In healthy adults, age-related cognitive impairment is mostly reported after the age of 60 years, hence the decline in cognitive function can be a part of normal aging without diabetes. Since the majority of patients with diabetes are between the ages of 40 and 59 years, it is crucial to ascertain whether the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin negatively correlate with the levels of cognitive function scores in adult patients of age 60 years or younger, similar to the way it correlates in patients older than 60 years of age, or not. Aims: We observed the relationship between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and the levels of cognitive function in patients of age 60 years or younger with T2DM. Materials and Methods: Eighty-two patients with T2DM underwent cognitive assessment testing by using a Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS), and their cognitive function scores were correlated with their glycosylated hemoglobin levels, durations of diabetes, and levels of education. Results: Cognitive impairment was observed in 19.5% of the studied patients. We found a weakly negative relationship between the glycosylated hemoglobin level and cognitive function score (r = -0.292), a moderately negative relationship between the duration of diabetes and cognitive function score (r = -0.303), and a weakly positive relationship between the level of education and cognitive function score (r = 0.277). Conclusion: Cognitive impairment affects one-fifth of the patients of age 60 years or younger with T2DM. It is weakly negatively related to the glycosylated hemoglobin level, moderately negatively related to the duration of diabetes, and weakly positively related to the level of education.

  15. Acute Cold Exposure and Cognitive Function: Evidence for Sustained Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Matthew D.; Gunstad, John; Alosco, Michael L.; Miller, Lindsay A.; Updegraff, John; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Glickman, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Several industries experience periods of cold exposure and rewarming throughout the workday but mental performance under these conditions is unknown. A better understanding of cognition during the rewarming phase after cold exposure may help reduce accidents and improve performance. Ten young men (wearing~0.1 clo) underwent 3 consecutive mornings trials where they were exposed to cold air (10°C) and then subsequently re-warmed (25°C air). A computerized test battery was administered during each stage of the protocol to determine working memory, choice reaction time, executive function, and maze navigation. Rectal and skin temperature, oxygen consumption, and thermal sensation were also measured throughout and showed a typical response. Relative to baseline performance, working memory, choice reaction time, and executive function declined during exposure to 10°C, and these impairments persisted 60 minutes into the recovery period (i.e. once physiological parameters had returned to baseline). Further work is needed to develop countermeasures to this predicament. PMID:22506538

  16. Understanding and Auto-Control of Cognitive Functions: Implications for the Relationship Between Cognition and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefebre-Pinard, Monique

    1983-01-01

    Presents an integrated view of contributions made by various sections within cognitive psychology in which problems of consciousness are addressed. Implications concerning the relationship between cognition and behavior are pointed out. (Author/RH)

  17. Evaluating Effects of Heat Stress on Cognitive Function among Workers in a Hot Industry

    PubMed Central

    Mazloumi, Adel; Golbabaei, Farideh; Mahmood Khani, Somayeh; Kazemi, Zeinab; Hosseini, Mostafa; Abbasinia, Marzieh; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh

    2014-01-01

    Background:Heat stress, as one of the most common occupational health problems, can impair operators' cognitive processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of thermal stress on cognitive function among workers in a hot industry. Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted in Malibel Saipa Company in 2013, workers were assigned into two groups: one group were exposed to heat stress (n=35), working in casting unit and the other group working in machining unit (n=35) with a normal air conditioning. Wet Bulb Globe Temperature was measured at three heights of ankle, abdomen, and head. In order to evaluate the effects of heat stress on attention and reaction time, Stroop tests 1, 2, and 3 were conducted before starting the work and during the work. Results: A significant positive correlation was observed between WBGT and test duration (P=0.01) and reaction time of Stroop test 3 (P=0.047), and between number of errors in Stroop tests 1, 2, and 3, during the work (P= 0.001). Moreover, Stroop test 3 showed a significant higher score for both test duration and reaction time of workers in case group. Conclusion: Results of the present study, conducted in a real work environment, confirmed the impairment of cognitive functions, including selective attention and reaction time, under heat stress conditions. PMID:25649311

  18. Cerebellar Volume and Cognitive Functioning in Children Who Experienced Early Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Patrick M.; Hanson, Jamie L.; Pierson, Ronald K.; Davidson, Richard J.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2010-01-01

    Background The cerebellum is a brain region recognized primarily in the coordination of movement and related accessory motor functions. In addition, emerging evidence implicates the cerebellum in cognitive processes and suggests that this brain region may be subject to experience-dependent plastic changes in structure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of early environmental deprivation in the maturation of the cerebellum and aspects of cognitive development. Methods Structural MRI volumes of 12 cerebellar sub-regions from 31 previously-neglected and 30 typically developing children were compared to subjects’ corresponding neuropsychological test scores. Results Neglected children had smaller volume of the superior-posterior cerebellar lobes. Moreover, superior-posterior lobe volume was found to mediate neuropsychological test performance differences between groups, with larger volumes yielding better outcomes on tests of memory and planning. Conclusions These data support the importance of experience-dependent plastic changes in cerebellar structure and highlight the role of the cerebellum in higher cognitive functions. PMID:19660739

  19. Correlation functions of higher-dimensional Luttinger liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartosch, Lorenz; Kopietz, Peter

    1999-02-01

    Using higher-dimensional bosonization we study correlation functions of fermions with singular forward scattering. Following Bares and Wen [Phys. Rev. B 48, 8636 (1993)] we consider density-density interactions in d dimensions that diverge in Fourier space for small momentum transfers \\|q\\| as \\|q\\|-? with ?=2(d-1). In this case the single-particle Green's function shows Luttinger-liquid behavior. However, in contrast to d=1, in higher dimensions the singularity of the momentum distribution nk for wave vectors k close to the Fermi wave vector kF is characterized by a different exponent than the singularity of the density of states ?(?) for frequencies ? close to zero. We also calculate the irreducible polarization ?*(q,?) for \\|q\\|~2kF. Whereas in the one-dimensional Tomonaga-Luttinger model ?*(+/-2kF+q,?) exhibits anomalous scaling, we show that in d>1 the leading singular corrections cancel. Thus, even though singular density-density interactions in d>1 lead to Luttinger liquid behavior of the single-particle Green's function, gauge invariant correlation functions such as the polarization or the conductivity show conventional Fermi-liquid behavior. We discuss consequences for the effect of disorder on higher-dimensional Luttinger liquids.

  20. The association between dairy product consumption and cognitive function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Park, Keigan M; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2013-03-28

    The present cross-sectional study sought to determine the potential relationships between the intake of dairy foods (total dairy products, milk and cheese) and cognitive function through information garnered in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1988-94 and 1999-2002). Cognitive measures of vasomotor speed, coding speed and immediate memory recall were assessed from a simple reaction time task (SRTT), symbol-digit substitution test (SDST) and serial digit learning task, respectively, in adults 20-59 years of age. A summation of the percentile rank scores on each of the three tests provided a measure of overall cognitive function. In adults 60 years of age and above, a story recall test and a digit-symbol substitution test (DSST) were utilised to determine cognitive function in an elderly population. The results indicated that cognitive scores for the SRTT were not different between consumers and non-consumers of dairy foods. However, there were associations observed between 20- and 59-year-old consumers of total dairy foods and a higher SDST percentile score (53.2 (SE 1.3) to 49.4 (SE 2.0)) and a calculated global cognitive percentile score (53.3 (SE 1.1) to 50.2 (SE 1.4)) compared with non-consumers. A similar significant association was observed with cheese consumers. In adults over 60 years of age, an association between total dairy product consumption and higher DSST percentile scores (51.5 (SE 1.9) to 46.2 (se 3.0)) was also observed. These findings highlight the need for additional research on how dairy products may affect cognition and by what mechanisms, through its nutrients or other components. PMID:23168329

  1. Mild Cognitive Impairment is Associated with Selected Functional Markers: Integrating Concurrent, Longitudinal, and Stability Effects

    PubMed Central

    Dolcos, Sanda; MacDonald, Stuart W.S.; Braslavsky, Anna; Camicioli, Richard; Dixon, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined functional performance on multiple indicators for two cognitive status groups: (a) not impaired controls (NIC) and (b) mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We identified functional markers associated with differences, changes, and stability in cognitive status. Method In the Victoria Longitudinal Study (VLS) we examined cognitive status group effects in (a) cross-sectional functional performance, (b) longitudinal stability, (c) longitudinal functional performance change, and (d) functional marker prediction of later cognitive status. We assembled markers from five continuous clusters of MCI-related functional factors: biological vitality, activity lifestyle, psychosocial affect, subjective health, and global cognition. We used a cross-sectional sample and a two-wave longitudinal sample, stratified by age (mid-old, old-old) and cognitive status (MCI, NIC). Results First, cross-sectional results showed that eight markers differentiated MCI and NIC adults, with the latter performing uniformly better. The groups differed on diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, positive and negative affect, MMSE, and the lifestyle indicators of self-maintenance, travel, and novel cognitive activities. Second, Wave1 to Wave2 stabilities in cognitive status classification were high. Third, several markers differentiated the stable (NIC-to-NIC, MCI-to-MCI) from the unstable (NIC-to-MCI, MCI-to-NIC) cognitive status groups. Fourth, five relevant markers for identifying older adults at risk for cognitive status changes were: diastolic blood pressure, self-maintenance activities, novel cognitive activities, positive affect, and global cognitive status. Conclusion Selected risk and protective factors differentiate persons classified with MCI from those not currently cognitively impaired, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. PMID:22251311

  2. Cognitive function following treadmill exercise in thermal protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Morley, Julia; Beauchamp, Gillian; Suyama, Joe; Guyette, Francis X; Reis, Steven E; Callaway, Clifton W; Hostler, David

    2012-05-01

    Occupational injuries are common among firefighters who perform strenuous physical exertion in extreme heat. The thermal protective clothing (TPC) worn by firefighters inhibits normal thermoregulation, placing the firefighter at risk of hypohydration and hyperthermia that may result in cognitive decline. We tested whether cognitive function changes after treadmill exercise in TPC. In an initial study (Cog 1), ten healthy volunteers performed up to 50 min of treadmill exercise while wearing TPC in a heated room. A battery of neurocognitive tests evaluating short-term memory, sustained and divided attention, and reaction time was administered immediately before and after exercise. In a follow-up study (Cog 2), 19 healthy volunteers performed a similar exercise protocol with the battery of cognitive tests administered pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, and serially up to 120 min after exercise. Subjects performed 46.4 ± 4.6 and 48.1 ± 3.6 min of exercise in the Cog 1 and Cog 2, respectively. In both studies heart rate approached age predicted maximum, body mass was reduced 1.0-1.5 kg, and body core temperature increased to levels similar to what is seen after fire suppression. Neurocognitive test scores did not change immediately after exercise. Recall on a memory test was reduced 60 and 120 min after exercise. The mean of the 10 slowest reaction times increased in the 120 min after exercise. Fifty minutes of treadmill exercise in TPC resulted in near maximal physiologic strain but alterations in neurocognitive performance were not noted until an hour or more following exercise in TPC. PMID:21892644

  3. Failing to get the gist of what's being said: background noise impairs higher-order cognitive processing

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, John E.; Ljung, Robert; Nöstl, Anatole; Threadgold, Emma; Campbell, Tom A.

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic interplay is known to exist between auditory processing and human cognition. For example, prior investigations of speech-in-noise have revealed there is more to learning than just listening: Even if all words within a spoken list are correctly heard in noise, later memory for those words is typically impoverished. These investigations supported a view that there is a “gap” between the intelligibility of speech and memory for that speech. Here, the notion was that this gap between speech intelligibility and memorability is a function of the extent to which the spoken message seizes limited immediate memory resources (e.g., Kjellberg et al., 2008). Accordingly, the more difficult the processing of the spoken message, the less resources are available for elaboration, storage, and recall of that spoken material. However, it was not previously known how increasing that difficulty affected the memory processing of semantically rich spoken material. This investigation showed that noise impairs higher levels of cognitive analysis. A variant of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure that encourages semantic elaborative processes was deployed. On each trial, participants listened to a 36-item list comprising 12 words blocked by each of 3 different themes. Each of those 12 words (e.g., bed, tired, snore…) was associated with a “critical” lure theme word that was not presented (e.g., sleep). Word lists were either presented without noise or at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5 decibels upon an A-weighting. Noise reduced false recall of the critical words, and decreased the semantic clustering of recall. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:26052289

  4. Failing to get the gist of what's being said: background noise impairs higher-order cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Marsh, John E; Ljung, Robert; Nöstl, Anatole; Threadgold, Emma; Campbell, Tom A

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic interplay is known to exist between auditory processing and human cognition. For example, prior investigations of speech-in-noise have revealed there is more to learning than just listening: Even if all words within a spoken list are correctly heard in noise, later memory for those words is typically impoverished. These investigations supported a view that there is a "gap" between the intelligibility of speech and memory for that speech. Here, the notion was that this gap between speech intelligibility and memorability is a function of the extent to which the spoken message seizes limited immediate memory resources (e.g., Kjellberg et al., 2008). Accordingly, the more difficult the processing of the spoken message, the less resources are available for elaboration, storage, and recall of that spoken material. However, it was not previously known how increasing that difficulty affected the memory processing of semantically rich spoken material. This investigation showed that noise impairs higher levels of cognitive analysis. A variant of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure that encourages semantic elaborative processes was deployed. On each trial, participants listened to a 36-item list comprising 12 words blocked by each of 3 different themes. Each of those 12 words (e.g., bed, tired, snore…) was associated with a "critical" lure theme word that was not presented (e.g., sleep). Word lists were either presented without noise or at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5 decibels upon an A-weighting. Noise reduced false recall of the critical words, and decreased the semantic clustering of recall. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:26052289

  5. An Investigation of the Higher-Order Symbolic Factors of Cognition and Convergent Production within the Structure of Intellect Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachelor, Patricia A.; Bachelor, Barry G.

    1989-01-01

    The existence of higher-order factors within the cognition and convergent production operations and product dimensions of the structure-of-intellect model of J. P. Guilford was investigated. Data from 240 aviation officer candidates and Naval air cadets were reanalyzed via maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analysis, using the LISREL program.…

  6. Cooperative Weblog Learning in Higher Education: Its Facilitating Effects on Social Interaction, Time Lag, and Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tien-Chi; Huang, Yueh-Min; Yu, Fu-Yun

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of using weblog technologies to support cooperative learning in higher education. The study focused on the effects of features embedded in weblogs on social interactions, time lags, and cognitive loads. A quasi-experimental control-group research design was adopted. The participants were 115 undergraduates who were…

  7. Examining the dynamic, bidirectional associations between cognitive and physical functioning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Krall, Jenna R; Carlson, Michelle C; Fried, Linda P; Xue, Qian-Li

    2014-10-15

    The delineation of the interrelationships between cognitive and physical functioning in older adults is critical to determining pathways to disability. By using longitudinal data from 395 initially high-functioning, community-dwelling older women in Baltimore, Maryland, from the Women's Health and Aging Study II (from 1994 to 2006), we simultaneously assessed associations of cognition with later physical functioning and associations of physical functioning with later cognition. The analysis included measures of global cognition and 2 cognitive domains (executive functioning and memory), as well as 2 measures of physical functioning (a Short Physical Performance Battery and a 4-meter test of usual walking speed). We found the strongest bidirectional associations of memory with physical functioning and less evidence of associations of physical functioning with executive functioning and global cognition. For a 1-standard deviation increase in walking speed, subsequent memory increased by 0.08 standard deviations (95% confidence interval: (0.03, 0.13)). For a 1-standard deviation increase in memory, subsequent walking speed increased by 0.07 standard deviations (95% confidence interval: 0.03, 0.10). Associations were similar in magnitude for models using a Short Physical Performance Battery. We did not find evidence that associations between cognitive and physical functioning varied over time. Our results suggest that cognition, and particularly memory, is associated with subsequent physical functioning and vice versa. PMID:25205829

  8. Hippocampal-neocortical functional reorganization underlies children's cognitive development

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shaozheng; Cho, Soohyun; Chen, Tianwen; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Geary, David C.; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the hippocampal system for rapid learning and memory is well recognized, but its contributions to a cardinal feature of children's cognitive development – the transition from procedure-based to memory-based problem solving strategies – are unknown. Here we show that the hippocampal system is pivotal to this strategic transition. Longitudinal fMRI in children, ages 7 to 9, revealed that the transition from use of counting to memory-based retrieval parallels increased hippocampal and decreased prefrontal-parietal engagement during arithmetic problem solving. Critically, longitudinal improvements in retrieval strategy use were predicted by increased hippocampal-neocortical functional connectivity. Beyond childhood, retrieval strategy use continued to improve through adolescence into adulthood, and was associated with decreased activation but more stable inter-problem representations in the hippocampus. Our findings provide novel insights into the dynamic role of the hippocampus in the maturation of memory-based problem solving, and establish a critical link between hippocampal-neocortical reorganization and children's cognitive development. PMID:25129076

  9. The Effect of Solifenacin on Cognitive Function following Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Our aim was to investigate the effect of solifenacin (an anticholinergic) on cognitive function after stroke. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 66 stroke cases who were prescribed solifenacin for more than 2 months. A control group was generated matching the patients both for sex and age. The interval changes in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB) score after solifenacin administration were compared to those of the control group. Results The baseline MMSE score of the control group was 15.9 ± 9.2 and that of the solifenacin group was 14.3 ± 7.8. After using solifenacin for an average of 76.9 days, there was a change in the MMSE score of 1.9 ± 5.2. During similar periods, there was a change in the MMSE score of 2.9 ± 3.7 in the control group (not using solifenacin). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the CDR-SB score between the two groups. Conclusion Solifenacin treatment did not affect the short-term cognitive performance in stroke patients. This information might be useful when prescribing anticholinergics to stroke patients. PMID:23687509

  10. Nodakenin Enhances Cognitive Function and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qingtao; Jeon, Se Jin; Jung, Hyun Ah; Lee, Hyung Eun; Park, Se Jin; Lee, Younghwan; Lee, Younghwa; Ko, Sang Yoon; Kim, Boseong; Choi, Jae Sue; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2015-07-01

    In our previous study, we demonstrated that nodakenin, a coumarin compound isolated from Angelica decursiva, ameliorates learning and memory impairments induced by scopolamine. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nodakenin on the cognitive function in the normal naïve mice in a passive avoidance task, and the results showed that nodakenin significantly increased the latency time in normal naïve mice. In addition, sub-chronic administration of nodakenin increased the number of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region. The percentage of BrdU and NeuN (neuronal cell marker)-immunopositive cells was also significantly increased by the nodakenin administration. Western blotting results showed that the expression levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) were significantly increased in hippocampal tissue by sub-chronic nodakenin administration. These findings suggest that the sub-chronic administration of nodakenin enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the DG region via Akt-GSK-3? signaling and this increase may be associated with nodakenin's positive effect on cognitive processing. PMID:25998887

  11. Influence of social cognition on daily functioning in schizophrenia: study of incremental validity and mediational effects.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Domínguez, Sara; Penadés, Rafael; Segura, Bàrbara; González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Catalán, Rosa

    2015-02-28

    While the role of impaired neurocognition in accounting for functional outcome in schizophrenia is generally established, the influence of social cognition on this relationship is far from clear. This study aims to explore in depth the nature of the relationship between neurocognition, social cognition and daily functioning in people with schizophrenia. Twenty-one individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 15 controls completed the assessment of symptom severity, neuropsychological status, social cognition (Theory of Mind and affect processing) and other functional measures. A statistical mediation model based on hierarchical regression analyses was used to establish the mediation path with significant variables. Social cognition played a mediating role between neurocognition and functioning, accounting for significant trends in incremental variance in specific functional indexes (interpersonal behavior and employment/occupation). Consequently, this study adds to the evidence underlining the importance of targeting not only social cognitive or neurocognitive functions but to combine both interventions to reveal the best daily functioning results in schizophrenia patients. PMID:25563671

  12. Multiple Objective Fitness Functions for Cognitive Radio Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Newman, Timothy Ray

    2008-04-30

    This thesis explores genetic algorithm and rule-based optimization techniques used by cognitive radios to make operating parameter decisions. Cognitive radios take advantage of intelligent control methods by using sensed ...

  13. Executive Function and Gait in Older Adults With Cognitive Impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol C. Persad; Joshua L. Jones; James A. Ashton-Miller; Neil B. Alexander; Bruno Giordani

    2008-01-01

    Background. Cognitive impairment has been shown to predict falls risk in older adults. The ability to step accurately is necessary to safely traverse challenging terrain conditions such as uneven or slippery surfaces. However, it is unclear how well persons with cognitive impairment can step accurately to avoid such hazards and what specific aspects of cognition predict stepping ability in different

  14. Distinct Functions of Egr Gene Family Members in Cognitive Processes

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Roseline; Cheval, Hélène; Mailhes, Caroline; Garel, Sonia; Charnay, Patrick; Davis, Sabrina; Laroche, Serge

    2008-01-01

    The different gene members of the Egr family of transcriptional regulators have often been considered to have related functions in brain, based on their co-expression in many cell-types and structures, the relatively high homology of the translated proteins and their ability to bind to the same consensus DNA binding sequence. Recent research, however, suggest this might not be the case. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of the functional roles of the different Egr family members in learning and memory. We briefly outline evidence from mutant mice that Egr1 is required specifically for the consolidation of long-term memory, while Egr3 is primarily essential for short-term memory. We also review our own recent findings from newly generated forebrain-specific conditional Egr2 mutant mice, which revealed that Egr2, as opposed to Egr1 and Egr3, is dispensable for several forms of learning and memory and on the contrary can act as an inhibitory constraint for certain cognitive functions. The studies reviewed here highlight the fact that Egr family members may have different, and in certain circumstances antagonistic functions in the adult brain. PMID:18982106

  15. Teaching for Transfer of Core/Key Skills in Higher Education: Cognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billing, David

    2007-01-01

    This article is a result of a completed survey of the mainly cognitive science literature on the transferability of those skills which have been described variously as "core", "key", and "generic". The literature reveals that those predominantly cognitive skills which have been studied thoroughly (mainly problem solving) are transferable under…

  16. Confronting Social Injustice: Cognitive Dissonance and Civic Development in Higher Education Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Leslie Cohen

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative, insider account of student civic development in a university service-learning course has two primary goals. One is to propose frameworks for describing the process of civic development of service-learning students that are situated in theories of civic identity, cognitive development, and cognitive dissonance. The other is to…

  17. Understanding the Complexities of Cognition and Creativity to Reform Higher Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welkener, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the connections between the cognitive dimension of human meaning-making and creativity, using a metaphor from the artistic process of additive sculpture as a framework. The author weaves together various theoretical perspectives about cognition and creativity and shares the promise of recognizing the nexus of these notions…

  18. Brief Report: Feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Adults with High Functioning Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren M. Turner-Brown; Timothy D. Perry; Gabriel S. Dichter; James W. Bodfish; David L. Penn

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve\\u000a social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously\\u000a validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with HFA adults (SCIT-A). We then\\u000a conducted a pilot study to compare SCIT-A

  19. Neurophysiological Basis of Sleep's Function on Memory and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2013-01-01

    A wealth of recent studies support a function of sleep on memory and cognitive processing. At a physiological level, sleep supports memory in a number of ways including neural replay and enhanced plasticity in the context of reduced ongoing input. This paper presents behavioral evidence for sleep's role in selective remembering and forgetting of declarative memories, in generalization of these memories, and in motor skill consolidation. Recent physiological data reviewed suggests how these behavioral changes might be supported by sleep. Importantly, in reviewing these findings, an integrated view of how distinct sleep stages uniquely contribute to memory processing emerges. This model will be useful in developing future behavioral and physiological studies to test predictions that emerge. PMID:24600607

  20. Adolescent social isolation influences cognitive function in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Shao, Feng; Han, Xiao; Shao, Shuang; Wang, Weiwen

    2013-04-15

    Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment. Evidence from animal studies suggests that isolated rearing can exert negative effects on behavioral and brain development. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social isolation on latent inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the forebrain of adult rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into adolescent isolation (isolated housing, 38-51 days of age) and social groups. Latent inhibition was tested at adulthood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adolescent social isolation impaired latent inhibition and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of young adult rats. These data suggest that adolescent social isolation has a profound effect on cognitive function and neurotrophin levels in adult rats and may be used as an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:25206396

  1. Sex differences in TGFB-? signaling with respect to age of onset and cognitive functioning in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Frydecka, Dorota; Misiak, B?a?ej; Pawlak-Adamska, Edyta; Karabon, Lidia; Tomkiewicz, Anna; Sedlaczek, Pawe?; Kiejna, Andrzej; Besz?ej, Jan Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    There are studies showing that gene polymorphisms within the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) signaling constitute schizophrenia risk variants. However, the association between TGFB1 gene polymorphisms (+869T/C and +915G/C), TGF-? level with schizophrenia course, and its symptomatology together with cognitive functioning has not been investigated so far. We included 151 patients with schizophrenia and 279 healthy controls. Cognitive functioning was assessed using Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Trail Making Test (TMT)-A and TMT-B, Verbal Fluency task, Stroop test, as well as selected subtests from the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale – Revised, Polish adaptation (WAIS-R-Pl): Digit Symbol Coding, Digit Span Forward and Backward, and Similarities. Additionally, serum TGF-? levels were measured in 88 schizophrenia patients and 88 healthy controls. Serum TGF-? level was significantly higher among patients with schizophrenia in comparison with healthy controls; however, the studied polymorphisms were not associated with TGF-? level in schizophrenia patients. Subjects carrying the +869T allele performed significantly worse in comparison with +869CC homozygotes on Stroop task, Verbal Fluency task and Digit Symbol Coding task. There was a significant difference in age of psychosis onset in female schizophrenia patients with respect to the TGFB1 +869T/C polymorphism. Additionally, adjustment for possible confounders revealed that there was a significant difference in cognitive performance on Digit Symbol Coding task with respect to the TGFB1 +869T/C polymorphism among female schizophrenia patients. Our results suggest that TGF-? signaling might be a valid link contributing to observed differences in age of onset and the level of cognitive decline between male and female schizophrenia patients. PMID:25784812

  2. No association between gain in body mass index across the life course and midlife cognitive function and cognitive reserve—The 1946 British birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Emiliano; Hardy, Rebecca; Wills, Andrew; Kuh, Diana; Guralnik, Jack; Richards, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between lifelong body mass index (BMI) and cognitive function has not been comprehensively studied. Methods In more than 2000 men and women born in 1946, we tested associations between BMI gain at 15, 20, 26, 36, 43, and 53 years with respect to the previous measure (gain at age 15 years with respect to BMI at age 11 years), and semantic fluency (animal naming) and cognitive reserve (the National Adult Reading Test) at age 53 years, and verbal memory (word list recall) and speed/concentration (letter cancellation) at ages 43 and 53 years. Measures of BMI gain were adjusted in stages for childhood intelligence, education, socioeconomic position (SEP), lifestyle, and vascular risk factors. Results Independent of childhood intelligence, BMI gain between ages 26 and 36 years was associated with lower memory scores (? per SD increase in BMI in men = ?0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: ?0.19, ?0.02), verbal fluency (? in women = ?0.11; 95% CI: ?0.20, ?0.02), and lower National Adult Reading Test score (? in women = ?0.08; 95% CI: ?0.15, ?0.01), but not with speed/concentration (? in men = 0.02; 95% CI: ?0.11, 0.07). Associations were largely explained by educational attainment and SEP (P ? .10). However, BMI gain at 53 years in men was independently associated with better memory (? = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.22), and both underweight (? = ?1.54; 95% CI: ?2.52, ?0.57) and obese (? = ?0.30; 95% CI: ?2.52, ?0.57) women at 53 years had significantly lower memory scores. Conclusion The adverse effect of higher BMI gain on midlife cognitive function and cognitive reserve is independent of childhood intelligence but not of education and SEP. The independent association between greater BMI gain in midlife and better cognitive function deserves further investigation. PMID:22858531

  3. Direct and Mediated Effects of Cognitive Function with Multidimensional Outcome Measures in Schizophrenia: The Role of Functional Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jennifer S.; Moore, Raeanne C.; Davine, Taylor; Cardenas, Veronica; Bowie, Christopher R.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Mausbach, Brent T.

    2013-01-01

    Although cognitive ability is a known predictor of real-world functioning in schizophrenia, there has been an expanded interest in understanding the mechanisms by which it explains real-world functioning in this population. We examined the extent to which functional capacity (i.e., skills necessary to live independently) mediated the relationship between cognitive ability and both observer and self-reported real-world functioning in 138 outpatients with schizophrenia. Functional capacity significantly mediated the relations between cognitive ability and observer rated real world functioning, but not self-reported real world functioning, with small to medium effect sizes observed for all outcomes. The role of cognitive ability in observer vs. self-reported real-world functioning may be explained by different mechanisms. PMID:23984631

  4. Brain and cognitive evolution: Forms of modularity and functions of mind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Geary; Kelly J. Huffman

    2002-01-01

    Genetic and neurobiological research is reviewed as related to controversy over the extent to which neocortical organization and associated cognitive functions are genetically constrained or emerge through patterns of developmental experience. An evolutionary framework that accommodates genetic constraint and experiential modification of brain organization and cognitive function is then proposed. The authors argue that 4 forms of modularity and 3

  5. Cognitive Functioning and Social Competence as Predictors of Maladjustment in Sexually Abused Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Jeremy P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    To explain sexually abused children's various degrees of maladjustment, assessed behavior problems, social competence, and cognitive functioning in 53 black girls (5 to 16 years old). Internalizing dysfunction was positively related to three cognition-related variables: intellectual functioning, academic achievement, and age. Anxiety over the…

  6. Metabolic syndrome over 10 years and cognitive functioning in late mid life: The Whitehall II study

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Metabolic syndrome over 10 years and cognitive functioning in late mid life: The Whitehall II study Running Title: Metabolic syndrome and cognitive function Tasnime N. Akbaraly * a,b , PhD; Mika : 10.2337/dc09-1218 #12;2 ABSTRACT Objective: Evidence that the metabolic syndrome is a risk factor

  7. Church Attendance Mediates the Association Between Depressive Symptoms and Cognitive Functioning Among Older Mexican Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos A. Reyes-Ortiz; Ivonne M. Berges; Mukaila A. Raji; Harold G. Koenig; Yong-Fang Kuo; Kyriakos S. Markides

    2008-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to examine how the effect of depressive symptoms on cognitive function is modified by church attendance. Methods. We used a sample of 2759 older Mexican Americans. Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini- Mental State Examination (MMSE) at baseline, 2, 5, 7, and 11 years of follow-up. Church attendance was dichotomized as frequent

  8. How Do Cognitive Function and Knowledge Affect Heart Failure Self-Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Lee, Christopher S.; Riegel, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive patient education, few heart failure (HF) patients master self-care. Impaired cognitive function may explain why patient education is ineffective. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was used to explore how knowledge and cognitive function influence HF self-care. A total of 41 adults with HF participated in interviews…

  9. Insights from Cognitive Neuroscience: The Importance of Executive Function for Early Reading Development and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Kelly B.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Executive function begins to develop in infancy and involves an array of processes, such as attention, inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, which provide the means by which individuals control their own behavior, work toward goals, and manage complex cognitive processes. Thus, executive function plays a…

  10. Toward a more embedded/extended perspective on the cognitive function of gestures

    PubMed Central

    Pouw, Wim T. J. L.; de Nooijer, Jacqueline A.; van Gog, Tamara; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Paas, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Gestures are often considered to be demonstrative of the embodied nature of the mind (Hostetter and Alibali, 2008). In this article, we review current theories and research targeted at the intra-cognitive role of gestures. We ask the question how can gestures support internal cognitive processes of the gesturer? We suggest that extant theories are in a sense disembodied, because they focus solely on embodiment in terms of the sensorimotor neural precursors of gestures. As a result, current theories on the intra-cognitive role of gestures are lacking in explanatory scope to address how gestures-as-bodily-acts fulfill a cognitive function. On the basis of recent theoretical appeals that focus on the possibly embedded/extended cognitive role of gestures (Clark, 2013), we suggest that gestures are external physical tools of the cognitive system that replace and support otherwise solely internal cognitive processes. That is gestures provide the cognitive system with a stable external physical and visual presence that can provide means to think with. We show that there is a considerable amount of overlap between the way the human cognitive system has been found to use its environment, and how gestures are used during cognitive processes. Lastly, we provide several suggestions of how to investigate the embedded/extended perspective of the cognitive function of gestures. PMID:24795687

  11. On entanglement entropy functionals in higher derivative gravity theories

    E-print Network

    Arpan Bhattacharyya; Menika Sharma

    2014-10-08

    In arXiv:1310.5713 and arXiv:1310.6659 a formula was proposed as the entanglement entropy functional for a general higher-derivative theory of gravity, whose lagrangian consists of terms containing contractions of the Riemann tensor. In this paper, we carry out some tests of this proposal. First, we find the surface equation of motion for general four-derivative gravity theory by minimizing the holographic entanglement entropy functional resulting from this proposed formula. Then we calculate the surface equation for the same theory using the generalized gravitational entropy method of arXiv:1304.4926. We find that the two do not match in their entirety. We also construct the holographic entropy functional for quasi-topological gravity, which is a six-derivative gravity theory. We find that this functional gives the correct universal terms. However, as in the four-derivative case, the generalized gravitational entropy method applied to this theory does not give exactly the surface equation of motion coming from minimizing the entropy functional.

  12. Functional relations of empathy and mentalizing: an fMRI study on the neural basis of cognitive empathy.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Knut; Bluschke, Sarah; Konradt, Brigitte; Walter, Henrik

    2011-01-15

    This fMRI study was set up to explore how cognitive empathy, i.e. the cognitive inference on another person's affective state, can be characterized as a distinct brain function relating to pre-existing neurofunctional concepts about mentalizing and empathy. In a 3 Tesla MRI scanner 28 healthy participants were presented with four different instructions randomly combined with 32 false-belief cartoon stories of 3 subsequent pictures free of direct cues for affective states, like e.g. facial expressions. Participants were instructed to judge affective or visuospatial changes from their own (1st person perspective) or the protagonists' (3rd person perspective, 3rdpp) perspective. 3rdpp-judgements about affective states differed from visuospatial 3rdpp judgements by a significantly higher activation of the anterior mentalizing network (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, anterior superior temporal sulcus, temporal poles) and the limbic system (left amygdala and hippocampus). Analysis of main effects revealed that the anterior part of the mentalizing network was activated significantly stronger by affective compared to visuospatial content. In contrast, the temporoparietal junction was rather activated by 3rdpp visuospatial judgements. After all, our results demonstrate a functional dissociation between cognitive empathy and cognitive visuospatial perspective taking. The simultaneous activation of the cortical mentalizing network and the amygdala indicates that cognitive empathy actually involves reference to own affective states in the observer. Notably, the cognitive reference to own affective states activated the mentalizing network as well. Moreover our results support pre-existing ideas about a functional anterior-posterior subdivision of the mentalizing network, depending on affective content and 3rd person perspective of cognition. PMID:20728556

  13. The relationship between cholesterol and cognitive function is homocysteine-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yibin; Jin, Yinlong; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Su, Liqin; Yang, Lili; Ma, Feng; Hake, Ann M; Kettler, Carla; Chen, Chen; Liu, Jingyi; Bian, Jianchao; Li, Ping; Murrell, Jill R; Hendrie, Hugh C; Gao, Sujuan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have identified hyperlipidemia as a potential risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. However, studies on cholesterol measured in late-life and cognitive function have been inconsistent. Few studies have explored nonlinear relationships or considered interactions with other biomarker measures. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 1,889 participants from four rural counties in the People’s Republic of China was included in this analysis. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and homocysteine levels were measured in fasting blood samples. A composite cognitive score was derived based on nine standardized cognitive test scores. Analysis of covariance models were used to investigate the association between biomarker measures and the composite cognitive scores. Results There was a significant interaction between the homocysteine quartile group and the cholesterol quartile group on cognitive scores (P=0.0478). In participants with normal homocysteine levels, an inverse U-shaped relationship between total cholesterol level and cognitive score was found, indicating that both low and high cholesterol levels were associated with lower cognitive scores. In participants with high homocysteine levels, no significant association between cholesterol and cognition was found. Conclusion The relationship between cholesterol levels and cognitive function depends upon homocysteine levels, suggesting an interactive role between cholesterol and homocysteine on cognitive function in the elderly population. Additional research is required to confirm our findings in other populations, and to explore potential mechanisms underlying the lipid–homocysteine interaction. PMID:25364240

  14. Multimodal MRI and cognitive function in patients with breast cancer prior to adjuvant treatment — The role of fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Menning, Sanne; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Veltman, Dick J.; Koppelmans, V.; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Boogerd, Willem; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schagen, Sanne B.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing body of literature indicates that chemotherapy (ChT) for breast cancer (BC) is associated with adverse effects on the brain. Recent research suggests that cognitive and brain function in patients with BC may already be compromised before the start of chemotherapy. This is the first study combining neuropsychological testing, patient-reported outcomes, and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine pretreatment cognition and various aspects of brain function and structure in a large sample. Thirty-two patients with BC scheduled to receive ChT (pre-ChT+), 33 patients with BC not indicated to undergo ChT (pre-ChT?), and 38 no-cancer controls (NCs) were included. The examination consisted of a neuropsychological test battery, self-reported aspects of psychosocial functioning, and multimodal MRI. Patients with BC reported worse scores on several aspects of quality of life, such as higher levels of fatigue and stress. However, cortisol levels were not elevated in the patient groups compared to the control group. Overall cognitive performance was lower in the pre-ChT+ and the pre-ChT? groups compared to NC. Further, patients demonstrated prefrontal hyperactivation with increasing task difficulty on a planning task compared to NC, but not during a memory task. White matter integrity was lower in both patient groups. No differences in regional brain volume and brain metabolites were found. The cognitive and imaging data converged to show that symptoms of fatigue were associated with the observed abnormalities; the observed differences were no longer significant when fatigue was accounted for. This study suggests that cancer-related psychological or biological processes may adversely impact cognitive functioning and associated aspects of brain structure and function before the start of adjuvant treatment. Our findings stress the importance to further explore the processes underlying the expression of fatigue and to study whether it has a contributory role in subsequent treatment-related cognitive decline. PMID:25844311

  15. A Large, Cross-Sectional Observational Study of Serum BDNF, Cognitive Function, and Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Anan, Yuya; Uemura, Kazuki; Lee, Sangyoon; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The clinical relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cognitive function or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is not well-understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between serum BDNF and cognitive function and MCI, and determine whether serum BDNF level might be a useful biomarker for assessing risk for MCI in older people. Materials and Methods: A total of 4463 individuals aged 65?years or older (mean age 72?years) participating in the study. We measured performance in a battery of neuropsychological and cognitive function tests; serum BDNF concentration. Results: Eight hundred twenty-seven participants (18.8%) had MCI. After adjustment for sex, age, education level, diabetes, and current smoking, serum BDNF was associated with poorer performance in the story memory, and digit symbol substitution task scores. Serum BDNF was marginally associated with the presence of MCI (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.41, 1.00–1.99) when BDNF was 1.5 SD lower than the mean value standardized for sex and age, education level, diabetes, and current smoking. Conclusion: Low serum BDNF was associated with lower cognitive test scores and MCI. Future prospective studies should establish the discriminative value of serum BDNF for the risk of MCI. PMID:24782766

  16. Substance use and mental health characteristics associated with cognitive functioning among adults who use methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Herbeck, Diane M; Brecht, Mary-Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This study describes cognitive functioning and its relation to psychiatric and substance use severity among adults with long duration methamphetamine use. Study participants (N = 405) completed a battery of tests from the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics that examined cognitive accuracy, processing speed, and efficiency. Multivariate analyses indicate that lower accuracy but faster speed on learning, spatial memory and delayed memory were correlated with more days of past-month methamphetamine use. Lifetime months of methamphetamine use was not related to cognitive functioning. Poorer cognitive efficiency was related to other problems, including crack/cocaine use, symptoms of depression, and poorer emotional state. PMID:23480244

  17. A quantitative review of cognitive functioning in homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Depp, Colin A; Vella, Lea; Orff, Henry J; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2015-02-01

    Homeless people experience elevated rates of risk factors for cognitive impairment. We reviewed available peer-reviewed studies reporting data from objective measures of cognition in samples identified as homeless. Pooled sample-weighted estimates of global cognitive screening measures, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ), and premorbid IQ were calculated, in addition to pooled sample characteristics, to understand the representativeness of available studies. A total of 24 unique studies were identified, with 2969 subjects. The pooled estimate for the frequency of cognitive impairment was 25%, and the mean full-scale IQ score was 85, 1 standard deviation below the mean of the normal population. Cognitive impairment was found to be common among homeless adults and may be a transdiagnostic problem that impedes rehabilitative efforts in this population. Comparatively little data are available about cognition in homeless women and unsheltered persons. PMID:25594792

  18. The impact of sleep quality on cognitive functioning in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Stavitsky, Karina; Neargarder, Sandy; Bogdanova, Yelena; McNamara, Patrick; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2012-01-01

    In healthy individuals and those with insomnia, poor sleep quality is associated with decrements in performance on tests of cognition, especially executive function. Sleep disturbances and cognitive deficits are both prevalent in Parkinson's disease (PD). Sleep problems occur in over 75% of patients, with sleep fragmentation and decreased sleep efficiency being the most common sleep complaints, but their relation to cognition is unknown. We examined the association between sleep quality and cognition in PD. In 35 non-demented individuals with PD and 18 normal control adults (NC), sleep was measured using 24-hr wrist actigraphy over 7 days. Cognitive domains tested included attention and executive function, memory and psychomotor function. In both groups, poor sleep was associated with worse performance on tests of attention/executive function but not memory or psychomotor function. In the PD group, attention/executive function was predicted by sleep efficiency, whereas memory and psychomotor function were not predicted by sleep quality. Psychomotor and memory function were predicted by motor symptom severity. This study is the first to demonstrate that sleep quality in PD is significantly correlated with cognition and that it differentially impacts attention and executive function, thereby furthering our understanding of the link between sleep and cognition. PMID:22152279

  19. Involuntary Cognitions in Everyday Life: Exploration of Type, Quality, Content, and Function

    PubMed Central

    Krans, Julie; de Bree, June; Moulds, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research into spontaneous or intrusive cognitions has typically focused on cognitions in one predefined domain, such as obsessional thoughts in OCD, intrusive memories in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, or involuntary autobiographical memories and daydreaming in everyday life. Such studies have resulted in a wealth of knowledge about these specific cognitions. However, by focusing on a predefined type of cognition, other subtypes of cognition that may co-occur can be missed. In this exploratory study, we aimed to assess involuntary cognitions in everyday life without a pre-determined focus on any specific subtype of cognition. Seventy unselected undergraduate student participants were administered a questionnaire that assessed the presence of any involuntary cognitions in the past month, their quality, type, content, and potential function. In addition, participants provided self-descriptions and completed measures of psychopathology. Content analyses showed that involuntary cognitions were common, predominantly visual in nature, emotional, often about social relationships, and often related to a hypothetical function of emotional processing. About two-thirds of the cognitions that participants reported were memories. Non-memories included daydreams, imaginary worst case scenarios, imaginary future events, hypothetical reconstructions, and ruminations. Memories and non-memories were strikingly similar in their subjective experience of content and emotionality. Negative (but not positive) self-descriptions were associated with negative involuntary cognitions and psychopathology, suggesting a link between involuntary cognitions and the self. Overall, the findings suggest that people experience a wide variety of subtypes of involuntary cognitions in everyday life. Moreover, the specific subtype of involuntary cognition appears to be less important than its valence or content, at least to the subjective experience of the individual. PMID:25698979

  20. Involuntary cognitions in everyday life: exploration of type, quality, content, and function.

    PubMed

    Krans, Julie; de Bree, June; Moulds, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research into spontaneous or intrusive cognitions has typically focused on cognitions in one predefined domain, such as obsessional thoughts in OCD, intrusive memories in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, or involuntary autobiographical memories and daydreaming in everyday life. Such studies have resulted in a wealth of knowledge about these specific cognitions. However, by focusing on a predefined type of cognition, other subtypes of cognition that may co-occur can be missed. In this exploratory study, we aimed to assess involuntary cognitions in everyday life without a pre-determined focus on any specific subtype of cognition. Seventy unselected undergraduate student participants were administered a questionnaire that assessed the presence of any involuntary cognitions in the past month, their quality, type, content, and potential function. In addition, participants provided self-descriptions and completed measures of psychopathology. Content analyses showed that involuntary cognitions were common, predominantly visual in nature, emotional, often about social relationships, and often related to a hypothetical function of emotional processing. About two-thirds of the cognitions that participants reported were memories. Non-memories included daydreams, imaginary worst case scenarios, imaginary future events, hypothetical reconstructions, and ruminations. Memories and non-memories were strikingly similar in their subjective experience of content and emotionality. Negative (but not positive) self-descriptions were associated with negative involuntary cognitions and psychopathology, suggesting a link between involuntary cognitions and the self. Overall, the findings suggest that people experience a wide variety of subtypes of involuntary cognitions in everyday life. Moreover, the specific subtype of involuntary cognition appears to be less important than its valence or content, at least to the subjective experience of the individual. PMID:25698979

  1. Higher-dimensional Wannier functions of multiparameter Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanke, Jan-Philipp; Freimuth, Frank; Blügel, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy

    2015-05-01

    When using Wannier functions to study the electronic structure of multiparameter Hamiltonians H(k ,? ) carrying a dependence on crystal momentum k and an additional periodic parameter ? , one usually constructs several sets of Wannier functions for a set of values of ? . We present the concept of higher-dimensional Wannier functions (HDWFs), which provide a minimal and accurate description of the electronic structure of multiparameter Hamiltonians based on a single set of HDWFs. The obstacle of nonorthogonality of Bloch functions at different ? is overcome by introducing an auxiliary real space, which is reciprocal to the parameter ? . We derive a generalized interpolation scheme and emphasize the essential conceptual and computational simplifications in using the formalism, for instance, in the evaluation of linear response coefficients. We further implement the necessary machinery to construct HDWFs from ab initio within the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method (FLAPW). We apply our implementation to accurately interpolate the Hamiltonian of a one-dimensional magnetic chain of Mn atoms in two important cases of ? : (i) the spin-spiral vector q and (ii) the direction of the ferromagnetic magnetization m ?. Using the generalized interpolation of the energy, we extract the corresponding values of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy, Heisenberg exchange constants, and spin stiffness, which compare very well with the values obtained from direct first principles calculations. For toy models we demonstrate that the method of HDWFs can also be used in applications such as the virtual crystal approximation, ferroelectric polarization, and spin torques.

  2. Cognitive function after radiotherapy for supratentorial low-grade glioma: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Laack, Nadia N. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Brown, Paul D. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)]. E-mail: brown.paul@mayo.edu; Ivnik, Robert J. [Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Furth, Alfred F. M.S. [Cancer Center Statistics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Ballman, Karla V. [Division of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Hammack, Julie E. [Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Arusell, Robert M. [Roger Maris Cancer Center, Fargo, ND (United States); Shaw, Edward G. [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Buckner, Jan C. [Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2005-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of cranial radiotherapy (RT) on cognitive function in patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Twenty adult patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma were treated with 50.4 Gy (10 patients) or 64.8 Gy (10 patients) localized RT. The patients then were evaluated with an extensive battery of psychometric tests at baseline (before RT) and at approximately 18-month intervals for as long as 5 years after completing RT. To allow patients to serve as their own controls, cognitive performance was evaluated as change in scores over time. All patients underwent at least two evaluations. Results: Baseline test scores were below average compared with age-specific norms. At the second evaluation, the groups' mean test scores were higher than their initial performances on all psychometric measures, although the improvement was not statistically significant. No changes in cognitive performance were seen during the evaluation period when test scores were analyzed by age, treatment, tumor location, tumor type, or extent of resection. Conclusions: Cognitive function was stable after RT in these patients evaluated prospectively during 3 years of follow-up. Slight improvements in some cognitive areas are consistent with practice effects attributable to increased familiarity with test procedures and content.

  3. Functional significance of complex fluctuations in brain activity: from resting state to cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Papo, David

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral studies have shown that human cognition is characterized by properties such as temporal scale invariance, heavy-tailed non-Gaussian distributions, and long-range correlations at long time scales, suggesting models of how (non observable) components of cognition interact. On the other hand, results from functional neuroimaging studies show that complex scaling and intermittency may be generic spatio-temporal properties of the brain at rest. Somehow surprisingly, though, hardly ever have the neural correlates of cognition been studied at time scales comparable to those at which cognition shows scaling properties. Here, we analyze the meanings of scaling properties and the significance of their task-related modulations for cognitive neuroscience. It is proposed that cognitive processes can be framed in terms of complex generic properties of brain activity at rest and, ultimately, of functional equations, limiting distributions, symmetries, and possibly universality classes characterizing them. PMID:24966818

  4. Cognitive functioning and psychiatric symptomatology in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Hilsabeck, Robin C; Hassanein, Tarek I; Carlson, Meghan D; Ziegler, Elizabeth A; Perry, William

    2003-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public-health-care problem, with over 170 million infected worldwide. Patients with chronic HCV infection often complain of various cognitive problems as well as symptoms of depression, anxiety, and fatigue. Relatively little is known, however, about the specific cognitive deficits that are common among HCV patients, and the influence of psychiatric symptomatology on cognitive functioning. In the current study of 21 chronically infected HCV patients, we assessed subjective cognitive dysfunction, depression, anxiety, and fatigue and compared these symptom areas to cognitive tests assessing visuoconstruction, learning, memory, visual attention, psychomotor speed, and mental flexibility. Results revealed that cognitive impairment ranged from 9% of patients on a visuoconstruction task to 38% of patients on a measure of complex attention, visual scanning and tracking, and psychomotor speed, and greater HCV disease severity as indicated by liver fibrosis was associated with greater cognitive dysfunction. Objective cognitive impairment was not related to subjective cognitive complaints or psychiatric symptomatology. These findings suggest that a significant portion of patients with chronic HCV experience cognitive difficulties that may interfere with activities of daily living and quality of life. Future research using cognitive measures with HCV-infected patients may assist researchers in identifying if there is a direct effect of HCV infection on the brain and which patients may be more likely to progress to cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:14632243

  5. Dysexecutive functioning in mild cognitive impairment: derailment in temporal gradients.

    PubMed

    Eppig, Joel; Wambach, Denene; Nieves, Christine; Price, Catherine C; Lamar, Melissa; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Giovannetti, Tania; Bettcher, Brianne M; Penney, Dana L; Swenson, Rod; Lippa, Carol; Kabasakalian, Anahid; Bondi, Mark W; Libon, David J

    2012-01-01

    Libon et al. (2010) provided evidence for three statistically determined clusters of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI): amnesic (aMCI), dysexecutive (dMCI), and mixed (mxMCI). The current study further examined dysexecutive impairment in MCI using the framework of Fuster's (1997) derailed temporal gradients, that is, declining performance on executive tests over time or test epoch. Temporal gradients were operationally defined by calculating the slope of aggregate letter fluency output across 15-s epochs and accuracy indices for initial, middle, and latter triads from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Mental Control subtest (Boston Revision). For letter fluency, slope was steeper for dMCI compared to aMCI and NC groups. Between-group Mental Control analyses for triad 1 revealed worse dMCI performance than NC participants. On triad 2, dMCI scored lower than aMCI and NCs; on triad 3, mxMCI performed worse versus NCs. Within-group Mental Control analyses yielded equal performance across all triads for aMCI and NC participants. mxMCI scored lower on triad 1 compared to triads 2 and 3. dMCI participants also performed worse on triad 1 compared to triads 2 and 3, but scored higher on triad 3 versus triad 2. These data suggest impaired temporal gradients may provide a useful heuristic for understanding dysexecutive impairment in MCI. PMID:22014116

  6. Dysexecutive Functioning in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Derailment in Temporal Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Eppig, Joel; Wambach, Denene; Nieves, Christine; Price, Catherine C.; Lamar, Melissa; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Giovannetti, Tania; Bettcher, Brianne M.; Penney, Dana L.; Swenson, Rod; Lippa, Carol; Kabasakalian, Anahid; Bondi, Mark W.; Libon, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Libon et al. (2010) provided evidence for three statistically determined clusters of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI): amnesic (aMCI), dysexecutive (dMCI), and mixed (mxMCI). The current study further examined dysexecutive impairment in MCI using the framework of Fuster's (1997) derailed temporal gradients, that is, declining performance on executive tests over time or test epoch. Temporal gradients were operationally defined by calculating the slope of aggregate letter fluency output across 15-s epochs and accuracy indices for initial, middle, and latter triads from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Mental Control subtest (Boston Revision). For letter fluency, slope was steeper for dMCI compared to aMCI and NC groups. Between-group Mental Control analyses for triad 1 revealed worse dMCI performance than NC participants. On triad 2, dMCI scored lower than aMCI and NCs; on triad 3, mxMCI performed worse versus NCs. Within-group Mental Control analyses yielded equal performance across all triads for aMCI and NC participants. mxMCI scored lower on triad 1 compared to triads 2 and 3. dMCI participants also performed worse on triad 1 compared to triads 2 and 3, but scored higher on triad 3 versus triad 2. These data suggest impaired temporal gradients may provide a useful heuristic for understanding dysexecutive impairment in MCI. PMID:22014116

  7. Association between myasthenia gravis and cognitive function: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhifeng; Yin, Junjie; Lu, Zhengqi; Hu, Xueqiang

    2015-01-01

    The course of myasthenia gravis (MG) is complicated by increased reports of cognitive defects in both human and animal models, which suggests potential central nervous system (CNS) damage. We conducted a systematic review of the relationships between MG and cognitive function. This systematic review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Major databases were searched to examine the neuropsychological studies of adults with MG. Weighted effect sizes were pooled by cognitive domain. Eight studies representing 300 subjects were included. Eight cognitive domain categories were identified: (i) Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), (ii) language, (iii) processing speed, (iv) verbal learning and memory, (v) visual learning and memory, (vi) attention span, (vii) response fluency, and (viii) motor performance. Nine (cognitive domain categories, MMSE, language, processing speed, verbal learning and memory (except for delayed recall memory), and motor performance) of 16 cognitive tasks revealed significant moderate effect sizes. Verbal logical-delayed memory, finger tapping with the preferred hand, and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test showed a greater magnitude relationship to cognitive function than did other specific cognitive domains. Verbal learning and memory seems to be the most significant affected according to cognitive domain categories. For MG, the ability of attention, response fluency, visual learning, and memory seems to be reserved. The MG patients seem to perform significantly worse than the non-MG controls in a range of cognitive domains. Our findings should be interpreted with caution because of the clinical and methodological heterogeneity of included studies. PMID:26019407

  8. Association between myasthenia gravis and cognitive function: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Zhifeng; Yin, Junjie; Lu, Zhengqi; Hu, Xueqiang

    2015-01-01

    The course of myasthenia gravis (MG) is complicated by increased reports of cognitive defects in both human and animal models, which suggests potential central nervous system (CNS) damage. We conducted a systematic review of the relationships between MG and cognitive function. This systematic review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Major databases were searched to examine the neuropsychological studies of adults with MG. Weighted effect sizes were pooled by cognitive domain. Eight studies representing 300 subjects were included. Eight cognitive domain categories were identified: (i) Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), (ii) language, (iii) processing speed, (iv) verbal learning and memory, (v) visual learning and memory, (vi) attention span, (vii) response fluency, and (viii) motor performance. Nine (cognitive domain categories, MMSE, language, processing speed, verbal learning and memory (except for delayed recall memory), and motor performance) of 16 cognitive tasks revealed significant moderate effect sizes. Verbal logical-delayed memory, finger tapping with the preferred hand, and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test showed a greater magnitude relationship to cognitive function than did other specific cognitive domains. Verbal learning and memory seems to be the most significant affected according to cognitive domain categories. For MG, the ability of attention, response fluency, visual learning, and memory seems to be reserved. The MG patients seem to perform significantly worse than the non-MG controls in a range of cognitive domains. Our findings should be interpreted with caution because of the clinical and methodological heterogeneity of included studies. PMID:26019407

  9. Design of cognitive engine for cognitive radio based on the rough sets and radial basis function neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yanchao; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Congbin; Lan, Zhongli

    2013-03-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) is an intelligent wireless communication system which can dynamically adjust the parameters to improve system performance depending on the environmental change and quality of service. The core technology for CR is the design of cognitive engine, which introduces reasoning and learning methods in the field of artificial intelligence, to achieve the perception, adaptation and learning capability. Considering the dynamical wireless environment and demands, this paper proposes a design of cognitive engine based on the rough sets (RS) and radial basis function neural network (RBF_NN). The method uses experienced knowledge and environment information processed by RS module to train the RBF_NN, and then the learning model is used to reconfigure communication parameters to allocate resources rationally and improve system performance. After training learning model, the performance is evaluated according to two benchmark functions. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the model and the proposed cognitive engine can effectively achieve the goal of learning and reconfiguration in cognitive radio.

  10. Preserving cognitive function for patients with overactive bladder: evidence for a differential effect with darifenacin

    PubMed Central

    Kay, G G; Ebinger, U

    2008-01-01

    Background: Antimuscarinic agents used in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) differ in their potential to impair cognitive function. It is hypothesised that low brain concentrations and relatively low selectivity for the M1 muscarinic receptor may reduce the potential for adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects with darifenacin, compared with other antimuscarinics, particularly oxybutynin. Methods: Cognitive function studies evaluating darifenacin, oxybutynin, tolterodine, solifenacin and/or trospium were identified from publications databases (Medline, Biosis and Embase) and congress abstracts. Preclinical studies and randomised controlled trials in adults were reviewed. Results: Five randomised, double-blind, multiple-dose studies of cognitive function were identified. Oxybutynin was consistently associated with cognitive deficit (four studies), whereas darifenacin did not impair cognition (three studies). These findings were supported by data from sleep/attention and EEG studies. Tolterodine data were limited to one small study with each formulation. For solifenacin and trospium, there were no human studies evaluating memory, the cognitive function most vulnerable to CNS anticholinergics. Conclusions: There is compelling evidence of cognitive impairment with oxybutynin, whereas darifenacin stands out by demonstrating no impairment of memory or other cognitive functions in three randomised, controlled trials. This may be attributed to the differences in physicochemical properties, efflux mechanisms and relative M1 muscarinic receptor sparing. The risk of CNS impairment is of particular concern for vulnerable populations such as the elderly (a substantial proportion of the OAB population), and CNS-compromised neurogenic bladder patients such as those with multiple sclerosis or Parkinson’s disease. PMID:18699842

  11. Decreased Functional Connectivity by Aging Is Associated with Cognitive Decline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiichi Onoda; Masaki Ishihara; Shuhei Yamaguchi

    Aging is related to cognitive decline, and it has been reported that aging disrupts some resting state brain networks. However, most studies have focused on the default mode network and ignored other resting state networks. In this study, we measured resting state activity using fMRI and explored whether cognitive decline with aging is related to disrupted resting state networks. Independent

  12. Decreased Functional Connectivity by Aging Is Associated with Cognitive Decline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiichi Onoda; Masaki Ishihara; Shuhei Yamaguchi

    2012-01-01

    Aging is related to cognitive decline, and it has been reported that aging disrupts some resting state brain networks. However, most studies have focused on the default mode network and ignored other resting state networks. In this study, we measured resting state activity using fMRI and explored whether cognitive decline with aging is related to disrupted resting state networks. Independent

  13. Sex-Role Orientation and Cognitive Functioning in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ronald L.; Bornhoeft, Doris M.

    1983-01-01

    Data concerning 24 male and 24 female subjects (ages three and five years) on measures of sex-role orientation and cognitive ability indicated significant sex differences on the Toy Preference Test. While the relationship between Toy Preference Test scores and cognitive measures was not found to be significant, expected age differences were…

  14. The Relationship between Nonverbal Cognitive Functions and Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Goverts, S. Theo; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and memory and attention when nonverbal, visually presented cognitive tests are used. Method: Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and IQ were measured in 30 participants with mild to severe hearing loss. Participants performed cognitive tests of pattern recognition memory,…

  15. Auditory verbal hallucinations and cognitive functioning in healthy individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirstin Daalman; Martine van Zandvoort; Florian Bootsman; Marco Boks; René Kahn; Iris Sommer

    2011-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a characteristic symptom in schizophrenia, and also occur in the general, non-clinical population. In schizophrenia patients, several specific cognitive deficits, such as in speech processing, working memory, source memory, attention, inhibition, episodic memory and self-monitoring have been associated with auditory verbal hallucinations. Such associations are interesting, as they may identify specific cognitive traits that constitute

  16. TITLE: Diffusion-tensor imaging in vascular cognitive impairment and mild cognitive impairment: relationship with executive functioning

    E-print Network

    Laidlaw, David

    -disciplinary consensus diagnosis including neurological exam, MRI, and neuropsychological testing. Normal controls of cognitive tests. DTI parameters [trace (Tr) and fractional anisotropy (FA)] were measured in regions) with performance on tests of executive function and psychomotor processing speed. Conclusions: Patients with VCI

  17. Can We Understand Why Cognitive Function Predicts Mortality? Results from the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallacher, John; Bayer, Anthony; Dunstan, Frank; Yarnell, John; Elwood, Peter; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2009-01-01

    The association between cognitive function and mortality is of increasing interest. We followed 1870 men aged 55-69 years at cognitive assessment for 16 years to establish associations with all case and cause specific mortality. Cognitive assessment included AH4, 4 choice reaction time (used as estimates of mid-life cognition) and the National…

  18. Social support, physical functioning, and cognitive functioning among older African American adults.

    PubMed

    Ayotte, Brian J; Allaire, Jason C; Whitfield, Keith E

    2013-03-01

    ABSTRACT Social support and functional ability are related to a number of outcomes in later life among African Americans, including cognitive performance. This study examined how providing and receiving social support was related to fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities among aging African American adults after accounting for functional limitations, age, education, sex, income, and self-reported health. Data from 602 African American adults (M?=?69.08, SD?=?9.74; 25% male) were analyzed using latent variable modeling. Fluid ability was a second-order factor indicated by measures that assessed verbal memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and inductive reasoning. Crystallized ability was a first-order factor indicated by three measures that assessed vocabulary (Shipley Verbal Meaning Test and parts A and B of the ETS Vocabulary Test). Results indicated that the receipt of social support was negatively related to both fluid and crystallized abilities, while the provision of support was positively related to fluid and crystallized ability. Follow-up tests found that the receipt of support was more strongly related to fluid ability than crystallized ability. There was no significant difference regarding the relationship of provision of support with fluid ability compared to crystallized ability. Results discuss the importance of considering the social context of older adults when examining cognitive ability. PMID:23458286

  19. Effects of Endurance Training Combined With Cognitive Remediation on Everyday Functioning, Symptoms, and Cognition in Multiepisode Schizophrenia Patients.

    PubMed

    Malchow, Berend; Keller, Katriona; Hasan, Alkomiet; Dörfler, Sebastian; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Hillmer-Vogel, Ursula; Honer, William G; Schulze, Thomas G; Niklas, Andree; Wobrock, Thomas; Schmitt, Andrea; Falkai, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Aerobic exercise has been shown to improve symptoms in multiepisode schizophrenia, including cognitive impairments, but results are inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of an enriched environment paradigm consisting of bicycle ergometer training and add-on computer-assisted cognitive remediation (CACR) training. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate such an enriched environment paradigm in multiepisode schizophrenia. Twenty-two multiepisode schizophrenia patients and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent 3 months of endurance training (30min, 3 times/wk); CACR training (30min, 2 times/wk) was added from week 6. Twenty-one additionally recruited schizophrenia patients played table soccer (known as "foosball" in the United States) over the same period and also received the same CACR training. At baseline and after 6 weeks and 3 months, we measured the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Social Adjustment Scale-II (SAS-II), schizophrenia symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), and cognitive domains (Verbal Learning Memory Test [VLMT], Wisconsin Card Sorting Test [WCST], and Trail Making Test). After 3 months, we observed a significant improvement in GAF and in SAS-II social/leisure activities and household functioning adaptation in the endurance training augmented with cognitive remediation, but not in the table soccer augmented with cognitive remediation group. The severity of negative symptoms and performance in the VLMT and WCST improved significantly in the schizophrenia endurance training augmented with cognitive remediation group from week 6 to the end of the 3-month training period. Future studies should investigate longer intervention periods to show whether endurance training induces stable improvements in everyday functioning. PMID:25782770

  20. Vitamin status and cognitive function in a long-term care population

    PubMed Central

    Paulionis, Lina; Kane, Sheri-Lynn; Meckling, Kelly A

    2005-01-01

    Background Ageing can be associated with poor dietary intake, reduced nutrient absorption, and less efficient utilization of nutrients. Loss of memory and related cognitive function are also common among older persons. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of inadequate vitamin status among long-term care patients and determine if an association exists between vitamin status and each of three variables; cognitive function, vitamin supplementation, and medications which alter gastric acid levels. Methods Seventy-five patients in a long-term care hospital in Guelph, Ontario were recruited to a cross-sectional study. 47 were female and the mean age was 80.7 (+/-11.5) years, ranging from 48 to 100 years. Blood was used to measure levels of vitamins B12 (cobalamin), B6 (pyridoxal-5'-phosphate/PLP), erythrocyte folate, vitamin B3 (niacin) and homocysteine (Hcy). The Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE) was administered to measure cognitive function. A list of medications and vitamin supplementation for each patient was provided by the pharmacy. Results The prevalence of low vitamin (B12, B6, erythrocyte folate, niacin) or high metabolite (homocysteine) levels among 75 patients were as follows: B12 <148 pmol/L in 5/75 (6.7%); B12 between 148 and 221 pmol/L in 26/75 (34.7%); B6 ?30 nmol/L in 4/75 (5.3%); erythrocyte folate <370 nmol/L in 1/75 (1.3%); niacin ratio ?1 in 20/75 (26.7%); homocysteine >13.3 ?mol/L in 31/75 (41.3%). There was no significant difference among residents grouped into marked (n = 44), mild (n = 14), or normal (n = 9) cognitive function when evaluating the effect of vitamin status. There were no significant differences in mean B12 and homocysteine levels between users and non-users of drug therapy (Losec, Zantac, or Axid). Compared to vitamin supplement non-users, supplemented residents had significantly higher mean B12 (p < 0.0001) and erythrocyte folate (p < 0.05) concentrations and significantly lower mean homocysteine (p < 0.01) levels; 229.1 versus 423.6 pmol/L for B12, 882.9 versus 1043.6 nmol/L for erythrocyte folate and 14.4 versus 12.0 ?mol/L for homocysteine. Conclusion Given the prevalence data on vitamin status in this sample population, the possible benefits of vitamin supplementation should be considered in clinical intervention studies using these populations of elderly. PMID:16351716

  1. Cognitive and symptom profiles in Asperger's syndrome and high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Tomonori; Tachimori, Hisateru; Osada, Hirokazu; Takeda, Toshinobu; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2007-02-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) and autistic disorder are two subtypes of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), but there has been considerable debate over whether AS and autistic disorder without mental retardation (IQ > or = 70), called high-functioning autism (HFA), are distinct conditions or not. The aim of the present paper was to clarify this issue through a comparison of cognitive function and autistic symptom profiles. Based on the DSM-IV and ICD-10 definitions of language acquisition, 36 age- and IQ-balanced subjects with AS (mean age, 12.8 years; mean full-scale IQ, 98.3) were compared with 37 subjects with HFA (mean age, 12.6 years; mean full-scale IQ, 94.6) on the Japanese version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale-Tokyo Version (CARS-TV). Compared with the HFA subjects, the AS subjects scored significantly higher on Verbal IQ, Vocabulary, and Comprehension, but scored significantly lower on Coding. Although the total CARS-TV score did not differ significantly between the two groups, AS subjects scored significantly lower (i.e. less abnormal) on Verbal communication and Non-verbal communication than did the HFA subjects. A history of normal language acquisition in early childhood could predict his/her better verbal ability in mid-childhood or later. Autistic cognitive characteristics shared by both AS and HFA subjects appear to support the validity of the current diagnostic classification of PDD. PMID:17239046

  2. Tai chi improves cognitive and physical function in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiao; Kanagawa, Katsuko; Sasaki, Junko; Ooki, Syuichi; Xu, Huali; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effect of Tai Chi on cognitive and physical function in the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] A randomized trial design was used. A total 150 subjects were enrolled and were divided into Tai Chi and control groups. Subjects in the Tai Chi group participated Tai Chi for 6 months, and subjects in the control group participated in other non-athletic activities. [Results] There were no differences between the groups in the one leg standing time with eyes open, left grip strength, or the Frontal Assessment Battery at bedside after 3 and 6 months of intervention. The Mini-Mental State Examination scores after 3 and 6 months were higher in the Tai Chi group than in the control group. The right grip strength after 3 months increased more in the Tai Chi group than in the control group. Both the 5-m high walking speed and 10-m normal walking speed were significantly lower after 3 and 6 months of Tai Chi practice. [Conclusion] These results suggest that regular Tai Chi practice may improve cognitive and physical function in the elderly. PMID:26157242

  3. Tai chi improves cognitive and physical function in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiao; Kanagawa, Katsuko; Sasaki, Junko; Ooki, Syuichi; Xu, Huali; Wang, Li

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effect of Tai Chi on cognitive and physical function in the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] A randomized trial design was used. A total 150 subjects were enrolled and were divided into Tai Chi and control groups. Subjects in the Tai Chi group participated Tai Chi for 6 months, and subjects in the control group participated in other non-athletic activities. [Results] There were no differences between the groups in the one leg standing time with eyes open, left grip strength, or the Frontal Assessment Battery at bedside after 3 and 6 months of intervention. The Mini-Mental State Examination scores after 3 and 6 months were higher in the Tai Chi group than in the control group. The right grip strength after 3 months increased more in the Tai Chi group than in the control group. Both the 5-m high walking speed and 10-m normal walking speed were significantly lower after 3 and 6 months of Tai Chi practice. [Conclusion] These results suggest that regular Tai Chi practice may improve cognitive and physical function in the elderly. PMID:26157242

  4. Neuroimaging and cognition using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic-Radic, Jelena; Wylie, Glenn; Voelbel, Gerald; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; DeLuca, John

    2015-06-01

    The present study utilized functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to detect neural activation differences in the orbitofrontal brain region between individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HCs) during a working memory (WM) task. Thirteen individuals with MS and 12 HCs underwent fNIRS recording while performing the n-back WM task with four levels of difficulty (0-, 1-, 2-, and 3-back). Subjects were fitted with the fNIRS cap consisting of 30 'optodes' positioned over the forehead. The results revealed different patterns of brain activation in MS and HCs. The MS group showed an increase in brain activation, as measured by the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb), in the left superior frontal gyrus (LSFG) at lower task difficulty levels (i.e. 1-back), followed by a decrease at higher task difficulty (2- and 3-back) as compared with the HC group. HC group achieved higher accuracy than the MS group on the lower task loads (i.e. 0- and 1-back), however there were no performance differences between the groups at the higher task loads (i.e. 2- and 3-back). Taken together, the results suggest that individuals with MS experience a task with the lower cognitive load as more difficult than the HC group, and the brain activation patterns observed during the task confirm some of the previous findings from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. This study is the first to investigate brain activation by utilizing the method of fNIRS in MS during the performance of a cognitive task. PMID:24916919

  5. Artificial gravity as a multi-system countermeasure: effects on cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Kimberly A; Slack, Kelley J; Sipes, Walter; Bowie, Kendra

    2007-07-01

    The Space Flight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is used on the International Space Station to evaluate cognitive functioning after physical insult or trauma. The current study uses WinSCAT to assess cognitive functioning in a space flight analog (bed rest) environment where intermittent artificial gravity (AG) is being tested as a countermeasure. Fifteen male subjects (8 treatment, 7 control), who participated in 21 days of 6 degree head-down tilt bed rest, were assessed during the acclimatization phase, bed rest phase, and recovery phase. Individual differences were found within both the treatment and control groups. The treatment group accounted for more off-nominal WinSCAT scores than the control group. The length of time spent in bed rest was not associated with a change in cognitive function. Individual differences in underlying cognitive ability and motivation level are other possible explanations for the current findings. PMID:18372688

  6. Impaired sociability and cognitive function in Nrcam-null mice.

    PubMed

    Moy, Sheryl S; Nonneman, Randal J; Young, Nancy B; Demyanenko, Galina P; Maness, Patricia F

    2009-12-14

    NRCAM (Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecule) has an important role in axonal guidance and the organization of neural circuitry during brain development. Association analyses in human populations have identified NRCAM as a candidate gene for autism susceptibility. In the present study, we evaluated Nrcam-null mice for sociability, social novelty preference, and reversal learning as a model for the social deficits, repetitive behavior, and cognitive rigidity characteristic of autism. Prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle responses was also measured, to reflect sensorimotor-gating deficits in autism spectrum disorders. Assays for anxiety-like behavior in an elevated plus maze and open field, motor coordination, and olfactory ability in a buried food test were conducted to provide control measures for the interpretation of results. Overall, the loss of Nrcam led to behavioral alterations in sociability, acquisition of a spatial task, and reversal learning, dependent on sex. In comparison to male wild type mice, male Nrcam-null mutants had significantly decreased sociability in a three-chambered choice task. Low sociability in the male null mutants was not associated with changes in anxiety-like behavior, activity, or motor coordination. Male, but not female, Nrcam-null mice had small decreases in prepulse inhibition. Nrcam deficiency in female mice led to impaired acquisition of spatial learning in the Morris water maze task. Reversal learning deficits were observed in both male and female Nrcam-null mice. These results provide evidence that NRCAM mediates domains of function relevant to symptoms observed in autism. PMID:19540269

  7. Assessment of cognitive functioning in men who batter.

    PubMed

    Teichner, G; Golden, C J; Van Hasselt, V B; Peterson, A

    2001-01-01

    The present investigation examined neuropsychological functioning in 50 male batterers court-ordered into treatment and 23 nonpatient controls. Subjects were administered a neuropsychological screening battery consisting of the Screening Test for the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery, the Stroop Color and Word Test, two memory subtests from the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-III (Figural Memory and Delayed Figural Memory), and two subtests from the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery (Trails A & B). Subjects were categorized as having neuropsychological dysfunction if their scores exceeded the statistical cut offs on two or more subtests. Results indicated that 24 (48%) of the male batterers exhibited cognitive dysfunction, as compared to only 1 (4.3%) of the nonpatient controls. Inspection of individual neuropsychological measures indicated poorer performance across all subtests for impaired male batterers as compared to both nonimpaired batterers and normal controls. In contrast, no significant differences on any of these measures emerged between nonimpaired male batterers and normal controls. Implications for the appropriate screening and treatment of male batterers are discussed. PMID:11912679

  8. Aberrant Function of Learning and Cognitive Control Networks Underlie Inefficient Cognitive Flexibility in Anorexia Nervosa: A Cross-Sectional fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Lao-Kaim, Nick P.; Fonville, Leon; Giampietro, Vincent P.; Williams, Steven C. R.; Simmons, Andrew; Tchanturia, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Objectives People with Anorexia Nervosa exhibit difficulties flexibly adjusting behaviour in response to environmental changes. This has previously been attributed to problematic behavioural shifting, characterised by a decrease in fronto-striatal activity. Additionally, alterations of instrumental learning, which relies on fronto-striatal networks, may contribute to the observation of inflexible behaviour. The authors sought to investigate the neural correlates of cognitive flexibility and learning in Anorexia Nervosa. Method Thirty-two adult females with Anorexia Nervosa and thirty-two age-matched female control participants completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task whilst undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Event-related analysis permitted the comparison of cognitive shift trials against those requiring maintenance of rule-sets and allowed assessment of trials representing learning. Results Although both groups performed similarly, we found significant interactions in the left middle frontal gyrus, precuneus and superior parietal lobule whereby blood-oxygenated-level dependent response was higher in Anorexia Nervosa patients during shifting but lower when maintaining rule-sets, as compared to healthy controls. During learning, posterior cingulate cortex activity in healthy controls decreased whilst increasing in the Anorexia Nervosa group, whereas the right precuneus exhibited the opposite pattern. Furthermore, learning was associated with lower blood-oxygenated-level dependent response in the caudate body, as compared to healthy controls. Conclusions People with Anorexia Nervosa display widespread changes in executive function. Whilst cognitive flexibility appears to be associated with aberrant functioning of the fronto-parietal control network that mediates between internally and externally directed cognition, fronto-striatal alterations, particularly within the caudate body, were associated with instrumental learning. Together, this shows how perseverative tendencies could be a substrate of multiple high-order processes that may contribute to the maintenance of Anorexia Nervosa. PMID:25970523

  9. Passive heat exposure induced by hot water leg immersion increased oxyhemoglobin in pre-frontal cortex to preserve oxygenation and did not contribute to impaired cognitive functioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijayanto, Titis; Toramoto, Sayo; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of passive heat exposure on pre-frontal cortex oxygenation and cognitive functioning, specifically to examine whether the change in pre-frontal cortex oxygenation coincided with cognitive functioning during heat exposure. Eleven male students who participated in this study immersed their lower legs to the knees in three different water temperatures, 38 °C, 40 °C, and 42 °C water in an air temperature of 28 º C and 50 % relative humidity for 60 min. After 45 min of leg immersion they performed cognitive functioning tasks assessing their short-term memory while immersing their lower legs. There were higher rectal temperature ( P < 0.05) and higher increase of oxyhemoglobin in both left ( P < 0.05) and right ( P < 0.05) pre-frontal cortex at the final stage of 45-min leg immersion in the 42 °C condition with unaltered tissue oxygenation index among the three conditions ( P > 0.05). No statistical difference in cognitive functioning among the three conditions was observed with a higher increase of oxyhemoglobin during the cognitive functioning in the 42 °C condition for the left ( P = 0.05) and right ( P < 0.05) pre-frontal cortex. The findings of this study suggest, first, passive heat exposure increases oxygen delivery in the pre-frontal cortex to maintain pre-frontal cortex oxygenation; second, there is no evidence of passive heat exposure in cognitive functioning in this study; and third, the greater increases of oxyhemoglobin in the pre-frontal cortex during cognitive functioning at the hottest condition suggests a recruitment of available neural resources or greater effort to maintain the same performance at the same level as when they felt thermally comfortable.

  10. A Multi-State Model of Cognitive Dynamics in Relation to Resistance Training: The Contribution of Baseline Function

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Nader; Hsu, Liang; Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Davis, Jennifer; Beattie, B Lynn; Graf, Peter; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated: 1) the effect of different targeted exercise training on an individual’s overall probability for cognitive improvement, maintenance, or decline; and 2) the simultaneous effect of targeted exercise training and baseline function on the dynamics of executive functions using a multi-state transition model. Methods Analyses are based on a 12-month randomized clinical trial including 155 community-dwelling women 65 to 75 years old who were randomly allocated to once-weekly resistance training (1x RT; n=54), twice-weekly resistance training (2x RT; n=52), or twice-weekly balance and tone training (BAT; n=49). The primary outcome measure was performance on the Stroop Test, an executive cognitive test of selective attention and conflict resolution. Secondary outcomes of executive functions were set shifting and working memory. Results Individuals in the 1x RT or 2x RT group demonstrated a significantly higher probability for improved performance on the Stroop Test (0.49; 95% CI=0.41 to 0.57) compared with those in the BAT group (0.25; 95% CI=0.25 to 0.40). Resistance training had significant effects on transitions in selective attention and conflict resolution. Conclusions Resistance training is efficacious in improving a measure of selective attention and conflict resolution in older women – probably more so among those with higher baseline cognitive function. PMID:23830936

  11. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA oxidative stress has been suggested as an important pathogenic mechanism in cognitive impairment and dementia. We, therefore, examined whether urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of global DNA oxidation, was associated with cognitive function in a sample of Puerto Rican adul...

  12. Cerebellar Volume and Cognitive Functioning in Children Who Experienced Early Deprivation

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    of the cerebellum have a significant role in cognition and learning (1­7). Still, relatively little is known aboutCerebellar Volume and Cognitive Functioning in Children Who Experienced Early Deprivation Patrick M: The cerebellum is a brain region recognized primarily in the coordination of movement and related accessory motor

  13. Relationships among Age, Exercise, Health, and Cognitive Function in a British Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Charles F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates the association of age, self-rated health, and walking activity with 4 measures of cognitive functioning in 6,979 randomly selected people ranging in age from 18 to 94. Assessments included a face-to-face interview regarding health and health beliefs as well as cognitive testing. Analyses indicated that faster reaction time speed was…

  14. Cognitive control for language switching in bilinguals: A quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gigi Luk; David W. Green; Jubin Abutalebi; Cheryl Grady

    2011-01-01

    In a quantitative meta-analysis, using the activation likelihood estimation method, we examined the neural regions involved in bilingual cognitive control, particularly when engaging in switching between languages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bilingual cognitive control model originally proposed as a qualitative analysis of functional neuroimaging studies. After reviewing 128 peer-reviewed articles, 10 neuroimaging studies met our

  15. Does Preinjury Alcohol Use or Blood Alcohol Level Influence Cognitive Functioning After Traumatic Brain Injury?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron P. Turner; Daniel R. Kivlahan; Carl T. Rimmele; Charles H. Bombardier

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relations among preinjury alcohol use patterns and admission blood alcohol level (BAL) and postinjury cognitive functioning among individuals with recent TBI. Design: Cohort survey with chart review and follow-up cognitive assessment. Setting: Acute inpatient rehabilitation program in a Level I trauma center. Participants: 124 consecutive initial admissions meeting inclusion criteria. Measures: Admission BAL, preinjury alcohol consumption,

  16. Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…

  17. Cognitive functioning of adults with Noonan syndrome: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wingbermühle, E; Roelofs, R L; van der Burgt, I; Souren, P M; Verhoeven, W M A; Kessels, R P C; Egger, J I M

    2012-10-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a genetic disorder characterised by short stature, facial dysmorphia, congenital heart defects and mildly lowered intellectual abilities. Research has mainly focused on genetic and somatic aspects, while intellectual and cognitive functioning has been documented scarcely. Also, to date studies have been primarily performed in children. This is the first study in which functioning within the major cognitive domains is systematically evaluated in a group of adults with NS and compared with a control group. Extensive neuropsychological assessment, including the domains intelligence, speed of information processing, memory (working memory, immediate recall and delayed recall), executive function and visuoconstruction, was performed in a sample of 42 patients with NS and 42 healthy controls, matched on age, sex and education level. In addition, subjective cognitive complaints were assessed with self-report questionnaires. On the domain speed of information processing patients performed worse than controls (P?cognitive domains showed between-group differences. On the questionnaires, patients reported substantially more complaints about their own cognitive abilities than controls (P?functioning in other cognitive domains characterises the cognitive profile of adult patients, in contrast to previous findings in children with NS, who seem to have more generalised cognitive deficits. PMID:22783933

  18. Cognitive, behavioral, and adaptive functioning in fragile X and non-fragile X retarded men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth Dykens; James Leckman; Rhea Paul; Michael Watson

    1988-01-01

    The cognitive, behavioral, and adaptive functioning of 12 men with fragile X syndrome (aged 23 to 62 years) was systematically assessed and compared to two matched groups of retarded men without fragile X syndrome residing at the same institution. The fragile X group was largely indistinguishable from the camparison groups on the cognitive, behavioral, and adaptive measures. Fragile X patients

  19. The Effects of Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure on Hispanic Children's Cognitive and Behavioral Functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Sanchez Lizardi; Mary Kay O'Rourke; Richard J. Morris

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the effects of Organophosphate (OP) pesticides exposure on the cognitive and behavioral functioning of Hispanic children living in an agricultural community. Methods Forty-eight children were administered a battery of cognitive measures, and their parents and teachers completed behavior rating scales. Children provided a urine sample for analysis of OP pesticides metabolites. Results All children had a

  20. Cognitive Functioning in Children With Sickle Cell Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Schatz; Robert L. Finke; Julie M. Kellett; Joel H. Kramer

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To establish whether sickle cell disease (SCD) affects cognitive functioning in children with no evidence of cerebral infarction. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of studies of cognition in SCD to determine the size of any statis- tical difference between children with SCD and controls. Methodological factors were evaluated according to the size and frequency of group differences. Results: There

  1. Cerebrovascular function and cognition in childhood: a systematic review of transcranial doppler studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The contribution of cerebrovascular function to cognitive performance is gaining increased attention. Transcranial doppler (TCD) is portable, reliable, inexpensive and extremely well tolerated by young and clinical samples. It enables measurement of blood flow velocity in major cerebral arteries at rest and during cognitive tasks. Methods We systematically reviewed evidence for associations between cognitive performance and cerebrovascular function in children (0-18 years), as measured using TCD. A total of 2778 articles were retrieved from PsychInfo, Pubmed, and EMBASE searches and 25 relevant articles were identified. Results Most studies investigated clinical groups, where decreased blood flow velocities in infants were associated with poor neurological functioning, and increased blood flow velocities in children with Sickle cell disease were typically associated with cognitive impairment and lower intelligence. Studies were also identified assessing autistic behaviour, mental retardation and sleep disordered breathing. In healthy children, the majority of studies reported cognitive processing produced lateralised changes in blood flow velocities however these physiological responses did not appear to correlate with behavioural cognitive performance. Conclusion Poor cognitive performance appears to be associated with decreased blood flow velocities in premature infants, and increased velocities in Sickle cell disease children using TCD methods. However knowledge in healthy samples is relatively limited. The technique is well tolerated by children, is portable and inexpensive. It therefore stands to make a valuable contribution to knowledge regarding the underlying functional biology of cognitive performance in childhood. PMID:24602446

  2. Performance of psychopaths on cognitive tasks related to frontal lobe function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Hare

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of their performance on several cognitive tasks, including the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Necker Cube, and a sequential matching memory task (SMMT), E. E. Gorenstein concluded that psychopaths have specific deficits in cognitive processes associated with frontal-lobe functioning. However, it is argued that his diagnostic procedures were inadequate and his results confounded by group differences

  3. Structural and functional brain development and its relation to cognitive development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Casey; Jay N. Giedd; Kathleen M. Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Despite significant gains in the fields of pediatric neuroimaging and developmental neurobiology, surprisingly little is known about the developing human brain or the neural bases of cognitive development. This paper addresses MRI studies of structural and functional changes in the developing human brain and their relation to changes in cognitive processes over the first few decades of human life. Based

  4. CAFFEINE, COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING AND WHITE MATTER LESIONS IN THE ELDERLY: ESTABLISHING CAUSALITY FROM EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ritchie 1 CAFFEINE, COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING AND WHITE MATTER LESIONS IN THE ELDERLY: ESTABLISHING of interest. Running title : caffeine and white matter lesions inserm-00457699,version1-19Feb2010 Author for a causal relationship between caffeine consumption and cognitive deterioration in the elderly. Methods

  5. Anatomical Correlates of Cognitive Functions in Early Parkinson's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Biundo, Roberta; Calabrese, Massimiliano; Weis, Luca; Facchini, Silvia; Ricchieri, Gianluigi; Gallo, Paolo; Antonini, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive deficits may occur early in Parkinson's disease (PD) but the extent of cortical involvement associated with cognitive dysfunction needs additional investigations. The aim of our study is to identify the anatomical pattern of cortical thickness alterations in patients with early stage PD and its relationship with cognitive disability. Methods We recruited 29 PD patients and 21 healthy controls. All PD patients performed an extensive neuropsychological examination and 14 were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI). Surface-based cortical thickness analysis was applied to investigate the topographical distribution of cortical and subcortical alterations in early PD compared with controls and to assess the relationship between cognition and regional cortical changes in PD-MCI. Results Overall PD patients showed focal cortical (occipital-parietal areas, orbito-frontal and olfactory areas) and subcortical thinning when compared with controls. PD-MCI showed a wide spectrum of cognitive deficits and related significant regional thickening in the right parietal-frontal as well as in the left temporal-occipital areas. Conclusion Our results confirm the presence of changes in grey matter thickness at relatively early PD stage and support previous studies showing thinning and atrophy in the neocortex and subcortical regions. Relative cortical thickening in PD-MCI may instead express compensatory neuroplasticity. Brain reserve mechanisms might first modulate cognitive decline during the initial stages of PD. PMID:23717572

  6. Impairment of cognitive functioning during Sunitinib or Sorafenib treatment in cancer patients: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Impairment of cognitive functioning has been reported in several studies in patients treated with chemotherapy. So far, no studies have been published on the effects of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors on cognitive functioning. We investigated the objective and subjective cognitive function of patients during treatment with VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR TKI). Methods Three groups of participants, matched on age, sex and education, were enrolled; 1. metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) or GIST patients treated with sunitinib or sorafenib (VEGFR TKI patients n?=?30); 2. patients with mRCC not receiving systemic treatment (patient controls n?=?20); 3. healthy controls (n?=?30). Sixteen neuropsychological tests examining the main cognitive domains (intelligence, memory, attention and concentration, executive functions and abstract reasoning) were administered by a neuropsychologist. Four questionnaires were used to assess subjective cognitive complaints, mood, fatigue and psychological wellbeing. Results No significant differences in mean age, sex distribution, education level or IQ were found between the three groups. Both patient groups performed significantly worse on the cognitive domains Learning & Memory and Executive Functions (Response Generation and Problem Solving) compared to healthy controls. However only the VEGFR TKI patients showed impairments on the Executive subdomain Response Generation. Effect sizes of cognitive dysfunction in patients using VEGFR TKI were larger on the domains Learning & Memory and Executive Functions, compared to patient controls. Both patients groups performed on the domain Attention & Concentration the same as the healthy controls. Longer duration of treatment on VEGFR TKI was associated with a worse score on Working Memory tasks. Conclusions Our data suggest that treatment with VEGFR TKI has a negative impact on cognitive functioning, specifically on Learning & Memory, and Executive Functioning. We propose that patients who are treated with VEGFR TKI are monitored and informed for possible signs or symptoms associated with cognitive impairment. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01246843. PMID:24661373

  7. Research on the Training of Higher Cognitive Learning and Thinking Skills. Final Report. Report No. 5560.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, R. S.

    The technical reports summarized in this paper were prepared as part of a project designed to determine what is known about the teaching of cognitive skills and to formulate questions relating to such teaching for further research. Topics discussed in the 22 reports include the following: (1) teaching thinking; (2) Aristotle's logic; (3) a…

  8. Virtual reality social cognition training for young adults with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Kandalaft, Michelle R; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C; Allen, Tandra T; Chapman, Sandra B

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition, and social functioning. Eight young adults diagnosed with high-functioning autism completed 10 sessions across 5 weeks. Significant increases on social cognitive measures of theory of mind and emotion recognition, as well as in real life social and occupational functioning were found post-training. These findings suggest that the virtual reality platform is a promising tool for improving social skills, cognition, and functioning in autism. PMID:22570145

  9. Functional architecture of higher plant photosystem II supercomplexes

    PubMed Central

    Caffarri, Stefano; Kou?il, Roman; Kereïche, Sami; Boekema, Egbert J; Croce, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it to homogeneity. In this work, homogeneous preparations ranging from a newly identified particle composed by a monomeric core and antenna proteins to the largest C2S2M2 supercomplex were isolated. Characterization by biochemical methods and single particle electron microscopy allowed to relate for the first time the supramolecular organization to the protein content. A projection map of C2S2M2 at 12 Å resolution was obtained, which allowed determining the location and the orientation of the antenna proteins. Comparison of the supercomplexes obtained from WT and Lhcb-deficient plants reveals the importance of the individual subunits for the supramolecular organization. The functional implications of these findings are discussed and allow redefining previous suggestions on PSII energy transfer, assembly, photoinhibition, state transition and non-photochemical quenching. PMID:19696744

  10. Higher Dimensional Coulomb Gases and Renormalized Energy Functionals

    E-print Network

    N. Rougerie; S. Serfaty

    2015-01-23

    We consider a classical system of n charged particles in an external confining potential, in any dimension d larger than 2. The particles interact via pairwise repulsive Coulomb forces and the coupling parameter scales like the inverse of n (mean-field scaling). By a suitable splitting of the Hamiltonian, we extract the next to leading order term in the ground state energy, beyond the mean-field limit. We show that this next order term, which characterizes the fluctuations of the system, is governed by a new "renormalized energy" functional providing a way to compute the total Coulomb energy of a jellium (i.e. an infinite set of point charges screened by a uniform neutralizing background), in any dimension. The renormalization that cuts out the infinite part of the energy is achieved by smearing out the point charges at a small scale, as in Onsager's lemma. We obtain consequences for the statistical mechanics of the Coulomb gas: next to leading order asymptotic expansion of the free energy or partition function, characterizations of the Gibbs measures, estimates on the local charge fluctuations and factorization estimates for reduced densities. This extends results of Sandier and Serfaty to dimension higher than two by an alternative approach.

  11. Effects of valium and librium on human psychomotor and cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Murray, J B

    1984-05-01

    Research on the effect of the benzodiazepines, Valium, and Librium on human psychomotor and cognitive functions is reviewed. Benzodiazepines which are the most important antianxiety medications also have anticonvulsant, hypnotic-sedative, and muscle-relaxant properties. Research on the benzodiazepine hypnotic "hangover" effects on cognitive and motor behavior is cited. The benzodiazepines Valium and Librium probably interact with neurotransmitters, especially GABA and very likely have specific receptors in the brain and central nervous system. Absorption and elimination rate vary with dosage, method of administration, and age. Valium and Librium have no gravely harmful side effects, little addictive potential; danger from overdosage is minimal. Although controlled studies of the impact of psychoactive drugs on psychomotor and cognitive performance are relatively recent, Valium and Librium apparently have little, if any, adverse effect on well established higher mental functions and may affect the speed with which simple repetitive motor actions are performed. None of their effects are irreversible. Benzodiazepines (BZ) have been remarkable drugs. They have virtually replaced all other forms of antianxiety medications (48, 95, 109, 225). All the BZ drugs additionally have anticonvulsant, sedative-hypnotic, and muscle-relaxant properties (4, 77, 88, 112, 252). Two of the BZ drugs, Valium (diazepam) and Librium (chlordiazepoxide) have been the best sellers of the BZ drug family and the most frequently prescribed drugs in the world (7, 15, 17, 77, 110, 137, 215, 257). The impact of Valium and Librium on human psychomotor and cognitive functions is the focus of this review of research. Since millions of people are using these drugs, how do Valium and Librium affect alertness and responsiveness, for example, in driving a car to work, or operating a machine in a factory (240)? Tranquilizing drugs like Valium and Librium were hailed when they replaced sedatives like barbiturates because they did not cloud the mind. Is decision-making or mental alertness affected in those who use Valium or Librium (69)? In studying the impact of drugs on the central nervous system (CNS) and brain, animal subjects frequently are employed. However, the human condition of anxiety for which Valium and Librium are usually prescribed is hard to evaluate and human subjects vary greatly, so that this review of research has been limited for the most part to studies with human subjects (8, 26, 50, 107, 108, 262, 263, 264). PMID:6329901

  12. Poor Cognitive Function and Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Punthakee, Zubin; Miller, Michael E.; Launer, Lenore J.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Lazar, Ronald M.; Cukierman-Yaffee, Tali; Seaquist, Elizabeth R.; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Sullivan, Mark D.; Lovato, Laura C.; Bergenstal, Richard M.; Gerstein, Hertzel C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Self-management of type 2 diabetes including avoidance of hypoglycemia is complex, but the impact of cognition on safe self-management is not well understood. This study aimed to assess the effect of baseline cognitive function and cognitive decline on subsequent risk of severe hypoglycemia and to assess the effect of different glycemic strategies on these relationships. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Prospective cohort analysis of data from the ACCORD trial included 2,956 adults aged ?55 years with type 2 diabetes and additional cardiovascular risk factors. Cognitive tests (Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST], Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Stroop Test, and Mini Mental Status Examination) were conducted at baseline and 20 months. Study outcomes were incident confirmed severe hypoglycemia requiring medical assistance (HMA) and hypoglycemia requiring any assistance (HAA). RESULTS After a median 3.25-year follow-up, a 5-point-poorer baseline score on the DSST was predictive of a first episode of HMA (hazard ratio 1.13 [95% CI 1.08–1.18]). Analyses of the other cognitive tests and of HAA were consistent with the DSST results. Cognitive decline over 20 months increased the risk of subsequent hypoglycemia to a greater extent in those with lower baseline cognitive function (Pinteraction = 0.037). Randomization to an intensive versus standard glycemic strategy had no impact on the relationship between cognitive function and the risk of severe hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS Poor cognitive function increases the risk of severe hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clinicians should consider cognitive function in assessing and guiding their patients regarding safe diabetes self-management regardless of their glycemic targets. PMID:22374637

  13. The dynamic relationship between cognitive function and walking speed: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Gale, Catharine R; Allerhand, Michael; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus; Deary, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies show that older people with better cognition tend to walk faster. Whether this association reflects an influence of fluid cognition upon walking speed, vice versa, a bidirectional relationship or the effect of common causes is unclear. We used linear mixed effects models to examine the dynamic relationship between usual walking speed and fluid cognition, as measured by executive function, verbal memory and processing speed, in 2,654 men and women aged 60 to over 90 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. There was a bidirectional relationship between walking speed and fluid cognition. After adjusting for age and sex, better performance on executive function, memory and processing speed was associated with less yearly decline in walking speed over the 6-year follow-up period; faster walking speed was associated with less yearly decline in each cognitive domain; and less yearly decline in each cognitive domain was associated with less yearly decline in walking speed. Effect sizes were small. After further adjustment for other covariates, effect sizes were attenuated but most remained statistically significant. We found some evidence that walking speed and the fluid cognitive domains of executive function and processing speed may change in parallel with increasing age. Investigation of the association between walking speed and cognition earlier in life is needed to better understand the origins of this relation and inform the development and timing of interventions. PMID:24997019

  14. Dietary intake and cognitive function in a group of elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosa M Ortega; Ana M Requejo; Pedro Andr; Ana M Ldpez-Sobaler; M Elena Quintas; M Rosario Redondo; Beatriz Navia; Trinidad Rivas

    Associations between dietary intake and cog- nitive performance were examined in 260 elderly people aged 65-90 y who were free of significant cognitive impairment. Di- etary intake was monitored with a weighed-food record for 7 consecutive days. The subjects' cognitive capacity was tested by using Folstein et al's Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Pfeiffer's Mental Status Questionnaire (PMSQ). Subjects with

  15. Sex-Role Orientation and Cognitive Functioning in Young Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald L. Mullis; Doris M. Bornhoeft

    1983-01-01

    In order to determine whether sex-role orientation of preschool-aged children influences measures of cognitive ability, data were gathered for 48 subjects (24 males and 24 females) aged 3 and 5 years chosen nonrandomly from university child care centers on measures of sex-role orientation (Toy Preference Test) and cognitive ability (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Preschool Embedded Figures Test, Piagetian classification task).

  16. Combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention induces reorganization of intrinsic functional brain architecture in older adults.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Wang, Baoxi; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Xin; Li, Rui; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults. The intervention was composed of a 6-week program of combined activities including cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling. The results showed improved cognitive performance and reorganized regional homogeneity of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, in the participants who attended the intervention. Intriguingly, the intervention-induced changes in the coherence of local spontaneous activity correlated with the improvements in individual cognitive performance. Taken together with our previous findings of enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe regions following a combined intervention program in older adults, we conclude that the functional plasticity of the aging brain is a rather complex process, and an effective cognitive-psychological-physical intervention is helpful for maintaining a healthy brain and comprehensive cognition during old age. PMID:25810927

  17. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase 677C.T and Methionine Synthase 2756A.G Mutations: No Impact on Survival, Cognitive Functioning, or Cognitive Decline in Nonagenarians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lise Bathum; Jacob von Bornemann Hjelmborg; Lene Christiansen; Matt McGue; Bernard Jeune; Kaare Christensen

    Background. Several reports have shown an association between homocysteine, cognitive functioning, and survival among the oldest-old. Two common polymorphisms in the genes coding for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C.T) and methionine synthase (MTR 2756A.G) have an impact on plasma homocysteine level. Methods. We examined the effect of the MTHFR 677C.T and MTR 2756A.G genotypes on baseline cognitive functioning, cognitive decline over

  18. The relationship between hearing impairment and cognitive function: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wallhagen, Margaret I; Strawbridge, William J; Shema, Sarah J

    2008-04-01

    Maximizing patients' cognitive functioning and quality of life is a key concern for nurses. Some data suggest that hearing loss may be associated with cognitive decline. To further assess this association, a 5-year longitudinal study was conducted using a community sample of 2,002 men and women ages 50 to 94. A relatively strong relationship between baseline hearing impairment and subsequent poorer cognitive function was found in both existing and new cases of cognitive impairment. These findings raise questions for nursing practice and support the need for increased dialogue and collaborative studies across specialties to both refine the understanding of the factors involved and develop clinical strategies to minimize sensory and cognitive loss. PMID:20078020

  19. Cognitive Performance in a Subclinical Obsessive-Compulsive Sample 1: Cognitive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Thomas; Dittrich, Winand H.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who are not clinically diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but still display obsessive-compulsive (OC) tendencies may show cognitive impairments. The present study investigated whether there are subgroups within a healthy group showing characteristic cognitive and emotional performance levels similar to those found in OCD patients and whether they differ from OCD subgroups regarding performance levels. Of interest are those cases showing subclinical symptomatology. The results revealed no impairments in the subclinical OC participants on the neuropsychological tasks, while evidence suggests that there exist high and low scores on two standardised clinical instruments (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Cognitive Assessment Instrument of Obsessions and Compulsions) in a healthy sample. OC symptoms may diminish the quality of life and prolong sustainable return to work. It may be that occupational rehabilitation programmes are more effective in rectifying subclinical OC tendencies compared to the often complex symptoms of diagnosed OCD patients. The relationship between cognitive style and subclinical OC symptoms is discussed in terms of how materials and information might be processed. Although subclinical OC tendencies would not seem to constitute a diagnosis of OCD, the quality of treatment programmes such as cognitive behavioural therapy can be improved based on the current investigation. PMID:24236282

  20. Association between binge eating disorder and changes in cognitive functioning following bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Jason M; Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Paul, Robert; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Gunstad, John

    2014-12-01

    Evidence suggests that both obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) may be associated with deficits in cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine whether a lifetime history of BED would be associated with changes in several domains of cognitive functioning (attention, executive function, language, and memory) following bariatric surgery. Participants were 68 bariatric surgery patients who completed a computerized battery of cognitive tests within 30 days prior to undergoing surgery and again at a 12-Month postoperative follow-up. Results revealed that on the whole, participants displayed improvements from baseline to follow-up in attention, executive function, and memory, even after controlling for diagnostic history of depression; no changes were observed for language. However, individuals with and without a history of BED did not differ in changes in body mass index or in the degree of improvement in cognitive functioning from baseline to follow-up. Such results suggest that a history of BED does not influence changes in cognitive functioning following bariatric surgery. Future research will be needed to further clarify the role of BED in predicting cognitive function over time. PMID:25201638

  1. Odor Identification and Cognitive Function in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Carla R.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Fischer, Mary E.; Huang, Guan-Hua; Klein, Ronald; Pankratz, Nathan; Zhong, Wenjun; Nondahl, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory impairment is associated with cognitive impairment in older adults but less is known about the association of olfactory impairment and cognitive function in middle-aged adults. The association between olfactory impairment and cognitive function tests of attention, processing speed and executive and psychomotor function was explored in 2837 participants (21–84 years; mean age 49 years) in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. Among middle-aged participants (aged 35–64 years), those with impairment on an odor identification test took significantly longer to complete the Trail Making Test (TMT-A and TMT-B) and the Grooved Peg Board (GPB) test, than those without olfactory impairment in regression models adjusted for multiple factors. Similar results were found for the TMT-A and TMT-B, but not the GPB, in the whole cohort. Olfactory impairment was associated with poorer performance on cognitive function tests in a primarily middle-aged cohort. PMID:23789858

  2. Birth weight and cognitive function at age 11years: the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 

    E-print Network

    Shenkin, S D; Starr, John M; Pattie, Alison; Rush, M A; Whalley, Lawrence J; Deary, Ian J

    2001-01-01

    AIMS---To examine the relation between birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years, and to examine whether this relation is independent of social class. METHODS---Retrospective cohort study based on birth records ...

  3. ZINC AND OTHER MINERAL NUTRIENTS REQUIRED FOR COGNITIVE FUNCTION AND BEHAVIOR IN MILITARY PERSONNEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review examines the possible role of zinc, magnesium, selenium, copper and phosphorus in sustaining cognitive function and behavior of military personnel operating under multiple metabolic, physical, psychological and environmental stressors. There are no studies relating zinc intake or status ...

  4. Cognitive Functions, Personality Traits, and Social Values in Heavy Marihuana Smokers and Nonsmoker Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weckowicz, Thaddeus E.; Janssen, Doug V.

    1973-01-01

    To determine the effect of chronic marihuana smoking on cognitive functions, personality traits, and social values, a group of heavy marihuana smokers was compared with a matched control group. (Author)

  5. Sleep-related cognitive function and the K-complex in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Muniarajan; Sartory, Gudrun; van Beekum, Anna; Lohrmann, Thomas; Pietrowsky, Reinhard

    2012-10-01

    Sleep parameters have been reported to be related to cognitive function in a variety of ways. Problem solving and procedural learning were found to be improved after sleep but training also affected subsequent sleep and some parameters were related to cognitive trait variables, e.g. IQ. Additional to rapid-eye-movement (REM) and slow wave sleep (SWS), micro-architectural features such as spindle activity and K-complexes have recently been the focus of interest. The study aimed at investigating the relationship of neuropsychological variables, problem solving and procedural learning with sleep parameters in stably medicated schizophrenia patients. Twenty schizophrenia out-patients participated in the study. Learning and testing occurred over a randomly balanced waking and sleep interval. The tasks were the Tower of London (ToL) and mirror tracing. Sleep EEG was analysed together with spindle activity and K-complexes. Performance improved with regard to both tasks from learning to testing irrespective of type of interval. Increasing density of K-complexes was related to a higher number of solved ToL tasks pre and post night whereas longer SWS was related to faster completion of the ToL. A higher age was related to less overnight improvement in regard to number of solved ToL tasks. K-complexes are thought to indicate intra-cortical activity paving the way for the uptake of new information. As ToL is considered a test of executive function, K-complexes appear to be linked to this domain, deficits of which are thought to be a core feature of schizophrenia. PMID:22743003

  6. Wightman function and vacuum fluctuations in higher dimensional brane models

    SciTech Connect

    Saharian, Aram A. [Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Street, 375049 Yerevan (Armenia) and Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, 34014 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-02-15

    The Wightman function and the vacuum expectation value of the field square are evaluated for a massive scalar field with a general curvature coupling parameter subject to Robin boundary conditions on two codimension-one parallel branes located on a (D+1)-dimensional background spacetime AdS{sub D{sub 1}}{sub +1}x{sigma} with a warped internal space {sigma}. The general case of different Robin coefficients on separate branes is considered. The application of the generalized Abel-Plana formula for the series over zeros of combinations of cylinder functions allows us to manifestly extract the part due to the bulk without boundaries. Unlike the purely anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk, the vacuum expectation value of the field square induced by a single brane, in addition to the distance from the brane, depends also on the position of the brane in the bulk. The brane induced part in this expectation value vanishes when the brane position tends to the AdS horizon or the AdS boundary. The asymptotic behavior of the vacuum densities near the branes and at large distances is investigated. The contribution of Kaluza-Klein modes along {sigma} is discussed in various limiting cases. In the limit when the curvature radius for the AdS spacetime tends to infinity, we derive the results for two parallel Robin plates on the background spacetime R{sup (D{sub 1},1)}x{sigma}. For strong gravitational fields corresponding to large values of the AdS energy scale, both the single brane and interference parts of the expectation values integrated over the internal space are exponentially suppressed. As an example the case {sigma}=S{sup 1} is considered, corresponding to the AdS{sub D+1} bulk with one compactified dimension. An application to the higher dimensional generalization of the Randall-Sundrum brane model with arbitrary mass terms on the branes is discussed.

  7. A Structural Analysis of Executive Functions and Socioeconomic Status in School-Age Children: Cognitive Factors as Effect Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aran-Filippetti, Vanessa; Richaud de Minzi, Maria Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a well-known predictor of cognitive achievement and executive functioning, although the underlying cognitive mediating processes remain unclear. The authors analyze the association between different socioeconomic indicators and the executive functions (EF) of schoolchildren and the possible cognitive mediating factors…

  8. Applying distributed cognition theory to the redesign of the 'Copy and Paste' function in order to promote appropriate learning outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Morgan; Gwyn Brickell; Barry Harper

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the application of distributed cognition theory to educational contexts by examining a common learning interaction, the ‘Copy and Paste’ function. After a discussion of distributed cognition and the role of mediating artefacts in real world cognitions, the ‘Copy and Paste’ function is redesigned to embed an effective interaction strategy, based on encoding strategies, into the interface. The

  9. Effect of Carotid Artery Stenting on Cognitive Function in Patients with Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis and Cerebral Lacunar Infarction: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Zhang Yong; Sun, Qin Jian; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Ming Xia; Ban, Ru; Xu, Ge Lin; Wu, Ya Ping; Wang, Le Xin; Du, Yi Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is an important therapeutic strategy for patients with carotid artery stenosis. However, the potential influence of CAS on cognitive function in patients with carotid artery stenosis and cerebral lacunar infarction has not been determined. This study investigated changes in cognitive function associated with CAS and the factors related to these changes. Methods This prospective cohort study comprised 579 Chinese patients with cerebral lacunar infarction and carotid artery stenosis for whom CAS was indicated, and a matched control group of 552 healthy individuals. Cognitive function before CAS and at scheduled intervals from 6 months to 3 years was assessed with instruments that included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale. Potential factors that might affect cognitive function were analyzed via logistic regression. Results The MMSE and MoCA scores of the patients before CAS were significantly lower than that of the control subjects. These scores were significantly higher 6 months after CAS and sustained or increased throughout the 3-year follow-up. Also significantly improved after CAS from baseline were scores for an alternating trail test, cube copying, clock-drawing, attention, and delayed recall in an auditory-verbal learning test. Logistic regression analyses showed that age greater than 65 y, little education, diabetes, and hypertension were independent risk factors for deteriorated MoCA scores 3 years after CAS. Conclusion CAS was associated with significantly improved cognitive function in cerebral lacunar infarction patients with severe stenosis. PMID:26067432

  10. Cognitive and motor function are associated following mild traumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob J. Sosnoff; Steven P. Broglio; Michael S. Ferrara

    2008-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) causes deficits in motor and cognitive function. There is a dearth of research examining\\u000a the association between these deficits. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of mTBI on the association\\u000a between cognitive and motor function. Thirty-six individuals completed a neurocognitive test battery and postural control\\u000a assessment at baseline and were retested

  11. The cumulative effects of Transcendental Meditation on cognitive function — a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter H. Canter; Edzard Ernst

    2003-01-01

    Summary  It is claimed that regular practice of Transcendental Meditation (TM) improves cognitive function and increases intelligence.\\u000a This systematic review assesses the evidence from randomised controlled trials for cumulative effects of TM on cognitive function.\\u000a Searches were made of electronic databases and the collected papers and official websites of the TM organisation. Only randomised\\u000a controlled trials with objective outcome measures of

  12. Altered executive function in obesity. Exploration of the role of affective states on cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Cserjési, Renáta; Luminet, Olivier; Poncelet, Anne-Sophie; Lénárd, László

    2009-04-01

    There is a growing evidence that obesity is not only a weight problem, but it is linked to adverse neurocognitive outcomes. Besides obesity, frontal lobe based cognitive deficits in depressed patients are confirmed, and interactions between depression and obesity are known. In our study we investigated the relationship between cognitive functioning, mood and female obesity. Our findings revealed reduced mental flexibility and sustained attention capacity in obesity together with the presence of depressive mood. The mediating role of depression is confirmed. Positive emotion was associated with cognitive functions independently from BMI. Positive affectivity in obesity treatment is discussed. PMID:19260167

  13. Cognitive and academic outcomes after pediatric liver transplantation: Functional Outcomes Group (FOG) results.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, L G; Neighbors, K; Martz, K; Zelko, F; Bucuvalas, J C; Alonso, E M

    2011-02-01

    This multicenter study examined prevalence of cognitive and academic delays in children following liver transplant (LT). One hundred and forty-four patients ages 5-7 and 2 years post-LT were recruited through the SPLIT consortium and administered the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd Edition (WPPSI-III), the Bracken Basic Concept Scale, Revised (BBCS-R), and the Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th edition (WRAT-4). Parents and teachers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Participants performed significantly below test norms on intelligence quotient (IQ) and achievement measures (Mean WPPSI-III Full Scale IQ = 94.7 ± 13.5; WRAT-4 Reading = 92.7 ± 17.2; WRAT-4 Math = 93.1 ± 15.4; p < 0001). Twenty-six percent of patients (14% expected) had 'mild to moderate' IQ delays (Full Scale IQ = 71-85) and 4% (2% expected) had 'serious' delays (Full Scale IQ ? 70; p < 0.0001). Reading and/or math scores were weaker than IQ in 25%, suggesting learning disability, compared to 7% expected by CDC statistics (p < 0.0001). Executive deficits were noted on the BRIEF, especially by teacher report (Global Executive Composite = 58; p < 0.001). Results suggest a higher prevalence of cognitive and academic delays and learning problems in pediatric LT recipients compared to the normal population. PMID:21272236

  14. Cognitive and Academic Outcomes after Pediatric Liver Transplantation: Functional Outcomes Group (FOG) Results

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, L.G.; Neighbors, K.; Martz, K.; Zelko, F.; Bucuvalas, J.C.; Alonso, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    This multi-center study examined prevalence of cognitive and academic delays in children following liver transplant (LT). 144 patients ages 5–7 and 2 years post-LT were recruited through the SPLIT consortium and administered the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd Edition (WPPSI-III), the Bracken Basic Concept Scale, Revised (BBCS-R), and the Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th edition (WRAT-4). Parents and teachers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Participants performed significantly below test norms on intelligence quotient (IQ) and achievement measures (Mean WPPSI-III Full Scale IQ = 94.7± 13.5; WRAT-4 Reading = 92.7± 17.2; WRAT-4 Math = 93.1± 15.4; p<0001). 26% of patients (14% expected) had “mild to moderate” IQ delays (Full Scale IQ=71–85) and 4% (2% expected) had “serious” delays (Full Scale IQ ?70; p<0.0001). Reading and/or math scores were weaker than IQ in 25%, suggesting learning disability, compared to 7% expected by CDC(1) statistics (p<0.0001). Executive deficits were noted on the BRIEF, especially by teacher report (Global Executive Composite = 58; p<0.001). Results suggest a higher prevalence of cognitive and academic delays and learning problems in pediatric LT recipients compared to the normal population. PMID:21272236

  15. An association between Helicobacter pylori infection and cognitive function in children at early school age: a community-based study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background H. pylori infection has been linked to iron deficiency anemia, a risk factor of diminished cognitive development. The hypothesis on an association between H. pylori infection and cognitive function was examined in healthy children, independently of socioeconomic and nutritional factors. Methods A community-based study was conducted among 200 children aged 6-9 years, from different socioeconomic background. H. pylori infection was examined by an ELISA kit for detection of H. pylori antigen in stool samples. Cognitive function of the children was blindly assessed using Stanford-Benit test 5th edition, yielding IQ scores. Data on socioeconomic factors and nutritional covariates were collected through maternal interviews and from medical records. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to obtain adjusted beta coefficients. Results H. pylori infection was associated with lower IQ scores only in children from a relatively higher socioeconomic community; adjusted beta coefficient -6.1 (95% CI -11.4, -0.8) (P = 0.02) for full-scale IQ score, -6.0 (95% CI -11.1, -0.2) (P = 0.04) for non-verbal IQ score and -5.7 (95% CI -10.8, -0.6) (P = 0.02) for verbal IQ score, after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusions H. pylori infection might be negatively involved in cognitive development at early school age. Further studies in other populations with larger samples are needed to confirm this novel finding. PMID:21612616

  16. Longevity assurance Gene 1's (LASS1) relationship with cognitive and physical functioning, functional capacity, and inflammation in centenarians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela May

    2011-01-01

    LASS1 is a candidate longevity gene in humans. It was hypothesized that the distribution of LASS1 allelic combinations would differ between young controls and centenarians. Further, we hypothesized that LASS1 would influence centenarian functioning across multiple domains, including cognitive and physical functioning, functional capacity, and inflammation. We examined these possible associations in the whole centenarian sample and after stratifying this

  17. Longevity assurance gene 1's (lass1) relationship with cognitive and physical functioning, functional capacity, and inflammation in centenarians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela Emily May

    2011-01-01

    LASS1 is a candidate longevity gene in humans. It was hypothesized that the distribution of LASS1 allelic combinations would differ between young controls and centenarians. Further, we hypothesized that LASS1 would influence centenarian functioning across multiple domains, including cognitive and physical functioning, functional capacity, and inflammation. We examined these possible associations in the whole centenarian sample and after stratifying this

  18. Cognitive and Functional Impairment in Stroke Survivors with Basilar Artery Occlusive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Campanholo, Kenia Repiso; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Rimkus, Carolina Medeiros; Miotto, Eliane Correa

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite growing literature on posterior vascular disease, specific information about the cognitive and functional profiles of patients with basilar artery occlusion disease (BAOD) is scarce. The aims of this study were (1) to compare the cognitive statuses of BAOD survivors versus healthy controls and (2) to correlate the functional capacity outcomes with the cognitive profiles of BAOD patients. Methods. Comprehensive cognitive and functional assessments were carried out in 28 patients with BAOD and 27 age- and education level-matched healthy controls. Results. Compared to matched controls, patients presented impairments in selective, sustained, and set-shifting attention, processing speed, visuospatial skills, mental flexibility, and monitoring rules. There were significant deficits in verbal episodic memory (immediate and delayed recall) and visuospatial episodic memory (immediate and delayed recall and recognition). Functional capacity outcomes were significantly related to the cognitive test results. Seventy-five percent of patients had a Modified Rankin Scale score of 0 or 1. Conclusions. Our results indicate good functional outcomes in a selected group of BAOD survivors, despite the presence of subnormal performance on some cognitive tests, including tests of attention, executive function, and long-term memory. PMID:26146461

  19. Cognitive Functioning Predicts Driver Safety On Road-Tests 1 and 2 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steven W.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Amy M.; Uc, Ergun Y.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Our ability to predict aging related declines in driving performance from off-road assessments have clinical practice and social policy implications. OBJECTIVES 1) To describe longitudinal changes in mean-level and evaluate rank-order stability in potential predictors of driving safety (visual sensory, motor, visual attention, and cognitive functioning) and safety errors during an 18-mile on-road-drive-test among older adults. 2) To evaluate the relative predictive power of earlier visual sensory, motor, visual attention, and cognitive functioning on future safety errors controlling for earlier driving capacity. DESIGN A three-year longitudinal observational study; SETTING A large teaching hospital in the Mid-West; PARTICIPANTS 111 neurologically normal older adults (60 to 89 years at baseline); MEASUREMENTS Safety errors based on video review of a standard 18-mile on-road driving test served as the outcome measure. Comprehensive battery of tests on the predictor side included visual sensory functioning, motor functioning, cognitive functioning, and a measure of Useful Field of View. RESULTS Longitudinal changes in mean-levels of safety errors and cognitive functioning were small from year-to-year. Relative rank-order stability between consecutive assessments was moderate in overall safety errors, it was moderate to strong in visual attention and cognitive functioning. While prospective bivariate correlations ranged from fair to moderate between safety errors and predictors, only functioning in the cognitive domain predicted future driver performance one and two-years later in multivariate analyses. CONCLUSION Normative aging related declines in driver performance as assessed by on-road tests emerge slowly. The findings clearly demonstrated that even in the presence conservative controls, such as previous driving ability, age, visual sensory and motor functioning, cognitive functioning predicted future driving performance on-road one and two-years later. PMID:22091535

  20. Association between mental demands at work and cognitive functioning in the general population – results of the health study of the Leipzig research center for civilization diseases (LIFE)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The level of mental demands in the workplace is rising. The present study investigated whether and how mental demands at work are associated with cognitive functioning in the general population. Methods The analysis is based on data of the Health Study of the Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Disease (LIFE). 2,725 participants aged 40–80 years underwent cognitive testing (Trail-Making Test, Verbal Fluency Test) and provided information on their occupational situation. Participants over the age of 65 years additionally completed the Mini-Mental State Examination. Mental demands at work were rated by a standardized classification system (O*NET). The association between mental demands and cognitive functioning was analyzed using Generalized Linear Modeling (GENLIN) adjusted for age, gender, self-regulation, working hour status, education, and health-related factors. Results Univariate as well as multivariate analyses demonstrated significant and highly consistent effects of higher mental demands on better performance in cognitive testing. The results also indicated that the effects are independent of education and intelligence. Moreover, analyses of retired individuals implied a significant association between high mental demands at work of the job they once held and a better cognitive functioning in old age. Conclusions In sum, our findings suggest a significant association between high mental demands at work and better cognitive functioning. In this sense, higher levels of mental demands – as brought about by technological changes in the working environment – may also have beneficial effects for the society as they could increase cognitive capacity levels and might even delay cognitive decline in old age. PMID:24914403

  1. Cognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terri Gullickson; Mary M. Hayhoe; Polly K. Pook; Rajesh P. N. Rao

    1995-01-01

    To describe phenomena that occur at different time scales, computational models of the brain must incorporate different levels of abstraction. At time scales of approximately 1 ?3 of a second, orienting movements of the body play a crucial role in cognition and form a useful computational level - more abstract than that used to capture natural phenomena but less abstract

  2. Social cognition and its relationship to functional outcomes in patients with sustained acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Ubukata, Shiho; Tanemura, Rumi; Yoshizumi, Miho; Sugihara, Genichi; Murai, Toshiya; Ueda, Keita

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in social cognition are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, little is known about how such deficits affect functional outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between social cognition and functional outcomes in patients with TBI. We studied this relationship in 20 patients with TBI over the course of 1 year post-injury. Patients completed neurocognitive assessments and social cognition tasks. The social cognition tasks included an emotion-perception task and three theory of mind tasks: the Faux Pas test, Reading the Mind in the Eyes (Eyes) test, and the Moving-Shapes paradigm. The Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique was used to assess functional outcomes. Compared with our database of normal subjects, patients showed impairments in all social cognition tasks. Multiple regression analysis revealed that theory of mind ability as measured by the Eyes test was the best predictor of the cognitive aspects of functional outcomes. The findings of this pilot study suggest that the degree to which a patient can predict what others are thinking is an important measure that can estimate functional outcomes over 1 year following TBI. PMID:25395854

  3. The influence of shift work on cognitive functions and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, P?nar Güzel; Selvi, Yavuz; Özkol, Halil; Ayd?n, Adem; Tülüce, Yasin; Boysan, Murat; Be?iro?lu, Lütfullah

    2013-12-30

    Shift work influences health, performance, activity, and social relationships, and it causes impairment in cognitive functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of shift work on participants' cognitive functions in terms of memory, attention, and learning, and we measured the effects on oxidative stress. Additionally, we investigated whether there were significant relationships between cognitive functions and whole blood oxidant/antioxidant status of participants. A total of 90 health care workers participated in the study, of whom 45 subjects were night-shift workers. Neuropsychological tests were administered to the participants to assess cognitive function, and blood samples were taken to detect total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status at 08:00. Differences in anxiety, depression, and chronotype characteristics between shift work groups were not significant. Shift workers achieved significantly lower scores on verbal memory, attention-concentration, and the digit span forward sub-scales of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), as well as on the immediate memory and total learning sub-scales of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Oxidative stress parameters were significantly associated with some types of cognitive function, including attention-concentration, recognition, and long-term memory. These findings suggest that night shift work may result in significantly poorer cognitive performance, particularly working memory. PMID:24176594

  4. Hospitalization and Psychosis: Influences on the Course of Cognition and Everyday Functioning in People with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Philip D.; Loewenstein, David A.; Czaja, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Long term institutional stay has decreased markedly in people with schizophrenia, although there are still many individuals with a history of long-term institutional stay residing in the community. In addition, although the average duration of acute admissions for schizophrenia is also decreasing, there are indications that psychotic episodes leading to acute admissions are associated with risk for cognitive and functional declines and changes in brain structure. In this paper we review the literature on cognitive changes with aging and institutionalization in schizophrenia, reaching the conclusion that the reasons for chronic institutionalization in the current include largely include severe psychosis and aggressive behavior. Thus, these factors may be the operative factor in the age-related declines in cognition and functioning reported in this population. We also present evidence to suggest that these changes may be similar to those seen in younger patients who experience repeated psychotic episodes leading to hospitalization. Our conclusion is that there is minimal evidence that hospitalization, long or short, leads to cognitive and functional changes, but rather that the reason for these hospitalizations may underlie cognitive and functional declines. Prevention of relapse and discovering treatments to assist patients with resistant symptoms may reduce the risk of cognitive and functional decline across the lifespan in people with schizophrenia. PMID:23123218

  5. Association between insulin-like growth factor-1 and cognitive functions in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Changwoo; Kim, Dai Jin; Bae, Hwallip; Won, Sung-Doo; Lee, Hae Kook

    2014-11-01

    Studies in alcohol-dependent patients show that cognitive function can be influenced by chronic use of alcohol. Alcohol is a known neurotoxin that induces neurodegeneration in the brain. Although there are various causes of cognitive deficiency in alcohol-dependent patients, in this study we focus on the role of corticosteroids. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system (i.e., the HPA axis) plays a part in the control of corticosteroids. Recent studies show that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) reflects the status of growth hormones under the action of the HPA axis. Therefore, IGF-1 is a potential indicator that reflects activity of the HPA axis, and a biomarker that may reflect the decline of cognitive function associated with alcohol-induced hypercortisolism. The purposes of this study are to identify an association between cognitive function and IGF-1, and to investigate IGF as the biological marker of cognitive decline in alcohol-dependent patients. Forty alcohol-dependent patients were selected as the subjects of this study. IGF-1 was measured through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Clinical features were examined using the Korean version of the alcohol dependence scale (ADS-K). Cognitive functions were measured using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD). Comparative analysis was utilized to identify an association between CERAD measurement items and IGF-1. Alcohol-dependent patients demonstrated stable performance of most of the CERAD measures. Among the measures of the CERAD, only trail making test A showed a correlation to IGF-1. Compared to trail making test B, trail making test A is assumed to reflect basic cognitive functions including psychomotor speed, visual search and sequencing in alcohol-dependent patients, regardless of demographic characteristics such as the level of education of patients. Therefore, IGF-1 seems to play an important role in detecting the decline of basic cognitive functions in alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:25283991

  6. Cognitive functioning in children prenatally exposed to alcohol and psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Dalen, K; Bruarøy, S; Wentzel-Larsen, T; Laegreid, L M

    2009-08-01

    Cognitive functioning was compared in 29 children diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), 35 children with fetal alcohol effects (FAE), and 66 psychotropic drugs-exposed (PDE) children using Wechsler tests and the neuropsychological test battery NEPSY. In the FAS group, verbal IQ (VIQ=78), performance IQ (PIQ=77), and full scale IQ (FSIQ=75) were significantly lower as compared to the FAE and PDE groups. In the PDE group VIQ and FSIQ were significantly higher than in the FAE group. In the FAS group, processing speed (PS) was significantly lower than the other three factors. In the FAE group, perceptual organization (PO) was significantly higher, whereas PS was significantly lower than the other factors. In the PDE group, verbal comprehension (VC) was significantly higher than the other factors. Attention subscales on the NEPSY were significantly lower in all the three groups. Prenatal alcohol exposure affects IQ levels more than exposure to psychotropic drugs. Attentional problems were found in all children when tested with the NEPSY in all groups. PMID:20135573

  7. Pulmonary Function, Cognitive Impairment and Brain Atrophy in a Middle-Aged Community Sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Sachdev; K. J. Anstey; R. A. Parslow; W. Wen; J. Maller; R. Kumar; H. Christensen; A. F. Jorm

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship of lung function to brain anatomical parameters and cognitive function and to examine the mediating factors for any relationships. Methods: A random sub-sample of 469 persons (men = 252) aged 60–64 years from a larger community sample underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging scans and pulmonary function tests (forced vital capacity, FVC, forced expiratory volume in

  8. Urinary function in elderly people with and without leukoaraiosis: relation to cognitive and gait function

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, R.; Hattori, T.; Uchiyama, T.; Yamanishi, T.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate urinary function in the elderly with and without white matter lesion (leukoaraiosis) in relation to cognitive and gait function.?METHODS—Sixty three subjects were examined, with mean age 73 (range 62 to 86 years). Subjects with brainstem stroke or with large hemispheric lesions were excluded. Spin echo 1.5 T MRI images were graded from 0 to 4 for severity of white matter lesions. Urinary function was assessed by detailed questionnaire and urodynamic studies were performed in 33 of the subjects, including measurement of postmicturition residuals, water cystometry, and sphincter EMG. A mini mental state examination (MMSE) and examination of gait was also performed and compared with urinary function.?RESULTS—Urodynamic studies showed subjects with grade 1-4 white matter lesions to have detrusor hyperreflexia more commonly (82%) than those with grade 0 white matter lesions (9%) (p<0.05), indicating that leukoaraiosis was a factor associated with geriatric urinary dysfunction. Postmicturition residuals, low compliance, detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia, and uninhibited sphincter relaxation were also more common in grade 1-4 than in grade 0 white matter lesions, though the difference was not significant. In grade 1 white matter lesions urinary dysfunction (urge urinary incontinence) was more common than cognitive (MMSE<19) (p<0.05) and gait disorders (slowness, short step/festination, and loss of postural reflex) (p<0.05), which increased together with the grade of white matter lesions (p<0.05).?CONCLUSIONS—Urinary dysfunction is common and probably the early sign in elderly people with leukoaraiosis on MRI.?? PMID:10519875

  9. Protocol for Fit Bodies, Fine Minds: a randomized controlled trial on the affect of exercise and cognitive training on cognitive functioning in older adults

    PubMed Central

    O'Dwyer, Siobhan T; Burton, Nicola W; Pachana, Nancy A; Brown, Wendy J

    2007-01-01

    Background Declines in cognitive functioning are a normal part of aging that can affect daily functioning and quality of life. This study will examine the impact of an exercise training program, and a combined exercise and cognitive training program, on the cognitive and physical functioning of older adults. Methods/Design Fit Bodies, Fine Minds is a randomized, controlled trial. Community-dwelling adults, aged between 65 and 75 years, are randomly allocated to one of three groups for 16 weeks. The exercise-only group do three 60-minute exercise sessions per week. The exercise and cognitive training group do two 60-minute exercise sessions and one 60-minute cognitive training session per week. A no-training control group is contacted every 4 weeks. Measures of cognitive functioning, physical fitness and psychological well-being are taken at baseline (0 weeks), post-test (16 weeks) and 6-month follop (40 weeks). Qualitative responses to the program are taken at post-test. Discussion With an increasingly aged population, interventions to improve the functioning and quality of life of older adults are particularly important. Exercise training, either alone or in combination with cognitive training, may be an effective means of optimizing cognitive functioning in older adults. This study will add to the growing evidence base on the effectiveness of these interventions. Trial Registration Australian Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN012607000151437 PMID:17915035

  10. Cerebral Involvement in the Cognitive Functioning of Bilinguals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaid, Jyotsna; Lambert, Wallace E.

    The cognitive processing strategies of two groups of French-English bilinguals were studied by means of an auditory Stroop test designed to evaluate cerebral hemispheric involvement. An "early bilingual" group were bilingual before the age of five, and a "late bilingual" group were bilingual after the age of ten. Stimuli were words uttered in…

  11. Resistance to Cognitive Interference as a Function of MMPI Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Charles J.; Golden, Ellen E.

    1975-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that resistance to interference as measured by Stroop Color and Word Test is related to psychopathology. College student subjects were classified into three groups on the basis of their Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) profile high points. Subjects' cognitive interference scores significantly…

  12. Acai fruit improves motor and cognitive function in aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aged rats show impaired performance on motor and cognitive tasks that require the use of spatial learning and memory. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various berry fruits (blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries) in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and ne...

  13. The Function of Cognitive Imaging in a Developing Research University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Lars G.

    Cognitive imaging was investigated as one factor associated with the development of the University of New Mexico from an undergraduate teaching institution toward becoming a nationally-ranked graduate research university. A longitudinal, ethnohistorical study was undertaken for the 1967-1978 period. The qualitative research methodology involved an…

  14. COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING AND TOLERANCE FOR DELAY OF GRATIFICATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ZIMILES, HERBERT

    TWO EXPERIMENTS WERE CONDUCTED TO STUDY THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A CHILD'S TOLERANCE FOR DELAY OF GRATIFICATION AND HIS ABILITY TO CONSERVE NUMBER AND PICTURES. OTHER MEASURES OF COGNITION ALSO WERE USED. TOLERANCE FOR DELAY OF GRATIFICATION WAS MEASURED BY THE CHILD'S DECISION TO RECEIVE A PACK OF CANDY AND A TOY ON THE DAY OF TESTING OR TO…

  15. Handedness and cognitive functions in Pervasive Developmental disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah Fein; Lynn Waterhouse; Dorothy Lucci; Bruce Pennington; Margaret Humes

    1985-01-01

    This paper is concerned with what abnormal handedness in Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) reveals about the presence, lateralization, and severity of cerebral dysfunction in this population. From previous work, it was predicted that left-handedness would be elevated in the sample and that mixed-handedness subjects should be more impaired than those with established hand dominance. A battery of cognitive and motor

  16. Small-World Brain Network and Dynamic Functional Distribution in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongqiang; Zhou, Xia; Wang, Haibao; Hu, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Xiaoqun; Xu, Liyan; Zhang, Chao; Sun, Zhongwu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the topological properties of the functional connectivity and their relationships with cognition impairment in subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI) patients, resting-state fMRI and graph theory approaches were employed in 23 SVCI patients and 20 healthy controls. Functional connectivity between 90 brain regions was estimated using bivariate correlation analysis and thresholded to construct a set of undirected graphs. Moreover, all of them were subjected to a battery of cognitive assessment, and the correlations between graph metrics and cognitive performance were further analyzed. Our results are as follows: functional brain networks of both SVCI patients and controls showed small-world attributes over a range of thresholds(0.15?sparsity?0.40). However, global topological organization of the functional brain networks in SVCI was significantly disrupted, as indicated by reduced global and local efficiency, clustering coefficients and increased characteristic path lengths relative to normal subjects. The decreased activity areas in SVCI predominantly targeted in the frontal-temporal lobes, while subcortical regions showed increased topological properties, which are suspected to compensate for the inefficiency of the functional network. We also demonstrated that altered brain network properties in SVCI are closely correlated with general cognitive and praxis dysfunction. The disruption of whole-brain topological organization of the functional connectome provides insight into the functional changes in the human brain in SVCI. PMID:26132397

  17. Small-World Brain Network and Dynamic Functional Distribution in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yongqiang; Zhou, Xia; Wang, Haibao; Hu, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Xiaoqun; Xu, Liyan; Zhang, Chao; Sun, Zhongwu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the topological properties of the functional connectivity and their relationships with cognition impairment in subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI) patients, resting-state fMRI and graph theory approaches were employed in 23 SVCI patients and 20 healthy controls. Functional connectivity between 90 brain regions was estimated using bivariate correlation analysis and thresholded to construct a set of undirected graphs. Moreover, all of them were subjected to a battery of cognitive assessment, and the correlations between graph metrics and cognitive performance were further analyzed. Our results are as follows: functional brain networks of both SVCI patients and controls showed small-world attributes over a range of thresholds(0.15?sparsity?0.40). However, global topological organization of the functional brain networks in SVCI was significantly disrupted, as indicated by reduced global and local efficiency, clustering coefficients and increased characteristic path lengths relative to normal subjects. The decreased activity areas in SVCI predominantly targeted in the frontal-temporal lobes, while subcortical regions showed increased topological properties, which are suspected to compensate for the inefficiency of the functional network. We also demonstrated that altered brain network properties in SVCI are closely correlated with general cognitive and praxis dysfunction. The disruption of whole-brain topological organization of the functional connectome provides insight into the functional changes in the human brain in SVCI. PMID:26132397

  18. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism moderates the relationship between cognitive reserve and executive function

    PubMed Central

    Ward, D D; Summers, M J; Saunders, N L; Ritchie, K; Summers, J J; Vickers, J C

    2015-01-01

    The concept of cognitive reserve (CR) has been proposed to account for observed discrepancies between pathology and its clinical manifestation due to underlying differences in brain structure and function. In 433 healthy older adults participating in the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project, we investigated whether common polymorphic variations in apolipoprotein E (APOE) or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) influenced the association between CR contributors and cognitive function in older adults. We show that BDNF Val66Met moderates the association between CR and executive function. CR accounted for 8.5% of the variance in executive function in BDNF Val homozygotes, but CR was a nonsignificant predictor in BDNF Met carriers. APOE polymorphisms were not linked to the influence of CR on cognitive function. This result implicates BDNF in having an important role in capacity for building or accessing CR. PMID:26125153

  19. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism moderates the relationship between cognitive reserve and executive function.

    PubMed

    Ward, D D; Summers, M J; Saunders, N L; Ritchie, K; Summers, J J; Vickers, J C

    2015-01-01

    The concept of cognitive reserve (CR) has been proposed to account for observed discrepancies between pathology and its clinical manifestation due to underlying differences in brain structure and function. In 433 healthy older adults participating in the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project, we investigated whether common polymorphic variations in apolipoprotein E (APOE) or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) influenced the association between CR contributors and cognitive function in older adults. We show that BDNF Val66Met moderates the association between CR and executive function. CR accounted for 8.5% of the variance in executive function in BDNF Val homozygotes, but CR was a nonsignificant predictor in BDNF Met carriers. APOE polymorphisms were not linked to the influence of CR on cognitive function. This result implicates BDNF in having an important role in capacity for building or accessing CR. PMID:26125153

  20. Kynurenine metabolism predicts cognitive function in patients following cardiac bypass and thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Caroline M; Mackay, Gillian M; Oxford, Lynn; Millar, Keith; Darlington, L Gail; Higgins, Michael J; Stone, Trevor W

    2011-10-01

    Cardiac surgery involving extra-corporeal circulation can lead to cognitive dysfunction. As such surgery is associated with signs of inflammation and pro-inflammatory mediators activate tryptophan oxidation to neuroactive kynurenines which modulate NMDA receptor function and oxidative stress, we have measured blood concentrations of kynurenines and inflammatory markers in 28 patients undergoing coronary arterial graft surgery and, for comparison, 28 patients undergoing non-bypass thoracic surgery. A battery of cognitive tests was completed before and after the operations. The results show increased levels of tryptophan with decreased levels of kynurenine, anthranilic acid and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid associated with bypass, and a later increase in kynurenic acid. Levels of neopterin and lipid peroxidation products rose after surgery in non-bypass patients whereas tumour necrosis factor-? and S100B levels increased after bypass. Changes of neopterin levels were greater after non-bypass surgery. Cognitive testing showed that the levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenic acid and the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, correlated with aspects of post-surgery cognitive function, and were significant predictors of cognitive performance in tasks sensitive to frontal executive function and memory. Thus, anaesthesia and major surgery are associated with inflammatory changes and alterations in tryptophan oxidative metabolism which predict, and may play a role in, post-surgical cognitive function. PMID:21819405

  1. A protocol for a randomized clinical trial of interactive video dance: potential for effects on cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical exercise has the potential to affect cognitive function, but most evidence to date focuses on cognitive effects of fitness training. Cognitive exercise also may influence cognitive function, but many cognitive training paradigms have failed to provide carry-over to daily cognitive function. Video games provide a broader, more contextual approach to cognitive training that may induce cognitive gains and have carry over to daily function. Most video games do not involve physical exercise, but some novel forms of interactive video games combine physical activity and cognitive challenge. Methods/Design This paper describes a randomized clinical trial in 168 postmenopausal sedentary overweight women that compares an interactive video dance game with brisk walking and delayed entry controls. The primary endpoint is adherence to activity at six months. Additional endpoints include aspects of physical and mental health. We focus this report primarily on the rationale and plans for assessment of multiple cognitive functions. Discussion This randomized clinical trial may provide new information about the cognitive effects of interactive videodance. It is also the first trial to examine physical and cognitive effects in older women. Interactive video games may offer novel strategies to promote physical activity and health across the life span. The study is IRB approved and the number is: PRO08080012 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01443455 PMID:22672287

  2. The potential role of melatonin on sleep deprivation-induced cognitive impairments: Implication of FMRP on cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Kwon, K J; Lee, E J; Kim, M K; Jeon, S J; Choi, Y Y; Shin, C Y; Han, S-H

    2015-08-20

    While prolonged sleep deprivation (SD) could lead to profound negative health consequences, such as impairments in vital biological functions of immunity and cognition, melatonin possesses powerful ameliorating effects against those harmful insults. Melatonin has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that help to restore body's immune and cognitive functions. In this study, we investigated the possible role of melatonin in reversing cognitive dysfunction induced by SD in rats. Our experimental results revealed that sleep-deprived animals exhibited spatial memory impairment in the Morris water maze tasks compared with the control groups. Furthermore, there was an increased glial activation most prominent in the hippocampal region of the SD group compared to the normal control (NC) group. Additionally, markers of oxidative stress such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-deoxyguanine (8-oxo-dG) were significantly increased, while fragile X-mental retardation protein (FMRP) expression was decreased in the SD group. Interestingly, melatonin treatment normalized these events to control levels following SD. Our data demonstrate that SD induces oxidative stress through glial activation and decreases FMRP expression in the neurons. Furthermore, our results suggest the efficacy of melatonin for the treatment of sleep-related neuronal dysfunction, which occurs in neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and autism. PMID:26047724

  3. Impaired cognitive control mediates the relationship between cortical thickness of the superior frontal gyrus and role functioning in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tully, Laura M; Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Liyanage-Don, Nadia; Hooker, Christine I

    2014-02-01

    Structural abnormalities in the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) are well-documented in schizophrenia and recent evidence suggests that these abnormalities relate to functional outcome. Cognitive control mechanisms, reliant on the LPFC, are impaired in schizophrenia and predict functional outcome, thus impaired cognitive control could mediate the relationship between neuroanatomical abnormalities in the LPFC and functional outcome. We used surface-based morphometry to investigate relationships between cortical surface characteristics, cognitive control, and measures of social and role functioning in 26 individuals with schizophrenia and 29 healthy controls. Results demonstrate that schizophrenia participants had thinner cortex in a region of the superior frontal gyrus (BA10). Across all participants, decreased cortical thickness in this region related to decreased cognitive control and decreased role functioning. Moreover, cognitive control fully mediated the relationship between cortical thickness in the superior frontal gyrus and role functioning, indicating that neuroanatomical abnormalities in the LPFC adversely impact role functioning via impaired cognitive control processes. PMID:24388000

  4. Does Change in Cognitive Function Predict Change in Costs of Care for People With a Schizophrenia Diagnosis Following Cognitive Remediation Therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Clare; Harris, Victoria; Pickles, Andrew; Patel, Anita; Cella, Matteo; Wykes, Til

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Schizophrenia leads to significant personal costs matched by high economic costs. Cognitive function is a strong predictor of disabilities in schizophrenia, which underpin these costs. This study of cognitive remediation therapy (CRT), which has been shown to improve cognition and reduce disability in schizophrenia, aims to investigate associations between improvements in cognition and cost changes. Methods: Eighty-five participants with schizophrenia were randomized to receive CRT or treatment as usual and were assessed at baseline, posttherapy, and 6 month follow-up. Four structural equation models investigated associations between changes in cognitive function and costs of care. Results: All 4 models provided a good fit. Improvement in 3 individual cognitive variables did not predict total cost changes (model 1). But improvement in a single latent cognition factor was associated with a reduction in depression, which in turn was associated with reduced subsequent total costs (model 2). No significant associations with constituent daycare and special accommodation cost changes were apparent with 3 individual cognitive change variables (model 3). But improvement in a single latent cognitive change variable was associated with subsequent reductions in both daycare and special accommodation costs (model 4). Conclusion: This study exemplifies a method of using cost changes to investigate the effects and mechanisms of CRT and suggests that executive function change may be an important target if we are to reduce disability and resultant health and social care costs. PMID:24682210

  5. The independent contributions of cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms to everyday function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Rog, Lauren A.; Park, Lovingly Quitania; Harvey, Danielle J.; Huang, Chun-Jung; Mackin, Scott; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski

    2014-01-01

    The everyday functional capacities of older adults are determined by multiple factors. The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate whether apathy and depression have unique influences on degree of functional impairment, independent of the effects of specific cognitive impairments. Participants included 344 older adults (199 normals, 87 with MCI, 58 with dementia). The Everyday Cognition (ECog) scales were used to measure both global and domain-specific functional abilities. Neuropsychiatric symptoms of depression and apathy were measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and specific neuropsychological domains measured included episodic memory and executive functioning. Results indicated that worse memory and executive function, as well as greater depression and apathy, were all independent and additive determinants of poorer functional abilities. Apathy had a slightly more restricted effect than the other variables across the specific functional domains assessed. Secondary analysis suggested that neuropsychiatric symptoms may be more strongly associated with everyday function within cognitively normal and MCI groups, while cognitive impairment is more strongly associated with everyday function in dementia. Thus, a somewhat different set of factors may be associated with functional status across various clinical groups. PMID:24502686

  6. Physical and cognitive functioning of people older than 90 years: a comparison of two Danish cohorts born 10 years apart

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Kaare; Thinggaard, Mikael; Oksuzyan, Anna; Steenstrup, Troels; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Jeune, Bernard; McGue, Matt; Vaupel, James W

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background A rapidly increasing proportion of people in high-income countries are surviving into their tenth decade. Concern is widespread that the basis for this development is the survival of frail and disabled elderly people into very old age. To investigate this issue, we compared the cognitive and physical functioning of two cohorts of Danish nonagenarians, born 10 years apart. Methods People in the first cohort were born in 1905 and assessed at age 93 years (n=2262); those in the second cohort were born in 1915 and assessed at age 95 years (n=1584). All cohort members were eligible irrespective of type of residence. Both cohorts were assessed by surveys that used the same design and assessment instrument, and had almost identical response rates (63%). Cognitive functioning was assessed by mini-mental state examination and a composite of five cognitive tests that are sensitive to age-related changes. Physical functioning was assessed by an activities of daily living score and by physical performance tests (grip strength, chair stand, and gait speed). Findings The chance of surviving from birth to age 93 years was 28% higher in the 1915 cohort than in the 1905 cohort (6·50% vs 5·06%), and the chance of reaching 95 years was 32% higher in 1915 cohort (3·93% vs 2·98%). The 1915 cohort scored significantly better on the mini-mental state examination than did the 1905 cohort (22·8 [SD 5·6] vs 21·4 [6·0]; p<0·0001), with a substantially higher proportion of participants obtaining maximum scores (28–30 points; 277 [23%] vs 235 [13%]; p<0·0001). Similarly, the cognitive composite score was significantly better in the 1915 than in the 1905 cohort (0·49 [SD 3·6] vs 0·01 [SD 3·6]; p=0·0003). The cohorts did not differ consistently in the physical performance tests, but the 1915 cohort had significantly better activities of daily living scores than did the 1905 cohort (2·0 [SD 0·8] vs 1·8 [0·7]; p<0·0001). Interpretation Despite being 2 years older at assessment, the 1915 cohort scored significantly better than the 1905 cohort on both the cognitive tests and the activities of daily living score, which suggests that more people are living to older ages with better overall functioning. Funding Danish National Research Foundation; US National Institutes of Health—National Institute on Aging; Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation; VELUX Foundation. PMID:23849796

  7. Cognitive functioning in idiopathic generalised epilepsies: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Loughman, A; Bowden, S C; D'Souza, W

    2014-06-01

    Cognitive function in idiopathic generalised epilepsies (IGE) is of increasing research attention. Current research seeks to understand phenotypic traits associated with this most common group of inherited epilepsies and evaluate educational and occupational trajectories. A specific deficit in executive function in a subgroup of IGE, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) has been a particular focus of recent research. This systematic review provides a quantitative synthesis of cognitive function outcomes in 26 peer-reviewed, case-control studies published since 1989. Univariate random-effects meta-analyses were conducted on seven cognitive factor-domains and separately on executive function. Patients with IGE demonstrated significantly lower scores on tests across all cognitive factor-domains except visual-spatial abilities. Effect sizes ranged from 0.42 to 0.88 pooled standard deviation units. The average reduction of scores on tests of executive function in IGE compared to controls was 0.72 standard deviation units. Contrary to current thinking, there was no specific deficit in executive function in JME samples, nor in other IGE syndromes. Of more concern, people with IGE are at risk of pervasive cognitive impairment. PMID:24631851

  8. Overweight Is Associated With Decreased Cognitive Functioning Among School-age Children and Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanfeng Li; Qi Dai; James C. Jackson; Jian Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Objective:Childhood overweight and obesity have increased substantially in the past two decades, raising concerns about their psychosocial and cognitive consequences. We examined the associations between academic performance (AP), cognitive functioning (CF), and increased BMI in a nationally representative sample of children.Methods and Procedures:Participants were 2,519 children aged 8–16 years, who completed a brief neuropsychological battery and measures of height and

  9. Effects of treatment with simvastatin and pravastatin on cognitive function in patients with hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, N; Sramek, J; Veroff, A; Block, G; Stauffer, L; Lines, C

    1995-01-01

    The effects of equi-efficacious doses of the cholesterol-lowering drugs simvastatin (20 mg day-1) and pravastatin (40 mg day-1) on tests of cognitive function were investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-period (4 weeks per period), incomplete block, crossover study of 36 patients (24 per treatment) with hypercholesterolaemia. After 4 weeks neither of the active treatments differed significantly from placebo on any cognitive measure. PMID:7619678

  10. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in High-Functioning Autism: Review and Recommendations for Treatment Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey J. Wood; Cori Fujii; Patricia Renno

    \\u000a Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) who have acquired functional communication strategies – particularly more\\u000a cognitively able individuals at or beyond the elementary school age group – may be candidates for talk-based therapies similar\\u000a to those employed with children and adults with mental health disorders, such as anxiety (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy,\\u000a CBT). While talk-based therapies are widely used in

  11. Evaluation of the cognitive functions in patients with chronic renal failure before and after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Yildiz; Ozturkeri, Ovgu Anil; Benli, Ulku Sibel; Colak, Turan

    2013-06-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) and dialysis treatment affect central nervous system and studies have shown that neurocognitive dysfunctions are caused by CRF and dialysis treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in cognitive functions of CRF patients after renal transplantation. Neurocognitive functions of 40 renal transplantation patients aged 18-65 years were determined before, 6 and 12 months after transplantation between 2008 and 2010 using neuropsychological tests. Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RVLT), Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT), ADAS-cog Test, Stroop Test (ST), Digit Span Test (DST), and Trail Making Test (TMT) were applied. The test results were statistically compared taking into consideration the patients' levels of education, age, gender, donor type, duration of dialysis, dialysis type, and duration of CRF. Neuropsychological test results statistically significantly increased in all the patients after renal transplantation (p < 0.05). The female patients' RVLT test results were statistically higher than the test results of the male patients (p < 0.05). DST, RCFT, RVLT, and (Verbal Fluency Test) VFT results were statistically higher in the patients who were 33 years old or younger (p < 0.05). The patients with high school and college education had statistically significantly higher results in all the tests when compared with the patients that were elementary school graduates (p < 0.05). DST forward task, ST, and RVLT results of the patients, who had received dialysis treatment for 1 year or less, were found to be statistically higher than the results of the patients who had received dialysis for more than 1 year (p < 0.05). The results of RCFT, RVLT, DST backward task, and VFT were statistically higher in the peritoneal dialysis patients than in the hemodialysis patients (p < 0.05). The donor type and the duration of CRF had no significant effects on the results (p > 0.05). The results of this study showed significant improvement in attention, memory, executive functions, pace of data processing and language functions in CRF patients after renal transplantation, as proven with neuropsychological tests. PMID:23111774

  12. Differential improvement of cognitive functions in recovering alcoholic women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjorie S. Fabian; Oscar A. Parsons

    1983-01-01

    In Study 1, 40 long-term sober alcoholics (mean age 42.15 yrs) performed at or near the level of 40 age-matched short-term sober alcoholics on several perceptuomotor speed tasks, at the level of 70 age-matched nonalcoholic controls on several complex problem-solving measures, and intermediate to the 2 groups on most measures, suggesting a differential improvement in cognitive abilities. In Study 2,

  13. Preprint of Visser, W. (1996). Two functions of analogical reasoning in design: A cognitive-psychology approach. Design Studies.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1996-01-01

    Preprint of Visser, W. (1996). Two functions of analogical reasoning in design: A cognitive-psychology of analogical reasoning in design A cognitive-psychology approach Willemien Visser, Ergonomics Psychology of "ill- defined" problem solving, i.e. design. It examines the question from a cognitive-psychology

  14. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Activation of a Social Cognitive Neural Network and Social Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Pinkham, Amy E.; Hopfinger, Joseph B.; Ruparel, Kosha; Penn, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work examining the neurobiological substrates of social cognition in healthy individuals has reported modulation of a social cognitive network such that increased activation of the amygdala, fusiform gyrus, and superior temporal sulcus are evident when individuals judge a face to be untrustworthy as compared with trustworthy. We examined whether this pattern would be present in individuals with schizophrenia who are known to show reduced activation within these same neural regions when processing faces. Additionally, we sought to determine how modulation of this social cognitive network may relate to social functioning. Neural activation was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging with blood oxygenation level dependent contrast in 3 groups of individuals—nonparanoid individuals with schizophrenia, paranoid individuals with schizophrenia, and healthy controls—while they rated faces as either trustworthy or untrustworthy. Analyses of mean percent signal change extracted from a priori regions of interest demonstrated that both controls and nonparanoid individuals with schizophrenia showed greater activation of this social cognitive network when they rated a face as untrustworthy relative to trustworthy. In contrast, paranoid individuals did not show a significant difference in levels of activation based on how they rated faces. Further, greater activation of this social cognitive network to untrustworthy faces was significantly and positively correlated with social functioning. These findings indicate that impaired modulation of neural activity while processing social stimuli may underlie deficits in social cognition and social dysfunction in schizophrenia. PMID:18477583

  15. Generalization of Higher Order SAC to Vector Output Boolean Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaoru Kurosawa; Takashi Satoh

    1996-01-01

    . S-boxes (vector output Boolean functions) should satisfy cryptographiccriteria even if some input bits (say, k bits) are kept constant.However, this kind of security has been studied only for scalar outputBoolean functions. SAC(k) is a criterion for scalar output Boolean functionsof this type. This paper studies a generalization of SAC(k) to vectoroutput Boolean functions as the first step toward the

  16. Cognitive and academic functioning of juvenile detainees: implications for correctional populations and public health.

    PubMed

    Lansing, Amy E; Washburn, Jason J; Abram, Karen M; Thomas, Ursula C; Welty, Leah J; Teplin, Linda A

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive functioning affects health. This study assessed cognitive functioning among participants in the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a stratified random sample of 1,829 newly detained juveniles (10 to 18 years old) from Cook County, Illinois. The study examined receptive vocabulary, oral reading, arithmetic computation skills, and general intellectual abilities. The sample exhibited impaired overall intellectual functioning and deficits in all areas. Males performed more poorly than females. More than three quarters of males showed below average overall intellectual functioning, and 9 in 10 had below average receptive vocabulary skills. Hispanic and African American males performed more poorly than non-Hispanic White males. The multiple systems that serve delinquent youth--correctional, health, legal, and rehabilitative--must collaborate to tailor needed services to the cognitive level of youth in the juvenile justice system. PMID:24352405

  17. Physiologic Dysfunction Scores and Cognitive Function Test Performance in United States Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kobrosly, Roni W; Seplaki, Christopher L; Jones, Courtney M; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between a measure of cumulative physiologic dysfunction and specific domains of cognitive function. Methods We examined a summary score measuring physiological dysfunction, a multisystem measure of the body’s ability to effectively adapt to physical and psychological demands, in relation to cognitive function deficits in a population of 4511 adults aged 20 to 59 who participated in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994). Measures of cognitive function comprised three domains: working memory, visuomotor speed, and perceptual-motor speed. ‘Physiologic dysfunction’ scores summarizing measures of cardiovascular, immunologic, kidney, and liver function were explored. We used multiple linear regression models to estimate associations between cognitive function measures and physiological dysfunction scores, adjusting for socioeconomic factors, test conditions, and self-reported health factors. Results We noted a dose-response relationship between physiologic dysfunction and working memory (coefficient = 0.207, 95% CI = (0.066, 0.348), p < 0.0001) that persisted after adjustment for all covariates (p = 0.03). We did not observe any significant relationships between dysfunction scores and visuomotor (p = 0.37) or perceptual-motor ability (p = 0.33). Conclusions Our findings suggest that multisystem physiologic dysfunction is associated with working memory. Future longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms and explore the persistency of this association into later life. We suggest that such studies should incorporate physiologic data, neuroendocrine parameters, and a wide range of specific cognitive domains. PMID:22155941

  18. Cognitive Function, Habitual Gait Speed, and Late-Life Disability in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsu-Ko Kuo; Suzanne G. Leveille; Yau-Hua Yu; William P. Milberg

    2007-01-01

    Background: Both cognitive function and gait speed are important correlates of disability. However, little is known about the combined effect of cognitive function and gait speed on multiple domains of disability as well as about the role of gait speed in the association between cognitive function and late-life disability. Objective: To investigate (1) how cognition and habitual gait speed are

  19. Psychosocial functioning in patients with treatment-resistant depression after group cognitive behavioral therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miki Matsunaga; Yasumasa Okamoto; Shin-ichi Suzuki; Akiko Kinoshita; Shinpei Yoshimura; Atsuo Yoshino; Yoshihiko Kunisato; Shigeto Yamawaki

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although patients with Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD) often have impaired social functioning, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of psychosocial treatment for these patients. We examined whether adding group cognitive behavioral therapy (group-CBT) to medication would improve both the depressive symptoms and the social functioning of patient with mild TRD, and whether any improvements would be maintained over one

  20. Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome: Can We Differentiate Their Cognitive Profiles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planche, Pascale; Lemonnier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS) can be differentiated from each other and from typically developing children on their cognitive profiles. The present study included a total of 45 participants: children with autism (high-functioning autism or Asperger's…

  1. Cognitive Deficits in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder on Tests of Frontal–Striatal Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemary Purcell; Paul Maruff; Michael Kyrios; Christos Pantelis

    1998-01-01

    Background: Although neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have implicated the frontal cortex and subcortical structures in the pathophysiology of the disorder, few studies have examined cognitive function in patients with OCD on tasks validated in the assessment of frontal lobe and subcortical dysfunction.Methods: The accuracy and latency of executive and visual memory function was assessed in 23

  2. The Role of Cognitive Functions in Communication: The Case of Traumatic Brain Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Zettin; Livia Colle; Bruno G. Bara

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between cognitive functions such as attention, working memory, long-term memory, planning, i.e. executive functions, theory of mind, and pragmatic deficits resulting as a consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Communicative disorders represent a typical outcome in TBI patients, even if their linguistic abilities remain virtually intact. We empirically investigated

  3. Characterization of Everyday Functioning in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Direct Assessment Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tania Giovannetti; Brianne Magouirk Bettcher; Laura Brennan; David J. Libon; Marykate Burke; Katia Duey; Christine Nieves; Denene Wambach

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the degree and pattern of functional difficulties in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) via direct observation of everyday task performance. Methods: MCI (n = 25), mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD; n = 25), and control (n = 18) participants performed three everyday tasks of increasing complexity. Results: Although caregivers reported no functional difficulties in MCI, direct observation measures of

  4. Decomposing metaphor processing at the cognitive and neural level through functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valentina Bambini; Claudio Gentili; Emiliano Ricciardi; Pier Marco Bertinetto; Pietro Pietrini

    2011-01-01

    Prior neuroimaging studies on metaphor comprehension have tended to focus on the role of the right hemisphere, without reaching consensus and leaving aside the functional architecture of this process. The present work aimed to break down metaphor comprehension into its functional components. The study rationale is two-fold: on the one hand, the large-scale network model as emerging in cognitive neuroscience

  5. Asperger's syndrome and high-functioning autism: language, motor and cognitive profiles.

    PubMed

    Noterdaeme, Michele; Wriedt, Elke; Höhne, Christian

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the cognitive profile, the motor and language functioning and the psychosocial adaptation of children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and with high-functioning autism (HFA). Subjects were recruited through the department Autism and Developmental Disorders of the Heckscher-Klinikum. To be included in the study, the full-scale-IQ had to be at least 80. Subjects with AS had to have a normal early language development and subjects with HFA a clear delay in language development, as reported by their parents. The sample consisted of 57 children with Asperger syndrome and 55 children with high-functioning autism. The mean age of the children was 10 years. All subjects were examined with a standardised test battery. Children with AS had a higher full-scale-IQ than children with HFA. This was due to a higher verbal-IQ. There were no significant differences in the performance-IQ. At a mean age of 10 years, subjects with AS had better language skills than subjects with HFA, but at least 30% showed clear receptive language problems. Motor problems were present in about 50% of the children with AS and HFA. The level of psychosocial adaptation was clearly reduced, but was comparable for the two groups. The differences in verbal-IQ and language skills between the two groups could be explained through the definition of the syndromes. The presence of language problems in the subjects with AS at age 10, the comparable degree of motor impairment and level of psychosocial adaptation question the validity of the distinction between AS and HFA within the category of pervasive developmental disorders. PMID:19813070

  6. Information Communication Technology in the Form of an Expert System Shell as a Cognitive Tool to Facilitate Higher-Order Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Gary W.; Knoetze, Johan G.

    2014-01-01

    Information communication technology is capable of contributing supplementary teaching and learning strategies that can be used to address various educational challenges faced by higher education. Students who enter South African higher education institutions are often academically under-prepared and have not developed the cognitive skills…

  7. A Comparison of the Higher-order and Hierarchical Model of Human Cognitive Ability Structure Using Nested Models Confirmatory Factor Analysis 

    E-print Network

    Murray, Aja Louise

    2012-11-28

    Nested models confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare a higher-order and hierarchical model of human cognitive ability structure. In a higher-model the effects of g on observed subtest scores are completely mediated by lower-order, more...

  8. Physical exercise improves peripheral BDNF levels and cognitive functions in mild cognitive impairment elderly with different bdnf Val66Met genotypes.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Carla Manuela Crispim; Pereira, Jessica Rodrigues; Pires de Andrade, Larissa; Garuffi, Marcelo; Ayan, Carlos; Kerr, Daniel Shikanai; Talib, Leda Leme; Cominetti, Márcia Regina; Stella, Florindo

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of physical exercise on improvements in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and cognitive functioning have been reported in the literature. However, the variability of individual responses may be linked to genetic differences. BDNF is considered one of the most plausible factors involved in the cognitive benefits associated with physical activity practice. A single nucleotide polymorphism localized in the gene that codes BDNF results in a missense mutation that promotes an amino acid substitution (Val66Met) in the protein. This process has been associated with decreased levels of BDNF secretion, with corresponding impairments in specific cognitive functions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a multimodal physical exercise program on peripheral BDNF levels and cognitive functions in elderly individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The participants were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. Cognitive functions were assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) prior to and after the intervention. Forty-five participants were assigned to the control and trained groups. The trained group participated in a multimodal physical training for a 16-week period. The results showed a significant between-subjects interaction (p < 0.05), which indicates the beneficial contribution of training on cognitive functions independent of the BDNF genotype. However, only participants with BDNF-Met genotypes exhibited significant improvements in peripheral BDNF levels. The BDNF genotype appears to modulate the effects of physical exercise on BDNF secretion, but it does not influence cognition. This is the first study that evaluated the influence of a BDNF polymorphism on physical activity and cognition performance in elderly MCI individuals. PMID:25062900

  9. Cognitive Communication 2.0 in Higher Education: To Tweet or Not to Tweet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Antonio; Castro, Cornelia; Ferreira, Sergio Andre

    2012-01-01

    Research has been fertile in producing studies on pedagogical change and innovation through technology in Higher Education Institutions, namely the integration of the social media in pedagogical practice. However, there is a lack of studies on the integration of the social media in the particular field of lectures. In this context, commonly…

  10. Cognitive Skills in Internet-Supported Learning Environments in Higher Education: Research Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abate Bekele, Teklu

    2009-01-01

    How did Internet-supported learning environments (ISLE) impact students' critical thinking (CT) and problem solving (PS) skills in higher education? What specific indicators have been used to measure CT? What types of problems and learning approaches were chosen to assess PS skills? This paper qualitatively reviewed studies published in academic…

  11. Cognitive determinants of social functioning after a first-ever mild to moderate stroke at vocational age

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ). An extensive neuropsychological tests battery explored general cognitive functioning, episodic memory the relationships between the neuropsychological tests and the scores of the WSAS. Predicting factors of WSAS were

  12. Cognitive Functioning in Patients with Bipolar Disorder: Association with Depressive Symptoms and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    van der Werf-Eldering, Marieke J.; Burger, Huibert; Holthausen, Esther A. E.; Aleman, André; Nolen, Willem A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cognitive dysfunction is clearly recognized in bipolar patients, but the degree of impairment varies due to methodological factors as well as heterogeneity in patient populations. The goal of this study was to evaluate cognitive functioning in bipolar patients and to assess its association with depressive symptoms. Post hoc the relationship with lifetime alcohol use disorder was explored. Methodology/Principal Findings The study included 110 bipolar patients and 75 healthy controls. Patients with severe depressive symptoms, (hypo)manic symptoms and current severe alcohol use disorder were excluded. Diagnoses were evaluated via the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Cognitive functioning was measured in domains of psychomotor speed, speed of information processing, attentional switching, verbal memory, visual memory, executive functioning and an overall mean score. Severity of depression was assessed by the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-self rating. Patients were euthymic (n?=?46) or with current mild (n?=?38) or moderate (n?=?26) depressive symptoms. Cognitive impairment was found in 26% (z-score 2 or more above reference control group for at least one domain) of patients, most prominent in executive functioning (effect size; ES 0.49) and speed of information processing (ES 0.47). Depressive symptoms were associated with dysfunction in psychomotor speed (adjusted beta 0.43; R2 7%), speed of information processing (adjusted beta 0.36; R2 20%), attentional switching (adjusted beta 0.24; R2 16%) and the mean score (adjusted beta 0.23; R2 24%), but not with verbal and visual memory and executive functioning. Depressive symptoms explained 24% of the variance in the mean z-score of all 6 cognitive domains. Comorbid lifetime alcohol use (n?=?21) was not associated with cognitive dysfunction. Conclusions/Significance Cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder is more severe in patients with depressive symptoms, especially regarding speed and attention. Therefore, interpretation of cognitive functioning in patients with depressive symptoms should be cautious. No association was found between cognitive functioning and lifetime comorbid alcohol use disorder. PMID:20927392

  13. A meta-analysis of cognitive functions in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Stefanie; Müller, Carmen; Helmreich, Isabella; Huss, Michael; Tadi?, André

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative prevalence rates of major depressive disorders (MDD) in children and adolescents averages 9.5 %. The majority of adults with MDD suffer from significant cognitive deficits, but the available neuropsychological data on the cognitive performance of children and adolescents with MDD yielded mixed results. Meta-analytic methods were used to assess the severity of cognitive deficits in children and adolescents with MDD as compared to healthy children and adolescents. We identified 17 studies comparing the intelligence, executive functions, verbal memory and attention of 447 patients with DSM-IV MDD and 1,347 healthy children and adolescents. Children and adolescents with MDD performed 0.194-0.772 (p < 0.001) standard mean differences worse than healthy control subjects in neuropsychological test procedures. The most pronounced deficits of children and adolescents with MDD were seen in inhibition capacity (STD = 0.772; p = 0.002), phonemic verbal fluency (STD = 0.756; p = 0.0001), sustained attention (STD = 0.522; p = 0.000), verbal memory (STD = 0.516; p = 0.0009) and planning (STD = 0.513; p = 0.014). We revealed cognitive deficits of children and adolescents with MDD in various cognitive domains. Long-term studies should investigate how the cognitive deficits of depressed youth affect their academic and social functioning, and whether age, comorbidity and depression severity play a role in this process. PMID:24869711

  14. Interactions between default mode and control networks as a function of increasing cognitive reasoning complexity.

    PubMed

    Hearne, Luke; Cocchi, Luca; Zalesky, Andrew; Mattingley, Jason B

    2015-07-01

    Successful performance of challenging cognitive tasks depends on a consistent functional segregation of activity within the default-mode network, on the one hand, and control networks encompassing frontoparietal and cingulo-opercular areas on the other. Recent work, however, has suggested that in some cognitive control contexts nodes within the default-mode and control networks may actually cooperate to achieve optimal task performance. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether the ability to relate variables while solving a cognitive reasoning problem involves transient increases in connectivity between default-mode and control regions. Participants performed a modified version of the classic Wason selection task, in which the number of variables to be related is systematically varied across trials. As expected, areas within the default-mode network showed a parametric deactivation with increases in relational complexity, compared with neural activity in null trials. Critically, some of these areas also showed enhanced connectivity with task-positive control regions. Specifically, task-based connectivity between the striatum and the angular gyri, and between the thalamus and right temporal pole, increased as a function of relational complexity. These findings challenge the notion that functional segregation between regions within default-mode and control networks invariably support cognitive task performance, and reveal previously unknown roles for the striatum and thalamus in managing network dynamics during cognitive reasoning. Hum Brain Mapp 36:2719-2731, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25833189

  15. Prefrontal Gray Matter Morphology Mediates the Association Between Serum Anticholinergicity and Cognitive Functioning in Early Course Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Wojtalik, Jessica A.; Eack, Shaun M.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2012-01-01

    Antipsychotic and other medications used in the treatment of schizophrenia place a burden on the cholinergic subsystems of the brain, which have been associated with increased cognitive impairment in the disorder. This study sought to examine the neurobiologic correlates of the association between serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) and cognitive impairments in early schizophrenia. Neurocognitive performance on measures of memory and executive function, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and SAA assays were collected from 47 early course, stabilized outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Voxel-based morphometry analyses employing general linear models, adjusting for demographic and illness-related confounds, were used to investigate the associations between SAA, gray matter morphology, and neurocognitive impairment. SAA was related to working memory and executive function impairments. Higher SAA was significantly associated with lower gray matter density in broad regions of the frontal and medial-temporal lobes, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), hippocampus, and striatum. Lower gray matter volume in the left DLPFC was found to significantly mediate the association between SAA and working memory impairment. Disease and/or medication-related cholinergic dysfunction may be associated with brain volume abnormalities in early course schizophrenia, which may account for the association between SAA and cognitive dysfunction in the disorder. PMID:23158779

  16. Low Doses of Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Affect Cognitive Function in Elderly Japanese Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Hisanori; Sueyasu, Toshiaki; Kontani, Masanori; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Shibata, Hiroshi; Koga, Yoshihiko

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have reported that the supplementation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and arachidonic acid (ARA) improve cognitive function in the elderly. However, the doses used in these studies were higher than general dietary LCPUFA intake levels. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the effects of low doses of LCPUFA supplementation corresponding to general dietary intake on cognitive function in non-demented elderly Japanese participants. Japanese men aged 55-64 years were enrolled and randomly allocated to the placebo or LCPUFA group. Participants received 4 weeks of supplementation with LCPUFA-containing oil (DHA, 300 mg/day; EPA, 100 mg/day; and ARA, 120 mg/day) or purified olive oil as placebo. Event-related potential P300, reflecting cognitive processes, was measured before and after supplementation. A total of 113 participants completed the supplementation period, and the per-protocol analysis included 69 participants. Changes in P300 latency were significantly different between the placebo group (+13.6 msec) and the LCPUFA group (-1.8 msec) after supplementation. Significant increases in DHA (+0.9%) and ARA (+0.6%) contents in plasma phospholipids were observed in the LCPUFA group; no changes were observed in the placebo group. Dietary DHA, EPA, and ARA intake were in the normal range for Japan participants and remained unchanged during the study. These results suggest that low doses of LCPUFA supplementation have the potential to improve cognitive function in elderly Japanese men. PMID:25891115

  17. Cognitive and Kidney Function: Results from a British Birth Cohort Reaching Retirement Age

    PubMed Central

    Silverwood, Richard J.; Richards, Marcus; Pierce, Mary; Hardy, Rebecca; Sattar, Naveed; Ferro, Charles; Savage, Caroline; Kuh, Diana; Nitsch, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found associations between cognitive function and chronic kidney disease. We aimed to explore possible explanations for this association in the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a prospective birth cohort representative of the general British population. Methods Cognitive function at age 60–64 years was quantified using five measures (verbal memory, letter search speed and accuracy, simple and choice reaction times) and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the same age was estimated using cystatin C. The cross-sectional association between cognitive function and eGFR was adjusted for background confounding factors (socioeconomic position, educational attainment), prior cognition, and potential explanations for any remaining association (smoking, diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, obesity). Results Data on all the analysis variables were available for 1306–1320 study members (depending on cognitive measure). Verbal memory and simple and choice reaction times were strongly associated with eGFR. For example, the lowest quartile of verbal memory corresponded to a 4.1 (95% confidence interval 2.0, 6.2) ml/min/1.73 m2 lower eGFR relative to the highest quartile. Some of this association was explained by confounding due to socioeconomic factors, but very little of it by prior cognition. Smoking, diabetes, hypertension, inflammation and obesity explained some but not all of the remaining association. Conclusions These analyses support the notion of a shared pathophysiology of impaired cognitive and kidney function at older age, which precedes clinical disease. The implications of these findings for clinical care and research are important and under-recognised, though further confirmatory studies are required. PMID:24482683

  18. Gastrodia elata modulates amyloid precursor protein cleavage and cognitive functions in mice.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Manisha; Huang, Junjie; Lee, Yin Yeng; Chua, Doreen See Kin; Lin, Xiaoyan; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Heese, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Gastrodia elata (Tianma) is a traditional Chinese medicine often used for the treatment of headache, convulsions, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. The vasodilatory actions of Tianma led us to investigate its specific effects on memory and learning as well as on Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related signaling. We conducted a radial arm water maze analysis and the novel object recognition test to assess the cognitive functions of Tianma-treated mice. Our data show that Tianma enhances cognitive functions in mice. Further investigations revealed that Tianma enhances the ?-secretase-mediated proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (App) that precludes the amyloid-? peptide production and supports the non-amyloidogenic processing of App which is favorable in AD treatment. We hypothesize that Tianma promotes cognitive functions and neuronal survival by inhibiting ?-site App-cleaving enzyme 1 activity and promoting the neuroprotective ?-secretase activity. PMID:21788698

  19. [Alcohol induced cognitive deficits].

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elisabeth; Singewald, Evelin M; Ruepp, Beatrix; Marksteiner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies could show a complex relationship between alcohol consumption and cognition but also with processes of ageing both social and biological. Acute effects of alcohol during intoxication include clinical signs such as excitation and reduced inhibition, slurred speech, and increased reaction time but also cognitive dysfunction, especially deficits in memory functions. However, these cognitive deficits during alcohol intoxication are reversible while patients with alcohol addiction and chronic alcohol intake show severe impairments of cognitive functions especially deficits in executive functions. Frontal executive impairments in these patients include deficits in problem solving, abstraction, planning, organizing, and working memory.Additionally, gender specific deficits are relevant for the course of the disease and its concomitant health problems with female alcoholics showing a higher vulnerability for cognitive dysfunction and brain atrophy at earlier stages of alcoholism history. PMID:23868552

  20. Binge drinking and sex: effects on mood and cognitive function in healthy young volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E Hartley; Sarah Elsabagh; Sandra E File

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the mood and cognitive performance of male and female teetotal and binge drinking students. The binge drinkers had significantly lower self-ratings of trait anxiety and depression and of state alertness at the time of testing than did the teetotallers. The females had significantly higher ratings of trait and state anxiety, but there were no Sex×Bingeing interactions on

  1. Lipocalin-2 is involved in emotional behaviors and cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana C.; Pinto, Vítor; Dá Mesquita, Sandro; Novais, Ashley; Sousa, João C.; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Sousa, Nuno; Palha, Joana A.; Marques, Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    Lipocalin-2 (LCN2), an iron-related protein well described to participate in the innate immune response, has been shown to modulate spine morphology and to regulate neuronal excitability. In accordance, LCN2-null mice are reported to have stress-induced anxiety. Here we show that, under standard housing conditions, LCN2-null mice display anxious and depressive-like behaviors, as well as cognitive impairment in spatial learning tasks. These behavioral alterations were associated with a hyperactivation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and with an altered brain cytoarchitecture in the hippocampus. More specifically, we found that the granular and pyramidal neurons of the ventral hippocampus, a region described to be associated with emotion, were hypertrophic, while neurons from the dorsal hippocampus, a region implicated in memory and cognition, were atrophic. In addition, LCN2-null mice presented synaptic impairment in hippocampal long-term potentiation. Whether the LCN2 effects are mediated through modulation of the level of corticosteroids or through a novel mechanism, the present observations bring further into light this immune-related protein as a player in the fine-tuning of behavior and of synaptic activity. PMID:23908604

  2. The COgnitive-Pulmonary Disease (COgnitive-PD) study: protocol of a longitudinal observational comparative study on neuropsychological functioning of patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Cleutjens, Fiona A H M; Wouters, Emiel F M; Dijkstra, Jeanette B; Spruit, Martijn A; Franssen, Frits M E; Vanfleteren, Lowie E G W; Ponds, Rudolf W H M; Janssen, Daisy J A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intact cognitive functioning is necessary for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to understand the value of healthy lifestyle guidelines, to make informed decisions and subsequently act on it. Nevertheless, brain abnormalities and cognitive impairment have been found in patients with COPD. To date, it remains unknown which cognitive domains are affected and what the possible consequences are of cognitive impairment. Therefore, objectives of the study described are to determine neuropsychological functioning in patients with COPD, and its influence on health status, daily functioning and pulmonary rehabilitation outcome. Furthermore, structural and functional brain abnormalities and the relationship with cognitive and daily functioning will be explored. Methods and analysis A longitudinal observational comparative study will be performed in 183 patients with COPD referred for pulmonary rehabilitation and in 90 healthy control participants. Demographic and clinical characteristics, activities of daily living and knowledge about COPD will be assessed. Baseline cognitive functioning will be compared between patients and controls using a detailed neuropsychological testing battery. An MRI substudy will be performed to compare brain abnormalities between 35 patients with COPD with cognitive impairment and 35 patients with COPD without cognitive impairment. Patients will be recruited between November 2013 and November 2015. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the University Hospital Maastricht and Maastricht University (NL45127.068.13/METC 13-3-035) and is registered in the Dutch trial register. All participants will provide written informed consent and can withdraw from the study at any point in time. Assessment and home visit data material will be managed anonymously. The results obtained can be used to optimise patient-oriented treatment for cognitively impaired patients with COPD. The findings will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed journals and through research conferences. PMID:24589828

  3. Cognitive Control Network Function in Alcohol Use Disorder Before and During Treatment With Lorazepam

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Claire E.; Mayer, Andrew R.; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Ling, Josef; Dekonenko, Charlene; Cumbo, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have deficits in cognitive control, but how they change with treatment is unclear. Seven patients with AUD and anxiety from an open-label trial of disulfiram plus lorazepam performed a multisensory Stroop task during fMRI (both pre and post initiation of treatment), and were compared to nine healthy controls (HCs) (n = 16; Albuquerque, NM; years 2009–2012). Evoked BOLD signal and resting state functional connectivity were compared (HC vs. AUD; Scan 1 vs. Scan 2). AUD demonstrated hyperactivity and altered connectivity in the cognitive control network compared to HC, but treatment did not normalize function. PMID:25290463

  4. Acute alcohol effects on cognitive function in social drinkers: their relationship to drinking habits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Weissenborn; Theodora Duka

    2003-01-01

      Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Rationale. Several studies suggest that cognitive deficits seen in late stages of alcoholism are related to executive function. However,\\u000a little is known about the acute effects of alcohol on cognitive executive functions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims. The present investigation examined the acute effects of a moderate alcohol dose on tests of planning and spatial working\\u000a memory as well as on tests of

  5. Effect of the G72 (DAOA) putative risk haplotype on cognitive functions in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Andreas; Krach, Sören; Krug, Axel; Markov, Valentin; Eggermann, Thomas; Zerres, Klaus; Thimm, Markus; Nöthen, Markus M; Treutlein, Jens; Rietschel, Marcella; Kircher, Tilo

    2009-01-01

    Background In the last years, several susceptibility genes for psychiatric disorders have been identified, among others G72 (also named D-amino acid oxidase activator, DAOA). Typically, the high-risk variant of a vulnerability gene is associated with decreased cognitive functions already in healthy individuals. In a recent study however, a positive effect of the high-risk variant of G72 on verbal working memory was reported. In the present study, we therefore examined the relationship between G72 genotype status and a broad range of cognitive functions in 423 healthy individuals. Methods The G72 carrier status was assessed by the two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) M23 and M24. Subjects were divided into three risk groups (low, intermediate and high risk). Results G72 status influenced a number of cognitive functions, such as verbal working memory, attention, and, at a trend level, spatial working memory and executive functions. Interestingly, the high-risk allele carriers scored better than one or even both other groups. Conclusion Our data show that the putative high-risk haplotype (i.e. homozygote C/C-allele carriers in SNP M23 and homozygote T/T-allele carriers in SNP M24) is in healthy individuals not necessarily associated with worse performance in cognitive functions, but even with better performance in some domains. Further work is required to identify the mechanisms of G72 on brain functions. PMID:19778423

  6. Higher Plant Calreticulins Have Acquired Specialized Functions in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjing; Tintor, Nico; Prins, Daniel; Funke, Norma; Michalak, Marek; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Saijo, Yusuke; Sommarin, Marianne; Widell, Susanne; Persson, Staffan

    2010-01-01

    Background Calreticulin (CRT) is a ubiquitous ER protein involved in multiple cellular processes in animals, such as protein folding and calcium homeostasis. Like in animals, plants have evolved divergent CRTs, but their physiological functions are less understood. Arabidopsis contains three CRT proteins, where the two CRTs AtCRT1a and CRT1b represent one subgroup, and AtCRT3 a divergent member. Methodology/Principal Findings Through expression of single Arabidopsis family members in CRT-deficient mouse fibroblasts we show that both subgroups have retained basic CRT functions, including ER Ca2+-holding potential and putative chaperone capabilities. However, other more general cellular defects due to the absence of CRT in the fibroblasts, such as cell adhesion deficiencies, were not fully restored. Furthermore, in planta expression, protein localization and mutant analyses revealed that the three Arabidopsis CRTs have acquired specialized functions. The AtCRT1a and CRT1b family members appear to be components of a general ER chaperone network. In contrast, and as recently shown, AtCRT3 is associated with immune responses, and is essential for responsiveness to the bacterial Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP) elf18, derived from elongation factor (EF)-Tu. Whereas constitutively expressed AtCRT1a fully complemented Atcrt1b mutants, AtCRT3 did not. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the physiological functions of the two CRT subgroups in Arabidopsis have diverged, resulting in a role for AtCRT3 in PAMP associated responses, and possibly more general chaperone functions for AtCRT1a and CRT1b. PMID:20596537

  7. Regional cerebellar volume and cognitive function from adolescence to late middle age.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jessica A; Leopold, Daniel R; Calhoun, Vince D; Mittal, Vijay A

    2015-03-01

    Cerebellar morphology and function have been implicated in a variety of developmental disorders, and in healthy aging. Although recent work has sought to characterize the relationships between volume and age in this structure during adolescence, young, and older adulthood, there have been no investigations of regional cerebellar volume from adolescence through late middle age. Middle age in particular has been largely understudied, and investigating this period of the lifespan may be especially important for our understanding of senescence. Understanding regional patterns of cerebellar volume with respect to age during this portion of the lifespan may provide important insight into healthy aging and cognitive function as well as pathology from adolescence into later life. We investigated regional cerebellar volume using a highly novel lobular segmentation approach in conjunction with a battery of cognitive tasks in a cross-sectional sample of 123 individuals from 12 to 65 years old. Our results indicated that regional cerebellar volumes show different patterns with respect to age. In particular, the more posterior aspect of the neocerebellum follows a quadratic "inverse-U" pattern while the vermis and anterior cerebellum follow logarithmic patterns. In addition, we quantified the relationships between age and a variety of cognitive assessments and found relationships between regional cerebellar volumes and performance. Finally, exploratory analyses of sex differences in the relationships between regional cerebellar volume, age, and cognition were investigated. Taken together, these results provide key insights into the development and aging of the human cerebellum, and its role in cognitive function across the lifespan. PMID:25395058

  8. Impact of cognitive profile on social functioning in prepubescent females with Turner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lepage, Jean-François; Dunkin, Bria; Hong, David S.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2012-01-01

    Social deficits are prevalent in TS, however, the extent to which these difficulties are secondary to characteristic cognitive impairments is not well known. Here, we sought to establish the relative contribution of executive functions, visuospatial abilities and IQ to social difficulties in young girls with TS. Forty TS girls and 19 typically developing (TD) children were assessed with the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), the Motor-Free Visual Spatial test (MVPT-3), the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and an IQ test. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted with the SRS subscales as outcome variables. In a first step, the cognitive factors were entered (verbal IQ, BRIEF global score, MVPT-3 and age), followed by the group variable in a second step. In comparison to TD, TS were significantly impaired on all main measures. All six regression models with the SRS subscales were significant and revealed that global executive functions explained the largest portion of the variance on all subscales and the total score. Even after controlling for cognitive elements, the group factor still explained a significant portion of the variance of the Social Cognition, Social Awareness, and Autistic Mannerisms subscales. In contrast, the group factor was not a significant predictor of Social Motivation and Social Communication scores. These results suggest that executive dysfunction play a role in social impairments encountered in TS, but also that some specific aspects of social behavior are altered beyond what can be attributed to cognitive difficulties in this population. PMID:22372383

  9. The influence of functional fitness and cognitive training of physical disabilities of institutions.

    PubMed

    Yeh, I-Chen; Chang, Chia-Ming; Chen, Ko-Chia; Hong, Wei-Chin; Lu, Yu-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    According to an investigation done by Taiwan Ministry of the Interior in 2013, there was more than 90% of the disability care institutions mainly based on life care. Previous studies have shown that individuals can effectively improve physical and cognitive training, improved in independent living and everyday competence. The purpose of the study was to investigate influence of the intervention program applying functional fitness and cognitive training to disabled residents in the institution. The subjects were disabled persons of a care institution in southern Taiwan and were randomly divided into training and control groups, both having 17 subjects. The age of the subjects was between 56 and 98 years with a mean age of 79.08 ± 10.04 years; the subjects of training group implemented 12 weeks of training on physical and cognitive training, while the control group subjects did not have any training program. The results revealed that subjects of the training group have significantly improved their functional shoulder rotation flexibility of left and right anterior hip muscle group flexibility of right, sitting functional balance of left and right, naming, attention, delayed recall, orientation, and Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA). The study suggested developing physical fitness programs and physical and cognitive prescriptions for the disabled people of the institutions. PMID:25756064

  10. Interindividual differences in cognitive flexibility: influence of gray matter volume, functional connectivity and trait impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Müller, Veronika I; Langner, Robert; Cieslik, Edna C; Rottschy, Claudia; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive flexibility, a core aspect of executive functioning, is required for the speeded shifting between different tasks and sets. Using an interindividual differences approach, we examined whether cognitive flexibility, as assessed by the Delis-Kaplan card-sorting test, is associated with gray matter volume (GMV) and functional connectivity (FC) of regions of a core network of multiple cognitive demands as well as with different facets of trait impulsivity. The core multiple-demand network was derived from three large-scale neuroimaging meta-analyses and only included regions that showed consistent associations with sustained attention, working memory as well as inhibitory control. We tested to what extent self-reported impulsivity as well as GMV and resting-state FC in this core network predicted cognitive flexibility independently and incrementally. Our analyses revealed that card-sorting performance correlated positively with GMV of the right anterior insula, FC between bilateral anterior insula and midcingulate cortex/supplementary motor area as well as the impulsivity dimension "Premeditation." Importantly, GMV, FC and impulsivity together accounted for more variance of card-sorting performance than every parameter alone. Our results therefore indicate that various factors contribute individually to cognitive flexibility, underlining the need to search across multiple modalities when aiming to unveil the mechanisms behind executive functioning. PMID:24878823

  11. The Influence of Functional Fitness and Cognitive Training of Physical Disabilities of Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, I-Chen; Chang, Chia-Ming; Chen, Ko-Chia; Hong, Wei-Chin; Lu, Yu-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    According to an investigation done by Taiwan Ministry of the Interior in 2013, there was more than 90% of the disability care institutions mainly based on life care. Previous studies have shown that individuals can effectively improve physical and cognitive training, improved in independent living and everyday competence. The purpose of the study was to investigate influence of the intervention program applying functional fitness and cognitive training to disabled residents in the institution. The subjects were disabled persons of a care institution in southern Taiwan and were randomly divided into training and control groups, both having 17 subjects. The age of the subjects was between 56 and 98 years with a mean age of 79.08 ± 10.04 years; the subjects of training group implemented 12 weeks of training on physical and cognitive training, while the control group subjects did not have any training program. The results revealed that subjects of the training group have significantly improved their functional shoulder rotation flexibility of left and right anterior hip muscle group flexibility of right, sitting functional balance of left and right, naming, attention, delayed recall, orientation, and Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA). The study suggested developing physical fitness programs and physical and cognitive prescriptions for the disabled people of the institutions. PMID:25756064

  12. Effect of Integrated Cognitive Therapy on Hippocampal Functional Connectivity Patterns in Stroke Patients with Cognitive Dysfunction: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shanli; Jiang, Cai; Ye, Haicheng; Tao, Jing; Huang, Jia; Gao, Yanling; Lin, Zhicheng; Chen, Lidian

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to identify abnormal hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) following ischemic stroke using resting-state fMRI. We also explored whether abnormal hippocampal FC could be modulated by integrated cognitive therapy and tested whether these alterations were associated with cognitive performance. Methods. 18 right-handed cognitively impaired ischemic stroke patients and 18 healty control (HC) subjects were included in this study. Stroke subjects were scanned at baseline and after integrated cognitive therapy, while HCs were only scanned at baseline, to identify regions that show significant correlations with the seed region. Behavioral and cognitive assessments were obtained before each scan. Results. During the resting state, we found abnormal hippocampal FC associated with temporal regions, insular cortex, cerebellum, and prefrontal cortex in stroke patients compared to HCs. After integrated cognitive therapy, however, the stroke group showed increased hippocampal FC mainly located in the prefrontal gyrus and the default mode network (DMN). Altered hippocampal FC was associated with cognitive improvement. Conclusion. Resting-state fMRI may provide novel insight into the study of functional networks in the brain after stroke. Furthermore, altered hippocampal FC may be a compensatory mechanism for cognitive recovery after ischemic stroke. PMID:25548595

  13. Higher Education Is an Age-Independent Predictor of White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Control in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Kimberly G.; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S.; Grieve, Stuart M.; Brickman, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is…

  14. Does cognitive reserve shape cognitive decline?

    PubMed Central

    Marmot, Michael G; Glymour, Maria; Sabia, Séverine; Kivimäki, Mika; Dugravot, Aline

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Cognitive reserve is associated with a lower risk of dementia but the extent to which it shapes cognitive aging trajectories remains unclear. Our objective is to examine the impact of three markers of reserve from different points in the lifecourse on cognitive function and decline in late adulthood. Methods Data are from 5234 men and 2220 women, mean age 56 years (standard deviation=6) at baseline, from the Whitehall II cohort study. Memory, reasoning, vocabulary, phonemic and semantic fluency were assessed three times over 10 years. Linear mixed models were used to assess the association between markers of reserve (height, education, and occupation) and cognitive decline, using the 5 cognitive tests and a global cognitive score composed of these tests. Results All three reserve measures were associated with baseline cognitive function, with strongest associations with occupation and the weakest with height. All cognitive functions except vocabulary declined over the 10 year follow-up period. On the global cognitive test, there was greater decline in the high occupation group (?0.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): ?0.28, ?0.26) compared to the intermediate (?0.23; 95% CI: ?0.25, ?0.22) and low groups (?0.21; 95% CI: ?0.24, ?0.19); p=0.001. The decline in reserve groups defined by education (p=0.82) and height (p=0.55) was similar. Interpretation Cognitive performance over the adult lifecourse was remarkably higher in the high reserve groups. However, rate of cognitive decline did not differ between reserve groups except occupation where there was some evidence of greater decline in the high occupation group. PMID:21563209

  15. No effect of vitamin B12 treatment on cognitive function and depression: a randomized placebo controlled study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Mette Hvas; Svend Juul; Lise Lauritzen; Ebba Nexø; Jørgen Ellegaard

    2004-01-01

    Background: Associations between vitamin B-12 deficiency and impaired cognitive function and depression have been reported. Methods: A randomized placebo controlled study including 140 individuals with an increased plasma methylmalonic acid (0.40–2.00 ?mol\\/l) not previously treated with vitamin B-12. Cognitive function was assessed by the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and a 12-words learning test. Symptoms of depression

  16. Caffeine, cognitive functioning, and white matter lesions in the elderly: establishing causality from epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Karen; Artero, Sylvaine; Portet, Florence; Brickman, Adam; Muraskin, Jordan; Beaino, Ephrem; Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Carrière, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Objective The present study examines the epidemiological evidence for a causal relationship between caffeine consumption and cognitive deterioration in the elderly. Methods A population study of 641 elderly persons examining cognitive functioning, caffeine consumption, magnetic resonance imaging volumetrics and other factors known to affect cognitive performance. Results Our findings demonstrate that the association between caffeine consumption and lower cognitive change over time to be statistically significant for women only, taking into account multiple confounders, to be dose-dependent and temporarily related (caffeine consumption precedes cognitive change). Mean log transformed white matter lesion/cranial volume ratios were found to be significantly lower in women consuming more than 3 units of caffeine per day after adjustment for age (?1.23 SD=0.06) than women consuming 2–3 units (?1.04 SD=0.04) or one unit or less (?1.04 SD=0.07, ?35% in cm3 compared to low drinkers). This observation is coherent with biological assumptions that caffeine through adenosine is linked to amyloid accumulation and subsequently white matter lesion formation. Conclusions The significant relationship observed between caffeine intake in women and lower cognitive decline is highly likely to be a true causal relationship and not a spurious association. PMID:20164564

  17. Cognitive Functioning in Midlife and Old Age: Combined Effects of Psychosocial and Behavioral Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lachman, Margie E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the joint protective contribution of psychosocial and behavioral factors to cognitive functioning and 10-year change, beyond the influence of sociodemographic factors, physical risk factors, health status, and engagement in cognitive activities. Methods. Participants were from the National Study of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS), ages 32–84 at Time 2, and a subsample, the Boston Longitudinal Study (BOLOS), ages 34–84 at Time 2. We computed a composite protective measure including control beliefs, quality of social support, and physical exercise variables at two occasions, 9–10 years apart. Cognition was assessed at Time 2 in MIDUS and at both occasions in BOLOS. Multiple regressions were used for analysis. Results. In MIDUS, the more of the protective factors, the better the cognitive performance, and the protective composite moderated education differences in memory. In BOLOS, the Time 1 composite predicted change in reasoning abilities, with a greater protective effect for those with lower education. Discussion. A combination of modifiable psychosocial and behavioral factors has both concurrent and long-term protective effects on cognition in adulthood. The results are promising in that educational disparities in memory and reasoning were reduced, suggesting possible interventions to protect against cognitive declines. PMID:21743046

  18. Isolating human brain functional connectivity associated with a specific cognitive process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Michael A.; Landau, Ayelet N.; Lauritzen, Thomas Z.; Prinzmetal, William; Robertson, Lynn C.

    2010-02-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure functional connectivity among brain areas has the potential to identify neural networks associated with particular cognitive processes. However, fMRI signals are not a direct measure of neural activity but rather represent blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals. Correlated BOLD signals between two brain regions are therefore a combination of neural, neurovascular, and vascular coupling. Here, we describe a procedure for isolating brain functional connectivity associated with a specific cognitive process. Coherency magnitude (measuring the strength of coupling between two time series) and phase (measuring the temporal latency differences between two time series) are computed during performance of a particular cognitive task and also for a control condition. Subtraction of the coherency magnitude and phase differences for the two conditions removes sources of correlated BOLD signals that do not modulate as a function of cognitive task, resulting in a more direct measure of functional connectivity associated with changes in neuronal activity. We present two applications of this task subtraction procedure, one to measure changes in strength of coupling associated with sustained visual spatial attention, and one to measure changes in temporal latencies between brain areas associated with voluntary visual spatial attention.

  19. Brief report: feasibility of social cognition and interaction training for adults with high functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M; Perry, Timothy D; Dichter, Gabriel S; Bodfish, James W; Penn, David L

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with HFA adults (SCIT-A). We then conducted a pilot study to compare SCIT-A (n = 6) to treatment as usual (TAU) (n = 5) for adults with HFA. Feasibility was supported; attendance was high (92%) and satisfaction reports were primarily positive. Participants in SCIT-A showed significant improvement in theory-of-mind skills and trend level improvements in social communication skills; TAU participants did not show these improvements. Findings indicate SCIT-A shows promise as an intervention for adults with HFA. PMID:18246419

  20. The emotional fundamentals of personality and the higher affective polarities of mind. Comment on "Personality from a cognitive-biological perspective" by Y. Neuman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panksepp, Jaak; Davis, Ken

    2014-12-01

    In brain-based personality theory, two things seem certain: i) the evolved functional organization of our subcortical affective mind, and ii) the diverse potentials for developmental programming of our high cognitive minds (i.e., our initially empty - tabula rasa like - neocortical spaces are largely developmentally programed to manifest higher mental abilities). In considering these two global aspects of brain-mind functions, we can be confident that primal subcortical functions (e.g., the capacity for raw emotions/affects, evident in all vertebrate species) evolved. Indeed, ancient creatures such as lamprey eels, with whom we shared ancestry 560 million years ago, still posses most neural systems that are homologous to those that constitute our own primal affective capacities [1]. Considering that primal emotional affects arise from such systems, there appears to be some remarkable continuity in our primal mental origins. The neural foundations of human emotional feelings, long neglected by academic psychology (for lack of empirical accessibility), may contain the rudimentary neuro-affective substrates of personality [2].

  1. Cingulum correlates of cognitive functions in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease: a diffusion spectrum imaging study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Cheng; Shih, Yao-Chia; Tseng, Wen-Yih I; Chu, Yu-Hsiu; Wu, Meng-Tien; Chen, Ta-Fu; Tang, Pei-Fang; Chiu, Ming-Jang

    2014-05-01

    Diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) of MRI can detect neural fiber tract changes. We investigated integrity of cingulum bundle (CB) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (EAD) using DSI tractography and explored its relationship with cognitive functions. We recruited 8 patients with MCI, 9 with EAD and 15 healthy controls (HC). All subjects received a battery of neuropsychological tests to access their executive, memory and language functions. We used a 3.0-tesla MRI scanner to obtain T1- and T2-weighted images for anatomy and used a pulsed gradient twice-refocused spin-echo diffusion echo-planar imaging sequence to acquire DSI. Patients with EAD performed significantly poorer than the HC on most tests in executive and memory functions. Significantly smaller general fractional anisotropy (GFA) values were found in the posterior and inferior segments of left CB and of the anterior segment of right CB of the EAD compared with those of the HC. Spearman's correlation on the patient groups showed that GFA values of the posterior segment of the left CB were significantly negatively associated with the time used to complete Color Trails Test Part II and positively correlated with performance of the logical memory and visual reproduction. GFA values of inferior segment of bilateral CB were positively associated with the performance of visual recognition. DSI tractography demonstrates significant preferential degeneration of the CB on the left side in patients with EAD. The location-specific degeneration is associated with corresponding declines in both executive and memory functions. PMID:24414091

  2. Star-Product Functions in Higher-Spin Theory and Locality

    E-print Network

    M. A. Vasiliev

    2015-05-27

    Properties of the functional classes of star-product elements associated with higher-spin gauge fields and gauge parameters are elaborated. Cohomological interpretation of the nonlinear higher-spin equations is given. An algebra ${\\mathcal H}$, where solutions of the nonlinear higher-spin equations are valued, is found. A conjecture on the classes of star-product functions underlying (non)local maps and gauge transformations in the nonlinear higher-spin theory is proposed.

  3. Patterns of Spontaneous Local Network Activity in Developing Cerebral Cortex: Relationship to Adult Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Peinado, Alejandro; Abrams, Charles K.

    2015-01-01

    Detecting neurodevelop?ental disorders of cognition at the earliest possible stages could assist in understanding them mechanistically and ultimately in treating them. Finding early physiological predictors that could be visualized with functional neuroimaging would represent an important advance in this regard. We hypothesized that one potential source of physiological predictors is the spontaneous local network activity prominent during specific periods in development. To test this we used calcium imaging in brain slices and analyzed variations in the frequency and intensity of this early activity in one area, the entorhinal cortex (EC), in order to correlate early activity with level of cognitive function later in life. We focused on EC because of its known role in different types of cognitive processes and because it is an area where spontaneous activity is prominent during early postnatal development in rodent models of cortical development. Using rat strains (Long-Evans, Wistar, Sprague-Dawley and Brattleboro) known to differ in cognitive performance in adulthood we asked whether neonatal animals exhibit corresponding strain-related differences in EC spontaneous activity. Our results show significant differences in this activity between strains: compared to a high cognitive-performing strain, we consistently found an increase in frequency and decrease in intensity in neonates from three lower performing strains. Activity was most different in one strain considered a model of schizophrenia-like psychopathology. While we cannot necessarily infer a causal relationship between early activity and adult cognition our findings suggest that the pattern of spontaneous activity in development could be an early predictor of a developmental trajectory advancing toward sub-optimal cognitive performance in adulthood. Our results further suggest that the strength of dopaminergic signaling, by setting the balance between excitation and inhibition, is a potential underlying mechanism that could explain the observed differences in early spontaneous activity patterns. PMID:26098958

  4. The influence of glycemic index on cognitive functioning: a systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Philippou, Elena; Constantinou, Marios

    2014-03-01

    The impact of the rate of carbohydrate absorption, as measured by the carbohydrate's glycemic index (GI) on cognitive performance, is not clear. The aim of this review was to systematically assess the relevant research studies. A systematic review of English-language articles using Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES (up to July 2012) using the search terms "glyc(a)emic index" or "glycaemic load" combined with "cognitive function" or "cognition" or "memory" was carried out. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were prespecified. Eligibility of the identified studies was assessed independently by the 2 reviewers. Independent extraction of data was carried out by the 2 authors using predefined data fields. The primary outcome measure was the effect on cognitive function (CF) after the consumption of meals varying in GI. Eleven eligible studies were identified. The age range of the participants varied from 6 to 82 y old. Overall, the findings were inconsistent, with some studies showing benefits toward either the high-GI or the low-GI meal, others not finding any differences between the 2 meals, and other studies showing a positive or negative effect on performance on only some cognitive domain or domains after consumption of 1 of the 2 meals. A number of methodologic and confounding factors were identified that could explain these inconsistencies. These include the study design, the selected sample (size, age, blood glucose regulation), the timing of testing, the cognitive domain being examined, the number and type of cognitive tests used, the meals provided (composition, size), the timing of blood samples collected, as well as the possibility of bias because participants and investigators were not blinded to randomization. A low-GI meal may favor CF in adults, but the findings at present are inconclusive. On the basis of this review, it is suggested that future studies address the identified methodologic issues and some recommendations are proposed to this effect. PMID:24618754

  5. The Influence of Glycemic Index on Cognitive Functioning: A Systematic Review of the Evidence1

    PubMed Central

    Philippou, Elena; Constantinou, Marios

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the rate of carbohydrate absorption, as measured by the carbohydrate’s glycemic index (GI) on cognitive performance, is not clear. The aim of this review was to systematically assess the relevant research studies. A systematic review of English-language articles using Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES (up to July 2012) using the search terms “glyc(a)emic index” or “glycaemic load” combined with “cognitive function” or “cognition” or “memory” was carried out. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were prespecified. Eligibility of the identified studies was assessed independently by the 2 reviewers. Independent extraction of data was carried out by the 2 authors using predefined data fields. The primary outcome measure was the effect on cognitive function (CF) after the consumption of meals varying in GI. Eleven eligible studies were identified. The age range of the participants varied from 6 to 82 y old. Overall, the findings were inconsistent, with some studies showing benefits toward either the high-GI or the low-GI meal, others not finding any differences between the 2 meals, and other studies showing a positive or negative effect on performance on only some cognitive domain or domains after consumption of 1 of the 2 meals. A number of methodologic and confounding factors were identified that could explain these inconsistencies. These include the study design, the selected sample (size, age, blood glucose regulation), the timing of testing, the cognitive domain being examined, the number and type of cognitive tests used, the meals provided (composition, size), the timing of blood samples collected, as well as the possibility of bias because participants and investigators were not blinded to randomization. A low-GI meal may favor CF in adults, but the findings at present are inconclusive. On the basis of this review, it is suggested that future studies address the identified methodologic issues and some recommendations are proposed to this effect. PMID:24618754

  6. The massless higher-loop two-point function

    E-print Network

    Francis Brown

    2008-04-10

    We introduce a new method for computing massless Feynman integrals analytically in parametric form. An analysis of the method yields a criterion for a primitive Feynman graph $G$ to evaluate to multiple zeta values. The criterion depends only on the topology of $G$, and can be checked algorithmically. As a corollary, we reprove the result, due to Bierenbaum and Weinzierl, that the massless 2-loop 2-point function is expressible in terms of multiple zeta values, and generalize this to the 3, 4, and 5-loop cases. We find that the coefficients in the Taylor expansion of planar graphs in this range evaluate to multiple zeta values, but the non-planar graphs with crossing number 1 may evaluate to multiple sums with $6^\\mathrm{th}$ roots of unity. Our method fails for the five loop graphs with crossing number 2 obtained by breaking open the bipartite graph $K_{3,4}$ at one edge.

  7. HETEROGENEITY AND LACK OF GOOD QUALITY STUDIES LIMIT ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FOLATE, VITAMIN B-6 AND B-12, AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from rev...

  8. VITAMIN B6, B12 AND FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED TRIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from re...

  9. Functional Alterations in Brain Activation and Deactivation in Mild Cognitive Impairment in Response to a Graded Working Memory Challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Kochan; M. Breakspear; M. J. Slavin; M. Valenzuela; S. McCraw; H. Brodaty; P. S. Sachdev

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate dynamic changes in functional brain activity in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in response to a graded working memory (WM) challenge with increasing memory load. Methods: In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, 35 MCI and 22 cognitively normal subjects performed a visuospatial associative WM task with 3 load levels. Potential performance differences were controlled for

  10. Cognitive Functioning and Family Risk Factors in Relation to Symptom Behaviors of ADHD and ODD in Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Forssman; Lilianne Eninger; Carin M. Tillman; Alina Rodriguez; Gunilla Bohlin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the authors investigated whether ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors share associations with problems in cognitive functioning and\\/or family risk factors in adolescence. This was done by examining independent as well as specific associations of cognitive functioning and family risk factors with ADHD and ODD behaviors. Method: A sample of 120 adolescents from the general

  11. Cognition and the prediction of functioning in patients with a first treated episode of psychosis: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Norman, Ross M G; Carr, Jason; Manchanda, Rahul

    2015-03-01

    Past research on the role of cognitive performance in predicting later psychosocial functioning for individuals with first treated episode of a psychotic disorder has yielded inconsistent results. Several factors have been suggested as determining the strength of any such relationship including the type of functioning measured, time of the cognitive assessment, covariates included and the use of global versus specific measures of cognitive functioning. In the current study, we examined the importance of these factors in a five year prospective study of individuals with first episode psychotic disorders. Just over 80% of the sample had a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Cognitive assessments were carried out after initiation of treatment on 113 patients, and at one year for 79 patients. There was evidence that cognition predicted occupational functioning and use of a disability pension, but not a summary index of functioning or use of supervised housing, at follow-up. Overall I.Q. was a more consistent predictor than measures of specific cognitive functions, and there was evidence that cognition assessed after presentation for treatment, particularly after a year of treatment, was more predictive of later functioning than premorbid I.Q. Cognitive functioning, however, did not add to the prediction of outcomes beyond the level possible using past educational achievement or academic premorbid adjustment. PMID:25579052

  12. Brain structural, functional, and cognitive correlates of recent versus remote autobiographical memories in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Tomadesso, Clémence; Perrotin, Audrey; Mutlu, Justine; Mézenge, Florence; Landeau, Brigitte; Egret, Stéphanie; de la Sayette, Vincent; Jonin, Pierre-Yves; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Chételat, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in autobiographical memory appear earlier for recent than for remote life periods over the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study aims to further our understanding of this graded effect by investigating the cognitive and neural substrates of recent versus remote autobiographical memories in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) thanks to an autobiographical fluency task. 20 aMCI patients and 25 Healthy elderly Controls (HC) underwent neuropsychological tests assessing remote (20-to-30 years old) and recent (the ten last years) autobiographical memory as well as episodic and semantic memory, executive function and global cognition. All patients also had a structural MRI and an FDG-PET scan. Correlations were assessed between each autobiographical memory score and the other tests as well as grey matter volume and metabolism. Within the aMCI, performances for the remote period correlated with personal semantic memory and episodic memory retrieval whereas performances for the recent period only correlated with episodic memory retrieval. Neuroimaging analyses revealed significant correlations between performances for the remote period and temporal pole and temporo-parietal cortex volumes and anterior cingulate gyrus metabolism, while performances for the recent period correlated with hippocampal volume and posterior cingulate, medial prefrontal and hippocampus metabolism. The brain regions related with the retrieval of events from the recent period showed greater atrophy/hypometabolism in aMCI patients compared to HC than those involved in remote memories. Recall of recent memories essentially relies on episodic memory processes and brain network while remote memories also involve other processes such as semantic memory. This is consistent with the semanticization of memories with time and may explain the better resistance of remote memory in AD. PMID:26106572

  13. Brain structural, functional, and cognitive correlates of recent versus remote autobiographical memories in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Tomadesso, Clémence; Perrotin, Audrey; Mutlu, Justine; Mézenge, Florence; Landeau, Brigitte; Egret, Stéphanie; de la Sayette, Vincent; Jonin, Pierre-Yves; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Chételat, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in autobiographical memory appear earlier for recent than for remote life periods over the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study aims to further our understanding of this graded effect by investigating the cognitive and neural substrates of recent versus remote autobiographical memories in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) thanks to an autobiographical fluency task. 20 aMCI patients and 25 Healthy elderly Controls (HC) underwent neuropsychological tests assessing remote (20-to-30 years old) and recent (the ten last years) autobiographical memory as well as episodic and semantic memory, executive function and global cognition. All patients also had a structural MRI and an FDG-PET scan. Correlations were assessed between each autobiographical memory score and the other tests as well as grey matter volume and metabolism. Within the aMCI, performances for the remote period correlated with personal semantic memory and episodic memory retrieval whereas performances for the recent period only correlated with episodic memory retrieval. Neuroimaging analyses revealed significant correlations between performances for the remote period and temporal pole and temporo-parietal cortex volumes and anterior cingulate gyrus metabolism, while performances for the recent period correlated with hippocampal volume and posterior cingulate, medial prefrontal and hippocampus metabolism. The brain regions related with the retrieval of events from the recent period showed greater atrophy/hypometabolism in aMCI patients compared to HC than those involved in remote memories. Recall of recent memories essentially relies on episodic memory processes and brain network while remote memories also involve other processes such as semantic memory. This is consistent with the semanticization of memories with time and may explain the better resistance of remote memory in AD. PMID:26106572

  14. Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and cognitive functions in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Mendy, A; Vieira, E R; Albatineh, A N; Gasana, J

    2015-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infects one-third of the world population, but its association with cognitive functions in school-aged children is unclear. We examined the relationship between Toxoplasma seropositivity and neuropsychological tests scores (including math, reading, visuospatial reasoning and verbal memory) in 1755 school-aged children 12-16 years old who participated to the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, using multiple linear regressions adjusted for covariates. Toxoplasma seroprevalence was 7·7% and seropositivity to the parasite was associated with lower reading skills (regression coefficient [?] = -5·86, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -11·11, -0·61, P = 0·029) and memory capacities (? = -0·86, 95% CI: -1·58, -0·15, P = 0·017). The interaction between T. gondii seropositivity and vitamin E significantly correlated with memory scores. In subgroup analysis, Toxoplasma-associated memory impairment was worse in children with lower serum vitamin E concentrations (? = -1·61, 95% CI: -2·44, -0·77, P < 0·001) than in those with higher values (? = -0·12, 95% CI: -1·23, 0·99, P = 0·83). In conclusion, Toxoplasma seropositivity may be associated with reading and memory impairments in school-aged children. Serum vitamin E seems to modify the relationship between the parasitic infection and memory deficiency. PMID:25990628

  15. The impact of exercise on the cognitive functioning of healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michelle E; Loughrey, David; Lawlor, Brian A; Robertson, Ian H; Walsh, Cathal; Brennan, Sabina

    2014-07-01

    Data from epidemiological, cross-sectional, and neuroimaging research show a relationship between higher levels of exercise and reduced risk of cognitive decline but evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is less consistent. This review examines the impact of aerobic exercise, resistance training, and Tai Chi on the cognitive function of older adults without known cognitive impairment. We investigate explanations for inconsistent results across trials and discrepancies between evidence from RCTs and other research data. Twenty-five RCTs were included in the review. Meta-analysis results revealed significant improvements for resistance training compared to stretching/toning on measures of reasoning (p<0.005); and for Tai Chi compared to 'no exercise' controls on measures of attention (p<0.001) and processing speed (p<0.00001). There were no significant differences between exercise and controls on any of the remaining 26 comparisons. Results should be interpreted with caution however as differences in participant profiles, study design, exercise programmes, adherence rates, and outcome measures contribute to both discrepancies within the exercise research literature and inconsistent results across trials. PMID:24862109

  16. Assessment of Differential Item Functioning under Cognitive Diagnosis Models: The DINA Model Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaomin; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of differential item functioning (DIF) is routinely conducted to ensure test fairness and validity. Although many DIF assessment methods have been developed in the context of classical test theory and item response theory, they are not applicable for cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs), as the underlying latent attributes of CDMs are…

  17. Early Maternal and Child Influences on Children's Later Independent Cognitive and Social Functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan H. Landry; Karen E. Smith; Paul R. Swank; Cynthia L. Miller-Loncar

    2000-01-01

    The present study examined whether parenting and child characteristics of 2- and 3 ? -year-old children had common paths of influence on their 4 ? -year independent cognitive and social functioning. Structural equation modeling was guided by hypotheses that assumed children's later independence is facilitated by specialized parental support in early social interactions. To address the importance of variability in

  18. Vitamin status and cognitive function in a long-term care population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lina Paulionis; Sheri-Lynn Kane; Kelly A Meckling

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ageing can be associated with poor dietary intake, reduced nutrient absorption, and less efficient utilization of nutrients. Loss of memory and related cognitive function are also common among older persons. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of inadequate vitamin status among long-term care patients and determine if an association exists between vitamin status and each of three variables;

  19. Ecologically valid support for the link between cognitive and psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Boaz; Medina, Anna Marie; Hintz, Kathryn; Weiss, Roger D.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research into the link between cognitive and psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder has examined primarily asymptomatic patients, has measured these domains concurrently, and has failed to establish convergent validity in the assessment of psychosocial dysfunction. The present study examines the relation between cognitive and psychosocial functioning at the time of discharge from hospitalization for acute mood disturbance. We obtained measures of psychosocial functioning that were both close and distant to the time of neuropsychological testing; the former from the discharging psychiatrists, and the latter from reports of formally recognized disability status, determined by persons wholly unrelated to the present research. Sixty-three patients with bipolar I disorder, hospitalized for acute mood disturbance, completed a neuropsychological test battery 24 to 48 hours prior to discharge. We compared patients with versus without formal disability status on the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale and on scores of neuropsychological tests. We also tested associations between GAF scores and cognitive test scores. Results supported the convergent validity in the measurement of psychosocial disability, underscored the robust connection between cognitive and psychosocial impairment, and highlighted the presence of this connection during an important clinical state – time of discharge from psychiatric hospitalization. PMID:20674041

  20. Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions Via Telehealth: Applications to Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy F. Sato; Lisa M. Clifford; Alan H. Silverman; W. Hobart Davies

    2009-01-01

    This integrative literature review explores the utility of telehealth, specifically videoconferencing, for the delivery of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to youth with functional abdominal pain (FAP). Children with FAP and their families encounter a number of barriers to treatment that hinder access to traditional in-clinic treatments, such as CBT. Videoconferencing may be a feasible and effective alternative to traditional services and

  1. Functional Analysis of Genes Implicated in Down Syndrome: 1. Cognitive Abilities in Mice Transpolygenic for Down

    E-print Network

    Smith, Desmond J.

    Functional Analysis of Genes Implicated in Down Syndrome: 1. Cognitive Abilities in Mice Transpolygenic for Down Syndrome Chromosomal Region-1 (DCR-1) Caroline Chabert,1,5 Marc Jamon,2 Ameziane Cherfouh Oct. 2002--Accepted 20 April 2004 Down syndrome occurs every 1/1000 births and is the most frequent

  2. Heterogeneity in the Pharmacological Treatment of Children With ADHD: Cognitive, Behavioral, and Social Functioning Differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo A. Graziano; Gary R. Geffken; Ayesha S. Lall

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the extent to which children with ADHD in various medication statuses (i.e., medication naïve, pure stimulant, stimulant plus another medication, nonstimulants) varied on cognitive or academic, behavioral, and social functioning during a psychoeducational assessment battery. Method: Participants for this study consisted of 66 children (20 girls) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.)

  3. Breakfast Staple Types Affect Brain Gray Matter Volume and Cognitive Function in Healthy Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuyuki Taki; Hiroshi Hashizume; Yuko Sassa; Hikaru Takeuchi; Michiko Asano; Kohei Asano; Ryuta Kawashima; Maria A. Deli

    2010-01-01

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according

  4. Genetic Influences on Cognitive Function Using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Jamie J.; MacGregor, Alex J.; Cherkas, Lynn F.; Spector, Tim D.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic relationship between intelligence and components of cognition remains controversial. Conflicting results may be a function of the limited number of methods used in experimental evaluation. The current study is the first to use CANTAB (The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery). This is a battery of validated computerised…

  5. Antibodies to Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Associated with Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Shirts, Brian H.; Pogue-Geile, Michael F.; Dickerson, Faith; Yolken, Robert H.; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment in the form of decreased working memory and executive functions has been recognized as a key deficit in schizophrenia. Neurotropic viruses have been associated with focal gray matter deficits in patients with schizophrenia. We evaluated whether such agents alter cognitive function in schizophrenia. Methods The sample consisted of 329 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. We evaluated associations between exposure to selected agents (Herpes Simplex Viruses 1 and 2 (HSV1, HSV2 respectively) cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Toxoplasma gondii) and scores on the Trail Making Test (TMT), controlling for relevant variables. Results Serological evidence of exposure to CMV was associated with impaired performance on TMT part A time to completion (p=0.044), a measure of visual search, working memory, and psychomotor speed. Both CMV and HSV1 were significantly associated with increased errors on TMT part B (p<0.001 for both viruses). HSV2 and Toxoplasma gondii exposure measures were not associated with any of the cognitive functions evaluated using TMT. Conclusions Both CMV and HSV1 are associated with impaired cognitive function in schizophrenia as measured by the TMT. Further analyses to evaluate the impact of other illness related variables including genetic variants are warranted. PMID:18801645

  6. School Readiness: Integrating Cognition and Emotion in a Neurobiological Conceptualization of Children's Functioning at School Entry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Clancy

    2002-01-01

    Examines the construct of emotionality, developmental relations between cognition and emotion, and neural plasticity and frontal cortical functioning. Proposes a developmental neurobiological model of self-regulation skills development, noting implications for children's school readiness. Suggests direct links among emotionality, use-dependent…

  7. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Functional Mapping of the Auditory Midbrain during Mate

    E-print Network

    Fernald, Russell

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Functional Mapping of the Auditory Midbrain during Mate Call Reception patterns of neural activity as assayed by changes in gene expression to localize representation of acoustic egr-1 induction in response to the acoustic stimuli occurred in the laminar, midline, and principal

  8. Parental Family Stress during Pregnancy and Cognitive Functioning in Early Childhood: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrichs, Jens; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Kok, Rianne; Ftitache, Bouchra; Schmidt, Henk G.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether parental family stress during pregnancy is associated with cognitive functioning in early childhood in a population-based cohort (n = 3139). Family stress was assessed using the Family Assessment Device at the 20th week of pregnancy and was reported by mothers and fathers. Mothers completed the MacArthur Communicative…

  9. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Cognitive Function: Implications for Psychiatric Disorders

    E-print Network

    Silva, Alcino

    Alcino J. Silva, Ype Elgersma, and Rui M. Costa Recent studies on the molecular and cellular basis function are likely to be at the heart of many cognitive and emotional processes in humans. Therefore cloned, these genes can be manipulated in different ways in mice. Here, we will review recent studies

  10. Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Relation to Cognitive and Functional Outcome of Traumatic Brain Injury in Children

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Harvey S.; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Chu, Zili; Yallampalli, Ragini; Hanten, Gerri R.; Li, Xiaoqi; Chia, Jon; Vasquez, Carmen; Hunter, Jill V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relation of white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to cognitive and functional outcome of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. Design Prospective observational study of children who had sustained moderate to severe TBI and a comparison group of children who had sustained orthopedic injury (OI). Participants Thirty-two children who had sustained moderate to severe TBI and 36 children with OI were studied. Methods Fiber tracking analysis of DTI acquired at 3-month postinjury and assessment of global outcome and cognitive function within 2 weeks of brain imaging. Global outcome was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale and the Flanker task was used to measure cognitive processing speed and resistance to interference. Results Fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient values differentiated the groups and both cognitive and functional outcome measures were related to the DTI findings. Dissociations were present wherein the relation of Fractional anisotropy to cognitive performance differed between the TBI and OI groups. A DTI composite measure of white matter integrity was related to global outcome in the children with TBI. Conclusions DTI is sensitive to white matter injury at 3 months following moderate to severe TBI in children, including brain regions that appear normal on conventional magnetic resonance imaging. DTI measures reflecting diffusion of water parallel and perpendicular to white matter tracts as calculated by fiber tracking analysis are related to global outcome, cognitive processing speed, and speed of resolving interference in children with moderate to severe TBI. Longitudinal data are needed to determine whether these relations between DTI and neurobehavioral outcome of TBI in children persist at longer follow-up intervals. PMID:18650764

  11. Motor functioning, exploration, visuospatial cognition and language development in preschool children with autism.

    PubMed

    Hellendoorn, Annika; Wijnroks, Lex; van Daalen, Emma; Dietz, Claudine; Buitelaar, Jan K; Leseman, Paul

    2015-04-01

    In order to understand typical and atypical developmental trajectories it is important to assess how strengths or weaknesses in one domain may be affecting performance in other domains. This study examined longitudinal relations between early fine motor functioning, visuospatial cognition, exploration, and language development in preschool children with ASD and children with other developmental delays/disorders. The ASD group included 63 children at T1 (Mage = 27.10 months, SD = 8.71) and 46 children at T2 (Mage = 45.85 months, SD = 7.16). The DD group consisted of 269 children at T1 (Mage = 17.99 months, SD = 5.59), and 121 children at T2 (Mag e= 43.51 months, SD = 3.81). A subgroup nested within the total sample was randomly selected and studied in-depth on exploratory behavior. This group consisted of 50 children, 21 children with ASD (Mage = 27.57, SD = 7.09) and 29 children with DD (Mage = 24.03 months, SD = 6.42). Fine motor functioning predicted language in both groups. Fine motor functioning was related to visuospatial cognition in both groups and related to object exploration, spatial exploration, and social orientation during exploration only in the ASD group. Visuospatial cognition and all exploration measures were related to both receptive and expressive language in both groups. The findings are in line with the embodied cognition theory, which suggests that cognition emerges from and is grounded in the bodily interactions of an agent with the environment. This study emphasizes the need for researchers and clinicians to consider cognition as emergent from multiple interacting systems. PMID:25635383

  12. Characterizing cognitive aging of working memory and executive function in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Bizon, Jennifer L.; Foster, Thomas C.; Alexander, Gene E.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2012-01-01

    Executive functions supported by prefrontal cortical (PFC) systems provide essential control and planning mechanisms to guide goal-directed behavior. As such, age-related alterations in executive functions can mediate profound and widespread deficits on a diverse array of neurocognitive processes. Many of the critical neuroanatomical and functional characteristics of prefrontal cortex are preserved in rodents, allowing for meaningful cross species comparisons relevant to the study of cognitive aging. In particular, as rodents lend themselves to genetic, cellular and biochemical approaches, rodent models of executive function stand to significantly contribute to our understanding of the critical neurobiological mechanisms that mediate decline of executive processes across the lifespan. Moreover, rodent analogs of executive functions that decline in human aging represent an essential component of a targeted, rational approach for developing and testing effective treatment and prevention therapies for age-related cognitive decline. This paper reviews behavioral approaches used to study executive function in rodents, with a focus on those assays that share a foundation in the psychological and neuroanatomical constructs important for human aging. A particular emphasis is placed on behavioral approaches used to assess working memory and cognitive flexibility, which are sensitive to decline with age across species and for which strong rodent models currently exist. In addition, other approaches in rodent behavior that have potential for providing analogs to functions that reliably decline to human aging (e.g., information processing speed) are discussed. PMID:22988438

  13. Association between functional performance and executive cognitive functions in an elderly population including patients with low ankle–brachial index

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Naomi Vidal; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; da Costa, Danielle Irigoyen; dos Santos, Fernando; Costa, Fernando Oliveira; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral arterial disease, as measured by the ankle–brachial index (ABI), is prevalent among the elderly, and is associated with functional performance, assessed by the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Executive cognitive function (ECF) impairments are also prevalent in this population, but no existing study has investigated the association between ECF and functional performance in an elderly population including individuals with low ABI. Aim To investigate the association between functional performance, as measured by the 6MWT, and loss in ECF, in an elderly sample including individuals with low ABI. Method The ABI group was formed by 26 elderly individuals with low ABI (mean ABI: 0.63±0.19), and the control group was formed by 40 elderly individuals with normal ABI (mean ABI: 1.08±0.07). We analyzed functional performance using the 6MWT, global cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and ECF using the Digit Span for assessing attention span and working memory, the Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT) for assessing information processing speed and inhibitory control/impulsivity, and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) for assessing semantic verbal fluency and phonemic verbal fluency. We also used a factor analysis on all of the ECF tests (global ECF). Results Before adjustment, the ABI group performed worse on global cognition, attention span, working memory, inhibitory control/impulsivity, semantic verbal fluency, and phonemic verbal fluency. After adjustment, the ABI group performance remained worse for working memory and semantic verbal fluency. In a simple correlation analysis including all of the subjects, the 6MWT was associated with global cognition, attention span, working memory, information processing speed, inhibitory control/impulsivity, semantic verbal fluency, and global ECF. After adjustment, all the associations remained statistically significant. Conclusion This study found an independent association between functional performance and ECF in an elderly population including low ABI individuals, showing that, in elderly populations with functional impairment, ECF may also be impaired. PMID:26005338

  14. Association of creative achievement with cognitive flexibility by a combined voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qunlin; Yang, Wenjing; Li, Wenfu; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Haijiang; Lei, Qiao; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2014-11-15

    Although researchers generally concur that creativity involves the production of novel and useful products, the neural basis of creativity remains elusive due to the complexity of the cognitive processes involved. Recent studies have shown that highly creative individuals displayed more cognitive flexibility. However, direct evidence supporting the relationship between creativity and cognitive flexibility has rarely been investigated using both structural and functional neuroimaging techniques. We used a combined voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) analysis to investigate the relationship between individual creativity ability assessed by the creative achievement questionnaire (CAQ), and regional gray matter volume (GMV), as well as intrinsic functional connectivity. Results showed that CAQ scores negatively correlated with GMV in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the bilateral dorsal ACC (dACC) extending to supplementary motor area, but positively correlated with GMV in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Further functional connectivity analysis revealed that higher creative achievement was inversely associated with the strength of rsFC between the dACC and medial superior frontal gyrus (mSFG), right middle frontal gyrus, and left orbito-frontal insula. Moreover, the association between the dACC-mSFG connectivity and CAQ scores was mediated by cognitive flexibility, assessed by a task-switching paradigm. These findings indicate that individual differences in creative achievement are associated with both brain structure and corresponding intrinsic functional connectivity involved in cognitive flexibility and deliberate creative processing. Furthermore, dACC-mSFG connectivity may affect creative achievement through its impact on cognitive flexibility. PMID:25123973

  15. Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning after Liver Transplantation for Maple Syrup Urine Disease: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Shellmer, D. A.; Dabbs, A. DeVito; Dew, M. A.; Noll, R. B.; Feldman, H.; Strauss, K.; Morton, D. H.; Vockley, G.; Mazariegos, G. V.

    2011-01-01

    MSUD is a complex metabolic disorder that has been associated with central nervous system damage, developmental delays, and neurocognitive deficits. Although liver transplantation provides a metabolic cure for MSUD, changes in cognitive and adaptive functioning following transplantation have not been investigated. In this report we present data from 14 patients who completed cognitive and adaptive functioning testing pre- and one year and/or three years post-liver transplantation. Findings show either no significant change or improvement in IQ scores pre- to post-liver transplantation. Greater variability was observed in adaptive functioning scores, but the majority of patients evidenced either no significant change or improvement in adaptive scores. In general, findings may indicate that liver transplantation curtails additional central nervous system damage and neurocognitive decline providing an opportunity for stabilization or improvement in functioning. PMID:20946191

  16. Social Cognition in Anorexia Nervosa: Evidence of Preserved Theory of Mind and Impaired Emotional Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Adenzato, Mauro; Todisco, Patrizia; Ardito, Rita B.

    2012-01-01

    Background The findings of the few studies that have to date investigated the way in which individuals with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) navigate their social environment are somewhat contradictory. We undertook this study to shed new light on the social-cognitive profile of patients with AN, analysing Theory of Mind and emotional functioning. Starting from previous evidence on the role of the amygdala in the neurobiology of AN and in the social cognition, we hypothesise preserved Theory of Mind and impaired emotional functioning in patients with AN. Methodology Thirty women diagnosed with AN and thirty-two women matched for education and age were involved in the study. Theory of Mind and emotional functioning were assessed with a set of validated experimental tasks. A measure of perceived social support was also used to test the correlations between this dimension and the social-cognitive profile of AN patients. Principal Findings The performance of patients with AN is significantly worse than that of healthy controls on tasks assessing emotional functioning, whereas patients’ performance is comparable to that of healthy controls on the Theory of Mind task. Correlation analyses showed no relationship between scores on any of the social-cognition tasks and either age of onset or duration of illness. A correlation between social support and emotional functioning was found. This latter result seems to suggest a potential role of social support in the treatment and recovery of AN. Conclusions The pattern of results followed the experimental hypothesis. They may be useful to help us better understand the social-cognitive profile of patients with AN and to contribute to the development of effective interventions based on the ways in which patients with AN actually perceive their social environment. PMID:22952975

  17. Brain Morphometry and Cognitive Performance in Detoxified Alcohol-Dependents with Preserved Psychosocial Functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Chanraud; Catherine Martelli; Francoise Delain; Nikoletta Kostogianni; Gwenaelle Douaud; Henri-Jean Aubin; Michel Reynaud; Jean-Luc Martinot

    2007-01-01

    The extent of structural brain damage and related cognitive deficits has been little described in alcohol-dependent individuals with preserved social functioning. Thus, we investigated the relationship between regional alterations, executive performance, and drinking history. Volumes of gray and white matter were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry in healthy men and in detoxified alcohol-dependent men with good psychosocial functioning.

  18. A diet based on multiple functional concepts improves cognitive performance in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Disorders such as the metabolic syndrome (MetS), impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes, are associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Also several of the individual key features that define the MetS, e.g. hypertension, impaired glucose regulation, dyslipidemia, obesity, and inflammation, are related to an increased risk of cognitive decline. Consequently, a diet that prevents metabolic disorders might be expected to prevent cognitive decline. The purpose of the present study was to, in overweight but otherwise healthy subjects, investigate effects on cognitive functions of a dietary regime combining multiple functional concepts potentially beneficial to risk markers associated with MetS. The purpose was in addition to evaluate cognitive performance in relation to results on cardiometabolic risk variables (BMI, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, lipoprotein A-1 and B, hs-CRP, HbA1c, interleukin-6, TNF-?, and PAI-1). Methods Fourty-four healthy women and men (50–73 years, BMI 25–33, fasting glycemia???6.1 mmol/L) participated in a randomized, controlled crossover intervention, comparing a multifunctional diet (active diet (AD)) including foods with a potential anti-inflammatory action, with a control diet (CD) devoid of the “active” components. Both diets were composed in close agreement with the Nordic dietary recommendations. Each diet was consumed during 4 wk, separated by a 4 wk washout period. Cognitive tests were performed at fasting and in the postprandial period after a standardized breakfast, after each diet period. Results In comparison with the CD, the AD improved performance in the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning test (recognition test, p?cognitive tests was inversely associated with plasma concentrations of cardiometabolic risk markers (fasting cholesterol, blood glucose, blood pressure) and cardiovascular risk scores (Framingham and Reynols), and positivly associated with apolipoprotein A1 (p?cognitive performance. A relationship seems to exist between cardiometabolic risk markers and cognitive performance in apparently healthy subjects. The results provide additional motives for diet based prevention of metabolic disturbances related to the MetS. PMID:23855966

  19. Functional Brain Networks Associated with Cognitive Control, Cocaine Dependence and Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Worhunsky, Patrick D.; Stevens, Michael C.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with cocaine dependence often evidence poor cognitive control. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate networks of functional connectivity underlying cognitive control in cocaine dependence and examine the relationship of the networks to the disorder and its treatment. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to fMRI data to investigate if regional activations underlying cognitive control processes operate in functional networks, and whether these networks relate to performance and treatment outcome measures in cocaine dependence. Twenty patients completed a Stroop task during fMRI prior to entering outpatient treatment and were compared to 20 control participants. ICA identified five distinct functional networks related to cognitive control interference events. Cocaine-dependent patients displayed differences in performance-related recruitment of three networks. Reduced involvement of a “top-down” fronto-cingular network contributing to conflict monitoring correlated with better treatment retention. Greater engagement of two “bottom-up” subcortical and ventral prefrontal networks related to cue-elicited motivational processing correlated with abstinence during treatment. The identification of subcortical networks linked to cocaine abstinence and cortical networks to treatment retention suggests that specific circuits may represent important, complementary targets in treatment development for cocaine dependence. PMID:22775772

  20. Anemoside A3 Enhances Cognition through the Regulation of Synaptic Function and Neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Ip, Fanny Cf; Fu, Wing-Yu; Cheng, Elaine Yl; Tong, Estella Ps; Lok, Ka-Chun; Liang, Yan; Ye, Wen-Cai; Ip, Nancy Y

    2015-07-01

    Compounds that have the ability to both strengthen synaptic function and facilitate neuroprotection are valuable cognitive enhancers that may improve health and quality of life, as well as retard age-related cognitive deterioration. Medicinal plants are an abundant source of potential cognitive enhancers. Here we report that anemoside A3 (AA3) isolated from Pulsatilla chinensis modulates synaptic connectivity in circuits central to memory enhancement. AA3 specifically modulates the function of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) by increasing serine phosphorylation within the GluA1 subunit, which is a modification required for the trafficking of GluA1-containing AMPARs to synapses. Furthermore, AA3 administration activates several synaptic signaling molecules and increases protein expressions of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor and monoamine neurotransmitters in the mouse hippocampus. In addition to acting through AMPARs, AA3 also acts as a non-competitive NMDA receptor (NMDAR) modulator with a neuroprotective capacity against ischemic brain injury and overexcitation in rats. These findings collectively suggest that AA3 possesses a unique ability to modulate the functions of both AMPARs and NMDARs. Concordantly, behavioral studies indicate that AA3 not only facilitates hippocampal long-term potentiation but also enhances spatial reference memory formation in mice. These multifaceted roles suggest that AA3 is an attractive candidate for further development as a cognitive enhancer capable of alleviating memory dysfunctions associated with aging and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25649278

  1. Degree of Composition of Highly Nonlinear Functions and Applications to Higher Order

    E-print Network

    Canteaut, Anne

    of such functions enable to find a new upper bound for the degree of the product of its Boolean components using an almost bent substitution function. We also show that the use of such a function is precisely, higher order differential cryptanalysis, Boolean functions, nonlinearity. 1 Introduction The development

  2. Mild Cognitive Impairment and Everyday Function: An Investigation of Driving Performance

    PubMed Central

    Wadley, Virginia G.; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Crowe, Michael; Vance, David E.; Elgin, Jennifer M.; Ball, Karlene K.; Owsley, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) involves subtle functional losses that may include decrements in driving skills. We compared 46 participants with MCI to 59 cognitively normal controls on a driving evaluation conducted by a driving rehabilitation specialist who was blinded to participants’ MCI classification. Participants with MCI demonstrated significantly lower performance than controls on ratings of global and discrete driving maneuvers, but these differences were not at the level of frank impairments. Rather, performance was simply less than optimal, which to a lesser degree was also characteristic of a subset of the cognitively normal control group. The finding of significantly lower global driving ratings, coupled with the increased incidence of dementia among people with MCI and the known impact of dementia on driving safety, suggests the need for increased vigilance among clinicians, family members, and individuals with MCI for initially benign changes in driving that may become increasingly problematic over time. PMID:19196629

  3. Higher education delays and shortens cognitive impairment. A multistate life table analysis of the US Health and Retirement Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mieke Reuser; Frans J. Willekens; L. G. A. Bonneux

    2011-01-01

    Improved health may extend or shorten the duration of cognitive impairment by postponing incidence or death. We assess the\\u000a duration of cognitive impairment in the US Health and Retirement Study (1992–2004) by self reported BMI, smoking and levels\\u000a of education in men and women and three ethnic groups. We define multistate life tables by the transition rates to cognitive\\u000a impairment,

  4. Social Cognition as a Mediator between Neurocognition and Functional Outcome in Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Barbato, Mariapaola; Liu, Lu; Penn, David L.; Keefe, Richard S.E.; Perkins, Diana O.; Woods, Scott W.; Addington, Jean

    2013-01-01

    In schizophrenia, neurocognition, social cognition and functional outcome are all inter-related, with social cognition mediating the impact that impaired neurocognition has on functional outcome. Less clear is the nature of the relationship between neurocognition, social cognition and functional outcome in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. 137 CHR participants completed a neurocognitive test battery, a battery of social cognition tasks and the Social Functioning Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that all social cognition tasks were reliable and valid measures of the latent variable. The path from neurocognition to functioning was statistically significant (standardized coefficient ? = 0.22, p <0.01). The path from social cognition to functioning was also statistically significant (?= 0.27, p<0.05). In the mediation model the bootstrapping estimate revealed a nonsignificant indirect effect that was the association of social cognition with neurocognition and with functional outcome (? =0.20, 95% CI =?0.07 to 0.52, p=0.11). However, social cognition was significantly associated with neurocognition (? = 0.80, p < 0.001) and the path from neurocognition to functioning was no longer significant as soon as the mediator (social cognition) was entered into the mediation model (? = 0.02, p = 0.92). All of the model fit indices were very good. Unlike what has been observed with psychotic patients, social cognition does not seem to mediate the pathway from neurocognition to functional outcome when assessed with a measure of social attainment in individuals at CHR for psychosis. PMID:24012459

  5. Selective impairment of cognitive empathy for moral judgment in adults with high functioning autism

    PubMed Central

    Torralva, Teresa; Rattazzi, Alexia; Marenco, Victoria; Roca, María; Manes, Facundo

    2013-01-01

    Faced with a moral dilemma, conflict arises between a cognitive controlled response aimed at maximizing welfare, i.e. the utilitarian judgment, and an emotional aversion to harm, i.e. the deontological judgment. In the present study, we investigated moral judgment in adult individuals with high functioning autism/Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS), a clinical population characterized by impairments in prosocial emotions and social cognition. In Experiment 1, we compared the response patterns of HFA/AS participants and neurotypical controls to moral dilemmas with low and high emotional saliency. We found that HFA/AS participants more frequently delivered the utilitarian judgment. Their perception of appropriateness of moral transgression was similar to that of controls, but HFA/AS participants reported decreased levels of emotional reaction to the dilemma. In Experiment 2, we explored the way in which demographic, clinical and social cognition variables including emotional and cognitive aspects of empathy and theory of mind influenced moral judgment. We found that utilitarian HFA/AS participants showed a decreased ability to infer other people’s thoughts and to understand their intentions, as measured both by performance on neuropsychological tests and through dispositional measures. We conclude that greater prevalence of utilitarianism in HFA/AS is associated with difficulties in specific aspects of social cognition. PMID:22689217

  6. Selective impairment of cognitive empathy for moral judgment in adults with high functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Torralva, Teresa; Rattazzi, Alexia; Marenco, Victoria; Roca, María; Manes, Facundo

    2013-10-01

    Faced with a moral dilemma, conflict arises between a cognitive controlled response aimed at maximizing welfare, i.e. the utilitarian judgment, and an emotional aversion to harm, i.e. the deontological judgment. In the present study, we investigated moral judgment in adult individuals with high functioning autism/Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS), a clinical population characterized by impairments in prosocial emotions and social cognition. In Experiment 1, we compared the response patterns of HFA/AS participants and neurotypical controls to moral dilemmas with low and high emotional saliency. We found that HFA/AS participants more frequently delivered the utilitarian judgment. Their perception of appropriateness of moral transgression was similar to that of controls, but HFA/AS participants reported decreased levels of emotional reaction to the dilemma. In Experiment 2, we explored the way in which demographic, clinical and social cognition variables including emotional and cognitive aspects of empathy and theory of mind influenced moral judgment. We found that utilitarian HFA/AS participants showed a decreased ability to infer other people's thoughts and to understand their intentions, as measured both by performance on neuropsychological tests and through dispositional measures. We conclude that greater prevalence of utilitarianism in HFA/AS is associated with difficulties in specific aspects of social cognition. PMID:22689217

  7. Influence of cognitive function on speech and articulation rate in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Jonathan D; Tjaden, Kris; Feenaughty, Lynda; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph H B

    2013-02-01

    We examined cognitive predictors of speech and articulation rate in 50 individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 23 healthy controls. We measured speech and articulation rate from audio-recordings of participants reading aloud and talking extemporaneously on a topic of their choice (i.e., self-generated speech). Articulation rate was calculated for each speech sample by removing lexically irrelevant vocalizations and pauses of >200 ms. Speech rate was similarly calculated including pauses. Concurrently, the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis (MACFIMS) battery, as well as standardized tests of sentence intelligibility and syllable repetition were administered. Analysis of variance showed that MS patients were slower on three of the four rate measures. Greater variance in rate measures was accounted for by cognitive variables for the MS group than controls. An information processing speed composite, as measured by the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), was the strongest predictor among cognitive tests. A composite of memory tests related to self-generated speech, above and beyond information processing speed, but not to oral reading. Self-generated speech, in this study, was not found to relate more strongly to cognitive tests than simple reading. Implications for further research are discussed. PMID:23058309

  8. Short-term study on the effects of rosemary on cognitive function in an elderly population.

    PubMed

    Pengelly, Andrew; Snow, James; Mills, Simon Y; Scholey, Andrew; Wesnes, Keith; Butler, Leah Reeves

    2012-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has traditional reputations that justify investigation for a potential role in reducing widespread cognitive decline in the elderly. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, repeated-measures crossover study was conducted to investigate possible acute effects of dried rosemary leaf powder on cognitive performance. Twenty-eight older adults (mean age, 75 years) were tested using the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment system 1, 2.5, 4, and 6 hours following a placebo and four different doses of rosemary. Doses were counterbalanced, and there was a 7-day washout between visits. There was a biphasic dose-dependent effect in measures of speed of memory: the lowest dose (750 mg) of rosemary had a statistically significant beneficial effect compared with placebo (P=.01), whereas the highest dose (6,000 mg) had a significant impairing effect (P<.01). There were significant deleterious effects on other measures of cognitive performance, although these were less consistent. Speed of memory is a potentially useful predictor of cognitive function during aging. The positive effect of the dose nearest normal culinary consumption points to the value of further work on effects of low doses over the longer term. PMID:21877951

  9. A cross-sectional survey of depression, anxiety, and cognitive function in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Trento, M; Raballo, M; Trevisan, M; Sicuro, J; Passera, P; Cirio, L; Charrier, L; Cavallo, F; Porta, M

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of depression in outpatients with type 2 diabetes and its possible correlation with anxiety, cognitive function, and clinical variables. The Zung Self-Rating Depression and Anxiety Scales and the Mini-Mental-State Examination were administered to 249 non-insulin-treated (NIT) and 249 insulin-treated (IT) outpatients with type 2 diabetes, aged 40-80, in a cross-sectional survey. Compared with a reported prevalence of 6-13% in the general population, 104 (20.9%) patients had either a score indicative of depression or were on anti-depressant medication. Assuming that medication might modify the responses to questionnaires, the latter patients were excluded from further analysis. IT patients had higher age, known duration of diabetes, HbA1c, more foot ulcers, retinopathy, microalbuminuria and practised more self-monitoring of blood glucose (P < 0.01 all) but a slightly lower mean depression score (P = 0.004) and similar anxiety or cognitive function. At multivariate analysis, depression was associated with anxiety (P < 0.001), age (P < 0.001), gender (men having lower scores than women, P = 0.042), and insulin treatment, IT patients being less depressed than NIT (P < 0.001), but none of the clinical variables. Anxiety correlated with age (P < 0.001). The association between depression and anxiety became progressively weaker with increasing age. These data confirm increased prevalence of depression in a population of patients with type 2 diabetes who did not show impaired cognitive function. The lack of correlation with disease duration, metabolic control, and complications suggests that depression may not appear/worsen with diabetes and/or its complications but rather supports suggestions that it might predate both. PMID:21442429

  10. Executive Functioning in Alcoholics Following an mHealth Cognitive Stimulation Program: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Jorge; Lopes, Paulo; Brito, Rodrigo; Morais, Diogo; Silva, Diana; Silva, Ana; Rebelo, Sara; Bastos, Marta; Deus, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background The consequences of alcohol dependence are severe and may range from physical disease to neuropsychological deficits in several cognitive domains. Alcohol abuse has also been related to brain dysfunction specifically in the prefrontal cortex. Conventional neuropsychological interventions (paper-and-pencil cognitive stimulation training) have a positive effect but are time-consuming, costly, and not motivating for patients. Objective Our goal was to test the cognitive effects of a novel approach to neuropsychological intervention, using mobile technology and serious games, on patients with alcohol dependence. Methods The trial design consisted of a two-arm study assessing the cognitive outcomes of neuropsychological intervention with mobile serious games (mHealth) versus control (treatment-as-usual with no neuropsychological intervention) in patients undergoing treatment for alcohol dependence syndrome. Sixty-eight patients were recruited from an alcohol-rehab clinic and randomly assigned to the mHealth (n=33) or control condition (n=35). The intervention on the experimental group consisted of a therapist-assisted cognitive stimulation therapy for 4 weeks on a 2-3 days/week basis. Results Fourteen patients dropped out of the study. The results of the neuropsychological assessments with the remaining 54 patients showed an overall increase (P<.05) of general cognitive abilities, mental flexibility, psychomotor processing speed, and attentional ability in both experimental (n=26) and control groups (n=28). However, there was a more pronounced improvement (P=.01) specifically in frontal lobe functions from baseline (mean 13.89, SE 0.58) to follow-up (mean 15.50, SE 0.46) in the experimental group but not in the control group. Conclusions The overall increase in general cognitive function for both experimental and control groups supports the beneficial role of existing alcohol treatment protocols aimed at minimizing withdrawal symptoms, but the differential improvements observed in frontal lobe functioning supports the use of mobile serious games for neuropsychological stimulation to overcome executive dysfunction in patients with alcohol dependence. This trial was negative on two neuropsychological/cognitive tests, and positive on one. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01942954; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01942954 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6OYDqHLwB). PMID:24742381

  11. Measuring Social Returns to Higher Education Investments in Hong Kong: Production Function Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voon, Jan P.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a growth model involving an aggregate production function to measure social benefits from human capital improvements due to investments in Hong Kong higher education. Returns calculated using the production-function approach are significantly higher than those derived from the wage-increment method. Returns declined during the past 10 years.…

  12. Maximal Function Characterizations of Hardy Spaces Associated to Homogeneous Higher Order Elliptic

    E-print Network

    Mayboroda, Svitlana

    and 11361020) and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant NoMaximal Function Characterizations of Hardy Spaces Associated to Homogeneous Higher Order Elliptic Operators Jun Cao, Svitlana Mayboroda and Dachun Yang Abstract Let L be a homogeneous divergence form higher

  13. Relativistic density functional theory modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules

    E-print Network

    Titov, Anatoly

    Relativistic density functional theory modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules Andréi Zaitsevskii,1,2,a) Nikolai S. Mosyagin,2,3 Anatoly V of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules (actinide oxidation states VI through VIII) by two

  14. The use of endogenous P 300 event-related potentials of the brain for assessing cognitive functions in healthy subjects and in clinical practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Gordeev

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of higher mental functions, objective detection of cognitive impairments, and investigation of pathophysiological\\u000a mechanisms underlying these impairments in various neuropsychological diseases are of great importance for neuropsychophysiology.\\u000a The endogenous event-related potential (ERP) approach is one of the instrumental neurophysiological methods that are currently\\u000a used for assessing these complicated processes because recorded potentials reflect the intrinsic brain activity and changes

  15. Cholinergic modulation of cognition: Insights from human pharmacological functional neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Paul; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from lesion and cortical-slice studies implicate the neocortical cholinergic system in the modulation of sensory, attentional and memory processing. In this review we consider findings from sixty-three healthy human cholinergic functional neuroimaging studies that probe interactions of cholinergic drugs with brain activation profiles, and relate these to contemporary neurobiological models. Consistent patterns that emerge are: (1) the direction of cholinergic modulation of sensory cortex activations depends upon top-down influences; (2) cholinergic hyperstimulation reduces top-down selective modulation of sensory cortices; (3) cholinergic hyperstimulation interacts with task-specific frontoparietal activations according to one of several patterns, including: suppression of parietal-mediated reorienting; decreasing ‘effort’-associated activations in prefrontal regions; and deactivation of a ‘resting-state network’ in medial cortex, with reciprocal recruitment of dorsolateral frontoparietal regions during performance-challenging conditions; (4) encoding-related activations in both neocortical and hippocampal regions are disrupted by cholinergic blockade, or enhanced with cholinergic stimulation, while the opposite profile is observed during retrieval; (5) many examples exist of an ‘inverted-U shaped’ pattern of cholinergic influences by which the direction of functional neural activation (and performance) depends upon both task (e.g. relative difficulty) and subject (e.g. age) factors. Overall, human cholinergic functional neuroimaging studies both corroborate and extend physiological accounts of cholinergic function arising from other experimental contexts, while providing mechanistic insights into cholinergic-acting drugs and their potential clinical applications. PMID:21708219

  16. Beyond Language: Childhood Bilingualism Enhances High-Level Cognitive Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ágnes Melinda Kovács

    Children growing up in a bilingual environment have to build up two language systems from the linguistic input. They will use the two languages alternately as a function of their interlocutor in their everyday interaction. At a young age, a bilingual child may be faced with somewhat different requirements than a monolingual one. This chapter will discuss the possible changes

  17. Hearing aid fitting in older persons with hearing impairment: the influence of cognitive function, age, and hearing loss on hearing aid benefit

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Hartmut; Rählmann, Sebastian; Walger, Martin; Margolf-Hackl, Sabine; Kießling, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association of cognitive function, age, and hearing loss with clinically assessed hearing aid benefit in older hearing-impaired persons. Methods Hearing aid benefit was assessed using objective measures regarding speech recognition in quiet and noisy environments as well as a subjective measure reflecting everyday situations captured using a standardized questionnaire. A broad range of general cognitive functions such as attention, memory, and intelligence were determined using different neuropsychological tests. Linear regression analyses were conducted with the outcome of the neuropsychological tests as well as age and hearing loss as independent variables and the benefit measures as dependent variables. Thirty experienced older hearing aid users with typical age-related hearing impairment participated. Results Most of the benefit measures revealed that the participants obtained significant improvement with their hearing aids. Regression models showed a significant relationship between a fluid intelligence measure and objective hearing aid benefit. When individual hearing thresholds were considered as an additional independent variable, hearing loss was the only significant contributor to the benefit models. Lower cognitive capacity – as determined by the fluid intelligence measure – was significantly associated with greater hearing loss. Subjective benefit could not be predicted by any of the variables considered. Conclusion The present study does not give evidence that hearing aid benefit is critically associated with cognitive function in experienced hearing aid users. However, it was found that lower fluid intelligence scores were related to higher hearing thresholds. Since greater hearing loss was associated with a greater objective benefit, these results strongly support the advice of using hearing aids regardless of age and cognitive function to counter hearing loss and the adverse effects of age-related hearing impairment. Still, individual cognitive capacity might be relevant for hearing aid benefit during an initial phase of hearing aid provision if acclimatization has not yet taken place. PMID:25709417

  18. Associations of cigarette smoking with viral immune and cognitive function in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie Wojna; Lizbeth Robles; Richard L. Skolasky; Raul Mayo; Ola Selnes; Tania de la Torre; Elizabeth Maldonado; Avindra Nath; Loyda M. Meléndez; Jose Lasalde-Dominicci

    2007-01-01

    Cigarette smoking alters the immune system and may improve cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders. Smoking prevalence\\u000a is high in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)—infected patients; however, its effect on HIV-associated cognitive impairment\\u000a remains unknown in the era of antiretroviral treatment. The authors examined associations of smoking with viral immune profile\\u000a and cognitive function in a cohort of HIV-seropositive women. This observational

  19. Effect of exclusive breastfeeding on the development of children's cognitive function in the Krakow prospective birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica; Jankowski, Jeffrey; Butscher, Maria; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Kaim, Irena; Lisowska-Miszczyk, Ilona; Skarupa, Anita; Sowa, Agata

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to assess the effect of exclusive breastfeeding on the neurodevelopment of children over a 7-year follow-up period and to test the hypothesis that the observed cognitive gain in breastfed children in the first years of life is a strong predictor of their cognitive development trajectory, which may be continued in later life. The analysis is based on data from the 7-year follow-up of 468 term babies (>36 weeks of gestation) born to non-smoking mothers participating in an ongoing prospective cohort study. The cognitive function of children was assessed by psychometric tests performed five times at regular intervals from infancy through the preschool age. The study included valid neurodevelopmental assessment of the children-443 participants were evaluated least twice; 425, three times; and 307, five times in the follow-up period. The association between the cognitive achievements of preschool age children and exclusive breastfeeding of various durations was performed using the generalized estimating equation longitudinal model, adjusted for major confounders such as maternal education, gender, parity, and weight gain in pregnancy. Children breastfed exclusively for up to 3 months had intelligence quotients (IQs) that were on average 2.1 points higher compared to the others (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.24-3.9); children breastfed for 4-6 months scored higher by 2.6 points (95% CI, 0.87-4.27); and the benefit for children breastfed even longer (>6 months) increased by 3.8 points (95% CI, 2.11-5.45). Other predictors were maternal education, gender of the child, having an older sibling, and weight gain during pregnancy. The results of the study support the WHO expert recommendations on exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months; moreover, they provide evidence that even a shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding in early infancy produces beneficial effects on the cognitive development of children. The breastfeeding-related IQ gain observed already at the age of 1 was sustained through preschool age, and the difference in terms of IQ score between breastfed children and the reference group (mixed breastfeeding) held constant over the whole preschool period. PMID:21660433

  20. Tyr682 in the APP intracellular domain regulates synaptic connectivity, cholinergic function and cognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Matrone, Carmela; Luvisetto, Siro; La Rosa, Luca R.; Tamayev, Robert; Pignataro, Annabella; Canu, Nadia; Yang, Li; Barbagallo, Alessia P. M.; Biundo, Fabrizio; Lombino, Franco; Zheng, Hui; Ammassari-Teule, Martine; D’Adamio, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Processing of A?-precursor protein (APP) plays an important role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. The APP intracellular domain contains residues important in regulating APP function and processing, in particular the 682YENPTY687 motif. To dissect the functions of this sequence in vivo, we created an APP knock-in allele mutating Y682 to Gly (APPYG/YG mice). This mutation alters processing of APP and TrkA signaling, and leads to postnatal lethality and neuromuscular synapse defects when expressed on an APP-like protein 2 KO background. This evidence prompted us to characterize further the APPYG/YG mice. Here, we show that APPYG/YG mice develop aging-dependent decline in cognitive and neuromuscular functions, a progressive reduction in dendritic spines, cholinergic tone and TrkA levels in brain regions governing cognitive and motor functions. These data are consistent with our previous findings linking NGF and APP signaling and suggest a causal relationship between altered synaptic connectivity, cholinergic tone depression and TrkA signaling deficit, and cognitive and neuromuscular decline in APPYG/YG mice. The profound deficits caused by the Y682 mutation underscore the biological importance of APP and indicate that APPYG/YG are a valuable mouse model to study APP functions in physiological and pathological processes. PMID:23020178

  1. Tobacco smoking in treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients is associated with impaired cognitive functioning, more severe negative symptoms, and poorer social adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Iasevoli, Felice; Balletta, Raffaele; Gilardi, Valentina; Giordano, Sara; de Bartolomeis, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is common in schizophrenia patients. It has been reported that schizophrenia patients who are tobacco smokers have better cognitive performances compared to those who are nonsmokers. However, little is known on the effects of tobacco smoking in treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) patients. The aim of this study was to compare cognitive performances, psychotic symptoms, and social adjustment in tobacco smoker TRS patients compared to nonsmoker TRS patients. Smoker and nonsmoker TRS patients did not differ in demographics and in mean daily antipsychotic dose. Smoker TRS patients had significantly higher scores than nonsmoker patients on the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and on the negative symptoms subscale. These patients also performed worse than nonsmoker patients on problem-solving cognitive domain. Social adjustment was not significantly different between the two groups. In both groups of patients, worse cognitive performances were mostly predicted by higher severity of negative symptoms. Worse performances on the verbal memory and problem-solving cognitive domains were correlated with social-functioning impairment in tobacco smoker TRS patients but not in nonsmoker ones. The results showed that tobacco smoking was not significantly associated with better cognitive performances in TRS patients, while it was significantly associated with higher negative symptoms. Even if a direct causative mechanism cannot be inferred and despite the fact that these patients may use tobacco to self-medicate, it could be speculated that these associations may, at least partially, be related to a tobacco-smoking–induced worsening of abnormal dopamine dysfunction, which has been suggested to occur in TRS patients. PMID:23950651

  2. Dissociations between behavioural and functional magnetic resonance imaging-based evaluations of cognitive function after brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Bardin, Jonathan C.; Fins, Joseph J.; Katz, Douglas I.; Hersh, Jennifer; Heier, Linda A.; Tabelow, Karsten; Dyke, Jonathan P.; Ballon, Douglas J.; Schiff, Nicholas D.

    2011-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging methods hold promise for the identification of cognitive function and communication capacity in some severely brain-injured patients who may not retain sufficient motor function to demonstrate their abilities. We studied seven severely brain-injured patients and a control group of 14 subjects using a novel hierarchical functional magnetic resonance imaging assessment utilizing mental imagery responses. Whereas the control group showed consistent and accurate (for communication) blood-oxygen-level-dependent responses without exception, the brain-injured subjects showed a wide variation in the correlation of blood-oxygen-level-dependent responses and overt behavioural responses. Specifically, the brain-injured subjects dissociated bedside and functional magnetic resonance imaging-based command following and communication capabilities. These observations reveal significant challenges in developing validated functional magnetic resonance imaging-based methods for clinical use and raise interesting questions about underlying brain function assayed using these methods in brain-injured subjects. PMID:21354974

  3. Cognitive Functioning and Driving Simulator Performance in Middle-aged and Older Adults with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E.; Fazeli, Pariya L.; Ball, David A.; Slater, Larry Z.; Ross, Lesley A.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of people living with HIV experience cognitive deficits that may impact instrumental activities of daily living. As the number of people aging with HIV increases, concerns mount that disease-related cognitive deficits may be compounded by age-related deficits, which may further compromise everyday functions such as driving. In this cross-sectional pilot study, during a 2.5-hour visit, 26 middle-aged and older adults (40+ years) were administered demographic, health, psychosocial, and driving habits questionnaires; cognitive assessments; and driving simulator tests. Although CD4+T lymphocyte count and viral load were unrelated to driving performance, older age was related to poorer driving. Furthermore, poorer visual speed of processing performance (i.e., Useful Field of View) was related to poorer driving performance (e.g., average gross reaction time). Mixed findings were observed between driving performance and cognitive function on self-reported driving habits of participants. Implications for these findings on nursing practice and research are posited. PMID:24513104

  4. Effects of a cognitive training on spatial learning and associated functional brain activations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both cognitive and physical exercise have been discussed as promising interventions for healthy cognitive aging. The present study assessed the effects of cognitive training (spatial vs. perceptual training) and physical training (endurance training vs. non-endurance training) on spatial learning and associated brain activation in 33 adults (40–55 years). Spatial learning was assessed with a virtual maze task, and at the same time neural correlates were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results Only the spatial training improved performance in the maze task. These behavioral gains were accompanied by a decrease in frontal and temporal lobe activity. At posttest, participants of the spatial training group showed lower activity than participants of the perceptual training group in a network of brain regions associated with spatial learning, including the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. No significant differences were observed between the two physical intervention groups. Conclusions Functional changes in neural systems associated with spatial navigation can be induced by cognitive interventions and seem to be stronger than effects of physical exercise in middle-aged adults. PMID:23870447

  5. Functional mobility in a divided attention task in older adults with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    de Melo Borges, Sheila; Radanovic, Márcia; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Motor disorders may occur in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and at early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), particularly under divided attention conditions. We examined functional mobility in 104 older adults (42 with MCI, 26 with mild AD, and 36 cognitively healthy) using the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) under 4 experimental conditions: TUG single task, TUG plus a cognitive task, TUG plus a manual task, and TUG plus a cognitive and a manual task. Statistically significant differences in mean time of execution were found in all four experimental conditions when comparing MCI and controls (p < .001), and when comparing MCI and AD patients (p < .05). Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses showed that all four testing conditions could differentiate the three groups (area under the curve > .8, p < .001 for MCI vs. controls; area under the curve > .7, p < .001 for MCI vs. AD). The authors conclude that functional motor deficits occurring in MCI can be assessed by the TUG test, in single or dual task modality. PMID:25610990

  6. Effect of Meditation on Cognitive Functions in Context of Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Marciniak, Rafa?; Sheardova, Katerina; ?ermáková, Pavla; Hude?ek, Daniel; Šumec, Rastislav; Hort, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Effect of different meditation practices on various aspects of mental and physical health is receiving growing attention. The present paper reviews evidence on the effects of several mediation practices on cognitive functions in the context of aging and neurodegenerative diseases. The effect of meditation in this area is still poorly explored. Seven studies were detected through the databases search, which explores the effect of meditation on attention, memory, executive functions, and other miscellaneous measures of cognition in a sample of older people and people suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. Overall, reviewed studies suggested a positive effect of meditation techniques, particularly in the area of attention, as well as memory, verbal fluency, and cognitive flexibility. These findings are discussed in the context of MRI studies suggesting structural correlates of the effects. Meditation can be a potentially suitable non-pharmacological intervention aimed at the prevention of cognitive decline in the elderly. However, the conclusions of these studies are limited by their methodological flaws and differences of various types of meditation techniques. Further research in this direction could help to verify the validity of the findings and clarify the problematic aspects. PMID:24478663

  7. Cognitive function and nonfood-related impulsivity in post-bariatric surgery patients

    PubMed Central

    Georgiadou, Ekaterini; Gruner-Labitzke, Kerstin; Köhler, Hinrich; de Zwaan, Martina; Müller, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    Initial evidence that cognitive function improves after bariatric surgery exists. The post-surgery increase in cognitive control might correspond with a decrease of impulsive symptoms after surgery. The present study investigated cognitive function and nonfood-related impulsivity in patients with substantial weight loss due to bariatric surgery by using a comparative cross-sectional design. Fifty post-bariatric surgery patients (postBS group) who had significant percent weight loss (M = 75.94, SD = 18.09) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (body mass index, BMI Mpost = 30.54 kg/m2, SDpost = 5.14) were compared with 50 age and gender matched bariatric surgery candidates (preBS group; BMI Mpre = 48.01 kg/m2, SDpre = 6.56). To measure cognitive function the following computer-assisted behavioral tasks were utilized: Iowa Gambling Task, Tower of Hanoi, Stroop Test, Trail Making Test-Part B, and Corsi Block Tapping Test. Impulsive symptoms and behaviors were assessed using impulsivity questionnaires and a structured interview for impulse control disorders (ICDs). No group differences were found with regard to performance-based cognitive control, self-reported impulsive symptoms, and ICDs. The results indicate that the general tendency to react impulsively does not differ between pre-surgery and post-surgery patients. The question of whether nonfood-related impulsivity in morbidly obese patients changes post-surgery should be addressed in longitudinal studies given that impulsive symptoms can be considered potential targets for pre- as well post-surgery interventions. PMID:25566164

  8. Consumption of cocoa flavanols results in an acute improvement in visual and cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Field, David T; Williams, Claire M; Butler, Laurie T

    2011-06-01

    Cocoa flavanols (CF) influence physiological processes in ways that suggest their consumption may improve aspects of neural function, and previous studies have found positive influences of CF on cognitive performance. In this preliminary study we investigated whether visual, as well as cognitive, function is influenced by an acute dose of CF in young adults. We employed a randomized, single-blinded, order counterbalanced, crossover design in which 30 healthy adults consumed both dark chocolate containing 720mg CF and a matched quantity of white chocolate, with a one week interval between testing sessions. Visual contrast sensitivity was assessed by reading numbers that became progressively more similar in luminance to their background. Motion sensitivity was assessed firstly by measuring the threshold proportion of coherently moving signal dots that could be detected against a background of random motion, and secondly by determining the minimum time required to detect motion direction in a display containing a high proportion of coherent motion. Cognitive performance was assessed using a visual spatial working memory for location task and a choice reaction time task designed to engage processes of sustained attention and inhibition. Relative to the control condition, CF improved visual contrast sensitivity and reduced the time required to detect motion direction, but had no statistically reliable effect on the minimum proportion of coherent motion that could be detected. In terms of cognitive performance, CF improved spatial memory and performance on some aspects of the choice reaction time task. As well as extending the range of cognitive tasks that are known to be influenced by CF consumption, this is the first report of acute effects of CF on the efficiency of visual function. These acute effects can be explained by increased cerebral blood flow caused by CF, although in the case of contrast sensitivity there may be an additional contribution from CF induced retinal blood flow changes. PMID:21324330

  9. Arachidonic acid-enriched triacylglycerol improves cognitive function in elderly with low serum levels of arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Hisanori; Kontani, Masanori; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Akimoto, Kengo; Kusumoto, Aki; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Koga, Yoshihiko; Shibata, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) is an n-6 PUFA and is thought to have an important role in various physiological and psychological functions. Recently, supplementation with ARA-enriched TAG was shown to improve age-related decreases in cognitive function in healthy elderly men. To investigate the influence of baseline serum ARA status on cognitive function and its improvement, we analyzed cognitive function stratified by serum ARA level. The stratified analysis was also conducted for the effects of ARA-enriched TAG supplementation on cognitive improvement. Cognitive function was evaluated by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs), including P300 latency and amplitude. When participants were stratified by baseline serum ARA level, P300 latency was significantly longer and P300 amplitude was generally lower in the low-ARA group than in the high-ARA group. No significant difference in P300 components was observed when participants were stratified by serum levels of any other fatty acid. ARA-enriched TAG supplementation significantly shortened P300 latency and increased P300 amplitude in the low-ARA group, although no significant differences were observed in the high-ARA group. These findings suggest that lower serum ARA levels were associated with cognitive function in elderly men and that ARA-enriched TAG supplementation is more effective in improving cognitive function in healthy elderly men with low serum ARA levels than in those with high serum ARA levels. PMID:24521845

  10. A logical analysis of aliasing in imperative higher-order functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Berger; Kohei Honda; Nobuko Yoshida

    2005-01-01

    We present a compositional program logic for call-by-value imperative higher-order functions with general forms of aliasing, which can arise from the use of reference names as function parameters, return values, content of references and parts of data structures. The program logic extends our earlier logic for alias-free imperative higher-order functions with new modal operators which serve as building blocks for

  11. Cognitive functions in children with myelomeningocele without hydrocephalus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbro Lindquist; Paul Uvebrant; Eva Rehn; Göran Carlsson

    2009-01-01

    Objective  The aim of this study was to explore the separate effects of myelomeningocele (MMC) and hydrocephalus on intelligence and\\u000a neuropsychological functions in a population-based series of children.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Material and methods  Of the 69 children with MMC born in 1992–1999 in western Sweden, nine did not develop hydrocephalus. Eight of them participated\\u000a in this study and were compared with age- and gender-matched

  12. Interactions between salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase as predictors of children's cognitive functioning and academic performance.

    PubMed

    Keller, Peggy S; El-Sheikh, Mona; Granger, Douglas A; Buckhalt, Joseph A

    2012-02-28

    We examined relations between salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase (sAA), and children's cognitive and academic functioning. Of interest were curvilinear and interactive effects of these salivary measures on cognitive and academic performance. Data were based on a sample of 28 boys and 36 girls (ages 8 and 9) in the Southeastern U.S.A. Children provided resting afternoon saliva samples. Children completed standardized tests of Intellectual Ability and schools provided academic achievement information. Regression analyses demonstrated significant curvilinear relations and interactions between cortisol and sAA in the prediction of child functioning. Contrary to current models of interactions among biological systems, findings indicated some of the highest and lowest scores were predicted at moderate levels of physiological arousal. For example, children with moderate sAA and either higher or lower cortisol had low predicted scores for Reading Ability. Children with moderate cortisol and lower sAA had the highest predicted scores for Intellectual Ability. Findings suggest that the study of interactions between biological stress response systems should not be based on models of rectilinear interactions. PMID:22100627

  13. Functional connectivity of frontoparietal network predicts cognitive modulation of pain

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jian; Jensen, Karin; Loiotile, Rita; Cheetham, Alexandra; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Tan, Ying; Rosen, Bruce; Smoller, Jordan W.; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Gollub, Randy L.

    2013-01-01

    The experience of pain can be significantly influenced by expectancy (predictive cues). This ability to modulate pain has the potential to affect therapeutic analgesia substantially and constitutes a foundation for non-pharmacological pain relief. In this study, we investigated 1) brain regions involved in visual cue modulation of pain during anticipation of pain, pain administration, and pain rating; and 2) the association between pre-test resting-state functional connectivity and the magnitude of cue effects on pain ratings. We found that after cue conditioning, visual cues can significantly modulate subjective pain ratings. fMRI results suggested that brain regions pertaining to the frontoparietal network (prefrontal and parietal cortex) and a pain/emotion modulatory region (rostral anterior cingulate cortex, rACC) are involved in cue modulation during both pain anticipation and administration stage. Most interestingly, we found that pre-test resting state functional connectivity between the frontoparietal network (as identified by independent component analysis) and the rACC/MPFC was positively associated with cue effects on pain rating changes. We believe that these finding will shed new light on our understanding of variable cue/expectancy effects across individuals and how the intrinsic connectivity of the brain may influence expectancy induced modulation of pain. PMID:23352757

  14. Transplantation of human fetal-derived neural stem cells improves cognitive function following cranial irradiation.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Munjal M; Christie, Lori-Ann; Hazel, Thomas G; Johe, Karl K; Limoli, Charles L

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of central nervous system (CNS) malignancies typically involves radiotherapy to forestall tumor growth and recurrence following surgical resection. Despite the many benefits of cranial radiotherapy, survivors often suffer from a wide range of debilitating and progressive cognitive deficits. Thus, while patients afflicted with primary and secondary malignancies of the CNS now experience longer local regional control and progression-free survival, there remains no clinical recourse for the unintended neurocognitive sequelae associated with their cancer treatments. Multiple mechanisms contribute to disrupted cognition following irradiation, including the depletion of radiosensitive populations of stem and progenitor cells in the hippocampus. We have explored the potential of using intrahippocampal transplantation of human stem cells to ameliorate radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction. Past studies demonstrated the capability of cranially transplanted human embryonic (hESCs) and neural (hNSCs) stem cells to functionally restore cognition in rats 1 and 4 months after cranial irradiation. The present study employed an FDA-approved fetal-derived hNSC line capable of large scale-up under good manufacturing practice (GMP). Animals receiving cranial transplantation of these cells 1 month following irradiation showed improved hippocampal spatial memory and contextual fear conditioning performance compared to irradiated, sham surgery controls. Significant newly born (doublecortin positive) neurons and a smaller fraction of glial subtypes were observed within and nearby the transplantation core. Engrafted cells migrated and differentiated into neuronal and glial subtypes throughout the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the host hippocampus. These studies expand our prior findings to demonstrate that transplantation of fetal-derived hNSCs improves cognitive deficits in irradiated animals, as assessed by two separate cognitive tasks. PMID:23866792

  15. Subsyndromal depression and anxiety in older adults: health related, functional, cognitive and diagnostic implications.

    PubMed

    Kasckow, J W; Karp, J F; Whyte, E; Butters, M; Brown, C; Begley, A; Bensasi, S; Reynolds, C F

    2013-05-01

    Subsyndromal depression in later life is common in primary care. Comorbid anxiety disorders could exacerbate the negative effect of subsyndromal depression on functioning, health-related quality of life, comorbidity and/or cognition. We examined anxiety disorders co-existing with subsyndromal depression in participants ? age 50 in an NIH trial of Problem Solving Therapy for Primary Care for indicated prevention of major depression. There were 247 participants, with Centers for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression scores ? 11. Participants could have multiple psychiatric diagnoses: 22% of the sample had no DSM IV diagnosis; 39% of the sample had only 1 DSM IV diagnosis; 28% had 2 diagnoses; 6% had 3 DSM IV diagnoses; 4% had 4 DSM IV diagnoses; and 1% had 5 diagnoses. Furthermore, 34% of participants had a current comorbid DSM IV diagnosis of a syndromal anxiety disorder. We hypothesized that those with subsyndromal depression, alone relative to those with co-existing anxiety disorders, would report better health-related quality of life, less disability, less medical comorbidity and less cognitive impairment. However, there were no differences in quality of life based on the SF 12 nor in disability based on Late Life Function and Disability Instrument scores. There were no differences in medical comorbidity based on the Cumulative Illness Scale-Geriatrics scale scores nor in cognitive function based on the Executive Interview (EXIT), Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and Mini-Mental Status Exam. Our findings suggest that about one third of participants 50 years and older with subsyndromal depression have comorbid anxiety disorders; however, this does not appear to be associated with worse quality of life, functioning, disability, cognitive function or medical comorbidity. PMID:23414701