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1

Modeling Field Theory of Higher Cognitive Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chapter discusses a mathematical theory of higher cognitive functions, including concepts, emotions, instincts, understanding, imagination and intuition. Mechanisms of the knowledge instinct are proposed, driving our understanding of the world. Aesthetic emotions and perception of beauty are related to \\

Leonid Perlovsky

2007-01-01

2

Functional brain imaging of nicotinic effects on higher cognitive processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant advances in human functional brain imaging offer new opportunities for direct observation of the effects of nicotine, novel nicotinic agonists and nicotinic antagonists on human cognitive and behavioral performance. Careful research over the last decade has enabled investigators to explore the role of nicotinic systems on the functional neuroanatomy and neural circuitry of cognitive tasks in domains such as

Paul A. Newhouse; Alexandra S. Potter; Julie A. Dumas; Christiane M. Thiel

2011-01-01

3

Functional Brain Imaging of Nicotinic Effects on Higher Cognitive Processes  

PubMed Central

Significant advances in human functional brain imaging offer new opportunities for direct observation of the effects of nicotine, novel nicotinic agonists and nicotinic antagonists on human cognitive and behavioral performance. Careful research over the last decade has enabled investigators to explore the role of nicotinic systems on the functional neuroanatomy and neural circuitry of cognitive tasks in domains such as selective attention, working memory, episodic memory, cognitive control, and emotional processing. In addition, recent progress in understanding functional connectivity between brain regions utilized during cognitive and emotional processes offers new opportunities for examining drug effects on network-related activity. This review will critically summarize available nicotinic functional brain imaging studies focusing on the specific cognitive domains of attention, memory, behavioral control, and emotional processing. Generally speaking, nicotine appears to increase task-related activity in non-smokers and deprived smokers, but not active smokers. By contrast, nicotine or nicotinic stimulation decreases the activity of structures associated with the default mode network. These particular patterns of activation and/or deactivation may be useful for early drug development and may be an efficient and cost-effective method of screening potential nicotinic agents. Further studies will have to be done to clarify whether such activity changes correlate with cognitive or affective outcomes that are clinically relevant. The use of functional brain imaging will be a key tool for probing pathologic changes related to brain illness and for nicotinic drug development.

Newhouse, Paul A.; Potter, Alexandra S.; Dumas, Julie A.; Thiel, Christiane M.

2011-01-01

4

Sex differences in cognitive domains and their clinical correlates in higher-functioning autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Despite the skewed sex ratio, few studies have addressed possible cognitive sex differences in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study compared visual attention to detail (ATTD) and selected executive functions (EF) in 35 males and 21 females with higher-functioning ASD and unaffected sibling controls. Females with ASD outperformed males on EF as assessed by the Trail Making Test B-A. Males with ASD showed superior performance for ATTD as measured by the Block Design Test (BD) when compared with females. EF difficulties in males were correlated with more stereotypic behaviours and interests on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised or the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. The results indicated clinically meaningful cognitive sex differences in ASD, particularly an association between EF and stereotypic behaviours and interests. ATTD as a potential basis for specific cognitive strengths (e.g. scientific/savant skills) might be more pronounced in males with ASD. PMID:21454389

Bölte, Sven; Duketis, Eftichia; Poustka, Fritz; Holtmann, Martin

2011-03-31

5

Investigating higher-order cognitive functions in temporal lobe epilepsy: Cognitive estimation.  

PubMed

Cognitive estimation, an ability to attribute measurements to concrete things, is relevant to adaptive behavior. This study evaluated cognitive estimation in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with the goal of verifying its relationship to temporal lobe damage and age of seizure onset. One hundred and eight patients with drug-resistant TLE and 51 healthy controls were evaluated using the Cognitive Estimation Task (CET), which requires simple and complex estimations providing the Total and Bizarreness scores. Different tests assessed reasoning, attention, executive, visuospatial, and lexical-semantic abilities. Patients with right TLE had earlier age of seizure onset than patients with left TLE and lower education than controls. Compared with controls, both patient groups obtained worse CET Total and Bizarreness scores, but only patients with right TLE were significantly impaired. Patients with seizure onset before age 12 showed worse scores than patients with later seizure onset irrespective of the side of TLE. The CET Total and Bizarreness scores were predicted by age of seizure onset and semantic fluency; the Bizarreness score also related to education, chronological age, and visual attention. Results highlight the complexity of the cognitive pattern associated with TLE. Cognitive estimation deficit primarily reflects early age of seizure onset and semantic difficulties. An involvement of visual mental operations mediated by the right hemisphere may accentuate the deficit, while cognitive reserve may play a protective role. PMID:24012509

Parente, Annalisa; Manfredi, Valentina; Villani, Flavio; Franceschetti, Silvana; Giovagnoli, Anna Rita

2013-09-05

6

Decline in Cognitive Functioning Is Associated with a Higher Mortality Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study investigates the association between 5-year change in cognitive functioning and subsequent mortality. Methods:Four hundred and ninety-three Dutch and Italian men from the Finland, Italy, and the Netherlands Elderly (FINE) Study, born between 1900 and 1920, participated in the present study between 1990 and 2000. Cognitive functioning was measured with the Mini-Mental State Examination in 1990 and 1995,

B. M. van Gelder; M. A. R. Tijhuis; S. Kalmijn; S. Giampaoli; D. Kromhout

2007-01-01

7

The role of higher-level cognitive function in gait: executive dysfunction contributes to fall risk in Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is generally understood as primarily affecting cognition while sparing motor function, at least until the later stages of the disease. Studies reported over the past ten years, however, have documented a prevalence of falls in AD patients significantly higher than age matched normal elders; also persons with AD have been observed to have different walking patterns with characteristics that increase gait instability. Recent work in cognitive neuroscience has begun to demonstrate the necessity of intact cognition, particularly executive function, for competent motor control. We put the pieces of this puzzle together and review the current state of knowledge about gait and cognition in general along with an exploration of the association between dementia, gait impairment and falls in AD. We also briefly examine the current treatment of gait instability in AD, mainly exercise, and propose a new approach targeting cognition.

Sheridan, Pamela L.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

2011-01-01

8

Intracranial arachnoid cysts: impairment of higher cognitive functions and postoperative improvement  

PubMed Central

Background Intracranial arachnoid cysts have been shown to yield cognitive impairment over a range of basic mental functions, and these functions normalize after surgical cyst decompression. We wanted to investigate whether such cysts may also impair executive cognitive functions, and whether surgical cyst decompression leads to an improvement. Methods This study included 22 patients with arachnoid cysts and 13 control patients scheduled for low back surgery. All subjects were tested with Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) tests, assessing executive function 1 day before surgery and a minimum of 3 months after surgery. The data were analyzed according to scaled score computations based on raw scores provided by D-KEFS, adjusted for age, gender, and educational norms. Results Preoperatively, the patients with cysts group performed worse than the control group in verbal knowledge, mental flexibility, inhibitory capacity, problem solving, and planning skills. Postoperatively, the patients with cysts group significantly improved performance and were no longer different from the control group in the following subtests: inhibition, inhibition/switching, letter fluency, category switching, and total switching accuracy. The patients with cysts group also significantly improved performance in color naming, category fluency, and in the Tower test, but nevertheless remained impaired at follow-up compared with the control group. The control group did not show a similar improvement, except for the Tower test. Cyst size or postoperative volume reduction did not correlate with cognitive performance or postoperative improvement. Patients with left-sided temporal cysts performed poorer than patients with right-sided cysts on a complex verbal task demanding mental flexibility. Conclusions Arachnoid cysts seem to impair not only basic cognition, but also executive functions. Most of this impairment appears to be reversible after surgical cyst decompression. These results may have implications for future preoperative considerations for patients with intracranial arachnoid cysts.

2013-01-01

9

Light to moderate alcohol drinking is associated with higher cognitive function in males with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

This study examined cognitive function in males with type 2 diabetes who drank light to moderate levels of alcohol in comparison to abstainers. Patients who abstained from alcohol use (Abstainer; N = 99) were compared to patients who were current drinkers (Drinker; N = 20) with respect to demographic, clinical, and cognitive variables. There were no significant differences between the Drinker and Abstainer groups in demographic and general clinical variables (p values > .05). After controlling for various potential confounding variables including age, education level, number of years diagnosed with diabetes, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), hypertension status, and depression, multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) showed that the Drinker group performed significantly better than the Abstainer group, specifically on three of five cognitive tests - Digit Span Backward, Digit Symbol, and Trail Making B (p values < .05). Our findings suggest that light to moderate alcohol consumption, up to two drinks per day, is associated with relatively higher cognitive function in males with type 2 diabetes. PMID:18351499

Fan, Xiaoduo; O'Donnell, Amy; Singh, Sant P; Pungan, Ramona; Perlmuter, Lawrence C

10

Light to Moderate Alcohol Drinking is Associated with Higher Cognitive Function in Males with Type 2 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined cognitive function in males with type 2 diabetes who drank light to moderate levels of alcohol in comparison to abstainers. Patients who abstained from alcohol use (Abstainer; N = 99) were compared to patients who were current drinkers (Drinker; N = 20) with respect to demographic, clinical, and cognitive variables. There were no significant differences between the Drinker and Abstainer groups

Xiaoduo Fan; Amy ODonnell; Sant P. Singh; Ramona Pungan; Lawrence C. Perlmuter

2008-01-01

11

Protective effects of higher cognitive reserve for neuropsychological and daily functioning among individuals infected with hepatitis C.  

PubMed

Higher levels of cognitive reserve (CR) can be protective against the neuropsychological manifestation of neural injury across a variety of clinical disorders. However, the role of CR in the expression of neurocognitive deficits among persons infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is not well understood. Thirty-nine HCV-infected participants were classified as having either high (n?=?19) or low (n?=?20) CR based on educational attainment, oral word reading, and IQ scores. A sample of 40 demographically comparable healthy adults (HA) was also included. All participants completed the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, and Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Adult Version (BRIEF-A). Linear regression analyses, controlling for gender, depression, and lifetime substance use disorders, found significant effects of HCV/CR group on verbal fluency, executive functions, and daily functioning T scores, but not in learning or the BRIEF-A. Pairwise comparisons revealed that the HCV group with low CR performed significantly below the HCV high CR and HA cohorts, who did not differ from one another. Findings indicate that higher levels of CR may be a protective factor in the neurocognitive and real-world manifestation of neural injury commonly associated with HCV infection. PMID:24018902

Sakamoto, Maiko; Woods, Steven Paul; Kolessar, Michael; Kriz, Daniel; Anderson, J Renee; Olavarria, Hannah; Sasaki, Anna W; Chang, Michael; Flora, Kenneth D; Loftis, Jennifer M; Huckans, Marilyn

2013-09-10

12

Cognitive function and hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of lowering blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive subjects is well known but the relationship between hypertension and cognitive function is controversial. This article reviews the role of hypertension in the aetiology of cognitive impairment and the relationships between BP, cerebral perfusion and cognition. It also summarizes findings of studies addressing the effect of antihypertensive therapy and cognition. An

J Birns; L Kalra

2009-01-01

13

The Role of Higher-Level Cognitive Function in Gait: Executive Dysfunction Contributes to Fall Risk in Alzheimer’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is generally understood as primarily affecting cognition while sparing motor function, at least until the later stages of the disease. Studies reported over the past 10 years, however, have documented a prevalence of falls in AD patients significantly higher than in age-matched normal elders; also persons with AD have been observed to have different walking patterns with

Pamela L. Sheridan; Jeffrey M. Hausdorff

2007-01-01

14

Older people with diabetes have higher risk of depression, cognitive and functional impairments: Implications for diabetes services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  To examine the relationship between diabetes and impairments in functional and cognitive status as well as depression in older\\u000a people.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Cross-sectional study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  Elderly Health Centres (EHC) in Hong Kong.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Participants  66,813 older people receiving baseline assessment at EHC in 1998 to 2001.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Measurements  Diabetes status was defined by self-report and blood glucose tests. Functional status was assessed by 5 items of instrumental

Pui Hig Chau; J. Woo; C. H. Lee; W. L. Cheung; J. Chen; W. M. Chan; L. Hui; S. M. Mcghee

15

The hierarchical and functional connectivity of higher-order cognitive mechanisms: neurorobotic model to investigate the stability and flexibility of working memory.  

PubMed

Higher-order cognitive mechanisms (HOCM), such as planning, cognitive branching, switching, etc., are known to be the outcomes of a unique neural organizations and dynamics between various regions of the frontal lobe. Although some recent anatomical and neuroimaging studies have shed light on the architecture underlying the formation of such mechanisms, the neural dynamics and the pathways in and between the frontal lobe to form and/or to tune the stability level of its working memory remain controversial. A model to clarify this aspect is therefore required. In this study, we propose a simple neurocomputational model that suggests the basic concept of how HOCM, including the cognitive branching and switching in particular, may mechanistically emerge from time-based neural interactions. The proposed model is constructed such that its functional and structural hierarchy mimics, to a certain degree, the biological hierarchy that is believed to exist between local regions in the frontal lobe. Thus, the hierarchy is attained not only by the force of the layout architecture of the neural connections but also through distinct types of neurons, each with different time properties. To validate the model, cognitive branching and switching tasks were simulated in a physical humanoid robot driven by the model. Results reveal that separation between the lower and the higher-level neurons in such a model is an essential factor to form an appropriate working memory to handle cognitive branching and switching. The analyses of the obtained result also illustrates that the breadth of this separation is important to determine the characteristics of the resulting memory, either static memory or dynamic memory. This work can be considered as a joint research between synthetic and empirical studies, which can open an alternative research area for better understanding of brain mechanisms. PMID:23423881

Alnajjar, Fady; Yamashita, Yuichi; Tani, Jun

2013-02-18

16

Mapping changes of in vivo connectivity patterns in the human mediodorsal thalamus: correlations with higher cognitive and executive functions.  

PubMed

The mediodorsal thalamic nucleus is recognized as an association hub mediating interconnections with mainly the prefrontal cortex. Tracer studies in primates and in vivo diffusion tensor tractography findings in both humans and monkeys confirm its role in relaying networks that connect to the dorsolateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal, frontal medial and cingulate cortex. Our study was designed to use in vivo probabilistic tractography to describe the pathways emerging from or projecting to the mediodorsal nucleus; moreover, to use such information to automatically define subdivisions based on the divergence of remote structural connections. Diffusion tensor MR imaging data of 156 subjects were utilized to perform connectivity-based segmentation of the mediodorsal nucleus by employing a k-means clustering algorithm. Two domains were revealed (medial and lateral) that are separated from each other by a sagittally oriented plane. For each subject, general assessment of cognitive performance by means of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence and measures of Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) test was utilized. Inter-subject variability in terms of connectivity-based cluster sizes was discovered and the relative sizes of the lateral mediodorsal domain correlated with the individuals' performance in the D-KEFS Sorting test (r?=?0.232, p?=?0.004). Our results show that the connectivity-based parcellation technique applied to the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus delivers a single subject level descriptor of connectional topography; furthermore, we revealed a possible weak interaction between executive performance and the size of the thalamic area from which pathways converge to the lateral prefrontal cortex. PMID:22584775

Jakab, András; Blanc, Rémi; Berényi, Ervin L

2012-09-01

17

Expression of constitutively active erythropoietin receptor in pyramidal neurons of cortex and hippocampus boosts higher cognitive functions in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR) are expressed in the developing brain and their transcription is upregulated in adult neurons and glia upon injury or neurodegeneration. We have shown neuroprotective effects and improved cognition in patients with neuropsychiatric diseases treated with EPO. However, the critical EPO targets in brain are unknown, and separation of direct and indirect effects has remained difficult, given the role of EPO in hematopoiesis and brain oxygen supply. Results Here we demonstrate that mice with transgenic expression of a constitutively active EPOR isoform (cEPOR) in pyramidal neurons of cortex and hippocampus exhibit enhancement of spatial learning, cognitive flexibility, social memory, and attentional capacities, accompanied by increased impulsivity. Superior cognitive performance is associated with augmented long-term potentiation of cEPOR expressing neurons in hippocampal slices. Conclusions Active EPOR stimulates neuronal plasticity independent of any hematopoietic effects and in addition to its neuroprotective actions. This property of EPOR signaling should be exploited for defining novel strategies to therapeutically enhance cognitive performance in disease conditions.

2011-01-01

18

Expression of constitutively active erythropoietin receptor in pyramidal neurons of cortex and hippocampus boosts higher cognitive functions in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR) are expressed in the developing brain and their transcription is upregulated\\u000a in adult neurons and glia upon injury or neurodegeneration. We have shown neuroprotective effects and improved cognition in\\u000a patients with neuropsychiatric diseases treated with EPO. However, the critical EPO targets in brain are unknown, and separation\\u000a of direct and indirect effects has remained

Derya Sargin; Ahmed El-Kordi; Amit Agarwal; Michael Müller; Sonja M Wojcik; Imam Hassouna; Swetlana Sperling; Klaus-Armin Nave; Hannelore Ehrenreich

2011-01-01

19

[Cognition, social cognition and functioning in schizophrenia].  

PubMed

The major reviews of the literature support the idea that a significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia present cognitive deficits in several domains, more marked in the domains of verbal memory, vigilance and attention, memory, intellectual quotient, language and executive functioning. Such deficits appear to be one of the main determinants of these patients' functional outcome. More recently, social cognition deficits have been described. Social cognition may be understood as a separate and independent dimension of neurocognition or non-social cognition and may constitute a mediator between the neurocognition and functioning. However, there has been controversy concerning the real meaning of deficits observed due to the diversity of analysis methodologies employed and the fact that the available neuropsychological tests and batteries have not been specifically designed to evaluate cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia. In this paper, the Working Group on Schizophrenia (GTE) describes and highlights the existing clinical and scientific evidence, performs a critical review of cognitive functioning, social cognition and its impact on functional outcome, in patients with schizophrenia. The authors review definitions of (neuro)cognition, social cognition and functioning, analyze the existing methods for its assessment, describe the treatments available in this context and summarize the evidence of dysfunctions in these three concepts, taking into account their interconnection. Overall, the GTE considered the need for a standardized battery of tests to measure neurocognition, social cognition and functioning, consensually accepting the use of MATRICS as the standard tool for assessing neurocognition in schizophrenia. It was also recognized that verbal memory and vigilance deficits may be the best predictors of functional outcome in schizophrenia. In addition, the GTE has established social cognition as a priority area in the study of schizophrenia, however, the limitations in terminology and assessment methodologies do not allow a consensus in this area. The GTE considers that further longitudinal studies with larger samples are needed, so that a more adequate therapeutic armamentarium becomes available for patients with schizophrenia. PMID:21627882

Vaz-Serra, Adriano; Palha, António; Figueira, Maria Luísa; Bessa-Peixoto, Alberto; Brissos, Sofia; Casquinha, Paula; Damas-Reis, Filipe; Ferreira, Luís; Gago, Joaquim; Jara, José; Relvas, João; Marques-Teixeira, João

2010-12-28

20

Meditation in Higher Education: Does It Enhance Cognition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We predicted that students in a sociology course that included contemplative practices (i.e., mindfulness meditation) would show an increase in performance on higher level cognitive abilities (executive functions) over the semester compared to a control group of students. Change in executive functions performance was not significantly different…

Helber, Casey; Zook, Nancy A.; Immergut, Matthew

2012-01-01

21

Attitudinal Orientations and Cognitive Functioning Among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relations between attitudes and cognitive functioning in 950 Israeli seventh grade students. In the lowest socioeconomic group, locus of control was the most potent attitude variable while in the higher socioeconomic groups, self-concept and aspirations were most strongly associated with cognitive functioning. (JMB)|

Handel, Amos

1975-01-01

22

Nutrition and cognitive function.  

PubMed

The work of the Medical Research Council Dunn Nutrition Unit, Cambridge, on the influence of early diet on the development of preterm infants is reviewed. Then further consideration is given to the implication of the findings. Malnutrition during a sensitive period may result in disease in adult life, and studies strongly suggest the development of the brain and retina can be affected. This may be due to the lack of essential fatty acids, and will particularly involve premature babies born at a time when cell membrane development is especially vulnerable. These findings must sometimes be viewed with caution, as genetic and environmental influences can be paramount. There are many reasons to favour breast feeding, rather than giving formula feeds, including improved cognition and visual function. For example breast milk contains docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, essential for normal brain development, and often absent or in short supply in formula feeds. Although the advantages in developmental status may be due, in part anyhow, to factors such as the mother's ability and education, and to the child being given greater opportunities, the evident importance of the composition of human breast milk cannot be denied. Formula feeds do contain a higher nutrient value than breast milk, which can result in improved height and weight of infants fed in this way: if it is necessary to use them the challenge for future research is to improve their composition. Although this may be of more importance for premature babies, term babies can also be affected; this has both medical and social implications. PMID:9134186

Gordon, N

1997-04-01

23

Soy isoflavones and cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing interest in the physiological functions of soy isoflavones, especially in whether they affect cognitive function and have beneficial effects on neurodegenerative diseases. Here we review the recent evidence from clinical and experimental studies supporting a role for soy isoflavones in cognitive function. Soy isoflavones may mimic the actions and functions of estrogens on brain, and they have

Yoon-Bok Lee; Hyong Joo Lee; Heon Soo Sohn

2005-01-01

24

DO COGNITIVE TEST SCORES EXPLAIN HIGHER US WAGE INEQUALITY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using microdata from the 1994-6 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS), weexamine the role of cognitive skills in explaining higher wage inequality in the US. We find thatwhile the greater dispersion of cognitive test scores in the US plays a part in explaining higherUS wage inequality, higher labor market prices (i.e. higher returns to measured human capitaland cognitive performance) and greater

Francine D. Blau

2000-01-01

25

Measuring higher cognitive development in anatomy and physiology students  

Microsoft Academic Search

To estimate the higher cognitive development of college science students, performance on lecture exams at different cognitive levels was measured in a two-semester sequence of anatomy and physiology at Idaho State University. Lecture exams consisted of multiple-choice test items, each classified at various cognitive levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. These included the knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis levels. The investigation comprised

Christopher Dobson

2001-01-01

26

REACHING HIGHER LEVELS OF COGNITION USING PUBLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Publications are used extensively by adult and rural educational organizations, including Extension, to educate people when face-to-face contact is not possible or when adjunct instruction is necessary or useful. Yet, very little research has been conducted regarding the level of cognition that is achieved after reading publications. Using the Newcomb-Trefz Model of Cognition, an experiment was designed to determine the

Kristina M. Boone; Larry E. Miller; Larry C. Brown

27

Association between cognitive activity and cognitive function in older Hispanics.  

PubMed

There is limited research on the association between participation in cognitively stimulating activity and cognitive function in older Hispanics. The main purpose of the present study was to explore whether frequency of cognitive activity and its association with cognitive function in Hispanics is comparable to that of non-Hispanics. In a multiethnic cohort of 1571 non-demented older adults, we assessed past and current cognitive activity, availability of cognitive resources in the home in childhood and middle age, and five domains of cognitive function. The measures of cognitive activity and cognitive resources had adequate reliability and validity in our subset of Hispanic participants (n = 81). Hispanics reported lower levels of education, lower frequency of cognitive activity and less cognitive resources than non-Hispanic White (n = 1102) and non-Hispanic Black (n = 388) participants. Despite these differences the strength of the association between cognitive activity and cognitive function was comparable across ethnic groups. Because Hispanics have lower frequency of cognitive activity, the benefit of cognitive activity to late life cognitive function may be potentially larger in this segment of the population. Thus, interventions aimed at increasing frequency of participation in cognitively stimulating activity may offer a potential target to reduce cognitive impairment in Hispanics. PMID:22676914

Marquine, María J; Segawa, Eisuke; Wilson, Robert S; Bennett, David A; Barnes, Lisa L

2012-06-08

28

Association between Cognitive Activity and Cognitive Function in Older Hispanics  

PubMed Central

There is limited research on the association between participation in cognitively stimulating activity and cognitive function in older Hispanics. The main purpose of the present study was to explore whether frequency of cognitive activity and its association with cognitive function in Hispanics is comparable to that of non-Hispanics. In a multiethnic cohort of 1571 non-demented older adults, we assessed past and current cognitive activity, availability of cognitive resources in the home in childhood and middle age, and five domains of cognitive function. The measures of cognitive activity and cognitive resources had adequate reliability and validity in our subset of Hispanic participants (n = 81). Hispanics reported lower levels of education, lower frequency of cognitive activity and less cognitive resources than non-Hispanic White (n = 1102) and non-Hispanic Black (n = 388) participants. Despite these differences the strength of the association between cognitive activity and cognitive function was comparable across ethnic groups. Because Hispanics have lower frequency of cognitive activity, the benefit of cognitive activity to late life cognitive function may be potentially larger in this segment of the population. Thus, interventions aimed at increasing frequency of participation in cognitively stimulating activity may offer a potential target to reduce cognitive impairment in Hispanics.

Marquine, Maria J.; Segawa, Eisuke; Wilson, Robert S.; Bennett, David A.; Barnes, Lisa L.

2012-01-01

29

Cognitive reserve preserves cognitive function in obese individuals.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Obesity is an established risk factor for cognitive impairment. Theories of cognitive reserve suggest that premorbid factors, such as intellectual ability, may attenuate the expression of cognitive impairment due to age or disease. The current study examined whether cognitive reserve, defined as estimated premorbid intellectual ability, moderates the relationship between obesity and cognitive function in obese adults. Participants without major medical or psychological conditions completed a computerized battery of neuropsychological tests. Hierarchical regression models found a significant interaction between BMI and cognitive reserve for attention/executive function and memory, suggesting that cognitive reserve attenuates the expression of obesity-related cognitive impairment. PMID:23339557

Galioto, Rachel M; Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Stanek, Kelly M; Gunstad, John

2013-01-23

30

Soy isoflavones and cognitive function.  

PubMed

There is growing interest in the physiological functions of soy isoflavones, especially in whether they affect cognitive function and have beneficial effects on neurodegenerative diseases. Here we review the recent evidence from clinical and experimental studies supporting a role for soy isoflavones in cognitive function. Soy isoflavones may mimic the actions and functions of estrogens on brain, and they have been shown to have positive effects on the cognitive function in females; however, studies on their effects on spatial memory have not provided consistent results in males. Although data from humans, cultures, and animal models are currently insufficient for elucidating the metabolism of soy isoflavone actions on cognitive function and the nervous system, we suggest two putative pathways; (1) an estrogen receptor-mediated pathway and (2) via the inhibition of tyrosine kinase, in particular by genistein, which is one of the soy isoflavones. Although soy isoflavones appear to have a positive effect on brain function, further research is needed to determine not only the efficacy but also the safety of soy isoflavones on the nervous system and cognitive function. PMID:16169201

Lee, Yoon-Bok; Lee, Hyong Joo; Sohn, Heon Soo

2005-08-10

31

Cognitive control and attentional functions.  

PubMed

Cognitive control is essential to flexible, goal-directed behavior under uncertainty, yet its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Because attentional functions are known to allocate mental resources and prioritize the information to be processed, we propose that the attentional functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control and the interactions among them contribute to cognitive control in the service of uncertainty reduction. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between cognitive control and attentional functions. We used the Majority Function Task (MFT) to manipulate uncertainty in order to evoke cognitive control along with the Revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R) to measure the efficiency and the interactions of attentional functions. A backwards, stepwise regression model revealed that performance on the MFT could be significantly predicted by attentional functions and their interactions as measured by the ANT-R. These results provide preliminary support for our theory that the attentional functions are involved in the implementation of cognitive control as required to reduce uncertainty, though further investigation is needed. PMID:23792472

Mackie, Melissa-Ann; Van Dam, Nicholas T; Fan, Jin

2013-06-19

32

Physical activity and cognitive functioning in aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging is associated with decline in a multitude of cognitive processes and brain functions. A growing body of literature suggests that decline in cognitive functioning of older adults can be reduced through memory training and physical activity. The purpose of this article was to examine the hypothesis that physical activity enhances cognitive functioning, to summarize the cross-sectional and intervention research

Henning Allmer

2005-01-01

33

Experimental case studies to engage higher cognitive skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Instructors often find it difficult to write questions that are open ended in nature (4) and that engage students at higher levels of cognitive complexity, for example, Bloom's taxonomic levels of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation (1). As a consequence, typical pedagogical settings seldom challenge students to engage in learning on those levels. As these higher levels of cognition are generally expected of graduate students, we sought to engage and evaluate graduate students by supplying raw, generally unpublished experimental data from a faculty member as "experimental case studies" requiring their analysis, their creation of tools, and their evaluation against each other and existing literature.

William H. Guilford (University of Virginia Biomedical Engineering)

2009-12-01

34

'COGNITIVE GENES 'R EVEAL HIGHER CODON COMPLEXITY THAN 'SOMATIC GENES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we want to apply the concept of complexity to the analysis and com- parison of genes. A multitude of genes has been identified coding somatic function. Recently the analysis of mental disorders yielded insights about genes coding cogni- tive functions. According to the theory of evolution they evolved from other genes through mutation. Therefore, 'cognitive genes' and

Christoph S. Herrmann; Wolfgang S. Herrmann

35

The Role of Wait Time in Higher Cognitive Level Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wait time is the duration of pauses separating utterances during a verbal exchange. Paper reviews studies that involve wait time in a range of subject areas and grade levels. Wait time appears to foster higher cognitive level learning by giving teachers and students more time to think. (RB)

Tobin, Kenneth

1987-01-01

36

Active teaching for higher cognitive learning in science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews research related to teaching and learning higher cognitive level objectives in science from a constructivist perspective. The literature supports an active model of teaching whereby all students are provided with opportunities for overt engagement in learning tasks. Factors associated with the learner, delivery of instruction and task management interact to influence the quality of learning in classrooms.

Kenneth Tobin; William Capie; Antonio Bettencourt

1988-01-01

37

Teaching for Higher Cognitive Level Learning in High School Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to focus on teaching for higher-level cognitive learning, this study measured student perceptions of psychosocial aspects of their classroom learning and involved a team of six researchers. The study consisted of an intensive 10-week investigation of two above-average science teachers in a suburban high school in Perth, Western…

Fraser, Barry J.

38

Teaching for Higher Cognitive Level Learning in High School Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to focus on teaching for higher-level cognitive learning, this study measured student perceptions of psychosocial aspects of their classroom learning and involved a team of six researchers. The study consisted of an intensive 10-week investigation of two above-average science teachers in a suburban high school in Perth, Western Australia.…

Fraser, Barry J.

39

Association of higher diastolic blood pressure levels with cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Background: We evaluated the cross-sectional relationship of blood pressure (BP) components with cognitive impairment after adjusting for potential confounders. Methods: Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) is a national, longitudinal population cohort evaluating stroke risk in 30,228 black and white men and women ?45 years old. During the in-home visit, BP measurements were taken as the average of 2 measurements using a standard aneroid sphygmomanometer. Excluding participants with prior stroke or TIA, the present analysis included 19,836 participants (enrolled from December 2003 to March 2007) with complete baseline physical and cognitive evaluations. Incremental logistic models examined baseline relationships between BP components (systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], and pulse pressure [PP]) and impaired cognitive status (score of ?4 on 6-Item Screener) after adjusting for demographic and environmental characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, depressive symptoms, and current use of any antihypertensive medication. Results: Higher DBP levels were associated with impaired cognitive status after adjusting for demographic and environmental characteristics, risk factors, depressive symptoms, and antihypertensive medications. An increment of 10 mm Hg in DBP was associated with a 7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1%–14%, p = 0.0275) higher odds of cognitive impairment. No independent association was identified between impaired cognitive status and SBP (odds ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% CI 0.99–1.06) or PP (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.95–1.04). There was no evidence of nonlinear relationships between any of the BP components and impaired cognitive status. There was no interaction between age and the relationship of impaired cognitive status with SBP (p = 0.827), DBP (p = 0.133), or PP (p = 0.827) levels. Conclusions: Higher diastolic blood pressure was cross-sectionally and independently associated with impaired cognitive status in this large, geographically dispersed, race- and sex-balanced sample of stroke-free individuals. GLOSSARY AD = Alzheimer disease; ARIC = Atherosclerosis Risk in Community; BMI = body mass index; BP = blood pressure; CES-D-4 = Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression–4-item version; CI = confidence interval; DBP = diastolic blood pressure; IQR = interquartile range; OR = odds ratio; PP = pulse pressure; REGARDS = Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke; SBP = systolic blood pressure.

Tsivgoulis, G; Alexandrov, A V.; Wadley, V G.; Unverzagt, F W.; Go, R C.P.; Moy, C S.; Kissela, B; Howard, G

2009-01-01

40

Strategic Learning in Youth with Traumatic Brain Injury: Evidence for Stall in Higher-Order Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about strategic learning ability in preteens and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Strategic learning is the ability to combine and synthesize details to form abstracted gist-based meanings, a higher-order cognitive skill associated with frontal lobe functions and higher classroom performance. Summarization tasks were…

Gamino, Jacquelyn F.; Chapman, Sandra B.; Cook, Lori G.

2009-01-01

41

Strategic Learning in Youth with Traumatic Brain Injury: Evidence for Stall in Higher-Order Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Little is known about strategic learning ability in preteens and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Strategic learning is the ability to combine and synthesize details to form abstracted gist-based meanings, a higher-order cognitive skill associated with frontal lobe functions and higher classroom performance. Summarization tasks were…

Gamino, Jacquelyn F.; Chapman, Sandra B.; Cook, Lori G.

2009-01-01

42

Measuring higher cognitive development in anatomy and physiology students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To estimate the higher cognitive development of college science students, performance on lecture exams at different cognitive levels was measured in a two-semester sequence of anatomy and physiology at Idaho State University. Lecture exams consisted of multiple-choice test items, each classified at various cognitive levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. These included the knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis levels. The investigation comprised students who completed both semesters from the same instructor during the same academic year. Data was collected on two separate cohorts of students. One completed the sequence during 1998--1999 and the other during the 1999--2000 school year. Student performance was assessed on four exams each semester, for a total of eight exams each year of the study. Based on preliminary analysis of the 1998--1999 data, the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) was incorporated as an independent and discipline-neutral measure of higher-level thinking. The CCTST was administered during the beginning, middle, and end of the 1999--2000 school year. Two years of data analysis confirmed the cumulative hierarchical relationship of the knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis levels of the taxonomy. Performance at successively higher cognitive levels was significantly and consistently lower than at preceding levels. Higher-level thinking was substantially more difficult for students than lower-level thinking. Students averaged 73% at the knowledge level and 53% at the application and analysis levels on lecture exams. No improvement in higher-level thinking was detected at either the application and analysis levels of Bloom's Taxonomy or on the CCTST over two semesters. The ability to detect improvement was likely complicated by varying exam topics and a lack of student motivation on the CCTST. The results of this investigation highlight the need for higher cognitive development across the curriculum. The findings have implications for curricular decision-making and course management, and are relevant at an institutional and an individual course level. This study demonstrates how Bloom's Taxonomy can provide a framework for systematically and purposefully monitoring higher-level thinking in students. At the very least, Bloom's Taxonomy provides a mechanism for distinguishing among students who can and cannot perform at higher cognitive levels.

Dobson, Christopher

43

Trace Element Levels and Cognitive Function in Rural Elderly Chinese  

PubMed Central

Background Trace elements are involved in metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction reactions in the central nervous system and could have a possible effect on cognitive function. The relationship between trace elements measured in individual biological samples and cognitive function in an elderly population had not been investigated extensively. Methods The participant population is part of a large cohort study of 2000 rural elderly Chinese persons. Six cognitive assessment tests were used to evaluate cognitive function in this population, and a composite score was created to represent global cognitive function. Trace element levels of aluminum, calcium, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, and zinc were analyzed in plasma samples of 188 individuals who were randomly selected and consented to donating fasting blood. Analysis of covariance models were used to assess the association between each trace element and the composite cognitive score adjusting for demographics, medical history of chronic diseases, and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype. Results Three trace elements—calcium, cadmium, and copper—were found to be significantly related to the composite cognitive score. Increasing plasma calcium level was associated with higher cognitive score (p < .0001). Increasing cadmium and copper, in contrast, were significantly associated with lower composite score (p = .0044 and p = .0121, respectively). Other trace elements did not show significant association with the composite cognitive score. Conclusions Our results suggest that calcium, cadmium, and copper may be associated with cognitive function in the elderly population.

Gao, Sujuan; Jin, Yinlong; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Ma, Feng; Hall, Kathleen S.; Murrell, Jill R.; Cheng, Yibin; Shen, Jianzhao; Ying, Bo; Ji, Rongdi; Matesan, Janetta; Liang, Chaoke; Hendrie, Hugh C.

2009-01-01

44

Functional Decline in Cognitive Impairment – The Relationship between Physical and Cognitive Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Physical function decline is associated with dementia, which might either be mediated by the coexisting sarcopenia or directly related to the impaired cognition. Our objectives are to examine the relationship between cognitive function and performance-based physical function and to test the hypothesis that cognitive function is related to poor physical function independent of muscle mass. Methods: We measured muscle

Tung Wai Auyeung; Timothy Kwok; Jenny Lee; Ping Chung Leung; Jason Leung; Jean Woo

2008-01-01

45

The Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience of Functional Connectivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developmental cognitive neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that examines the relationships between biological development and cognitive ability. In the past decade, there has been ongoing refinement of concepts and methodology related to the study of "functional connectivity" among distributed brain regions believed to underlie cognition and…

Stevens, Michael C.

2009-01-01

46

PCBs and cognitive functioning of Mohawk adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the relationships between the cognitive functioning and PCB current body burdens of adolescents in the Mohawk Nation of Akwesasne where there is concern about industrial pollution of the environment. Three cognitive tests (Woodcock Johnson-Revised, Test of Memory and Learning, and Ravens Progressive Matrices) provide 13 subtests that allow a variety of cognitive outcomes to be assessed.

Joan Newman; Amy G. Aucompaugh; Lawrence M. Schell; Melinda Denham; Anthony P. DeCaprio; Mia V. Gallo; Julia Ravenscroft; Chin-Cheng Kao; MaryEllen Rougas Hanover; Dawn David; Agnes M. Jacobs; Alice M. Tarbell; Priscilla Worswick

2006-01-01

47

The Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience of Functional Connectivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental cognitive neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that examines the relationships between biological development and cognitive ability. In the past decade, there has been ongoing refinement of concepts and methodology related to the study of "functional connectivity" among distributed brain regions believed to underlie cognition and…

Stevens, Michael C.

2009-01-01

48

Epigenetics, genomic mutations and cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. There is growing interest in the role of single genes in cognitive functions. Association studies are the most commonly applied method in this field. This method assumes that the genetic information affecting cognitive processes is “static” and unchanging. However, there is accumulating evidence that dynamic genomic and epigenetic alterations can modulate complex cognitive processes, and influence susceptibility to disorders

Abraham Reichenberg; Jonathan Mill; James H. MacCabe

2009-01-01

49

Higher dietary intake of lignans is associated with better cognitive performance in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Data on the relation between phytoestrogens and cognitive function are still sparse. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between the dietary intake of phytoestrogens and cognitive function in healthy postmenopausal women consuming a Western diet. We conducted a community-based survey among 394 postmenopausal women. Isoflavone and lignan intake was calculated from a validated FFQ. Cognitive function was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Data were analyzed using logistic regression with intact cognitive function defined as a score >/= 26 as the outcome variable. After adjustment for confounders, increasing dietary lignans intake was associated with better performance on the MMSE [OR and (95%CI): 1.49 (0.94-2.38)]. Results were most pronounced in women who were 20-30 y postmenopausal [2.02 (1.11-3.71)]. Isoflavone intake was not related to cognitive function. From our results we conclude that higher dietary intake of lignans is associated with better cognitive function in postmenopausal women. PMID:15867302

Franco, Oscar H; Burger, Huibert; Lebrun, Corinne E I; Peeters, Petra H M; Lamberts, Steven W J; Grobbee, Diederick E; Van Der Schouw, Yvonne T

2005-05-01

50

[Music therapy for dementia and higher cognitive dysfunction: a review].  

PubMed

Music is known to affect the human mind and body. Music therapy utilizes the effects of music for medical purposes. The history of music therapy is quite long, but only limited evidence supports its usefulness in the treatment of higher cognitive dysfunction. As for dementia, some studies conclude that music therapy is effective for preventing cognitive deterioration and the occurrence of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). In patients receiving music therapy for the treatment of higher cognitive dysfunction, aphasia was reported as the most common symptom. Many studies have been conducted to determine whether singing can improve aphasic symptoms: singing familiar and/or unfamiliar songs did not show any positive effect on aphasia. Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a method that utilizes melody and rhythm to improve speech output. MIT is a method that is known to have positive effects on aphasic patients. Some studies of music therapy for patients with unilateral spatial neglect; apraxia; hemiparesis; and walking disturbances, including parkinsonian gait, are available in the literature. Studies showed that the symptoms of unilateral spatial neglect and hemiparesis significantly improved when musical instruments were played for several months as a part of the music therapy. Here, I describe my study in which mental singing showed a positive effect on parkinsonian gait. Music is interesting, and every patient can go through training without any pain. Future studies need to be conducted to establish evidence of the positive effects of music therapy on neurological and neuropsychological symptoms. PMID:22147456

Satoh, Masayuki

2011-12-01

51

Cognition with few neurons: higher-order learning in insects.  

PubMed

Insects possess miniature brains but exhibit a sophisticated behavioral repertoire. Recent studies have reported the existence of unsuspected cognitive capabilities in various insect species that go beyond the traditionally studied framework of simple associative learning. Here, I focus on capabilities such as attentional modulation and concept learning and discuss their mechanistic bases. I analyze whether these behaviors, which appear particularly complex, can be explained on the basis of elemental associative learning and specific neural circuitries or, by contrast, require an explanatory level that goes beyond simple associative links. In doing this, I highlight experimental challenges and suggest future directions for investigating the neurobiology of higher-order learning in insects, with the goal of uncovering the basic neural architectures underlying cognitive processing. PMID:23375772

Giurfa, Martin

2013-02-01

52

Influence of social support on cognitive function in the elderly  

PubMed Central

Background Social support is important in daily activities of the elderly. This study tests the hypothesis that there is an association between social support and cognitive function among the elderly in a community setting. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted in a cross-sectional stratified random sample of 4,993 elderly (?65 years) city residents. Using multiple regression analysis, we investigated the influence of social support on cognitive function. Results 12% were over 80 years old. 53.28% were men. 67.14% were married. Higher Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ) scores (higher score means better cognitive function) were associated with strong social support, as measured by marital status and perceived positive support from friends. Lower cognitive function was associated with older and with female respondents. Only instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were statistically and negatively related to SPMSQ. Lower functional status was associated with lower cognitive function. Elders with grade school educations had lower SPMSQ scores than did elders with high school educations. Conclusions In Taiwan, higher cognitive function in community-living elderly was associated with increased social support. Life-style management should provide social activities for the elderly to promote a better quality of life.

Yeh, Shu-Chuan Jennifer; Liu, Yea-Ying

2003-01-01

53

Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and cognitive functioning in children.  

PubMed

We examined associations between children's cognitive performance and both basal respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA regulation to a reaction time task. Cognitive performance was examined in the lab via standardized tests of cognitive functioning (Woodcock-Johnson III) and a reaction time task. Results suggest that a higher level of basal RSA is predictive of better performance on WJ III scales examining fluid intelligence (e.g., working memory, cognitive efficiency). RSA reactivity was not significantly related to cognitive performance. Results build on and extend the literature by demonstrating that, in typically developing elementary school age children, RSA is related to well-standardized measures of cognitive performance even after controlling for potential confounds. PMID:19107730

Staton, Lori; El-Sheikh, Mona; Buckhalt, Joseph A

2009-04-01

54

Dietary boron, brain function, and cognitive performance.  

PubMed Central

Although the trace element boron has yet to be recognized as an essential nutrient for humans, recent data from animal and human studies suggest that boron may be important for mineral metabolism and membrane function. To investigate further the functional role of boron, brain electrophysiology and cognitive performance were assessed in response to dietary manipulation of boron (approximately 0.25 versus approximately 3.25 mg boron/2000 kcal/day) in three studies with healthy older men and women. Within-subject designs were used to assess functional responses in all studies. Spectral analysis of electroencephalographic data showed effects of dietary boron in two of the three studies. When the low boron intake was compared to the high intake, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the proportion of low-frequency activity, and a decrease in the proportion of higher-frequency activity, an effect often observed in response to general malnutrition and heavy metal toxicity. Performance (e.g., response time) on various cognitive and psychomotor tasks also showed an effect of dietary boron. When contrasted with the high boron intake, low dietary boron resulted in significantly poorer performance (p < 0.05) on tasks emphasizing manual dexterity (studies II and III); eye-hand coordination (study II); attention (all studies); perception (study III); encoding and short-term memory (all studies); and long-term memory (study I). Collectively, the data from these three studies indicate that boron may play a role in human brain function and cognitive performance, and provide additional evidence that boron is an essential nutrient for humans.

Penland, J G

1994-01-01

55

Continuous ASL perfusion fMRI investigation of higher cognition  

PubMed Central

Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion fMRI is an emerging method in clinical neuroimaging. Its non-invasiveness, absence of low frequency noise, and ability to quantify the absolute level of cerebral blood flow (CBF) make the method ideal for longitudinal designs or low frequency paradigms. Despite the usefulness in the study of cognitive dysfunctions in clinical populations, perfusion activation studies to date have been conducted for simple sensorimotor paradigms or with single-slice acquisition, mainly due to technical challenges. Using our recently developed amplitude-modulated continuous ASL (CASL) perfusion fMRI protocol, we assessed the feasibility of a higher level cognitive activation study in twelve healthy subjects. Taking advantage of the ASL noise properties, we were able to study tonic CBF changes during uninterrupted 6-min continuous performance of working memory and sustained attention tasks. For the visual sustained attention task, regional CBF increases (6-12 ml/100 g/min) were detected in the right middle frontal gyrus, the bilateral occipital gyri, and the anterior cingulate/medial frontal gyri. During the 2-back working memory task, significantly increased activations (7-11 ml/100 g/min) were found in the left inferior frontal/precentral gyri, the left inferior parietal lobule, the anterior cingulate/medial frontal gyri, and the left occipital gyrus. Locations of activated and deactivated areas largely concur with previous PET and BOLD fMRI studies utilizing similar paradigms. These results demonstrate that CASL perfusion fMRI can be successfully utilized for the investigation of the tonic CBF changes associated with high level cognitive operations. Increased applications of the method to the investigation of cognitively impaired populations are expected to follow.

Kim, Junghoon; Whyte, John; Wang, Jiongjiong; Rao, Hengyi; Tang, Kathy Z.; Detre, John A.

2008-01-01

56

Personality Predicts Cognitive Function Over Seven Years in Older Persons  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether Neuroticism, as well as the less-studied dimensions the Five Factor Model of personality (Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) were associated with 7-year trajectories of cognitive functioning in older persons. Design Primary analysis of existing clinical trial data. Participants 602 persons of average age 79 at baseline. Measurements The NEO-Five Factor Inventory of personality, completed at baseline, and the modified Mini Mental Status Exam (3MSE) measured every 6 months for 7 years. Results Controlling for demographics, baseline morbidities including depression, health behaviors, Apolipoprotein E4 genotype, and self-rated health, higher Neuroticism was associated with worse average cognitive functioning and a steeper rate of decline over follow-up. Higher Extraversion and lower Openness were both associated with worse average cognitive functioning prospectively, while persons higher in Conscientiousness showed a slower rate of cognitive decline. Conclusions In addition to Neuroticism, other dispositional tendencies appear prognostically relevant for cognitive functioning in older persons. More work is needed to understand the mechanisms by which traits operate, as well as whether mitigation of certain dispositional tendencies can facilitate a better course of cognitive function.

Chapman, Benjamin; Duberstein, Paul; Tindle, Hilary A; Sink, Kaycee M; Robbins, John; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Franks, Peter

2011-01-01

57

Functional Connectivity Variations in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Associations with Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

Participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have a higher likelihood of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to those without MCI, and functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI) used with MCI participants may prove to be an important tool in identifying early biomarkers for AD. We tested the hypothesis that functional connectivity differences exist between older adults with and without MCI using resting-state fMRI. Data were collected on over 200 participants of the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a community-based, clinical-pathological cohort study of aging. From the cohort, 40 participants were identified as having MCI, and were compared to 40 demographically matched participants without cognitive impairment. MCI participants showed lesser functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex and right and left orbital frontal, right middle frontal, left putamen, right caudate, left superior temporal, and right posterior cingulate regions; and greater connectivity with right inferior frontal, left fusiform, left rectal, and left precentral regions. Furthermore, in an alternate sample of 113, connectivity values in regions of difference correlated with episodic memory and processing speed. Results suggest functional connectivity values in regions of difference are associated with cognitive function and may reflect the presence of AD pathology and increased risk of developing clinical AD.

Han, S. Duke; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Fleischman, Debra A.; Leurgans, Sue E.; Tuminello, Elizabeth R.; Edmonds, Emily C.; Bennett, David A.

2012-01-01

58

The effect of age on frontal lobe related cognitive functions of unmedicated depressed patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAging is associated with a decline in frontal lobe related cognitive functioning of healthy subjects (i.e., executive functioning and higher-order cognition). Unipolar depression is associated with dysfunctions in similar cognitive domains — deficits that impact the functioning and quality of life of these patients. The effect of age on frontal lobe related cognitive functions of depressed patients, however, has not

Yoram Braw; Shai Aviram; Yuval Bloch; Yechiel Levkovitz

2011-01-01

59

Antihypertensive drugs and cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in life expectancy is associated with a sharp rise in cognitive disorders, particularly after the age of 80 years.\\u000a The identification and management of risk factors for these invalidating and distressing conditions must be considered a priority.\\u000a Hypertension has been shown to carry an increased risk not only for cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality, but also for\\u000a cognitive impairment

Anne-Sophie Rigaud; M. G. M. Olde-Rikkert; Olivier Hanon; Marie-Laure Seux; Françoise Forette

2002-01-01

60

MicroCog: Assessment of Cognitive Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

MicroCog: Assessment of Cognitive Functioning version 2.1 (Powell, D. H., Kaplan, E. F., Whitla, D., Catlin, R., and Funkenstein, H. H. (1993). The Psychological corporation, San Antonio, TX.) is one of the first computerized assessment batteries commercially developed to detect early signs of cognitive impairment. This paper reviews its psychometric characteristics and relates them to its clinical utility. It concludes

Richard W. Elwood

2001-01-01

61

Nutrition, Brain Function and Cognitive Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Military interest in the effects of nutritional factors on cognitive function has stimulated considerable research on a variety of food constituents. This paper will review the research on the amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine, caffeine and carbohydrate...

H. R. Lieberman

2003-01-01

62

Cognitive deficits and functional outcome in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Cognitive dysfunction is a core feature of schizophrenia. Deficits are moderate to severe across several domains, including attention, working memory, verbal learning and memory, and executive functions. These deficits pre-date the onset of frank psychosis and are stable throughout the course of the illness in most patients. Over the past decade, the focus on these deficits has increased dramatically with the recognition that they are consistently the best predictor of functional outcomes across outcome domains and patient samples. Recent treatment studies, both pharmacological and behavioral, suggest that cognitive deficits are malleable. Other research calls into question the meaningfulness of cognitive change in schizophrenia. In this article, we review cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and focus on their treatment and relationship to functional outcome.

Bowie, Christopher R; Harvey, Philip D

2006-01-01

63

Mood Symptoms, Cognition, and Everyday Functioning  

PubMed Central

People with depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia manifest considerable cognitive deficits and impairments in everyday functional outcomes. The severity of current mood symptoms is associated with the severity of cognitive deficits in people with unipolar and bipolar disorder, but impairments are clearly still present in cases with minimal current mood symptoms. In people with schizophrenia, depression is less strongly associated with cognitive deficits on a cross-sectional basis, and some evidence suggests that depression and cognitive impairments are inversely related. Furthermore, in schizophrenia, mood symptoms seem to affect everyday functioning in a way that is unassociated with the severity of deficits in cognition and functional capacity. In contrast, in bipolar disorder, mood symptoms seem to affect real-world functioning through an adverse effect on the ability to perform critical functional skills. In both mood disorders and schizophrenia, depression appears to impact the motivation to perform potentially reinforcing acts, possibly through the induction of anhedonia. Clearly, depression has a major adverse impact on everyday functioning in all variants of severe mental illness, and improving its recognition (in the case of schizophrenia) and management has the potential to reduce the adverse impact of severe mental illness on everyday functioning. Reducing disability has the potential to have positive impacts in multiple objective and subjective aspects of functioning in severe mental illness.

2011-01-01

64

Impact of Cognitive Impairment on Functional Outcome in Stroke  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cognitive impairment on functional status in patients with subacute stroke. Fifty-two patients with subacute stroke were included in the study. Mini mental state examination (MMSE) test was used for the evaluation of cognitive status. Patients were separated into two groups according to their cognitive functions. Functional follow-up parameters were activities of daily living (ADL), global recovery and ambulation status. All patients were evaluated on admission to rehabilitation unit, at discharge and 6 months after discharge. Forty-four patients were completed the study. Mean age was 66 and 57 years; disease duration on admission was 4,8 and 3,5 months in the cognitively impaired and normal groups, respectively. Significant improvement was found in terms of functional follow-up parameters in both groups at discharge (P < .05). Functional follow-up parameters did not show statistically significant difference between the groups. But community ambulation rate was higher in cognitively normal group at the sixth month visit. As a result of this study, inpatient rehabilitation was effective both cognitively normal and impaired subacute stroke patients.

Paker, Nurdan; Bugdayc?, Derya; Tekdos, Demet; Kaya, Betul; Dere, Caglayan

2010-01-01

65

Coffee consumption and cognitive function among older adults.  

PubMed

This study examined the association of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee intake with cognitive function in a community-based sample of older adults in 1988-1992. Participants were 890 women with a mean age of 72.6 years and 638 men with a mean age of 73.3 years from the Rancho Bernardo Study. Cognitive function was assessed by 12 standardized tests, and lifetime consumption and current coffee consumption were obtained by questionnaire. After adjustment for confounders, higher lifetime coffee consumption in women was associated with better (p < or = 0.05) performance on six of 12 tests, with a trend (p < or = 0.10) on two other cognitive function tests; current caffeinated coffee intake was associated with better performance on two tests (p < 0.05), with a trend (p < 0.10) on one other test. Among women aged 80 or more years, lifetime coffee intake was nonsignificantly associated with better performance on 11 of the 12 tests. No relation was found between coffee intake and cognitive function among men or between decaffeinated coffee intake and cognitive function in either sex. Lifetime and current exposure to caffeine may be associated with better cognitive performance among women, especially among those aged 80 or more years. PMID:12397002

Johnson-Kozlow, Marilyn; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Morton, Deborah

2002-11-01

66

Higher and lower-order cognitive skills: The case of chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major driving force in the current effort to reform science education is the conviction that it is vital for our students\\u000a to develop their higher-order cognitive skills capacity in order to function effectively in our modem, complex science and\\u000a technology-based society. In line with this rationale, this study focuses on the use of examinations for studying student\\u000a performance in

Uri Zoller; Georgios Tsaparlis

1997-01-01

67

Education, Other Socioeconomic Indicators, and Cognitive Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the relation of educational attainment, husband's education, household income, and childhood socioeconomic status to cognitive function and decline among community-dwelling women aged 70- 79 years. Information on exposures was self-reported, except for income (which was derived from census tract data). Between 1995 and 2000, six cognitive tests were administered to 19,319 Nurses' Health Study participants. Second assessments

Sunmin Lee; Ichiro Kawachi; Lisa F. Berkman; Francine Grodstein

68

Organization of Cognitive Functions in the Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neuropsychological research on the effects of hemispherectomy-the excision of one of the cerebral hemispheres-in children and adults adds to knowledge about the division of labor between the left cerebral hemisphere, which specializes in language and verbal cognitive functions, and the right hemisphere, which specializes in nonlanguage functions.…

Smith, Aaron

69

White Matter Microstructure and Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

In recent years, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) has been increasingly used to explore the relationship between white matter structure and cognitive function. This technique uses the passive diffusion of water molecules to infer properties of the surrounding tissue. DW-MRI has been extensively employed to investigate how individual differences in behavior are related to variability in white matter microstructure on a range of different cognitive tasks and also to examine the effect experiential learning might have on brain structural connectivity. Using diffusion tensor tractography, large white matter pathways have been traced in vivo and used to explore patterns of white matter projections between different brain regions. Recent findings suggest that diffusion-weighted imaging might even be used to measure functional differences in water diffusion during task performance. This review describes some research highlights in diffusion-weighted imaging and how this technique can be employed to further our understanding of cognitive function.

Anderson, Elaine J.; Husain, Masud

2013-01-01

70

Cognitive assessment of function knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two theories of assessing function knowledge were compared for intuitive physics. The choice assessment theory, derived from Piaget, presents subjects with two physical situations, each specified by the values of two physical variables; subjects choose the situation which will yield the greater value of a dependent variable. Functional measurement presents subjects with a single physical situation; subjects make a quantitative estimate of the dependent variable. Forty subjects made both choice and functional measurement responses for two situations of intuitive physics. The choice theory showed substantial frequencies of stepwise rules, implying that subjects failed to integrate the two given physical variables. Functional measurement, in contrast, showed that most subjects integrated the two variables, following exact addition or multiplication rules. It is concluded that functional measurement gives a more correct assessment of function knowledge and should be useful in science instruction.

Karpp, Edward; Anderson, Norman

2005-11-04

71

Some Issues About Cognitive Modelling and Functionalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to introduce some methodological issues about cognitive explanatory power of AI systems. We use the\\u000a new concept of mesoscopic functionalism which is based on links between computational complexity theory and functionalism. This functionalism tries to introduce\\u000a an unique intermediate, mesoscopic, descriptive level based on the key role of heuristics. The enforcement of constraints at

Francesco Gagliardi

2007-01-01

72

[Cognitive function related to temporal lobe epilepsy: advances in research on new cognitive function].  

PubMed

The importance of neuropsychological examinations in epilepsy care and, especially, in epilepsy surgery is centered on the following roles: they offer a means to confirm the epileptic focus by multi-modal preoperative assessments and they help to assess postoperative functional changes based on preoperative cognitive functions. Furthermore, assessments of the cognitive functions of patients with epilepsy using various tests aid in providing comprehensive medical care. Thus far, research on cognitive functions related to temporal lobe epilepsy has focused on memory, language, and general intelligence. However, the concept of social cognitive function has been recently proposed in the field of neuropsychology. This cognitive function, proposed by Brothers in 1990, is a collective term for functions needed in social life; these include functions required to interpret the expressions, feelings, and intentions of others and to form and maintain smooth human relationships while making decisions necessary for self-survival. These functions mainly involve facial expression recognition and decision-making. Findings of research on neural mechanisms underlying social cognitive functions have emphasized the roles of the cerebral limbic system, such as the amygdalo-hippocampal complexes, and the emotional system in the ventromedial prefrontal area. Studies on social cognitive functions in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy are being pursued currently. Early-onset right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis is the key substrate determining a severe deficit in recognizing emotional facial expressions and decision-making. In the future, neuropsychological examinations of social cognition, in addition to those of global intelligence, memory, and verbal function, will contribute to the provision of comprehensive medical care to patients with epilepsy. PMID:23667120

Yamano, Mitsuhiko; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

2013-05-01

73

Cognitive Status and Physical Function in Older African Americans  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationship between global cognition, three specific domains of cognition, and lower extremity function in community-dwelling elderly African Americans (AAs) from two community settings. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Community. PARTICIPANTS Ninety-six AA men and women aged 60 and older from two community settings, enrolled in the Boosting Minority Involvement (BMI) study, a community-based cohort study designed to increase research participation of older low-income AAs. MEASUREMENTS Physical performance was assessed using Short Physical Performance Battery score, which is composed of three timed tests: a 4-m walking task, static balance assessment, and a chair stand test. The Bushke Memory Impairment Screen (MIS) and Mini-Mental State Examination were used to assess global memory and global cognition, respectively. For domain-specific performance, three z-score composite scores (attention, verbal memory, and executive function) were developed using the Computer-based Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment. RESULTS All domains of cognition were significant predictors of lower extremity function except for verbal memory. Executive function and MIS were the best predictors of lower extremity function in adjusted models. Participants with poor executive function were more than four times as likely to have poorer lower extremity function (odds ratio = 4.96, 95% confidence interval = 1.07–23.0). CONCLUSION Global memory and executive function were the best predictors of lower extremity function in a sample of community-dwelling AA adults. Deficits in lower extremity function may depend on multifaceted higher executive function control processes.

Nieto, Maria L.; Albert, Steven M.; Morrow, Lisa A.; Saxton, Judith

2008-01-01

74

A meta-analysis of cerebellar contributions to higher cognition from PET and fMRI studies.  

PubMed

A growing interest in cerebellar function and its involvement in higher cognition have prompted much research in recent years. Cerebellar presence in a wide range of cognitive functions examined within an increasing body of neuroimaging literature has been observed. We applied a meta-analytic approach, which employed the activation likelihood estimate method, to consolidate results of cerebellar involvement accumulated in different cognitive tasks of interest and systematically identified similarities among the studies. The current analysis included 88 neuroimaging studies demonstrating cerebellar activations in higher cognitive domains involving emotion, executive function, language, music, timing and working memory. While largely consistent with a prior meta-analysis by Stoodley and Schmahmann ([2009]: Neuroimage 44:489-501), our results extended their findings to include music and timing domains to provide further insights into cerebellar involvement and elucidate its role in higher cognition. In addition, we conducted inter- and intradomain comparisons for the cognitive domains of emotion, language, and working memory. We also considered task differences within the domain of verbal working memory by conducting a comparison of the Sternberg with the n-back task, as well as an analysis of the differential components within the Sternberg task. Results showed a consistent cerebellar presence in the timing domain, providing evidence for a role in time keeping. Unique clusters identified within the domain further refine the topographic organization of the cerebellum. Hum Brain Mapp, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23125108

E, Keren-Happuch; Chen, Shen-Hsing Annabel; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Desmond, John E

2012-11-01

75

The relation between moderate alcohol consumption and cognitive function in older women with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Aims: To examine the association between moderate drinking, cognitive function, and cognitive decline in women with type 2 diabetes. Methods: From 1995-2001, we assessed cognitive function in 1,698 women aged 71-80 years with type 2 diabetes in the Nurses' Health Study. Assessments were repeated twice at 2-year intervals. We used linear regression to estimate multivariable-adjusted mean differences in initial cognitive function and longitudinal models to estimate cognitive decline over 4 years, according to average alcohol intake between diagnosis with diabetes and the initial cognitive measurement. Results: At the initial assessment, the mean score on our test of general cognition was 0.31 (95% CI 0.02, 0.60) points higher in women who were moderate alcohol drinkers (those consuming 1.0-9.9 grams of alcohol, or about 1 drink, per day) compared with abstainers. However, moderate alcohol was not associated with cognitive decline. Higher alcohol consumption (10.0-30.0 grams of alcohol per day) was not associated with initial cognition or cognitive decline, although there was no apparent harm either. Conclusions: Among women with type 2 diabetes, moderate alcohol was associated with better initial cognition, but not reduced rates of cognitive decline. Thus, we found no clear and consistent cognitive benefits of moderate alcohol in diabetes.

Townsend, Mary K.; Devore, Elizabeth; Kang, Jae Hee; Grodstein, Francine

2009-01-01

76

PCBs and cognitive functioning of Mohawk adolescents.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the relationships between the cognitive functioning and PCB current body burdens of adolescents in the Mohawk Nation of Akwesasne where there is concern about industrial pollution of the environment. Three cognitive tests (Woodcock Johnson-Revised, Test of Memory and Learning, and Ravens Progressive Matrices) provide 13 subtests that allow a variety of cognitive outcomes to be assessed. A summary measure of PCB level was created from the congeners detected in at least 50% of the participants. The most notable finding was the significant negative relationship between PCB levels and two separate measures of long term memory. There was also a negative relationship with a measure of comprehension and knowledge. Significant relationships were not large, but provide evidence of subtle negative effects of PCB exposure. PMID:16809019

Newman, Joan; Aucompaugh, Amy G; Schell, Lawrence M; Denham, Melinda; DeCaprio, Anthony P; Gallo, Mia V; Ravenscroft, Julia; Kao, Chin-Cheng; Hanover, MaryEllen Rougas; David, Dawn; Jacobs, Agnes M; Tarbell, Alice M; Worswick, Priscilla

2006-06-30

77

Chronic stress, cognitive functioning and mental health.  

PubMed

This review aims to discuss the evidence supporting the link between chronic stress, cognitive function and mental health. Over the years, the associations between these concepts have been investigated in different populations. This review summarizes the findings that have emerged from older populations as well as from populations suffering from pathological aging, namely Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease. Although older adults are an interesting population to study in terms of chronic stress, other stress-related diseases can occur throughout the lifespan. The second section covers some of these stress-related diseases that have recently received a great deal of attention, namely burnout, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Given that chronic stress contributes to the development of certain pathologies by accelerating and/or exacerbating pre-existing vulnerabilities that vary from one individual to the other, the final section summarizes data obtained on potential variables contributing to the association between chronic stress and cognition. PMID:21376129

Marin, Marie-France; Lord, Catherine; Andrews, Julie; Juster, Robert-Paul; Sindi, Shireen; Arsenault-Lapierre, Geneviève; Fiocco, Alexandra J; Lupien, Sonia J

2011-03-02

78

Organizational Perspective on Cognitive Control Functioning and Cognitive-Affective Balance in Maltreated Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relation between a history of maltreatment and cognitive control functioning in two groups of preschool and early school-age maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Maltreated children showed developmentally impaired cognitive control functioning on a number of tasks. (RH)

Rieder, Carolyn; Cicchetti, Dante

1989-01-01

79

Mental exercises for cognitive function: clinical evidence.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the beneficial effects of a new cognitive intervention program designed for the care and prevention of dementia, namely Learning Therapy. The training program used systematized basic problems in arithmetic and Japanese language as training tasks. In study 1, 16 individuals in the experimental group and 16 in the control group were recruited from a nursing home. In both groups, all individuals were clinically diagnosed with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. In study 2, we performed a single-blind, randomized controlled trial in our cognitive intervention program of 124 community-dwelling seniors. In both studies, the daily training program using reading and arithmetic tasks was carried out approximately 5 days a week, for 15 to 20 minutes a day in the intervention groups. Neuropsychological measures were determined simultaneously in the groups both prior to and after six months of the intervention. The results of our investigations indicate that our cognitive intervention using reading and arithmetic problems demonstrated a transfer effect and they provide convincing evidence that cognitive training maintains and improves the cognitive functions of dementia patients and healthy seniors. PMID:23412645

Kawashima, Ryuta

2013-01-30

80

Ability, Breadth, and Parsimony in Computational Models of Higher-Order Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computational models will play an important role in our understanding of human higher-order cognition. How can a model's contribution to this goal be evaluated? This article argues that three important aspects of a model of higher-order cognition to evaluate are (a) its ability to reason, solve problems, converse, and learn as well as people do;…

Cassimatis, Nicholas L.; Bello, Paul; Langley, Pat

2008-01-01

81

Social cognition, empathy and functional outcome in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Social and occupational functioning difficulties are a characteristic feature of schizophrenia, and a growing body of evidence suggests that deficits in social cognition contribute significantly to these functional impairments. The present study sought to investigate whether the association between social cognition and social functioning in schizophrenia would be mediated by self-reported levels of empathy. Thirty outpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and twenty-five healthy controls completed a well-validated facial affect processing task (Ekman 60-faces facial task from the Facial Expressions of Emotion - Stimuli and Tests; FEEST), The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT; to assess emotion perception and complex social cognitive skills such as the detection of sarcasm and deceit, from realistic social exchanges), and measures of self-reported empathy and social functioning. Participants with schizophrenia performed more poorly than controls in identifying emotional states from both FEEST and TASIT stimuli, and were impaired in their ability to comprehend counterfactual information in social exchanges, including sarcasm and lies, on the TASIT. Impairment in the comprehension of sarcasm was associated with higher empathic personal distress, and lower recreational functioning. Impairment in the identification of the emotions of others was found to be associated with lower satisfaction and lower empathic fantasy. However, empathy could not be explored as a mediator of associations between social cognition and functional outcome, due to lack of common associations with functional outcome measures. These findings have implications for the remediation of specific social cognitive deficits with respect to improving functional outcomes in schizophrenia. PMID:20609567

Sparks, Amy; McDonald, Skye; Lino, Bianca; O'Donnell, Maryanne; Green, Melissa J

2010-07-06

82

Higher-Order Cognition in Personalised Adaptive eLearning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nature, the Goby fish lives in symbiosis with the burrowing shrimp; serving as a watchman in return for a place to live. Current adaptive learning systems hold an ambiguous position that attempts to compensate for real-world interaction. This paper presents a novel symbiotic-dialog approach to abstract cognitive skill training. The approach is implemented within Goby, a third-party symbiotic service

Victoria Macarthur; Owen Conlan

83

Maturation of Widely Distributed Brain Function Subserves Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive and brain maturational changes continue throughout late childhood and adolescence. During this time, increasing cognitive control over behavior enhances the voluntary suppression of reflexive\\/impulsive response tendencies. Recently, with the advent of functional MRI, it has become possible to characterize changes in brain activity during cognitive development. In order to investigate the cognitive and brain maturation subserving the ability to

Beatriz Luna; Keith R. Thulborn; Douglas P. Munoz; Elisha P. Merriam; Krista E. Garver; Nancy J. Minshew; Matcheri S. Keshavan; Christopher R. Genovese; William F. Eddy; John A. Sweeney

2001-01-01

84

Cognitive Discrepancies Versus APOE Genotype as Predictors of Cognitive Decline in Normal-Functioning Elderly Individuals: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Cognitive-discrepancy analysis has been shown to be a useful technique for detecting subtle cognitive deficits in normal-functioning elderly individuals who are genetically at-risk for Alzheimer disease (AD). However, studies that have used cognitive-discrepancy measures to date have used retrospective or cross-sectional designs, and the utility of this approach to predict cognitive decline has not been examined in a prospective investigation. Design Longitudinal study. Setting San Diego, CA, Veterans Administration Hospital. Participants Twenty-four normal-functioning elderly individuals participated in the study, with 16 subjects exhibiting no change in their Dementia Rating Scale (DRS) scores over an 1-year period (Stable Group), and 8 subjects exhibiting a decline in DRS scores over the 1-year period (Decline group). Measurements A cognitive-discrepancy measure isolating cognitive switching was computed that contrasted performance on a new higher-level task of executive functioning (a Stroop/Switching measure) relative to a composite measure of lower-level Stroop conditions. Results a) In the year before their cognitive changes, the Decline group exhibited a significantly larger cognitive-discrepancy (Stroop/Switching versus lower-level Stroop conditions) score compared with a control (Stable) group; and b) the cognitive-discrepancy measure was superior to APOE genotype in predicting DRS decline. Conclusion Cognitive-discrepancy analysis isolating a component executive function ability not only seems to be a useful tool for identifying individuals at risk for cognitive deficits, but also shows promise in predicting individuals who may show subtle cognitive decline over time.

Fine, Eric M.; Delis, Dean C.; Wetter, Spencer R.; Jacobson, Mark W.; Jak, Amy J.; McDonald, Carrie R.; Braga, Jodessa C.; Thal, Leon J.; Salmon, David P.; Bondi, Mark W.

2011-01-01

85

Cognitive Functioning in the Schizophrenia Prodrome  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, there has been an increasing interest in cognitive alterations during the early course of schizophrenia. From a clinical perspective, a better understanding of cognitive functioning in putative at-risk states for schizophrenia is essential for developing optimal early intervention models. Two approaches have more recently been combined to assess the entire course of the initial schizophrenia prodrome: the predictive “basic symptom at-risk” (BS) and the ultra high-risk (UHR) criteria. Basic symptoms are considered to be present during the entire disease progression, including the initial prodrome, while the onset of symptoms captured by the UHR criteria expresses further disease progression toward frank psychosis. The present study investigated the cognitive functioning in 93 subjects who met either BS or UHR criteria and thus were assumed to be at different points on the putative trajectory to psychosis. We compared them with 43 patients with a first episode of psychosis and to 49 help-seeking patient controls. All groups performed significantly below normative values. Both at-risk groups performed at intermediate levels between the first-episode (FE) group and normative values. The UHR group demonstrated intermediate performance between the FE and BS groups. Overall, auditory working memory, verbal fluency/processing speed, and declarative verbal memory were impaired the most. Our results suggest that cognitive impairments may still be modest in the early stages of the initial schizophrenia prodrome and thus support current efforts to intervene in the early course of impending schizophrenia because early intervention may prevent or delay the onset of frank psychosis and thus prevent further cognitive damage.

Simon, Andor E.; Cattapan-Ludewig, Katja; Zmilacher, Solange; Arbach, Dima; Gruber, Kerstin; Dvorsky, Diane N.; Roth, Binia; Isler, Emanuel; Zimmer, Alexander; Umbricht, Daniel

2007-01-01

86

A Content Analysis of General Chemistry Laboratory Manuals for Evidence of Higher-Order Cognitive Tasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The science laboratory instructional environment is ideal for fostering the development of problem-solving, manipulative, and higher-order thinking skills: the skills needed by today's learner to compete in an ever increasing technology-based society. This paper reports the results of a content analysis of ten general chemistry laboratory manuals. Three experiments from each manual were examined for evidence of higher-order cognitive activities. Analysis was based upon the six major cognitive categories of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The results of this study show that the overwhelming majority of general chemistry laboratory manuals provide tasks that require the use of only the lower-order cognitive skills: knowledge, comprehension, and application. Two of the laboratory manuals were disparate in having activities that utilized higher-order cognition. I describe the instructional strategies used within these manuals to foster higher-order cognitive development.

Domin, Daniel S.

1999-01-01

87

Cognitive functioning in recent onset psychosis.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to compare the cognitive functioning of persons with a recent onset of psychosis with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder and nonpsychiatric controls. A total of 56 persons with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder and 60 with bipolar disorder, all with a recent onset psychosis, and 312 nonpsychiatric controls were evaluated using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Comparison of the three groups through analysis of covariance indicated a significant difference among the groups for all of the cognitive variables. Pairwise contrasts of the two recent onset groups showed a significant difference favoring the bipolar disorder group on RBANS Language (p = 0.020) and Total (p = 0.050) and a marginally significant difference on RBANS Immediate Memory (p = 0.053) but not on the other RBANS variables or on the WCST. Cognitive performance is broadly impaired in recent onset psychosis, with a cognitive advantage to bipolar disorder patients compared with schizophrenia-spectrum patients. PMID:21629013

Dickerson, Faith; Stallings, Cassie; Vaughan, Crystal; Origoni, Andrea; Khushalani, Sunil; Dickinson, Dwight; Medoff, Deborah

2011-06-01

88

Pro-cognitive drug effects modulate functional brain network organization  

PubMed Central

Previous studies document that cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs improve attention, memory and cognitive control in healthy subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. In humans neural mechanisms of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation have mainly been analyzed by investigating drug-induced changes of task-related neural activity measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Endogenous neural activity has often been neglected. Further, although drugs affect the coupling between neurons, only a few human studies have explicitly addressed how drugs modulate the functional connectome, i.e., the functional neural interactions within the brain. These studies have mainly focused on synchronization or correlation of brain activations. Recently, there are some drug studies using graph theory and other new mathematical approaches to model the brain as a complex network of interconnected processing nodes. Using such measures it is possible to detect not only focal, but also subtle, widely distributed drug effects on functional network topology. Most important, graph theoretical measures also quantify whether drug-induced changes in topology or network organization facilitate or hinder information processing. Several studies could show that functional brain integration is highly correlated with behavioral performance suggesting that cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs which improve measures of cognitive performance should increase functional network integration. The purpose of this paper is to show that graph theory provides a mathematical tool to develop theory-driven biomarkers of pro-cognitive drug effects, and also to discuss how these approaches can contribute to the understanding of the role of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation in the human brain. Finally we discuss the “global workspace” theory as a theoretical framework of pro-cognitive drug effects and argue that pro-cognitive effects of cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs might be related to higher network integration.

Giessing, Carsten; Thiel, Christiane M.

2012-01-01

89

Pro-cognitive drug effects modulate functional brain network organization.  

PubMed

Previous studies document that cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs improve attention, memory and cognitive control in healthy subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. In humans neural mechanisms of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation have mainly been analyzed by investigating drug-induced changes of task-related neural activity measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Endogenous neural activity has often been neglected. Further, although drugs affect the coupling between neurons, only a few human studies have explicitly addressed how drugs modulate the functional connectome, i.e., the functional neural interactions within the brain. These studies have mainly focused on synchronization or correlation of brain activations. Recently, there are some drug studies using graph theory and other new mathematical approaches to model the brain as a complex network of interconnected processing nodes. Using such measures it is possible to detect not only focal, but also subtle, widely distributed drug effects on functional network topology. Most important, graph theoretical measures also quantify whether drug-induced changes in topology or network organization facilitate or hinder information processing. Several studies could show that functional brain integration is highly correlated with behavioral performance suggesting that cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs which improve measures of cognitive performance should increase functional network integration. The purpose of this paper is to show that graph theory provides a mathematical tool to develop theory-driven biomarkers of pro-cognitive drug effects, and also to discuss how these approaches can contribute to the understanding of the role of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation in the human brain. Finally we discuss the "global workspace" theory as a theoretical framework of pro-cognitive drug effects and argue that pro-cognitive effects of cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs might be related to higher network integration. PMID:22973209

Giessing, Carsten; Thiel, Christiane M

2012-08-28

90

Cognitive Adaptation Training: Establishing Environmental Supports to Bypass Cognitive Deficits and Improve Functional Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several approaches to the treatment of cognitive impairments and their functional consequences for persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder have been developed in recent years. This article focuses on the use of Cognitive adaptation training (CAT), a psychosocial intervention that seeks to bypass cognitive impairments in schizophrenia in an effort to improve functional outcomes. CAT relies on the use

NATALIE J. MAPLES; DAWN I. VELLIGAN

2008-01-01

91

Cognitive enhancements and the values of higher education.  

PubMed

Drugs developed to treat cognitive impairments are proving popular with healthy college students seeking to boost their focus and productivity. Concerned observers have called these practices a form of cheating akin to athletes' use of steroids, with some proposing testing students' urine to deter "academic doping." The ease with which critics analogize the academic enterprise to competitive sport, and the impulse to crack down on students using study drugs, reflect the same social influences and trends that spur demand for these interventions-our hyper-competitive culture, the commodification of education, and our attraction to technological quick-fixes. Rather than focusing on the technologies that are being put to troubling uses, we would be better served reforming the culture that makes these practices attractive. PMID:23007891

Lamkin, Matt

2012-12-01

92

Cognitive Function and Dialysis Adequacy: No Clear Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Cognitive impairment is common in hemodialysis patients and may be impacted by multiple patient and treatment characteristics. The impact of dialysis dose on cognitive function remains uncertain, particularly in the current era of increased dialysis dose and flux. Methods: We explored the cross-sectional relationship between dialysis adequacy and cognitive function in a cohort of maintenance hemodialysis patients. Adequacy was

Lena M. Giang; Daniel E. Weiner; Brian T. Agganis; Tammy Scott; Eric P. Sorensen; Hocine Tighiouart; Mark J. Sarnak

2011-01-01

93

Testosterone and cognitive function: current clinical evidence of a relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Testosterone levels decline as men age, as does cognitive function. Whether there is more than a temporal relationship between testosterone and cognitive function is unclear. Chemical castration studies in men with prostate cancer suggest that low serum testosterone may be associated with cognitive dysfunction. Low testosterone levels have also been observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild

Olivier Beauchet

2006-01-01

94

How older people nurses assess cognitive function through daily observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To obtain knowledge and insight into how older people nurses observe the cognitive function of their patients. BACKGROUND: In cases of cognitive decline not due to delirium, the daily observation of cognitive function by nurses has not been standardised in hospital wards specialised in the care of older people. DESIGN: A qualitative study with purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews.

A. Persoon; M. Van der Cruijsen; N. Schlattmann; F. Simmes; T. van Achterberg

2011-01-01

95

The Relationship Between Specific Cognitive Functions and Falls in Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the relationship between cognitive function and falls in older people who did not meet criteria for dementia or mild cognitive impairment (N = 172). To address limitations of previous research, the authors controlled for the confounding effects of gait measures and other risk factors by means of associations between cognitive function and falls. A neuropsychological test

Roee Holtzer; Rachel Friedman; Richard B. Lipton; Mindy Katz; Xiaonan Xue; Joe Verghese

2007-01-01

96

Cognition and daytime functioning in sleep-related breathing disorders.  

PubMed

Sleep-related breathing disorders encompass a range of disorders in which abnormal ventilation occurs during sleep as a result of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway, altered respiratory drive, abnormal chest wall movement, or respiratory muscle function. The most common of these is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occurring in both adults and children, and causing significant cognitive and daytime dysfunction and reduced quality of life. OSA patients experience repetitive brief cessation of breathing throughout the night, which causes intermittent hypoxemia (reductions in hemoglobin oxygen levels) and fragmented sleep patterns. These nocturnal events result in excessive daytime sleepiness, and changes in mood and cognition. Chronic excessive sleepiness during the day is a common symptom of sleep-related breathing disorders, which is assessed in sleep clinics both subjectively (questionnaire) and objectively (sleep latency tests). Mood changes are often reported by patients, including irritability, fatigue, depression, and anxiety. A wide range of cognitive deficits have been identified in untreated OSA patients, from attentional and vigilance, to memory and executive functions, and more complex tasks such as simulated driving. These changes are reflected in patient reports of difficulty in concentrating, increased forgetfulness, an inability to make decisions, and falling asleep at the wheel of a motor vehicle. These cognitive changes can also have significant downstream effects on daily functioning. Moderate to severe cases of the disorder are at a higher risk of having a motor vehicle accident, and may also have difficulties at work or school. A number of comorbidities may also influence the cognitive changes in OSA patients, including hypertension, diabetes, and stroke. These diseases can cause changes to neural vasculature and result in neural damage, leading to cognitive impairments. Examination of OSA patients using neuroimaging techniques such as structural magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy has observed significant changes to brain structure and metabolism. The downstream effects of neural, cognitive, and daytime functional impairments can be significant if left untreated. A better understanding of the cognitive effects of these disorders, and development of more effective assessment tools for diagnosis, will aid early intervention and improve quality of life of the patient. PMID:21531244

Jackson, Melinda L; Howard, Mark E; Barnes, Maree

2011-01-01

97

[Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].  

PubMed

Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders. PMID:17471820

Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Ma?gorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

2006-01-01

98

Resveratrol Preserves Cerebrovascular Density and Cognitive Function in Aging Mice  

PubMed Central

Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol abundant in grapes and red wine, has been reported to exert numerous beneficial health effects. Among others, acute neuroprotective effects of resveratrol have been described in several models of neurodegeneration, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we examined the neuroprotective effects of long-term dietary supplementation with resveratrol in mice on behavioral, neurochemical and cerebrovascular level. We report a preserved cognitive function in resveratrol-treated aging mice, as shown by an enhanced acquisition of a spatial Y-maze task. This was paralleled by a higher microvascular density and a lower number of microvascular abnormalities in comparison to aging non-treated control animals. We found no effects of resveratrol supplementation on cholinergic cell number or fiber density. The present findings support the hypothesis that resveratrol exerts beneficial effects on the brain by maintaining cerebrovascular health. Via this mechanism resveratrol can contribute to the preservation of cognitive function during aging.

Oomen, Charlotte A.; Farkas, Eszter; Roman, Viktor; van der Beek, Eline M.; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Meerlo, Peter

2009-01-01

99

Heritability of Cognitive Functions in Families of Successful Cognitive Aging Probands from the Central Valley of Costa Rica  

PubMed Central

We sought to identify cognitive phenotypes for family/genetic studies of successful cognitive aging (SCA; maintaining intact cognitive functioning while living to late old age).We administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to nondemented nonagenarians (n = 65; mean age = 93.4±3.0) and their offspring (n = 188; mean age = 66.4±5.0) from the Central Valley of Costa Rica. After covarying for age, gender, and years of education, as necessary, heritability was calculated for cognitive functions at three pre-defined levels of complexity: specific neuropsychological functions (e.g., delayed recall, sequencing), three higher level cognitive domains (memory, executive functions, attention), and an overall neuropsychological summary. The highest heritability was for delayed recall (h2 = 0.74, se = 0.14, p < 0.0001) but significant heritabilities involving memory were also observed for immediate recall (h2 = 0.50), memory as a cognitive domain (h2 = 0.53), and the overall neuropsychological summary (h2 = 0.42). Heritabilities for sequencing (h2 = 0.42), fluency (h2 = 0.39), abstraction (h2 = 0.36), and the executive functions cognitive domain (h2 = 0.35) were also significant. In contrast, the attention domain and memory recognition were not significantly heritable in these families. Among the heritable specific cognitive functions, a strong pleiotropic effect (i.e., evidence that these may be influenced by the same gene or set of genes) for delayed and immediate recall was identified (bivariate statistic = 0.934, p < 0.0001) and more modest but significant effects were found for four additional bivariate relationships. The results support the heritability of good cognitive function in old age and the utilization of several levels of phenotypes, and they suggest that several measures involving memory may be especially useful for family/genetic studies of SCA.

Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Beeri, Michal S.; Schmeidler, James; Valerio, Daniel; Raventos, Henriette; Mora-Villalobos, Lara; Camacho, Karla; Carrion-Baralt, Jose R.; Angelo, Gary; Almasy, Laura; Sano, Mary; Silverman, Jeremy M.

2012-01-01

100

Individual and Area Level Socioeconomic Status and Its Association with Cognitive Function and Cognitive Impairment (Low MMSE) among Community-Dwelling Elderly in Singapore  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) can affect cognitive function. We assessed cognitive function and cognitive impairment among community-dwelling elderly in a multi-ethnic urban low-SES Asian neighborhood and compared them with a higher-SES neighborhood. Methods The study population involved all residents aged ?60 years in two housing estates comprising owner-occupied housing (higher SES) and rental flats (low SES) in Singapore in 2012. Cognitive impairment was defined as <24 on the Mini Mental State Examination. Demographic/clinical details were collected via questionnaire. Multilevel linear regression was used to evaluate factors associated with cognitive function, while multilevel logistic regression determined predictors of cognitive impairment. Results Participation was 61.4% (558/909). Cognitive impairment was found in 26.2% (104/397) of residents in the low-SES community and in 16.1% (26/161) of residents in the higher-SES community. After adjusting for other sociodemographic variables, living in a low-SES community was independently associated with poorer cognitive function (? = ?1.41, SD = 0.58, p < 0.01) and cognitive impairment (adjusted odds ratio 5.13, 95% CI 1.98–13.34). Among cognitively impaired elderly in the low-SES community, 96.2% (100/104) were newly detected. Conclusion Living in a low-SES community is independently associated with cognitive impairment in an urban Asian society.

Wee, Liang En; Yeo, Wei Xin; Yang, Gui Rong; Hannan, Nazirul; Lim, Kenny; Chua, Christopher; Tan, Mae Yue; Fong, Nikki; Yeap, Amelia; Chen, Lionel; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat; Shen, Han Ming

2012-01-01

101

Improving Cognitive Complexity via Seminar Methodology in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents the main functions that university plays in society and describes the seminar methodology created at Ramon Llull University. Specifically the article focuses on and explains how seminars help to promote complex knowledge in students. An empirical study with students participating in seminars is designed to assess the…

Lopez, Pau; Gallifa, Josep

2008-01-01

102

Cognitive function in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy correlates with the molecular defect.  

PubMed

Previous studies based on case descriptions and neuroradiological findings have suggested central nervous system (CNS) involvement in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. The aim of this work is to explore the relationship between cognitive/personality pattern and the underlying molecular defect for this muscular dystrophy. We performed a wide-ranging neuropsychological assessment of 34 molecularly confirmed facioscapulohumeral dystrophy patients and 49 control subjects, all of whom also received the Millon-II Multiaxial Clinical Inventory (MCMI-II). Patients and controls show mild learning-level differences in the neuropsychological profile, and only the hysteriform scale is statistically higher in patients than controls. The patients' intelligence quotient (IQ) is related to the size of the deleted fragment but not to the degree of muscular impairment. The results of this study indicate a cut-off point and two distinct cognitive profiles in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy, depending on the patients' molecular defect: patients with a fragment size > 24 kb show a relatively normal cognitive pattern, whereas those with a fragment size < or = 24 kb show a significantly reduced IQ and difficulties with verbal function and visuo-constructive tasks. This work provides more evidence for the involvement of the CNS in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy and suggests that the fragment size should be taken into account in the clinical management of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy as it has a predictive value on the cognitive phenotype. PMID:18823405

Sistiaga, A; Camaño, P; Otaegui, D; Ibáñez, B; Ruiz-Martinez, J; Martí-Massó, J F; López de Munain, A

2008-09-22

103

Executive Cognitive Function and Heavy Drinking Behavior Among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive cognitive functions (ECFs) seem important for motivating change and self-regulation of problem drinking. Evidence for executive cognitive deficits have been found among heavy-drinking college students. Although college students who abuse alcohol often experience a variety of negative consequences related to their drinking behavior, executive cognitive dysfunction may interfere with recognizing consequences and responding skillfully to avoid future harm. Fifty

Arthur W. Blume; G. Alan Marlatt; Karen B. Schmaling

2000-01-01

104

Semantic memory functional MRI and cognitive function after exercise intervention in mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with early memory loss, Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, inefficient or ineffective neural processing, and increased risk for AD. Unfortunately, treatments aimed at improving clinical symptoms or markers of brain function generally have been of limited value. Physical exercise is often recommended for people diagnosed with MCI, primarily because of its widely reported cognitive benefits in healthy older adults. However, it is unknown if exercise actually benefits brain function during memory retrieval in MCI. Here, we examined the effects of exercise training on semantic memory activation during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Seventeen MCI participants and 18 cognitively intact controls, similar in sex, age, education, genetic risk, and medication use, volunteered for a 12-week exercise intervention consisting of supervised treadmill walking at a moderate intensity. Both MCI and control participants significantly increased their cardiorespiratory fitness by approximately 10% on a treadmill exercise test. Before and after the exercise intervention, participants completed an fMRI famous name discrimination task and a neuropsychological battery, Performance on Trial 1 of a list-learning task significantly improved in the MCI participants. Eleven brain regions activated during the semantic memory task showed a significant decrease in activation intensity following the intervention that was similar between groups (p-values ranged 0.048 to 0.0001). These findings suggest exercise may improve neural efficiency during semantic memory retrieval in MCI and cognitively intact older adults, and may lead to improvement in cognitive function. Clinical trials are needed to determine if exercise is effective to delay conversion to AD. PMID:23803298

Smith, J Carson; Nielson, Kristy A; Antuono, Piero; Lyons, Jeri-Annette; Hanson, Ryan J; Butts, Alissa M; Hantke, Nathan C; Verber, Matthew D

2013-01-01

105

Cognitive variability in adults with ADHD and AS: disentangling the roles of executive functions and social cognition.  

PubMed

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Asperger's Syndrome (AS) share a heterogeneous cognitive profile. Studies assessing executive functions (EF) and social cognition in both groups have found preserved and impaired performances. These inconsistent findings would be partially explained by the cognitive variability reported in these disorders. First, the present study explored the inter-individual variability in EF and social cognition in both patient groups. Second, we compared differential characteristics and commonalities in the cognitive profiles of EF and social cognition between ADHD, AS and control adults. We assessed 22 patients with ADHD, 23 adults with AS and 21 matched typically developing subjects using different measures of EF (working memory, cognitive flexibility and multitasking) and social cognition (theory of mind and decision-making). Group comparisons and multiple case series analyses (MCSA) were conducted. The between-group comparisons showed an EF deficit in working memory in ADHD and a theory of mind (ToM) impairment in AS. The MCSA evidenced that, compared to controls, ADHD patients had a higher inter-individual variability in EF, while individuals with AS had a more heterogeneous profile in social cognition tasks compared to both groups. Finally, the AS and ADHD groups presented higher task-related variability compared to controls and shared a common heterogeneous profile in EF. This is the first study to compare variability in EF and social cognition profiles of ADHD and AS. We propose that heterogeneity in EF performance is a link between ADHD and AS which may explain the overlap of symptomatology between both diagnoses. In addition, patients with AS seem to show a unique heterogeneous profile in ToM which may explain the low probability of finding AS symptoms in patients with ADHD. PMID:23220737

Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Baez, Sandra; Torralva, Teresa; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Rattazzi, Alexia; Bein, Victoria; Rogg, Katharina; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

2012-12-07

106

Genetics of brain function and cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is overwhelming evidence for the existence of substantial genetic influences on individ- ual differences in general and specific cognitive abilities, especially in adults. The actual local- ization and identification of genes underlying variation in cognitive abilities and intelligence has only just started, however. Successes are currently limited to neurological mutations with rather severe cognitive effects. The current approaches to

Geus de E. J. C; Margaret J. Wright; Nicholas G. Martin; Dorret I. Boomsma

2001-01-01

107

Homocysteine and Cognitive Function in Geriatric Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives: Cognitive dysfunction is a common aspect of the spectrum of symptoms of geriatric depression. High homocysteine levels have been linked to cognitive decline in neuropsychiatric disorders. The present study investigated possible associations between cognitive impairment observed in geriatric depression and homocysteine levels. Methods: The performance of 25 mentally healthy individuals and 40 patients with geriatric depression in terms of

P. Alexopoulos; S. Topalidis; G. Irmisch; K. Prehn; S. U. Jung; K. Poppe; H. Sebb; R. Perneczky; A. Kurz; S. Bleich; S. C. Herpertz

2010-01-01

108

The Properties of Higher Cognitive Processes and How They Can be Modelled in Neural Nets  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed that the distinction between basic and higher cognitive processes can be captured by the difference between associative and relational processes. Properties of relational processing include reification of the link between entities, so higher-order relations have lower-order relations as arguments, whereas an associative link per se cannot be a component of another association. Therefore relational processes can be

William H. Wilson; Graeme S. Halford; Steven Phillips

109

No association of CETP genotype with cognitive function or age-related cognitive change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) genotype (V\\/V homozygosity for I405V, NCBI dbSNP rs5882) has been associated with preservation of cognitive function in old age, in addition to its associations with exceptional longevity and cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypotheses that this polymorphism was associated with either level of cognitive function or lifetime cognitive change in 525 participants who took

Wendy Johnson; Sarah E. Harris; Patrick Collins; John M. Starr; Lawrence J. Whalley; Ian J. Deary

2007-01-01

110

Repeated Traumatic Brain Injury Affects Composite Cognitive Function in Piglets  

PubMed Central

Abstract Cumulative effects of repetitive mild head injury in the pediatric population are unknown. We have developed a cognitive composite dysfunction score that correlates white matter injury severity in neonatal piglets with neurobehavioral assessments of executive function, memory, learning, and problem solving. Anesthetized 3- to 5-day-old piglets were subjected to single (n?=?7), double one day apart (n?=?7), and double one week apart (n?=?7) moderate (190?rad/s) rapid non-impact axial rotations of the head and compared to instrumented shams (n?=?7). Animals experiencing two head rotations one day apart had a significantly higher mortality rate (43%) compared to the other groups and had higher failures rates in visual-based problem solving compared to instrumented shams. White matter injury, assessed by ?-APP staining, was significantly higher in the double one week apart group compared to that with single injury and sham. Worsening performance on cognitive composite score correlated well with increasing severity of white matter axonal injury. In our immature large animal model of TBI, two head rotations produced poorer outcome as assessed by neuropathology and neurobehavioral functional outcomes compared to that with single rotations. More importantly, we have observed an increase in injury severity and mortality when the head rotations occur 24?h apart compared to 7 days apart. These observations have important clinical translation to infants subjected to repeated inflicted head trauma.

Friess, Stuart H.; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Ralston, Jill; Ryall, Karen; Helfaer, Mark A.; Smith, Colin

2009-01-01

111

Hemodynamic differences in the activation of the prefrontal cortex: attention vs. higher cognitive processing.  

PubMed

Both simple attention tasks (e.g. letter cancellation) and most tasks of higher cognitive processing (e.g. word generation) are known to activate the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). While attention and higher cognitive processing differ phenomenologically, with attention tasks requiring great subjective effort despite their simplicity, possible physiological differences in the activation of the PFC between the two types of cognitive processing have remained uninvestigated. Hemodynamic changes in the PFC during activation due to tasks of attention and those of higher cognitive processing were examined using near-infrared spectroscopy in 10 Japanese and 10 American healthy adults. In tasks of higher cognitive processing, which included both verbal and non-verbal tasks, the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin ([HbO2]) increased, and that of deoxygenated hemoglobin ([HbR]) decreased, with an increase in the tissue hemoglobin saturation (THS). In tasks of attention, which consisted of the letter cancellation and continuous performance test, both [HbO2] and [HbR] increased, with no significant changes in the THS observed. The distinctive patterns of hemodynamic changes were not affected by the factors of task difficulty or language. The change in [HbR] may be a physiological marker of the prefrontal lobe activation that discriminates between attention and higher cognitive processing. The increase in [HbR] suggests increased oxygen consumption of the PFC during tasks of attention, which might be related to the disproportionately great subjective effort associated with sustained attention. The physiological alteration in hemodynamic patterns according to changes in cognition needs to be examined in subjects with prefrontal lobe dysfunction, such as schizophrenia and mood disorder. PMID:14725806

Toichi, Motomi; Findling, Robert L; Kubota, Yasutaka; Calabrese, Joseph R; Wiznitzer, Max; McNamara, Nora K; Yamamoto, Kokichi

2004-01-01

112

Additive Effects of Cognitive Function and Depressive Symptoms on Mortality in Elderly Community-Living Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Poor cognitive function and depressive symptoms are common in the elderly, frequently coexist, and are interrelated. Both risk factors are independently associated with mortality. Few studies have comprehensively described how the combination of poor cognitive function and depressive symptoms affect the risk for mortality. Our aim was to examine whether the combination of varying levels of cognitive function and depressive symptoms affect the risk of mortality in community-living elderly adults. Methods We studied 6301 elderly adults (mean age, 77 years; 62% women; 81% white) enrolled in the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) study, a prospective study of community-living participants conducted from 1993 to 1995. Cognitive function and depressive symptoms were measured using two validated measures developed for the AHEAD study. On each measure, participants were divided into tertiles representing the best, middle, and worst scores, and then placed into one of nine mutually exclusive groups ranging from best functioning on both measures to worst functioning on both measures. Mortality rates were assessed in each of the nine groups. Cox proportional hazards models were used to control for potentially confounding characteristics such as demographics, education, income, smoking, alcohol consumption, comorbidity, and baseline functional impairment. Results During 2 years of follow-up, 9% (548) of the participants died. Together, cognitive function and depressive symptoms differentiated between elderly adults at markedly different risk for mortality, ranging from 3% in those with the best function on both measures to 16% in those with the worst function on both measures (p < .001). Furthermore, for each level of cognitive function, more depressive symptoms were associated with higher mortality rates, and for each level of depressive symptoms, worse cognitive function was associated with higher mortality rates. In participants with the best cognitive function, mortality rates were 3%, 5%, and 9% in participants with low, middle, and high depressive symptoms, respectively (p < .001 for trend). The corresponding rates were 6%, 7%, and 12% in participants with the middle level of cognitive function (p < .001 for trend), and 10%, 13%, and 16% in participants with the worst level of cognitive function (p < .001 for trend). After adjustment for confounders, participants with the worst function on both measures remained at considerably higher risk for death than participants with the best function on both measures (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.0–4.7). Conclusions Cognitive function and depressive symptoms can be used together to stratify elderly adults into groups that have significantly different rates of death. These two risk factors are associated with an increased risk in mortality in a progressive, additive manner.

Mehta, Kala M.; Yaffe, Kristine; Langa, Kenneth M.; Sands, Laura; Whooley, Mary A.; Covinsky, Kenneth E.

2010-01-01

113

Everyday functioning in mild cognitive impairment and its relationship with executive cognition  

PubMed Central

Objective Elderly persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are at increased risk of dementia and functional impairments. The present study investigated the contribution of three domains of executive cognition to everyday functioning among persons with MCI. Methods 124 MCI patients and 68 cognitively normal elderly participants were administered a cognitive screening battery. These tests were used to divide patients into four subgroups (amnestic single domain, amnestic multiple domain, non-amnestic single domain, and non-amnestic multiple domain). Subjects were then administered 18 executive function tests that assess planning/problem-solving, working memory, and judgment. Performance of everyday activities and everyday cognition was rated with two informant-reported measures. Results All MCI subtypes had more difficulties in everyday activities than cognitively normal elderly participants. Multiple domain MCI patients had more functional impairments than single domain MCI patients. Contrary to our expectations, only one executive function component, working memory, contributed significantly to functional status after controlling for demographic, health-related and other cognitive factors. Conclusions Functional abilities are compromised in all MCI subtypes. Working memory may be associated with functional impairments, but general cognitive measures account for more unique variance.

Aretouli, Eleni; Brandt, Jason

2010-01-01

114

Cognitive functioning after subthalamic nucleotomy for refractory Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To evaluate whether subthalamic nucleotomy produces adverse cognitive effects in patients with Parkinson's disease.?METHOD—Twelve patients with Parkinson's disease underwent stereotactic surgery to the subthalamic nucleus. Presurgical and postsurgical neuropsychological assessment of attention, memory, executive function, language, and verbal intellect were undertaken with a battery of tests designed to minimise potential contamination of cognitive effects by motor symptoms.?RESULTS—There was no statistically significant difference in the cognitive tests results after operation for the group as a whole. Reliable change indexes were generated for the cognitive tests. Reliable change postoperatively was found on specific tests of verbal memory, attention, and planning. Left sided operations were associated with greater incidence of deterioration postsurgery.?CONCLUSIONS—Preliminary data on the first reported cognitive changes after subthalamic nucleotomy suggested few adverse cognitive effects of the surgery although discrete neuropsychological changes were seen in some patients. These effects were consistent with current theories on the cognitive functions of the basal ganglia.??

McCarter, R.; Walton, N.; Rowan, A.; Gill, S.; Palomo, M.

2000-01-01

115

Community-level socio-economic status and cognitive and functional impairment in the older population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study aimed to determine if people living in communities with higher socio-economic deprivation are at an increased risk of cognitive and functional impairment even after controlling for the effects of individual socio-economic status. Methods: We analysed cross-sectional data from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study which consists of a community- based sample of Cambridgeshire, Gwynedd,

Nicole E. Basta; Fiona E. Matthews; Mark D. Chatfield; Carol Brayne

2007-01-01

116

Computer Use and the Relation between Age and Cognitive Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article investigates whether computer use for leisure could mediate or moderate the relations between age and cognitive functioning. Findings supported smaller age differences in measures of cognitive functioning for people who reported spending more hours using a computer. Because of the cross-sectional design of the study, two alternative…

Soubelet, Andrea

2012-01-01

117

Cognitive functioning and school performance in children with renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although previous studies have documented neuropsychological deficits in children with end-stage renal disease, few have evaluated and compared the cognitive functioning and the school performance of children with renal failure. The current study evaluated the influence of chronic renal failure on cognitive functioning and school performance in children and adolescents with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis and after renal transplantation.

Kathleen W. Lawryl; Ben H. Brouhardl; Robert J. Cunningham

1994-01-01

118

Adverse drug reactions and cognitive function among hospitalized older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the relationship between cognitive function and the detection of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and to evaluate whether cognitive function could influence the association between age and ADRs. Methods. A total of 16,926 patients admitted to 81 hospitals throughout Italy between 1991 and 1997 were included in the study. ADRs detected the during hospital stay were recorded by

Graziano Onder; Giovanni Gambassi; Christian J. Scales; Matteo Cesari; Cecilia Della Vedova; Francesco Landi; Roberto Bernabei

2002-01-01

119

Weight Change and Cognitive Function: Findings From the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although studies exploring relationships between obesity and cognitive impairment in the elderly are conflicting, literature suggests that overweight and obesity may be protective against cognitive impairment and dementia in older women. We examine the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference (WC) with global and domain-specific cognitive function in a large, well-defined cohort of 2,283 older, postmenopausal women (aged

Ira Driscoll; Mark A. Espeland; Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller; Sarah A. Gaussoin; Jingzhong Ding; Iris A. Granek; Judith K. Ockene; Lawrence S. Phillips; Kristine Yaffe; Susan M. Resnick

2011-01-01

120

Nature and Function of Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

place. Our next class meeting will be spent on studying issues for the two major stakeholders in any institution, the students and the faculty. For students, we will attempt to understand some of the purposes and outcomes of higher education. We will then turn to faculty, studying the academic profession and some of the major changes that it has undergone

William R. Doyle

121

Benchmarking main activation functions in fuzzy cognitive maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM) are graph-based modeling tools. FCM can to be used for structuring and supporting decisional processes. Also, FCM allow developing what-if analysis, through the definition of scenarios. It is possible to choose among four activation functions: (1) sigmoid function, (2) hyperbolic tangent function, (3) step function and (4) threshold linear function. The use of each function can

Salvador Bueno; Jose L. Salmeron

2009-01-01

122

Electroencephalographic imaging of higher brain function.  

PubMed Central

High temporal resolution is necessary to resolve the rapidly changing patterns of brain activity that underlie mental function. Electroencephalography (EEG) provides temporal resolution in the millisecond range. However, traditional EEG technology and practice provide insufficient spatial detail to identify relationships between brain electrical events and structures and functions visualized by magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography. Recent advances help to overcome this problem by recording EEGs from more electrodes, by registering EEG data with anatomical images, and by correcting the distortion caused by volume conduction of EEG signals through the skull and scalp. In addition, statistical measurements of sub-second interdependences between EEG time-series recorded from different locations can help to generate hypotheses about the instantaneous functional networks that form between different cortical regions during perception, thought and action. Example applications are presented from studies of language, attention and working memory. Along with its unique ability to monitor brain function as people perform everyday activities in the real world, these advances make modern EEG an invaluable complement to other functional neuroimaging modalities.

Gevins, A; Smith, M E; McEvoy, L K; Leong, H; Le, J

1999-01-01

123

Cognitive function in tension-type headache.  

PubMed

The association between tension-type headache and cognitive ability was assessed among 971 members of a longitudinal birth cohort study. Primary headache status was determined at age 32 years according to 2004 International Headache Society criteria, frequent childhood headaches were identified from parent report from ages 7 to 13 years, and data relating to cognitive and academic performance from ages 3 to 32 years were analyzed. Adult study members with tension-type headache did not score worse on any of the cognitive measures relative to headache-free controls or headache-free tinnitus sufferers. Instead, a consistent relation was found between childhood headache (regardless of headache diagnosis in adulthood) and lower scores on most cognitive measures from age 3 years through adolescence (verbal and performance IQ, receptive language, and reading scores). The data indicate that cognitive performance deficits in childhood headache sufferers can probably be attributed to factors stemming from utero or early childhood. PMID:18173981

Waldie, Karen E; Welch, David

2007-12-01

124

Cognitive Training Improves Sleep Quality and Cognitive Function among Older Adults with Insomnia  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia. Design Participants (n?=?51) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n?=?34) or to an active control group (n?=?17). The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated. Setting Community setting: residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65–85). Interventions Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia. Results Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency) and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming). Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved “avoiding distractions” is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep. Conclusions New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and maintenance of sleep in older adults with insomnia. Lasting and personalized cognitive training is particularly indicated to generate the type of learning necessary for combined cognitive and sleep enhancements in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00901641

Haimov, Iris; Shatil, Evelyn

2013-01-01

125

Cognitive function in growth hormone deficiency and growth hormone replacement.  

PubMed

There is converging evidence from neuropsychological studies that growth hormone (GH) is associated with cognitive function. The aim of the current study was to review the existing neuropsychological literature for studies in which cognitive assessment had been conducted in patients with GH deficiency (GHD), and where change in cognitive function had been assessed following treatment with GH. Studies that have investigated relationships between GH and cognitive function and those that have developed methodological and statistical approaches that could be useful in future GH studies were identified. In this review, GH levels were found to be associated with cognitive function. Untreated individuals with GHD showed reliable impairment in memory and attentional functions when compared with matched controls. Appropriately designed prospective studies also indicated that cognitive function improved with GH treatment. It was concluded that individuals with GHD do show cognitive impairment and that this is ameliorated to some extent by GH treatment. It is now important to establish the clinical importance of these findings, and further work is required to understand better the nature, magnitude and meaning of GH-related cognitive impairments and improvements. PMID:16439852

Maruff, Paul; Falleti, Marina

2006-01-20

126

Cardiac Modulation of Startle: Effects on Eye Blink and Higher Cognitive Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cardiac cycle time has been shown to affect pre-attentive brainstem startle processes, such as the magnitude of acoustically evoked reflexive startle eye blinks. These effects were attributed to baro-afferent feedback mechanisms. However, it remains unclear whether cardiac cycle time plays a role in higher startle-related cognitive processes, as…

Schulz, Andre; Reichert, Carolin F.; Richter, Steffen; Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Schachinger, Hartmut

2009-01-01

127

Students' Self-Assessment in Chemistry Examinations Requiring Higher and Lower-Order Cognitive Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of students' higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) in the context of both chemistry and the complex interrelationships of science, technology, environment, and society is widely accepted as one of the most important goals of chemical education. Consequently, the translation of this goal into teaching, assessment, and learning strategies is a central issue in chemistry teaching. Students' self-assessment in chemistry

Uri Zoller; Michal Fastow; Aviva Lubezky; Georgios Tsaparlis

1999-01-01

128

Relationship between inflammation and cognitive function in obstructive sleep apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can have adverse effects on cognitive functioning, mood, and cardiovascular functioning. OSA\\u000a brings with it disturbances in sleep architecture, oxygenation, sympathetic nervous system function, and inflammatory processes.\\u000a It is not clear which of these mechanisms is linked to the decrease in cognitive functioning. This study examined the effect\\u000a of inflammatory parameters on cognitive dysfunction.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and

Alexander Haensel; Wayne A. Bardwell; Paul J. Mills; Jose S. Loredo; Sonia Ancoli-Israel; Erin E. Morgan; Robert K. Heaton; Joel E. Dimsdale

2009-01-01

129

Cognitive functioning in orthostatic hypotension due to pure autonomic failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychophysiological science proposes close interactions between cognitive processes and autonomic responses, yet the consequences\\u000a of autonomic failure on cognitive functioning have not been documented. This pilot study investigates, for the first time,\\u000a the cognitive profile of 14 patients with Pure Autonomic Failure (PAF). Each patient was administered a comprehensive battery\\u000a of neuropsychological tests and neuroimaging investigation. A number of patients

Hannah C. Heims; Hugo D. Critchley; Naomi H. Martin; H. Rolf Jäger; Christopher J. Mathias; Lisa Cipolotti

2006-01-01

130

Abnormal cognitive function in treated congenital hypopituitarism  

PubMed Central

Aims: To assess cognitive function in school age children with congenital pituitary hormone deficiency (PHD). Methods: Ten children with PHD (aged 6.0–15.6 years, mean 11.5 years) and sibling controls (aged 8.7–14.9 years, mean 12.1 years) were assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC–III UK). Results: The patients' full scale IQ scores were all below average (mean 75, 95% CI 70–80), but were not significantly different to those of sibling controls (mean 82, 95% CI 75–89). There was no difference in verbal IQ between patients and siblings, but performance IQ was significantly reduced (mean 75, 95% CI 68–82 in patients; mean 88, 95% CI 80–96 in sibling controls). The reduced performance IQ reflected a poorer performance in tasks assessing perceptual organisational skills. Conclusions: Data suggest that children with PHD have an IQ that is below average when compared to the population norm and a reduced performance IQ when compared to sibling controls. This may reflect abnormal brain development or could be linked to the impact of hypoglycaemia or low thyroxine concentrations in early life. This information is of value when counselling parents and planning a child's care and education, although further, more extensive studies of patients and siblings are required.

Brown, K; Rodgers, J; Johnstone, H; Adams, W; Clarke, M; Gibson, M; Cheetham, T

2004-01-01

131

Luminous efficiency functions at higher intensities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two psychophysical measurement techniques, flicker photometry and successive heterochromatic brightness matching, were used to measure changes in luminance efficiency functions with increasing levels of light adaptation. Both measurement techniques were performed using the same optical system and the same seven healthy adults as subjects. Measurements were taken at four reference stimulus intensities, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 foot-lamberts. Luminous efficiency was found to depend on both the technique and the reference stimulus intensity with which the measurements were taken. For heterochromatic brightness matching, luminous efficiency increased for longer wavelengths as reference intensity increased. Peak luminous efficiency shifted from approximately 540nm to greater than 600nm with increasing intensity for all seven subjects. Peak luminous efficiency was constant for flicker photometry across all intensities but the function narrowed slightly at 100 foot-lamberts.

Harrington, Lawrence Kent

132

Questions for Assessing Higher-Order Cognitive Skills: It's Not Just Bloom's  

PubMed Central

We present an exploratory study of biologists’ ideas about higher-order cognition questions. We documented the conversations of biologists who were writing and reviewing a set of higher-order cognition questions. Using a qualitative approach, we identified the themes of these conversations. Biologists in our study used Bloom's Taxonomy to logically analyze questions. However, biologists were also concerned with question difficulty, the length of time required for students to address questions, and students’ experience with questions. Finally, some biologists demonstrated an assumption that questions should have one correct answer, not multiple reasonable solutions; this assumption undermined their comfort with some higher-order cognition questions. We generated a framework for further research that provides an interpretation of participants’ ideas about higher-order questions and a model of the relationships among these ideas. Two hypotheses emerge from this framework. First, we propose that biologists look for ways to measure difficulty when writing higher-order questions. Second, we propose that biologists’ assumptions about the role of questions in student learning strongly influence the types of higher-order questions they write.

Lemons, Paula P.; Lemons, J. Derrick

2013-01-01

133

Questions for assessing higher-order cognitive skills: it's not just Bloom's.  

PubMed

We present an exploratory study of biologists' ideas about higher-order cognition questions. We documented the conversations of biologists who were writing and reviewing a set of higher-order cognition questions. Using a qualitative approach, we identified the themes of these conversations. Biologists in our study used Bloom's Taxonomy to logically analyze questions. However, biologists were also concerned with question difficulty, the length of time required for students to address questions, and students' experience with questions. Finally, some biologists demonstrated an assumption that questions should have one correct answer, not multiple reasonable solutions; this assumption undermined their comfort with some higher-order cognition questions. We generated a framework for further research that provides an interpretation of participants' ideas about higher-order questions and a model of the relationships among these ideas. Two hypotheses emerge from this framework. First, we propose that biologists look for ways to measure difficulty when writing higher-order questions. Second, we propose that biologists' assumptions about the role of questions in student learning strongly influence the types of higher-order questions they write. PMID:23463228

Lemons, Paula P; Lemons, J Derrick

2013-01-01

134

Performance of a computer-based assessment of cognitive function measures in two cohorts of seniors.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Computer-administered assessment of cognitive function is being increasingly incorporated in clinical trials; however, its performance in these settings has not been systematically evaluated. DESIGN: The Seniors Health and Activity Research Program pilot trial (N?=?73) developed a computer-based tool for assessing memory performance and executive functioning. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders investigators incorporated this battery in a full-scale multicenter clinical trial (N?=?1635). We describe relationships that test scores have with those from interviewer-administered cognitive function tests and risk factors for cognitive deficits and describe performance measures (completeness, intraclass correlations [ICC]). RESULTS: Computer-based assessments of cognitive function had consistent relationships across the pilot and full-scale trial cohorts with interviewer-administered assessments of cognitive function, age, and a measure of physical function. In the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders cohort, their external validity was further demonstrated by associations with other risk factors for cognitive dysfunction: education, hypertension, diabetes, and physical function. Acceptable levels of data completeness (>83%) were achieved on all computer-based measures; however, rates of missing data were higher among older participants (odds ratio?=?1.06 for each additional year; p?cognitive measures loaded onto the first principal component (global cognitive function), which accounted for 40% of the overall variance. CONCLUSION: Our results support the use of computer-based tools for assessing cognitive function in multicenter clinical trials of older individuals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23589390

Espeland, Mark A; Katula, Jeffrey A; Rushing, Julia; Kramer, Arthur F; Jennings, Janine M; Sink, Kaycee M; Nadkarni, Neelesh K; Reid, Kieran F; Castro, Cynthia M; Church, Timothy; Kerwin, Diana R; Williamson, Jeff D; Marottoli, Richard A; Rushing, Scott; Marsiske, Michael; Rapp, Stephen R

2013-04-16

135

Standing worsens cognitive functions in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension.  

PubMed

In previous studies, addressing the association between orthostatic hypotension and cognitive decline, patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation in sitting position, and blood pressure values and cognition were not measured concurrently. Furthermore, no studies assessed the acute effects of orthostatic hypotension on cognitive performances. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of a documented fall in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of at least 20 mmHg on a battery of cognitive tests in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. Ten consecutive patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, normal brain imaging, and a normal Mini Mental State Examination in supine position were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment (Brief Mental Deterioration battery and computerized tests) over two test sessions: the first while tilted to an angle able to cause a fall of at least 20 mmHg in SBP; the second while supine, after 30 min of rest. Parallel forms of the tests were presented on each testing session. Patients scored significantly worse in the visual search test, analogies test, immediate visual memory, and the measure of global cognitive functioning of Brief Mental Deterioration battery during the orthostatic challenge compared to the supine position. Orthostatic hypotension was associated with a significant worsening of cognitive performances, affecting both global cognitive functioning and specific tasks, mainly exploring executive functions. The assessment of cognitive function in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension should be performed considering the body's position of the subject. PMID:21894556

Poda, R; Guaraldi, P; Solieri, L; Calandra-Buonaura, G; Marano, G; Gallassi, R; Cortelli, P

2011-09-06

136

The relationship between blood pressure and cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between blood pressure (BP) and cognitive outcomes in elderly adults has implications for global health care. Both hypertension and hypotension affect brain perfusion and worsen cognitive outcomes. The presence of hypertension and other vascular risk factors has been associated with decreased performance in executive function and attention tests. Cerebrovascular reserve has emerged as a potential biomarker for monitoring

Ihab Hajjar; Vera Novak

2010-01-01

137

Cognitive function in HIV-seropositive Nigerians without AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of cognitive function in individuals with HIV infection who remain relatively asymptomatic have shown widely variable estimates of impairment in different races and countries. Limited data exist on the impact of early asymptomatic HIV infection on cognition in developing nations, and indeed none from Nigeria. Hence, this cross-sectional study sets out to determine whether there are differences between Nigerian

Fatai K. Salawu; Sunday A. Bwala; Musa A. Wakil; Bukar Bani; David N. Bukbuk; Ibrahim Kida

2008-01-01

138

Elicited emotions and cognitive functioning in preschool children  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four? to five?year?old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of ‘happy’ and ‘sad’ video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and physiological (heart rate variations) indices of emotions were used to measure the elicited emotions. The

Rivka Blau; Pnina S. Klein

2010-01-01

139

Assessment of cognitive function in heart failure patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundResearch on the cognitive capacity of heart failure patients is limited, with a paucity of benchmark information available for this population. It is highly likely that cognitive deficits affect patients' understanding of disease and treatment requirements, as well as limiting their functional capacity and ability to implement treatment plans, and undertake self-care.

Rachel Wolfe; Linda Worrall-Carter; Kellie Foister; Nicholas Keks; Vivienne Howe

2006-01-01

140

Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and physiological…

Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

2010-01-01

141

The role of cognition in vocational functioning in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenia is associated with long-term unemployment. Cognitive dysfunction, rather than clinical symptoms, may be the most important factor in the ability to work for patients with this disorder. To evaluate the relationship of clinical symptoms and cognitive functioning to work status, thirty patients with schizophrenia, who were participants in a vocational rehabilitation program, were evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery

Susan R McGurk; Herbert Y Meltzer

2000-01-01

142

Cognitive Styles in High-Functioning Adolescents with Autistic Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study investigated the operationalization, the identification, and the prevalence of weak central coherence and poor cognitive shifting in 35 high-functioning adolescents with autism. Weak central coherence and poor cognitive shifting did not appear to be related to measures of symptom severity, social understanding, and social competence.…

Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Cools, Alexander R.; van Spaendonck, Karel P. M.; Aerts, Francisca H. T. M.; Berger, Hans J. C.

2001-01-01

143

Cognitive Styles in High-Functioning Adolescents with Autistic Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addressed the operationalization, the identification, and the prevalence of weak central coherence and poor cognitive shifting in 35 high-functioning adolescents with autism. Central coherence and cognitive shifting were represented by two factors in a factor analysis, each reflecting a constituent aspect of the domain in question. With regard to central coherence, these aspects were the ability of piecemeal

Jan-Pieter Teunisse; Alexander R. Cools; Karel P. M. van Spaendonck; Francisca H. T. M. Aerts; Hans J. C. Berger

2001-01-01

144

Symptoms of depression and cognitive functioning in older American Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression and lower cognitive functioning are common conditions in older populations. While links between psychopathology and neuropsychological performance have been studied in the white majority population, little is known about such links in the American Indian population. American Indians aged 60 and older (n = 140) completed structured interviews that included a depression screener and two cognitive screening measures, the

S. P. Verney; L. L. Jervis; A. Fickenscher; Y. Roubideaux; A. Bogart; J. Goldberg

2008-01-01

145

Agitated Behavior and Cognitive Functioning in Nursing Home Residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agitation is a significant problem for nursing home residents, their families, and their caretakers. Previous literature suggests that agitation is related to dementia and cognitive deterioration in the elderly, but no empirical studies support this relationship. This study tests the relationship between level of cognitive functioning and the nature and level of agitation in nursing home residents. Nurses rated one

Jiska Cohen-Mansfield

1988-01-01

146

Physical activity and the maintenance of cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies suggest that physical activity or exercise can prevent or delay the onset of age-related cognitive impairment or dementia. Several epidemiologic studies have attempted to address this issue by using widely varying definitions of physical activity as well as differing methods to assess cognitive function or dementia. Despite the variability in study design, longitudinal studies report that the risk

Kenneth Rockwood; Laura Middleton

2007-01-01

147

Age-related functional reorganization, structural changes, and preserved cognition.  

PubMed

Although healthy aging is associated with general cognitive decline, there is considerable variability in the extent to which cognitive functions decline or are preserved. Preserved cognitive function in the context of age-related neuroanatomical and functional changes, has been attributed to compensatory mechanisms. However, the existing sparse evidence is largely focused on functions associated with the frontal cortex, leaving open the question of how wider age-related brain changes relate to compensation. We evaluated relationships between age-related neural and functional changes in the context of preserved cognitive function by combining measures of structure, function, and cognitive performance during spoken language comprehension using a paradigm that does not involve an explicit task. We used a graph theoretical approach to derive cognitive activation-related functional magnetic resonance imaging networks. Correlating network properties with age, neuroanatomical variations, and behavioral data, we found that decreased gray matter integrity was associated with decreased connectivity within key language regions but increased overall functional connectivity. However, this network reorganization was less efficient, suggesting that engagement of a more distributed network in aging might be triggered by reduced connectivity within specialized networks. PMID:23942392

Meunier, David; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A; Tyler, Lorraine K

2013-08-12

148

Rethinking cognitive function in multiple sclerosis: a nursing perspective.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment is a common problem in multiple sclerosis (MS); up to 65% of patients exhibit some neuropsychological dysfunction during the course of their disease. It is a major contributing factor to unemployment, accidents, impairment of daily functioning, and loss of social activity in those affected by MS. The areas of cognition typically impaired are memory, attention, information processing, executive functions, and visuospatial skills. Cognitive dysfunction is independent of disease duration and level of disability; cognitive decline may begin in the earliest stages of MS before patients become even mildly disabled. Structural brain imaging studies show a positive correlation between the extent of brain atrophy and cognitive dysfunction. Despite its prevalence in MS, cognitive dysfunction often goes undiagnosed or is misdiagnosed as depression, stress, stubbornness, lack of intelligence, or psychosis. Because nurses play such an important role in the care of patients with MS, they are in a position to identify patients with cognitive dysfunction, educate patients and their families on ways to cope with cognitive deficits, and counsel patients on available treatment options. Practical guidelines help nurses identify and care for cognitively impaired MS patients. PMID:12795033

Halper, June; Kennedy, Patricia; Miller, Colleen Murphy; Morgante, Linda; Namey, Marie; Ross, Amy Perrin

2003-04-01

149

Cognitive functioning moderates the relation between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and alcohol use in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work revealed that cognitive functioning moderated the relation between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms and alcohol use [Alcohol., Clin. Exp. Res. 23 (1999) 224]. ADHD Symptoms correlated significantly with alcohol use for individuals with a poorer performance on tasks assessing prefrontal area functioning but not for individuals with higher scores on these tasks. The current study proposes to

Sherry A. Span; Mitchell Earleywine

2004-01-01

150

Sleep Onset/Maintenance Difficulties and Cognitive Function in Nondemented Older Adults: the Role of Cognitive Reserve  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined the relationship between cognitive function and sleep onset/maintenance difficulties (SO/MD) in nondemented older adults. We hypothesized that SO/MD negatively impacts cognition and that older adults with lower education would be especially vulnerable to its effects. Methods The sample comprised 549 older adults from the Einstein Aging Study (EAS), a community-based sample. Participants completed neuropsychological assessment and a sleep questionnaire. Univariate ANCOVAs were performed with cognitive performance as a dependent variable, SO/MD (present or absent) and education (lower:?12 years; higher:>12 years) as between-subjects factors, and age, ethnicity, gender, depression, and cardiovascular comorbidies as covariates. Results Participants were an average age of 79.7±5.0 years (range=71–97). Fifty-seven percent (n=314) of the sample met criteria for SO/MD. Among participants with SO/MD, those with lower education performed more poorly on a test of category fluency than participants with higher education (means: 35.2 vs. 41.0, p<0.001); among older adults without SO/MD, educational attainment had no measurable effect on cognition (SO/MD × education interaction (F(1,536)=14.5, p=0.00)). Conclusions Consistent with the cognitive reserve hypothesis, older adults with lower education appear selectively vulnerable to the negative effects of sleep onset/maintenance difficulties on tests of verbal fluency.

Zimmerman, Molly E.; Bigal, Marcelo E.; Katz, Mindy J.; Brickman, Adam M.; Lipton, Richard B.

2013-01-01

151

The value of assessing cognitive function in drug development  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the value and utility of measuring cognitive function in the development of new medicines by reference to the most widely used automated system in clinical research. Evidence is presented from phase 1 to 3 of the nature and quality of the information that can be obtained by applying the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment system to ongoing clinical trials. Valuable evidence can be obtained even in the first trial in which a novel compound is administered to man. One application of such testing is to ensure that novel compounds are relatively free from cognition-impairing properties, particularly in relation to competitor products. Another is to ensure that unwanted interactions with alcohol and other medications do not occur, or, if they do, to put them in context. In many patient populations, cognitive dysfunction occurs as a result of the disease process, and newer medicines which can treat the symptoms of the disease without further impairing function can often reveal benefits as the disease-induced cognitive dysfunction is reduced. Another major application is to identify benefits for compounds designed to enhance cognitive function. Such effects can be sought in typical phase 1 trials, or a scopolamine model of the core deficits of Alzheimer's disease can be used to screen potential antidernentia drugs. Ultimately, of course, such effects can be demonstrated using properly validated and highly sensitive automated procedures in the target populations. The data presented demonstrate that the concept of independently assessing a variety of cognitive functions is crucial in helping differentiate drugs, types of dementia, and different illnesses. Such information offers a unique insight into how the alterations to various cognitive functions will manifest themselves in everyday behavior. This reveals a major limitation of scales that yield a single score, because such limited information does not permit anything but a quantitative interpretation; and the concept of “more” cognitive function or “less” is manifestly inappropriate for something as complex and diverse as the interplay between cognitive function and human behavior. Finally, the next generations of cognitive testing are described. Testing via the telephone has just been introduced and will have dramatic effects on the logistics of conducting cognitive testing in large patient trials. Testing via the Internet is not far off either, and will come fully into play as the proportion of homes connected to the Internet increases in Europe and North America. There are no sound reasons for not wishing to include cognitive function testing in the development protocol of any novel medicine.

Wesnes, Keith A.

2000-01-01

152

Social Cognition in Psychosis: Multidimensional Structure, Clinical Correlates, and Relationship With Functional Outcome  

PubMed Central

Social cognitive impairments are common, detectable across a wide range of tasks, and appear to play a key role in explaining poor outcome in schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. However, little is known about the underlying factor structure of social cognition in people with psychotic disorders due to a lack of exploratory factor analyses using a relatively comprehensive social cognitive assessment battery. In a sample of 85 outpatients with psychosis, we examined the factor structure and clinical/functional correlates of eight indexes derived from five social cognition tasks that span the domains of emotional processing, social perception, attributional style, and Theory of Mind. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors with relatively low inter-correlations that explained a total of 54% of the variance: (1) Hostile attributional style, (2) Lower-level social cue detection, and (3) Higher-level inferential and regulatory processes. None of the factors showed significant correlations with negative symptoms. Factor 1 significantly correlated with clinical symptoms (positive, depression-anxiety, agitation) but not functional outcome, whereas Factors 2 and 3 significantly correlated with functional outcome (functional capacity and real-world social and work functioning) but not clinical symptoms. Furthermore, Factor 2 accounted for unique incremental variance in functional capacity, above and beyond non-social neurocognition (measured with MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery) and negative symptoms. Results suggest that multiple separable dimensions of social cognition can be identified in psychosis, and these factors show distinct patterns of correlation with clinical features and functional outcome.

Mancuso, Francesco; Horan, William P.; Kern, Robert S.; Green, Michael F.

2010-01-01

153

Social cognition in psychosis: multidimensional structure, clinical correlates, and relationship with functional outcome.  

PubMed

Social cognitive impairments are common, detectable across a wide range of tasks, and appear to play a key role in explaining poor outcome in schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. However, little is known about the underlying factor structure of social cognition in people with psychotic disorders due to a lack of exploratory factor analyses using a relatively comprehensive social cognitive assessment battery. In a sample of 85 outpatients with psychosis, we examined the factor structure and clinical/functional correlates of eight indexes derived from five social cognition tasks that span the domains of emotional processing, social perception, attributional style, and Theory of Mind. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors with relatively low inter-correlations that explained a total of 54% of the variance: (1) Hostile attributional style, (2) Lower-level social cue detection, and (3) Higher-level inferential and regulatory processes. None of the factors showed significant correlations with negative symptoms. Factor 1 significantly correlated with clinical symptoms (positive, depression-anxiety, agitation) but not functional outcome, whereas Factors 2 and 3 significantly correlated with functional outcome (functional capacity and real-world social and work functioning) but not clinical symptoms. Furthermore, Factor 2 accounted for unique incremental variance in functional capacity, above and beyond non-social neurocognition (measured with MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery) and negative symptoms. Results suggest that multiple separable dimensions of social cognition can be identified in psychosis, and these factors show distinct patterns of correlation with clinical features and functional outcome. PMID:21112743

Mancuso, Francesco; Horan, William P; Kern, Robert S; Green, Michael F

2010-11-26

154

Height and cognitive function at older ages: is height a useful summary measure of early childhood experiences?  

PubMed

Previous research using US data suggests that height, as a marker for early investments in health, is associated with better cognitive functioning in later life, but this association disappears once education is controlled for. Using an English cohort of men and women older than 50?years, we find that the association between height and cognitive outcomes remains significant after controlling for education suggesting that height affects cognitive functioning not simply via higher educational attainment. Furthermore, the significant association between height and cognitive function remains even after controls for early life indicators have been included. PMID:22231981

Guven, Cahit; Lee, Wang Sheng

2012-01-10

155

Cognitive Function of Theoretical Knowledge in Procedural Learning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present project continuous work began under a previous project, 'Knowledge-based revision of cognitive procedures in response to changing task demands: Toward a theory of the nature and function of principled knowledge'. In the course of the previous ...

S. Ohlsson

1992-01-01

156

Commonsense Psychology and the Functional Requirements of Cognitive Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we argue that previous models of cognitive abilities (e.g. memory, analogy) have been constructed to satisfy functional requirements of implicit commonsense psychological theories held by researchers and nonresearchers alike. Rather than wor...

A. S. Gordon

2005-01-01

157

Cognitive function in patients with Cushing syndrome: a longitudinal perspective.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to examine the level of improvement of cognitive function 12 months posttreatment in adult patients with Cushing syndrome (CS), the relationships of cognitive function to duration of CS or recovery of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, and depression and improved cognitive functioning. Thirty-three patients with CS and a matched comparison group were enrolled. IQ, depression, and endocrine factors were measured during the active phase of CS and at 12 months posttreatment for CS. Results show no group differences in cognitive function across time but a trend for CS patients to have lower IQ scores at baseline. Individual differences in performance were striking. For some subscales of IQ there was a positive relationship with recovery of the HPA axis and a negative relationship with duration of CS as well as an improvement if depression had decreased. Limitations of the study are cited along with clinical implications and directions for future research. PMID:11881698

Dorn, L D; Cerrone, P

2000-11-01

158

Cogimir: A Study of Cognitive Functions in Microgravity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nonspecific (attention psychomotor speed) and specific (mental flexibility, time estimation, visuospatial perception, and memory) cognitive functions were measured in a single case study during a six day visit on the Russian orbital complex Mir using comp...

T. Benke O. Koserenko F. Gerstenbrand N. Watson

1992-01-01

159

AR, apoE, and cognitive function  

PubMed Central

Reduced androgen levels in aged men and women might be risk factors for age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Ongoing clinical trials are designed to evaluate the potential benefit of estrogen in women and of testosterone in men. In this review, we discuss the potential beneficial effects of androgens and androgen receptors (ARs) in males and females. In addition, we discuss the hypothesis that AR interacts with apolipoprotein (apoE)4, encoded by ?4 and a risk factor for age-related cognitive decline and AD, and the potential consequences of this interaction.

Raber, Jacob

2008-01-01

160

Alcohol Consumption and Cognitive Function in the Whitehall II Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the relation between alcohol consumption and cognitive function in a United Kingdom cohort study (4,272 men, 1,761 women) with median follow-up of 11 years. Measures of alcohol consumption were obtained at baseline (1985-1988) and four subsequent phases of data collection. Cognitive function (memory test, AH4, Mill-Hill, phonemic and semantic fluency) was assessed at phase 5 (1997-1999), when

Annie Britton; Archana Singh-Manoux; Michael Marmot

161

Dietary Phytoestrogen Intake and Cognitive Function in Older Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Aging is associated with a decline in cognitive function; we explored the possible influence of dietary phytoestrogens on this decline. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 301 Dutch women aged 60-75 years. Dietary isoflavone and lignan intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire covering habitual diet in the year preceding enrolment. The endpoints were cognitive function measured in

Sanne Kreijkamp-Kaspers; Linda Kok; Diederick E. Grobbee; Edward H. F. de Haan; Yvonne T. van der Schouw

2007-01-01

162

Urinary 8-Hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and Cognitive Function in Puerto Rican Adults  

PubMed Central

DNA oxidative stress has been suggested as an important pathogenic mechanism in cognitive impairment and dementia. With baseline data collected from 2004 to 2008, the authors examined whether urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of global DNA oxidation, was associated with cognitive function in a sample of 1,003 Puerto Rican adults, aged 45–75 years, living in Boston, Massachusetts, and the surrounding area. Cognitive function was measured by using a battery of 7 tests: the Mini-Mental State Examination, word list learning, digit span, clock drawing and figure copying, Stroop, and verbal fluency tests. The primary outcome was a global cognitive score, averaging standardized scores across all cognitive tests. A higher 8-OHdG concentration was significantly associated with lower global cognitive scores, after adjustment for age, education, status of the gene for apolipoprotein E (APOE), and other covariates (Ptrend = 0.01). The difference in the global score, comparing participants in the 2 extreme 8-OHdG quartiles, was ?0.11 (95% confidence interval: ?0.20, ?0.02), which was equivalent to accelerating cognitive aging by about 4 years, as observed in this population. Prospective studies are needed to elucidate whether elevated urinary 8-OHdG concentrations can predict the rate of cognitive decline and incident dementia.

Gao, Xiang; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Scott, Tammy; Shen, Jian; Cai, Tianxi; Ordovas, Jose M.; Tucker, Katherine L.

2010-01-01

163

Children's higher order cognitive abilities and the development of secondary memory.  

PubMed

The relations between higher cognitive abilities and immediate and delayed recall were studied in 57 children (6-16 years of age). The participants were tested repeatedly on free recall of a supraspan list (Children's Memory Scale), and their fluid ability was also assessed (Woodcock-Johnson III Spatial Relations). Consistent with Unsworth and Engle's (2007) account of the relation between memory and higher order cognition, the children's fluid ability was significantly correlated with retrieval from secondary memory, regardless of whether it was measured using immediate or delayed recall. Multiple regression analyses provided further support for this view, revealing that measures of immediate and delayed retrieval from secondary memory accounted for the same variance in the children's fluid ability. PMID:19815800

De Alwis, Duneesha; Myerson, Joel; Hershey, Tamara; Hale, Sandra

2009-10-01

164

Weight Change and Cognitive Function: Findings from the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging  

PubMed Central

Although studies exploring relationships between obesity and cognitive impairment in the elderly are conflicting, literature suggests that overweight and obesity may be protective against cognitive impairment and dementia in older women. We examine the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference with global and domain-specific cognitive function in a large, well-defined cohort of 2283 older, post-menopausal women (age 65-79) prospectively followed through the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Study of Cognitive Aging (WHISCA). We assessed the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference collected up to 5 years prior to WHISCA enrollment and mean levels of global and domain-specific cognitive performance across an average of 5.4 years of subsequent follow-up. There was a lack of associations between weight and cognition in women who remained stable or gained weight. The only significant relationships observed were in association with weight loss (p?0.05), most likely signaling incipient disease. Moreover, cognition was not related to changes in waist circumference. Relationships were largely independent of initial BMI, self-reported caloric intake or dieting. The lack of associations between weight gain and cognition in women is consistent with the existent literature.

Driscoll, Ira; Espeland, Mark A.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Ding, Jingzhong; Granek, Iris; Ockene, Judith K.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Yaffe, Kristine; Resnick, Susan M.

2011-01-01

165

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Bipolar Disorder: Effects on Cognitive Functioning  

PubMed Central

Bipolar disorder is associated with impairments in cognition, including difficulties in executive functioning, even when patients are euthymic (neither depressed nor manic). The purpose of this study was to assess changes in self-reported cognitive functioning in patients with bipolar disorder who participated in an open pilot trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Following MBCT, patients reported significant improvements in executive functioning, memory, and ability to initiate and complete tasks, as measured by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe). Changes in cognitive functioning were correlated with increases in mindful, nonjudgmental observance and awareness of thoughts, feelings, and sensations, and were not associated with decreases in depression. Improvements tended to diminish after termination of treatment, but some improvements, particularly those in executive functioning, persisted after 3 months. These results provide preliminary evidence that MBCT may be a treatment option that can be used as an adjunct to medication to improve cognitive functioning in bipolar disorder.

Stange, Jonathan P.; Eisner, Lori R.; Holzel, Britta K.; Peckham, Andrew D.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Rauch, Scott L.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Lazar, Sara; Deckersbach, Thilo

2012-01-01

166

Measures of cognitive functioning in the AHEAD Study.  

PubMed

Decline in cognitive functioning and onset of cognitive impairment are potentially important predictors of elderly persons needing informal assistance and formal health care. This article describes the measures of cognitive functioning that were developed for the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) study of some 6,500 Americans aged 70 years and older. The study was designed to investigate the impact of health on disbursement of family and economic resources. Evaluation of the cognitive measures in terms of psychometric properties and missing data, telephone administration, and formation of an aggregate index is encouraging. Their construct validity is evidenced by their correlations with sociodemographic characteristics and health indicators that replicate existing findings as well as by their prediction of IADL and ADL functioning that are consistent with theory. PMID:9215356

Herzog, A R; Wallace, R B

1997-05-01

167

Development of orthogonal task designs in fMRI studies of higher cognition: The NIMH experience  

PubMed Central

This paper chronicles one researcher’s journey at the National Institute of Mental Health, exploring ways to understand the neural systems responsible for the cognitive sub-processes of working memory tasks. Both the opportunities and the pitfalls with applying the idea of cognitive subtraction to neuroimaging data were well-known from studies using positron emission tomography. We took advantage of the improved temporal resolution of fMRI with a delayed-recognition task and identified the time-courses of the different stages of the task (encoding, memory delay, and recognition test) as predictor variables in a multiple regression analysis. Because these signals were temporally independent, individual components of tasks could be contrasted with one another, rather than entire tasks, reducing the problem of violations of pure insertion in cognitive subtraction. This approach enabled us to draw more detailed conclusions about the neural systems of higher cognition and the organization of prefrontal cortex than had been possible before fMRI. Further enhancements and innovations over the last 20 years by a multitude of researchers across the field have greatly expanded this knowledge, but this approach called “orthogonal task design” has remained a fundamental component of many of these modern studies.

2012-01-01

168

Relationship between inflammation and cognitive function in obstructive sleep apnea  

PubMed Central

Objectives Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can have adverse effects on cognitive functioning, mood, and cardiovascular functioning. OSA brings with it disturbances in sleep architecture, oxygenation, sympathetic nervous system function, and inflammatory processes. It is not clear which of these mechanisms is linked to the decrease in cognitive functioning. This study examined the effect of inflammatory parameters on cognitive dysfunction. Materials and methods Thirty-nine patients with untreated sleep apnea were evaluated by polysomnography and completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. After the first night of evaluation in the sleep laboratory, blood samples were taken for analysis of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1). Results sTNF-R1 significantly correlated with cognitive dysfunction. In hierarchical linear regression analysis, measures of obstructive sleep apnea severity explained 5.5% of the variance in cognitive dysfunction (n.s.). After including sTNF-R1, percentage of variance explained by the full model increased more than threefold to 19.6% (F= 2.84, df=3, 36, p=0.05). Only sTNF-R1 had a significant individual relationship with cognitive dysfunction (?=0.376 t=2.48, p=0.02). Conclusions sTNF-R1 as a marker of chronic inflammation may be associated with diminished neuropsychological functioning in patients with OSA.

Haensel, Alexander; Bardwell, Wayne A.; Mills, Paul J.; Loredo, Jose S.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Morgan, Erin E.; Heaton, Robert K.; Dimsdale, Joel E.

2011-01-01

169

The Functional Significance of Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deficits in a wide array of functional outcome areas (eg, social functioning, social skills, independent living skills, etc) are marked in schizophrenia. Consequently, much re- cent research has attempted to identify factors that may contribute to functional outcome; social cognition is one such domain. The purpose of this article is to review re- search examining the relationship between social cogni-

Shannon M. Couture; David L. Penn; David L. Roberts

2006-01-01

170

A neural network model of memory and higher cognitive functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

I first describe a neural network model of associative memory in a small region of the brain. The model depends, unconventionally, on disinhibition of inhibitory links between excitatory neurons rather than long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory projections. The model may be shown to have advantages over traditional neural network models both in terms of information storage capacity and biological plausibility.

David D. Vogel

2005-01-01

171

Cognitive and motor function in people with multiple sclerosis in Stockholm County.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyse cognitive and motor function in a population-based sample of people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), taking into account both disease-related data and sociodemographic factors. Data were collected from 166 PwMS during home visits. Cognitive function was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Free Recall and Recognition of 12 Random Words Test (FRR12RWT), and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT); manual dexterity by the Nine-Hole Peg Test (NHPT); global motor capacity by the Lindmark Motor Capacity Assessment; and walking capacity by a timed 10-metre walk. On cognitive tests, 55% (MMSE), 84% (FRR12RWT), and 45% (SDMT) of PwMS scored within the normal range; 27% of PwMS displayed normal manual dexterity, 9% had a maximal motorcapacity score, and 8% walked at normal speed. Factors associated with normal cognitive function were lower disability and higher education; lower disability and current employment were predictive of capacity to perform the NHPT and to walk 10 metres. In conclusion, cognitive function was normal in approximately half of the PwMS investigated, while a minority displayed normal manual dexterity and normal walking capacity. Thus, both disease severity and sociodemographic factors appear to influence cognitive and motor function in MS. PMID:16764349

Einarsson, U; Gottberg, K; von Koch, L; Fredrikson, S; Ytterberg, C; Jin, Y-P; Andersson, M; Holmqvist, L Widén

2006-06-01

172

Meta-analytic evidence for a superordinate cognitive control network subserving diverse executive functions.  

PubMed

Classic cognitive theory conceptualizes executive functions as involving multiple specific domains, including initiation, inhibition, working memory, flexibility, planning, and vigilance. Lesion and neuroimaging experiments over the past two decades have suggested that both common and unique processes contribute to executive functions during higher cognition. It has been suggested that a superordinate fronto-cingulo-parietal network supporting cognitive control may also underlie a range of distinct executive functions. To test this hypothesis in the largest sample to date, we used quantitative meta-analytic methods to analyze 193 functional neuroimaging studies of 2,832 healthy individuals, ages 18-60, in which performance on executive function measures was contrasted with an active control condition. A common pattern of activation was observed in the prefrontal, dorsal anterior cingulate, and parietal cortices across executive function domains, supporting the idea that executive functions are supported by a superordinate cognitive control network. However, domain-specific analyses showed some variation in the recruitment of anterior prefrontal cortex, anterior and midcingulate regions, and unique subcortical regions such as the basal ganglia and cerebellum. These results are consistent with the existence of a superordinate cognitive control network in the brain, involving dorsolateral prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and parietal cortices, that supports a broad range of executive functions. PMID:22282036

Niendam, Tara A; Laird, Angela R; Ray, Kimberly L; Dean, Y Monica; Glahn, David C; Carter, Cameron S

2012-06-01

173

Predictors of maintaining cognitive function in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background: Although several risk factors for cognitive decline have been identified, much less is known about factors that predict maintenance of cognitive function in advanced age. Methods: We studied 2,509 well-functioning black and white elders enrolled in a prospective study. Cognitive function was measured using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination at baseline and years 3, 5, and 8. Random effects models were used to classify participants as cognitive maintainers (cognitive change slope ?0), minor decliners (slope <0 and >1 SD below mean), or major decliners (slope ?1 SD below mean). Logistic regression was used to identify domain-specific factors associated with being a maintainer vs a minor decliner. Results: Over 8 years, 30% of the participants maintained cognitive function, 53% showed minor decline, and 16% had major cognitive decline. In the multivariate model, baseline variables significantly associated with being a maintainer vs a minor decliner were age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55–0.77 per 5 years), white race (OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.30–2.28), high school education level or greater (OR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.78–4.26), ninth grade literacy level or greater (OR = 4.85, 95% CI 3.00–7.87), weekly moderate/vigorous exercise (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.06–1.62), and not smoking (OR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.14–2.97). Variables associated with major cognitive decline compared to minor cognitive decline are reported. Conclusion: Elders who maintain cognitive function have a unique profile that differentiates them from those with minor decline. Importantly, some of these factors are modifiable and thus may be implemented in prevention programs to promote successful cognitive aging. Further, factors associated with maintenance may differ from factors associated with major cognitive decline, which may impact prevention vs treatment strategies. GLOSSARY 3MS = Modified Mini-Mental State Examination; BMI = body mass index; CES-D = Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression Scale score; CI = confidence interval; CRP = C-reactive protein; Health ABC = Health, Aging and Body Composition; IL = interleukin; MI = myocardial infarction; OR = odds ratio; REALM = Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine; TNF = tumor necrosis factor.

Yaffe, K; Fiocco, A J.; Lindquist, K; Vittinghoff, E; Simonsick, E M.; Newman, A B.; Satterfield, S; Rosano, C; Rubin, S M.; Ayonayon, H N.; Harris, T B.

2009-01-01

174

Cognitive Stimulation and Cognitive and Functional Decline in Alzheimer's Disease: The Cache County Dementia Progression Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To examine the association of engagement in cognitively stimulating activities with cognitive and functional decline in a population-based sample of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). Method. After diagnosis, 187 participants (65% females) were followed semiannually for a mean 2.7 (SD = 0.4) years. Mean age and education were 84.6 (SD = 5.8) and 13.2 (SD = 2.9) years. Caregivers enumerated cognitively stimulating leisure activities via the Lifestyle Activities Questionnaire. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and functional ability via the Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes. Linear mixed models tested the association between stimulating activities and change over time in each outcome. Covariates were demographic factors, estimated premorbid IQ, presence/absence of the APOE ?4 allele, duration of dementia, level of physical activity, and general health. Results. At initial assessment, 87% of participants were engaged in one or more stimulating activities, with mean (SD) activities = 4.0 (3.0). This number declined to 2.4 (2.0) at the final visit. There was a statistical interaction between dementia duration and number of activities in predicting rate of cognitive decline (p = .02) and overall functional ability (p = .006). Discussion. Active involvement in cognitively stimulating pursuits may be beneficial for persons with AD.

Treiber, Katherine A.; Carlson, Michelle C.; Corcoran, Chris; Norton, Maria C.; Breitner, John C. S.; Piercy, Kathleen W.; DeBerard, Michael Scott; Stein, David; Foley, Beth; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.; Frye, Amber; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

2011-01-01

175

Complex relationships of nicotinic receptor actions and cognitive functions.  

PubMed

Nicotine has been shown in a variety of studies to improve cognitive function including learning, memory and attention. Nicotine both stimulates and desensitizes nicotinic receptors, thus acting both as an agonist and a net antagonist. The relative roles of these two actions for nicotine-induced cognitive improvement have not yet been fully determined. We and others have found that acute nicotinic antagonist treatment can improve learning and attention. Nicotine acts on a variety of nicotinic receptor subtypes. The relative role and interactions of neuronal nicotinic receptor subtypes for cognition also needs to be better characterized. Nicotine acts on nicotinic receptors in a wide variety of brain areas. The role of some of these areas such as the hippocampus has been relatively well studied but other areas like the thalamus, which has the densest nicotinic receptor concentration are still only partially characterized. In a series of studies we characterized nicotinic receptor actions, anatomic localization and circuit interactions, which are critical to nicotine effects on the cognitive functions of learning, memory and attention. The relative role of increases and decreases in nicotinic receptor activation by nicotine were determined in regionally specific studies of the hippocampus, the amygdala, the frontal cortex and the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus with local infusions of antagonists of nicotinic receptor subtypes (?7 and ?4?2). The understanding of the functional neural bases of cognitive function is fundamental to the more effective development of nicotinic drugs for treating cognitive dysfunction. PMID:23928190

Levin, Edward D

2013-08-06

176

Dose-Related Effects of Alcohol on Cognitive Functioning  

PubMed Central

We assessed the suitability of six applied tests of cognitive functioning to provide a single marker for dose-related alcohol intoxication. Numerous studies have demonstrated that alcohol has a deleterious effect on specific areas of cognitive processing but few have compared the effects of alcohol across a wide range of different cognitive processes. Adult participants (N?=?56, 32 males, 24 females aged 18–45 years) were randomized to control or alcohol treatments within a mixed design experiment involving multiple-dosages at approximately one hour intervals (attained mean blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of 0.00, 0.048, 0.082 and 0.10%), employing a battery of six psychometric tests; the Useful Field of View test (UFOV; processing speed together with directed attention); the Self-Ordered Pointing Task (SOPT; working memory); Inspection Time (IT; speed of processing independent from motor responding); the Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP; strategic optimization); the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART; vigilance, response inhibition and psychomotor function); and the Trail-Making Test (TMT; cognitive flexibility and psychomotor function). Results demonstrated that impairment is not uniform across different domains of cognitive processing and that both the size of the alcohol effect and the magnitude of effect change across different dose levels are quantitatively different for different cognitive processes. Only IT met the criteria for a marker for wide-spread application: reliable dose-related decline in a basic process as a function of rising BAC level and easy to use non-invasive task properties.

Dry, Matthew J.; Burns, Nicholas R.; Nettelbeck, Ted; Farquharson, Aaron L.; White, Jason M.

2012-01-01

177

Methadone maintenance treatment and cognitive function: A systematic review.  

PubMed

Methadone has been used as a pharmacotherapy for the treatment of opiate dependence since the mid-1960s. Many studies examining the benefits of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opiate dependence have documented a significant reduction in both criminal behavior and the use of other opiates. Nevertheless, emerging evidence suggests that MMT may impair cognitive function. However, it is unclear as to the part methadone dose, duration of MMT or plasma level may play in any observed deficits. Given the large number of people enrolled in MMT world-wide and the potential for deficits in cognitive function, a systematic review of the research investigating the association between MMT and cognitive function seemed warranted. The following databases were searched with a combination of free-text and thesaurus terms (methadone AND cognition): MEDLINE In-Process, EMBASE, PsycINFO and EBM Reviews-Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Seventy-eight articles were retrieved of which 35 met the inclusion criteria. The majority of research suggests that MMT is associated with impaired cognitive function and that deficits extended across a range of domains. However, caution is required when interpreting these results due to the methodological limitations associated with many studies. Further research that includes a combination of psychological and physiological measures within well-controlled group comparison studies is required to more accurately assess which cognitive domains are affected. PMID:23773088

Wang, Grace Y; Wouldes, Trecia A; Russell, Bruce B

2013-06-14

178

Cognitive functioning in adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

In contrast to studies of cognitive functioning in adults with schizophrenia, there has been a relative paucity of studies assessing adolescents with schizophrenia. We investigated cognitive functioning in 22 adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders compared with 30 healthy adolescents. The patient group demonstrated impaired performance on all of the functions investigated except sustained attention. Against the background of this broad impairment, executive function and psychomotor speed were the most impaired, sustained attention was spared, while preattentional processing, early visual information processing, visual long-term memory, auditory short-term memory and working memory emerged as relative deficits. The study shows that adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders demonstrate a similar pattern of cognitive functioning to adults in all areas, except sustained attention. PMID:15157749

Ueland, Torill; Øie, Merete; Inge Landrø, Nils; Rund, Bjørn R

2004-05-30

179

Characterization Of Periodic Functions By Higher Order Spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on higher order spectra (HOS) contains the following basic results on the extent to which a function is characterized by its HOS: (i) The first order spectrum determines the magnitude of the function’s Fourier transform, but not the phase; (ii) If the function has compact support on the real line, then its second order spectrum (or bispectrum) characterizes

Ramakrishna Kakarala; Geoffrey J. Iverson

1991-01-01

180

Upper and lower extremity motor function and cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Motor impairments and cognitive dysfunction are common in multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to delineate the relationship between cognitive capacity and upper and lower motor function in 211 MS patients, and 120 healthy volunteers. Lower and upper motor function were assessed with the Timed 25 Foot Walk (T25FW) and the Nine Hole Peg Test (NHPT) as implemented in the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC). Subjects also underwent neuropsychological evaluation. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted separately for the MS and healthy groups with the T25FW and NHPT serving as the outcome measures. Cognitive performance indices served as predictors. As expected, healthy subjects performed better than the MS group on all measures. Processing speed and executive function tests were significant predictors of lower and upper motor function in both groups. Correlations were more robust in the MS group, where cognitive tests predicted variability in motor function after controlling for disease duration and physical disability. In conclusion, we find evidence of higher order cognitive control of motor function that appears to be particularly salient in this large and representative MS sample. The findings may have implications for risk assessment and treatment of mobility dysfunction in MS. PMID:21486517

Benedict, Ralph H B; Holtzer, Roee; Motl, Robert W; Foley, Frederick W; Kaur, Sukhmit; Hojnacki, David; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

2011-07-01

181

Mild cognitive impairment and everyday functioning in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relations between mild cognitive impairment without dementia (MCI\\/CIND) and everyday functional abilities were examined using data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA). Individuals were identified with MCI\\/CIND if both caregiver report and clinician judgment agreed on the presence of cognitive impairment in the absence of dementia. Cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons indicated that individuals with MCI\\/CIND demonstrated

Holly Tuokko; Carolyn Morris; Patricia Ebert

2005-01-01

182

Analysis of PCB congeners related to cognitive functioning in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the characteristics of PCBs that are linked to cognitive functioning, those congeners that were concurrently found in 271 Mohawk adolescents were grouped according to structure (dioxin-like or non-dioxin-like) and persistence (persistent or low-persistent). After the effects of the congener groups were orthogonalized, regression analyses (controlling for a number of variables found to be related to the cognitive outcomes)

Joan Newman; Mia V. Gallo; Lawrence M. Schell; Anthony P. DeCaprio; Melinda Denham; Glenn D. Deane

2009-01-01

183

The grounding of higher order concepts in action and language: a cognitive robotics model.  

PubMed

In this paper we present a neuro-robotic model that uses artificial neural networks for investigating the relations between the development of symbol manipulation capabilities and of sensorimotor knowledge in the humanoid robot iCub. We describe a cognitive robotics model in which the linguistic input provided by the experimenter guides the autonomous organization of the robot's knowledge. In this model, sequences of linguistic inputs lead to the development of higher-order concepts grounded on basic concepts and actions. In particular, we show that higher-order symbolic representations can be indirectly grounded in action primitives directly grounded in sensorimotor experiences. The use of recurrent neural network also permits the learning of higher-order concepts based on temporal sequences of action primitives. Hence, the meaning of a higher-order concept is obtained through the combination of basic sensorimotor knowledge. We argue that such a hierarchical organization of concepts can be a possible account for the acquisition of abstract words in cognitive robots. PMID:22386502

Stramandinoli, Francesca; Marocco, Davide; Cangelosi, Angelo

2012-02-14

184

The Relationship between Height and Cognitive Function among Community-dwelling Elderly: Hallym Aging Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Height is known as an index that reflects the environment of the fetal, childhood, and adolescent periods, which affect adult health. This study was conducted to elucidate whether height is associated with cognitive impairment in community-dwelling elders in Korea. METHODS The study subjects were recruited among community dwelling elderly individuals aged 65 or over who participated in the 2004 Hallym Aging Study. They were invited to a general hospital and were evaluated for socioeconomic status, smoking history, and various clinical measures. Cognitive function measurement was performed using the Korean-Mini Mental State Examination. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between height and cognitive function. RESULTS After adjusting for potential covariates such as age and education, the smallest group was associated with higher risk of cognitive impairment compared with the tallest group among elderly men (odds ratio [OR], 4.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-17.36), but not among elderly women (OR,1.65; 95% CI, 0.62-4.40). CONCLUSIONS The reason for this difference according to sex may be explained by the differential effects of education on cognitive function by sex. A larger population-based prospective cohort study is needed to examine the association between height and cognitive function according to sex.

Quan, Shan Ai; Jeong, Jin-Young

2013-01-01

185

Cohort Changes in Cognitive Function among Danish Centenarians  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim The objective was to examine cohort changes in cognitive function in 2 cohorts of centenarians born 10 years apart. Methods The Longitudinal Study of Danish Centenarians comprises all Danes reaching the age of 100 in the period April 1, 1995 through May 31, 1996. A total of 207 out of 276 persons participated (75%). The Danish 1905 Cohort Survey includes all individuals born in 1905. In total, 225 out of 364 persons who reached the age of 100 in the cohort participated in the most recent 2005 follow-up (62%). In both cohorts, cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Results There were no significant differences in cognitive score between the two centenarian birth cohorts. However, modest tendencies were seen towards better cognitive functioning for the centenarians in the 1905 cohort living at home compared to the home-dwelling ones in the 1895 cohort and worse cognitive performance for the centenarians in the 1905 group living in nursing homes compared to the nursing home dwellers in the 1895 cohort. Conclusion The increasing number of centenarians may not entail larger proportions of cognitively impaired individuals in this extreme age group.

Engberg, Henriette; Christensen, Kaare; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Jeune, Bernard

2009-01-01

186

Cognitive Function in Breast Cancer Survivors Compared to Healthy Age and Education-Matched Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cognitive function of breast cancer survivors (BC, n = 52) and individually matched healthy controls (n = 52) was compared on a battery of sensitive neuropsychological tests. The BC group endorsed significantly higher levels of subjective memory loss and scored significantly worse than controls on learning and delayed recall indices from the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Defining

Diane Von Ah; Kyle W. Harvison; Patrick O. Monahan; Lyndsi R. Moser; Qianqian Zhao; Janet S. Carpenter; George W. Sledge Jr; Victoria L. Champion; Frederick W. Unverzagt

2009-01-01

187

Higher order duality in multiobjective fractional programming with support functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a new class of higher order (F,[rho],[sigma])-type I functions for a multiobjective programming problem is introduced, which subsumes several known studied classes. Higher order Mond-Weir and Schaible type dual programs are formulated for a nondifferentiable multiobjective fractional programming problem where the objective functions and the constraints contain support functions of compact convex sets in Rn. Weak and strong duality results are studied in both the cases assuming the involved functions to be higher order (F,[rho],[sigma])-type I. A number of previously studied problems appear as special cases.

Suneja, S. K.; Srivastava, Manjari K.; Bhatia, Meetu

2008-11-01

188

Evidence-based Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Pediatric Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To review the evidence base for measures of cognitive functioning frequently used within the field of pediatric psychology. Methods From a list of 47 measures identified by the Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Evidence-Based Assessment Task Force Workgroup, 27 measures were included in the review. Measures were organized, reviewed, and evaluated according to general domains of functioning (e.g.,

Jonathan M. Campbell; Ronald T. Brown; Sarah E. Cavanagh; Sarah F. Vess; Mathew J. Segall

2008-01-01

189

Computer-assisted cognitive function assessment of pilots  

Microsoft Academic Search

in an environment unforgiving of human error, where cogni- tive failure can lead to catastrophic consequences. Cognitive function testing is one means of selecting mentally capable pilots. It is also a means of screening for covert disease, and it can be used to establish baseline performance data and pro- vide ongoing monitoring of health. (For these reasons, cog- nitive function

Roderick Westerman; David G Darby; Paul Maruff; Alexander Collie

2001-01-01

190

Identifying Similarities in Cognitive Subtest Functional Requirements: An Empirical Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the cognitive test interpretation literature, a Rational/Intuitive, Indirect Empirical, or Combined approach is typically used to construct conceptual taxonomies of the functional (behavioral) similarities between subtests. To address shortcomings of these approaches, the functional requirements for 49 subtests from six individually…

Frisby, Craig L.; Parkin, Jason R.

2007-01-01

191

Factors Predicting Reversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Normal Cognitive Functioning: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. However, many individuals diagnosed with MCI are found to have reverted to normal cognition on follow-up. This study investigated factors predicting or associated with reversion from MCI to normal cognition. Methods Our analyses considered 223 participants (48.9% male) aged 71–89 years, drawn from the prospective, population-based Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. All were diagnosed with MCI at baseline and subsequently classified with either normal cognition or repeat diagnosis of MCI after two years (a further 11 participants who progressed from MCI to dementia were excluded). Associations with reversion were investigated for (1) baseline factors that included diagnostic features, personality, neuroimaging, sociodemographics, lifestyle, and physical and mental health; (2) longitudinal change in potentially modifiable factors. Results There were 66 reverters to normal cognition and 157 non-reverters (stable MCI). Regression analyses identified diagnostic features as most predictive of prognosis, with reversion less likely in participants with multiple-domain MCI (p?=?0.011), a moderately or severely impaired cognitive domain (p?=?0.002 and p?=?0.006), or an informant-based memory complaint (p?=?0.031). Reversion was also less likely for participants with arthritis (p?=?0.037), but more likely for participants with higher complex mental activity (p?=?0.003), greater openness to experience (p?=?0.041), better vision (p?=?0.014), better smelling ability (p?=?0.040), or larger combined volume of the left hippocampus and left amygdala (p<0.040). Reversion was also associated with a larger drop in diastolic blood pressure between baseline and follow-up (p?=?0.026). Discussion Numerous factors are associated with reversion from MCI to normal cognition. Assessing these factors could facilitate more accurate prognosis of individuals with MCI. Participation in cognitively enriching activities and efforts to lower blood pressure might promote reversion.

Sachdev, Perminder S.; Lipnicki, Darren M.; Crawford, John; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A.; Trollor, Julian N.; Wen, Wei; Draper, Brian; Slavin, Melissa J.; Kang, Kristan; Lux, Ora; Mather, Karen A.; Brodaty, Henry; Team, Ageing Study

2013-01-01

192

Lower-Extremity Function in Cognitively Healthy Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine differences in lower-extremity function in cognitive healthy older persons, older persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and older persons with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Design Descriptive study. Setting University Alzheimer’s disease clinical and research program. Participants Older persons (N=66) were studied (mean age, 76.7y); 22 were cognitively normal, 22 were diagnosed with probable MCI, 22 were diagnosed with probable AD. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Lower-extremity function was assessed by the four-meter walk test (4MWT), Timed Up & Go (TUG) test, and sit-to-stand (STS) test. Results Analysis of variance, adjusting for covariates, revealed that performance on the 4MWT was significantly lower in the MCI and AD groups as compared with controls. TUG test performance was worse in the AD group compared with controls. No significant group differences were found for STS performance. Conclusions These results suggest an association between cognitive impairment and lower-limb function in older persons Walking speed could be evaluated for its possible utility in screening older persons at risk for cognitive impairment and falls.

Eggermont, Laura H.; Gavett, Brandon E.; Volkers, Karin M.; Blankevoort, Christiaan G.; Scherder, Erik J.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Steinberg, Eric; Nair, Anil; Green, Robert C.; Stern, Robert A.

2010-01-01

193

The influence of ergotamine abuse on psychological and cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Migraine patients abusing ergotamine often have chronic daily headaches associated with tiredness, sleep and memory disturbances, and reduced general well-being. We quantified psychological and cognitive functioning in 12 migraine patients with and 12 without ergotamine abuse (> or = 5 days/week for > or = 6 months) and 12 healthy controls. Psychological functioning assessed by Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) and Profile Of Mood State (POMS), was impaired in ergotamine abusers compared to healthy controls. Cognitive functioning divided into four domains: attention (critical flicker frequency analysis and mental control subscale of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), speed of information processing (reaction time tasks and lexical decision tasks), memory (four subscales of the WMS) and cognitive flexibility (trailmaking test and WMS digits backwards), was impaired in ergotamine abusers in speed of information processing and cognitive flexibility. These differences disappeared after correction for total SCL-90 scores. In conclusion, ergotamine abuse is associated with high psychological distress but not with structural impaired cognitive functioning. PMID:11037742

Roon, K I; Bakker, D; van Poelgeest, M I; van Buchem, M A; Ferrari, M D; Middelkoop, H A

2000-06-01

194

Cortical gamma oscillations: the functional key is activation, not cognition.  

PubMed

Cortical oscillatory synchrony in the gamma range has been attracting increasing attention in cognitive neuroscience ever since being proposed as a solution to the so-called binding problem. This growing literature is critically reviewed in both its basic neuroscience and cognitive aspects. A physiological "default assumption" regarding these oscillations is introduced, according to which they signal a state of physiological activation of cortical tissue, and the associated need to balance excitation with inhibition in particular. As such these oscillations would belong among a variety of generic neural control operations that enable neural tissue to perform its systems level functions, without implementing those functions themselves. Regional control of cerebral blood flow provides an analogy in this regard, and gamma oscillations are tightly correlated with this even more elementary control operation. As correlates of neural activation they will also covary with cognitive activity, and this typically suffices to account for the covariation between gamma activity and cognitive task variables. A number of specific cases of gamma synchrony are examined in this light, including the original impetus for attributing cognitive significance to gamma activity, namely the experiments interpreted as evidence for "binding by synchrony". This examination finds no compelling reasons to assign functional roles to oscillatory synchrony in the gamma range beyond its generic functions at the level of infrastructural neural control. PMID:23333264

Merker, Bjorn

2013-01-17

195

Deficits in cognitive function and achievement in Mexican first-graders with low blood lead concentrations.  

PubMed

Elevated blood lead levels in children are associated with lower scores on tests of cognitive functioning. Recent studies have reported inverse relations between lifetime exposure and intellectual functioning at blood lead concentrations below 10 microg/dL, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) level of concern. We report associations between blood lead and cognitive performance for first-grade Mexican children living near a metal foundry. Using a cross-sectional design, we examined the relation between children's concurrent blood lead concentrations (mean (SD) 11.4 microg/dL (6.1)) and their performance on 14 tests of global or specific cognitive functions. The blood lead-cognition relations were modeled using both linear and nonlinear methods. After adjustment for covariates, a higher blood lead level was associated with poorer cognitive performance on several cognitive tests. Segmented linear regressions revealed significant effects of lead but only for the segments defined by a concurrent blood lead concentration below 10-14 microg/dL. One implication of these findings is that at the age of 7 years, even in the absence of information on lead exposure in infancy and early childhood, a test result with blood lead < 10 microg/dL should not be considered safe. Together with other recent findings, these results add to the empirical base of support available for evaluating the adequacy of current screening guidelines and for motivating efforts at primary prevention of childhood lead exposure. PMID:16169549

Kordas, Katarzyna; Canfield, Richard L; López, Patricia; Rosado, Jorge L; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Cebrián, Mariano E; Rico, Javier Alatorre; Ronquillo, Dolores; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

2005-09-19

196

Cognitive function in hot environments: a question of methodology.  

PubMed

The physiological responses of thermal stress and its consequences on health have been well documented. However, the effect on cognitive function remains equivocal despite a substantial number of studies conducted in the area. Methodological discrepancies across different studies have made it difficult to conclude whether or not heat exposure per se has an adverse effect upon cognitive function and under what specific environmental and physiological conditions these alterations appear. This article gives an overview of the different confounding factors that have made it difficult to make conclusive interpretations. In addition, the current state of knowledge is presented and discussed with reference to the Global Workspace theory. Although previously presented conclusions are promising, much remains to be completed before understanding the mechanisms that could explain the relationship between heat exposure and cognitive function. Finally, recommendations are presented for further research in this area. PMID:21029192

Gaoua, N

2010-10-01

197

Lack of effect of short-term fasting on cognitive function.  

PubMed

In a study designed to assess the effects of short-term food deprivation on cognitive function, a sample of female subjects (N = 21) was tested on a number of measures of cognitive function after three levels of food deprivation (miss one meal, miss two meals or miss all food for 24 h prior to testing) and a condition in which they ate normally for 24 h prior to testing. There was found to be no significant effects of food deprivation on sustained attention, attentional focus, simple reaction time or immediate memory. However, performance on a low processing load tapping task was significantly poorer when the subjects were deprived of food for 24 h prior to testing, and heart rate was significantly higher when they were non-deprived. These results stand in contrast to the impairments in cognitive function previously found to be associated with spontaneous dieting behaviour (using essentially the same task battery). PMID:7473300

Green, M W; Elliman, N A; Rogers, P J

198

Automated Semantic Indices Related to Cognitive Function and Rate of Cognitive Decline  

PubMed Central

The objective of our study is to introduce a fully automated, computational linguistic technique to quantify semantic relations between words generated on a standard semantic verbal fluency test and to determine its cognitive and clinical correlates. Cognitive differences between patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment are evident in their performance on the semantic verbal fluency test. In addition to the semantic verbal fluency test score, several other performance characteristics sensitive to disease status and predictive of future cognitive decline have been defined in terms of words generated from semantically related categories (clustering) and shifting between categories (switching). However, the traditional assessment of clustering and switching has been performed manually in a qualitative fashion resulting in subjective scoring with limited reproducibility and scalability. Our approach uses word definitions and hierarchical relations between the words in WordNet®, a large electronic lexical database, to quantify the degree of semantic similarity and relatedness between words. We investigated the novel semantic fluency indices of mean cumulative similarity and relatedness between all pairs of words regardless of their order, and mean sequential similarity and relatedness between pairs of adjacent words in a sample of patients with clinically diagnosed probable (n=55) or possible (n=27) Alzheimer’s disease or mild cognitive impairment (n=31). The semantic fluency indices differed significantly between the diagnostic groups, and were strongly associated with neuropsychological tests of executive function, as well as the rate of global cognitive decline. Our results suggest that word meanings and relations between words shared across individuals and computationally modeled via WordNet and large text corpora provide the necessary context to account for the variability in language-based behavior and relate it to cognitive dysfunction observed in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease.

Pakhomov, Serguei V.S.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Lim, Kelvin O.

2012-01-01

199

Personalized Cognitive Training in Unipolar and Bipolar Disorder: A Study of Cognitive Functioning  

PubMed Central

Patients with unipolar depressive disorder and in the depressive phase of bipolar disorder often manifest psychological distress and cognitive deficits, notably in executive control. We used computerized cognitive training in an attempt to reduce psychological affliction, improve everyday coping, and cognitive function. We asked one group of patients (intervention group) to engage in cognitive training three times a week, for 20?min each time, for eight consecutive weeks. A second group of patients (control group) received standard care only. Before the onset of training we administered to all patients self-report questionnaires of mood, mental and psychological health, and everyday coping. We also assessed executive control using a broad computerized neurocognitive battery of tests which yielded, among others, scores in Working Memory, Shifting, Inhibition, Visuomotor Vigilance, Divided Attention, Memory Span, and a Global Executive Function score. All questionnaires and tests were re-administered to the patients who adhered to the study at the end of training. When we compared the groups (between-group comparisons) on the amount of change that had taken place from baseline to post-training, we found significantly reduced depression level for the intervention group. This group also displayed significant improvements in Shifting, Divided Attention, and in the Global executive control score. Further exploration of the data showed that the cognitive improvement did not predict the improvements in mood. Single-group data (within-group comparisons) show that patients in the intervention group were reporting fewer cognitive failures, fewer dysexecutive incidents, and less difficulty in everyday coping. This group had also improved significantly on the six executive control tests and on the Global executive control score. By contrast, the control group improved only on the reports of cognitive failure and on working memory.

Preiss, Marek; Shatil, Evelyn; Cermakova, Radka; Cimermanova, Dominika; Ram, Ilana

2013-01-01

200

Critical periods of brain growth and cognitive function in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary There is evidence that IQ tends to be higher in those who were heavier at birth or who grew taller in child- hood and adolescence. Although these findings imply that growth in both foetal and postnatal life influences cognitive performance, little is known about the relative importance of brain growth during different periods of development. We investigated the relationship

Catharine R. Gale; Finbar J. O'Callaghan; Keith M. Godfrey; Catherine M. Law; Christopher N. Martyn

2004-01-01

201

Assessment of cognitive function in the heterozygous reeler mouse.  

PubMed Central

RATIONALE The heterozygous reeler mouse has been proposed as a genetic mouse model of schizophrenia, based on several neuroanatomical and behavioral similarities between these mice and patients with schizophrenia. However, the effect of reelin haploinsufficiency on one of the cardinal symptoms of schizophrenia, the impairment of prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive function, has yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE Here, we investigated multiple aspects of cognitive function in heterozygous reeler mice that are known to be impaired in schizophrenic patients. METHODS Heterozygous reeler mice were assessed for (1) cognitive flexibility in an instrumental reversal learning task; (2) impulsivity in an inhibitory control task; (3) attentional function in a three-choice serial reaction time task; and (4) working memory in a delayed matching-to-position task. RESULTS No differences were found between heterozygous reeler mice and wild-type littermate controls in any prefrontal-related cognitive measures. However, heterozygous reeler mice showed deficits in the acquisition of two operant tasks, consistent with a role for reelin in certain forms of learning. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that heterozygous reeler mice may not be an appropriate model for the core prefrontal-dependent cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia, but may model more general learning deficits that are associated with many psychiatric disorders.

Krueger, Dilja D.; Howell, Jessica L.; Hebert, Britni F.; Olausson, Peter; Taylor, Jane R.; Nairn, Angus C.

2006-01-01

202

Impact of Common KIBRA Allele on Human Cognitive Functions  

PubMed Central

The rs17070145 polymorphism (C ? T substitution, intron 9) of the KIBRA gene has recently been associated with episodic memory and cognitive flexibility. These findings were inconsistent across reports though, and largely lacked gene–gene or gene–environment interactions. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of the rs17070145 polymorphism on clinically relevant cognitive domains and its interaction with the modifiers ‘lifestyle' and ‘cardiovascular risk factors'. Five-hundred forty-five elderly volunteers (mean age 64 years, ±7 years, 56% women) accomplished a comprehensive cognitive testing. Principal component analysis was used to reveal the internal structure of the data, rendering four composite scores: verbal memory, word fluency, executive function/psychomotor speed, and working memory. Lifestyle was assessed with a detailed questionnaire, age-associated risk factors by clinical interview and examination. There was no main effect of the rs17070145 genotype on any cognitive composite scores. However, we found worse performance in executive functions for T-allele carriers in the presence of arterial hypertension (?=?0.365, p=0.0077 and 0.031 after Bonferroni correction). This association was further modified by gender, showing the strongest association in hypertensive females (?=?0.500, p=0.0072 and 0.029 after Bonferroni correction). The effect of KIBRA on cognitive function seems to be complex and modified by gender and arterial hypertension.

Wersching, H; Guske, K; Hasenkamp, S; Hagedorn, C; Schiwek, S; Jansen, S; Witte, V; Wellmann, J; Lohmann, H; Duning, K; Kremerskothen, J; Knecht, S; Brand, E; Floel, A

2011-01-01

203

Cognitive Variability in Adults with ADHD and AS: Disentangling the Roles of Executive Functions and Social Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Asperger's Syndrome (AS) share a heterogeneous cognitive profile. Studies assessing executive functions (EF) and social cognition in both groups have found preserved and impaired performances. These inconsistent findings would be partially explained by the cognitive variability reported in these…

Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Baez, Sandra; Torralva, Teresa; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Rattazzi, Alexia; Bein, Victoria; Rogg, Katharina; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

2013-01-01

204

Higher Height, Higher Ability: Judgment Confidence as a Function of Spatial Height Perception  

PubMed Central

Based on grounded cognition theories, the current study showed that judgments about ability were regulated by the subjects' perceptions of their spatial height. In Experiment 1, we found that after seeing the ground from a higher rather than lower floor, people had higher expectations about their performance on a knowledge test and assigned themselves higher rank positions in a peer comparison evaluation. In Experiment 2, we examined the boundary conditions of the spatial height effects and showed that it could still occur even if we employed photos rather than actual building floors to manipulate the perceptions of spatial heights. In addition, Experiment 2 excluded processing style as an explanation for these observations. In Experiment 3, we investigated a potential mechanism for the spatial height effect by manipulating the scale direction in the questionnaire. Consequently, consistent with our representational dependence account, the effect of spatial heights on ability judgments was eliminated when the mental representation of ability was disturbed by a reverse physical representation. These results suggest that people's judgments about their ability are correlated with their spatial perception.

Sun, Yan; Wang, Fei; Li, Shu

2011-01-01

205

The Longitudinal Association of Cumulative Lead Dose with Cognitive Function in Community-dwelling Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate whether cumulative lead dose from environmental exposures is associated with cognitive function and decline, and whether persistent, reversible, or progressive effects are indicated. Methods We used longitudinal linear modeling to evaluate associations of tibia lead concentration with cognitive function and decline in socio-demographically diverse, community-dwelling adults, aged 50-70 years, randomly selected from neighborhoods in Baltimore. Six summary measures of cognitive function were created from standard tests in these domains: language, processing speed, eye-hand coordination, executive functioning, verbal memory and learning, and visual memory. Results The mean (SD) tibia lead level was 18.8 (11.6) ?g/g. In models adjusting for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status (SES), and race/ethnicity, higher tibia lead was associated with a progressive decline in eye-hand coordination in all subjects; stratified analysis substantiated this association only in African-Americans. In all subjects, tibia lead was associated with persistent effects with worse cognitive function in all six domains, but these associations weakened after increasing covariate control. In fully adjusted stratified analysis, persistent effects were present in whites in eye-hand coordination, executive functioning, and verbal memory and learning. Conclusions The study presents the strongest adult evidence to date in a diverse population of the impacts of cumulative lead dose on cognitive function independent of SES. As the study population was relatively young and the average total duration of follow-up short (< 30 months), the findings may represent the lower bound of what the impact of cumulative lead dose might be on the cognitive function of older Americans.

Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Glass, Thomas A.; Bolla, Karen I.; Todd, Andrew C.; Schwartz, Brian S.

2012-01-01

206

Analysis of PCB congeners related to cognitive functioning in adolescents.  

PubMed

To investigate the characteristics of PCBs that are linked to cognitive functioning, those congeners that were concurrently found in 271 Mohawk adolescents were grouped according to structure (dioxin-like or non-dioxin-like) and persistence (persistent or low-persistent). After the effects of the congener groups were orthogonalized, regression analyses (controlling for a number of variables found to be related to the cognitive outcomes) examined the relationship of each congener group to scores on three cognitive tests (the non-verbal Ravens Progressive Matrices, the Test of Memory and Learning, and the Woodcock Johnson-Revised). Five subtests from these cognitive tests were found to be associated with one or more PCB congener groups, most often at a moderate level. Two measures of long-term memory (Delayed Recall and Long Term Retrieval) were associated with all four congener groups. Nevertheless, examination of the role of individual congeners in the significantly related congener groups revealed that almost all congeners associated with cognitive outcomes were non-dioxin-like and ortho-substituted. A notable exception was the Ravens test where scores were associated only with dioxin-like congeners. This finding adds to the limited evidence of neurotoxic effects of dioxin-like congeners. Auditory Processing was related only to the persistent congener group. The association of the non-persistent congener group with three cognitive test scores (Delayed Recall, Long Term Retrieval and Comprehension-Knowledge) suggests that the Mohawk adolescents have experienced continuing or recent environmental exposure to PCBs that is sufficient to result in detectable cognitive decrements. Comparison of our findings with those of other human studies was limited by the relative lack of specificity of both PCB measures and cognitive outcome measures in much previous work. PMID:19465051

Newman, Joan; Gallo, Mia V; Schell, Lawrence M; DeCaprio, Anthony P; Denham, Melinda; Deane, Glenn D

2009-05-22

207

ANALYSIS OF PCB CONGENERS RELATED TO COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN ADOLESCENTS  

PubMed Central

To investigate the characteristics of PCBs that are linked to cognitive functioning, those congeners that were concurrently found in 271 Mohawk adolescents were grouped according to structure (dioxin-like or non-dioxin-like) and persistence (persistent or low-persistent). After the effects of the congener groups were orthogonalized, regression analyses (controlling for a number of variables found to be related to the cognitive outcomes) examined the relationship of each congener group to scores on three cognitive tests (the non-verbal Ravens Progressive Matrices, the Test of Memory and Learning, and the Woodcock Johnson – Revised). Five subtests from these cognitive tests were found to be associated with one or more PCB congener groups, most often at a moderate level. Two measures of long term memory (Delayed Recall and Long Term Retrieval) were associated with all four congener groups. Nevertheless, examination of the role of individual congeners in the significantly related congener groups revealed that almost all congeners associated with cognitive outcomes were non-dioxin-like and ortho-substituted. A notable exception was the Ravens test where scores were associated only with dioxin-like congeners. This finding adds to the limited evidence of neurotoxic effects of dioxin-like congeners. Auditory Processing was related only to the persistent congener group. The association of the non-persistent congener group with three cognitive test scores (Delayed Recall, Long Term Retrieval and Comprehension-knowledge) suggests that the Mohawk adolescents have experienced continuing or recent environmental exposure to PCBs that is sufficient to result in detectable cognitive decrements. Comparison of our findings with those of other human studies was limited by the relative lack of specificity of both PCB measures and cognitive outcome measures in much previous work.

Newman, Joan; Gallo, Mia V.; Schell, Lawrence M.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Denham, Melinda; Deane, Glenn D.

2011-01-01

208

Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Cognitive Function in a Cohort of Older Men  

PubMed Central

Background Traffic-related particles induce oxidative stress and may exert adverse effects on central nervous system function, which could manifest as cognitive impairment. Objective We assessed the association between black carbon (BC), a marker of traffic-related air pollution, and cognition in older men. Methods A total of 680 men (mean ± SD, 71 ± 7 years of age) from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study completed a battery of seven cognitive tests at least once between 1996 and 2007. We assessed long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution using a validated spatiotemporal land-use regression model for BC. Results The association between BC and cognition was nonlinear, and we log-transformed BC estimates for all analyses [ln(BC)]. In a multivariable-adjusted model, for each doubling in BC on the natural scale, the odds of having a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score ? 25 was 1.3 times higher [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1 to 1.6]. In a multivariable-adjusted model for global cognitive function, which combined scores from the remaining six tests, a doubling of BC was associated with a 0.054 SD lower test score (95% CI, ?0.103 to ?0.006), an effect size similar to that observed with a difference in age of 1.9 years in our data. We found no evidence of heterogeneity by cognitive test. In sensitivity analyses adjusting for past lead exposure, the association with MMSE scores was similar (odds ratio = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.7), but the association with global cognition was somewhat attenuated (?0.038 per doubling in BC; 95% CI, ?0.089 to 0.012). Conclusions Ambient traffic-related air pollution was associated with decreased cognitive function in older men.

Power, Melinda C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Alexeeff, Stacey E.; Coull, Brent A.; Spiro, Avron; Schwartz, Joel

2011-01-01

209

Variation in cognitive functioning as a refined approach to comparing aging across countries  

PubMed Central

Comparing the burden of aging across countries hinges on the availability of valid and comparable indicators. The Old Age Dependency Ratio allows only a limited assessment of the challenges of aging, because it does not include information on any individual characteristics except age itself. Existing alternative indicators based on health or economic activity suffer from measurement and comparability problems. We propose an indicator based on age variation in cognitive functioning. We use newly released data from standardized tests of seniors' cognitive abilities for countries from different world regions. In the wake of long-term advances in countries’ industrial composition, and technological advances, the ability to handle new job procedures is now of high and growing importance, which increases the importance of cognition for work performance over time. In several countries with older populations, we find better cognitive performance on the part of populations aged 50+ than in countries with chronologically younger populations. This variation in cognitive functioning levels may be explained by the fact that seniors in some regions of the world experienced better conditions during childhood and adult life, including nutrition, duration and quality of schooling, lower exposure to disease, and physical and social activity patterns. Because of the slow process of cohort replacement, those countries whose seniors already have higher cognitive levels today are likely to continue to be at an advantage for several decades to come.

Skirbekk, Vegard; Loichinger, Elke; Weber, Daniela

2012-01-01

210

Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults123  

PubMed Central

Background: Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 Puerto Ricans aged 45–75 y living in Massachusetts in relation to cognitive function performances. Design: Food security was assessed with the US Household Food Security Scale. Cognitive function was measured to capture general cognition with a battery of 7 tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning (verbal memory), digit span (attention), clock drawing and figure copying (visual-spatial ability), and Stroop and verbal fluency tests (fluency executive functioning). Results: The overall prevalence of food insecurity during the past 12 mo was 12.1%; 6.1% of the subjects reported very low food security. Food insecurity was inversely associated with global cognitive performance, as assessed by the MMSE score. The adjusted difference in the MMSE score was ?0.90 (95% CI: ?1.6, ?0.19; P for trend = 0.003) for a comparison of participants with very low food security with those who were food secure, after adjustment for age, smoking, education, poverty status, income, acculturation, plasma homocysteine, alcohol, diabetes, and hypertension. Food insecurity was significantly associated with lower scores for word-list learning, percentage retention, letter fluency, and digit span backward tests. Conclusions: Very low food security was prevalent among the study subjects and was associated with lower cognitive performance. Further studies, both observational and experimental, are warranted to clarify the direction of causality in this association.

Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Falcon, Luis M; Wilde, Parke E; Tucker, Katherine L

2009-01-01

211

Dose-related effects of alcohol on cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

We assessed the suitability of six applied tests of cognitive functioning to provide a single marker for dose-related alcohol intoxication. Numerous studies have demonstrated that alcohol has a deleterious effect on specific areas of cognitive processing but few have compared the effects of alcohol across a wide range of different cognitive processes. Adult participants (N?=?56, 32 males, 24 females aged 18-45 years) were randomized to control or alcohol treatments within a mixed design experiment involving multiple-dosages at approximately one hour intervals (attained mean blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of 0.00, 0.048, 0.082 and 0.10%), employing a battery of six psychometric tests; the Useful Field of View test (UFOV; processing speed together with directed attention); the Self-Ordered Pointing Task (SOPT; working memory); Inspection Time (IT; speed of processing independent from motor responding); the Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP; strategic optimization); the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART; vigilance, response inhibition and psychomotor function); and the Trail-Making Test (TMT; cognitive flexibility and psychomotor function). Results demonstrated that impairment is not uniform across different domains of cognitive processing and that both the size of the alcohol effect and the magnitude of effect change across different dose levels are quantitatively different for different cognitive processes. Only IT met the criteria for a marker for wide-spread application: reliable dose-related decline in a basic process as a function of rising BAC level and easy to use non-invasive task properties. PMID:23209840

Dry, Matthew J; Burns, Nicholas R; Nettelbeck, Ted; Farquharson, Aaron L; White, Jason M

2012-11-29

212

Children's sleep and cognitive functioning: race and socioeconomic status as moderators of effects.  

PubMed

Race and socioeconomic status (SES) moderated the link between children's sleep and cognitive functioning. One hundred and sixty-six 8- to 9-year-old African and European American children varying in SES participated. Sleep measures were actigraphy, sleep diaries, and self-report; cognitive measures were from the Woodcock-Johnson III and reaction time tasks. Children had similar performance when sleep was more optimal, but after controlling for SES, African American children had lower performance with sleep disruptions. Children from lower and higher SES had similar performance with better sleep quality and less variability in sleep schedules, but when sleep was more disrupted, higher SES children had better performance. Examination of environmental variables associated with race and SES that may underlie these effects may lead to directions for interventions to improve cognitive performance. PMID:17328701

Buckhalt, Joseph A; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keller, Peggy

213

Roles of Brain Angiotensin II in Cognitive Function and Dementia  

PubMed Central

The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been highlighted as having a pathological role in stroke, dementia, and neurodegenerative disease. Particularly, in dementia, epidemiological studies indicate a preventive effect of RAS blockade on cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease (AD). Moreover, basic experiments suggest a role of brain angiotensin II in neural injury, neuroinflammation, and cognitive function and that RAS blockade attenuates cognitive impairment in rodent dementia models of AD. Therefore, RAS regulation is expected to have therapeutic potential for AD. Here, we discuss the role of angiotensin II in cognitive impairment and AD. Angiotensin II binds to the type 2 receptor (AT2) and works mainly by binding with the type 1 receptor (AT1). AT2 receptor signaling plays a role in protection against multiple-organ damage. A direct AT2 receptor agonist is now available and is expected to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress and enhance cell differentiation. We and other groups reported that AT2 receptor activation enhances neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth in the brain. Here, we also review the effect of the AT2 receptor on cognitive function. RAS modulation may be a new therapeutic option for dementia including AD in the future.

Mogi, Masaki; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

2012-01-01

214

Cognitive disinhibition and socioemotional functioning in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience difficulties with socioemotional functioning, and it has been proposed that cognitive disinhibition may be one potential mechanism that contributes to difficulties in this area. To test this possibility, twenty individuals with AD and 20 demographically matched controls were administered self-report measures of depression, emotion regulation and empathy, in addition to a behavioral measure that

SCOTT NASH; JULIE D. HENRY; SKYE MCDONALD; INGERITH MARTIN; HENRY BRODATY; MARIE-ANDREE PEEK-O'LEARY

2007-01-01

215

Cognition and daytime functioning in sleep-related breathing disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep-related breathing disorders encompass a range of disorders in which abnormal ventilation occurs during sleep as a result of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway, altered respiratory drive, abnormal chest wall movement, or respiratory muscle function. The most common of these is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occurring in both adults and children, and causing significant cognitive and daytime

Melinda L. Jackson; Mark E. Howard; Maree Barnes

2011-01-01

216

Impairment in Cognitive Functions After Multiple Detoxifications in Alcoholic Inpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Repeated experience of withdrawal from alcohol results in a kindling-like process leading to increased likelihood and severity of convulsions during detoxification. The aim of this study was to determine whether repeated withdrawals affect cognitive function. Methods: We investigated alcoholic patients undergoing detoxification in an inpatient setting, using tasks sensitive to dysfunction of prefrontal areas. The tasks applied were two

Theodora Duka; Julia M. Townshend; Kirsty Collier; David N. Stephens

2003-01-01

217

Cognitive Functioning and the Early Development of PTSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-sectional studies of chronic PTSD reveal deficits in verbal memory. We studied cognitive functioning and its relationship to current and subsequent PTSD severity during an early phase of trauma response. Thirty-eight participants with traumatic injuries and only posttrauma incident psychopathology were evaluated shortly after admission to a Level I Trauma Center. Neuropsychological measures were obtained at baseline and assessment of

Victoria Bustamante; Thomas A. Mellman; Daniella David; Ana I. Fins

2001-01-01

218

Functional Internet Literacy: Required Cognitive Skills with Implications for Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patterns of typical Internet use provide the basis for defining "functional Internet literacy." Internet use commonly includes communication, information, recreation, and commercial activities. Technical competence with connectivity, security, and downloads is a prerequisite for using the Internet for such activities. Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive

Johnson, Genevieve Marie

2007-01-01

219

Neuroimaging of cognitive functions in human parietal cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional neuroimaging has proven highly valuable in mapping human sensory regions, particularly visual areas in occipital cortex. Recent evidence suggests that human parietal cortex may also consist of numerous specialized subregions similar to those reported in neurophysiological studies of non-human primates. However, parietal activation generalizes across a wide variety of cognitive tasks and the extension of human brain mapping into

Jody C Culham; Nancy G Kanwisher

2001-01-01

220

Cognitive functioning in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) patients, 12 psychiatric patients matched for severity of psychopathology, and 12 normal controls were assessed for cognitive functioning by means of a comprehensive test battery. Both patient groups felt subjectively more impaired than normals. Performance on measures of intelligence, organicity, verbal fluency, memory, and attention was significantly poorer in patients than in normals. The performance

Tzvi Gil; Avraham Calev; David Greenberg; Sol Kugelmass; Bernard Lerer I

1990-01-01

221

Alcohol consumption and cognitive function in the Whitehall II Study.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the relation between alcohol consumption and cognitive function in a United Kingdom cohort study (4,272 men, 1,761 women) with median follow-up of 11 years. Measures of alcohol consumption were obtained at baseline (1985-1988) and four subsequent phases of data collection. Cognitive function (memory test, AH4, Mill-Hill, phonemic and semantic fluency) was assessed at phase 5 (1997-1999), when participants were aged 46-68 years. Of people who reported drinking alcohol in the past year, those who consumed at least one drink in the past week, compared with those who did not, were significantly less likely to have poor cognitive function. The beneficial effect extended to those drinking more than 240 g per week (approximately 30 drinks). The effect was stronger for women than men and was not confined to those with evidence of vascular disease. Similar associations were found in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. The relations were not explained by confounding by smoking and by physical and mental health and, to a large extent, were not mediated by cholesterol or blood pressure. However, the relations were weakened when social position was added to the model. The authors concluded that for middle-aged subjects, increasing levels of alcohol consumption were associated with better function regarding some aspects of cognition. Nonetheless, it is not proposed that these findings be used to encourage increased alcohol consumption. PMID:15257997

Britton, Annie; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Marmot, Michael

2004-08-01

222

Cognitive and Emotional Functioning in Hypopituitary Short-Statured Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven children with documented growth hormone deficiency were studied to assess their cognitive and emotional functioning and their academic achievement before and after 1 year of human growth hormone replacement therapy. Standardized personality and intelligence measures were used, and records of school achievement, as well as developmental and family history from parents, were obtained. Although some subjects in this group

Deborah Abbott; Diane Rotnem; Myron Genel; Donald J. Cohen

1982-01-01

223

Cognitive, Affective, and Marital Functioning of Recovering Male Polysubstance Abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research examining aspects of alcoholism and drug abuse has developed our knowledge of the components of addiction, especially alcoholism, within the fields of neuropsychology, affective disorders research, and marital and family research. The present study examined the relationships between these domains for 31 married couples in which the husband was a recovering polysubstance abuser. The cognitive functioning of the husband,

John Schafer; Gary R. Birchler; William Fals-Stewart

1994-01-01

224

Influence of Caffeine on Physiological and Cognitive Functions of Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review is devoted to the analysis of the effect of caffeine on physiological and cognitive functions of humans. The methodological aspects of experiments with the use of caffeine are discussed, in particular, the dosage, the frequency of use, and in combination with other products. The possibilities of the use of caffeine for studying physiological and mental phenomena, as well

S. A. Schapkin

2002-01-01

225

Gender Characteristics of Cerebral Hemodynamics during Complex Cognitive Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Functional Transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) has been applied to assess peak mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MFV) with a high temporal resolution during cognitive activation. Yet, little attention has been devoted to gender-related alterations of MFV, including spectral analysis. In healthy subjects, fTCD was used to investigate a series…

Misteli, Maria; Duschek, Stefan; Richter, Andre; Grimm, Simone; Rezk, Markus; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Boeker, Heinz; Seifritz, Erich; Schuepbach, Daniel

2011-01-01

226

Timp-3 deficiency impairs cognitive function in mice  

PubMed Central

Extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation is performed primarily by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs have recently been shown to regulate synaptic activity in the hippocampus and to affect memory and learning. The tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (Timp) is an endogenous factor that controls MMP activity by binding to the catalytic site of MMPs. At present, four Timp isotypes have been reported (Timp-1 through Timp-4) with 35–50% amino-acid sequence homology. Timp-3 is a unique member of Timp proteins in that it is bound to the ECM. In this study, we used the passive avoidance test, active avoidance test, and water maze test to examine the cognitive function in Timp-3 knockout (KO) mice. Habituation was evaluated using the open-field test. The water maze test showed that Timp-3 KO mice exhibit deterioration in cognitive function compared with wild-type (WT) mice. The open-field test showed decreased habituation of Timp-3 KO mice. Immunostaining of brain slices revealed the expression of Timp-3 in the hippocampus. In situ zymography of the hippocampus showed increased gelatinolytic activity in Timp-3 KO mice compared with WT mice. These results present the first evidence of Timp-3 involvement in cognitive function and hippocampal MMP activity in mice. Moreover, our findings suggest a novel therapeutic target to be explored for improvement of cognitive function in humans.

Baba, Yoshichika; Yasuda, Osamu; Takemura, Yukihiro; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Iwanami, Jun; Mogi, Masaki; Doe, Nobutaka; Horiuchi, Masatsugu; Maeda, Nobuyo; Fukuo, Keisuke; Rakugi, Hiromi

2011-01-01

227

Cognitive-Neuropsychological Function in Chronic Physical Aggression and Hyperactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histories of violence and of hyperactivity are both characterized by poor cognitive-neuropsychological function. However, researchers do not know whether these histories combine in additive or interactive ways. The authors tested 303 male young adults from a community sample whose trajectories of teacher-rated physical aggression and motoric hyperactivity from kindergarten to age 15 were well defined. No significant interaction was found.

Jean R. Séguin; Daniel Nagin; Jean-Marc Assaad; Richard E. Tremblay

2004-01-01

228

Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 P...

229

[Cognitive functions in patients with stenosing lesion of brachio-cephalic arteries].  

PubMed

Authors studied cognitive functions in 97 patients with different clinical presentations, lateralization and number of stenotic brachio-cephalic vessels. The Luria's syndrome neuropsychological analysis distinctly revealed the topics of cognitive deficits. Wechsler verbal memory tests, the Stroop test (words-figures), the Schulte test were administered as well. Disturbances of high psychic functions were found in 97.9% of patients. The bilateral pathology of lobe regions was noted most often. The dysfunction of parietal and temporal lobes was mainly unilateral and was linked with the side of stenosing process. Disturbances of neurodynamic parameters of mental activity were correlated with the age (higher frequency in patients older than 50 years), a side of stenosis and/or lesion of stroke, bilateral lesions of carotid arteries. The results allow a more precise assessment of clinical significance of carotid stenosis in the development of cognitive dysfunction that may assist in recommendation of surgical treatment. PMID:22792743

Gavrilova, O V; Buklina, S B; Stakhovskaia, L V; Usachev, D Iu; Lukshin, V A; Beliaev, A Iu; Akhmetov, V V; Skvortsova, V I

2011-01-01

230

Correlations between motor performance and cognitive functions in children born < 1250 g at school age.  

PubMed

Very low birth weight born children manifest a higher prevalence of motor and cognitive impairments than term children. Seventy-four prospectively enrolled children born < 1250 g underwent testing of motor (Zurich neuromotor assessment ZNA: timed motor performances and associated movements) and cognitive functions (Kaufman-ABC) at age six years. Children with cerebral palsy or mental retardation were excluded. Adaptive motor tasks (pegboard and dynamic balance) and visuomotor cognitive functions were specifically impaired, and a distinct correlation pattern between motor and cognitive abilities was detected. The adaptive fine motor task (pegboard) correlated with visuomotor functions of the Kaufman-ABC ("triangles", r = 0.35; "matrix analogies", r = 0.39), while pure motor tasks of the ZNA (repetitive, alternating, and sequential movements) did not in spite of impaired motor performance. Timed motor performance below the 10th percentile correlated strongly with cognitive delay (IQ < 85: adaptive fine motor: OR 6.0 [95% CI] 4.7-7.3; adaptive gross motor: OR 7.0 [CI 5.6-8.4]; static balance: OR 9.6 [CI 8.2-11.0]). In conclusion, motor deficits in children born < 1250 g without severe disabilities correlate with specific cognitive impairments, in particular of the visuomotor domain. The correlation pattern may indicate specific dysfunction in visuomotor transformation, the intermediate process between visual-perceptual input and motor output. Early assessment of both motor and cognitive functions using standardized assessment tools is important to determine the extent and combination of specific developmental disturbances and to tailor therapeutic intervention. PMID:16541362

Seitz, J; Jenni, O G; Molinari, L; Caflisch, J; Largo, R H; Latal Hajnal, B

2006-02-01

231

Neuroligins and Neurexins Link Synaptic Function to Cognitive Disease  

PubMed Central

Preface The brain processes information by transmitting signals at synapses, which connect neurons into vast networks of communicating cells. In these networks, synapses not only transmit, but also process and refine information. Neurexins and neuroligins are synaptic cell-adhesion molecules that connect pre- and postsynaptic neurons at synapses, mediate trans-synaptic signaling, and shape neural network properties by specifying synaptic functions. In humans, alterations in neurexin or neuroligin genes are implicated in autism and other cognitive diseases, connecting synaptic cell adhesion to cognition and its disorders. Thus, neurexins and neuroligins are core components of the molecular machinery that controls synaptic transmission and enables neural networks to process complex signals.

Sudhof, Thomas C.

2009-01-01

232

Evolutionary Psychology, Cognitive Function, and Deterrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

For decades deterrence has been understood to depend largely on psychology—convincing an adversary that certain actions are not in the adversary's best interests. However, beyond a token mention, contemporary discussions of deterrence seldom examine further the role of psychology and brain function in human decision making in matters of war and violence. Instead, deterrence planners typically rely on the rational

Thomas Scheber

2011-01-01

233

Effects of race and socioeconomic status on the relative influence of education and literacy on cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that reading ability is a stronger predictor of cognitive functioning than years of education, particularly for African Americans. The current study was designed to determine whether the relative influence of literacy and education on cognitive abilities varies as a function of race or socioeconomic status (SES). We examined the unique influence of education and reading scores on a range of cognitive tests in low- and higher-SES African Americans and Whites. Literacy significantly predicted scores on all but one cognitive measure in both African American groups and low-SES Whites, while education was not significantly associated with any cognitive measure. In contrast, both education and reading scores predicted performance on many cognitive measures in higher-SES Whites. These findings provide further evidence that reading ability better predicts cognitive functioning than years of education and suggest that disadvantages associated with racial minority status and low SES affect the relative influence of literacy and years of education on cognition. PMID:19573276

Dotson, Vonetta M; Kitner-Triolo, Melissa H; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

2009-07-01

234

Enhancing cognitive functioning in the elderly: multicomponent vs resistance training  

PubMed Central

Purpose The primary purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different exercise training programs on executive cognitive functions and functional mobility in older adults. A secondary purpose was to explore the potential mediators of training effects on executive function and functional mobility with particular reference to physical fitness gains. Methods A sample of 42 healthy community dwelling adults aged 65 to 75 years participated twice weekly for 3 months in either: (1) multicomponent training, prioritizing neuromuscular coordination, balance, agility, and cognitive executive control; or (2) progressive resistance training for strength conditioning. Participants were tested at baseline (T1), following a 4-week control period (T2), and finally at postintervention (T3) for executive function (inhibition and cognitive flexibility) and functional mobility (maximal walking speed with and without additional task requirements). Cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness were also assessed as potential mediators. Results Indices of inhibition, the functions involved in the deliberate withholding of prepotent or automatic responses, and measures of functional mobility improved after the intervention, independent of training type. Mediation analysis suggested that different mechanisms underlie the effects of multicomponent and progressive resistance training. While multicomponent training seemed to directly affect inhibitory capacity, resistance training seemed to affect it indirectly through gains in muscular strength. Physical fitness and executive function variables did not mediate functional mobility changes. Conclusion These results confirm that physical training benefits executive function and suggest that different training types might lead to such benefits through different pathways. Both types of training also promoted functional mobility in older adulthood; however, neither inhibitory capacity, nor muscular strength gains seemed to explain functional mobility outcomes.

Forte, Roberta; Boreham, Colin AG; Leite, Joao Costa; De Vito, Giuseppe; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R; Pesce, Caterina

2013-01-01

235

Cognitive Distortion and Functional Impairment in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the influence of cognitivedistortion (e.g., catastrophizing, overgeneralization)on functional impairment among coronary heart disease(CHD) patients undergoing outpatient cardiacrehabilitation. Forty-two CHD patients completed a versionofthe Cognitive Errors Questionnaire (CEQ; Lefebvre,1981) shortly after hospital discharge at the initiationof the rehabilitation program. Functional impairmentwas assessed both pre- and postrehabilitation usingscales from the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP; Bergner etal., 1981) and a

Alan J. Christensen; Dawn L. Edwards; Patricia J. Moran; Rachael Burke; Patricia Lounsbury; Ellen E. I. Gordon

1999-01-01

236

Cognitive functioning ten years following traumatic brain injury and rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Many previous studies investigating long-term cognitive impairments following traumatic brain injury (TBI) have focused on extremely severely injured patients, relied on subjective reports of change and failed to use demographically relevant control data. The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive impairments 10 years following TBI and their association with injury severity. Sixty TBI and 43 control participants were assessed on tests of attention, processing speed, memory, and executive function. The TBI group demonstrated significant cognitive impairment on measures of processing speed (Symbol Digit Modalities Test [SDMT], Smith, 1973; Digit Symbol Coding, Wechsler, 1997), memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test [RAVLT]; Rey, 1958; Lezak, 1976), Doors and People tests; Baddeley, Emslie & Nimmo-Smith, 1994) and executive function (Hayling C [Burgess & Shallice, 1997] and SART errors, Robertson, Manly, Andrade, Baddeley & Yiend, 1997). Logistic Regression analyses indicated that the SDMT, Rey AVLT and Hayling C and SART errors most strongly differentiated the groups in the domains of attention/processing speed, memory and executive function, respectively. Greater injury severity was significantly correlated with poorer test performances across all domains. This study shows that cognitive impairments are present many years following TBI and are associated with injury severity. PMID:18763881

Draper, Kristy; Ponsford, Jennie

2008-09-01

237

Long-term enhancement of brain function and cognition using cognitive training and brain stimulation.  

PubMed

Noninvasive brain stimulation has shown considerable promise for enhancing cognitive functions by the long-term manipulation of neuroplasticity. However, the observation of such improvements has been focused at the behavioral level, and enhancements largely restricted to the performance of basic tasks. Here, we investigate whether transcranial random noise stimulation (TRNS) can improve learning and subsequent performance on complex arithmetic tasks. TRNS of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a key area in arithmetic, was uniquely coupled with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure online hemodynamic responses within the prefrontal cortex. Five consecutive days of TRNS-accompanied cognitive training enhanced the speed of both calculation- and memory-recall-based arithmetic learning. These behavioral improvements were associated with defined hemodynamic responses consistent with more efficient neurovascular coupling within the left DLPFC. Testing 6 months after training revealed long-lasting behavioral and physiological modifications in the stimulated group relative to sham controls for trained and nontrained calculation material. These results demonstrate that, depending on the learning regime, TRNS can induce long-term enhancement of cognitive and brain functions. Such findings have significant implications for basic and translational neuroscience, highlighting TRNS as a viable approach to enhancing learning and high-level cognition by the long-term modulation of neuroplasticity. PMID:23684971

Snowball, Albert; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Popescu, Tudor; Thompson, Jacqueline; Delazer, Margarete; Zamarian, Laura; Zhu, Tingting; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

2013-05-16

238

Cognitive remediation for treatment-resistant depression: effects on cognition and functioning and the role of online homework.  

PubMed

Neurocognitive impairments are observed in depression and associated with poor functioning. This study examined the efficacy and the effectiveness of cognitive remediation with supplemental Internet-based homework in treatment-resistant depression. Participants were randomized to treatment or wait list control conditions. Treatment consisted of 10 weeks of weekly group sessions and daily online cognitive exercises completed at home. The participants were assessed on cognitive, mood, motivation, and functioning measures. There was a significant time by treatment interaction for attention/processing speed and verbal memory. Changes in functioning were not significant, although improved cognition predicted improvements in functioning. Number of minutes of online exercise was associated with greater cognitive improvements. Cognitive deficits are malleable with behavioral treatment in a mood disorder characterized by severe and persistent symptoms. PMID:23896849

Bowie, Christopher R; Gupta, Maya; Holshausen, Katherine; Jokic, Ruzica; Best, Michael; Milev, Roumen

2013-08-01

239

Research and Teaching: Promoting the Use of Higher-Order Cognitive Skills in Qualitative Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A study was conducted to promote higher order cognitive skills (HOCS) in a chemistry class using the GOAL (Gather, Organize, Analyze, and Learn) method. Students were assigned four qualitative problems specifically designed to be solved with the method over the course of the semester outside of normal homework and testing. The problems served as a platform to encourage students to use HOCS in their Learn responses. The study focused on students' use of HOCS in these Learn responses regardless of whether HOCS were used in the actual solving of the problems or not. The results of this study suggest that consistent use of the Learn response in problem solving promotes reflection with an accompanied increase in use of HOCS by students during a semester.

Justice, Jason; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria

2008-05-01

240

Evidence-based Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Pediatric Psychology  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the evidence base for measures of cognitive functioning frequently used within the field of pediatric psychology. Methods From a list of 47 measures identified by the Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Evidence-Based Assessment Task Force Workgroup, 27 measures were included in the review. Measures were organized, reviewed, and evaluated according to general domains of functioning (e.g., attention/executive functioning, memory). Results Twenty-two of 27 measures reviewed demonstrated psychometric properties that met “Well-established” criteria as set forth by the Assessment Task Force. Psychometric properties were strongest for measures of general cognitive ability and weakest for measures of visual-motor functioning and attention. Conclusions We report use of “Well-established” measures of overall cognitive functioning, nonverbal intelligence, academic achievement, language, and memory and learning. For several specific tests in the domains of visual-motor functioning and attention, additional psychometric data are needed for measures to meet criteria as “Well established.”

Brown, Ronald T.; Cavanagh, Sarah E.; Vess, Sarah F.; Segall, Mathew J.

2008-01-01

241

Gender differences in cognitive function of patients with chronic schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Schizophrenic patients have cognitive impairments, but gender differences in these cognitive deficits have had limited study. This study assessed cognitive functioning in 471 subjects including 122 male and 78 female schizophrenic patients and 141 male and 130 female healthy controls. We found that immediate memory, language, delayed memory and total RBANS scores were significantly decreased in schizophrenia compared with healthy controls for both genders. Male patients had significant lower immediate memory, delayed memory and total RBANS scores than female patients, and healthy controls showed a similar gender difference. The RBANS showed modest correlations with PANSS scores, duration of illness and antipsychotic dose (chlorpromazine equivalents). Almost all RBANS scores in the schizophrenics and healthy controls showed significant positive correlations with education. Thus, patients of both sexes with schizophrenia experienced more deteriorated performance than healthy controls on cognitive domains of immediate memory, language and delayed memory. Furthermore, male schizophrenic patients had more serious cognitive deficits than female patients in immediate and delayed memory, but not in language, visuospatial and attention indices. PMID:22820676

Han, Mei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Chen, Da Chun; Xiu, Mei Hong; Hui, Li; Liu, Haibo; Kosten, Thomas R; Zhang, Xiang Yang

2012-07-20

242

Gender characteristics of cerebral hemodynamics during complex cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Functional Transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) has been applied to assess peak mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MFV) with a high temporal resolution during cognitive activation. Yet, little attention has been devoted to gender-related alterations of MFV, including spectral analysis. In healthy subjects, fTCD was used to investigate a series of cerebral hemodynamic parameters in the middle cerebral arteries (MCA) during the Trail Making Tests (TMT), a means of selective attention and complex cognitive functioning. In females, there was a frequency peak at 0.375 Hz in both MCA, and we observed a dynamic shift in hemispheric dominance during that condition. Further, after the start phase, there was an MFV decline during complex functioning for the entire sample. These novel results suggest condition-specific features of cerebral hemodynamics in females, and it adds to the notion that gender is a fundamental confounder of brain physiology. PMID:21420774

Misteli, Maria; Duschek, Stefan; Richter, André; Grimm, Simone; Rezk, Markus; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Boeker, Heinz; Seifritz, Erich; Schuepbach, Daniel

2011-03-21

243

Immigrant status and cognitive functioning in late-life: an examination of gender variations in the healthy immigrant effect.  

PubMed

Although some research suggests that the healthy immigrant effect extends to cognitive functioning, it is unclear whether this general pattern varies according to gender. We use six waves of data collected from the original cohort of the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to estimate a series of linear growth curve models to assess variations in cognitive functioning trajectories by nativity status and age at migration to the U.S.A. among women and men. Our results show, among women and men, no differences in baseline cognitive status (intercepts) between early- (before age 20) and late-life (50 and older) immigrants and U.S.-born individuals of Mexican-origin. We also find, among women and men, that middle-life (between the ages of 20 and 49) immigrants tend to exhibit higher levels of baseline cognitive functioning than the U.S.-born. Our growth curve analyses suggest that the cognitive functioning trajectories (slopes) of women do not vary according to nativity status and age at migration. The cognitive functioning trajectories of early- and late-life immigrant men are also similar to those of U.S.-born men; however, those men who migrated in middle-life tend to exhibit slower rates of cognitive decline. A statistically significant interaction term suggests that the pattern for middle-life migration is more pronounced for men (or attenuated for women). In other words, although women and men who migrated in middle-life exhibit higher levels of baseline cognitive functioning, immigrant men tend to maintain this advantage for a longer period of time. Taken together, these patterns confirm that gender is an important conditioning factor in the association between immigrant status and cognitive functioning. PMID:22609085

Hill, Terrence D; Angel, Jacqueline L; Balistreri, Kelly S; Herrera, Angelica P

2012-05-02

244

Effect of Leisure Activities on Inflammation and Cognitive Function in an Aging Sample  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDRFs) increase the risk of dementia. The purpose of this study was to examine whether leisure activities (mental, physical, and social activities) modified the effect of CVDRFs on inflammatory markers and cognitive function in middle and old age. A secondary-data analysis study was conducted using data from 405 middle-age participants (40 –59 years) and 342 old-age participants (60 – 84 years) who participated in the Survey of Midlife Development in the United States. CVDRFs were obtained from a combination of self-report medical history and blood-based biomarkers. Three CVDRF groups (?1, 2, and ?3 CVDRFs) were identified. More CVDRFs were significantly associated with higher levels of inflammatory markers in both age groups, and associated with lower levels of executive function in the old age group. CVDRFs were not related to the frequency of leisure activities in either age group. After controlling for covariates, higher levels of physical activities were significantly associated with lower levels of inflammatory markers, and higher levels of mental activities were associated with higher levels of cognitive function. In the old age group, physical activities also moderated the effect of CVDRFs on episodic memory, and mental activities moderated the effect of CVDRFs on interleukin-6. Multiple CVDRFs may be associated with poorer cognitive function and higher inflammatory markers, but middle-age and older adults with CVDRFs may not engage in frequent physical and cognitive activities that may be protective. It is important to develop strategies to facilitate engagement in these activities from midlife.

Friedman, Elliot; Quinn, Jill; Chen, Ding-Geng (Din); Mapstone, Mark

2012-01-01

245

Selenium Level and Cognitive Function in Rural Elderly Chinese  

PubMed Central

Selenium is a trace element associated with antioxidant activity and is considered to be a protective agent against free radicals through enhanced enzyme activity. Studies on selenium and cognitive function or Alzheimer’s disease have yielded inconsistent results. A cross-sectional survey of 2,000 rural Chinese aged 65 years or older from two provinces in the People’s Republic of China was conducted from December 2003 to May 2005 by use of the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia, the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD) Word List Learning Test, the Indiana University Story Recall Test, the Animal Fluency Test, and the Indiana University Token Test. Over 70% of the study participants have lived in the same village since birth. Nail samples were collected and analyzed for selenium contents. Analysis-of-covariance models were used to estimate the association between quintile selenium levels measured in nail samples and cognitive test scores, with adjustment for other covariates. Lower selenium levels measured in nail samples were significantly associated with lower cognitive scores (p < 0.0087 for all tests) except the Animal Fluency Test (p = 0.4378). A dose-response effect of selenium quintiles was also seen for those significant associations. Results in this geographically stable cohort support the hypothesis that a lifelong low selenium level is associated with lower cognitive function.

Gao, Sujuan; Jin, Yinlong; Hall, Kathleen S.; Liang, Chaoke; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Ji, Rongdi; Murrell, Jill R.; Cao, Jingxiang; Shen, Jianzhao; Ma, Feng; Matesan, Janetta; Ying, Bo; Cheng, Yibin; Bian, Jianchao; Li, Ping; Hendrie, Hugh C.

2009-01-01

246

Social and Cognitive Functioning as Risk Factors for Suicide: A Historical-Prospective Cohort Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objectives- Previous studies have shown that poor cognitive and social functioning are associated with increased risk of suicide. This study aimed to examine the association between social and cognitive functioning in adolescence and later completed suici...

E. Fruchter G. Lubin N. Rotem N. Werbeloff R. Neidorf

2011-01-01

247

Social Cognition in Schizophrenia, Part 2: 12-Month Stability and Prediction of Functional Outcome in First-Episode Patients  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the longitudinal stability and functional correlates of social cognition during the early course of schizophrenia. Fifty-five first-episode schizophrenia patients completed baseline and 12-month follow-up assessments of 3 key domains of social cognition (emotional processing, theory of mind, and social/relationship perception), as well as clinical ratings of real-world functioning and symptoms. Scores on all 3 social cognitive tests demonstrated good longitudinal stability with test-retest correlations exceeding .70. Higher baseline and 12-month social cognition scores were both robustly associated with significantly better work functioning, independent living, and social functioning at the 12-month follow-up assessment. Furthermore, cross-lagged panel analyses were consistent with a causal model in which baseline social cognition drove later functional outcome in the domain of work, above and beyond the contribution of symptoms. Social cognitive impairments are relatively stable, functionally relevant features of early schizophrenia. These results extend findings from a companion study, which showed stable impairments across patients in prodromal, first-episode, and chronic phases of illness on the same measures. Social cognitive impairments may serve as useful vulnerability indicators and early clinical intervention targets.

Horan, William P.; Green, Michael F.; DeGroot, Michael; Fiske, Alan; Hellemann, Gerhard; Kee, Kimmy; Kern, Robert S.; Lee, Junghee; Sergi, Mark J.; Subotnik, Kenneth L.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Ventura, Joseph; Nuechterlein, Keith H.

2012-01-01

248

Social cognition in schizophrenia, Part 2: 12-month stability and prediction of functional outcome in first-episode patients.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the longitudinal stability and functional correlates of social cognition during the early course of schizophrenia. Fifty-five first-episode schizophrenia patients completed baseline and 12-month follow-up assessments of 3 key domains of social cognition (emotional processing, theory of mind, and social/relationship perception), as well as clinical ratings of real-world functioning and symptoms. Scores on all 3 social cognitive tests demonstrated good longitudinal stability with test-retest correlations exceeding .70. Higher baseline and 12-month social cognition scores were both robustly associated with significantly better work functioning, independent living, and social functioning at the 12-month follow-up assessment. Furthermore, cross-lagged panel analyses were consistent with a causal model in which baseline social cognition drove later functional outcome in the domain of work, above and beyond the contribution of symptoms. Social cognitive impairments are relatively stable, functionally relevant features of early schizophrenia. These results extend findings from a companion study, which showed stable impairments across patients in prodromal, first-episode, and chronic phases of illness on the same measures. Social cognitive impairments may serve as useful vulnerability indicators and early clinical intervention targets. PMID:21382881

Horan, William P; Green, Michael F; DeGroot, Michael; Fiske, Alan; Hellemann, Gerhard; Kee, Kimmy; Kern, Robert S; Lee, Junghee; Sergi, Mark J; Subotnik, Kenneth L; Sugar, Catherine A; Ventura, Joseph; Nuechterlein, Keith H

2011-03-07

249

Cognitive Function is Associated with the Development of Mobility Impairments in Community-Dwelling Elders  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association of cognitive function with the risk of incident mobility impairments and the rate of declining mobility in older adults. Design Prospective, observational cohort study. Setting Retirement communities across metropolitan Chicago. Participants 1154 ambulatory elders from two longitudinal studies without baseline clinical dementia or history of stroke or Parkinson’s disease. Measurements All participants underwent baseline cognitive testing and annual mobility exams. Mobility impairments were based on annual timed walking performance. A composite mobility measure which summarized gait and balance measures was used to examine the annual rate of mobility change. Results During follow-up of 4.5 years, 423 of 836 (50.6%) participants developed impaired mobility. In a proportional hazards model controlled for age, sex, education and race, each 1-unit higher level of baseline global cognition was associated with a reduction to about half in the risk of mobility impairments (HR=0.51, 95% CI 0.40, 0.66) and was similar to a participant being about 13 years younger at baseline. These results did not vary by sex or race and were unchanged in analyses controlling for BMI, physical activity, vascular diseases and risk factors. The level of cognition in 5 different cognitive abilities was also related to incident mobility impairment. Cognition showed similar associations with incident loss of the ability to ambulate. Linear mixed-effects models showed that global cognition at baseline was associated with the rate of declining mobility. Conclusions Among ambulatory elders, cognition is associated with incident mobility impairment and mobility decline.

Buchman, Aron S.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Leurgans, Sue E.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Bennett, David A.

2010-01-01

250

Associations Between Cognitive Function and Naturally Occurring Daily Cortisol During Middle Adulthood: Timing Is Everything  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined associations between cognitive function (CF) and the naturally occurring daily cortisol levels using data from the Midlife in the United States survey and the National Study of Daily Experiences. Methods. A national sample of 1,500 (mean age = 57 years; range = 33–84, 56% female) completed a phone-based battery of cognitive tasks and 3–6 months later provided saliva samples upon waking, 30 min after waking, at lunch time, and at bedtime on 4 consecutive days. Results. Higher CF, particularly executive function, was associated with healthier daily cortisol profiles, including a steeper diurnal cortisol slope, higher morning cortisol levels, and lower afternoon and evening cortisol levels. Discussion. The results indicate that better CF is associated with healthier profiles of naturally occurring cortisol and underscore the importance of the timing of cortisol sampling.

Almeida, David M.; Lachman, Margie E.; Tun, Patricia A.; Rosnick, Christopher B.; Seeman, Teresa

2011-01-01

251

The duration of inpatient admission predicts cognitive functioning at discharge in patients with bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies of cognitive functioning in bipolar disorder generally indicate that a more severe course of illness is associated with greater cognitive impairment. In particular, a history of greater number and longer duration of mood episodes predicts enduring cognitive deficits in euthymic patients. Shifting the focus of this investigation to the cognitive effects of a discrete mood episode, the current

Boaz Levy; Matthew R. Stephansky; Kris C. Dobie; Benedetta A. Monzani; Anna Marie Medina; Roger D. Weiss

2009-01-01

252

Functional architecture of higher plant photosystem II supercomplexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosystem II (PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it to homogeneity. In this work, homogeneous preparations ranging from a newly identified particle composed by a monomeric core

Stefano Caffarri; Roman Kou?il; Sami Kereïche; Egbert J. Boekema; Roberta Croce

2009-01-01

253

Measurements of optical turbulence with higher-order structure functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Higher-order structure functions have been used to extract atmospheric optical Cn2 profiles from a vertical sequence of temperature data collected by a single probe carried by a meteorological balloon. This technique circumvents trends and fluctuations in the atmospheric mean temperature and simplifies the equipment and complexity of measurement collection compared with traditional, horizontal differential-probe pair systems.

Walters, D. L.

1995-03-01

254

Maternal speech to verbal and higher functioning versus nonverbal and lower functioning autistic children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between autistic children's level of functioning and maternal speech to children was examined. Ten higher functioning verbal and 10 lower functioning nonverbal children were videotaped in a 15-minute interaction with their mothers. Results revealed that mothers of the higher functioning verbal children asked more questions, used more language modeling, gave more reinforcement for language, and answered more children-initiated

M. Mary Konstantareas; Helena Zajdeman; Soula Homatidis; Ann McCabe

1988-01-01

255

Factors Associated with Changing Cognitive Function in Older Adults: Implications for Nursing Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the significant effects of aging on cognitive function. As people age, brain tissue volume decreases, white matter hyperintensities increase, and associated deficits are seen in working memory, attention, and executive function. Comorbidities include hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors. Another factor that affects cognitive function is the presence of apolipoprotein E-4, which is negatively correlated with cognitive

Jamie S. Myers

256

Vascular disease and cognitive function in older men in the Caerphilly cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: stroke can impair cognitive function, but the associations between other manifestations of vascular disease and cognitive function have not been adequately studied in representative population samples of subjects. We report the associations between cardiac and peripheral vascular disease and cognitive function for a large representative sample of men in Caerphilly, South Wales, UK. Design: the Caerphilly cohort is the

PETER C. ELWOOD; J ANET PICKERING; A NTHONY BAYER; J OHN E. J. GALLACHER

257

The Effects of Clozapine, Risperidone, and Olanzapine on Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive function is markedly impaired in most patients with schizophrenia. Antecedents of this impairment are evident in childhood. The cognitive disability is nearly fully developed at the first episode of psychosis in most patients. The contribution of cog- nitive Impairment to outcome in schizophrenia , espe- cially work function, has been established. Preliminary results indicate that cognitive function, along with

Herbert Y. Melfcjer; Susan R. McQurk

2010-01-01

258

Event memory and suggestibility in abused and neglected children: Trauma-related psychopathology and cognitive functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined event memory and suggestibility in 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of child maltreatment. A total of 322 children were interviewed about a play activity with an unfamiliar adult. Comprehensive measures of individual differences in trauma-related psychopathology and cognitive functioning were administered. Sexually and\\/or physically abused children obtained higher dissociation scores than neglected children, and sexually

Yoojin Chae; Gail S. Goodman; Mitchell L. Eisen; Jianjian Qin

2011-01-01

259

Hemispheric lateralization of cognitive functions in children with centrotemporal spikes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the impact of unilateral epileptic foci in benign idiopathic partial epilepsy of childhood with rolandic discharges (BECT) on performance and hemispheric specialization in lateralized cognitive functions. Six children with BECT with a left-sided focus (BECT-L), 6 children with BECT with a right-sided focus (BECT-R), and 12 control children were tested in verbal, visual–spatial, and visual-attention tasks, with visual

N. Bedoin; V. Herbillon; I. Lamoury; P. Arthaud-Garde; K. Ostrowsky; J. De Bellescize; P. Kéo Kosal; G. Damon; Ch. Rousselle

2006-01-01

260

Cognitive function and nigrostriatal markers in abstinent methamphetamine abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Preclinical investigations have established that methamphetamine (MA) produces long-term changes in dopamine (DA) neurons in the striatum. Human studies have suggested similar effects and correlated motor and cognitive deficits. The present study was designed to further our understanding of changes in brain function in humans that might result from chronic high dose use of MA after at least 3 months of

Chris-Ellyn Johanson; Kirk A. Frey; Leslie H. Lundahl; Pamela Keenan; Nancy Lockhart; John Roll; Gantt P. Galloway; Robert A. Koeppe; Michael R. Kilbourn; Trevor Robbins; Charles R. Schuster

2006-01-01

261

Ethical questions in functional neuroimaging and cognitive enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new field of neuroethics has recently emerged following unprecedented developments in the neurosciences. Neuroimaging\\u000a and cognitive enhancement in particular are demanding ethical debate. For example, neuroscientists are able to measure, with\\u000a increasing accuracy, intimate personal biases and thoughts as they occur in the brain. “Smart drugs” are now available that\\u000a can effectively and safely enhance mental functioning in both

Danielle C. Turner; Barbara J. Sahakian

2006-01-01

262

Neural underpinnings of within-person variability in cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Increased intraindividual variability (IIV), reflecting within-person fluctuations in behavioral performance, is commonly observed in aging as well as in select disorders including traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and dementia. Much recent progress has been made toward understanding the functional significance of IIV in cognitive performance (MacDonald, Nyberg, & Bäckman, 2006) and biological information processing (Stein, Gossen, & Jones 2005), with parallel efforts devoted to investigating the links between older adults' deficient neuromodulation and their more variable neuronal and cognitive functions (Bäckman, Nyberg, Lindenberger, Li, & Farde, 2006). Despite these advances in the study of IIV, there has been little empirical examination of underlying neural correlates and virtually no synthesis of extant findings. The present review summarizes the accumulating empirical evidence linking age-related increases in IIV in cognitive performance to neural correlates at anatomical, functional, neuromodulatory, and genetic levels. Computational theories of neural dynamics (e.g., Li, Lindenberger, & Sikström, 2001) are also introduced to illustrate how age-related neuromodulatory deficiencies may contribute to increased neuronal noise and render information processing in aging neurocognitive systems to be less robust. The potential benefits of stochastic resonance and external noise are also discussed with respect to processing subthreshold stimuli (e.g., Li, von Oertzen, & Lindenberger, 2006). We conclude by highlighting important challenges and outstanding research issues that remain to be answered in the study of IIV. PMID:20025396

MacDonald, Stuart W S; Li, Shu-Chen; Bäckman, Lars

2009-12-01

263

Driving into the Sunset: Supporting Cognitive Functioning in Older Drivers  

PubMed Central

The rise in the aging driver population presents society with a significant challenge—how to maintain safety and mobility on the roads. On the one hand, older drivers pose a higher risk of an at-fault accident on a mile-for-mile basis; on the other hand, independent mobility is a significant marker of quality of life in aging. In this paper, we review the respective literatures on cognitive neuropsychology and ergonomics to suggest a previously unexplored synergy between these two fields. We argue that this conceptual overlap can form the basis for future solutions to what has been called “the older driver problem.” Such solutions could be found in a range of emerging driver assistance technologies offered by vehicle manufacturers, which have the potential to compensate for the specific cognitive decrements associated with aging that are related to driving.

Young, Mark S.; Bunce, David

2011-01-01

264

Literature review on the role of dietary protein and amino acids in cognitive functioning and cognitive decline.  

PubMed

As the population of elderly people is growing rapidly, the number of individuals with dementia and cognitive impairment is also increasing. One of the preventive measures against cognitive decline is diet and different dietary factors have already been investigated. This review provides an overview of studies on dietary protein and cognitive functioning and cognitive decline. Also studies on the individual amino acids that are related to brain function, tryptophan and tyrosine, are discussed. Overall, the role of dietary protein intake on cognitive functioning as well as cognitive decline has hardly been studied; we found eight observational studies and three intervention studies. More studies investigated the role of tryptophan (14 studies) and tyrosine (nine studies) in relation to cognitive functioning, but all these studies were performed in young adult populations and mostly under special conditions. Research in elderly populations, in particular, is warranted. Also more research is needed to come to definitive conclusions and specific recommendations regarding protein intake or intake of specific amino acids for maintaining optimal cognitive functioning. PMID:23990160

van de Rest, Ondine; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

2013-08-29

265

Cognitive and Psychological Factors Associated with Early Posttreatment Functional Outcomes in Breast Cancer Survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer survivors experience cognitive difficulties following chemotherapy, yet the effects of these deficits on functional outcomes have not been systematically evaluated. This study assessed the relationships between postchemotherapy cognitive difficulties and functional outcomes. Forty-six women with breast cancer were seen at 1-month postchemotherapy; data were collected on cognitive functioning, psychological variables, and physical symptoms. Wilcoxon signed-rank analyses revealed cognitive

Stephanie A. Reid-Arndt; Albert Yee; Michael C. Perry; Catherine Hsieh

2009-01-01

266

Association between Alcohol Intake and Domain-Specific Cognitive Function in Older Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moderate levels of alcohol intake may be associated with better cognitive function; however, this relationship may vary between cognitive domains. Women, aged 65–80 years, enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) randomized clinical trials of hormone therapy, underwent annual standardized testing for global cognitive function through the ancillary WHI Memory Study (average follow-up of 4.5 years) and domain-specific cognitive function

Mark A. Espeland; Laura H. Coker; Robert Wallace; Stephen R. Rapp; Susan M. Resnick; Marian Limacher; Lynda H. Powell; Catherine R. Messina

2006-01-01

267

Is Prospective Memory a Dissociable Cognitive Function in HIV infection?  

PubMed Central

An emerging literature indicates that HIV infection is associated with deficits in prospective memory (ProM), or the ability to execute a future intention. This literature offers evidence of neurobiological dissociability of ProM from other cognitive abilities and its incremental ecological validity as a predictor of poorer everyday functioning outcomes (e.g., medication non-adherence). The present study evaluated the hypothesis that ProM represents a unique cognitive construct in HIV disease. A confirmatory 4-factor structural equation model was tested on data derived from 162 participants with HIV. The model posited that measures of ProM comprise a unique factor, apart from standard clinical tests of retrospective memory, executive functions, and motor skills. The fit of the model was evaluated using the Bollen-Stine bootstrap method and indicated a 4-factor model with measures of ProM loading on a unique factor fit the data well, and better than a model with a single common factor hypothesized to drive cognitive performance. The results of this study lend further evidence to the dissociability of ProM in HIV infection, are consistent with prior studies in healthy adults, and contribute to a growing literature on the construct validity of ProM in HIV disease.

Gupta, Saurabh; Woods, Steven Paul; Weber, Erica; Dawson, Matthew S.; Grant, Igor

2010-01-01

268

Education is associated with higher later life IQ scores, but not with faster cognitive processing speed.  

PubMed

Recent reports suggest a causal relationship between education and IQ, which has implications for cognitive development and aging-education may improve cognitive reserve. In two longitudinal cohorts, we tested the association between education and lifetime cognitive change. We then tested whether education is linked to improved scores on processing-speed variables such as reaction time, which are associated with both IQ and longevity. Controlling for childhood IQ score, we found that education was positively associated with IQ at ages 79 (Sample 1) and 70 (Sample 2), and more strongly for participants with lower initial IQ scores. Education, however, showed no significant association with processing speed, measured at ages 83 and 70. Increased education may enhance important later life cognitive capacities, but does not appear to improve more fundamental aspects of cognitive processing. PMID:23276218

Ritchie, Stuart J; Bates, Timothy C; Der, Geoff; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

2012-12-31

269

Cognitive Function in Childhood and Lifetime Cognitive Change in Relation to Mental Wellbeing in Four Cohorts of Older People  

PubMed Central

Background Poorer cognitive ability in youth is a risk factor for later mental health problems but it is largely unknown whether cognitive ability, in youth or in later life, is predictive of mental wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cognitive ability at age 11 years, cognitive ability in later life, or lifetime cognitive change are associated with mental wellbeing in older people. Methods We used data on 8191 men and women aged 50 to 87 years from four cohorts in the HALCyon collaborative research programme into healthy ageing: the Aberdeen Birth Cohort 1936, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921, the National Child Development Survey, and the MRC National Survey for Health and Development. We used linear regression to examine associations between cognitive ability at age 11, cognitive ability in later life, and lifetime change in cognitive ability and mean score on the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale and meta-analysis to obtain an overall estimate of the effect of each. Results People whose cognitive ability at age 11 was a standard deviation above the mean scored 0.53 points higher on the mental wellbeing scale (95% confidence interval 0.36, 0.71). The equivalent value for cognitive ability in later life was 0.89 points (0.72, 1.07). A standard deviation improvement in cognitive ability in later life relative to childhood ability was associated with 0.66 points (0.39, 0.93) advantage in wellbeing score. These effect sizes equate to around 0.1 of a standard deviation in mental wellbeing score. Adjustment for potential confounding and mediating variables, primarily the personality trait neuroticism, substantially attenuated these associations. Conclusion Associations between cognitive ability in childhood or lifetime cognitive change and mental wellbeing in older people are slight and may be confounded by personality trait differences.

Gale, Catharine R.; Cooper, Rachel; Craig, Leone; Elliott, Jane; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus; Starr, John M.; Whalley, Lawrence J.; Deary, Ian J.

2012-01-01

270

Computerized Testing of Neurocognitive Function in Euthymic Bipolar Patients Compared to Those with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Cognitively Healthy Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: While neuropsychological impairment in bipolar disorder is well documented, the effect size of this impairment is rarely compared directly to that in other clinically familiar cognitive disorders. This study compares neuropsychological functioning of euthymic bipolar patients to those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as well as healthy controls. Methods: Following evaluation during regular follow-up in a mood disorders clinic,

Y. Osher; A. Dobron; R. H. Belmaker; Y. Bersudsky; T. Dwolatzky

2011-01-01

271

Alcohol Consumption and Domain-Specific Cognitive Function in Older Adults: Longitudinal Data From the Johns Hopkins Precursors Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The association of alcohol consumption with performance in different cognitive domains has not been well studied. Methods. The Johns Hopkins Precursors Study was used to examine associations between prospectively collected information about alcohol consumption ascertained on multiple occasions starting at age 55 years on average with domain-specific cognition at age 72 years. Cognitive variables measured phonemic and semantic fluency, attention, verbal memory, and global cognition. Results. Controlling for age, hypertension, smoking status, sex, and other cognitive variables, higher average weekly quantity and frequency of alcohol consumed in midlife were associated with lower phonemic fluency. There were no associations with four other measures of cognitive function. With respect to frequency of alcohol intake, phonemic fluency was significantly better among those who drank three to four alcoholic beverages per week as compared with daily or almost daily drinkers. A measure of global cognition was not associated with alcohol intake at any point over the follow-up. Discussion. Results suggest that higher alcohol consumption in midlife may impair some components of executive function in late life.

Rebok, George W.; Ford, Daniel E.; Chu, Audrey Y.; Gallo, Joseph J.; Liang, Kung-Yee; Meoni, Lucy A.; Shihab, Hasan M.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Klag, Michael J.

2011-01-01

272

Apolipoprotein C3 Polymorphisms, Cognitive Function and Diabetes in Caribbean Origin Hispanics  

PubMed Central

Background Apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) modulates triglyceride metabolism through inhibition of lipoprotein lipase, but is itself regulated by insulin, so that APOC3 represents a potential mechanism by which glucose metabolism may affect lipid metabolism. Unfavorable lipoprotein profiles and impaired glucose metabolism are linked to cognitive decline, and all three conditions may decrease lifespan. Associations between apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) gene polymorphisms and impaired lipid and glucose metabolism are well-established, but potential connections between APOC3 polymorphisms, cognitive decline and diabetes deserve further attention. Methods We examined whether APOC3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) m482 (rs2854117) and 3u386 (rs5128) were related to cognitive measures, whether the associations between cognitive differences and genotype were related to metabolic differences, and how diabetes status affected these associations. Study subjects were Hispanics of Caribbean origin (n?=?991, aged 45–74) living in the Boston metropolitan area. Results Cognitive and metabolic measures differed substantially by type II diabetes status. In multivariate regression models, APOC3 m482 AA subjects with diabetes exhibited lower executive function (P?=?0.009), Stroop color naming score (P?=?0.014) and Stroop color-word score (P?=?0.022) compared to AG/GG subjects. APOC3 m482 AA subjects with diabetes exhibited significantly higher glucose (P?=?0.032) and total cholesterol (P?=?0.028) compared to AG/GG subjects. APOC3 3u386 GC/GG subjects with diabetes exhibited significantly higher triglyceride (P?=?0.004), total cholesterol (P?=?0.003) and glucose (P?=?0.016) compared to CC subjects. Conclusions In summary, we identified significant associations between APOC3 polymorphisms, impaired cognition and metabolic dysregulation in Caribbean Hispanics with diabetes. Further research investigating these relationships in other populations is warranted.

Smith, Caren E.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Scott, Tammy M.; Van Rompay, Maria; Mattei, Josiemer; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Parnell, Laurence D.; Junyent, Mireia; Lee, Yu-Chi; Garcia-Bailo, Bibiana; Ordovas, Jose M.

2009-01-01

273

Dietary Phytoestrogen Intakes and Cognitive Function During the Menopause Transition: Results from the SWAN Phytoestrogen Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Phytoestrogens, which consist mainly of isoflavones, lignans and coumestans have estrogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Prior research suggests that higher dietary or supplemental intakes of isoflavones and lignans are related to better cognitive performance in middle aged and older women. Methods We conducted longitudinal analysis of dietary phytoestrogens and cognitive performance in a cohort of African-American, white, Chinese and Japanese women undergoing the menopause transition (MT). Tests were: Symbol Digit Modalities, East Boston Memory and Digits Span Backward. Phytoestrogens were assessed by Food Frequency Questionnaire. We modeled each cognitive score as a function of concurrent value of the primary predictors (highest tertile of isoflavones, lignans or coumestrol) and covariates including MT stage. Results Coumestrol and isoflavone intakes were 10 and 25 times greater, respectively, in Asian versus non-Asian participants. During late perimenopause and postmenopause, Asian women with high isoflavone intakes did better on processing speed, but during early perimenopause and postmenopause, high isoflavone Asian consumers performed worse on verbal memory. The highest isoflavone consumers among non-Asians likewise posted lower verbal memory scores during early perimenopause. A verbal memory benefit of higher dietary lignan consumption was apparent only during late perimenopause, when women from all ethnic/racial groups who were in the highest tertile of intake demonstrated a small advantage. Coumestrol was unrelated to cognitive performance. Conclusions Cognitive effects of dietary phytoestrogens are small, appear to be class-specific, vary by menopause stage and cognitive domain and differ among ethic/racial groups (but whether this is related to dose or to host factors cannot be discerned).

Greendale, Gail A.; Huang, Mei-Hua; Leung, Katherine; Crawford, Sybil L.; Gold, Ellen B.; Wight, Richard; Waetjen, Elaine; Karlamangla, Arun S.

2011-01-01

274

Brief Report: Feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Adults with High Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with…

Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Perry, Timothy D.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.; Penn, David L.

2008-01-01

275

Effects of traumatic stress and perceived stress on everyday cognitive functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stressful or traumatic events have been shown to impair cognitive functioning on laboratory-based tasks due to stress-related intrusive thoughts and avoidance. However, research on the effects of stress on everyday cognitive functioning has been lacking. A sample of 909 undergraduates completed measures of perceived stress, PTSD symptoms, and everyday cognitive failures. The results revealed that both perceived stress and PTSD

Adriel Boals; Jonathan B. Banks

2012-01-01

276

Regulation of MET by FOXP2, genes implicated in higher cognitive dysfunction and autism risk.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable, behaviorally defined, heterogeneous disorder of unknown pathogenesis. Several genetic risk genes have been identified, including the gene encoding the receptor tyrosine kinase MET, which regulates neuronal differentiation and growth. An ASD-associated polymorphism disrupts MET gene transcription, and there are reduced levels of MET protein expression in the mature temporal cortex of subjects with ASD. To address the possible neurodevelopmental contribution of MET to ASD pathogenesis, we examined the expression and transcriptional regulation of MET by a transcription factor, FOXP2, which is implicated in regulation of cognition and language, two functions altered in ASD. MET mRNA expression in the midgestation human fetal cerebral cortex is strikingly restricted, localized to portions of the temporal and occipital lobes. Within the cortical plate of the temporal lobe, the pattern of MET expression is highly complementary to the expression pattern of FOXP2, suggesting the latter may play a role in repression of gene expression. Consistent with this, MET and FOXP2 also are reciprocally expressed by differentiating normal human neuronal progenitor cells (NHNPs) in vitro, leading us to assess whether FOXP2 transcriptionally regulates MET. Indeed, FOXP2 binds directly to the 5' regulatory region of MET, and overexpression of FOXP2 results in transcriptional repression of MET. The expression of MET in restricted human neocortical regions, and its regulation in part by FOXP2, is consistent with genetic evidence for MET contributing to ASD risk. PMID:21832174

Mukamel, Zohar; Konopka, Genevieve; Wexler, Eric; Osborn, Gregory E; Dong, Hongmei; Bergman, Mica Y; Levitt, Pat; Geschwind, Daniel H

2011-08-10

277

Better memory functioning associated with higher total and LDL cholesterol levels in very elderly subjects without the APOE4 allele  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association of cholesterol with cognitive functioning in oldest old community dwelling individuals with and without the APOE4 allele. Method 185 non-demented community dwelling individuals (? 85) were assessed with a broad neuropsychological battery. Bloods were drawn to assess total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol, as well as for APOE genotyping. Results In contrast to our expectations, high total cholesterol and high LDL cholesterol were associated with higher memory scores for non-carriers of the APOE4 allele. No significant associations between cognitive performance and lipid profile were found for carriers of the APOE4 allele. Conclusions In oldest old non-demented non-carriers of the APOE4 allele, high cholesterol is associated with better memory function. Further examination of the role of APOE genotype on the association between cholesterol and cognitive performance, especially in the oldest old, is warranted.

West, Rebecca; Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Schmeidler, James; Hannigan, Christine M.; Angelo, Gary; Grossman, Hillel T.; Rosendorff, Clive; Silverman, Jeremy M.

2008-01-01

278

Development of Knowledge Frameworks and Higher Order Cognitive Operations among Secondary School Students Who Studied a Unit on Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews 9th and 10th grade students (n=13) who studied an ecology unit and analyzed tape-recorded data for changes in organization of knowledge, represented by ideational networks and the development of higher cognitive operations. Provides insights into how students developed knowledge schemata, ideational networks, and the capacity to express…

Bischoff, Paul J.; Anderson, O. Roger

2001-01-01

279

Does Domain Knowledge Moderate Involvement of Working Memory Capacity in Higher-Level Cognition? A Test of Three Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research suggests that both working memory capacity and domain knowledge contribute to individual differences in higher-level cognition. This study evaluated three hypotheses concerning the interplay between these factors. The compensation hypothesis predicts that domain knowledge attenuates the influence of working memory capacity on…

Hambrick, D.Z.; Oswald, F.L.

2005-01-01

280

Cooperative Weblog Learning in Higher Education: Its Facilitating Effects on Social Interaction, Time Lag, and Cognitive Load  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the effects of using weblog technologies to support cooperative learning in higher education. The study focused on the effects of features embedded in weblogs on social interactions, time lags, and cognitive loads. A quasi-experimental control-group research design was adopted. The participants were 115 undergraduates who were…

Huang, Tien-Chi; Huang, Yueh-Min; Yu, Fu-Yun

2011-01-01

281

The influence of affect on higher level cognition: A review of research on interpretation, judgement, decision making and reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine whether affect influences higher level cognitive processes. We review research on the effect of emotion on interpretation, judgement, decision making, and reasoning. In all cases, we ask first whether there is evidence that emotion affects each of these processes, and second what mechanisms might underlie these effects. Our review highlights the fact that interpretive biases

Isabelle Blanchette; Anne Richards

2010-01-01

282

Haptoglobin 1-1 genotype is associated with poorer cognitive functioning in the elderly with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE Haptoglobin (Hp) genotype (Hp 1-1, 1-2, or 2-2) is associated with risk for type 2 diabetes complications, but its relationship with cognitive compromise, a growing concern in type 2 diabetes, has rarely been studied. This study investigated whether Hp genotype is associated with cognitive function in cognitively normal elderly diabetic subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Relationships of Hp genotype with episodic memory, semantic categorization, attention/working memory and executive function, and an overall cognitive score were examined in subjects from the Israel Diabetes and Cognitive Decline (IDCD) study. RESULTS In the present analysis, 812 subjects participated (84 with Hp 1-1, 335 with Hp 1-2, and 393 with Hp 2-2 genotypes). Average was 72.9 years of age (SD 4.7), and Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) was 28.0 (SD 1.8). Compared with subjects with Hp 1-2 genotype, Hp 1-1 subjects performed significantly worse in semantic categorization (F = 7.03; P = 0.008) and the overall cognitive score (F = 5.57; P = 0.02). A separate stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that compared with subjects with Hp 2-2 genotype, Hp 1-1 subjects performed significantly worse in semantic categorization (F = 4.18; P = 0.04) and the overall cognitive score (F = 4.70; P = 0.03). The contribution of cardiovascular risk factors to cognition was significantly higher in subjects with Hp 1-1 genotype compared with Hp 2 carriers (Hp 1-2 and Hp 2-2) in the semantic categorization (P = 0.009) and attention/working memory (P = 0.002) cognitive domains. CONCLUSIONS Compared with Hp 2 carriers, those with Hp 1-1 genotype present lower cognitive performance. Stronger relationships between cardiovascular risk factors and cognition in the latter group may suggest an underlying vascular mechanism. PMID:23990521

Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Heymann, Anthony; Schmeidler, James; Guerrero-Berroa, Elizabeth; Sano, Mary; Preiss, Rachel; Koifman, Keren; Hoffman, Hadas; Levy, Andrew; Silverman, Jeremy M; Schnaider-Beeri, Michal

2013-08-29

283

Social cognition and social functioning in nonclinical paranoia.  

PubMed

Introduction. Persons with nonclinical paranoia show many of the same biases as those with clinical paranoia, suggesting that paranoia exists on a continuum. However, little is known about the various social cognitive processes found in paranoia and how these relate to social functioning and social behaviours in general. This study will examine performance on emotion perception and attributional style measures and their relationship to social functioning, social problem solving, and social skill. A key element in this study will be the incorporation of ambiguity in the perception of emotional expressions and the assignment of attributional blame, which appears to be an important, yet neglected, construct in paranoia. Methods. Twenty-six persons with high levels of nonclinical paranoia and 31 persons with low levels of paranoia completed measures of emotion perception, attributional style, social functioning, and social problem solving. Salient and subtle emotional expressions were used to examine how ambiguity impacts emotion perception in paranoia. Results. The group high in nonclinical paranoia showed reduced accuracy for subtle negative emotional expressions and showed more perceived hostility and blame for ambiguous social situations as compared to the group low in nonclinical paranoia. Also, the high nonclinical paranoia group reported less social engagement, fewer social contacts, and more problems in social perception and social skill than the group low in nonclinical paranoia. Conclusion. Social cognitive and social functioning biases are found in persons with high levels of nonclinical paranoia. Possible mechanisms of these biases and relevance for treatment approaches are discussed. PMID:23445398

Combs, Dennis R; Finn, Jacob A; Wohlfahrt, Whitney; Penn, David L; Basso, Michael R

2013-02-27

284

Executive Functioning as a Potential Mediator of Age-Related Cognitive Decline in Normal Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical requirements for the hypothesis that executive functioning is a potential mediator of age-related effects on cognitive functioning are that variables assumed to reflect executive functioning represent a distinct construct and that age-related effects on other types of cognitive functioning are reduced when measures of executive functioning are statistically controlled. These issues were investigated in a study involving 261 adults

Timothy A. Salthouse; Thomas M. Atkinson; Diane E. Berish

2003-01-01

285

Cognitive Functioning in 8- to 18-Month-Old Drug-Exposed Infants  

PubMed Central

This study examined the cognitive functioning in 236 infants at 8 and 18 months of age. Thirty-seven infants were heavily exposed to cocaine in-utero, 30 were lightly exposed, and 169 were not exposed to cocaine. Cognitive functioning was evaluated with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (2nd ed.; N. Bayley, 1993) at both ages. Infant information processing was also assessed with an infant-controlled habituation procedure. Results indicated that (a) infants of cocaine-abusing women had higher neonatal medical and environmental risk scores; (b) at 8 months, exposure groups did not differ in Psychomotor Development Index, Mental Development Index (MDI) scores, or recovery to a novel stimulus; and (c) infants heavily exposed to cocaine or high environmental risk had a decrease in MDI scores from 8 to 18 months. These results were obtained when neonatal medical and environmental risk, as well as polydrug exposure, were controlled.

Alessandri, Steven M.; Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael

2006-01-01

286

Social cognitive impairments and negative symptoms in schizophrenia: are there subtypes with distinct functional correlates?  

PubMed

Social cognitive impairments and negative symptoms are core features of schizophrenia closely associated with impaired community functioning. However, little is known about whether these are independent dimensions of illness and if so, whether individuals with schizophrenia can be meaningfully classified based on these dimensions (SANS) and potentially differentially treated. Five social cognitive measures plus Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores in a sample of 77 outpatients produced 2 distinct factors--a social cognitive factor and a negative symptom factor. Factor scores were used in a cluster analysis, which yielded 3 well-defined groupings--a high negative symptom group (HN) and 2 low negative symptom groups, 1 with higher social cognition (HSC) and 1 with low social cognition (LSC). To make these findings more practicable for research and clinical settings, a rule of thumb for categorizing using only the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test and PANSS negative component was created and produced 84.4% agreement with the original cluster groups. An additional 63 subjects were added to cross validate the rule of thumb. When samples were combined (N = 140), the HSC group had significantly better quality of life and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores, higher rates of marriage and more hospitalizations. The LSC group had worse criminal and substance abuse histories. With 2 common assessment instruments, people with schizophrenia can be classified into 3 subgroups that have different barriers to community integration and could potentially benefit from different treatments. PMID:21976710

Bell, Morris D; Corbera, Silvia; Johannesen, Jason K; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Wexler, Bruce E

2011-10-05

287

Cognitive and Psychological Factors Associated with Early Post-Treatment Functional Outcomes in Breast Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer survivors experience cognitive difficulties following chemotherapy, yet the effects of these deficits on functional outcomes have not been systematically evaluated. This study assessed the relationships between post-chemotherapy cognitive difficulties and functional outcomes. Forty-six women with breast cancer were seen at 1-month post-chemotherapy; data were collected on cognitive functioning, psychological variables, and physical symptoms. Wilcoxon Signed Rank analyses revealed cognitive deficits in executive functioning and verbal fluency. Subsequent regression analyses demonstrated that poorer executive functioning was associated with decreased productivity, community involvement, and social role functioning. Poorer quality of life was predicted by depression and reluctance to seek social support, but not cognitive functioning. These findings indicate that executive functioning deficits are associated with important functional outcomes among breast cancer survivors 1-month post-chemotherapy. Thus, treatment efforts should focus on addressing cognitive, as well as psychological and physical, issues among cancer survivors.

Reid-Arndt, Stephanie A.; Yee, Albert; Perry, Michael C.; Hsieh, Catherine

2009-01-01

288

Metabolic Syndrome and Cognitive Function in Healthy Middle-Aged and Older Adults without Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Few studies have addressed whether the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components are associated with cognitive function in middle-aged and older populations, as well as whether specific areas of cognition are more affected than others. We examined the cross-sectional association between MetS and six areas of cognitive function in healthy cognitively intact adults without diabetes (n?=?853, mean age

Nicole M. Gatto; Victor W. Henderson; Jan A. St. John; Carol McCleary; Howard N. Hodis; Wendy J. Mack

2008-01-01

289

Ginkgo biloba does not improve cognitive function in MS  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether Ginkgo biloba extract (ginkgo) improves cognitive function in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Persons with MS from the Seattle and Portland VA clinics and adjacent communities who scored 1 SD or more below the mean on one of 4 neuropsychological tests (Stroop Test, California Verbal Learning Test II [CVLT-II], Controlled Oral Word Association Test [COWAT], and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task [PASAT]) were randomly assigned to receive either one 120-mg tablet of ginkgo (EGb-761; Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co, Germany) or one placebo tablet twice a day for 12 weeks. As the primary outcome, we compared the performance of the 2 groups on the 4 tests at exit after adjusting for baseline performance. Results: Fifty-nine subjects received placebo and 61 received ginkgo; 1 participant receiving placebo and 3 receiving ginkgo were lost to follow-up. Two serious adverse events (AEs) (myocardial infarction and severe depression) believed to be unrelated to the treatment occurred in the ginkgo group; otherwise, there were no significant differences in AEs. The differences (ginkgo ? placebo) at exit in the z scores for the cognitive tests were as follows: PASAT ?0.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] ?0.5 to 0.1); Stroop Test ?0.5 (95% CI ?0.9 to ?0.1); COWAT 0.0 (95% CI ?0.2 to 0.3); and CVLT-II 0.0 (95% CI ?0.3 to 0.3); none was statistically significant. Conclusions: Treatment with ginkgo 120 mg twice a day did not improve cognitive performance in persons with MS. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that treatment with ginkgo 120 mg twice a day for 12 weeks does not improve cognitive performance in people with MS.

Kim, Edward; Heriza, Elizabeth; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Hunziker, James; Turner, Aaron P.; Adams, Joshua; Stover, Thomas; Sangeorzan, Adam; Sloan, Alicia; Howieson, Diane; Wild, Katherine; Haselkorn, Jodie; Bourdette, Dennis

2012-01-01

290

Cognitive functioning and school performance in children with renal failure.  

PubMed

Although previous studies have documented neuropsychological deficits in children with end-stage renal disease, few have evaluated and compared the cognitive functioning and the school performance of children with renal failure. The current study evaluated the influence of chronic renal failure on cognitive functioning and school performance in children and adolescents with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis and after renal transplantation. Participants were given standardized IQ and achievement tests to assess cognitive functioning and ability. Academic performance was determined by evaluating grades for the semester in which the testing was performed; a grade point average (GPA) was calculated based on a 4.0-point scale. The 11 dialysis patients and 13 transplant patients were comparable in age, race, sex, and socioeconomic status. Overall IQ and subtest scores demonstrated no differences between the two groups. Performance on the Woodcock-Johnson achievement tests showed that the transplant patients did better on achievement tests of written language (P = 0.04) and in school performance in English compared with dialysis patients (P < 0.05). Furthermore the dialysis patients tended to be below age and grade level in all areas, whereas the transplant patients were achieving at or above these levels. There were significant differences in the age equivalent scores between the dialysis and transplant patients in the areas of mathematics and written language (P < 0.05). However, when grades were evaluated there were no differences in overall GPA or in the mathematics GPA. Days absent were not different between the two groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7917859

Lawry, K W; Brouhard, B H; Cunningham, R J

1994-06-01

291

Cognitive function affects trainability for physical performance in exercise intervention among older adults with mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Although much evidence supports the hypothesis that cognitive function and physical function are interrelated, it is unclear whether cognitive decline with mild cognitive impairment influences trainability of physical performance in exercise intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between cognitive function at baseline and change in physical performance after exercise intervention in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Methods Forty-four older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment based on the Peterson criteria (mean age 74.8 years) consented to and completed a 6-month twice weekly exercise intervention. The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was used as a measure of physical performance. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Trail Making Test Part B, Geriatric Depression Scale, baseline muscle strength of knee extension, and attendance rate of intervention, were measured as factors for predicting trainability. Results In the correlation analysis, the change in TUG showed modest correlations with attendance rate in the exercise program (r = ?0.354, P = 0.027) and MMSE at baseline (r = ?0.321, P = 0.034). A multiple regression analysis revealed that change in TUG was independently associated with attendance rate (? = ?0.322, P = 0.026) and MMSE score (? = ?0.295, P = 0.041), controlling for age and gender. Conclusion General cognitive function was associated with improvements in physical performance after exercise intervention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Further research is needed to examine the effects of exercise programs designed to address cognitive obstacles in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

Uemura, Kazuki; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Anan, Yuya; Suzuki, Takao

2013-01-01

292

Moving to higher ground: The dynamic field theory and the dynamics of visual cognition  

PubMed Central

In the present report, we describe a new dynamic field theory that captures the dynamics of visuo-spatial cognition. This theory grew out of the dynamic systems approach to motor control and development, and is grounded in neural principles. The initial application of dynamic field theory to issues in visuo-spatial cognition extended concepts of the motor approach to decision making in a sensori-motor context, and, more recently, to the dynamics of spatial cognition. Here we extend these concepts still further to address topics in visual cognition, including visual working memory for non-spatial object properties, the processes that underlie change detection, and the ‘binding problem’ in vision. In each case, we demonstrate that the general principles of the dynamic field approach can unify findings in the literature and generate novel predictions. We contend that the application of these concepts to visual cognition avoids the pitfalls of reductionist approaches in cognitive science, and points toward a formal integration of brains, bodies, and behavior.

Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Spencer, John P.; Schoner, Gregor

2009-01-01

293

Regional cortical volume and cognitive functioning following traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

There has been limited examination of the effect of brain pathology on subsequent function. The current study examined the relationships between regional variation in grey matter volume, age and cognitive impairment using a semi-automated image analysis tool. This study included 69 individuals with mild-to-severe TBI, 41 of whom also completed neuropsychological tests of attention, working memory, processing speed, memory and executive functions. A widespread reduction in grey matter volume was associated with increasing age. Regional volumes that were affected also related to the severity of injury, whereby the most severe TBI participants displayed the most significant pathology. Poorer retention of newly learned material was associated with reduced cortical volume in frontal, parietal, and occipital brain regions. In addition, poorer working memory and executive control performance was found for individuals with lower cortical volume in temporal, parietal, and occipital regions. These findings are largely in line with previous literature, which suggests that frontal, temporal, and parietal regions are integral for the encoding of memories into long-term storage, memory retrieval, and working memory. The present study suggests that automated image analysis methods may be used to explore the relationships between regional variation in grey matter volume and cognitive function following TBI. PMID:23872098

Spitz, Gershon; Bigler, Erin D; Abildskov, Tracy; Maller, Jerome J; O'Sullivan, Richard; Ponsford, Jennie L

2013-07-18

294

What's Cooking? - Cognitive Training of Executive Function in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Executive function involves the efficient and adaptive engagement of the control processes of updating, shifting, and inhibition (Miyake, 2000) to guide behavior toward a goal. It is associated with decrements in many other cognitive functions due to aging (West, 1996; Raz, 2000) with itself particularly vulnerable to the effect of aging (Treitz et al., 2007). Cognitive training in the form of structural experience with executive coordination demands exhibited effective enhancement in the elderly (Hertzog et al., 2008). The current study was thus aimed at the development and evaluation of a training regime for executive function in the elderly. The breakfast cooking task of Craik and Bialystok (2006) was adapted into a multitasking training task in a session (pre-test vs. post-test) by group (control vs. training). In the training condition, participants constantly switched, updated, and planned in order to control the cooking of several foods and concurrently performed a table setting secondary task. Training gains were exhibited on task related measures. Transfer effect was selectively observed on the letter–number sequencing and digit symbol coding test. The cooking training produced short term increase in the efficiency of executive control processing. These effects were interpreted in terms of the process overlap between the training and the transfer tasks.

Wang, Man-Ying; Chang, Chien-Yu; Su, Shou-Yi

2011-01-01

295

Effect of a human-type communication robot on cognitive function in elderly women living alone  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Considering the high prevalence of dementia, it would be of great value to develop effective tools to improve cognitive function. We examined the effects of a human-type communication robot on cognitive function in elderly women living alone. Material/Methods In this study, 34 healthy elderly female volunteers living alone were randomized to living with either a communication robot or a control robot at home for 8 weeks. The shape, voice, and motion features of the communication robot resemble those of a 3-year-old boy, while the control robot was not designed to talk or nod. Before living with the robot and 4 and 8 weeks after living with the robot, experiments were conducted to evaluate a variety of cognitive functions as well as saliva cortisol, sleep, and subjective fatigue, motivation, and healing. Results The Mini-Mental State Examination score, judgement, and verbal memory function were improved after living with the communication robot; those functions were not altered with the control robot. In addition, the saliva cortisol level was decreased, nocturnal sleeping hours tended to increase, and difficulty in maintaining sleep tended to decrease with the communication robot, although alterations were not shown with the control. The proportions of the participants in whom effects on attenuation of fatigue, enhancement of motivation, and healing could be recognized were higher in the communication robot group relative to the control group. Conclusions This study demonstrates that living with a human-type communication robot may be effective for improving cognitive functions in elderly women living alone.

Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Yamano, Emi; Ogikubo, Hiroki; Okazaki, Masatsugu; Kamimura, Kazuro; Konishi, Yasuharu; Emoto, Shigeru; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

2012-01-01

296

Continuous activation of renin-angiotensin system impairs cognitive function in renin/angiotensinogen transgenic mice.  

PubMed

We examined the possibility that continuous activation of the human brain renin-angiotensin system causes cognitive impairment, using human renin (hRN) and human angiotensinogen (hANG) gene chimeric transgenic (Tg) mice. Cognitive function was evaluated by the shuttle avoidance test once a week from 10 to 20 weeks of age. The avoidance rate in wild-type mice gradually increased. In contrast, the avoidance rate in chimeric hRN/hANG-Tg mice also increased; however, no further increase in avoidance rate was observed from 14 weeks of age, and it decreased thereafter. Cerebral surface blood flow was markedly reduced in 20-week-old hRN/hANG-Tg mice. Superoxide anion production in the brain was already higher in 10-week-old hRN/hANG-Tg mice and further increased thereafter with an increase in NADPH oxidase activity. Moreover, expression of p47(phox) and Nox4 in the brain of hRN/hANG-Tg mice also increased. Administration of an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, olmesartan (5.0 mg/kg per day), attenuated the increase in blood pressure and ameliorated cognitive decline with enhancement of cerebral surface blood flow and a reduction of oxidative stress in hRN/hANG-Tg mice. On the other hand, hydralazine (0.5 mg/kg per day) did not improve the decrease in avoidance rate, and did not influence cerebral surface blood flow or oxidative stress in hRN/hANG-Tg mice, in spite of a similar reduction of blood pressure to that by olmesartan. Moreover, we observed that treatment with Tempol improved impaired cognitive function in hRN/hANG-Tg mice. These results suggest that continuous activation of the brain renin-angiotensin system impairs cognitive function via stimulation of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor with a decrease in cerebral surface blood flow and an increase in oxidative stress. PMID:19047580

Inaba, Shinji; Iwai, Masaru; Furuno, Megumi; Tomono, Yumiko; Kanno, Harumi; Senba, Izumi; Okayama, Hideki; Mogi, Masaki; Higaki, Jitsuo; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

2008-12-01

297

Cognitive function during early abstinence from opioid dependence: a comparison to age, gender, and verbal intelligence matched controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Individuals with opioid dependence have cognitive deficits during abuse period in attention, working memory, episodic memory, and executive function. After protracted abstinence consistent cognitive deficit has been found only in executive function. However, few studies have explored cognitive function during first weeks of abstinence. The purpose of this study was to study cognitive function of individuals with opioid dependence

Pekka Rapeli; Reetta Kivisaari; Taina Autti; Seppo Kähkönen; Varpu Puuskari; Olga Jokela; Hely Kalska

2006-01-01

298

Higher twist parton distributions from light-cone wave functions  

SciTech Connect

We explore the possibility to construct higher-twist parton distributions in a nucleon at some low reference scale from convolution integrals of the light-cone wave functions (WFs). To this end we introduce simple models for the four-particle nucleon WFs involving three valence quarks and a gluon with total orbital momentum zero, and estimate their normalization (WF at the origin) using QCD sum rules. We demonstrate that these WFs provide one with a reasonable description of both polarized and unpolarized parton densities at large values of the Bjorken variable x{>=}0.5. Twist-three parton distributions are then constructed as convolution integrals of qqqg and the usual three-quark WFs. The cases of the polarized structure function g{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}) and single transverse spin asymmetries are considered in detail. We find that the so-called gluon pole contribution to twist-three distributions relevant for single spin asymmetry vanishes in this model, but is generated perturbatively at higher scales by the evolution, in the spirit of Glueck-Reya-Vogt parton distributions.

Braun, V. M.; Lautenschlager, T.; Pirnay, B. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Manashov, A. N. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Department of Theoretical Physics, St. Petersburg State University 199034, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2011-05-01

299

Higher twist parton distributions from light-cone wave functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the possibility to construct higher-twist parton distributions in a nucleon at some low reference scale from convolution integrals of the light-cone wave functions (WFs). To this end we introduce simple models for the four-particle nucleon WFs involving three valence quarks and a gluon with total orbital momentum zero, and estimate their normalization (WF at the origin) using QCD sum rules. We demonstrate that these WFs provide one with a reasonable description of both polarized and unpolarized parton densities at large values of the Bjorken variable x?0.5. Twist-three parton distributions are then constructed as convolution integrals of qqqg and the usual three-quark WFs. The cases of the polarized structure function g2(x,Q2) and single transverse spin asymmetries are considered in detail. We find that the so-called gluon pole contribution to twist-three distributions relevant for single spin asymmetry vanishes in this model, but is generated perturbatively at higher scales by the evolution, in the spirit of Glück-Reya-Vogt parton distributions.

Braun, V. M.; Lautenschlager, T.; Manashov, A. N.; Pirnay, B.

2011-05-01

300

Retinal Microvascular Abnormalities and Cognitive Function in Latino Adults in Los Angeles  

PubMed Central

Purpose Retinal vessels may provide a readily accessible surrogate approach to study vascular disease in brain small vessels. Previous epidemiologic studies of retinal microvascular abnormalities and cognition have not included large numbers of Latinos who have a high prevalence of diabetes and hypertension. Methods We used data from 809 elderly Latino participants in the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) to assess whether retinal vessel caliber and microvascular abnormalities are cross-sectionally associated with lower cognitive function. Cognitive screening was conducted with the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument-Short form (CASI-S) and in-depth testing with the Spanish English Neuropsychological Assessment Scales (SENAS). Retinal photographs were used to identify retinopathy signs and measure retinal vessel caliber. Results A total of 65.8% had high blood pressure, 34.5% had diabetes; self-reported diagnoses of heart attack, heart failure, angina and stroke were rare. Retinal calibers and any retinopathy were not associated with the CASI-S, total SENAS or any SENAS cognitive factors assessed as continuous variables. The odds of a low CASI-S score were two times higher in subjects with generalized arteriolar narrowing (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.14, 3.66), and one and half times as high in those with both generalized arteriolar narrowing and retinopathy signs (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 0.47, 4.75) though this result was based on only four cases with both risk factors and confidence limits were wide and included the null. Conclusion Retinal microvasculature imaging may provide insights into small blood vessel influences on cognition in Latino populations. Additional studies in diverse populations and prospective settings are needed.

Gatto, Nicole M.; Varma, Rohit; Torres, Mina; Wong, Tien Y.; Johnson, Pam L.; Segal-Gidan, Freddi; Mack, Wendy J.

2013-01-01

301

Gait and risk of falls associated with frontal cognitive functions at different stages of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The decline in frontal cognitive functions contributes to alterations of gait and increases the risk of falls in patients with dementia, a category which included Alzheimer's disease (AD). The objective of the present study was to compare the gait parameters and the risk of falls among patients at different stages of AD, and to relate these variables with cognitive functions. This is a cross-sectional study with 23 patients with mild and moderate AD. The Clinical Dementia Rating was used to classify the dementia severity. The kinematic parameters of gait (cadence, stride length, and stride speed) were analyzed under two conditions: (a) single task (free gait) and (b) dual task (walking and counting down). The risk of falls was evaluated using the Timed Up-and-Go test. The frontal cognitive functions were evaluated using the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) and the Symbol Search Subtest. The patients who were at the moderate stage suffered reduced performance in their stride length and stride speed in the single task and had made more counting errors in the dual task and still had a higher fall risk. Both the mild and the moderate patients exhibited significant decreases in stride length, stride speed and cadence in the dual task. Was detected a significant correlation between CDT, FAB, and stride speed in the dual task condition. We also found a significant correlation between subtest Similarities, FAB and cadence in the dual task condition. The dual task produced changes in the kinematic parameters of gait for the mild and moderate AD patients and the gait alterations are related to frontal cognitive functions, particularly executive functions. PMID:22360785

Coelho, Flávia Gomes de Melo; Stella, Florindo; de Andrade, Larissa Pires; Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira; Gobbi, Sebastião; Costa, José Luiz Riani; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken

2012-02-23

302

Conceptual DFT: the chemical relevance of higher response functions.  

PubMed

In recent years conceptual density functional theory offered a perspective for the interpretation/prediction of experimental/theoretical reactivity data on the basis of a series of response functions to perturbations in the number of electrons and/or external potential. This approach has enabled the sharp definition and computation, from first principles, of a series of well-known but sometimes vaguely defined chemical concepts such as electronegativity and hardness. In this contribution, a short overview of the shortcomings of the simplest, first order response functions is illustrated leading to a description of chemical bonding in a covalent interaction in terms of interacting atoms or groups, governed by electrostatics with the tendency to polarize bonds on the basis of electronegativity differences. The second order approach, well known until now, introduces the hardness/softness and Fukui function concepts related to polarizability and frontier MO theory, respectively. The introduction of polarizability/softness is also considered in a historical perspective in which polarizability was, with some exceptions, mainly put forward in non covalent interactions. A particular series of response functions, arising when the changes in the external potential are solely provoked by changes in nuclear configurations (the "R-analogues") are also systematically considered. The main part of the contribution is devoted to third order response functions which, at first sight, may be expected not to yield chemically significant information, as turns out to be for the hyperhardness. A counterexample is the dual descriptor and its R analogue, the initial hardness response, which turns out to yield a firm basis to regain the Woodward-Hoffmann rules for pericyclic reactions based on a density-only basis, i.e. without involving the phase, sign, symmetry of the wavefunction. Even the second order nonlinear response functions are shown possibly to bear interesting information, e.g. on the local and global polarizability. Its derivatives may govern the influence of charge on the polarizability, the R-analogues being the nuclear Fukui function and the quadratic and cubic force constants. Although some of the higher order derivatives may be difficult to evaluate a comparison with the energy expansion used in spectroscopy in terms of nuclear displacements, nuclear magnetic moments, electric and magnetic fields leads to the conjecture that, certainly cross terms may contain new, intricate information for understanding chemical reactivity. PMID:18688366

Geerlings, P; De Proft, F

2008-03-13

303

Functional topography of the cerebellum for motor and cognitive tasks: an fMRI study.  

PubMed

Anatomical, clinical and imaging findings suggest that the cerebellum is engaged in cognitive and affective functions as well as motor control. Evidence from converging modalities also indicates that there is a functional topography in the human cerebellum for overt control of movement vs. higher functions, such that the cerebellum can be divided into zones depending on connectivity with sensorimotor vs. multimodal association cortices. Using functional MRI, we show that regions active during overt movement differ from those involved in higher-level language, spatial processing and working memory tasks. Nine healthy participants each completed five tasks in order to determine the relative activation patterns for the different paradigms. Right-handed finger-tapping activated right cerebellar lobules IV-V and VIII, consistent with descriptions of the cerebellar homunculi. Verb generation engaged right cerebellar lobules VI-Crus I and a second cluster in lobules VIIB-VIIIA. Mental rotation activation peaks were localized to medial left cerebellar lobule VII (Crus II). A 2-back working memory task activated bilateral regions of lobules VI-VII. Viewing arousing vs. neutral images did not reliably activate the cerebellum or cerebral limbic areas in this study. The cerebellar functional topography identified in this study reflects the involvement of different cerebro-cerebellar circuits depending on the demands of the task being performed: overt movement activated sensorimotor cortices along with contralateral cerebellar lobules IV-V and VIII, whereas more cognitively demanding tasks engaged prefrontal and parietal cortices along with cerebellar lobules VI and VII. These findings provide further support for a cerebellar role in both motor and cognitive tasks, and better establish the existence of functional subregions in the cerebellum. Future studies are needed to determine the exact contribution of the cerebellum - and different cerebro-cerebellar circuits - to task performance. PMID:21907811

Stoodley, Catherine J; Valera, Eve M; Schmahmann, Jeremy D

2011-08-31

304

Functional Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy: A Brief, Individual Treatment for Functional Impairments Resulting From Psychotic Symptoms in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel cognitive-behavioural approach to treating psychotic symptoms—functional cognitive-behavioural therapy (FCBT)—which was developed with the primary aim of remediating social functioning deficits in patients with residual psychotic symptoms. In FCBT, symptom-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions are delivered in the context of working on functional goals: a premise of FCBT is that the therapeutic alliance and patient motivation

Corinne Cather

2005-01-01

305

Aerobic fitness and cognitive function in midlife: an association mediated by plasma insulin.  

PubMed

Insulin resistance in midlife increases the risk of dementia in late-life. In contrast, habitual aerobic exercise is an established strategy to ameliorate insulin resistance which may translate into better cognitive outcome. To determine the role of plasma insulin in mediating the relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function, fifty-eight adults completed assessments of plasma insulin levels, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), and neuropsychological test performance. Endurance-trained subjects demonstrated better cognitive outcome (total composite z-score: 0.21?±?0.08 versus -0.26?±?0.10, P?=?0.001) and lower concentrations of plasma insulin (12.6?±?0.6 versus 21.3?±?1.5 ulU/mL, P?higher memory performance (??=?0.37, P?=?0.01) and lower plasma insulin levels (??=?-0.68, P?cognitive enhancement may be mediated, at least in part, by plasma insulin levels. PMID:24000071

Tarumi, Takashi; Gonzales, Mitzi M; Fallow, Bennett; Nualnim, Nantinee; Lee, Jeongseok; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P

2013-09-03

306

Age-related effects of blood pressure on everyday cognitive function in community-dwelling women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Blood pressure is an indicator of vascular health that has been associated with cognition and quality of life in older age. Few studies have examined blood pressure across everyday cognitive tasks, which may have superior predictive functional utility than traditional cognitive measures. We explored blood pressure as a predictor of everyday problem solving (EPS) performance in middle-aged and older

Sophie E. Yeung; Wendy Loken Thornton

2011-01-01

307

The Relationship between Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Type 2 Diabetes, and Cognitive Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review integrates findings of published studies that have evaluated the cognitive function of treated and untreated type 2 diabetic patients and provides a detailed overview of the neuropsychological assessments conducted. Cognitive deficits are observed in older people with glucose intolerance or untreated diabetes but these deficits appear to be attenuated by treatments that improve glycemic control. Cognitive decrements

Nesrine Awad; Michèle Gagnon; Claude Messier

2004-01-01

308

Functional Status and Clinical Correlates in Cognitively Impaired Community-Living Older People  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the prevalence of cognitive impairment in a population of community-living older people, its associa tion with functional decline, and degree of comorbidity. In addition, we examined the relationship between different levels of cognitive impairment and mortality. We conducted an observational study of 1787 patients aged 65 years and above with any degree of cognitive impairment. Patient data were

Francesco Landi; Graziano Onder; Caterina Cattel; Giovanni Gambassi; Fabrizia Lattanzio; Matteo Cesari; Andrea Russo; Roberto Bernabei

2001-01-01

309

The longitudinal relationship of clinical symptoms, cognitive functioning, and adaptive life in geriatric schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive dysfunction is increasingly being recognized as a major contributor to the adaptive impairment seen in most patients with schizophrenia. Reported here is a prospective longitudinal evaluation of the relationship between cognitive and adaptive functioning in elderly patients with schizophrenia. It was hypothesized that baseline cognitive and negative, but not positive symptoms, would be predictive of cross-sectional impairment and longitudinal

Susan R McGurk; Patrick J Moriarty; Philip D Harvey; Michael Parrella; Leonard White; Kenneth L Davis

2000-01-01

310

Cognitive Accuracy and Intelligent Executive Function in the Brain and in Business  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews research on cognition, language, orga- nizational culture, brain, behavior, and evolution to posit the value of operating with a stable reference point based on cognitive accuracy and a rational bias. Drawing on rational-emotive behavioral science, social neuroscience, and cognitive organizational science on the one hand and a general model of brain and frontal lobe executive function on

CHARLES E. BAILEY

2007-01-01

311

Blood lead levels in relation to cognitive function in older U.S. adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies suggest that cumulative exposure to lead, as measured in the bone, is associated with accelerated cognitive decline at older age. It is presently unclear, however, whether current blood lead levels (BLLs) are adversely related to cognitive functioning in older adults. We evaluated BLLs in relation to cognition in the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The current

Edwin van Wijngaarden; Paul C. Winters; Deborah A. Cory-Slechta

2011-01-01

312

Childhood trauma and cognitive function in first-episode affective and non-affective psychosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA history of childhood trauma is reportedly more prevalent in people suffering from psychosis than in the general population. Childhood trauma has also been linked to cognitive abnormalities in adulthood, and cognitive abnormalities, in turn, are one of the key clinical features of psychosis. Therefore, this study investigated whether there was a relationship between childhood trauma and cognitive function in

Monica Aas; Paola Dazzan; Helen L. Fisher; Craig Morgan; Kevin Morgan; Abraham Reichenberg; Jolanta Zanelli; Paul Fearon; Peter B. Jones; Robin M. Murray; Carmine M. Pariante

2011-01-01

313

Cognitive function in the Caerphilly study: Associations with age,social class, education and mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baseline cognitive function was established for a study of pre- symptomatic cognitive decline in 1870 men from the general population aged 55–69 years as part of the third examination of the Caerphilly Study. Cognitive assessment included the AH4, a four choice serial reaction time task, a modified CAMCOG, MMSE, NART and various memory tests. Distributions and relationships with age, social

John E. J. Gallacher; Peter C. Elwood; Carole Hopkinson; Patrick M. A. Rabbitt; Brian T. Stollery; Peter M. Sweetnam; Carol Brayne; Felicia A. Huppert

1999-01-01

314

Acute Cold Exposure and Cognitive Function: Evidence for Sustained Impairment  

PubMed Central

Several industries experience periods of cold exposure and rewarming throughout the workday but mental performance under these conditions is unknown. A better understanding of cognition during the rewarming phase after cold exposure may help reduce accidents and improve performance. Ten young men (wearing~0.1 clo) underwent 3 consecutive mornings trials where they were exposed to cold air (10°C) and then subsequently re-warmed (25°C air). A computerized test battery was administered during each stage of the protocol to determine working memory, choice reaction time, executive function, and maze navigation. Rectal and skin temperature, oxygen consumption, and thermal sensation were also measured throughout and showed a typical response. Relative to baseline performance, working memory, choice reaction time, and executive function declined during exposure to 10°C, and these impairments persisted 60 minutes into the recovery period (i.e. once physiological parameters had returned to baseline). Further work is needed to develop countermeasures to this predicament.

Muller, Matthew D.; Gunstad, John; Alosco, Michael L.; Miller, Lindsay A.; Updegraff, John; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Glickman, Ellen

2012-01-01

315

Automated Semantic Indices Related to Cognitive Function and Rate of Cognitive Decline  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objective of our study is to introduce a fully automated, computational linguistic technique to quantify semantic relations between words generated on a standard semantic verbal fluency test and to determine its cognitive and clinical correlates. Cognitive differences between patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment are…

Pakhomov, Serguei V. S.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Lim, Kelvin O.

2012-01-01

316

The Use of Simulations in Learning and Transfer of Higher-Order Cognitive Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present research addresses the issues of whether there exist certain cognitive skills that facilitate transfer, and whether such skills are themselves transferable across domains. Of primary concern is the instructability of such skills. The Systems Thinking and Curriculum Innovation Project (STACI) is a two-year research project testing the…

Mandinach, Ellen B.

317

Studying in Higher Education: Students' Approaches to Learning, Self-Regulation, and Cognitive Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors looked at aspects of successful and problematic studying in terms of three different research traditions: students' approaches to learning, self-regulated learning and cognitive strategies. These frameworks have been widely applied when explaining university student learning. However, relations among different traditions have not been…

Heikkila, Annamari; Lonka, Kirsti

2006-01-01

318

Social cognition in infancy: A critical review of research on higher order abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews early precursors to social cognition in infancy, then critically reviews infancy work suggesting goal attribution to human agents in the first year of life and theory of mind (ToM) abilities (assessed through a modified false belief task) in the second year of life. Overall, methodological problems and statistical limitations compound data interpretation, which would be equivocal despite

Sylvain Sirois; Iain Jackson

2007-01-01

319

Higher body fat percentage is associated with increased cortisol reactivity and impaired cognitive resilience in response to acute emotional stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Cortisol is elevated in individuals with both increased emotional stress and higher percentages of body fat. Cortisol is also known to affect cognitive performance, particularly spatial processing and working memory. We hypothesized that increased body fat might therefore be associated with decreased performance on a spatial processing task, in response to an acute real-world stressor.Design:We tested two separate samples of

L R Mujica-Parodi; R Renelique; M K Taylor

2009-01-01

320

Higher ionization energies of atoms in density-functional theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density-functional theory (DFT) is an exact alternative formulation of quantum mechanics, in which it is possible to calculate the total energy, the spin, and the charge density of many-electron systems in the ground state. In practice, it is necessary to use uncontrolled approximations that can mainly be verified against experimental data. Atoms and ions are simple systems, where the approximations of DFT can be easily tested. We have calculated within DFT the total energies, spin, and higher ionization energies of all the ions of elements with 1?Z?29. We find the calculations in close agreement with experiment, with an error of typically less than ca. 1% for 1?Z?29. Surprisingly, the error depends on the electronic configuration of the ion in both local spin density approximation and Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof general gradient approximation and independent of both self-interaction correction and relativistic corrections. Larger errors are found for systems in which the spin-spin correlation is significant, which indicates the possible benefit from an orbital-dependent formulation of the correlation energy functional.

Argaman, Uri; Makov, Guy; Kraisler, Eli

2013-10-01

321

Evaluating the Relationship Between Neuropsychological Function and Cognitive Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The last 2 decades have produced a vast literature describing relationships between cognitive performance and neuropsychological data. This literature has provided the foundation for countless theories about the neural correlates of cognitive processing a...

G. Gunzelmann J. L. Moore

2012-01-01

322

The aging systemic milieu negatively regulates neurogenesis and cognitive function  

PubMed Central

Summary In the central nervous system (CNS), aging results in a precipitous decline in adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) and neurogenesis, with concomitant impairments in cognitive functions1. Interestingly, such impairments can be ameliorated through systemic perturbations such as exercise1. Here, using heterochronic parabiosis we show that blood-borne factors present in the systemic milieu can inhibit or promote adult neurogenesis in an age dependent fashion in mice. Accordingly, exposing a young animal to an old systemic environment, or to plasma from old mice, decreased synaptic plasticity and impaired contextual fear conditioning and spatial learning and memory. We identify chemokines - including CCL11/Eotaxin – whose plasma levels correlate with reduced neurogenesis in heterochronic parabionts and aged mice, and whose levels are increased in plasma and cerebral spinal fluid of healthy aging humans. Finally, increasing peripheral CCL11 chemokine levels in vivo in young mice decreased adult neurogenesis and impaired learning and memory. Together our data indicate that the decline in neurogenesis, and cognitive impairments, observed during aging can be in part attributed to changes in blood-borne factors.

Villeda, Saul A.; Luo, Jian; Mosher, Kira I.; Zou, Bende; Britschgi, Markus; Bieri, Gregor; Stan, Trisha M.; Fainberg, Nina; Ding, Zhaoqing; Eggel, Alexander; Lucin, Kurt M.; Czirr, Eva; Park, Jeong-Soo; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Aigner, Ludwig; Li, Ge; Peskind, Elaine R.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Galasko, Douglas R.; Xie, Xinmin S.; Rando, Thomas A.; Wyss-Coray, Tony

2011-01-01

323

ACE I\\/D polymorphism affects cognitive function and gray-matter volume in amnestic mild cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize the correlates of cognitive function, serum concentrations of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and brain structure with the ACE insertion or deletion (I\\/D) polymorphism were analyzed in subjects with amnestic-mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). A group of 48 subjects meeting criteria for aMCI and 36 age-matched control subjects were assessed using a comprehensive battery of standardized neuropsychological tests and magnetic

Zhengsheng Zhang; Linglong Deng; Feng Bai; Yongmei Shi; Hui Yu; Yonggui Yuan; Tianzi Jiang; Jianping Jia; Zhijun Zhang

2011-01-01

324

Exploring Cognitive Functions in Babies, Children & Adults with Near Infrared Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

An explosion of functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) studies investigating cortical activation in relation to higher cognitive processes, such as language1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10, memory11, and attention12 is underway worldwide involving adults, children and infants 3,4,13,14,15,16,17,18,19 with typical and atypical cognition20,21,22. The contemporary challenge of using fNIRS for cognitive neuroscience is to achieve systematic analyses of data such that they are universally interpretable23,24,25,26, and thus may advance important scientific questions about the functional organization and neural systems underlying human higher cognition. Existing neuroimaging technologies have either less robust temporal or spatial resolution. Event Related Potentials and Magneto Encephalography (ERP and MEG) have excellent temporal resolution, whereas Positron Emission Tomography and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET and fMRI) have better spatial resolution. Using non-ionizing wavelengths of light in the near-infrared range (700-1000 nm), where oxy-hemoglobin is preferentially absorbed by 680 nm and deoxy-hemoglobin is preferentially absorbed by 830 nm (e.g., indeed, the very wavelengths hardwired into the fNIRS Hitachi ETG-400 system illustrated here), fNIRS is well suited for studies of higher cognition because it has both good temporal resolution (~5s) without the use of radiation and good spatial resolution (~4 cm depth), and does not require participants to be in an enclosed structure27,28. Participants cortical activity can be assessed while comfortably seated in an ordinary chair (adults, children) or even seated in mom s lap (infants). Notably, NIRS is uniquely portable (the size of a desktop computer), virtually silent, and can tolerate a participants subtle movement. This is particularly outstanding for the neural study of human language, which necessarily has as one of its key components the movement of the mouth in speech production or the hands in sign language. The way in which the hemodynamic response is localized is by an array of laser emitters and detectors. Emitters emit a known intensity of non-ionizing light while detectors detect the amount reflected back from the cortical surface. The closer together the optodes, the greater the spatial resolution, whereas the further apart the optodes, the greater depth of penetration. For the fNIRS Hitachi ETG-4000 system optimal penetration / resolution the optode array is set to 2cm. Our goal is to demonstrate our method of acquiring and analyzing fNIRS data to help standardize the field and enable different fNIRS labs worldwide to have a common background.

Shalinsky, Mark H.; Kovelman, Iouila; Berens, Melody S.; Petitto, Laura-Ann

2009-01-01

325

Psychiatric and Cognitive Functioning in Adolescent Inpatients with Histories of Dating Violence Victimization  

PubMed Central

The presence of dating violence victimization as well as its relation to psychiatric diagnosis and cognitive processes was examined in a sample of 155 adolescents hospitalized in a psychiatric facility. Participants and their parents completed semi-structured diagnostic interviews. Participants also completed self-report measures of dating violence victimization and cognitive functioning. Seventy-seven percent of adolescents who had initiated dating reported psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse by a dating partner over the past year. Victims of psychological abuse alone as well as physical and/or sexual violence endorsed higher rates of major depressive disorder compared to non-victims. Physical/sexual dating violence victims also endorsed significantly higher rates of PTSD and alcohol use disorders, more frequent co-occurrence of externalizing and internalizing disorders, and more frequent negative cognitive biases, relative to non-victimized adolescents. Findings suggest that psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents with dating violence histories represent a subgroup of adolescent inpatients with a particularly serious clinical picture.

Rizzo, Christie J.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Spirito, Anthony; Thompson, Ariel

2010-01-01

326

Bridging embodied cognition and brain function: The role of phenomenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both cognitive science and phenomenology accept the primacy of the organism-environment system and recognize that cognition should be understood in terms of an embodied agent situated in its environment. How embodiment is seen to shape our world, however, is fundamentally different in these two disciplines. Embodiment, as understood in cognitive science, reduces to a discussion of the consequences of having

Donald Borrett; Sean Kelly; Hon Kwan

2000-01-01

327

Cognitive function and number of teeth in a community-dwelling population in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background It has been reported that oral health is poor in elderly populations and is associated with poor cognition and dementia. The objective of this study was to examine the association between tooth loss and cognitive function in a community-dwelling population in Japan. Methods We examined the association between tooth loss and cognitive function in 462 Japanese community-dwelling individuals. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was employed to measure global cognitive status. A multiple logistic regression analysis, with both crude and adjusted conditions for confounding factors, was used to assess the relationship between poor cognition and the number of remaining teeth. Results The overall prevalence of poor cognition (MMSE ? 23) in this study population was 5.6%. Subjects with poor cognition were significantly older, less educated, scored lower in intellectual activity, and had fewer remaining teeth than those with normal cognition. According to the multiple logistic regression analysis, a lower number of teeth (0–10) was found to be a significant independent risk factor (OR = 20.21, 95% confidence interval = 2.20 to 185.47) of cognitive impairment. Conclusions This cross-sectional study on a Japanese community-dwelling population revealed relationships between tooth loss and cognitive function. However, the interpretation of our results was hampered by a lack of data, including socioeconomic status and longitudinal observations. Future research exploring tooth loss and cognitive function is warranted.

2013-01-01

328

Alzheimer's disease neurodegenerative biomarkers are associated with decreased cognitive function but not beta-amyloid in cognitively normal older individuals  

PubMed Central

Beta amyloid (A?)-plaque deposition and neurodegeneration within temporoparietal and hippocampal regions may indicate increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study examined relationships between AD biomarkers of A? and neurodegeneration as well as cognitive performance in cognitively normal older individuals. A? burden was quantified in 72 normal older human subjects from the Berkeley Aging Cohort (BAC) using [11C] Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) PET. In the same individuals, we measured hippocampal volume, as well as glucose metabolism and cortical thickness, which were extracted from a template of cortical AD-affected regions. The three functional and structural biomarkers were merged into a highly AD-sensitive multi-modality biomarker reflecting neural integrity. In the normal older individuals, there was no association between A? burden and either the single-modality or the multi-modality neurodegenerative biomarkers. While lower neural integrity within the AD-affected regions and a control area (the visual cortex) was related to lower scores on memory and executive function tests, the same association was not found with PIB retention. The relationship between cognition and the multi-modality AD biomarker was stronger in individuals with the highest PIB uptake. The findings indicate that neurodegeneration occurs within AD regions irrespective of A? deposition and accounts for worse cognition in cognitively normal older people. The impact of neural integrity on cognitive functions is enhanced in the presence of high A? burden for regions that are vulnerable to AD pathology.

Wirth, Miranka; Madison, Cindee M.; Rabinovici, Gil D.; Oh, Hwamee; Landau, Susan M.; Jagust, William J.

2013-01-01

329

Relationship Between Baseline Glycemic Control and Cognitive Function in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—Diabetes is associated with cognitive decline and dementia. However, the relationship between the degree of hyperglycemia and cognitive status remains unclear. This was explored using baseline cognitive measures collected in the ongoing Memory in Diabetes (MIND) substudy of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—The relationship of A1C and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels to performance on four cognitive tests was assessed, adjusting for age and other determinants of cognitive status. The tests were the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and Stroop Test. RESULTS—A statistically significant age-adjusted association was observed between the A1C level and the score on all four cognitive tests. Specifically, a 1% higher A1C value was associated with a significant 1.75-point lower DSST score (95% CI ?1.22 to ?2.28; P < 0.0001), a 0.20-point lower MMSE score (?0.11 to ?0.28; P < 0.0001), a 0.11-point lower memory score (?0.02 to ?0.19, P = 0.0142), and a worse score (i.e., 0.75 s more) on the Stroop Test (1.31–0.19, P = 0.0094). The association between the DSST score and A1C persisted in all multiple linear regression models. FPG was not associated with test performance. CONCLUSIONS—Higher A1C levels are associated with lower cognitive function in individuals with diabetes. The effect of glucose lowering on cognitive function will be determined by the ongoing ACCORD-MIND trial.

Cukierman-Yaffe, Tali; Gerstein, Hertzel C.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Lazar, Ronald M.; Lovato, Laura; Miller, Michael E.; Coker, Laura H.; Murray, Anne; Sullivan, Mark D.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Launer, Lenore J.

2009-01-01

330

Evolution of mirror systems: a simple mechanism for complex cognitive functions  

PubMed Central

Mirror neurons (MNs) were first discovered in monkeys and subsequently in humans and birds. While MNs are deemed to play a number of high level cognitive functions, here we propose that they serve a unitary form of sensorimotor recognition of others’ behavior. We caution that this basic function should not be confounded with the higher-order functions that stem from the wider cortical systems in which MNs are embedded. Depending on the species, MNs function at different levels of motor event recognition, from motor goals to fine grained movements, thus contributing to social learning and imitative phenomena. Recent studies show that MN coding has a prospective nature, suggesting that MNs also play a role in anticipating and predicting the behavior of others during social interactions. The presence of mirroring mechanisms in subcortical structures related to visceromotor reactions and the large diffusion of imitative phenomena among animals suggest that MN systems may be more ancient and widespread than previously thought.

Bonini, Luca; Ferrari, Pier Francesco

2011-01-01

331

Cognitive function, social integration and mortality in a U.S. national cohort study of older adults  

PubMed Central

Background Prior research suggests an interaction between social networks and Alzheimer's disease pathology and cognitive function, all predictors of survival in the elderly. We test the hypotheses that both social integration and cognitive function are independently associated with subsequent mortality and there is an interaction between social integration and cognitive function as related to mortality in a national cohort of older persons. Methods Data were analyzed from a longitudinal follow-up study of 5,908 American men and women aged 60 years and over examined in 1988–1994 followed an average 8.5 yr. Measurements at baseline included self-reported social integration, socio-demographics, health, body mass index, C-reactive protein and a short index of cognitive function (SICF). Results Death during follow-up occurred in 2,431. In bivariate analyses indicators of greater social integration were associated with higher cognitive function. Among persons with SICF score of 17, 22% died compared to 54% of those with SICF score of 0–11 (p < 0.0001). After adjusting for confounding by baseline socio-demographics and health status, the hazards ratio (HR) (95% confidence limits) for low SICF score was 1.43 (1.13–1.80, p < 0.001). After controlling for health behaviors, blood pressure and body mass, C-reactive protein and social integration, the HR was 1.36 (1.06–1.76, p = 0.02). Further low compared to high social integration was also independently associated with increased risk of mortality: HR 1.24 (1.02–1.52, p = 0.02). Conclusion In a cohort of older Americans, analyses demonstrated a higher risk of death independent of confounders among those with low cognitive function and low social integration with no significant interaction between them.

Obisesan, Thomas O; Gillum, RF

2009-01-01

332

Cerebellar Volume and Cognitive Functioning in Children Who Experienced Early Deprivation  

PubMed Central

Background The cerebellum is a brain region recognized primarily in the coordination of movement and related accessory motor functions. In addition, emerging evidence implicates the cerebellum in cognitive processes and suggests that this brain region may be subject to experience-dependent plastic changes in structure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of early environmental deprivation in the maturation of the cerebellum and aspects of cognitive development. Methods Structural MRI volumes of 12 cerebellar sub-regions from 31 previously-neglected and 30 typically developing children were compared to subjects’ corresponding neuropsychological test scores. Results Neglected children had smaller volume of the superior-posterior cerebellar lobes. Moreover, superior-posterior lobe volume was found to mediate neuropsychological test performance differences between groups, with larger volumes yielding better outcomes on tests of memory and planning. Conclusions These data support the importance of experience-dependent plastic changes in cerebellar structure and highlight the role of the cerebellum in higher cognitive functions.

Bauer, Patrick M.; Hanson, Jamie L.; Pierson, Ronald K.; Davidson, Richard J.; Pollak, Seth D.

2010-01-01

333

Intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia: relationships to cognitive function, depression, anxiety, and personality.  

PubMed

The goal of the current project was to assess subjective reports of intrinsic motivation and their relationship to cognitive function, mood, and personality in schizophrenia. The authors used the Motivational Trait Questionnaire to examine 3 components of intrinsic motivation (personal mastery, competitive excellence, motivation related to anxiety). They also examined fluid intelligence, context processing, and working memory, as well as self-reports of mood and personal traits related to motivation. Participants were 66 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 44 healthy controls. Self-reports of personal mastery and competitive excellence did not differ between controls and individuals with schizophrenia, though patients did report significantly higher motivation related to anxiety. Among controls, but not patients, self-reports of intrinsic motivation were strongly related to cognitive performance. In contrast, both controls and patients showed similar strong relationships between self-reports of intrinsic motivation and related measures of mood and personality. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis that motivational deficits in schizophrenia reflect impairments in intrinsic motivation. However, they do suggest that the normal relationship between self-reports of intrinsic motivation and cognitive function is disrupted in schizophrenia. PMID:19025225

Barch, Deanna M; Yodkovik, Naomi; Sypher-Locke, Hannah; Hanewinkel, Melissa

2008-11-01

334

A virtual shopping test for realistic assessment of cognitive function  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive dysfunction caused by brain injury often prevents a patient from achieving a healthy and high quality of life. By now, each cognitive function is assessed precisely by neuropsychological tests. However, it is also important to provide an overall assessment of the patients’ ability in their everyday life. We have developed a Virtual Shopping Test (VST) using virtual reality technology. The objective of this study was to clarify 1) the significance of VST by comparing VST with other conventional tests, 2) the applicability of VST to brain-damaged patients, and 3) the performance of VST in relation to age differences. Methods The participants included 10 patients with brain damage, 10 age-matched healthy subjects for controls, 10 old healthy subjects, and 10 young healthy subjects. VST and neuropsychological tests/questionnaires about attention, memory and executive function were conducted on the patients, while VST and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were conducted on the controls and healthy subjects. Within the VST, the participants were asked to buy four items in the virtual shopping mall quickly in a rational way. The score for evaluation included the number of items bought correctly, the number of times to refer to hints, the number of movements between shops, and the total time spent to complete the shopping. Results Some variables on VST correlated with the scores of conventional assessment about attention and everyday memory. The mean number of times referring to hints and the mean number of movements were significantly larger for the patients with brain damage, and the mean total time was significantly longer for the patients than for the controls. In addition, the mean total time was significantly longer for the old than for the young. Conclusions The results suggest that VST is able to evaluate the ability of attention and everyday memory in patients with brain damage. The time of VST is increased by age.

2013-01-01

335

Wightman function and vacuum fluctuations in higher dimensional brane models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wightman function and the vacuum expectation value of the field square are evaluated for a massive scalar field with a general curvature coupling parameter subject to Robin boundary conditions on two codimension-one parallel branes located on a (D+1)-dimensional background spacetime AdSD1+1×? with a warped internal space ?. The general case of different Robin coefficients on separate branes is considered. The application of the generalized Abel-Plana formula for the series over zeros of combinations of cylinder functions allows us to manifestly extract the part due to the bulk without boundaries. Unlike the purely anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk, the vacuum expectation value of the field square induced by a single brane, in addition to the distance from the brane, depends also on the position of the brane in the bulk. The brane induced part in this expectation value vanishes when the brane position tends to the AdS horizon or the AdS boundary. The asymptotic behavior of the vacuum densities near the branes and at large distances is investigated. The contribution of Kaluza-Klein modes along ? is discussed in various limiting cases. In the limit when the curvature radius for the AdS spacetime tends to infinity, we derive the results for two parallel Robin plates on the background spacetime R(D1,1)×?. For strong gravitational fields corresponding to large values of the AdS energy scale, both the single brane and interference parts of the expectation values integrated over the internal space are exponentially suppressed. As an example the case ?=S1 is considered, corresponding to the AdSD+1 bulk with one compactified dimension. An application to the higher dimensional generalization of the Randall-Sundrum brane model with arbitrary mass terms on the branes is discussed.

Saharian, Aram A.

2006-02-01

336

Subjective cognitive function and decline among older adults with psychometrically defined amnestic MCI  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objective To examine the relationship between subjective cognitive function and subsequent cognitive decline among individuals with psychometrically defined amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and to determine whether the presence of depressive symptoms modifies this relationship. Method Fifty-five individuals met psychometric criteria for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Cognitive decline was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), which was administered at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Subjective cognitive function was examined using two different one-item memory complaints, as well as a scale focused on current level of cognitive function relative to past function and a scale focused on forgetting in specific everyday situations. Results In multiple regression analyses, the one-item complaint of change in memory at baseline predicted future cognitive decline. There was a significant interaction effect whereby this association was stronger in participants who endorsed fewer symptoms of depression. Conclusion Individuals showing memory deficits consistent with amnestic MCI have at least some insight regarding cognitive decline and the extent to which subjective cognitive function is useful in predicting future decline may depend on what particular questions are asked as well as presence of depressive symptoms.

Crowe, Michael; Andel, Ross; Wadley, Virginia; Cook, Sarah; Unverzagt, Frederick; Marsiske, Michael; Ball, Karlene

2010-01-01

337

Relationship of Cognitive Function and the Acquisition of Coping Skills in Computer Assisted Treatment for Substance Use Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Coping skills training is an important component of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), yet cognitive impairment and related limitations that are often associated with chronic substance use may interfere with an ability to learn, retain, or use new information. Little previous research has examined the cognitive or neuropsychological factors that may affect substance users' ability to learn new coping skills in CBT. Methods Fifty-two substance dependent individuals randomized to receive a computerized version of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT4CBT) or treatment as usual (TAU) were administered several cognitive and neuropsychological measures, as well as a coping skills measure prior to and upon completing an 8-week treatment period. Results Across treatment conditions, participants who scored above the median on a measure of IQ demonstrated greater improvement in the quality of their coping skills than those below the median on IQ (Group × Time, F(1,49) = 4.31, p<.05). Also, IQ had a significant indirect effect on substance use outcomes through an effect on the quality of coping skills acquired, specifically for those who received CBT4CBT. Conclusion Individuals with higher IQ at baseline improved the quality of their coping skills more than those with lower IQ, which in turn reduced rates of substance use following treatment. This highlights the impact of substance users' cognitive functioning and abilities on the acquisition of coping skills from CBT, and suggests need for greater awareness and tailoring of coping skills training for those with poorer functioning.

Kiluk, Brian D.; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M.

2010-01-01

338

Timing is everything: Neural response dynamics during syllable processing and its relation to higher-order cognition in schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects  

PubMed Central

Successful linguistic processing requires efficient encoding of successively-occurring auditory input in a time-constrained manner, especially under noisy conditions. In this study we examined the early neural response dynamics to rapidly-presented successive syllables in schizophrenia participants and healthy comparison subjects, and investigated the effects of noise on these responses. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to reveal the time-course of stimulus-locked activity over bilateral auditory cortices during discrimination of syllable pairs that differed either in voice onset time (VOT) or place of articulation (POA), in the presence or absence of noise. We also examined the association of these early neural response patterns to higher-order cognitive functions. The M100 response, arising from auditory cortex and its immediate environs, showed less attenuation to the second syllable in patients with schizophrenia than healthy comparison subjects during VOT-based discrimination in noise. M100 response amplitudes were similar between groups for the first syllable during all three discrimination conditions, and for the second syllable during VOT-based discrimination in quiet and POA-based discrimination in noise. Across subjects, the lack of M100 attenuation to the second syllable during VOT-based discrimination in noise was associated with poorer task accuracy, lower education and IQ, and lower scores on measures of Verbal Learning and Memory and Global Cognition. Because the neural response to the first syllable was not significantly different between groups, nor was a schizophrenia-related difference obtained in all discrimination tasks, early linguistic processing dysfunction in schizophrenia does not appear to be due to general sensory input problems. Rather, data suggest that faulty temporal integration occurs during successive syllable processing when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. Further, the neural mechanism by which the second syllable is suppressed during noise-challenged VOT discrimination appears to be important for higher-order cognition and provides a promising target for neuroscience-guided cognitive training approaches to schizophrenia.

Dale, Corby L.; Findlay, Anne M.; Adcock, R. Alison; Vertinski, Mary; Fisher, Melissa; Genevsky, Alexander; Aldebot, Stephanie; Subramaniam, Karuna; Luks, Tracy L.; Simpson, Gregory V.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Vinogradov, Sophia

2009-01-01

339

Nicotinic effects on cognitive function: behavioral characterization, pharmacological specification, and anatomic localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Nicotine has been shown in a variety of studies in humans and experimental animals to improve cognitive function. Nicotinic\\u000a treatments are being developed as therapeutic treatments for cognitive dysfunction.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  Critical for the development of nicotinic therapeutics is an understanding of the neurobehavioral bases for nicotinic involvement\\u000a in cognitive function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Specific and diverse cognitive functions affected by nicotinic treatments are reviewed,

Edward D. Levin; F. Joseph McClernon; Amir H. Rezvani

2006-01-01

340

A preliminary investigation of cognitive function in rheumatoid arthritis patients on long-term methotrexate treatment.  

PubMed

Some studies suggest that cognitive function is impaired in rheumatoid arthritis patients. One possible influence may be commonly used rheumatoid arthritis treatment, methotrexate. This study examined cognitive function in long-term methotrexate users with rheumatoid arthritis and, using a 24-hour pre- and post-methotrexate dose administration, investigated whether there may be transient cognitive function changes. Rheumatoid arthritis patients (n = 35) were assessed immediately before taking methotrexate and 24 hours later. Low and high methotrexate dose groups were then compared. Cognitive performance was unchanged across two assessment points and was within the normal range, although lower in high methotrexate dose group. PMID:23188915

Meade, Tanya; Cumming, Steven; Hallab, Lisa; Spencer, David; Howe, Graydon; Manolios, Nicholas

2012-11-26

341

Cognition, Behavior, and Respiratory Function in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective. To examine the relationship between respiratory functioning and neuropsychological performance, mood, and frontal-lobe-mediated behaviors in ALS patients. Methods. Forty-four patients with probable or definite ALS (El Escorial criteria) completed comprehensive pulmonary and neuropsychological assessments as part of their baseline neurological evaluation. Based on their full vital respiratory capacity, 24 and 20 patients were classified as having impaired or intact respiration, respectively. Results. Comparable demographic characteristics, neuropsychological performance, and self-reported mood symptoms were found between ALS patients with intact versus impaired respiration. However, more respiratory-impaired patients were reported by their caregivers as having clinically significant impairments in frontal-lobe-mediated behaviors. Nevertheless, declines in behavior were evidenced from pre- to post-ALS symptom onset for both respiratory groups, and exploratory analyses revealed greater executive functioning deficits in patients with bulbar versus limb onset as well as respiratory-impaired patients not receiving pulmonary interventions versus those utilizing such interventions at the time of testing. Conclusions. Results suggest that the respiratory insufficiency of ALS patients may potentially produce irreversible deficits in executive functioning; yet once treated, impairments in more basic cognitive abilities may be less evident.

Strutt, Adriana M.; Palcic, Jennette; Wager, John G.; Titus, Courtney; MacAdam, Claire; Brown, Jeffrey; Scott, Bonnie M.; Harati, Yadollah; Schulz, Paul E.; York, Michele K.

2012-01-01

342

Imaging genetics of cognitive functions: Focus on episodic memory.  

PubMed

Human cognitive functions are highly variable across individuals and are both genetically and environmentally influenced. Recent behavioral genetics studies have identified several common genetic polymorphisms, which are related to individual differences in memory performance. In addition, imaging genetics studies are starting to explore the neural correlates of genetic differences in memory functions on the level of brain circuits. In this review we will describe how functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used to validate and extend findings of behavioral genetics studies of episodic memory and give examples of recent advances in this new and exciting research field. In addition, we will present advantages and problems related to the different sensitivity of behavioral- vs. imaging genetics studies and discuss possible methodological approaches for an appropriate evaluation and integration of the results. Although the field of imaging genetics of episodic memory is still young, it already became clear that imaging methods have a large potential to enhance our understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie genetic differences in memory. PMID:20060913

Rasch, B; Papassotiropoulos, A; de Quervain, D-F

2010-01-11

343

Is Cognitive Functioning 1 Year Poststroke Related to Quality of Life Domain?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies on the association between poststroke cognitive impairment and quality of life (QoL) have shown divergent results. In this study, we investigated the relationships between cognitive functioning and various QoL domains at 1 year poststroke. This was a cross-sectional study, examining 92 patients at 1 year poststroke. Cognitive functioning was measured with a neuropsychological test battery covering language, attention

Clara L. M. Verhoeven; Marcel W. M. Post; Sven K. Schiemanck; Martine J. E. van Zandvoort; Peter H. Vrancken; Caroline M. van Heugten

2011-01-01

344

Longitudinal study of cognitive function in first-episode and recent-onset schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Whether cognitive function in schizophrenia deteriorates, improves, or re- mains stable is a crucial question. Few studies have examined the longitudinal stability of cognitive function and the relationship between cognitive performance and clinical symp- toms over time in a cohort of well-treated patients with schizophrenia. Method: In the present study, 54 patients with first-episode and recent-onset schizophrenia completed a

Sherri Gold; Stephan Arndt; Peg Nopoulos; Nancy C. Andreasen

1999-01-01

345

Cognitive Functioning in Elderly Persons with Type 2 Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: the Hoorn Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is associated with mild decrements in cognitive functioning, particularly in the elderly. It is often preceded by a ‘prediabetic stage’, characterized by the co-occurrence of insulin resistance and vascular risk factors, usually referred to as the metabolic syndrome. Cognitive decrements may already develop in these early stages. Methods: Cognitive functioning was compared cross-sectionally between

Esther van den Berg; Jacqueline M. Dekker; Giel Nijpels; Roy P. C. Kessels; L. Jaap Kappelle; Edward H. F. de Haan; Robert J. Heine; Coen D. A. Stehouwer; Geert Jan Biessels

2008-01-01

346

Relationship of cognitive function with B vitamin status, homocysteine, and tissue factor pathway inhibitor in cognitively impaired elderly: a cross-sectional survey.  

PubMed

Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) has recently emerged as a candidate marker of endothelial damage in AD. We investigated the relationship between plasma levels of folate, vitamin B12, Hcy, and TFPI, as well as cognitive function in 321 [100 each with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD, 121 normal subjects] Korean elderly (mean age 74.8 ± 7.2 years). Plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were analyzed by radioimmunoassay, Hcy by the HPLC-fluorescence method, and TFPI by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels were higher in patients with AD and MCI than those in normal subjects (p < 0.001). The AD group had higher proportions of hyperhomocysteinemic (>15 ?M) and folate deficient (<3.0 ng/mL) (p = 0.026) subjects. A multiple regression analysis after adjusting for covariates revealed positive relationships between plasma folate and the MMSE-KC and Boston Naming Test, and between plasma vitamin B12 and the Word List Memory Test in the AD group, but negative associations between plasma Hcy and the Word List Memory and Constructional Recall Tests and between plasma TFPI and the Boston Naming, Word List Recall, and Constructional Recall Tests. In contrast, only plasma folate level was positively associated with the MMSE-KC and Boston Naming Test in the MCI group. No associations were observed in the normal group. These results suggest that plasma folate, vitamin B12, Hcy, and TFPI are associated with cognitive function in cognitively impaired (AD and MCI) elderly and that the association was stronger in patients with AD. PMID:23042212

Kim, Ggotpin; Kim, Hyesook; Kim, Ki Nam; Son, Jung In; Kim, Seong Yoon; Tamura, Tsunenobu; Chang, Namsoo

2013-01-01

347

Plastid Genomes of Higher Plants and Algae: Structure and Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data on the structure and gene composition in completely sequenced plastid (predominantly chloroplast) genomes of higher plants and algae are reviewed. In higher plants, genome structure and gene composition are highly conserved. Plastid genomes of algae are less conserved and contain several unique genes, which are not found in chloroplast DNAs of higher plants. Plastid genomes encode proteins involved

M. S. Odintsova; N. P. Yurina

2003-01-01

348

Differentiation at higher levels of cognitive ability: evidence from the United States.  

PubMed

Most psychologists and educators assume that intelligence is a linear construct, meaning that smart people simply have more intelligence than their less gifted peers. Likewise, individuals with mental retardation are thought to have less intelligence. In contrast to this widely accepted belief, the authors posed an alternative hypothesis--that intelligence is qualitatively different in various populations. Using factor analysis of a standardization sample of the Woodcock-Johnson Test of Cognitive Ability (R. W. Woodcock & M. B. Johnson, 1989), the authors examined the nature of intellect across ability. Results indicated that the amount of variance attributable to Spearman's g declined as measured intellectual ability increased. PMID:17278419

Kane, Harrison D; Oakland, Thomas D; Brand, Christopher R

2006-09-01

349

Effects of Higher-Order Cognitive Strategy Training on Gist-Reasoning and Fact-Learning in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Improving the reasoning skills of adolescents across the United States has become a major concern for educators and scientists who are dedicated to identifying evidence-based protocols to improve student outcome. This small sample randomized, control pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of higher-order cognitive training on gist-reasoning and fact-learning in an inner-city public middle school. The study compared gist-reasoning and fact-learning performances after training in a smaller sample when tested in Spanish, many of the students’ native language, versus English. The 54 eighth grade students who participated in this pilot study were enroled in an urban middle school, predominantly from lower socio-economic status families, and were primarily of minority descent. The students were randomized into one of three groups, one that learned cognitive strategies promoting abstraction of meaning, a group that learned rote memory strategies, or a control group to ascertain the impact of each program on gist-reasoning and fact-learning from text-based information. We found that the students who had cognitive strategy instruction that entailed abstraction of meaning significantly improved their gist-reasoning and fact-learning ability. The students who learned rote memory strategies significantly improved their fact-learning scores from a text but not gist-reasoning ability. The control group showed no significant change in either gist-reasoning or fact-learning ability. A trend toward significant improvement in overall reading scores for the group that learned to abstract meaning as well as a significant correlation between gist-reasoning ability and the critical thinking on a state-mandated standardized reading test was also found. There were no significant differences between English and Spanish performance of gist-reasoning and fact-learning. Our findings suggest that teaching higher-order cognitive strategies facilitates gist-reasoning ability and student learning.

Gamino, Jacquelyn F.; Chapman, Sandra B.; Hull, Elizabeth L.; Lyon, G. Reid

2010-01-01

350

Seeing the Forest through the Trees: The Cross-Function Approach to Imaging Cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

common regions mediate? By comparing patternsof brain activity across different cognitive functions,answers to this question can be generated......... Figure 1 about here ........The matrix in Figure 1 illustrates the differencebetween the traditional within-function approach and thecross-function approach we are advocating in this chapter.Let us assume that in functional neuroimaging studiesCognitive Function A typically is associated withactivations in Brain Regions 1

Roberto Cabeza; Lars Nyberg

351

Relationship between Lifetime Smoking, Smoking Status at Older Age and Human Cognitive Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for clinical cardiovascular disease and may also be associated with poorer cognitive functioning in older age. We measured lifetime cigarette smoking, smoking status and cognitive function in over 2,000 men and women from the general population aged over 50 years with subclinical atherosclerosis (ankle brachial pressure index ?0.95 but no history of clinical

Marlene C. W. Stewart; Ian J. Deary; F. Gerald R. Fowkes; Jacqueline F. Price

2006-01-01

352

Framingham Stroke Risk Profile and poor cognitive function: a population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The relationship between stroke risk and cognitive function has not previously been examined in a large community living sample other than the Framingham cohort. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between 10-year risk for incident stroke and cognitive function in a large population-based sample. METHODS: Participants were 7377 adults aged 50 years and over of

David J Llewellyn; Iain A Lang; Jing Xie; Felicia A Huppert; David Melzer; Kenneth M Langa

2008-01-01

353

Lead and cognitive function in ALAD genotypes in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the blood lead concentration and cognitive function in children and adults with different ALAD genotypes who participated in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was investigated. The relationship between blood lead and serum homocysteine concentrations was also investigated. In children 12 to 16years old, no difference in the relationship between cognitive function and blood lead

Edward F. Krieg Jr.; Mary Ann Butler; Man-huei Chang; Tiebin Liu; Ajay Yesupriya; Mary Lou Lindegren; Nicole Dowling

2009-01-01

354

Relationship between cognitive function and prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Decrease in intrinsic motivation is a common complaint among elementary and junior high school students, and is related to poor academic performance. Since grade-dependent development of cognitive functions also influences academic performance by these students, we examined whether cognitive functions are related to the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation. METHODS: The study group consisted of 134 elementary

Kei Mizuno; Masaaki Tanaka; Sanae Fukuda; Kyoko Imai-Matsumura; Yasuyoshi Watanabe

2011-01-01

355

Alcohol Drinking and Cognitive Functions: Findings from the Cardiovascular Risk Factors Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Moderate alcohol drinking is suggested to be beneficial for cognitive functions, but the results of previous studies have varied greatly. Little is known about the effects of midlife alcohol drinking on the cognitive functions later in life. Methods: Participants were derived from random, population-based samples studied in Eastern Finland in 1972, 1977, 1982, or 1987. A total of 1,341

Tiia Ngandu; Eeva-Liisa Helkala; Hilkka Soininen; Bengt Winblad; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Aulikki Nissinen; Miia Kivipelto

2007-01-01

356

Cognitive Functioning in Children with Pantothenate-Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration Undergoing Deep Brain Stimulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aim: To examine the cognitive functioning of young people with pantothenate-kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) after pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS). PKAN is characterized by progressive generalized dystonia and has historically been associated with cognitive decline. With growing evidence that DBS can improve motor function in…

Mahoney, Rachel; Selway, Richard; Lin, Jean-Pierre

2011-01-01

357

Ecologically valid support for the link between cognitive and psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research into the link between cognitive and psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder has examined primarily asymptomatic patients, has measured these domains concurrently, and has failed to establish convergent validity in the assessment of psychosocial dysfunction. The present study examines the relation between cognitive and psychosocial functioning at the time of discharge from hospitalization for acute mood disturbance. We obtained

Boaz Levy; Anna Marie Medina; Kathryn Hintz; Roger D. Weiss

2011-01-01

358

Insights from Cognitive Neuroscience: The Importance of Executive Function for Early Reading Development and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research Findings: Executive function begins to develop in infancy and involves an array of processes, such as attention, inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, which provide the means by which individuals control their own behavior, work toward goals, and manage complex cognitive processes. Thus, executive function plays a…

Cartwright, Kelly B.

2012-01-01

359

Cognitive disruption and altered hippocampus synaptic function in Reelin haploinsufficient mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterozygote reeler mouse (HRM) shows many neuroanatomical and biochemical features that are also present in some human cognitive disorders, such as schizophrenia. In the present study, hippocampal dependent plasticity and cognitive function of the HRM were characterized in detail in an attempt to reveal phenotypic functional differences that result from Reelin haploinsufficiency. The HRM and wild type mice show

Shenfeng Qiu; Kimberly M. Korwek; Adeola R. Pratt-Davis; Melinda Peters; Mica Yael Bergman; Edwin J. Weeber

2006-01-01

360

Insights from Cognitive Neuroscience: The Importance of Executive Function for Early Reading Development and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Executive function begins to develop in infancy and involves an array of processes, such as attention, inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, which provide the means by which individuals control their own behavior, work toward goals, and manage complex cognitive processes. Thus, executive function plays a…

Cartwright, Kelly B.

2012-01-01

361

Insights From Cognitive Neuroscience: The Importance of Executive Function for Early Reading Development and Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: Executive function begins to develop in infancy and involves an array of processes, such as attention, inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, which provide the means by which individuals control their own behavior, work toward goals, and manage complex cognitive processes. Thus, executive function plays a critical role in the development of academic skills such as reading. This

Kelly B. Cartwright

2012-01-01

362

Childhood Cognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia Patients and Their Unaffected Siblings: A Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

While it is known that children of schizophrenia parents perform more poorly on tests of cognitive functioning than children of normal parents, less certain is the degree to which such deficits predict schizophrenia outcome, whether cognitive functioning deteriorates during childhood in preschizophrenia individuals, and whether nongenetic etiologic factors (such as obstetric complications) contribute to these deficits. In the present study,

Tyrone D. Cannon; Carrie E. Bearden; J. Megginson Hollister; Isabelle M. Rosso; Laura E. Sanchez; Trevor Hadley

2000-01-01

363

EFFECT OF SAHAJ YOGA ON NEURO-COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS IN PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM MAJOR DEPRESSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive functions are impaired in Major Depression. Studies on the effects of Yoga on cognitive functions have shown improvement in memory, vigilance and anxiety levels. 30 patients suffering from Major depression (age 18 to 45 years) were randomly divided into two groups: Group 1: (10 males and 5 Females) Patients who practised Sahaj Yoga meditation and also received conventional anti-depressant

V. K. SHARMA; S. DAS; S. MONDAL; U. GOSWAMI; A. GANDHI

364

Cognitive, Linguistic and Adaptive Functioning in Williams Syndrome: Trajectories from Early to Middle Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Little is known about trajectories of cognitive functioning as individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) move though adulthood. Method: The present study investigated cognitive, linguistic and adaptive functioning in adults with WS aged 19-55 years, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches. Results: Data from the…

Howlin, Patricia; Elison, Sarah; Udwin, Orlee; Stinton, Christopher

2010-01-01

365

How Do Cognitive Function and Knowledge Affect Heart Failure Self-Care?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite extensive patient education, few heart failure (HF) patients master self-care. Impaired cognitive function may explain why patient education is ineffective. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was used to explore how knowledge and cognitive function influence HF self-care. A total of 41 adults with HF participated in…

Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Lee, Christopher S.; Riegel, Barbara

2011-01-01

366

Identifying Risk for Functional Impairment Using Cognitive Measures: An Application of CART Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between cognitive test performance and functional status was assessed in 289 persons with a cognitive impairment diagnosis and in 307 controls from the Alzheimer’s Disease Registry at Mayo Clinic. Classification and regression tree (CART) procedures were used to create decision rules (using cutoff scores) to identify persons most at risk for functional impairment. The results suggest that scores

Carolyn M. Lemsky; Glenn Smith; James F. Malec; Robert J. Ivnik

1996-01-01

367

Long term effect of breast feeding: cognitive function in the Caerphilly cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: There is evidence suggesting that artificial feeding is associated with a reduction in cognitive function in infants and children, in contrast with breast feeding, but the available evidence suffers from confounding by social and educational factors. An opportunity arose in the Caerphilly cohort study to examine relations between cognitive function in older men and their feeding as infants,

P C Elwood; Janet Pickering; J E J Gallacher; Janie Hughes; David Davies

2005-01-01

368

A Physical Activity Program Improves Behavior and Cognitive Functions in Children with ADHD: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The objective of this study is to explore the effects of a moderate- to high-intensity physical activity program on fitness, cognitive functions, and ADHD-related behavior in children with ADHD. Method: Fitness level, motor skills, behaviors, and cognitive functions are assessed by standardized tests before and after a 10-week training…

Verret, Claudia; Guay, Marie-Claude; Berthiaume, Claude; Gardiner, Phillip; Beliveau, Louise

2012-01-01

369

Direct and mediated effects of cognitive function with multidimensional outcome measures in schizophrenia: The role of functional capacity.  

PubMed

Although cognitive ability is a known predictor of real-world functioning in schizophrenia, there has been an expanded interest in understanding the mechanisms by which it explains real-world functioning in this population. We examined the extent to which functional capacity (i.e., skills necessary to live independently) mediated the relationship between cognitive ability and both observer and self-reported real-world functioning in 138 outpatients with schizophrenia. Functional capacity significantly mediated the relations between cognitive ability and observer-rated real-world functioning, but not self-reported real-world functioning, with small to medium effect sizes observed for all outcomes. The role of cognitive ability in observer versus self-reported real-world functioning may be explained by different mechanisms. PMID:23984631

Ho, Jennifer S; Moore, Raeanne C; Davine, Taylor; Cardenas, Veronica; Bowie, Christopher R; Patterson, Thomas L; Mausbach, Brent T

2013-08-28

370

A CAG repeat polymorphism of KCNN3 predicts SK3 channel function and cognitive performance in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

KCNN3, encoding the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel SK3, harbours a polymorphic CAG repeat in the amino-terminal coding region with yet unproven function. Hypothesizing that KCNN3 genotypes do not influence susceptibility to schizophrenia but modify its phenotype, we explored their contribution to specific schizophrenic symptoms. Using the Göttingen Research Association for Schizophrenia (GRAS) data collection of schizophrenic patients (n = 1074), we performed a phenotype-based genetic association study (PGAS) of KCNN3. We show that long CAG repeats in the schizophrenic sample are specifically associated with better performance in higher cognitive tasks, comprising the capacity to discriminate, select and execute (p < 0.0001). Long repeats reduce SK3 channel function, as we demonstrate by patch-clamping of transfected HEK293 cells. In contrast, modelling the opposite in mice, i.e. KCNN3 overexpression/channel hyperfunction, leads to selective deficits in higher brain functions comparable to those influenced by SK3 conductance in humans. To conclude, KCNN3 genotypes modify cognitive performance, shown here in a large sample of schizophrenic patients. Reduction of SK3 function may constitute a pharmacological target to improve cognition in schizophrenia and other conditions with cognitive impairment.

Grube, Sabrina; Gerchen, Martin F; Adamcio, Bartosz; Pardo, Luis A; Martin, Sabine; Malzahn, Dorthe; Papiol, Sergi; Begemann, Martin; Ribbe, Katja; Friedrichs, Heidi; Radyushkin, Konstantin A; Muller, Michael; Benseler, Fritz; Riggert, Joachim; Falkai, Peter; Bickeboller, Heike; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Brose, Nils; Stuhmer, Walter; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

2011-01-01

371

Effects of feline immunodeficiency virus on cognition and behavioral function in cats.  

PubMed

Experimental intravenous challenge of 8-week old cats with the Maryland isolate of feline immunodeficiency virus, Maryland isolate (FIV-MD) was investigated for its effects on cognitive and behavioral function at 12 months postinfection. Six cats infected with FIV-MD were compared with age-matched controls on several behavioral measures. These measures included an open field observation, locomotion tests, traversing planks of various widths for food reinforcement, and a spatial learning task. No group differences were observed on any measure of locomotion. Differences were present with exploratory and stationary activity in the open field observation, with infected cats exhibiting higher levels of exploratory activity and in less stationary activity compared with that of control cats. In the plank-walking experiment, infected cats were less able to successfully cross progressively narrower planks compared with control animals. A holeboard paradigm was constructed to test spatial learning and memory, in which cats were required to locate food reinforcement based on position in the holeboard array. As a group, FIV-infected cats committed more reference (exploring an unbaited cup) and working memory (returning to a previously visited baited cup) errors than control cats. The main difference demonstrated was a higher activity level and associated distractibility in FIV-infected cats that appears to be related to their overall deficient performance when learning new tasks. These results indicate that behavioral function is altered and cognition is quantitatively impaired in FIV-infected cats. PMID:10225221

Steigerwald, E S; Sarter, M; March, P; Podell, M

1999-04-15

372

The Effects of Early Neglect on Cognitive, Language, and Behavioral Functioning in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Objectives Few studies have explored the impact of different types of neglect on children’s development. Measures of cognition, language, behavior, and parenting stress were used to explore differences between children experiencing various forms of neglect, as well as to compare children with and without a history of early neglect. Methods Children, ages 3 to 10 years with a history of familial neglect (USN), were compared to children with a history of institutional rearing (IA) and children without a history of neglect using the Differential Abilities Scale, Test of Early Language Development, Child Behavior Checklist, and Parenting Stress Index. Factors predicting child functioning were also explored. Results Compared with youth that were not neglected, children with a history of USN and IA demonstrated lower cognitive and language scores and more behavioral problems. Both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were most common in the USN group. Externalizing behavior problems predicted parenting stress. Higher IQ could be predicted by language scores and an absence of externalizing behavior problems. When comparing the two neglect groups, shorter time spent in a stable environment, lower scores on language skills, and the presence of externalizing behavior predicted lower IQ. Conclusion These findings emphasize the importance of early stable, permanent placement of children who have been in neglectful and pre-adoptive international settings. While an enriching environment may promote resilience, children who have experienced early neglect are vulnerable to cognitive, language and behavioral deficits and neurodevelopmental and behavioral evaluations are required to identify those in need of intervention.

Spratt, Eve G.; Friedenberg, Samantha L.; Swenson, Cynthia C.; LaRosa, Angela; De Bellis, Michael D.; Macias, Michelle M.; Summer, Andrea P.; Hulsey, Thomas C.; Runyan, Des K.; Brady, Kathleen T.

2013-01-01

373

Dysexecutive Functioning in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Derailment in Temporal Gradients  

PubMed Central

Libon et al. (2010) provided evidence for three statistically determined clusters of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI): amnesic (aMCI), dysexecutive (dMCI), and mixed (mxMCI). The current study further examined dysexecutive impairment in MCI using the framework of Fuster's (1997) derailed temporal gradients, that is, declining performance on executive tests over time or test epoch. Temporal gradients were operationally defined by calculating the slope of aggregate letter fluency output across 15-s epochs and accuracy indices for initial, middle, and latter triads from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Mental Control subtest (Boston Revision). For letter fluency, slope was steeper for dMCI compared to aMCI and NC groups. Between-group Mental Control analyses for triad 1 revealed worse dMCI performance than NC participants. On triad 2, dMCI scored lower than aMCI and NCs; on triad 3, mxMCI performed worse versus NCs. Within-group Mental Control analyses yielded equal performance across all triads for aMCI and NC participants. mxMCI scored lower on triad 1 compared to triads 2 and 3. dMCI participants also performed worse on triad 1 compared to triads 2 and 3, but scored higher on triad 3 versus triad 2. These data suggest impaired temporal gradients may provide a useful heuristic for understanding dysexecutive impairment in MCI.

Eppig, Joel; Wambach, Denene; Nieves, Christine; Price, Catherine C.; Lamar, Melissa; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Giovannetti, Tania; Bettcher, Brianne M.; Penney, Dana L.; Swenson, Rod; Lippa, Carol; Kabasakalian, Anahid; Bondi, Mark W.; Libon, David J.

2012-01-01

374

Obestatin is associated to muscle strength, functional capacity and cognitive status in old women.  

PubMed

Obestatin has been proposed to have anorexigenic and anti-ghrelin actions. The objective was to study obestatin concentrations in relation to handgrip strength, functional capacity and cognitive state in old women. The prospective study included 110 women (age, 76.93?±?6.32) from the Mataró Ageing Study. Individuals were characterized by anthropometric variables, grip strength, Barthel and assessment of cognitive impairment [Mini Cognoscitive Examination (MCE) Spanish version], depressive status by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and frailty by the Fried criteria. Obestatin was measured by IRMA. Obestatin showed negative correlation to handgrip at basal time point (r?=?-0.220, p?=?0.023) and at 2-year follow-up (r?=?-0.344, p?=?0.002). Obestatin, divided into quartiles, showed a negative lineal association with handgrip: 11.03?±?4.88 kg in first, 8.75?±?4.08 kg in second, 8.11?±?3.66 kg in third and 7.61?±?4.08 kg in fourth quartile (p?=?0.018). Higher obestatin levels were associated to increased weakness (categorized by handgrip of frailty criteria): 2.24?±?0.42 ng/ml in weak vs. 1.87?±?0.57 ng/ml in non-weak (p?=?0.01). The decrease of either MCE or Barthel scores at 2-year follow-up was significantly higher in individuals in the fourth quartile of obestatin in comparison with individuals in the first quartile (p?=?0.046 and p?=?0.019, respectively). No association was found between obestatin and GDS score and neither with frailty as a condition. Obestatin is associated to low muscle strength, and impaired functional and cognitive capacity in old women participating in the Mataró Ageing Study. PMID:23604919

Mora, Mireia; Granada, María Luisa; Palomera, Elisabet; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Puig-Domingo, Manel

2013-04-23

375

A neurological model of sensory-motor problem solving with possible implications for higher-order cognition and instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grossberg's neural modeling principles of learning, perception, cognition, and motor control are presented as the basis for construction of a neurological model of sensory-motor problem solving. The pattern of problem solving is assumed to be universal, thus is sought in the higher-order shift from the child's use of an additive strategy to the adolescent's use of a proportions strategy to solve the Pouring Water Task (Suarez and Rhonheimer, 1974). Possible neurological principles involved in this shift and in the process of psychological equilibration are discussed as are possible educational implications.

Lawson, Anton E.

376

COGNITIVE RESERVE IN AGING  

PubMed Central

Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related problems.

Tucker, Adrienne M.; Stern, Yaakov

2011-01-01

377

Decreased Functional Connectivity by Aging Is Associated with Cognitive Decline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging is related to cognitive decline, and it has been reported that aging disrupts some resting state brain networks. However, most studies have focused on the default mode network and ignored other resting state networks. In this study, we measured resting state activity using fMRI and explored whether cognitive decline with aging is related to disrupted resting state networks. Independent

Keiichi Onoda; Masaki Ishihara; Shuhei Yamaguchi

378

Decreased Functional Connectivity by Aging Is Associated with Cognitive Decline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging is related to cognitive decline, and it has been reported that aging disrupts some resting state brain networks. However, most studies have focused on the default mode network and ignored other resting state networks. In this study, we measured resting state activity using fMRI and explored whether cognitive decline with aging is related to disrupted resting state networks. Independent

Keiichi Onoda; Masaki Ishihara; Shuhei Yamaguchi

2012-01-01

379

Is Cognitive Functioning Impaired in Methamphetamine Users? A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevailing view is that recreational methamphetamine use causes a broad range of severe cognitive deficits, despite the fact that concerns have been raised about interpretations drawn from the published literature. This article addresses an important gap in our knowledge by providing a critical review of findings from recent research investigating the impact of recreational methamphetamine use on human cognition.

Carl L Hart; Caroline B Marvin; Rae Silver; Edward E Smith

2012-01-01

380

Insight dimensions and cognitive function in psychosis: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It has been reported that lack of insight is significantly associated with cognitive disturbance in schizophrenia. This study examines the longitudinal relationships between insight dimensions and cognitive performance in psychosis. METHODS: Participants were 75 consecutively admitted inpatients with schizophrenia, affective disorder with psychotic symptoms or schizoaffective disorder. Assessments were conducted at two time points during the study: at the

Manuel J Cuesta; Victor Peralta; Amalia Zarzuela; Maria Zandio

2006-01-01

381

The Relationship between Nonverbal Cognitive Functions and Hearing Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and memory and attention when nonverbal, visually presented cognitive tests are used. Method: Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and IQ were measured in 30 participants with mild to severe hearing loss. Participants performed cognitive tests of pattern recognition memory,…

Zekveld, Adriana A.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Goverts, S. Theo; Kramer, Sophia E.

2007-01-01

382

The Impact of Sleep Quality on Cognitive Functioning in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

In healthy individuals and those with insomnia, poor sleep quality is associated with decrements in performance on tests of cognition, especially executive function. Sleep disturbances and cognitive deficits are both prevalent in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Sleep problems occur in over 75% of patients, with sleep fragmentation and decreased sleep efficiency being the most common sleep complaints, but their relation to cognition is unknown. We examined the association between sleep quality and cognition in PD. In 35 non-demented individuals with PD and 18 normal control adults (NC), sleep was measured using 24-hr wrist actigraphy over 7 days. Cognitive domains tested included attention and executive function, memory and psychomotor function. In both groups, poor sleep was associated with worse performance on tests of attention/executive function but not memory or psychomotor function. In the PD group, attention/executive function was predicted by sleep efficiency, whereas memory and psychomotor function were not predicted by sleep quality. Psychomotor and memory function were predicted by motor symptom severity. This study is the first to demonstrate that sleep quality in PD is significantly correlated with cognition and that it differentially impacts attention and executive function, thereby furthering our understanding of the link between sleep and cognition.

Stavitsky, Karina; Neargarder, Sandy; Bogdanova, Yelena; McNamara, Patrick; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

2013-01-01

383

Design of cognitive engine for cognitive radio based on the rough sets and radial basis function neural network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cognitive radio (CR) is an intelligent wireless communication system which can dynamically adjust the parameters to improve system performance depending on the environmental change and quality of service. The core technology for CR is the design of cognitive engine, which introduces reasoning and learning methods in the field of artificial intelligence, to achieve the perception, adaptation and learning capability. Considering the dynamical wireless environment and demands, this paper proposes a design of cognitive engine based on the rough sets (RS) and radial basis function neural network (RBF_NN). The method uses experienced knowledge and environment information processed by RS module to train the RBF_NN, and then the learning model is used to reconfigure communication parameters to allocate resources rationally and improve system performance. After training learning model, the performance is evaluated according to two benchmark functions. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the model and the proposed cognitive engine can effectively achieve the goal of learning and reconfiguration in cognitive radio.

Yang, Yanchao; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Congbin; Lan, Zhongli

2013-03-01

384

Social Activity and Cognitive Functioning Over Time: A Coordinated Analysis of Four Longitudinal Studies  

PubMed Central

Social activity is typically viewed as part of an engaged lifestyle that may help mitigate the deleterious effects of advanced age on cognitive function. As such, social activity has been examined in relation to cognitive abilities later in life. However, longitudinal evidence for this hypothesis thus far remains inconclusive. The current study sought to clarify the relationship between social activity and cognitive function over time using a coordinated data analysis approach across four longitudinal studies. A series of multilevel growth models with social activity included as a covariate is presented. Four domains of cognitive function were assessed: reasoning, memory, fluency, and semantic knowledge. Results suggest that baseline social activity is related to some, but not all, cognitive functions. Baseline social activity levels failed to predict rate of decline in most cognitive abilities. Changes in social activity were not consistently associated with cognitive functioning. Our findings do not provide consistent evidence that changes in social activity correspond to immediate benefits in cognitive functioning, except perhaps for verbal fluency.

Brown, Cassandra L.; Gibbons, Laura E.; Kennison, Robert F.; Robitaille, Annie; Lindwall, Magnus; Mitchell, Meghan B.; Shirk, Steven D.; Atri, Alireza; Cimino, Cynthia R.; Benitez, Andreana; MacDonald, Stuart W. S.; Zelinski, Elizabeth M.; Willis, Sherry L.; Schaie, K. Warner; Johansson, Boo; Dixon, Roger A.; Mungas, Dan M.; Hofer, Scott M.; Piccinin, Andrea M.

2012-01-01

385

Functional brain interactions that serve cognitive–affective processing during pain and placebo analgesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain requires the integration of sensory, cognitive, and affective information. The use of placebo is a common methodological ploy in many fields, including pain. Neuroimaging studies of pain and placebo analgesia (PA) have yet to identify a mechanism of action. Because PA must result from higher order processes, it is likely influenced by cognitive and affective dimensions of the pain

Jason G. Craggs; Donald D. Price; G. Nicholas Verne; William M. Perlstein; Michael M. Robinson

2007-01-01

386

Beauty and Art. Cognitive Function, Evolution, and Mathematical Models of the Mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses relationships between aesthetics theory and mathematical models of mind. Mathematical theory describes abilities for concepts, emotions, instincts, imagination, adaptation, learning, cognition, language, approximate hierarchy of the mind and evolution of these abilities. The knowledge instinct is the foundation of higher mental abilities and aesthetic emotions. Aesthetic emotions are present in every act of perception and cognition, and

Leonid Perlovsky

2010-01-01

387

Cigarette Smoking and Cognitive Function in Chinese Male Schizophrenia: A Case-Control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenic patients have higher smoking rates than the general population. Studies show that smoking may be a form of self-medication in an attempt to alleviate cognitive deficits in schizophrenic patients of European background. This study examined the relationships between smoking and cognitive deficits in Chinese schizophrenic patients, which have previously received little systemic study. We recruited 580 male chronic patients

Xiang Yang Zhang; Da Chun Chen; Mei Hong Xiu; Colin N. Haile; Hongqiang Sun; Lin Lu; Therese A. Kosten; Thomas R. Kosten

2012-01-01

388

Reduced cognitive function predicts functional decline in patients with heart failure over 12 months.  

PubMed

Background:Occurrences of impaired activities of daily living (ADL) are common in heart failure (HF) patients and contribute to the elevated mortality and hospitalization rates in this population. Cognitive impairment is also prevalent in HF, though its ability to predict functional decline over time is unknown.Aims:This study examined the longitudinal pattern of activities of daily living (ADL) in HF persons and whether reduced baseline cognitive status predicts functional decline in this population.Methods:Altogether 110 persons with HF completed the Lawton-Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale and were administered the Modified Mini-Mental Status Examination (3MS) at baseline and a 12-month follow-up. Three composite scores were derived from the Lawton-Brody scale, including total, instrumental, and basic ADL.Results:HF patients reported high rates of baseline impairments in instrumental ADL, including shopping, food preparation, housekeeping duties, laundry, among others. Repeated measures analyses showed significant declines in total and instrumental ADL from baseline to the 12-month follow-up in HF (p<0.05). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that poorer baseline performance on the 3MS predicted worse total ADL performance at 12-months (?=0.15, p=0.049), including greater dependence in shopping, driving, feeding, and physical ambulation (p<0.05 for all).Conclusion:The current results show that HF patients report significant functional decline over a 12-month period and brief cognitive tests can identify those patients at highest risk for decline. If replicated, such findings encourage the use of cognitive screening measures to identify HF patients most likely to require assistance with ADL tasks. PMID:23754840

Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H; Colbert, Lisa H; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

2013-06-01

389

Spirometry and Respiratory Muscle Function During Ascent to Higher Altitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alteration in lung function at high altitude influences exercise capacity, worsens hypoxia, and may predispose to high-altitude\\u000a illness. The effect of high altitude on lung function and mechanisms responsible for these alterations remain unclear. Seven\\u000a adult male mountaineers were followed prospectively during a climbing expedition to Mount Everest, Nepal. Measurements of\\u000a spirometry and respiratory muscle function were performed for the

Sat Sharma; Bryce Brown

2007-01-01

390

?-1 noradrenergic receptor stimulation impairs prefrontal cortical cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Many neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with high levels of noradrenergic turnover, and most antipsychotic medications have ?-1 adrenoceptor blocking properties, yet little is known about ?-1 influences on higher cortical function.Methods: The ?-1 adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine, was infused into the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats (0.1 ?g\\/0.5 ?L) performing a spatial working memory task, delayed alternation. The phenylephrine response

Amy F. T Arnsten; Rex Mathew; Ravi Ubriani; Jane R Taylor; Bao-Ming Li

1999-01-01

391

Impaired Sensory and Cognitive Olfactory Function in Questionable Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of olfactory function being affected at a very early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was investigated by comparing patients with questionable AD with normal controls on odor and taste detection and short-term odor-and visual-recognition memory, including familiarity ratings. Taste and vision were studied for comparison. The questionable AD patients compared with the controls had higher thresholds for odor

Steven Nordin; Claire Murphy

1996-01-01

392

Impaired Sociability and Cognitive Function in Nrcam-null Mice  

PubMed Central

NRCAM (Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecule) has an important role in axonal guidance and the organization of neural circuitry during brain development. Association analyses in human populations have identified NRCAM as a candidate gene for autism susceptibility. In the present study, we evaluated Nrcam-null mice for sociability, social novelty preference, and reversal learning as a model for the social deficits, repetitive behavior, and cognitive rigidity characteristic of autism. Prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle responses was also measured, to reflect sensorimotor-gating deficits in autism spectrum disorders. Assays for anxiety-like behavior in an elevated plus maze and open field, motor coordination, and olfactory ability in a buried food test were conducted to provide control measures for the interpretation of results. Overall, the loss of Nrcam led to behavioral alterations in sociability, acquisition of a spatial task, and reversal learning, dependent on sex. In comparison to male wild type mice, male Nrcam-null mutants had significantly decreased sociability in a three-chambered choice task. Low sociability in the male null mutants was not associated with changes in anxiety-like behavior, activity, or motor coordination. Male, but not female, Nrcam-null mice had small decreases in prepulse inhibition. Nrcam deficiency in female mice led to impaired acquisition of spatial learning in the Morris water maze task. Reversal learning deficits were observed in both male and female Nrcam-null mice. These results provide evidence that NRCAM mediates domains of function relevant to symptoms observed in autism.

Moy, Sheryl S.; Nonneman, Randal J.; Young, Nancy B.; Demyanenko, Galina P.; Maness, Patricia F.

2009-01-01

393

Functional Imaging of Cognitive Control During Acute Alcohol Intoxication  

PubMed Central

The anterior cingulate and a collection of other prefrontal and parietal brain regions are implicated in error processing and cognitive control. The effects of different doses of alcohol on activity within these brain regions during an fMRI task where errors are frequently committed have not been fully explored. This study examined the impact of a placebo [Breath Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) = 0.00%], moderate (BrAC = 0.05%) and high (BrAC = 0.10%) doses of alcohol on brain hemodynamic activity during a functional MRI (fMRI) Go/No-Go task in thirty-eight healthy volunteers. Alcohol increased reaction time and false alarm errors in a dose-dependent manner. FMRI analyses showed alcohol decreased activity in anterior cingulate, lateral prefrontal cortex, insula and parietal lobe regions during false alarm responses to No-Go stimuli. These findings indicate that brain regions implicated in error processing are affected by alcohol and might provide a neural basis for alcohol's effects on behavioral performance.

Anderson, Beth M; Stevens, Michael C; Meda, Shashwath; Jordan, Kathryn; Calhoun, Vince D; Pearlson, Godfrey D

2010-01-01

394

Angiotensin II inhibits cortical cholinergic function: Implications for cognition  

SciTech Connect

In the present studies we have shown that angiotensin II (AT II), in a concentration-dependent manner in rat tissue (10(-9)-10(-5) M) or at a single concentration in human tissue (10(-6) M), can inhibit potassium-stimulated release of (3H)acetylcholine ( (3H)Ach) from slices of rat entorhinal cortex and human temporal cortex preloaded with (3H)choline for the biochemical analyses. The inhibitory effects of AT II (10(-6) M) were antagonised by the specific AT II receptor antagonist (1-sarcosine, 8-threonine)AT II in a concentration-dependent manner in rat tissue (10(-11)-10(-8) M) and at the single concentration employed in the human studies (10(-7) M). Also demonstrated were other components of the angiotensin system in the human temporal cortex; ACE activity was present (1.03 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein), as were AT II recognition sites (Bmax = 8.6 fmol mg-1 protein). It is hypothesised that the potential cognitive enhancing properties of ACE inhibitors may reflect their action to prevent the formation of AT II and so remove an inhibitory modulator of cholinergic function.

Barnes, J.M.; Barnes, N.M.; Costall, B.; Horovitz, Z.P.; Ironside, J.W.; Naylor, R.J.; Williams, T.J. (Univ. of Bradford (England))

1990-08-01

395

Cognitive extension: the parity argument, functionalism, and the mark of the cognitive  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade, the so-called “hypothesis of cognitive extension,” according to which the material vehicles of some\\u000a cognitive processes are spatially distributed over the brain and the extracranial parts of the body and the world, has received\\u000a lots of attention, both favourable and unfavourable. The debate has largely focussed on three related issues: (1) the role\\u000a of parity considerations,

Sven Walter

2010-01-01

396

Anatomical Correlates of Cognitive Functions in Early Parkinson's Disease Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive deficits may occur early in Parkinson's disease (PD) but the extent of cortical involvement associated with cognitive dysfunction needs additional investigations. The aim of our study is to identify the anatomical pattern of cortical thickness alterations in patients with early stage PD and its relationship with cognitive disability. Methods We recruited 29 PD patients and 21 healthy controls. All PD patients performed an extensive neuropsychological examination and 14 were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI). Surface-based cortical thickness analysis was applied to investigate the topographical distribution of cortical and subcortical alterations in early PD compared with controls and to assess the relationship between cognition and regional cortical changes in PD-MCI. Results Overall PD patients showed focal cortical (occipital-parietal areas, orbito-frontal and olfactory areas) and subcortical thinning when compared with controls. PD-MCI showed a wide spectrum of cognitive deficits and related significant regional thickening in the right parietal-frontal as well as in the left temporal-occipital areas. Conclusion Our results confirm the presence of changes in grey matter thickness at relatively early PD stage and support previous studies showing thinning and atrophy in the neocortex and subcortical regions. Relative cortical thickening in PD-MCI may instead express compensatory neuroplasticity. Brain reserve mechanisms might first modulate cognitive decline during the initial stages of PD.

Biundo, Roberta; Calabrese, Massimiliano; Weis, Luca; Facchini, Silvia; Ricchieri, Gianluigi; Gallo, Paolo; Antonini, Angelo

2013-01-01

397

A generalization of Nash's theorem with higher-order functionals  

PubMed Central

The recent theory of sequential games and selection functions by Escardó & Oliva is extended to games in which players move simultaneously. The Nash existence theorem for mixed-strategy equilibria of finite games is generalized to games defined by selection functions. A normal form construction is given, which generalizes the game-theoretic normal form, and its soundness is proved. Minimax strategies also generalize to the new class of games, and are computed by the Berardi–Bezem–Coquand functional, studied in proof theory as an interpretation of the axiom of countable choice.

Hedges, Julian

2013-01-01

398

Cognitive function after radiotherapy for supratentorial low-grade glioma: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group prospective study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of cranial radiotherapy (RT) on cognitive function in patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Twenty adult patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma were treated with 50.4 Gy (10 patients) or 64.8 Gy (10 patients) localized RT. The patients then were evaluated with an extensive battery of psychometric tests at baseline (before RT) and at approximately 18-month intervals for as long as 5 years after completing RT. To allow patients to serve as their own controls, cognitive performance was evaluated as change in scores over time. All patients underwent at least two evaluations. Results: Baseline test scores were below average compared with age-specific norms. At the second evaluation, the groups' mean test scores were higher than their initial performances on all psychometric measures, although the improvement was not statistically significant. No changes in cognitive performance were seen during the evaluation period when test scores were analyzed by age, treatment, tumor location, tumor type, or extent of resection. Conclusions: Cognitive function was stable after RT in these patients evaluated prospectively during 3 years of follow-up. Slight improvements in some cognitive areas are consistent with practice effects attributable to increased familiarity with test procedures and content.

Laack, Nadia N. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Brown, Paul D. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)]. E-mail: brown.paul@mayo.edu; Ivnik, Robert J. [Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Furth, Alfred F. M.S. [Cancer Center Statistics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Ballman, Karla V. [Division of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Hammack, Julie E. [Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Arusell, Robert M. [Roger Maris Cancer Center, Fargo, ND (United States); Shaw, Edward G. [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Buckner, Jan C. [Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

2005-11-15

399

Distinct Functional Networks Associated with Improvement of Affective Symptoms and Cognitive Function During Citalopram Treatment in Geriatric Depression  

PubMed Central

Variability in the affective and cognitive symptom response to antidepressant treatment has been observed in geriatric depression. The underlying neural circuitry is poorly understood. The current study evaluated the cerebral glucose metabolic effects of citalopram treatment and applied multivariate, functional connectivity analyses to identify brain networks associated with improvements in affective symptoms and cognitive function. Sixteen geriatric depressed patients underwent resting Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies of cerebral glucose metabolism and assessment of affective symptoms and cognitive function before and after eight weeks of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment (citalopram). Voxel-wise analyses of the normalized glucose metabolic data showed decreased cerebral metabolism during citalopram treatment in the anterior cingulate gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, precuneus, amygdala, and parahippocampal gyrus. Increased metabolism was observed in the putamen, occipital cortex and cerebellum. Functional connectivity analyses revealed two networks which were uniquely associated with improvement of affective symptoms and cognitive function during treatment. A subcortical-limbic-frontal network was associated with improvement in affect (depression and anxiety), while a medial temporal-parietal-frontal network was associated with improvement in cognition (immediate verbal learning/memory and verbal fluency). The regions that comprise the cognitive network overlap with the regions that are affected in Alzheimer’s dementia. Thus, alterations in specific brain networks associated with improvement of affective symptoms and cognitive function are observed during citalopram treatment in geriatric depression.

Diaconescu, Andreea Oliviana; Kramer, Elisse; Hermann, Carol; Ma, Yilong; Dhawan, Vijay; Chaly, Thomas; Eidelberg, David; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Smith, Gwenn S.

2010-01-01

400

QR Codes in Higher Ed: Fad or Functional Tool?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As higher education grapples with addressing the 21st century needs of learners, technology is a pervasive concern. Waters (2012) painted a picture of three historical "screens," namely the television screen, the computer monitor, and today's mobile device screen. As mobile devices become increasingly commonplace in the workplace and on the…

Gradel, Kathleen; Edson, Alden J.

2013-01-01

401

Teacher cognitive functioning as a factor in observed variety and level of classroom teaching behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of the literature suggests a relationship between life-long development of formal reasoning schema and performance in professional education careers. The study investigated implications of cognitive development of preservice teachers as it relates to their classroom teaching performance. Ninety-one seniors involved in a field-oriented teacher education program were given classroom responsibilities which included teaching a science unit. Formal thinking abilities were assessed using two types of developmental level tasks, performance on traditional type Piagetian tasks and recognition of formal thought approaches in solving educational tasks. Professional behaviors were assessed using observational ratings of classroom instructional and planning activities. Subjects assessed as formal operational, 30% of sample, using Piagetian performance tasks, had significantly higher facility in performing model classroom teaching behaviors than transitional or concrete subjects. Higher recognition ability of formal thought approaches to teaching was not related to facility in performing classroom teaching when compared to performance on Piagetian tasks. The relationship held up in seven of eight broad teaching behavior categories observed in classroom instruction. The results supported a general portrait of teaching behavior specifically related to teachers of differing cognitive functional levels. Implications for professional training programs are discussed.

Sunal, Dennis W.; Sunal, Cynthia

402

Can We Understand Why Cognitive Function Predicts Mortality? Results from the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The association between cognitive function and mortality is of increasing interest. We followed 1870 men aged 55-69 years at cognitive assessment for 16 years to establish associations with all case and cause specific mortality. Cognitive assessment included AH4, 4 choice reaction time (used as estimates of mid-life cognition) and the National…

Gallacher, John; Bayer, Anthony; Dunstan, Frank; Yarnell, John; Elwood, Peter; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

2009-01-01

403

Early development in Dravet syndrome; visual function impairment precedes cognitive decline.  

PubMed

Aim of the study was to describe prospectively the early neuropsychological evolution including the first pre-cognitive stages of the Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy in Infancy (SMEI) or Dravet syndrome. Five cases, four of whom since before a diagnostic evidence of the Dravet syndrome, were followed up. Full clinical assessment including developmental, visual function and behaviour assessments were serially performed. In four cases, a variable onset age of cognitive decline assessed with developmental scales was preceded some months before by an impairment of visual function; the remaining patient during all the course of follow-up till 51 months of age showed a normal development without visual impairment. A cognitive decline with variable onset was generally confirmed in Dravet syndrome. The previous early impairment of visual function seems to herald the cognitive decline and provides useful prognostic information; furthermore, it possibly suggests some clues for a better understanding of the mechanisms of cognitive deterioration in this syndrome. PMID:21109403

Chieffo, Daniela; Ricci, Daniela; Baranello, Giovanni; Martinelli, Diego; Veredice, Chiara; Lettori, Donatella; Battaglia, Domenica; Dravet, Charlotte; Mercuri, Eugenio; Guzzetta, Francesco

2010-11-24

404

Cognitive and motor functioning in patients with multiple sclerosis: neuropsychological predictors of walking speed and falls.  

PubMed

While motor and cognitive impairments are common in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients, research concerning their relationship in this population has been limited. We aimed to evaluate cross-sectional associations between cognitive functions, walking speed, and falls in patients with MS. Through a retrospective chart review of 81 patients with MS, we examined whether measures of cognitive function predicted walking speed on the Timed 25-Foot Walk and self-reported fall frequency. Hierarchical linear regressions showed that after controlling for age, gender, and disease severity, slower processing speed and IQ predicted slower gait speed, while poorer verbal memory predicted increased frequency of falls. Moreover, a binary logistic regression showed that poorer verbal memory also predicted increased risk of multiple falls. Thus, specific cognitive functions are meaningfully related to mobility limitations in patients with MS. These findings suggest that risk assessment for gait decline and falls should include cognitive assessment in patients with MS. PMID:22353853

D'Orio, Vanessa L; Foley, Frederick W; Armentano, Francine; Picone, Mary Ann; Kim, Sonya; Holtzer, Roee

201