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Sample records for higher cognitive functions

  1. Functional independence in resting-state connectivity facilitates higher-order cognition.

    PubMed

    James, G Andrew; Kearney-Ramos, Tonisha E; Young, Jonathan A; Kilts, Clinton D; Gess, Jennifer L; Fausett, Jennifer S

    2016-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that intrinsic functional connectivity (i.e. highly structured patterns of communication between brain regions during wakeful rest) may encode cognitive ability. However, the generalizability of these findings is limited by between-study differences in statistical methodology and cognitive domains evaluated. To address this barrier, we evaluated resting-state neural representations of multiple cognitive domains within a relatively large normative adult sample. Forty-four participants (mean(sd) age=31(10) years; 18 male and 26 female) completed a resting-state functional MRI scan and neuropsychological assessments spanning motor, visuospatial, language, learning, memory, attention, working memory, and executive function performance. Robust linear regression related cognitive performance to resting-state connectivity among 200 a priori determined functional regions of interest (ROIs). Only higher-order cognitions (such as learning and executive function) demonstrated significant relationships between brain function and behavior. Additionally, all significant relationships were negative - characterized by moderately positive correlations among low performers and weak to moderately negative correlations among high performers. These findings suggest that functional independence among brain regions at rest facilitates cognitive performance. Our interpretation is consistent with graph theoretic analyses which represent the brain as independent functional nodes that undergo dynamic reorganization with task demand. Future work will build upon these findings by evaluating domain-specific variance in resting-state neural representations of cognitive impairment among patient populations. PMID:27105037

  2. Sex Differences in Cognitive Domains and Their Clinical Correlates in Higher-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Sven; Duketis, Eftichia; Poustka, Fritz; Holtmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Despite the skewed sex ratio, few studies have addressed possible cognitive sex differences in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study compared visual attention to detail (ATTD) and selected executive functions (EF) in 35 males and 21 females with higher-functioning ASD and unaffected sibling controls. Females with ASD outperformed males on…

  3. Sleep inertia, sleep homeostatic and circadian influences on higher-order cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Burke, Tina M; Scheer, Frank A J L; Ronda, Joseph M; Czeisler, Charles A; Wright, Kenneth P

    2015-08-01

    Sleep inertia, sleep homeostatic and circadian processes modulate cognition, including reaction time, memory, mood and alertness. How these processes influence higher-order cognitive functions is not well known. Six participants completed a 73-day-long study that included two 14-day-long 28-h forced desynchrony protocols to examine separate and interacting influences of sleep inertia, sleep homeostasis and circadian phase on higher-order cognitive functions of inhibitory control and selective visual attention. Cognitive performance for most measures was impaired immediately after scheduled awakening and improved during the first ~2-4 h of wakefulness (decreasing sleep inertia); worsened thereafter until scheduled bedtime (increasing sleep homeostasis); and was worst at ~60° and best at ~240° (circadian modulation, with worst and best phases corresponding to ~09:00 and ~21:00 hours, respectively, in individuals with a habitual wake time of 07:00 hours). The relative influences of sleep inertia, sleep homeostasis and circadian phase depended on the specific higher-order cognitive function task examined. Inhibitory control appeared to be modulated most strongly by circadian phase, whereas selective visual attention for a spatial-configuration search task was modulated most strongly by sleep inertia. These findings demonstrate that some higher-order cognitive processes are differentially sensitive to different sleep-wake regulatory processes. Differential modulation of cognitive functions by different sleep-wake regulatory processes has important implications for understanding mechanisms contributing to performance impairments during adverse circadian phases, sleep deprivation and/or upon awakening from sleep. PMID:25773686

  4. Long term effects of recreational SCUBA diving on higher cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Hemelryck, W; Germonpré, P; Papadopoulou, V; Rozloznik, M; Balestra, C

    2014-12-01

    We investigated long-term effects of SCUBA diving on cognitive function using a battery of neuropsychometric tests: the Simple Reaction Time (REA), Symbol Digit Substitution (SDS), Digit Span Backwards (DSB), and Hand-Eye Coordination tests (EYE). A group (n = 44) of experienced SCUBA divers with no history of decompression sickness was compared to non-diving control subjects (n = 37), as well as to professional boxers (n = 24), who are considered at higher risk of long term neurological damage. The REA was significantly shorter in SCUBA divers compared to the control subjects, and also more stable over the time course of the test. In contrast, the number of digits correctly memorized and reordered (DSB) was significantly lower for SCUBA divers compared to the control group. The results also showed that boxers performed significantly worse than the control group in three out of four tests (REA, DSB, EYE). While it may be concluded that accident-free SCUBA diving may have some long-term adverse effects on short-term memory, there is however, no evidence of general higher cognitive function deficiency. PMID:23902533

  5. Higher HDL cholesterol is associated with better cognitive function: the Maine-Syracuse study.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Davey, Adam; Sullivan, Kevin J; Robbins, Michael A

    2014-11-01

    Few studies have examined associations between different subcategories of cholesterol and cognitive function. We examined relationships between total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), triglyceride levels and cognitive performance in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study, a community-based study of cardiovascular risk factors. Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on data from 540 participants, aged 60 to 98 years, free of dementia and stroke. TC, HDL, LDL, and triglyceride levels were obtained. Cognitive function was assessed using a thorough neuropsychological test battery, including domains of cognitive function indexed by multiple cognitive tests. The cognitive outcomes studied were as follows: Visual-Spatial Memory and Organization, Verbal and Working Memory, Scanning and Tracking, Abstract Reasoning, a Global Composite score, and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Significant positive associations were observed between HDL-cholesterol and the Global Composite score, Working Memory, and the MMSE after adjustment for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Participants with desirable levels of HDL (≥60 mg/dL) had the highest scores on all cognitive outcomes. There were no significant associations observed between TC, LDL, or triglyceride concentrations and cognition. In older individuals, HDL-cholesterol was related to a composite of Working Memory tests and for general measures of cognitive ability when adjusted for cardiovascular variables. We speculate that persons over 60 are survivors and thus less likely to show cognitive deficit in relation to TC, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine relations between specific cognitive abilities and the different subcategories of cholesterol. PMID:25382185

  6. Moderate, Regular Alcohol Consumption is Associated with Higher Cognitive Function in Older Community-Dwelling Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reas, E.T.; Laughlin, G.A.; Kritz-Silverstein, D.; Barrett-Connor, E.; McEvoy, L.K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evidence suggests that moderate alcohol consumption may protect against cognitive decline and dementia. However, uncertainty remains over the patterns of drinking that are most beneficial. OBJECTIVE To examine associations between amount and frequency of alcohol consumption with multiple domains of cognitive function in a well-characterized cohort of older community-dwelling adults in southern California. DESIGN Observational, cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING A research visit between 1988–1992 in Rancho Bernardo, California. PARTICIPANTS 1624 participants of the Rancho Bernardo Study (mean age ± SD = 73.2 ± 9.3 years). Measurements Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery, self-administered questionnaires on alcohol consumption and lifestyle, and a clinical health evaluation. We classified participants according to average amount of alcohol intake into never, former, moderate, heavy and excessive drinkers, and according to frequency of alcohol intake, into non-drinkers, rare, infrequent, frequent and daily drinkers. We examined the association between alcohol intake and cognitive function, controlling for age, sex, education, exercise, smoking, waist-hip ratio, hypertension and self-assessed health. RESULTS Amount and frequency of alcohol intake were significantly associated with cognitive function, even after controlling for potentially related health and lifestyle variables. Global and executive function showed positive linear associations with amount and frequency of alcohol intake, whereas visual memory showed an inverted U-shaped association with alcohol intake, with better performance for moderate and infrequent drinkers than for non-drinkers, excessive drinkers or daily drinkers. CONCLUSIONS In several cognitive domains, moderate, regular alcohol intake was associated with better cognitive function relative to not drinking or drinking less frequently. This suggests that beneficial cognitive effects of alcohol intake may be

  7. Protective Effects of Higher Cognitive Reserve for Neuropsychological and Daily Functioning Among Individuals Infected with Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Maiko; Woods, Steven Paul; Kolessar, Michael; Kriz, Daniel; Anderson, J. Renee; Olavarria, Hannah; Sasaki, Anna W.; Chang, Michael; Flora, Kenneth D.; Loftis, Jennifer M.; Huckans, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Higher levels of cognitive reserve (CR) can be protective against the neuropsychological manifestation of neural injury across a variety of clinical disorders. However, the role of CR in the expression of neurocognitive deficits among persons infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is not well understood. Thirty-nine HCV-infected participants were classified as having either high (n=19) or low (n=20) CR based on educational attainment, oral word reading, and IQ scores. A sample of 40 demographically comparable healthy adults (HA) was also included. All participants completed the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB), Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), and Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Adult Version (BRIEF-A). Linear regression analyses, controlling for gender, depression and lifetime substance use disorders, found significant effects of HCV/CR group on verbal fluency, executive functions, and daily functioning T-scores, but not in learning or the BRIEF-A. Pairwise comparisons revealed that the HCV group with low CR performed significantly below the HCV high CR and HA cohorts, who did not differ from one another. Findings indicate that higher levels of CR may be a protective factor in the neurocognitive and real-world manifestation of neural injury commonly associated with HCV infection. PMID:24018902

  8. Nogo-A-deficient Transgenic Rats Show Deficits in Higher Cognitive Functions, Decreased Anxiety, and Altered Circadian Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Petrasek, Tomas; Prokopova, Iva; Sladek, Martin; Weissova, Kamila; Vojtechova, Iveta; Bahnik, Stepan; Zemanova, Anna; Schönig, Kai; Berger, Stefan; Tews, Björn; Bartsch, Dusan; Schwab, Martin E.; Sumova, Alena; Stuchlik, Ales

    2014-01-01

    Decreased levels of Nogo-A-dependent signaling have been shown to affect behavior and cognitive functions. In Nogo-A knockout and knockdown laboratory rodents, behavioral alterations were observed, possibly corresponding with human neuropsychiatric diseases of neurodevelopmental origin, particularly schizophrenia. This study offers further insight into behavioral manifestations of Nogo-A knockdown in laboratory rats, focusing on spatial and non-spatial cognition, anxiety levels, circadian rhythmicity, and activity patterns. Demonstrated is an impairment of cognitive functions and behavioral flexibility in a spatial active avoidance task, while non-spatial memory in a step-through avoidance task was spared. No signs of anhedonia, typical for schizophrenic patients, were observed in the animals. Some measures indicated lower anxiety levels in the Nogo-A-deficient group. Circadian rhythmicity in locomotor activity was preserved in the Nogo-A knockout rats and their circadian period (tau) did not differ from controls. However, daily activity patterns were slightly altered in the knockdown animals. We conclude that a reduction of Nogo-A levels induces changes in CNS development, manifested as subtle alterations in cognitive functions, emotionality, and activity patterns. PMID:24672453

  9. Higher Brain Perfusion May Not Support Memory Functions in Cognitively Normal Carriers of the ApoE ε4 Allele Compared to Non-Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Zlatar, Zvinka Z.; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Hays, Chelsea C.; Liu, Thomas T.; Meloy, M. J.; Rissman, Robert A.; Bondi, Mark W.; Wierenga, Christina E.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), which carries necessary nutrients to the brain, are associated with increased risk for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Whether the association between CBF and cognition is moderated by apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 genotype, a known risk factor for AD, remains understudied, with most research focusing on exploring brain regions in which there are diagnostic group differences in CBF (i.e., cognitively normal vs. MCI vs. AD). This study measured resting CBF via arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and verbal memory functions using a composite score in 59 older adults with normal cognition (38 ε3; 21 ε4). Linear mixed effect models were employed to investigate if the voxel-wise relationship between verbal memory performance and resting CBF was modified by ApoE genotype. Results indicated that carriers of the ApoE ε4 allele display negative associations between verbal memory functions and CBF in medial frontal cortex, medial and lateral temporal cortex, parietal regions, insula, and the basal ganglia. Contrarily, ε3 carriers exhibited positive associations between verbal memory functions and CBF in medial frontal cortex, thalamus, insula, and basal ganglia. Findings suggest that higher CBF was associated with worse verbal memory functions in cognitively normal ε4 carriers, perhaps reflecting dysregulation within the neurovascular unit, which is no longer supportive of cognition. Results are discussed within the context of the vascular theory of AD risk. PMID:27445794

  10. Higher Brain Perfusion May Not Support Memory Functions in Cognitively Normal Carriers of the ApoE ε4 Allele Compared to Non-Carriers.

    PubMed

    Zlatar, Zvinka Z; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Hays, Chelsea C; Liu, Thomas T; Meloy, M J; Rissman, Robert A; Bondi, Mark W; Wierenga, Christina E

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), which carries necessary nutrients to the brain, are associated with increased risk for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whether the association between CBF and cognition is moderated by apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 genotype, a known risk factor for AD, remains understudied, with most research focusing on exploring brain regions in which there are diagnostic group differences in CBF (i.e., cognitively normal vs. MCI vs. AD). This study measured resting CBF via arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and verbal memory functions using a composite score in 59 older adults with normal cognition (38 ε3; 21 ε4). Linear mixed effect models were employed to investigate if the voxel-wise relationship between verbal memory performance and resting CBF was modified by ApoE genotype. Results indicated that carriers of the ApoE ε4 allele display negative associations between verbal memory functions and CBF in medial frontal cortex, medial and lateral temporal cortex, parietal regions, insula, and the basal ganglia. Contrarily, ε3 carriers exhibited positive associations between verbal memory functions and CBF in medial frontal cortex, thalamus, insula, and basal ganglia. Findings suggest that higher CBF was associated with worse verbal memory functions in cognitively normal ε4 carriers, perhaps reflecting dysregulation within the neurovascular unit, which is no longer supportive of cognition. Results are discussed within the context of the vascular theory of AD risk. PMID:27445794

  11. The hierarchical and functional connectivity of higher-order cognitive mechanisms: neurorobotic model to investigate the stability and flexibility of working memory.

    PubMed

    Alnajjar, Fady; Yamashita, Yuichi; Tani, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Higher-order cognitive mechanisms (HOCM), such as planning, cognitive branching, switching, etc., are known to be the outcomes of a unique neural organizations and dynamics between various regions of the frontal lobe. Although some recent anatomical and neuroimaging studies have shed light on the architecture underlying the formation of such mechanisms, the neural dynamics and the pathways in and between the frontal lobe to form and/or to tune the stability level of its working memory remain controversial. A model to clarify this aspect is therefore required. In this study, we propose a simple neurocomputational model that suggests the basic concept of how HOCM, including the cognitive branching and switching in particular, may mechanistically emerge from time-based neural interactions. The proposed model is constructed such that its functional and structural hierarchy mimics, to a certain degree, the biological hierarchy that is believed to exist between local regions in the frontal lobe. Thus, the hierarchy is attained not only by the force of the layout architecture of the neural connections but also through distinct types of neurons, each with different time properties. To validate the model, cognitive branching and switching tasks were simulated in a physical humanoid robot driven by the model. Results reveal that separation between the lower and the higher-level neurons in such a model is an essential factor to form an appropriate working memory to handle cognitive branching and switching. The analyses of the obtained result also illustrates that the breadth of this separation is important to determine the characteristics of the resulting memory, either static memory or dynamic memory. This work can be considered as a joint research between synthetic and empirical studies, which can open an alternative research area for better understanding of brain mechanisms. PMID:23423881

  12. Relational Knowledge in Higher Cognitive Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halford, Graeme S.

    Explicit representation of relations plays some role in virtually all higher cognitive processes, but relational knowledge has seldom been investigated systematically. This paper considers how relational knowledge is involved in some tasks that have been important to cognitive development, including transitivity, the balance scale, classification…

  13. The ultra-slow NAT2*6A haplotype is associated with reduced higher cognitive functions in an elderly study group.

    PubMed

    Selinski, Silvia; Getzmann, Stephan; Gajewski, Patrick D; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Hengstler, Jan G; Falkenstein, Michael; Golka, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    N-Acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) genotype is associated with age-related declines in basic sensory hearing functions. However, the possible modulatory role of NAT2 for higher cognitive functions has not yet been studied. We tested auditory goal-directed behavior and attentional control in 120 NAT2 genotyped subjects (63-88 years), using an auditory distraction paradigm in which participants responded to the duration of long and short tone stimuli. We studied involuntary shifts in attention to task-irrelevant deviant stimuli and applied event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine which cognitive subprocesses are affected by NAT2 status on a neurophysiological level. Relative to the standard stimuli, deviant stimuli decreased performance in the recently described ultra-slow acetylators (NAT2*6A and *7B): The increase in error-corrected reaction times (a combined measure of response speed and accuracy) in ultra-slow acetylators (254 ms increase) was more than twice as high as in the rapid acetylator reference group (111 ms increase; p < 0.01). The increase was still higher than in the other slow acetylators (149 ms increase, p < 0.05). In addition, clear differences were found in the ERP results: Ultra-slow acetylators showed deficits specifically in the automatic detection of changes in the acoustic environment as evidenced by reduced mismatch negativity (MMN, p < 0.005 compared to rapid acetylators). Refocussing of attention after a distracting event was also impaired in the ultra-slow acetylators as evidenced by a reduced re-orienting negativity (RON, p < 0.01 compared to rapid acetylators). In conclusion, the ultra-slow acetylation status was associated with reduced higher cognitive functions. PMID:26615528

  14. [Cognition, social cognition and functioning in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Vaz-Serra, Adriano; Palha, António; Figueira, Maria Luísa; Bessa-Peixoto, Alberto; Brissos, Sofia; Casquinha, Paula; Damas-Reis, Filipe; Ferreira, Luís; Gago, Joaquim; Jara, José; Relvas, João; Marques-Teixeira, João

    2010-01-01

    The major reviews of the literature support the idea that a significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia present cognitive deficits in several domains, more marked in the domains of verbal memory, vigilance and attention, memory, intellectual quotient, language and executive functioning. Such deficits appear to be one of the main determinants of these patients' functional outcome. More recently, social cognition deficits have been described. Social cognition may be understood as a separate and independent dimension of neurocognition or non-social cognition and may constitute a mediator between the neurocognition and functioning. However, there has been controversy concerning the real meaning of deficits observed due to the diversity of analysis methodologies employed and the fact that the available neuropsychological tests and batteries have not been specifically designed to evaluate cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia. In this paper, the Working Group on Schizophrenia (GTE) describes and highlights the existing clinical and scientific evidence, performs a critical review of cognitive functioning, social cognition and its impact on functional outcome, in patients with schizophrenia. The authors review definitions of (neuro)cognition, social cognition and functioning, analyze the existing methods for its assessment, describe the treatments available in this context and summarize the evidence of dysfunctions in these three concepts, taking into account their interconnection. Overall, the GTE considered the need for a standardized battery of tests to measure neurocognition, social cognition and functioning, consensually accepting the use of MATRICS as the standard tool for assessing neurocognition in schizophrenia. It was also recognized that verbal memory and vigilance deficits may be the best predictors of functional outcome in schizophrenia. In addition, the GTE has established social cognition as a priority area in the study of schizophrenia

  15. Hypertension and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Paglieri, Cristina; Bisbocci, Daniela; Caserta, Mimma; Rabbia, Franco; Bertello, Chiara; Canadè, Antonella; Veglio, Franco

    2008-11-01

    Arterial hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, and dementia are related pathologies. This paper has reviewed comparatively the incidence of arterial hypertension and adult-onset dementia disorders. Hypertension is associated with cerebrovascular disease, which is in turn associated with dementia. It is the most important modifiable risk factor for stroke, which is a recognized cause of vascular dementia. In terms of pathophysiology of hypertensive brain damage, several hypotheses were developed, such as that vascular alterations induced by hypertension can induce lacunar or cortical infarcts and leucoaraiosis, that hypertension is responsible for cerebrovascular disease and acts into the contest of a pre-existing subclinic Alzheimer's disease (AD), that hypertension determines neurobiologic alterations (such as beta-amyloid accumulation) resulting in neuropathologic damage, and that aging and cerebrovascular risk factors act together to cause cerebral capillary degeneration, mitochondrial disruption, reduced glucose oxidation, and reduced ATP synthesis. The consequence of these alterations are neuronal death and dementia. Macroscopic results of these mechanisms are the so-called white matter lesions (WML), the significance of which is analyzed. Increasing clinical evidence suggests a close relationship between the reduction of elevated blood pressure and countering of both vascular dementia and AD. Antihypertensive treatment probably influences cognitive performances and prevents cognitive function alterations and the development of dementia. It is therefore important to evaluate as soon as possible cognitive functions of hypertensive patients. PMID:19021021

  16. Meditation in Higher Education: Does It Enhance Cognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helber, Casey; Zook, Nancy A.; Immergut, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We predicted that students in a sociology course that included contemplative practices (i.e., mindfulness meditation) would show an increase in performance on higher level cognitive abilities (executive functions) over the semester compared to a control group of students. Change in executive functions performance was not significantly different…

  17. The relationship between health-related quality of life and higher-level functional capacity in elderly women with mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Kameyama, Kazuyoshi; Tsutou, Akimitsu; Fujino, Hidemi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To clarify health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), using EuroQOL (EQ-5D), and to investigate the relationship between HR-QOL and Tokyo Metropolitan Institute Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC) scores. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included 25 women with MCI or frail constitutions. A variety of methods were used to assess mental states and activities of daily living (ADL). [Results] EQ-5D scores were significantly lower in the MCI group than in the normal cognitive (NC) group. Among the assessed subscales, the percentages of participants with “moderate problems” during self-care and “moderate and extreme problems” during usual activities were significantly higher in the MCI group. TMIG-IC scores were significantly lower in the MCI group than in the NC group. There was a positive correlation between TMIG-IC and EQ-5D scores in the MCI group. There were also significant positive correlations between instrumental activities of daily living and social roles between EQ-5D and TMIG-IC scores in the MCI group. [Conclusion] TMIG-IC scores may reflect cognitive disorders earlier than BI and FIM. The decline of TMIG-IC scores, especially for IADL and social roles, affects HR-QOL even in the early phases of cognitive impairment. PMID:27190474

  18. HOMOCYSTEINE AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevention and treatment of age-related cognitive impairment and dementia is one of the greatest and most elusive challenges of our time. The prevalence of dementia increases exponentially with age, as does the prevalence of those with micronutrient deficiency. Several studies have shown that el...

  19. Association between Cognitive Activity and Cognitive Function in Older Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Marquine, María J.; Segawa, Eisuke; Wilson, Robert S.; Bennett, David A.; Barnes, Lisa L.

    2012-01-01

    There is limited research on the association between participation in cognitively stimulating activity and cognitive function in older Hispanics. The main purpose of the present study was to explore whether frequency of cognitive activity and its association with cognitive function in Hispanics is comparable to that of non-Hispanics. In a multiethnic cohort of 1571 non-demented older adults, we assessed past and current cognitive activity, availability of cognitive resources in the home in childhood and middle age, and five domains of cognitive function. The measures of cognitive activity and cognitive resources had adequate reliability and validity in our subset of Hispanic participants (n = 81). Hispanics reported lower levels of education, lower frequency of cognitive activity and less cognitive resources than non-Hispanic White (n = 1102) and non-Hispanic Black (n = 388) participants. Despite these differences the strength of the association between cognitive activity and cognitive function was comparable across ethnic groups. Because Hispanics have lower frequency of cognitive activity, the benefit of cognitive activity to late life cognitive function may be potentially larger in this segment of the population. Thus, interventions aimed at increasing frequency of participation in cognitively stimulating activity may offer a potential target to reduce cognitive impairment in Hispanics. PMID:22676914

  20. Cognitive Functioning in Complicated Grief

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Charles A.; Butters, Meryl; Zisook, Sidney; Simon, Naomi; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Lebowitz, Barry D.; Begley, Amy; Mauro, Christine; Shear, M. Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Complicated grief (CG) is increasingly recognized as a debilitating outcome of bereavement. Given the intensity of the stressor, its chronicity, and its association with depression, it is important to know the impact CG may have on cognitive functioning. This exploratory and descriptive study examined global and domain-specific cognitive functioning in a help-seeking sample of individuals with CG (n=335) compared to a separately ascertained control sample (n=250). Cognitive functioning was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Controlling for age, sex and education effects, CG participants had lower total MoCA, visuospatial and attention scores relative to control participants. The two groups did not differ significantly in the domains of executive function, language, memory or orientation. Age, sex, and education accounted for much of the variance in MoCA scores, while CG severity and chronicity accounted for a very small percentage of MoCA score variance. Major depression was not a significant predictor of MoCA scores. This study is consistent with previous work demonstrating lower attention and global cognitive performance in individuals with CG compared to control participants. This study newly identifies the visuospatial domain as a target for future studies investigating cognitive functioning in CG. PMID:25088285

  1. Exercise, cognitive function, and aging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the lifespan of a population is often a marker of a country's success. With the percentage of the population over 65 yr of age expanding, managing the health and independence of this population is an ongoing concern. Advancing age is associated with a decrease in cognitive function that ultimately affects quality of life. Understanding potential adverse effects of aging on brain blood flow and cognition may help to determine effective strategies to mitigate these effects on the population. Exercise may be one strategy to prevent or delay cognitive decline. This review describes how aging is associated with cardiovascular disease risks, vascular dysfunction, and increasing Alzheimer's disease pathology. It will also discuss the possible effects of aging on cerebral vascular physiology, cerebral perfusion, and brain atrophy rates. Clinically, these changes will present as reduced cognitive function, neurodegeneration, and the onset of dementia. Regular exercise has been shown to improve cognitive function, and we hypothesize that this occurs through beneficial adaptations in vascular physiology and improved neurovascular coupling. This review highlights the potential interactions and ideas of how the age-associated variables may affect cognition and may be moderated by regular exercise. PMID:26031719

  2. Higher maternal plasma folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy are associated with better cognitive function scores in 9-10 year old children in South-India1-3

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Muthayya, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Fall, Caroline HD

    2012-01-01

    Folate and vitamin B-12 (B-12) are essential for normal brain development. Few studies have examined the relationship of maternal folate and B-12 status during pregnancy to offspring cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that lower maternal plasma folate and B-12 concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy, are associated with poorer neurodevelopment, cognitive function was assessed during 2007-2008 among 536 children (aged 9-10 y) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort. Maternal folate, B-12 and homocysteine concentrations were measured in stored plasma samples taken at 30±2 wk gestation. The children’s cognitive function was measured using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery and additional tests measuring learning ability, long-term storage/retrieval, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. During pregnancy 4% of mothers had low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/L), 42.5% had low B-12 concentrations (<150 pmol/L) and 3% had hyperhomocysteinemia (>10 μmol/L). There was a 0.1-0.2 SD increase in the children’s cognitive scores per SD increase in maternal folate concentration (p<0.001 for all tests). The associations with learning ability and long-term storage/retrieval, visuo-spatial ability, attention and concentration were independent of maternal age, BMI, parity, the parents’ education, socio-economic status, rural/urban residence, religion, the child’s gestational age, birth size, sex and the children’s size, educational level and folate and B-12 concentrations at 9.5 y. There were no consistent associations of maternal B-12 and homocysteine concentrations with childhood cognitive performance. Conclusions In this Indian population higher maternal folate, but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy, predicted better childhood cognitive ability. PMID:20335637

  3. Exercise, Cognitive Function, and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jill N.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the lifespan of a population is often a marker of a country's success. With the percentage of the population over 65 yr of age expanding, managing the health and independence of this population is an ongoing concern. Advancing age is associated with a decrease in cognitive function that ultimately affects quality of life. Understanding…

  4. Placebo Sleep Affects Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether…

  5. Cognitive Processes Influencing Marital Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Ileana

    This paper reviews the literature on the role of mediating cognitive factors in marital functioning and satisfaction. Types and patterns of causal attributions of distressed and nondistressed couples are compared and the effectiveness of various intervention models is discussed. The materials also discuss the role of unfulfilled expectations as a…

  6. Higher maternal plasma folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy are associated with better cognitive function scores in 9- to 10- year-old children in South India.

    PubMed

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Muthayya, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Fall, Caroline H D

    2010-05-01

    Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential for normal brain development. Few studies have examined the relationship of maternal folate and vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy and offspring cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that lower maternal plasma folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy are associated with poorer neurodevelopment, 536 children (aged 9-10 y) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort underwent cognitive function assessment during 2007-2008 using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery, and additional tests measuring learning, long-term storage/retrieval, attention and concentration, and visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. Maternal folate, vitamin B-12, and homocysteine concentrations were measured at 30 +/- 2 wk gestation. During pregnancy, 4% of mothers had low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/L), 42.5% had low vitamin B-12 concentrations (<150 pmol/L), and 3% had hyperhomocysteinemia (>10 micromol/L). The children's cognitive test scores increased by 0.1-0.2 SD per SD increase across the entire range of maternal folate concentrations (P < 0.001 for all), with no apparent associations at the deficiency level. The associations with learning, long-term storage/retrieval, visuo-spatial ability, attention, and concentration were independent of the parents' education, socioeconomic status, religion, and the child's sex, age, current size, and folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations. There were no consistent associations of maternal vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations with childhood cognitive performance. In this Indian population, higher maternal folate, but not vitamin B-12, concentrations during pregnancy predicted better childhood cognitive ability. It also suggests that, in terms of neurodevelopment, the concentration used to define folate deficiency may be set too low. PMID:20335637

  7. Cognitive Function in Families with Exceptional Survival

    PubMed Central

    Barral, S; Cosentino, S; Costa, R; Matteini, A; Christensen, K; Andersen, S; Glynn, N; Newman, A; Mayeux, R

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated whether cognitive function may be used as an endophenotype for longevity by assessing the cognitive performance of a family-based cohort consisting of one thousand three hundred and eighty individuals from 283 families recruited for exceptional survival in field centers in Boston, New York, Pittsburgh and Denmark. Cognitive performance was assessed in the combined offspring of the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) probands and their LLFS siblings as compared with their spouses’ cognitive performance. Our results indicate that the combined offspring of the LLFS probands and their siblings achieve significantly higher scores on both digit forward and backward tasks (p=5E-5 and p=8E-4 respectively) as well as on a verbal fluency task (p=0.008) when compared with their spouse controls. No differences between groups were found for the other cognitive tests assessed. We conclude that LLFS family members in the offspring generation demonstrate significantly better performance on multiple tasks requiring attention, working memory, and semantic processing when compared with individuals without a family history of exceptional survival, suggesting that cognitive performance may serve as an important endophenotype for longevity. PMID:21439683

  8. Functional Status of Thyroid and Cognitive Functions after Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Bojar, Iwona; Owoc, Alfred; Gujski, Mariusz; Witczak, Mariusz; Gnatowski, Maciej; Walecka, Irena

    2015-01-01

    of TSH, TT3, TT4, TPO-AB, and AB-TSHR were higher and FT4 was lower in examined women. The results were poorer in examination of cognitive functions measured with a battery of CNS-VS tests. PMID:26042394

  9. Higher-Order Latent Trait Models for Cognitive Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Jimmy; Douglas, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Higher-order latent traits are proposed for specifying the joint distribution of binary attributes in models for cognitive diagnosis. This approach results in a parsimonious model for the joint distribution of a high-dimensional attribute vector that is natural in many situations when specific cognitive information is sought but a less informative…

  10. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cognitive Function in Midlife: Neuroprotection or Neuroselection?

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Caspi, Avshalom; Israel, Salomon; Blumenthal, James A.; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if better cognitive functioning at midlife among more physically fit individuals reflects “neuroprotection,” in which fitness protects against age-related cognitive decline, or “neuroselection,” in which children with higher cognitive functioning select into more active lifestyles. Methods Children in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study (N=1,037) completed the Wechsler Intelligence Scales and the Trail-Making, Rey-Delayed-Recall, and Grooved-Pegboard tasks as children and again at midlife (age-38). Adult cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using a submaximal exercise test to estimate maximum-oxygen-consumption-adjusted-for-body-weight in milliliters/minute/kilogram (VO2max). We tested if more-fit individuals had better cognitive functioning than their less-fit counterparts (which could be consistent with neuroprotection), and if better childhood cognitive functioning predisposed to better adult cardiorespiratory fitness (neuroselection). Finally, we examined possible mechanisms of neuroselection. Results Participants with better cardiorespiratory fitness had higher cognitive test scores at midlife. However, fitness-associated advantages in cognitive functioning were present already in childhood. After accounting for childhood-baseline performance on the same cognitive tests, there was no association between cardiorespiratory fitness and midlife cognitive functioning. Socioeconomic and health advantages in childhood, and healthier lifestyles during young adulthood explained most of the association between childhood cognitive functioning and adult cardiorespiratory fitness. Interpretation We found no evidence for a neuroprotective effect of cardiorespiratory fitness as of midlife. Instead, children with better cognitive functioning are selecting into healthier lives. Fitness interventions may enhance cognitive functioning. But, observational and experimental studies testing neuroprotective effects of physical fitness should consider

  11. Cognitive activity, cognitive function, and brain diffusion characteristics in old age.

    PubMed

    Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Wilson, Robert S; Barth, Christopher M; Capuano, Ana W; Vasireddi, Anil; Zhang, Shengwei; Fleischman, Debra A; Bennett, David A

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this work was to test the hypotheses that a) more frequent cognitive activity in late life is associated with higher brain diffusion anisotropy and lower trace of the diffusion tensor, and b) brain diffusion characteristics partially mediate the association of late life cognitive activity with cognition. As part of a longitudinal cohort study, 379 older people without dementia rated their frequency of participation in cognitive activities, completed a battery of cognitive function tests, and underwent diffusion tensor imaging. We used tract-based spatial statistics to test the association between late life cognitive activity and brain diffusion characteristics. Clusters with statistically significant findings defined regions of interest in which we tested the hypothesis that diffusion characteristics partially mediate the association of late life cognitive activity with cognition. More frequent cognitive activity in late life was associated with higher level of global cognition after adjustment for age, sex, education, and indicators of early life cognitive enrichment (p = 0.001). More frequent cognitive activity was also related to higher fractional anisotropy in the left superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, left fornix, and corpus callosum, and lower trace in the thalamus (p < 0.05, FWE-corrected). After controlling for fractional anisotropy or trace from these regions, the regression coefficient for the association of late life cognitive activity with cognition was reduced by as much as 26 %. These findings suggest that the association of late life cognitive activity with cognition may be partially mediated by brain diffusion characteristics. PMID:25982658

  12. Exercise and fitness modulate cognitive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chien-Heng; Chen, Ai-Guo; Hung, Tsung-Min; Wang, Chun-Chih; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute exercise on cognitive function and the modulatory role of fitness in the relationship between exercise and cognition. Forty-six healthy older adults, categorized into higher or lower fitness groups, completed the Stroop test after both 30 min of aerobic exercise and a reading control with a counterbalanced order. Our findings demonstrated that acute exercise leads to general improvements in 2 types of cognitive functions and to specific improvements in executive function. Additionally, older adults with initially higher fitness levels experienced greater beneficial effects from acute exercise. PMID:26652724

  13. The Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience of Functional Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental cognitive neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that examines the relationships between biological development and cognitive ability. In the past decade, there has been ongoing refinement of concepts and methodology related to the study of "functional connectivity" among distributed brain regions believed to underlie cognition and…

  14. Thyroid Function and Cognition during Aging.

    PubMed

    Bégin, M E; Langlois, M F; Lorrain, D; Cunnane, S C

    2008-01-01

    We summarize here the studies examining the association between thyroid function and cognitive performance from an aging perspective. The available data suggest that there may be a continuum in which cognitive dysfunction can result from increased or decreased concentrations of thyroid hormones. Clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism in middle-aged and elderly adults are both associated with decreased cognitive functioning, especially memory, visuospatial organization, attention, and reaction time. Mild variations of thyroid function, even within normal limits, can have significant consequences for cognitive function in the elderly. Different cognitive deficits possibly related to thyroid failure do not necessarily follow a consistent pattern, and L-thyroxine treatment may not always completely restore normal functioning in patients with hypothyroidism. There is little or no consensus in the literature regarding how thyroid function is associated with cognitive performance in the elderly. PMID:19415145

  15. [Cognitive function in eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yuri

    2014-04-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by uncontrolled eating behaviors. The core psychopathology is expressed in a variety of ways: body image distortion, preoccupation with food and weight, fear of weight gain, and so on. Brain-imaging techniques provide many opportunities to study neural circuits related symptoms in eating disorder. The present article focuses studies about functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of eating disorders. Studies of anorexia nervosa suggest 1) relationship between amygdala activation and fear of weight gain, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive flexibility. Studies of bulimic eating disorder (bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and so on) suggest 1) relationship between brain reward system and overeating, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and impulse control. PMID:24796094

  16. What are Higher Psychological Functions?

    PubMed

    Toomela, Aaro

    2016-03-01

    The concept of Higher Psychological Functions (HPFs) may seem to be well know in psychology today. Yet closer analysis reveals that HPFs are either not defined at all or if defined, then by a set of characteristics not justified theoretically. It is not possible to determine whether HPFs exist or not, unless they are defined. Most commonly the idea of HPFs is related to Vygotsky's theory. According to him, HPFs are: (1) psychological systems, (2) developing from natural processes, (3) mediated by symbols, (4) forms of psychological cooperation, which are (5) internalized in the course of development, (6) products of historical development, (7) conscious and (8) voluntary (9) active forms of adaptation to the environment, (10) dynamically changing in development, and (11) ontogeny of HPFs recapitulates cultural history. In this article these characteristics are discussed together with the relations among them. It is concluded that HPFs are real psychological phenomena. PMID:26403987

  17. Functional Cognitive Disorder: A Common Cause of Subjective Cognitive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Catherine; Hayre, Amrit; Newson, Margaret; Coulthard, Elizabeth

    2015-09-24

    Patients frequently present to the memory clinic with self-reported cognitive symptoms that cannot be attributed to structural, toxic, or metabolic causes, and are out of keeping with their performance on neuropsychological assessment. This can be considered to be Functional (psychosomatic) Cognitive Disorder, which results in significant patient distress and often has a major impact on social functioning and employment. We performed a retrospective analysis of the Bristol ReMemBr group cognitive clinic database to ascertain the prevalence of Functional Cognitive Disorder, review the patient characteristics, and develop new guidelines for diagnosis and management. 196 patients were screened of whom 23 were diagnosed with Functional Cognitive Disorder; the oldest patient with this diagnosis was aged 60 years at symptom onset. When considering only those presenting below the age of 60 years (total no. held on database = 69), a third were diagnosed with Functional Cognitive Disorder. On neuropsychological testing, 47% had an atypical (invalid) pattern of results, or failed tests of performance validity. Of those with valid neuropsychological results, 80% scored in the normal range. Depression and anxiety were common but did not appear to be the primary cause of cognitive symptoms. Particular characteristics seen were excessively low self-rating of memory ability, and discrepancies between perceived and actual cognitive performance. The rate of unemployment was high, often due to the cognitive symptomatology. This is an important disorder to address, being common in working adults, and carrying a risk of misdiagnosis as early neurodegeneration, with subsequent inappropriate treatment and inclusion in clinical trials. PMID:26402086

  18. Mental Work Demands, Retirement, and Longitudinal Trajectories of Cognitive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Gwenith G.; Stachowski, Alicia; Infurna, Frank J.; Faul, Jessica D.; Grosch, James; Tetrick, Lois E.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes in cognitive abilities are well-documented, and a very important indicator of health, functioning, and decline in later life. However, less is known about the course of cognitive functioning before and after retirement and specifically whether job characteristics during one's time of employment (i.e., higher vs. lower levels of mental work demands) moderate how cognition changes both before and after the transition to retirement. We used data from n = 4,182 (50% women) individuals in the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative panel study in the United States, across an 18 year time span (1992–2010). Data were linked to the O'NET occupation codes to gather information about mental job demands to examine whether job characteristics during one's time of employment moderates level and rate of change in cognitive functioning (episodic memory and mental status) both before and after retirement. Results indicated that working in an occupation characterized by higher levels of mental demands was associated with higher levels of cognitive functioning before retirement, and a slower rate of cognitive decline after retirement. We controlled for a number of important covariates, including socioeconomic (education and income), demographic, and health variables. Our discussion focuses on pathways through which job characteristics may be associated with the course of cognitive functioning in relation to the important transition of retirement. Implications for job design as well as retirement are offered. PMID:24635733

  19. [Assessment of cognitive functions in internal medicine].

    PubMed

    Capron, J

    2015-12-01

    The evaluation of cognitive functions can be performed using two approaches: a quantitative one, based on screening tools; a qualitative one, based on the examination of specific cognitive functions. The quantitative approach offers a pragmatic process: to screen rapidly for a cognitive dysfunction that may require assistance or treatments. We will present three screening tools and their diagnostic value: the clock test, the Mini Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. They help select patients who require a more detailed examination to precisely diagnose their cognitive dysfunction. We propose a way to perform a detailed cognitive examination at the bedside, including the examination of alertness, attention, memory, language, frontal functions, praxis and hemi-neglect. This simple examination indicates the location of the cerebral lesion and sometimes suggests the underlying disease. PMID:26346265

  20. The functional connectome of cognitive reserve.

    PubMed

    Marques, Paulo; Moreira, Pedro; Magalhães, Ricardo; Costa, Patrício; Santos, Nadine; Zihl, Josef; Soares, José; Sousa, Nuno

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive Reserve (CR) designates the brain's capacity to actively cope with insults through a more efficient use of its resources/networks. It was proposed in order to explain the discrepancies between the observed cognitive ability and the expected capacity for an individual. Typical proxies of CR include education and Intelligence Quotient but none totally account for the variability of CR and no study has shown if the brain's greater efficiency associated with CR can be measured. We used a validated model to estimate CR from the residual variance in memory and general executive functioning, accounting for both brain anatomical (i.e., gray matter and white matter signal abnormalities volume) and demographic variables (i.e., years of formal education and sex). Functional connectivity (FC) networks and topological properties were explored for associations with CR. Demographic characteristics, mainly accounted by years of formal education, were associated with higher FC, clustering, local efficiency and strength in parietal and occipital regions and greater network transitivity. Higher CR was associated with a greater FC, local efficiency and clustering of occipital regions, strength and centrality of the inferior temporal gyrus and higher global efficiency. Altogether, these findings suggest that education may facilitate the brain's ability to form segregated functional groups, reinforcing the view that higher education level triggers more specialized use of neural processing. Additionally, this study demonstrated for the first time that CR is associated with more efficient processing of information in the human brain and reinforces the existence of a fine balance between segregation and integration. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3310-3322, 2016.. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27144904

  1. Cognitive functioning of the prelingually deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Pokorski, Mieczysław; Klimańska, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Deafness is a model of brain adaptation to sensory deprivation which entails psychomotor and cognitive domains. This study seeks to determine the level of emotional intelligence, assessed from the ability to discern emotions from facial expressions, visual and mental attention, and non-verbal fluency in the deaf people as compared with the hearing counterparts. Participants were 29 prelingually deaf, hearing loss of >70 dB, communicating only in sign language, and 30 hearing persons. The age range of all subjects was 40-50 years. Psychometric tools consisted of the Emotional Intelligence Scale-Faces, the d2 Test of Attention, and the Figural Fluency Test. Data elaboration took gender into account. The findings were that both deaf women and men defined significantly fewer emotions as known, compared with the hearing persons. However, the deaf men, but not women, were able to properly recognize a higher percentage of emotions associated with a definite face look, among the emotions they knew. There were no appreciable differences in attention indices between the deaf and hearing men, but deaf women's total performance on attention was worse. By contrast, deaf women, but not men, fared better in non-verbal fluency, compared with their hearing counterparts. We conclude that, on the whole, prelingual deafness does not impede cognitive functioning in adult age. The nature of detecting and executing of cognitive tasks, despite gender and task-specific variations, is preserved. Brain networks are able to compensate for the missing auditory input. PMID:25310953

  2. Strategic Learning in Youth with Traumatic Brain Injury: Evidence for Stall in Higher-Order Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamino, Jacquelyn F.; Chapman, Sandra B.; Cook, Lori G.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about strategic learning ability in preteens and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Strategic learning is the ability to combine and synthesize details to form abstracted gist-based meanings, a higher-order cognitive skill associated with frontal lobe functions and higher classroom performance. Summarization tasks were…

  3. Cases on Teacher Identity, Diversity, and Cognition in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Paul, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    As our world becomes increasingly diverse and technologically-driven, the role and identities of teachers continues to change. "Cases on Teacher Identity, Diversity, and Cognition in Higher Education" seeks to address this change and provide an accurate depiction of the teaching profession today. This thought-provoking collection of…

  4. Cognitive function in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Devapalasundarum, A N; Silbert, B S; Evered, L A; Scott, D A; MacIsaac, A I; Maruff, P T

    2010-01-01

    Objective To measure cognition in patients before and after coronary angiography. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting University teaching hospital. Patients 56 patients presenting for elective coronary angiography. Main outcome measures Computerised cognitive test battery administered before coronary angiography, before discharge from hospital and 7 days after discharge. A matched healthy control group was used as a comparator. Results When analysed by group, coronary angiography patients performed worse than matched controls at each time point. When the cognitive change was examined for each individual, of the 48 patients tested at discharge, 19 (39.6%) were classified as having a new cognitive dysfunction, and of 49 patients tested at day 7, six (12.2%) were classified as having a new cognitive dysfunction. Conclusions The results confirm that cognitive function is decreased in patients who have cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, coronary angiography may exacerbate this impaired cognition in some patients.

  5. Inhibitory control gains from higher-order cognitive strategy training.

    PubMed

    Motes, Michael A; Gamino, Jacquelyn F; Chapman, Sandra B; Rao, Neena K; Maguire, Mandy J; Brier, Matthew R; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

    2014-02-01

    The present study examined the transfer of higher-order cognitive strategy training to inhibitory control. Middle school students enrolled in a comprehension- and reasoning-focused cognitive strategy training program and passive controls participated. The training program taught students a set of steps for inferring essential gist or themes from materials. Both before and after training or a comparable duration in the case of the passive controls, participants completed a semantically cued Go/No-Go task that was designed to assess the effects of depth of semantic processing on response inhibition and components of event-related potentials (ERP) related to response inhibition. Depth of semantic processing was manipulated by varying the level of semantic categorization required for response selection and inhibition. The SMART-trained group showed inhibitory control gains and changes in fronto-central P3 ERP amplitudes on inhibition trials; whereas, the control group did not. The results provide evidence of the transfer of higher-order cognitive strategy training to inhibitory control and modulation of ERPs associated with semantically cued inhibitory control. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for cognitive strategy training, models of cognitive abilities, and education. PMID:24286804

  6. A single dose of oxytocin nasal spray improves higher-order social cognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Guastella, Adam J; Ward, Philip B; Hickie, Ian B; Shahrestani, Sara; Hodge, Marie Antoinette Redoblado; Scott, Elizabeth M; Langdon, Robyn

    2015-11-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in both higher and lower order social cognitive performance and these impairments contribute to poor social functioning. People with schizophrenia report poor social functioning to be one of their greatest unmet treatment needs. Recent studies have suggested the potential of oxytocin as such a treatment, but mixed results render it uncertain what aspects of social cognition are improved by oxytocin and, subsequently, how oxytocin might best be applied as a therapeutic. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single dose of oxytocin improved higher-order and lower-order social cognition performance for patients with schizophrenia across a well-established battery of social cognition tests. Twenty-one male patients received both a single dose of oxytocin nasal spray (24IU) and a placebo, two weeks apart in a randomized within-subjects placebo controlled design. Following each administration, participants completed the social cognition tasks, as well as a test of general neurocognition. Results revealed that oxytocin particularly enhanced performance on higher order social cognition tasks, with no effects on general neurocognition. Results for individual tasks showed most improvement on tests measuring appreciation of indirect hints and recognition of social faux pas. These results suggest that oxytocin, if combined to enhance social cognition learning, may be beneficial when targeted at higher order social cognition domains. This study also suggests that these higher order tasks, which assess social cognitive processing in a social communication context, may provide useful markers of response to oxytocin in schizophrenia. PMID:26150070

  7. Dehydroepiandrosterone, Its Sulfate and Cognitive Functions

    PubMed Central

    de Menezes, Karina Junqueira; Peixoto, Clayton; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Machado, Sérgio; Veras, André Barciela

    2016-01-01

    To present a review of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between the hormones Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and cognition. Methods: The cognition items included in this review were global cognitive function, memory, attention, executive function, intelligence, perception and visuospatial ability. A systematic review was proceeded using three databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and PsycINFO. Results: Two thousand fifty five references about cognition and hormones were found; 772 duplicated references were excluded, resulting in 1.283 references to be evaluated. According to exclusion and inclusion criteria, 25 references were selected. A positive correlation between DHEA-S blood levels and global cognition was found in women and men. Other positive correlations between DHEA-S and working memory, attention and verbal fluency were found only in women. The DHEA effect on cognition is limited to one study conducted among young men with high-doses. PMID:27346998

  8. Atherosclerotic carotid stenosis and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Mei, Bin; Zhang, Junjian

    2016-07-01

    Atherosclerosis carotid stenosis is associated with stroke and cognitive impairment. Progressive cognitive decline may be an even greater problem than stroke, but it has not been widely recognized and therefore must be adequately addressed. Although both Carotid Endarterectomy (CEA) and Carotid Artery Stenting (CAS) have been proven can prevent future stroke in patients with atherosclerotic carotid stenosis, the influence of CEA and CAS on cognitive function is not clear. In the first part of this review, we evaluated the literature concerning carotid stenosis and the risk of cognitive impairment. Studies have suggested that both symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis are associated with cognitive impairment. In the second part, we reviewed the impact of CEA and CAS on cognitive function, some studies have shown benefits, but others have not. PMID:27152468

  9. Cognitive function in hypertensive children.

    PubMed

    Lande, Marc B; Kupferman, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Young hypertensive adults demonstrate decreased performance on neurocognitive testing compared with that of normotensive controls. There is emerging, preliminary evidence that children with hypertension also manifest cognitive differences when compared to normotensive controls. These preliminary studies consist mostly of database and single-center studies that focus primarily on differences in neurocognitive test performance and differences in cerebrovascular reactivity between hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Lessons from the literature on cognition in adult hypertensives and experience from the preliminary studies in children informed the design of a current, multicenter, ongoing study of cognition in children with primary hypertension. PMID:25432900

  10. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and cognitive functioning in children.

    PubMed

    Staton, Lori; El-Sheikh, Mona; Buckhalt, Joseph A

    2009-04-01

    We examined associations between children's cognitive performance and both basal respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA regulation to a reaction time task. Cognitive performance was examined in the lab via standardized tests of cognitive functioning (Woodcock-Johnson III) and a reaction time task. Results suggest that a higher level of basal RSA is predictive of better performance on WJ III scales examining fluid intelligence (e.g., working memory, cognitive efficiency). RSA reactivity was not significantly related to cognitive performance. Results build on and extend the literature by demonstrating that, in typically developing elementary school age children, RSA is related to well-standardized measures of cognitive performance even after controlling for potential confounds. PMID:19107730

  11. Mesocortical dopaminergic function and human cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, D.R.; Berman, K.F.; Chase, T.N.

    1988-01-01

    In summary, we have reviewed rCBF data in humans that suggest that mesoprefrontal dopaminergic activity is involved in human cognition. In patients with Parkinson's disease and possibly in patients with schizophrenia, prefrontal physiological activation during a cognitive task that appears to depend on prefrontal neural systems correlates positively with cognitive performance on the task and with clinical signs of dopaminergic function. It may be possible in the future to examine prefrontal dopamine metabolism directly during prefrontal cognition using positron emission tomography and tracers such as F-18 DOPA. 21 references.

  12. Cognitive Function is Linked to Adherence to Bariatric Postoperative Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Galioto, Rachel; Limbach, Kristen; Gunstad, John; Heinberg, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Background Impairment in cognitive function is found in a significant subset of individuals undergoing bariatric surgery and recent work shows this impairment is associated with smaller postoperative weight loss. Reduced cognitive function could contribute to poorer adherence to postoperative guidelines, though this has not been previously examined. Objectives The current study examined the relationship between cognitive function and adherence to bariatric postoperative guidelines. We expected that higher cognitive function would be associated with better adherence to postoperative guidelines. Setting Data were collected through the bariatric service of a major medical center. Methods Thirty-seven bariatric surgery patients completed cognitive testing and a self-report measure of adherence to postoperative bariatric guidelines during their 4–6 week postoperative appointment. Results Strong correlations were observed between adherence to postoperative guidelines and cognitive indices of attention, executive function, and memory. Conclusions Results demonstrate that cognitive performance is strongly associated with adherence to postoperative guidelines shortly after bariatric surgery. Further work is needed to clarify if this relationship is present at later postoperative stages, and the degree to which this relationship mediates postoperative weight loss outcomes. PMID:23791534

  13. Cognitive Function in the Community Setting: The Neighborhood as a Source of “Cognitive Reserve”?

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Philippa J.; Ailshire, Jennifer A.; House, James S.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.; King, Katherine; Melendez, Robert; Langa, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Existing research has found a positive association between cognitive function and residence in a socioeconomically advantaged neighborhood. Yet, the mechanisms underlying this relationship have not been empirically investigated. This study tests the hypothesis that neighborhood socioeconomic structure is related to cognitive function partly through the availability of neighborhood physical and social resources (e.g. recreational facilities, community centers and libraries), which promote cognitively beneficial activities such as exercise and social integration. Methods Using data from a representative survey of community-dwelling adults in the City of Chicago (N = 949 adults age 50 and over) we assessed cognitive function with a modified version of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS) instrument. Neighborhood socioeconomic structure was derived from US Census indicators. Systematic Social Observation was used to directly document the presence of neighborhood resources on the blocks surrounding each respondent’s residence. Results Using multilevel linear regression, residence in an affluent neighborhood had a net positive effect on cognitive function after adjusting for individual risk factors. For white respondents, the effects of neighborhood affluence operated in part through a greater density of institutional resources (e.g. community centers) that promote cognitively beneficial activities such as physical activity. Stable residence in an elderly neighborhood was associated with higher cognitive function (potentially due to greater opportunities for social interaction with peers), but long term exposure to such neighborhoods was negatively related to cognition. Conclusions Neighborhood resources have the potential to promote “cognitive reserve” for adults who are aging in place in an urban setting. PMID:21515547

  14. Enhancing Cognitive Function Using Perceptual-Cognitive Training.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Brendan; Magill, Tara; Boucher, Alexandra; Zhang, Monica; Zogbo, Katrine; Bérubé, Sarah; Scheffer, Olivier; Beauregard, Mario; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional multiple object tracking (3D-MOT) is a perceptual-cognitive training system based on a 3D virtual environment. This is the first study to examine the effects of 3D-MOT training on attention, working memory, and visual information processing speed as well as using functional brain imaging on a normative population. Twenty university-aged students were recruited and divided into a training (NT) and nonactive control (CON) group. Cognitive functions were assessed using neuropsychological tests, and correlates of brain functions were assessed using quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG). Results indicate that 10 sessions of 3D-MOT training can enhance attention, visual information processing speed, and working memory, and also leads to quantifiable changes in resting-state neuroelectric brain function. PMID:25550444

  15. Cognitive functioning in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barnard, L; Balen, A H; Ferriday, D; Tiplady, B; Dye, L

    2007-01-01

    To date there have been no published studies of cognitive functioning in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This large internet-based study compared neuropsychological functioning in right-handed women with (minimum n=135) and without PCOS (minimum n=322), stratified according to use of anti-androgen medication and level of depression. Women with PCOS are thought to have hyperandrogenism and hyperestrogenism which was hypothesized to differentially influence cognitive function across cognitive domains. Performance did not differ according to diagnosis on mental rotation and spatial location tasks. Hence, no evidence to support the view that women with PCOS display a more masculine cognitive profile due to hyperandrogenism. Despite presumed hyperestrogenism, women with PCOS demonstrated impaired performance in terms of speed and accuracy, on reaction time and word recognition tasks. These findings are intriguing given the well-documented roles of estrogen and testosterone in cognitive function. Overall, these findings suggest that PCOS is not associated with masculinized cognitive functioning, and, although associated with impaired performance on tasks considered to demonstrate female-advantage, such impairments are subtle and are unlikely to affect daily functioning. PMID:17659845

  16. Higher-Order Mentalising and Executive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Higher-order mentalising is the ability to represent the beliefs and desires of other people at multiple, iterated levels – a capacity that sets humans apart from other species. However, there has not yet been a systematic attempt to determine what cognitive processes underlie this ability. Here we present three correlational studies assessing the extent to which performance on higher-order mentalising tasks relates to emotion recognition, self-reported empathy and self-inhibition. In Study 1a and 1b, examining emotion recognition and empathy, a relationship was identified between individual differences in the ability to mentalise and an emotion recognition task (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task), but no correlation was found with the Empathy Quotient, a self-report scale of empathy. Study 2 investigated whether a relationship exists between individual mentalising abilities and four different forms of self-inhibition: motor inhibition, executive inhibition, automatic imitation and temporal discounting. Results demonstrate that only temporal discounting performance relates to mentalising ability; suggesting that cognitive skills relevant to representation of the minds of others’ are not influenced by the ability to perform more basic inhibition. Higher-order mentalising appears to rely on the cognitive architecture that serves both low-level social cognition (emotion recognition), and complex forms of inhibition. PMID:26543298

  17. Cognitive deficits and functional outcome in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, Christopher R; Harvey, Philip D

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a core feature of schizophrenia. Deficits are moderate to severe across several domains, including attention, working memory, verbal learning and memory, and executive functions. These deficits pre-date the onset of frank psychosis and are stable throughout the course of the illness in most patients. Over the past decade, the focus on these deficits has increased dramatically with the recognition that they are consistently the best predictor of functional outcomes across outcome domains and patient samples. Recent treatment studies, both pharmacological and behavioral, suggest that cognitive deficits are malleable. Other research calls into question the meaningfulness of cognitive change in schizophrenia. In this article, we review cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and focus on their treatment and relationship to functional outcome. PMID:19412501

  18. Cognitive function among hemodialysis patients in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Over 290,000 patients are undergoing hemodialysis (HD) in Japan. With old age, the odds of undergoing HD treatment sharply increase, as does the prevalence of cognitive impairment. The aim of the present work was to assess cognitive impairment in HD patients and its relation to clinical characteristics. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, we administered the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to 154 HD outpatients and 852 participants from the Iwaki Health Promotion Project 2010, representing the general population. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment based on the MMSE was 18.8% in HD patients. HD patients showed a higher prevalence of cognitive impairment in older groups (50 years and older). In a logistic regression model with age, gender and amount of education as covariates, undergoing HD was a significant independent factor (OR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.33 to 3.94) associated with a lower MMSE score. Among HD patients, we found that level of education was associated with MMSE score. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of cognitive impairment among HD patients that has adverse implications for hospitalization and shortens their life expectancy. HD treatment was an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment. Clinicians should carefully monitor and treat cognitive impairment in HD patients. Further studies are required to determine the reasons for cognitive impairment in HD patients. PMID:21867512

  19. [Music therapy for dementia and higher cognitive dysfunction: a review].

    PubMed

    Satoh, Masayuki

    2011-12-01

    Music is known to affect the human mind and body. Music therapy utilizes the effects of music for medical purposes. The history of music therapy is quite long, but only limited evidence supports its usefulness in the treatment of higher cognitive dysfunction. As for dementia, some studies conclude that music therapy is effective for preventing cognitive deterioration and the occurrence of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). In patients receiving music therapy for the treatment of higher cognitive dysfunction, aphasia was reported as the most common symptom. Many studies have been conducted to determine whether singing can improve aphasic symptoms: singing familiar and/or unfamiliar songs did not show any positive effect on aphasia. Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a method that utilizes melody and rhythm to improve speech output. MIT is a method that is known to have positive effects on aphasic patients. Some studies of music therapy for patients with unilateral spatial neglect; apraxia; hemiparesis; and walking disturbances, including parkinsonian gait, are available in the literature. Studies showed that the symptoms of unilateral spatial neglect and hemiparesis significantly improved when musical instruments were played for several months as a part of the music therapy. Here, I describe my study in which mental singing showed a positive effect on parkinsonian gait. Music is interesting, and every patient can go through training without any pain. Future studies need to be conducted to establish evidence of the positive effects of music therapy on neurological and neuropsychological symptoms. PMID:22147456

  20. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive function in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment are common in dialysis patients. Given the proposed role of microvascular disease on cognitive function, particularly cognitive domains that incorporate executive functions, we hypothesized that prevalent systemic CVD would be associated with wor...

  1. Dual-Process Theories of Higher Cognition: Advancing the Debate.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan St B T; Stanovich, Keith E

    2013-05-01

    Dual-process and dual-system theories in both cognitive and social psychology have been subjected to a number of recently published criticisms. However, they have been attacked as a category, incorrectly assuming there is a generic version that applies to all. We identify and respond to 5 main lines of argument made by such critics. We agree that some of these arguments have force against some of the theories in the literature but believe them to be overstated. We argue that the dual-processing distinction is supported by much recent evidence in cognitive science. Our preferred theoretical approach is one in which rapid autonomous processes (Type 1) are assumed to yield default responses unless intervened on by distinctive higher order reasoning processes (Type 2). What defines the difference is that Type 2 processing supports hypothetical thinking and load heavily on working memory. PMID:26172965

  2. Higher Cognitive Performance Is Prospectively Associated with Healthy Dietary Choices: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, G.E.; Elias, M.F.; Davey, A.; Alkerwi, A.; Dore, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Few studies have examined whether cognitive function predicts dietary intake. The majority of research has focused on how diet can influence cognitive performance or risk for cognitive impairment in later life. The aim of this study was to examine prospective relationships between cognitive performance and dietary intake in participants of the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. DESIGN A prospective study with neuropsychological testing at baseline and nutritional assessments measured a mean of 18 years later. SETTING Community-dwelling individuals residing in central New York state. PARTICIPANTS 333 participants free of dementia and stroke. MEASUREMENTS The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was assessed at baseline and dietary intake was measured using the Nutrition and Health Questionnaire. RESULTS Higher WAIS Scores at baseline were prospectively associated with higher intakes of vegetables, meats, nuts and legumes, and fish, but inversely associated with consumption of total grains and carbonated soft drinks. After adjustment for sample selection, socioeconomic indicators, lifestyle factors (smoking and physical activity), and cardiovascular risk factors, the relations between higher cognitive performance and greater consumption of vegetables, meat, and fish, and lower consumption of grains remained significant. CONCLUSION These data suggest that cognition early in life may influence dietary choices later in life. PMID:26878011

  3. Cognitive and Functional Consequence of Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Perez, Claudia A; Samudra, Niyatee; Aiyagari, Venkatesh

    2016-08-01

    Cardiac arrest is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Better-quality bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation training, cardiocerebral resuscitation principles, and intensive post-resuscitation hospital care have improved survival. However, cognitive and functional impairment after cardiac arrest remain areas of concern. Research focus has shifted beyond prognostication in the immediate post-arrest period to identification of mechanisms for long-term brain injury and implementation of promising protocols to reduce neuronal injury. These include therapeutic temperature management (TTM), as well as pharmacologic and psychological interventions which also improve overall neurological function. Comprehensive assessment of cognitive function post-arrest is hampered by heterogeneous measures among studies. However, the domains of attention, long-term memory, spatial memory, and executive function appear to be affected. As more patients survive cardiac arrest for longer periods of time, there needs to be a greater focus on interventions that can enhance cognitive and psychosocial function post-arrest. PMID:27311306

  4. Children's Cognitive Functioning in Disasters and Terrorism.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A; Jacobs, Anne K; Varma, Vandana

    2016-05-01

    A growing literature has begun to address the cognitions that influence children's disaster reactions as well as the effects of disasters on children's cognitions. These cognitions must be viewed in the context of developmental and cultural considerations as well as disaster-related factors such as exposure and secondary stressors. This review examines the extant literature on children's cognitions related to disasters and terrorism including threat appraisal, beliefs, attention and concentration, memory, academic achievement, and executive functioning. The review highlights areas where research is lacking such as the effect of disasters on children's attention, concentration, content of disaster memories, and executive functioning. It also notes findings that may advance post-disaster screening and intervention. PMID:26997166

  5. Circadian preference and cognitive functioning among rehabilitation inpatients.

    PubMed

    Paradee, Christine V; Rapport, Lisa J; Hanks, Robin A; Levy, James A

    2005-02-01

    The influence of circadian preference was examined among 56 morning-oriented rehabilitation inpatients with cognitive (n=28) and noncognitive (n=28) impairments. Each individual was tested twice: morning (preferred time) and evening (nonpreferred time); sessions and test batteries were counterbalanced to control for practice effects. Standard measures assessed attention, language, memory, visuospatial, and executive functions. Persons with cognitive impairment showed disproportionate vulnerability to the effects of circadian preference and time of testing, performing more poorly at nonpreferred than preferred times. Substantial effects (eta2 .12 to .48) were found on tests of executive functioning and tasks incorporating similar higher-order demands (e/g/. complex figure copy). Results are supported by tympanic temperature changes during a vigilance task, and index of cerebral blood flow in response to cognitive challenge. Cognitive reserve theory is suggested as an explanation for the differential effects. These findings may have implications for inpatient therapeutic interventions and discharge planning. PMID:15814478

  6. Enhancing cognitive function across the life span.

    PubMed

    Korol, Donna L

    2002-04-01

    Glucose administration regulates many neural and behavioral processes in rodents, including learning and memory. Given the important role of glucose in brain function and the safety of glucose as a treatment, we have investigated the effects of glucose administration in humans of different ages. In previous work, we examined the effects of early-morning glucose consumption on cognitive functions in elderly individuals. In this population, glucose enhanced performance on specific measures, particularly on those tasks where mild age-related deficits appear (e.g., verbal declarative memory). Interestingly, glucose failed to enhance cognitive functions in young adults. Our recent work has examined three issues related to glucose enhancement of cognition: First, is glucose effective only in reversing impairments or can it also facilitate performance in highly functioning individuals? Second, are glucose effects dependent either on time of day or on interactions with other meals? Third, are typical breakfast foods as effective as glucose in enhancing cognitive performance? Our findings suggest that glucose can improve memory in highly functioning populations as it does in populations with deficits. However, enhancement by glucose may require sufficient levels of task difficulty and of blood glucose. In addition, like glucose, early morning consumption of cereal can improve performance on some cognitive tests. These results have important implications for the nature of glucose facilitation of memory and for the role of dietary factors in performance of many daily activities. PMID:11976194

  7. Development of Cortical Circuitry and Cognitive Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman-Rakic, Patricia S.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies on the biological development of the prefrontal cortex in rhesus monkeys are reviewed. These studies have elucidated the basic neural circuitry underlying the delayed-response function in adult nonhuman primates and suggest that a critical mass of cortical synapses is important for the emergence of this cognitive function. (BN)

  8. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research. PMID:26078711

  9. A Functional Cartography of Cognitive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mattar, Marcelo G.; Cole, Michael W.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most remarkable features of the human brain is its ability to adapt rapidly and efficiently to external task demands. Novel and non-routine tasks, for example, are implemented faster than structural connections can be formed. The neural underpinnings of these dynamics are far from understood. Here we develop and apply novel methods in network science to quantify how patterns of functional connectivity between brain regions reconfigure as human subjects perform 64 different tasks. By applying dynamic community detection algorithms, we identify groups of brain regions that form putative functional communities, and we uncover changes in these groups across the 64-task battery. We summarize these reconfiguration patterns by quantifying the probability that two brain regions engage in the same network community (or putative functional module) across tasks. These tools enable us to demonstrate that classically defined cognitive systems—including visual, sensorimotor, auditory, default mode, fronto-parietal, cingulo-opercular and salience systems—engage dynamically in cohesive network communities across tasks. We define the network role that a cognitive system plays in these dynamics along the following two dimensions: (i) stability vs. flexibility and (ii) connected vs. isolated. The role of each system is therefore summarized by how stably that system is recruited over the 64 tasks, and how consistently that system interacts with other systems. Using this cartography, classically defined cognitive systems can be categorized as ephemeral integrators, stable loners, and anything in between. Our results provide a new conceptual framework for understanding the dynamic integration and recruitment of cognitive systems in enabling behavioral adaptability across both task and rest conditions. This work has important implications for understanding cognitive network reconfiguration during different task sets and its relationship to cognitive effort, individual

  10. A Functional Cartography of Cognitive Systems.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Marcelo G; Cole, Michael W; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L; Bassett, Danielle S

    2015-12-01

    One of the most remarkable features of the human brain is its ability to adapt rapidly and efficiently to external task demands. Novel and non-routine tasks, for example, are implemented faster than structural connections can be formed. The neural underpinnings of these dynamics are far from understood. Here we develop and apply novel methods in network science to quantify how patterns of functional connectivity between brain regions reconfigure as human subjects perform 64 different tasks. By applying dynamic community detection algorithms, we identify groups of brain regions that form putative functional communities, and we uncover changes in these groups across the 64-task battery. We summarize these reconfiguration patterns by quantifying the probability that two brain regions engage in the same network community (or putative functional module) across tasks. These tools enable us to demonstrate that classically defined cognitive systems-including visual, sensorimotor, auditory, default mode, fronto-parietal, cingulo-opercular and salience systems-engage dynamically in cohesive network communities across tasks. We define the network role that a cognitive system plays in these dynamics along the following two dimensions: (i) stability vs. flexibility and (ii) connected vs. isolated. The role of each system is therefore summarized by how stably that system is recruited over the 64 tasks, and how consistently that system interacts with other systems. Using this cartography, classically defined cognitive systems can be categorized as ephemeral integrators, stable loners, and anything in between. Our results provide a new conceptual framework for understanding the dynamic integration and recruitment of cognitive systems in enabling behavioral adaptability across both task and rest conditions. This work has important implications for understanding cognitive network reconfiguration during different task sets and its relationship to cognitive effort, individual

  11. [Overview and assessment of cognitive function in interpreting postoperative cognitive dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Miura, Rina; Hattori, Hideyuki

    2014-11-01

    The most important point for evaluation of the post-operative cognitive dysfunction is that we understand "cognitive function". First we described the definition of the "cognitive function" and second, outlined each function (dysfunction) and introduced the main assessment methods from the view point of neuropsychology. Cognitive function (dysfunction) described in this paper includes consciousness (confusional state, disturbance of consciousness), generalized attention (disorder of generalized attention), memory (amnesia), orientation (disorientation), executive function (dysexecutive syndrome), social cognition (social cognitive impairment), language (aphasia), cognition (agnosia), behavior (apraxia), directed attention (unilateral spatial neglect), and construction (constructional disorder). PMID:25731049

  12. Differences in Field Dependence-Independence Cognitive Style as a Function of Socioeconomic Status, Sex, and Cognitive Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forns-Santacana, Maria; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analyzed field dependence-independence (FDI) cognitive style as function of socioeconomic status, sex, and cognitive competence in seven year olds (n=117). Subjects of upper-middle socioeconomic status achieved significantly higher scores that did subjects of low socioeconomic status on five McCarthy Scales and on FDI variable. Boys scored higher…

  13. Degenerate neuronal systems sustaining cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Noppeney, Uta; Friston, Karl J; Price, Cathy J

    2004-01-01

    The remarkable resilience of cognitive functions to focal brain damage suggests that multiple degenerate neuronal systems can sustain the same function either via similar mechanisms or by implementing different cognitive strategies. In degenerate functional neuroanatomy, multiple degenerate neuronal systems might be present in a single brain where they are either co-activated or remain latent during task performance. In degeneracy over subjects, a particular function may be sustained by only one neuronal system within a subject, but by different systems over subjects. Degeneracy over subjects might have arisen from (ab)normal variation in neurodevelopmental trajectories or long-term plastic changes following structural lesions. We discuss how degenerate neuronal systems can be revealed using (1) intersubject variability, (2) multiple lesion studies and (3) an iterative approach integrating information from lesion and functional imaging studies. PMID:15610392

  14. Plasma Carotenoids and Tocopherols and Cognitive Function: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jae Hee; Grodstein, Francine

    2008-01-01

    As a site of high metabolic activity, the brain is particularly susceptible to oxidative damage. We explored the association between plasma antioxidants and cognition. In 858 female participants of the Nurses’ Health Study, aged 70+ years, we measured plasma carotenoids and tocopherols in 1989–1990, and assessed cognitive function by telephone beginning in 1995–2001; assessments were repeated twice at two-year intervals. We used linear regression to estimate multivariable-adjusted mean cognitive performance at the initial assessment by quartile of antioxidants, and longitudinal models for analyzing cognitive decline over four years. Higher antioxidant levels were not associated with initial performance or decline. Mean difference in initial global composite score (averaging all 6 cognitive tests) for the top versus bottom quartile of total carotenoids was −0.05 standard units (95% confidence interval [CI] −0.19, 0.09), and 0.04 units for total tocopherols (95% CI −0.10, 0.18). Individual antioxidants were not associated with cognition. Overall, total plasma carotenoids or tocopherols were not related to cognition in women. PMID:17433501

  15. Plasma carotenoids and tocopherols and cognitive function: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jae Hee; Grodstein, Francine

    2008-09-01

    As a site of high metabolic activity, the brain is particularly susceptible to oxidative damage. We explored the association between plasma antioxidants and cognition. In 858 female participants of the Nurses' Health Study, aged 70+ years, we measured plasma carotenoids and tocopherols in 1989-1990, and assessed cognitive function by telephone beginning in 1995-2001; assessments were repeated twice at 2-year intervals. We used linear regression to estimate multivariable-adjusted mean cognitive performance at the initial assessment by quartile of antioxidants, and longitudinal models for analyzing cognitive decline over 4 years. Higher antioxidant levels were not associated with initial performance or decline. Mean difference in initial global composite score (averaging all six cognitive tests) for the top versus bottom quartile of total carotenoids was -0.05 standard units (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.19, 0.09), and 0.04 units for total tocopherols (95% CI -0.10, 0.18). Individual antioxidants were not associated with cognition. Overall, total plasma carotenoids or tocopherols were not related to cognition in women. PMID:17433501

  16. A Preschool Inventory of Cognitive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benes, Patricia; Dusewicz, Russell A.

    This study was undertaken to determine reliability and validity estimates for a newly developed preschool inventory of cognitive functioning which provides many advantages over traditionally utilized measures. A predominantly pictorial stimulus-psychomotor response set was the format for the test. The test consisted of a series of 61 items divided…

  17. Cognitive Functions in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijland, Lian; Terband, Hayo; Maassen, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is diagnosed on the basis of specific speech characteristics, in the absence of problems in hearing, intelligence, and language comprehension. This does not preclude the possibility that children with this speech disorder might demonstrate additional problems. Method: Cognitive functions were investigated…

  18. Premorbid functioning, cognitive functioning, symptoms and outcome in schizophrenia.

    PubMed Central

    Addington, J; Addington, D

    1993-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between premorbid functioning, outcome, cognitive functioning and positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Cognitive functioning and symptoms were examined longitudinally in a sample of 39 subjects with schizophrenia (according to the DSM-III criteria). Subjects were assessed at admission to hospital and six months later during a period of relative remission. Premorbid functioning was significantly associated with negative symptoms but not with positive symptoms at both the acute phase and the remitted phase of the illness. Outcome was also associated with negative symptoms at admission and with both positive and negative symptoms at follow-up. Deficits on cognitive tests of verbal reasoning and concept formation were significantly associated with poor premorbid functioning and outcome. PMID:8461276

  19. Functional Hubs in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navas, Adrián; Papo, David; Boccaletti, Stefano; Del-Pozo, F.; Bajo, Ricardo; Maestú, Fernando; Martínez, J. H.; Gil, Pablo; Sendiña-Nadal, Irene; Buldú, Javier M.

    We investigate how hubs of functional brain networks are modified as a result of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a condition causing a slight but noticeable decline in cognitive abilities, which sometimes precedes the onset of Alzheimer's disease. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate the functional brain networks of a group of patients suffering from MCI and a control group of healthy subjects, during the execution of a short-term memory task. Couplings between brain sites were evaluated using synchronization likelihood, from which a network of functional interdependencies was constructed and the centrality, i.e. importance, of their nodes was quantified. The results showed that, with respect to healthy controls, MCI patients were associated with decreases and increases in hub centrality respectively in occipital and central scalp regions, supporting the hypothesis that MCI modifies functional brain network topology, leading to more random structures.

  20. Survivorship: cognitive function, version 1.2014.

    PubMed

    Denlinger, Crystal S; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Friedman, Debra L; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J; O'Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L; Urba, Susan G; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A

    2014-07-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common complaint among cancer survivors and may be a consequence of the tumors themselves or direct effects of cancer-related treatment (eg, chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, radiation). For some survivors, symptoms persist over the long term and, when more severe, can impact quality of life and function. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides assessment, evaluation, and management recommendations for cognitive dysfunction in survivors. Nonpharmacologic interventions (eg, instruction in coping strategies; management of distress, pain, sleep disturbances, and fatigue; occupational therapy) are recommended, with pharmacologic interventions as a last line of therapy in survivors for whom other interventions have been insufficient. PMID:24994918

  1. Survivorship: Cognitive Function, Version 1.2014

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J.; O’Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D.; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R.; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common complaint among cancer survivors and may be a consequence of the tumors themselves or direct effects of cancer-related treatment (eg, chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, radiation). For some survivors, symptoms persist over the long term and, when more severe, can impact quality of life and function. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides assessment, evaluation, and management recommendations for cognitive dysfunction in survivors. Nonpharmacologic interventions (eg, instruction in coping strategies; management of distress, pain, sleep disturbances, and fatigue; occupational therapy) are recommended, with pharmacologic interventions as a last line of therapy in survivors for whom other interventions have been insufficient. PMID:24994918

  2. Stress weakens prefrontal networks: molecular insults to higher cognition.

    PubMed

    Arnsten, Amy F T

    2015-10-01

    A variety of cognitive disorders are worsened by stress exposure and involve dysfunction of the newly evolved prefrontal cortex (PFC). Exposure to acute, uncontrollable stress increases catecholamine release in PFC, reducing neuronal firing and impairing cognitive abilities. High levels of noradrenergic α1-adrenoceptor and dopaminergic D1 receptor stimulation activate feedforward calcium-protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-protein kinase A signaling, which open potassium channels to weaken synaptic efficacy in spines. In contrast, high levels of catecholamines strengthen the primary sensory cortices, amygdala and striatum, rapidly flipping the brain from reflective to reflexive control of behavior. These mechanisms are exaggerated by chronic stress exposure, where architectural changes lead to persistent loss of PFC function. Understanding these mechanisms has led to the successful translation of prazosin and guanfacine for treating stress-related disorders. Dysregulation of stress signaling pathways by genetic insults likely contributes to PFC deficits in schizophrenia, while age-related insults initiate interacting vicious cycles that increase vulnerability to Alzheimer's degeneration. PMID:26404712

  3. Stress weakens prefrontal networks: molecular insults to higher cognition

    PubMed Central

    Arnsten, Amy F T

    2016-01-01

    A variety of cognitive disorders are worsened by stress exposure and involve dysfunction of the newly evolved prefrontal cortex (PFC). Exposure to acute, uncontrollable stress increases catecholamine release in PFC, reducing neuronal firing and impairing cognitive abilities. High levels of noradrenergic α1-adrenoceptor and dopaminergic D1 receptor stimulation activate feedforward calcium–protein kinase C and cyclic AMP–protein kinase A signaling, which open potassium channels to weaken synaptic efficacy in spines. In contrast, high levels of catecholamines strengthen the primary sensory cortices, amygdala and striatum, rapidly flipping the brain from reflective to reflexive control of behavior. These mechanisms are exaggerated by chronic stress exposure, where architectural changes lead to persistent loss of PFC function. Understanding these mechanisms has led to the successful translation of prazosin and guanfacine for treating stress-related disorders. Dysregulation of stress signaling pathways by genetic insults likely contributes to PFC deficits in schizophrenia, while age-related insults initiate interacting vicious cycles that increase vulnerability to Alzheimer’s degeneration. PMID:26404712

  4. PCBs and cognitive functioning of Mohawk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Newman, Joan; Aucompaugh, Amy G; Schell, Lawrence M; Denham, Melinda; DeCaprio, Anthony P; Gallo, Mia V; Ravenscroft, Julia; Kao, Chin-Cheng; Hanover, MaryEllen Rougas; David, Dawn; Jacobs, Agnes M; Tarbell, Alice M; Worswick, Priscilla

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the relationships between the cognitive functioning and PCB current body burdens of adolescents in the Mohawk Nation of Akwesasne where there is concern about industrial pollution of the environment. Three cognitive tests (Woodcock Johnson-Revised, Test of Memory and Learning, and Ravens Progressive Matrices) provide 13 subtests that allow a variety of cognitive outcomes to be assessed. A summary measure of PCB level was created from the congeners detected in at least 50% of the participants. The most notable finding was the significant negative relationship between PCB levels and two separate measures of long term memory. There was also a negative relationship with a measure of comprehension and knowledge. Significant relationships were not large, but provide evidence of subtle negative effects of PCB exposure. PMID:16809019

  5. Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Hamid R.; Bates, Kristyn A.; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S.; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R.; Rodrigues, Mark A.; Bird, Sabine M.; Brown, Belinda M.; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Foster, Jonathan K.; Martins, Ian J.; Lautenschlager, Nicola T.; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M.; Martins, Ralph N.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34–87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

  6. Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Hamid R; Bates, Kristyn A; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Rodrigues, Mark A; Bird, Sabine M; Brown, Belinda M; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mehta, Pankaj D; Foster, Jonathan K; Martins, Ian J; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M; Martins, Ralph N

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34-87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

  7. Mental exercises for cognitive function: clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the beneficial effects of a new cognitive intervention program designed for the care and prevention of dementia, namely Learning Therapy. The training program used systematized basic problems in arithmetic and Japanese language as training tasks. In study 1, 16 individuals in the experimental group and 16 in the control group were recruited from a nursing home. In both groups, all individuals were clinically diagnosed with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. In study 2, we performed a single-blind, randomized controlled trial in our cognitive intervention program of 124 community-dwelling seniors. In both studies, the daily training program using reading and arithmetic tasks was carried out approximately 5 days a week, for 15 to 20 minutes a day in the intervention groups. Neuropsychological measures were determined simultaneously in the groups both prior to and after six months of the intervention. The results of our investigations indicate that our cognitive intervention using reading and arithmetic problems demonstrated a transfer effect and they provide convincing evidence that cognitive training maintains and improves the cognitive functions of dementia patients and healthy seniors. PMID:23412645

  8. Higher-order awareness, misrepresentation and function

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, David

    2012-01-01

    Conscious mental states are states we are in some way aware of. I compare higher-order theories of consciousness, which explain consciousness by appeal to such higher-order awareness (HOA), and first-order theories, which do not, and I argue that higher-order theories have substantial explanatory advantages. The higher-order nature of our awareness of our conscious states suggests an analogy with the metacognition that figures in the regulation of psychological processes and behaviour. I argue that, although both consciousness and metacognition involve higher-order psychological states, they have little more in common. One thing they do share is the possibility of misrepresentation; just as metacognitive processing can misrepresent one's cognitive states and abilities, so the HOA in virtue of which one's mental states are conscious can, and sometimes does, misdescribe those states. A striking difference between the two, however, has to do with utility for psychological processing. Metacognition has considerable benefit for psychological processing; in contrast, it is unlikely that there is much, if any, utility to mental states' being conscious over and above the utility those states have when they are not conscious. PMID:22492758

  9. Higher-order awareness, misrepresentation and function.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, David

    2012-05-19

    Conscious mental states are states we are in some way aware of. I compare higher-order theories of consciousness, which explain consciousness by appeal to such higher-order awareness (HOA), and first-order theories, which do not, and I argue that higher-order theories have substantial explanatory advantages. The higher-order nature of our awareness of our conscious states suggests an analogy with the metacognition that figures in the regulation of psychological processes and behaviour. I argue that, although both consciousness and metacognition involve higher-order psychological states, they have little more in common. One thing they do share is the possibility of misrepresentation; just as metacognitive processing can misrepresent one's cognitive states and abilities, so the HOA in virtue of which one's mental states are conscious can, and sometimes does, misdescribe those states. A striking difference between the two, however, has to do with utility for psychological processing. Metacognition has considerable benefit for psychological processing; in contrast, it is unlikely that there is much, if any, utility to mental states' being conscious over and above the utility those states have when they are not conscious. PMID:22492758

  10. Cognitive Deficits as a Mediator of Poor Occupational Function in Remitted Major Depressive Disorder Patients

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Young Sup; Rosenblat, Joshua D.; Kakar, Ron; Bahk, Won-Myong; McIntyre, Roger S.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients have been described in numerous studies. However, few reports have aimed to describe cognitive deficits in the remitted state of MDD and the mediational effect of cognitive deficits on occupational outcome. The aim of the current review is to synthesize the literature on the mediating and moderating effects of specific domains of cognition on occupational impairment among people with remitted MDD. In addition, predictors of cognitive deficits found to be vocationally important will be examined. Upon examination of the extant literature, attention, executive function and verbal memory are areas of consistent impairment in remitted MDD patients. Cognitive domains shown to have considerable impact on vocational functioning include deficits in memory, attention, learning and executive function. Factors that adversely affect cognitive function related to occupational accommodation include higher age, late age at onset, residual depressive symptoms, history of melancholic/psychotic depression, and physical/psychiatric comorbidity, whereas higher levels of education showed a protective effect against cognitive deficit. Cognitive deficits are a principal mediator of occupational impairment in remitted MDD patients. Therapeutic interventions specifically targeting cognitive deficits in MDD are needed, even in the remitted state, to improve functional recovery, especially in patients who have a higher risk of cognitive deficit. PMID:26792035

  11. Organizational Perspective on Cognitive Control Functioning and Cognitive-Affective Balance in Maltreated Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieder, Carolyn; Cicchetti, Dante

    1989-01-01

    Examined the relation between a history of maltreatment and cognitive control functioning in two groups of preschool and early school-age maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Maltreated children showed developmentally impaired cognitive control functioning on a number of tasks. (RH)

  12. Cognition and Brain Function in Schizotypy: A Selective Review

    PubMed Central

    Ettinger, Ulrich; Mohr, Christine; Gooding, Diane C.; Cohen, Alex S.; Rapp, Alexander; Haenschel, Corinna; Park, Sohee

    2015-01-01

    Schizotypy refers to a set of personality traits thought to reflect the subclinical expression of the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia. Here, we review the cognitive and brain functional profile associated with high questionnaire scores in schizotypy. We discuss empirical evidence from the domains of perception, attention, memory, imagery and representation, language, and motor control. Perceptual deficits occur early and across various modalities. While the neural mechanisms underlying visual impairments may be linked to magnocellular dysfunction, further effects may be seen downstream in higher cognitive functions. Cognitive deficits are observed in inhibitory control, selective and sustained attention, incidental learning, and memory. In concordance with the cognitive nature of many of the aberrations of schizotypy, higher levels of schizotypy are associated with enhanced vividness and better performance on tasks of mental rotation. Language deficits seem most pronounced in higher-level processes. Finally, higher levels of schizotypy are associated with reduced performance on oculomotor tasks, resembling the impairments seen in schizophrenia. Some of these deficits are accompanied by reduced brain activation, akin to the pattern of hypoactivations in schizophrenia spectrum individuals. We conclude that schizotypy is a construct with apparent phenomenological overlap with schizophrenia and stable interindividual differences that covary with performance on a wide range of perceptual, cognitive, and motor tasks known to be impaired in schizophrenia. The importance of these findings lies not only in providing a fine-grained neurocognitive characterization of a personality constellation known to be associated with real-life impairments, but also in generating hypotheses concerning the aetiology of schizophrenia. PMID:25810056

  13. Chronic Ambient Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Bruce R.; Crane, Julian; Garrett, Nick; Woods, David L.; Bates, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposures to hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) have been inconclusively linked to a variety of negative cognitive outcomes. We investigated possible effects on cognitive function in an urban population with chronic, low-level exposure to H2S. Methods Participants were 1,637 adults, aged 18-65 years from Rotorua city, New Zealand, exposed to ambient H2S from geothermal sources. Exposures at homes and workplaces were estimated from data collected by summer and winter H2S monitoring networks across Rotorua in 2010/11. Metrics for H2S exposure at the time of participation and for exposure over the last 30 years were calculated. H2S exposure was modeled both as continuous variables and as quartiles of exposure covering the range of 0 – 64 ppb (0-88 μg/m3). Outcomes were neuropsychological tests measuring visual and verbal episodic memory, attention, fine motor skills, psychomotor speed and mood. Associations between cognition and measures of H2S exposure were investigated with multiple regression, while covarying demographics and factors known to be associated with cognitive performance. Results The consistent finding was of no association between H2S exposure and cognition. Quartiles of H2S exposure had a small association with simple reaction time: higher exposures were associated with faster response times. Similarly, for digit symbol, higher H2S exposures tended to be marginally associated with better performance. Conclusion The results provide evidence that chronic H2S exposure, at the ambient levels found in and around Rotorua, is not associated with impairment of cognitive function. PMID:24548790

  14. Physiological approaches to understanding molecular actions on dorsolateral prefrontal cortical neurons underlying higher cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Arnsten, Amy F T

    2015-11-18

    Revealing how molecular mechanisms influence higher brain circuits in primates will be essential for understanding how genetic insults lead to increased risk of cognitive disorders. Traditionally, modulatory influences on higher cortical circuits have been examined using lesion techniques, where a brain region is depleted of a particular transmitter to determine how its loss impacts cognitive function. For example, depletion of catecholamines or acetylcholine from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex produces striking deficits in working memory abilities. More directed techniques have utilized direct infusions of drug into a specific cortical site to try to circumvent compensatory changes that are common following transmitter depletion. The effects of drug on neuronal firing patterns are often studied using iontophoresis, where a minute amount of drug is moved into the brain using a tiny electrical current, thus minimizing the fluid flow that generally disrupts neuronal recordings. All of these approaches can be compared to systemic drug administration, which remains a key arena for the development of effective therapeutics for human cognitive disorders. Most recently, viral techniques are being developed to be able to manipulate proteins for which there is no developed pharmacology, and to allow optogenetic manipulations in primate cortex. As the association cortices greatly expand in brain evolution, research in nonhuman primates is particularly important for understanding the modulatory regulation of our highest order cognitive operations. PMID:26646567

  15. Physiological approaches to understanding molecular actions on dorsolateral prefrontal cortical neurons underlying higher cognitive processing

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Min; ARNSTEN, Amy F.T.

    2015-01-01

    Revealing how molecular mechanisms influence higher brain circuits in primates will be essential for understanding how genetic insults lead to increased risk of cognitive disorders. Traditionally, modulatory influences on higher cortical circuits have been examined using lesion techniques, where a brain region is depleted of a particular transmitter to determine how its loss impacts cognitive function. For example, depletion of catecholamines or acetylcholine from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex produces striking deficits in working memory abilities. More directed techniques have utilized direct infusions of drug into a specific cortical site to try to circumvent compensatory changes that are common following transmitter depletion. The effects of drug on neuronal firing patterns are often studied using iontophoresis, where a minute amount of drug is moved into the brain using a tiny electrical current, thus minimizing the fluid flow that generally disrupts neuronal recordings. All of these approaches can be compared to systemic drug administration, which remains a key arena for the development of effective therapeutics for human cognitive disorders. Most recently, viral techniques are being developed to be able to manipulate proteins for which there is no developed pharmacology, and to allow optogenetic manipulations in primate cortex. As the association cortices greatly expand in brain evolution, research in nonhuman primates is particularly important for understanding the modulatory regulation of our highest order cognitive operations. PMID:26646567

  16. Breakfast consumption and cognitive function in adolescent schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Simon B; Bandelow, Stephan; Nevill, Mary E

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the effects of breakfast consumption on cognitive function, mood and blood glucose concentration in adolescent schoolchildren. With the institution's ethical advisory committee approval, 96 adolescents (12 to 15 years old) completed two randomly assigned trials (one following breakfast consumption and one following breakfast omission), scheduled 7 days apart. Cognitive function tests (visual search test, Stroop test and Sternberg paradigm), a mood questionnaire and a finger prick blood sample (in a subgroup of 60 participants) were completed immediately following breakfast and 120 min after the baseline measures. Following breakfast consumption, accuracy on the more complex level of the visual search test was higher than following breakfast omission (p=0.021). Similarly, accuracy on the Stroop test was better maintained across the morning following breakfast consumption when compared to breakfast omission (p=0.022). Furthermore, responses on the Sternberg paradigm were quicker later in the morning following breakfast consumption, particularly on the more complex levels (p=0.012). Breakfast consumption also produced higher self-report energy and fullness, lower self-report tiredness and hunger and higher blood glucose concentrations (all p<0.0005). Overall, the findings of the present study suggest that breakfast consumption enhances cognitive function in an adolescent population when compared to breakfast omission. PMID:21439306

  17. Homocysteine and cognitive function in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Angeles; Zanibbi, Katherine

    2004-10-12

    Dementia is highly prevalent among elderly people, and projections show that the number of people affected might triple over the next 50 years, mainly because of a large increase in the oldest-old segment of the population. Because of this and the disease's devastating effects, measures for the prevention and early detection of dementia are crucial. Age and years of education are among the most relevant risk factors for dementia, but in recent years the role of homocysteine has also been investigated. Homocysteine is an amino acid produced in the metabolism of methionine, a process dependent on the B vitamins cobalamin, vitamin B6 and folic acid. There is evidence that increased serum homocysteine levels are associated with declining cognitive function and dementia. We review this evidence in addition to the potential mechanisms through which homocysteine acts on the brain to cause cognitive dysfunction, the metabolism of homocysteine and factors associated with alteration of the normal metabolism. PMID:15477631

  18. Measuring cognitive function in MDD: emerging assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Russo, Manuela; Mahon, Katie; Burdick, Katherine E

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive impairment is emerging as an important therapeutic target in patients with psychiatric illnesses, including major depressive disorder (MDD). The objective of this general overview is to briefly review the evidence for cognitive impairment in MDD and to summarize a representative sample of cognitive assessment tools currently available to assess cognitive function in depressed patients. Study results in MDD patients with cognitive dysfunction are somewhat inconsistent, likely due to the heterogeneity of the disorder as well as the use of diverse assessment tools. Measuring cognitive changes in this population is challenging. Cognitive symptoms are typically less severe than in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, requiring greater sensitivity than afforded by existing tools. Preliminary evidence suggests antidepressant treatments may improve cognitive functioning as a direct result of ameliorating depressive symptoms; however, any procognitive effects have not been elucidated. To evaluate antidepressant efficacy in MDD patients with cognitive dysfunction, a standardized cognitive battery for use in clinical trials is essential. PMID:25421437

  19. TEA DRINKING AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN OLDEST-OLD CHINESE

    PubMed Central

    Feng, L.; Li, J.; Ng, T.-P.; Lee, T.-S.; Kua, E.-H.; Zeng, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined the longitudinal association between tea drinking frequency and cognitive function in a large sample of oldest-old Chinese. Design population-based longitudinal cohort study. Setting The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Participants 7139 participants aged 80 to 115 (mean age 91.4 years) who provided complete data at baseline (year 1998). Measurements Current frequency of tea drinking and past frequency at age 60 were ascertained at baseline, and baseline and follow-up cognitive assessments were performed in the years 1998 (n=7139), 2000 (n=4081), 2002 (n=2288) and 2005 (n=913) respectively. Verbal fluency test was used as measure of cognitive function. Results Tea drinking was associated at baseline with higher mean (SD) verbal fluency scores: daily=10.7 (6.6), occasional=9.2 (5.8), non-drinker=9.0 (5.5). In linear mixed effects model that adjusted for age, gender, years of schooling, physical exercise and activities score, the regression coefficient for daily drinking (at age 60) and occasional drinking was 0.72 (P<0.0001) and 0.41(P=0.01) respectively. Tea drinkers had higher verbal fluency scores throughout the follow-up period but concurrently had a steeper slope of cognitive decline as compared with non-drinkers (coefficient for the interaction term Time*Daily drinking= −0.12, P=0.02; ‘Time’ was defined as the time interval from baseline to follow-up assessments in years). Similar results were found for current tea drinking status at study baseline year (1998) as predictor variable. Conclusion Regular tea drinking is associated with better cognitive function in oldest-old Chinese. PMID:23131816

  20. The brain and higher mental function.

    PubMed

    Smith, G C

    1991-06-01

    Critical evaluation of biological theories of psychiatric disorder requires an understanding of current concepts of higher mental function and its related biology. Both the nature of the topic and the rapidity of advances in the field make it difficult to obtain an updated synthesis. Part I of this paper attempts to provide that by reviewing current concepts of the mind/body relationship, emotion, arousal, attention, consciousness and motivation. Part II considers those concepts in relation to recent work on the structure and function of the reticular, limbic and anterior cerebral systems. It is concluded that the model of the limbic system as subserving emotional life could now perhaps be set aside in favour of the model of a core set of chemically identified neurons in the reticular system being necessary but not sufficient to subserve higher mental function whilst also subserving other integrating functions for which no mental terminology is required. The problem of developing an eclectic theory of higher mental function that will embrace these concepts is discussed. PMID:1678938

  1. Aerobic and Cognitive Exercise (ACE) Pilot Study for Older Adults: Executive Function Improves with Cognitive Challenge While Exergaming.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Nicole; Shah, Nikita; Cohen, Katherine; Hogan, Michael J; Mulkerrin, Eamon; Arciero, Paul J; Cohen, Brian D; Kramer, Arthur F; Anderson-Hanley, Cay

    2015-11-01

    Dementia cases are increasing worldwide; thus, investigators seek to identify interventions that might prevent or ameliorate cognitive decline in later life. Extensive research confirms the benefits of physical exercise for brain health, yet only a fraction of older adults exercise regularly. Interactive mental and physical exercise, as in aerobic exergaming, not only motivates, but has also been found to yield cognitive benefit above and beyond traditional exercise. This pilot study sought to investigate whether greater cognitive challenge while exergaming would yield differential outcomes in executive function and generalize to everyday functioning. Sixty-four community based older adults (mean age=82) were randomly assigned to pedal a stationary bike, while interactively engaging on-screen with: (1) a low cognitive demand task (bike tour), or (2) a high cognitive demand task (video game). Executive function (indices from Trails, Stroop and Digit Span) was assessed before and after a single-bout and 3-month exercise intervention. Significant group × time interactions were found after a single-bout (Color Trails) and after 3 months of exergaming (Stroop; among 20 adherents). Those in the high cognitive demand group performed better than those in the low cognitive dose condition. Everyday function improved across both exercise conditions. Pilot data indicate that for older adults, cognitive benefit while exergaming increased concomitantly with higher doses of interactive mental challenge. PMID:26581789

  2. Cognition and daytime functioning in sleep-related breathing disorders.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Melinda L; Howard, Mark E; Barnes, Maree

    2011-01-01

    Sleep-related breathing disorders encompass a range of disorders in which abnormal ventilation occurs during sleep as a result of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway, altered respiratory drive, abnormal chest wall movement, or respiratory muscle function. The most common of these is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occurring in both adults and children, and causing significant cognitive and daytime dysfunction and reduced quality of life. OSA patients experience repetitive brief cessation of breathing throughout the night, which causes intermittent hypoxemia (reductions in hemoglobin oxygen levels) and fragmented sleep patterns. These nocturnal events result in excessive daytime sleepiness, and changes in mood and cognition. Chronic excessive sleepiness during the day is a common symptom of sleep-related breathing disorders, which is assessed in sleep clinics both subjectively (questionnaire) and objectively (sleep latency tests). Mood changes are often reported by patients, including irritability, fatigue, depression, and anxiety. A wide range of cognitive deficits have been identified in untreated OSA patients, from attentional and vigilance, to memory and executive functions, and more complex tasks such as simulated driving. These changes are reflected in patient reports of difficulty in concentrating, increased forgetfulness, an inability to make decisions, and falling asleep at the wheel of a motor vehicle. These cognitive changes can also have significant downstream effects on daily functioning. Moderate to severe cases of the disorder are at a higher risk of having a motor vehicle accident, and may also have difficulties at work or school. A number of comorbidities may also influence the cognitive changes in OSA patients, including hypertension, diabetes, and stroke. These diseases can cause changes to neural vasculature and result in neural damage, leading to cognitive impairments. Examination of OSA patients using neuroimaging techniques such

  3. [Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].

    PubMed

    Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Małgorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has

  4. A meta-analysis of cerebellar contributions to higher cognition from PET and fMRI studies.

    PubMed

    E, Keren-Happuch; Chen, Shen-Hsing Annabel; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Desmond, John E

    2014-02-01

    A growing interest in cerebellar function and its involvement in higher cognition have prompted much research in recent years. Cerebellar presence in a wide range of cognitive functions examined within an increasing body of neuroimaging literature has been observed. We applied a meta-analytic approach, which employed the activation likelihood estimate method, to consolidate results of cerebellar involvement accumulated in different cognitive tasks of interest and systematically identified similarities among the studies. The current analysis included 88 neuroimaging studies demonstrating cerebellar activations in higher cognitive domains involving emotion, executive function, language, music, timing and working memory. While largely consistent with a prior meta-analysis by Stoodley and Schmahmann ([2009]: Neuroimage 44:489-501), our results extended their findings to include music and timing domains to provide further insights into cerebellar involvement and elucidate its role in higher cognition. In addition, we conducted inter- and intradomain comparisons for the cognitive domains of emotion, language, and working memory. We also considered task differences within the domain of verbal working memory by conducting a comparison of the Sternberg with the n-back task, as well as an analysis of the differential components within the Sternberg task. Results showed a consistent cerebellar presence in the timing domain, providing evidence for a role in time keeping. Unique clusters identified within the domain further refine the topographic organization of the cerebellum. PMID:23125108

  5. A cognitive neurobiological account of deception: evidence from functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Sean A; Hunter, Mike D; Farrow, Tom F D; Green, Russell D; Leung, David H; Hughes, Catherine J; Ganesan, Venkatasubramanian

    2004-01-01

    An organism may use misinformation, knowingly (through deception) or unknowingly (as in the case of camouflage), to gain advantage in a competitive environment. From an evolutionary perspective, greater tactical deception occurs among primates closer to humans, with larger neocortices. In humans, the onset of deceptive behaviours in childhood exhibits a developmental trajectory, which may be regarded as 'normal' in the majority and deficient among a minority with certain neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). In the human adult, deception and lying exhibit features consistent with their use of 'higher' or 'executive' brain systems. Accurate detection of deception in humans may be of particular importance in forensic practice, while an understanding of its cognitive neurobiology may have implications for models of 'theory of mind' and social cognition, and societal notions of responsibility, guilt and mitigation. In recent years, functional neuroimaging techniques (especially functional magnetic resonance imaging) have been used to study deception. Though few in number, and using very different experimental protocols, studies published in the peer-reviewed literature exhibit certain consistencies. Attempted deception is associated with activation of executive brain regions (particularly prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices), while truthful responding has not been shown to be associated with any areas of increased activation (relative to deception). Hence, truthful responding may comprise a relative 'baseline' in human cognition and communication. The subject who lies may necessarily engage 'higher' brain centres, consistent with a purpose or intention (to deceive). While the principle of executive control during deception remains plausible, its precise anatomy awaits elucidation. PMID:15590616

  6. Questions for Assessing Higher-Order Cognitive Skills: It's Not Just Bloom's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Paula P.; Lemons, J. Derrick

    2013-01-01

    We present an exploratory study of biologists' ideas about higher-order cognition questions. We documented the conversations of biologists who were writing and reviewing a set of higher-order cognition questions. Using a qualitative approach, we identified the themes of these conversations. Biologists in our study used Bloom's Taxonomy to…

  7. Assessing Higher-Order Cognitive Constructs by Using an Information-Processing Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickison, Philip; Luo, Xiao; Kim, Doyoung; Woo, Ada; Muntean, William; Bergstrom, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Designing a theory-based assessment with sound psychometric qualities to measure a higher-order cognitive construct is a highly desired yet challenging task for many practitioners. This paper proposes a framework for designing a theory-based assessment to measure a higher-order cognitive construct. This framework results in a modularized yet…

  8. Ability, Breadth, and Parsimony in Computational Models of Higher-Order Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassimatis, Nicholas L.; Bello, Paul; Langley, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Computational models will play an important role in our understanding of human higher-order cognition. How can a model's contribution to this goal be evaluated? This article argues that three important aspects of a model of higher-order cognition to evaluate are (a) its ability to reason, solve problems, converse, and learn as well as people do;…

  9. Thinking, Walking, Talking: Integratory Motor and Cognitive Brain Function.

    PubMed

    Leisman, Gerry; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Shafir, Tal

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we argue that motor and cognitive processes are functionally related and most likely share a similar evolutionary history. This is supported by clinical and neural data showing that some brain regions integrate both motor and cognitive functions. In addition, we also argue that cognitive processes coincide with complex motor output. Further, we also review data that support the converse notion that motor processes can contribute to cognitive function, as found by many rehabilitation and aerobic exercise training programs. Support is provided for motor and cognitive processes possessing dynamic bidirectional influences on each other. PMID:27252937

  10. Thinking, Walking, Talking: Integratory Motor and Cognitive Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Leisman, Gerry; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Shafir, Tal

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we argue that motor and cognitive processes are functionally related and most likely share a similar evolutionary history. This is supported by clinical and neural data showing that some brain regions integrate both motor and cognitive functions. In addition, we also argue that cognitive processes coincide with complex motor output. Further, we also review data that support the converse notion that motor processes can contribute to cognitive function, as found by many rehabilitation and aerobic exercise training programs. Support is provided for motor and cognitive processes possessing dynamic bidirectional influences on each other. PMID:27252937

  11. Stress-Related Cognitive Interference Predicts Cognitive Function in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Stawski, Robert S.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Smyth, Joshua M.; University, Syracuse

    2010-01-01

    Both subjective distress and cognitive interference have been proposed as mechanisms underlying the negative effects of stress on cognition. Studies of aging have shown that distress is associated with lower cognitive performance, but none have examined the effects of cognitive interference. One hundred eleven older adults (Mage = 80) completed measures of working memory, processing speed, and episodic memory as well as self-report measures of subjective distress and cognitive interference. Cognitive interference was strongly associated with poorer performance on all 3 cognitive constructs, whereas distress was only modestly associated with lower working memory. The results suggest that cognitive process related to stress is an important predictor of cognitive function in advanced age. PMID:16953715

  12. The effects of napping on cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Lovato, Nicole; Lack, Leon

    2010-01-01

    Naps (brief sleeps) are a global and highly prevalent phenomenon, thus warranting consideration for their effects on cognitive functioning. Naps can reduce sleepiness and improve cognitive performance. The benefits of brief (5-15 min) naps are almost immediate after the nap and last a limited period (1-3h). Longer naps (> 30 min) can produce impairment from sleep inertia for a short period after waking but then produce improved cognitive performance for a longer period (up to many hours). Other factors that affect the benefits from the nap are the circadian timing of the nap with early afternoon being the most favourable time. Longer periods of prior wakefulness favour longer naps over brief naps. Those who regularly nap seem to show greater benefits than those who rarely nap. These conclusions, however, need to be accepted cautiously until more comprehensive research programmes are conducted in which all these parameters are varied. Research is also needed to test the benefits of brief naps taken more naturalistically at the time when sleepiness becomes intrusive. The significant benefits of a brief nap, containing virtually no slow wave EEG activity, are not predicted by the present theory of homeostatic sleep drive (Process S). A new biological process (Process O) suggests that sleep onset followed by only 7-10 min of sleep can result in a substantial increase of alertness because it allows the rapid dissipation of inhibition in the 'wake-active' cells associated with the 'sleep-switch' mechanism rather than the dissipation of Process S. PMID:21075238

  13. Aspects of Cognitive Functioning in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Elizabeth A.; Small, Brent J.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, more attention is being given to identifying aging-related and dementia-related pathological changes in performance and cognition among persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). This literature review examines age-related differences in specific aspects of cognitive functioning and cognitive performance of people with ID and…

  14. Resistance exercise enhances cognitive function in mouse.

    PubMed

    Suijo, K; Inoue, S; Ohya, Y; Odagiri, Y; Takamiya, T; Ishibashi, H; Itoh, M; Fujieda, Y; Shimomitsu, T

    2013-04-01

    Physical exercise has been shown to increase adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and to enhance synaptic plasticity. It has been demonstrated that these neuroprotective effects can be observed following aerobic exercise. However, it remains unknown whether plasticity molecules, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), are expressed in the hippocampus following resistance exercise. We applied voluntary progressive-resistance wheel exercise (RE) for 14 days, and measured BDNF and CREB in the hippocampus. The Morris water maze was also performed to estimate learning and memory. Furthermore, we measured RE effects on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) mediating muscle protein synthesis in the soleus. As a result, we found that RE enhanced cognition and elevated BDNF and CREB expressions in the hippocampus. Also, RE activated the mTOR-p70S6K signaling pathway in the soleus. We found that phosphorylated mTOR and p70S6K were significantly positively correlated with BDNF expression. Our results indicated that resistance exercise drove the protein synthesis signaling pathway in the soleus and enhanced hippocampal synaptic plasticity-related molecules. These results suggest the beneficial effects of resistance exercise on cognitive function. PMID:23041964

  15. Participation in cognitively-stimulating activities is associated with brain structure and cognitive function in preclinical Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Stephanie A; Larson, Jordan; Oh, Jennifer; Koscik, Rebecca; Dowling, Maritza N; Gallagher, Catherine L; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Rowley, Howard A; Bendlin, Barbara B; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P; Johnson, Sterling C; Sager, Mark; LaRue, Asenath; Okonkwo, Ozioma C

    2015-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that frequent participation in cognitively-stimulating activities, specifically those related to playing games and puzzles, is beneficial to brain health and cognition among middle-aged adults at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three hundred twenty-nine cognitively normal, middle-aged adults (age range, 43.2-73.8 years) enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP) participated in this study. They reported their current engagement in cognitive activities using a modified version of the Cognitive Activity Scale (CAS), underwent a structural MRI scan, and completed a comprehensive cognitive battery. FreeSurfer was used to derive gray matter (GM) volumes from AD-related regions of interest (ROIs), and composite measures of episodic memory and executive function were obtained from the cognitive tests. Covariate-adjusted least squares analyses were used to examine the association between the Games item on the CAS (CAS-Games) and both GM volumes and cognitive composites. Higher scores on CAS-Games were associated with greater GM volumes in several ROIs including the hippocampus, posterior cingulate, anterior cingulate, and middle frontal gyrus. Similarly, CAS-Games scores were positively associated with scores on the Immediate Memory, Verbal Learning & Memory, and Speed & Flexibility domains. These findings were not modified by known risk factors for AD. In addition, the Total score on the CAS was not as sensitive as CAS-Games to the examined brain and cognitive measures. For some individuals, participation in cognitive activities pertinent to game playing may help prevent AD by preserving brain structures and cognitive functions vulnerable to AD pathophysiology. PMID:25358750

  16. A Content Analysis of General Chemistry Laboratory Manuals for Evidence of Higher-Order Cognitive Tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domin, Daniel S.

    1999-01-01

    The science laboratory instructional environment is ideal for fostering the development of problem-solving, manipulative, and higher-order thinking skills: the skills needed by today's learner to compete in an ever increasing technology-based society. This paper reports the results of a content analysis of ten general chemistry laboratory manuals. Three experiments from each manual were examined for evidence of higher-order cognitive activities. Analysis was based upon the six major cognitive categories of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The results of this study show that the overwhelming majority of general chemistry laboratory manuals provide tasks that require the use of only the lower-order cognitive skills: knowledge, comprehension, and application. Two of the laboratory manuals were disparate in having activities that utilized higher-order cognition. I describe the instructional strategies used within these manuals to foster higher-order cognitive development.

  17. Compensatory mechanisms in higher-educated subjects with Alzheimer's disease: a study of 20 years of cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Amieva, Hélène; Mokri, Hind; Le Goff, Mélanie; Meillon, Céline; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Stern, Yaakov; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2014-04-01

    decline concomitantly affecting specific and more global cognitive function along with alteration in functional abilities. This study demonstrates how early cognitive symptoms may emerge preceding Alzheimer's dementia particularly in higher-educated individuals, for whom decline occurred up to 16 years before dementia. It also demonstrates the protective role of education in the clinical trajectory preceding Alzheimer's dementia. We suggest that the initial decline in cognition occurs at the onset of comparable Alzheimer's disease pathology in both groups, and is associated with immediate decline to dementia in the lower education group. In contrast, higher education protects against further cognitive decline for ∼7 years until pathology becomes more severe. PMID:24578544

  18. Cognitive Adequacy in Structural-Functional Theories of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the role played by cognition in three linguistic theories which may be labelled as "structural-functional": Functional (Discourse) Grammar, Role and Reference Grammar and Systemic Functional Grammar. It argues that if we are to achieve true cognitive adequacy, we must go well beyond the grammar itself to include the processes…

  19. From social-signal detection to higher social cognition: an fMRI approach.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Mano, Yoko; Sassa, Yuko; Kambara, Toshimune; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-09-01

    Implicit or automatic detection of social signals, which discriminate animate, intentional objects in the environment, is essential for higher social cognition and its development. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we identified the neural substrate of detecting simple visual social signals and examined its functional link with the mechanism of inferring another's mental state. Healthy participants were presented with the eye-gaze shift (EG) and self-propelling motion (SP) under both implicit and explicit task conditions. They also performed a social role-playing game in which mental inference (MI) was implicitly prompted during the presentation of faces (implicit MI). Implicit detection of EG and SP activated the posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) bilaterally, whereas the right posterior superior temporal sulcus was activated during the explicit conditions. We revealed that the individual variation in neural response in the right pMTG during implicit eye-gaze detection explains the individual tendency to recruit the regions implicated in mental-state inference (medial prefrontal cortex, temporal pole and striatum) during the implicit MI task. Our results suggest that the implicit detection of visual social signals involves the pMTG and underlies the development of higher social cognition. PMID:23887806

  20. Cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions affecting physical functioning: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitive function through behavioral interventions or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments that are similar to cognitive impairments seen in aging. The aim was to identify potentially promising methods that might be used in future intervention type studies for older adults. Methods A systematic search was conducted for the Medline/Premedline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. The search was focused on older adults over the age of 65. To increase the number of articles for review, we also included those discussing adult patients with neurological impairments due to trauma, as these cognitive impairments are similar to those seen in the aging population. The search was restricted to English, German and French language literature without any limitation of publication date or restriction by study design. Cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions were defined as dual-tasking, virtual reality exercise, cognitive exercise, or a combination of these. Results 28 articles met our inclusion criteria. Three articles used an isolated cognitive rehabilitation intervention, seven articles used a dual-task intervention and 19 applied a computerized intervention. There is evidence to suggest that cognitive or motor-cognitive methods positively affects physical functioning, such as postural control, walking abilities and general functions of the upper and lower extremities, respectively. The majority of the included studies resulted in improvements of the assessed functional outcome measures. Conclusions The current evidence on the effectiveness of cognitive or

  1. Vitamin K status and cognitive function in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Presse, Nancy; Belleville, Sylvie; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Greenwood, Carol E; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Morais, Jose A; Payette, Hélène; Shatenstein, Bryna; Ferland, Guylaine

    2013-12-01

    Evidence is accumulating that vitamin K could have a role in cognition, especially in aging. Using data from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge), a cross-sectional analysis was conducted to examine the associations between vitamin K status, measured as serum phylloquinone concentrations, and performance in verbal and non-verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of processing. The sample included 320 men and women aged 70 to 85 years who were free of cognitive impairment. After adjustment for covariates, higher serum phylloquinone concentration (log-transformed) was associated with better verbal episodic memory performances (F = 2.43, p = 0.048); specifically with the scores (Z-transformed) on the second (β = 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.13-0.82), third (β = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.06-0.75), and 20-minute delayed (β = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.12-0.82) free recall trials of the RL/RI-16 Free and Cued Recall Task. No associations were found with non-verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of processing. Our study adds evidence to the possible role of vitamin K in cognition during aging, specifically in the consolidation of the memory trace. PMID:23850343

  2. Depression and Cognitive Function in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Agganis, Brian T.; Weiner, Daniel E.; Giang, Lena M.; Scott, Tammy; Tighiouart, Hocine; Griffith, John L.; Sarnak, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Both depression and cognitive impairment are common in hemodialysis patients, are associated with adverse clinical outcomes, and place an increased burden on health care resources. Study Design Cross-sectional cohort Setting & Participants 241 maintenance hemodialysis patients in the Boston area Predictor Depressive symptomatology, defined by a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score of 16 or higher Outcome Performance on a detailed neurocognitive battery Results Mean age was 63.8 years, 49.0% were female, 21.6% were African American, and median dialysis duration was 13.8 months. There were 57 (23.7%) participants with significant depressive symptoms. In multivariable analysis adjusting for age, sex, education and other comorbid conditions, participants with and without depressive symptoms performed similarly on the Mini-Mental State Examination (p=0.4) and tests of memory. However, participants with greater depressive symptoms performed significantly worse on tests assessing processing speed, attention, and executive function, including Trails Making Test B (p=0.02) and Digit-Symbol Coding (p=0.01). Defining depression using a CES-D score ≥18 did not substantially change results. Limitations Cross-sectional design, absence of brain imaging Conclusions Hemodialysis patients with a greater burden of depressive symptoms perform worse on tests of cognition related to processing speed and executive function. Further research is needed to assess the effects of treating depressive symptoms on cognitive performance in dialysis patients. PMID:20673602

  3. Novel television-based cognitive training improves working memory and executive function.

    PubMed

    Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bureš, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60-87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of "adequate" to "high" system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

  4. Fusion and Fission of Cognitive Functions in the Human Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Gina F.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    How is higher cognitive function organized in the human parietal cortex? A century of neuropsychology and 30 years of functional neuroimaging has implicated the parietal lobe in many different verbal and nonverbal cognitive domains. There is little clarity, however, on how these functions are organized, that is, where do these functions coalesce (implying a shared, underpinning neurocomputation) and where do they divide (indicating different underlying neural functions). Until now, there has been no multi-domain synthesis in order to reveal where there is fusion or fission of functions in the parietal cortex. This aim was achieved through a large-scale activation likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis of 386 studies (3952 activation peaks) covering 8 cognitive domains. A tripartite, domain-general neuroanatomical division and 5 principles of cognitive organization were established, and these are discussed with respect to a unified theory of parietal functional organization. PMID:25205661

  5. Cognitive Function in Adolescent Patients with Anorexia Nervosa and Unipolar Affective Disorders.

    PubMed

    Sarrar, Lea; Holzhausen, Martin; Warschburger, Petra; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Schneider, Nora

    2016-05-01

    Studies have shown impairments in cognitive function among adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and affective disorders (AD). The association between cognitive dysfunctions, AN and AD as well as the specificity for these psychiatric diagnoses remains unclear. Therefore, we examined cognitive flexibility and processing speed in 47 female adolescent patients with AN, 21 female adolescent patients with unipolar affective disorders and 48 female healthy adolescents. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery. There were no significant group differences regarding cognitive function, except for psychomotor processing speed with poorer performance in patients with AN. A further analysis revealed that all groups performed with the normal range, although patients with AN were over represented in the poorest performing quartile. We found no severe cognitive impairments in either patient group. Nevertheless, belonging to the AN group contributed significantly to poor performances in neuropsychological tasks. Therefore, we conclude that the risk for cognitive impairments is slightly higher for patients with AN. PMID:26695683

  6. Functional (Psychogenic) Cognitive Disorders: A Perspective from the Neurology Clinic.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jon; Pal, Suvankar; Blackburn, Daniel; Reuber, Markus; Thekkumpurath, Parvez; Carson, Alan

    2015-09-24

    Cognitive symptoms such as poor memory and concentration represent a common cause of morbidity among patients presenting to general practitioners and may result in referral for a neurological opinion. In many cases, these symptoms do not relate to an underlying neurological disease or dementia. In this article we present a personal perspective on the differential diagnosis of cognitive symptoms in the neurology clinic, especially as this applies to patients who seek advice about memory problems but have no neurological disease process. These overlapping categories include the following 'functional' categories: 1) cognitive symptoms as part of anxiety or depression; 2) "normal" cognitive symptoms that become the focus of attention; 3) isolated functional cognitive disorder in which symptoms are outwith 'normal' but not explained by anxiety; 4) health anxiety about dementia; 5) cognitive symptoms as part of another functional disorder; and 6) retrograde dissociative (psychogenic) amnesia. Other 'non-dementia' diagnoses to consider in addition are 1) cognitive symptoms secondary to prescribed medication or substance misuse; 2) diseases other than dementia causing cognitive disorders; 3) patients who appear to have functional cognitive symptoms but then go on to develop dementia/another neurological disease; and finally 4) exaggeration/malingering. We discuss previous attempts to classify the problem of functional cognitive symptoms, the importance of making a positive diagnosis for the patient, and the need for large cohort studies to better define and manage this large group of patients. PMID:26445274

  7. Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older age: results from the Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Samieri, Cécilia; Grodstein, Francine; Rosner, Bernard A.; Kang, Jae H.; Cook, Nancy R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Willett, Walter C.; Okereke, Olivia I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adherence to a Mediterranean diet may help prevent cognitive decline in older age, but studies are limited. We examined the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with cognitive function and decline. Methods We included 6,174 participants, aged 65+ years, from the cognitive sub-study of the Women’s Health Study. Women provided dietary information in 1998 and completed a cognitive battery 5 years later, followed by two assessments at 2-year intervals. The primary outcomes were composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. The alternate Mediterranean diet adherence 9-point-score was constructed based on intakes of: vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts, fish, red and processed meats, moderate alcohol, and the ratio of monounsaturated-to-saturated fats. Results After multivariable adjustment, the alternate Mediterranean diet score was not associated with trajectories of repeated cognitive scores (P-trend across quintiles=0.26 and 0.40 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively), nor with overall global cognition and verbal memory at older ages, assessed by averaging the three cognitive measures (P-trend=0.63 and 0.44, respectively). Among alternate Mediterranean diet components, higher monounsaturated-to-saturated fats ratio was associated with more favorable cognitive trajectories (P-trend=0.03 and 0.05 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively). Greater whole grain intake was not associated with cognitive trajectories, but was related to better average global cognition (P-trend=0.02). Conclusions In this large study of older women, we observed no association of the Mediterranean diet with cognitive decline. Relations between individual Mediterranean diet components, particularly whole grains, and cognitive function merit further study. PMID:23676264

  8. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Function in Late Life.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Andrea L; Flatt, Jason D; Carlson, Michelle C; Lovasi, Gina S; Rosano, Caterina; Brown, Arleen F; Matthews, Karen A; Gianaros, Peter J

    2016-06-15

    Neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) is associated with cognitive function, independently of individual demographic, health, and socioeconomic characteristics. However, research has been largely cross-sectional, and mechanisms of the association are unknown. In 1992-1993, Cardiovascular Health Study participants (n = 3,595; mean age = 74.8 years; 15.7% black) underwent cognitive testing and magnetic resonance imaging of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), and their addresses were geocoded. NSES was calculated using 1990 US Census data (block groups; 6 measures of wealth, education, and occupation). The Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) was used to assess general cognition, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) was used to assess speed of processing annually for 6 years. Associations of race-specific NSES tertiles with 3MS, DSST, and WMH were estimated using linear mixed-effects models accounting for geographic clustering, stratified by race, and adjusted for demographic, health, and individual socioeconomic status (education, income, lifetime occupational status) variables. In fully adjusted models, higher NSES was associated with higher 3MS scores in blacks (mean difference between highest and lowest NSES = 2.4 points; P = 0.004) and whites (mean difference = 0.7 points; P = 0.02) at baseline but not with changes in 3MS over time. NSES was marginally associated with DSST and was not associated with WMH. Adjustment for WMH did not attenuate NSES-3MS associations. Associations of NSES with cognition in late adulthood differ by race, are not explained by WMH, and are evident only at baseline. PMID:27257114

  9. Gestational hypothyroxinemia and cognitive function in offspring.

    PubMed

    Kasatkina, E P; Samsonova, L N; Ivakhnenko, V N; Ibragimova, G V; Ryabykh, A V; Naumenko, L L; Evdokimova, Yu A

    2006-07-01

    The effects of gestational hypothyroxinemia on the neurointellectual prognosis of children in the first year of life living in an industrial city (megalopolis) with mild iodine deficiency were studied in 13 children of mothers with thyroid hormone-corrected gestational hypothyroxinemia in the first trimester and 10 children of mothers with normal levels of free thyroxine by assessing cognitive functions at ages six, nine, and 12 months using the Gnome mental development scale. The results showed that maternal free thyroxine levels at the early stages (5-9 weeks) of pregnancy correlated significantly with the coefficients of mental development among the children at ages 6, 9, and 12 months, i.e., represented one of the factors defining the neuropsychological development of offspring. Early (not later than nine weeks) correction of gestational hypothyroxinemia with levothyroxine at a mean daily dose of at lest 1.2 microg/kg improved the neurointellectual prognosis of the offspring, increasing the coefficient of mental development of children to 92-97 points during the first year of life, i.e., to the level of development of mental functions of children born to mothers with normal thyroxine levels. PMID:16783515

  10. Measuring Cognitive Function: An Empirical Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of a Cognitive Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witta, E. Lea; Sivo, Stephen A.

    Herzog and Wallace (A. Herzog and R. Wallace, 1997) discussed a measure designed to assess the cognitive functioning of older adults who participated in the study formerly known as the Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD). The measure derived from four well-known tests of cognitive functioning, but improves on them by combining…

  11. Plasma vitamin D levels and cognitive function in aging women: the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Bartali, Benedetta; Devore, Elizabeth; Grodstein, Francine; Kang, Jae H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin D may play a role in preserving cognitive function. However, there is a paucity of prospective studies on the relationship between vitamin D and cognition with aging. The aim of this study was to examine the association between plasma levels of vitamin D and subsequent cognitive function. Methods This is a prospective study including 1,185 women aged 60–70 years from the Nurses’ Health Study, who had plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels measured in 1989–1990 and completed an initial Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status approximately 9 years later. Subsequently, three follow-up cognitive assessments were conducted at 1.5–2.0 years intervals. We used multivariable-adjusted linear regression to model initial cognitive function, and mixed linear regression to model change in cognitive function over time. Results Lower vitamin D levels were associated with significantly worse cognitive function 9 years later. For example, the mean global composite score averaging all the cognitive tests was 0.20 lower (95% Confidence Interval (CI):−0.33,−0.08; p-trend=0.009) in women in the lowest quintile (median=14.1 ng/mL) compared with women in the highest quintile of vitamin D (median=38.4 ng/mL). The observed differences were equivalent to the effect estimates we found for women who were approximately 4–6 years apart in age. However, vitamin D levels were not significantly associated with subsequent cognitive decline during 6 years of follow-up. Conclusions Higher levels of plasma vitamin D in women aged 60–70 years were associated with better cognitive function about a decade later but were not associated with cognitive decline during 6 years of follow-up. PMID:24676321

  12. Depression, Cognition, and Self-Appraisal of Functional Abilities in HIV: An Examination of Subjective Appraisal Versus Objective Performance

    PubMed Central

    Thames, April D.; Becker, Brian W.; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Hines, Lindsay J.; Foley, Jessica M.; Ramezani, Amir; Singer, Elyse J.; Castellon, Steven A.; Heaton, Robert K.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    Depression frequently co-occurs with HIV infection and can result in self-reported overestimates of cognitive deficits. Conversely, genuine cognitive dysfunction can lead to an under-appreciation of cognitive deficits. The degree to which depression and cognition influence self-report of capacity for instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) requires further investigation. This study examined the effects of depression and cognitive deficits on self-appraisal of functional competence among 107 HIV-infected adults. As hypothesized, higher levels of depression were found among those who over-reported problems in medication management, driving, and cognition when compared to those who under-reported or provided accurate self-assessments. In contrast, genuine cognitive dysfunction was predictive of under-reporting of functional deficits. Together, these results suggest that over-reliance on self-reported functional status poses risk for error when diagnoses require documentation of both cognitive impairment and associated functional disability in everyday life. PMID:21331979

  13. Effects of Gestational Age at Birth on Cognitive Performance: A Function of Cognitive Workload Demands

    PubMed Central

    Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Wolke, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cognitive deficits have been inconsistently described for late or moderately preterm children but are consistently found in very preterm children. This study investigates the association between cognitive workload demands of tasks and cognitive performance in relation to gestational age at birth. Methods Data were collected as part of a prospective geographically defined whole-population study of neonatal at-risk children in Southern Bavaria. At 8;5 years, n = 1326 children (gestation range: 23–41 weeks) were assessed with the K-ABC and a Mathematics Test. Results Cognitive scores of preterm children decreased as cognitive workload demands of tasks increased. The relationship between gestation and task workload was curvilinear and more pronounced the higher the cognitive workload: GA2 (quadratic term) on low cognitive workload: R2 = .02, p<0.001; moderate cognitive workload: R2 = .09, p<0.001; and high cognitive workload tasks: R2 = .14, p<0.001. Specifically, disproportionally lower scores were found for very (<32 weeks gestation) and moderately (32–33 weeks gestation) preterm children the higher the cognitive workload of the tasks. Early biological factors such as gestation and neonatal complications explained more of the variance in high (12.5%) compared with moderate (8.1%) and low cognitive workload tasks (1.7%). Conclusions The cognitive workload model may help to explain variations of findings on the relationship of gestational age with cognitive performance in the literature. The findings have implications for routine cognitive follow-up, educational intervention, and basic research into neuro-plasticity and brain reorganization after preterm birth. PMID:23717694

  14. Computer Use and the Relation between Age and Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soubelet, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates whether computer use for leisure could mediate or moderate the relations between age and cognitive functioning. Findings supported smaller age differences in measures of cognitive functioning for people who reported spending more hours using a computer. Because of the cross-sectional design of the study, two alternative…

  15. Functional Systems and Culturally-Determined Cognitive Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Richard L.

    Noting that one means of better understanding the nature of cultural differences is to elucidate the cognitive differences between members of differing cultures, this paper examines Alexander Luria's sociohistorical theory of functional cognitive systems. The paper first describes Luria's notion of functional systems, the crux of which postulates…

  16. Social cognition and functional outcome in schizophrenia: The moderating role of cardiac vagal tone.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Holly K; Sun, Jane C; Green, Michael F; Kee, Kimmy S; Lee, Junghee; Sergi, Mark; Sholty, Gretchen L; Mathis, Kristopher I; Jetton, Christopher; Williams, Terrance J; Kern, Robert; Horan, William; Fiske, Alan; Subotnik, Kenneth L; Ventura, Joseph; Hellemann, Gerhard; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Yee, Cindy M

    2014-11-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia face significant challenges in daily functioning, and although social cognition predicts how well patients respond to these challenges, associated physiological mechanisms remain unspecified. The present study draws from polyvagal theory and tested the hypothesis that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an established indicator of the capacity to self-regulate and adapt to environmental demands, combines with social cognition to predict functional outcome. Using data from 41 schizophrenia patients and 36 healthy comparison subjects, we replicated group differences in RSA and social cognition and also demonstrated that RSA and social cognition interact to predict how effectively patients manage work and independent living activities. Specifically, RSA did not enhance functional outcomes when social cognition was already strong, but higher levels of RSA enabled effective role functioning when social-cognitive performance was impaired. Jointly, RSA and social cognition accounted for 40% of the variance in outcome success, compared with 21% when evaluating social cognition alone. As polyvagal theory suggests, physiological flexibility and self-regulatory capacity may compensate for poorer social-cognitive skills among schizophrenia patients. PMID:25314266

  17. Cognitive Function, Mental Health, and Health-related Quality of Life after Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, David G.; Christie, Jason D.; Anderson, Brian J.; Diamond, Joshua M.; Judy, Ryan P.; Shah, Rupal J.; Cantu, Edward; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Blumenthal, Nancy P.; Demissie, Ejigayehu; Hopkins, Ramona O.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Cognitive and psychiatric impairments are threats to functional independence, general health, and quality of life. Evidence regarding these outcomes after lung transplantation is limited. Objectives: Determine the frequency of cognitive and psychiatric impairment after lung transplantation and identify potential factors associated with cognitive impairment after lung transplantation. Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, we assessed cognitive function, mental health, and health-related quality of life using a validated battery of standardized tests in 42 subjects post-transplantation. The battery assessed cognition, depression, anxiety, resilience, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cognitive function was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, a validated screening test with a range of 0 to 30. We hypothesized that cognitive function post-transplantation would be associated with type of transplant, cardiopulmonary bypass, primary graft dysfunction, allograft ischemic time, and physical therapy post-transplantation. We used multivariable linear regression to examine the relationship between candidate risk factors and cognitive function post-transplantation. Measurements and Main Results: Mild cognitive impairment (score, 18–25) was observed in 67% of post-transplant subjects (95% confidence interval [CI]: 50–80%) and moderate cognitive impairment (score, 10–17) was observed in 5% (95% CI, 1–16%) of post-transplant subjects. Symptoms of moderate to severe anxiety and depression were observed in 21 and 3% of post-transplant subjects, respectively. No transplant recipients reported symptoms of PTSD. Higher resilience correlated with less psychological distress in the domains of depression (P < 0.001) and PTSD (P = 0.02). Prolonged graft ischemic time was independently associated with worse cognitive performance after lung transplantation (P = 0.001). The functional gain in 6-minute-walk distance achieved at the end of post

  18. Saccade and cognitive function in chronic kava users.

    PubMed

    Cairney, Sheree; Clough, Alan R; Maruff, Paul; Collie, Alex; Currie, Bart J; Currie, Jon

    2003-02-01

    Kava is an extract from the Piper methysticum Forst. f. plant that has been consumed in the Pacific islands for millennia and more recently, among indigenous populations, in northern Australia and throughout the Western world as an herbal medicine. Through alterations on neuronal excitation, kava induces muscle relaxation, anasthesia, and has anxiolytic properties. There have been several isolated reports of psychotic syndromes, severe choreoathetosis and possible seizures following kava use. However, there is no conclusive evidence that kava interferes with normal cognitive processes. We tested a group of current, ex, and nonkava users among an indigenous population in northern Australia, using saccade and cognitive tests that have proven cross-cultural validity and are sensitive to subtle disruptions of the brain arising from substance abuse or neuropsychiatric illness. Despite collecting data from among the heaviest reported kava drinkers in the world, we found no impairment in cognitive or saccade function in individuals who were currently heavy kava users (and had been for up to 18 years), nor was there any impairment in individuals who had been heavy kava users in the past but had abstained for longer than 6 months. Current and ex-kava users showed a higher rate of kava dermopathy, lower body mass index, lowered blood lymphocytes and, in addition, current kava users showed elevated liver enzymes. While there has recently been increasing concern about potentially fatal liver damage attributed to kava use, we have found no evidence of brain dysfunction in heavy and long-term kava users. PMID:12589393

  19. Relation between dairy food intake and cognitive function: The Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, G.E.; Elias, M.F.; Dore, G.A.; Robbins, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Diet modification to alter the course of age-related cognitive decline is becoming increasingly important. Few observational findings suggest that dairy food intake may be positively related to cognitive function, but research in this novel area is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dairy food intake is associated with cognitive function, before and after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. To do this, a cross-sectional analyses of a subset of the community-based Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS) sample (N = 972) was undertaken. It was determined that participants who consumed dairy products at least once per day had significantly higher scores on multiple domains of cognitive function compared with those who never or rarely consumed dairy foods, adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle and dietary factors. Frequent dairy food intake is associated with better cognitive performance but underlying causal mechanisms are still to be determined. PMID:24453407

  20. Lifestyle engagement affects cognitive status differences and trajectories on executive functions in older adults.

    PubMed

    de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A

    2014-02-01

    The authors first examined the concurrent moderating role of lifestyle engagement on the relation between cognitive status (cognitively elite, cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and executive functioning (EF) in older adults. Second, the authors examined whether baseline participation in lifestyle activities predicted differential 4.5-year stabilities and transitions in cognitive status. Participants (initial N = 501; 53-90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. EF was represented by a 1-factor structure. Lifestyle activities were measured in multiple domains of engagement (e.g., cognitive, physical, and social). Two-wave status stability groups included sustained normal aging, transitional early impairment, and chronic impairment. Hierarchical regressions showed that baseline participation in social activities moderated cognitive status differences in EF. CI adults with high (but not low) social engagement performed equivalently to CN adults on EF. Longitudinally, logistic regressions showed that engagement in physical activities was a significant predictor of stability of cognitive status. CI adults who were more engaged in physical activities were more likely to improve in their cognitive status over time than their more sedentary peers. Participation in cognitive activities was a significant predictor of maintenance in a higher cognitive status group. Given that lifestyle engagement plays a detectable role in healthy, normal, and impaired neuropsychological aging, further research in activity-related associations and interventions is recommended. PMID:24323561

  1. Factors associated with cognitive function in older adults in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Miu, Jenny; Negin, Joel; Salinas-Rodriguez, Aarón; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa; Cumming, Robert; Kowal, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background As populations age, cognitive decline and dementia pose significant burdens for societies and health care systems, including low- and middle-income countries such as Mexico. Minor age-related declines in cognitive function appear to represent a stable but heterogeneous phase in the continuum between normal cognitive ageing and dementia. Loss of cognitive function has impacts at societal and individual levels and understanding the risk factors can help provide a framework for health policies and interventions to target at-risk groups. Design A cohort of older Mexican adults (50+) from the World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (WHO SAGE) was used to examine cognitive function, including a total of 2315 respondents, with 325 respondents aged 80 years and older. Cognition was objectively evaluated using verbal recall, verbal fluency, forward digit span and backward digit span, with differences in an overall cognitive score assessed against sociodemographic variables, and associated factors using linear regression. Results The most significant predictors of poorer cognitive function were found to be older age (β=−13.88), rural living (β=−2.25), low income (β=−8.28), self-reported severe or extreme memory difficulties (β=−6.62), and difficulty with two or more activities of daily living (β=−2.02). Conclusions These findings can inform public health initiatives to address cognitive impairment in ageing populations in Mexico and other middle-income countries. PMID:27032808

  2. The effects of exercise under hypoxia on cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Ando, Soichi; Hatamoto, Yoichi; Sudo, Mizuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Higaki, Yasuki

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cognitive function improves during a single bout of moderate exercise. In contrast, exercise under hypoxia may compromise the availability of oxygen. Given that brain function and tissue integrity are dependent on a continuous and sufficient oxygen supply, exercise under hypoxia may impair cognitive function. However, it remains unclear how exercise under hypoxia affects cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise under different levels of hypoxia on cognitive function. Twelve participants performed a cognitive task at rest and during exercise at various fractions of inspired oxygen (FIO2: 0.209, 0.18, and 0.15). Exercise intensity corresponded to 60% of peak oxygen uptake under normoxia. The participants performed a Go/No-Go task requiring executive control. Cognitive function was evaluated using the speed of response (reaction time) and response accuracy. We monitored pulse oximetric saturation (SpO2) and cerebral oxygenation to assess oxygen availability. SpO2 and cerebral oxygenation progressively decreased during exercise as the FIO2 level decreased. Nevertheless, the reaction time in the Go-trial significantly decreased during moderate exercise. Hypoxia did not affect reaction time. Neither exercise nor difference in FIO2 level affected response accuracy. An additional experiment indicated that cognitive function was not altered without exercise. These results suggest that the improvement in cognitive function is attributable to exercise, and that hypoxia has no effects on cognitive function at least under the present experimental condition. Exercise-cognition interaction should be further investigated under various environmental and exercise conditions. PMID:23675496

  3. The effect of cancer treatment on cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Asher, Arash; Myers, Jamie S

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is an increasingly recognized complication of cancer and its treatment. Most research in this arena has found that a subset of patients appear to be vulnerable to this complication even after treatment has ended, and often have difficulties with multitasking, short-term memory, word-finding, attention, or concentration. The mechanisms underlying these cognitive changes are not fully elucidated but may include direct neurotoxic effects of therapy, oxidative damage, and genetic predisposition. Compelling evidence has accumulated for the role of immune dysregulation and neurotoxicity from inflammatory cytokines. A gold standard for subjective or objective assessment of cancer treatment-related cognitive changes has yet to be established. Current options to assess cognitive function include neuropsychological testing, functional neuroimaging, and subjective assessments. Pharmacologic treatment options for this clinical problem are modest and limited. Nonpharmacologic treatments, including cognitive rehabilitation programs, are an emerging area of research for the management of cancer treatment-related cognitive changes. PMID:26353040

  4. Family Stress and Adolescents’ Cognitive Functioning: Sleep as a Protective Factor

    PubMed Central

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined two sleep-wake parameters as moderators of the associations between exposure to family stressors and adolescent cognitive functioning. Participants were 252 school-recruited adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 66% European American, 34% African American). Youths reported on three dimensions of family stress: marital conflict, harsh parenting, and parental psychological control. Cognitive functioning was indexed through performance on the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Sleep minutes and efficiency were measured objectively using actigraphy. Towards identifying unique effects, path models controlled for two family stress variables while estimating the third. Analyses revealed that sleep efficiency moderated the associations between negative parenting (harsh parenting and parental psychological control) and adolescents’ cognitive functioning. The highest level of cognitive performance was predicted for adolescents with higher levels of sleep efficiency in conjunction with lower levels of either harsh parenting or psychological control. The effects of sleep were more pronounced at lower levels of negative parenting where adolescents with higher sleep efficiency performed better than their counterparts with poorer sleep. At higher levels of either harsh parenting or psychological control, similar levels of cognitive performance were observed regardless of sleep. Results are discussed in comparison to other recent studies on interrelations among family stress, sleep, and cognitive performance in childhood and adolescence. PMID:25329625

  5. Improving Cognitive Complexity via Seminar Methodology in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Pau; Gallifa, Josep

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the main functions that university plays in society and describes the seminar methodology created at Ramon Llull University. Specifically the article focuses on and explains how seminars help to promote complex knowledge in students. An empirical study with students participating in seminars is designed to assess the…

  6. Effects of Cognitive Training on Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Default Mode, Salience, and Central Executive Networks.

    PubMed

    Cao, Weifang; Cao, Xinyi; Hou, Changyue; Li, Ting; Cheng, Yan; Jiang, Lijuan; Luo, Cheng; Li, Chunbo; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have documented that aging can disrupt certain higher cognitive systems such as the default mode network (DMN), the salience network and the central executive network (CEN). The effect of cognitive training on higher cognitive systems remains unclear. This study used a 1-year longitudinal design to explore the cognitive training effect on three higher cognitive networks in healthy older adults. The community-living healthy older adults were divided into two groups: the multi-domain cognitive training group (24 sessions of cognitive training over a 3-months period) and the wait-list control group. All subjects underwent cognitive measurements and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning at baseline and at 1 year after the training ended. We examined training-related changes in functional connectivity (FC) within and between three networks. Compared with the baseline, we observed maintained or increased FC within all three networks after training. The scans after training also showed maintained anti-correlation of FC between the DMN and CEN compared to the baseline. These findings demonstrated that cognitive training maintained or improved the functional integration within networks and the coupling between the DMN and CEN in older adults. Our findings suggested that multi-domain cognitive training can mitigate the aging-related dysfunction of higher cognitive networks. PMID:27148042

  7. Effects of Cognitive Training on Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Default Mode, Salience, and Central Executive Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Weifang; Cao, Xinyi; Hou, Changyue; Li, Ting; Cheng, Yan; Jiang, Lijuan; Luo, Cheng; Li, Chunbo; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have documented that aging can disrupt certain higher cognitive systems such as the default mode network (DMN), the salience network and the central executive network (CEN). The effect of cognitive training on higher cognitive systems remains unclear. This study used a 1-year longitudinal design to explore the cognitive training effect on three higher cognitive networks in healthy older adults. The community-living healthy older adults were divided into two groups: the multi-domain cognitive training group (24 sessions of cognitive training over a 3-months period) and the wait-list control group. All subjects underwent cognitive measurements and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning at baseline and at 1 year after the training ended. We examined training-related changes in functional connectivity (FC) within and between three networks. Compared with the baseline, we observed maintained or increased FC within all three networks after training. The scans after training also showed maintained anti-correlation of FC between the DMN and CEN compared to the baseline. These findings demonstrated that cognitive training maintained or improved the functional integration within networks and the coupling between the DMN and CEN in older adults. Our findings suggested that multi-domain cognitive training can mitigate the aging-related dysfunction of higher cognitive networks. PMID:27148042

  8. Life Experience and Demographic Influences on Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, Paul W. H.; Melrose, Rebecca J.; Marquine, María J.; Johnson, Julene K.; Napoles, Anna; MacKay-Brandt, Anna; Farias, Sarah; Reed, Bruce; Mungas, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the influence of a broad spectrum of life experiences on longitudinal cognitive trajectories in a demographically diverse sample of older adults. Method Participants were 333 educationally, ethnically, and cognitively diverse older adults enrolled in a longitudinal aging study. Mixed-effects regression was used to measure baseline status in episodic memory, executive functioning, and semantic memory and change in a global cognition factor defined by change in these three domain-specific measures. We examined effects of life experience variables (literacy, childhood socioeconomic status, morphometric measures of physical development, life course physical and recreational activity) on longitudinal cognitive trajectories, covarying for age, APOE genotype and demographics (education, ethnicity, language). Results Non-Latino whites had higher baseline cognition, but life experience variables attenuated ethnic differences in cognitive scores. Age, literacy, childhood socioeconomic status and physical activity significantly influenced baseline cognition. Age, APOE ε4 and decline in intellectually and socially stimulating recreational activity from mid to late life were independently associated with increased late life cognitive decline. Higher literacy and late life recreational activity were associated with less decline. Literacy had similar effects for English and Spanish readers/speakers. Bilingual English and Spanish speakers did not differ from English Speakers in cognitive performance. Conclusions Life experience variables, especially literacy level, were strongly related to baseline cognition and substantially attenuated effects of race/ethnicity and education. Cognitive change was best explained by age, APOE ε4, literacy, and current recreational activities. Literacy had robust associations with baseline cognition and cognitive change in both English and Spanish speakers. PMID:24933483

  9. The Functional Significance of Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Couture, Shannon M.; Penn, David L.; Roberts, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Deficits in a wide array of functional outcome areas (eg, social functioning, social skills, independent living skills, etc) are marked in schizophrenia. Consequently, much recent research has attempted to identify factors that may contribute to functional outcome; social cognition is one such domain. The purpose of this article is to review research examining the relationship between social cognition and functional outcome. Comprehensive searches of PsycINFO and MEDLINE/PUBMED were conducted to identify relevant published manuscripts to include in the current review. It is concluded that the relationship between social cognition and functional outcome depends on the specific domains of each construct examined; however, it can generally be concluded that there are clear and consistent relationships between aspects of functional outcome and social cognition. These findings are discussed in light of treatment implications for schizophrenia. PMID:16916889

  10. The kidney disease quality of life cognitive function subscale and cognitive performance maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cognitive impairment is common but often undiagnosed in patients with end-stage renal disease, in part reflecting limited validated and easily administered tools to assess cognitive function in dialysis patients. Accordingly, we assessed the utility of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life ...

  11. Inner Speech: Development, Cognitive Functions, Phenomenology, and Neurobiology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inner speech—also known as covert speech or verbal thinking—has been implicated in theories of cognitive development, speech monitoring, executive function, and psychopathology. Despite a growing body of knowledge on its phenomenology, development, and function, approaches to the scientific study of inner speech have remained diffuse and largely unintegrated. This review examines prominent theoretical approaches to inner speech and methodological challenges in its study, before reviewing current evidence on inner speech in children and adults from both typical and atypical populations. We conclude by considering prospects for an integrated cognitive science of inner speech, and present a multicomponent model of the phenomenon informed by developmental, cognitive, and psycholinguistic considerations. Despite its variability among individuals and across the life span, inner speech appears to perform significant functions in human cognition, which in some cases reflect its developmental origins and its sharing of resources with other cognitive processes. PMID:26011789

  12. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition during Math Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F.; Englert, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158) completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition 5 months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests. PMID:27065013

  13. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition during Math Examinations.

    PubMed

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158) completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition 5 months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests. PMID:27065013

  14. Cognitive Functional Evaluation (CFE) Process for Individuals with Suspected Cognitive Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hartman-Maeir, Adina; Katz, Noomi; Baum, Carolyn M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize the evaluation process for individuals with suspected cognitive disabilities. The Cognitive Functional Evaluation (CFE) process yields a comprehensive profile of the clients' cognitive strengths and weaknesses in occupational performance. The components of the CFE are outlined in six stages as a decision tree with examples of standardized instruments from which to choose the assessments for each client evaluated: (1) interview and background information; (2) cognitive screening and baseline status tests; (3) general measures of cognition and executive functions in occupation; (4) cognitive tests for specific domains; (5) measures of specific cognitive domains in occupations; and (6) environmental assessment. The first three stages are required to ascertain basic cognitive abilities underlying occupational performance. Tests for each stage can be chosen from the ones listed according to the client characteristics and the theory utilized, there is no need to use all of them. Once this data is available a further decision is made whether a more in-depth assessment is needed (stages (4) and (5)). The environmental component is evaluated in all instances with at least one of the assessments. The CFE process for individuals with suspected cognitive disabilities is recommended to be used by occupational therapists as a common ground for evaluation, documentation, and communicating information. PMID:23930828

  15. Cognitive Adequacy in a Dialogic Functional Discourse Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, J. Lachlan

    2012-01-01

    Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG), as a theory of the organization of natural languages, seeks to attain pragmatic, typological and cognitive adequacy. The attempt to achieve cognitive adequacy has been fraught with problems stemming from the vagueness of the concept and the difficulty of adapting to trends in psycholinguistics. Specifically,…

  16. Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

  17. Effects of Donepezil on Cognitive Functioning in Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, N.; Fahey, C.; Chicoine, B.; Chong, G.; Gitelman, D.

    2003-01-01

    Donepezil, an acetycholinesterase inhibitor, or a placebo were given to 29 subjects with Down syndrome and no dementia. Measures of cognitive functioning and caregiver ratings indicated no improvement in any cognitive subtests (with the exception of language), behavioral scores, or caregiver ratings. Results suggest donepezil may improve language…

  18. Walking and the Preservation of Cognitive Function in Older Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prohaska, Thomas R.; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Satariano, William A.; Hunter, Rebecca; Bayles, Constance M.; Kurtovich, Elaine; Kealey, Melissa; Ivey, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This cross-sectional study takes a unique look at the association between patterns of walking and cognitive functioning by examining whether older adults with mild cognitive impairment differ in terms of the community settings where they walk and the frequency, intensity, or duration of walking. Design and Methods: The sample was based on…

  19. Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and physiological (heart…

  20. Higher risk of progression to dementia in mild cognitive impairment cases who revert to normal

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Rosebud O.; Knopman, David S.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Cha, Ruth H.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Christianson, Teresa J.H.; Geda, Yonas E.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Tangalos, Eric G.; Rocca, Walter A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate rates of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia and of reversion from MCI to being cognitively normal (CN) in a population-based cohort. Methods: Participants (n = 534, aged 70 years and older) enrolled in the prospective Mayo Clinic Study of Aging were evaluated at baseline and every 15 months to identify incident MCI or dementia. Results: Over a median follow-up of 5.1 years, 153 of 534 participants (28.7%) with prevalent or incident MCI progressed to dementia (71.3 per 1,000 person-years). The cumulative incidence of dementia was 5.4% at 1 year, 16.1% at 2, 23.4% at 3, 31.1% at 4, and 42.5% at 5 years. The risk of dementia was elevated in MCI cases (hazard ratio [HR] 23.2, p < 0.001) compared with CN subjects. Thirty-eight percent (n = 201) of MCI participants reverted to CN (175.0/1,000 person-years), but 65% subsequently developed MCI or dementia; the HR was 6.6 (p < 0.001) compared with CN subjects. The risk of reversion was reduced in subjects with an APOE ε4 allele (HR 0.53, p < 0.001), higher Clinical Dementia Rating Scale–Sum of Boxes (HR 0.56, p < 0.001), and poorer cognitive function (HR 0.56, p < 0.001). The risk was also reduced in subjects with amnestic MCI (HR 0.70, p = 0.02) and multidomain MCI (HR 0.61, p = 0.003). Conclusions: MCI cases, including those who revert to CN, have a high risk of progressing to dementia. This suggests that diagnosis of MCI at any time has prognostic value. PMID:24353333

  1. PERFORMANCE OF A COMPUTER-BASED ASSESSMENT OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION MEASURES IN TWO COHORTS OF SENIORS

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Katula, Jeffrey A.; Rushing, Julia; Kramer, Arthur F.; Jennings, Janine M.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Nadkarni, Neelesh K.; Reid, Kieran F.; Castro, Cynthia M.; Church, Timothy; Kerwin, Diana R.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Marottoli, Richard A.; Rushing, Scott; Marsiske, Michael; Rapp, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Computer-administered assessment of cognitive function is being increasingly incorporated in clinical trials, however its performance in these settings has not been systematically evaluated. Design The Seniors Health and Activity Research Program (SHARP) pilot trial (N=73) developed a computer-based tool for assessing memory performance and executive functioning. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Seniors (LIFE) investigators incorporated this battery in a full scale multicenter clinical trial (N=1635). We describe relationships that test scores have with those from interviewer-administered cognitive function tests and risk factors for cognitive deficits and describe performance measures (completeness, intra-class correlations). Results Computer-based assessments of cognitive function had consistent relationships across the pilot and full scale trial cohorts with interviewer-administered assessments of cognitive function, age, and a measure of physical function. In the LIFE cohort, their external validity was further demonstrated by associations with other risk factors for cognitive dysfunction: education, hypertension, diabetes, and physical function. Acceptable levels of data completeness (>83%) were achieved on all computer-based measures, however rates of missing data were higher among older participants (odds ratio=1.06 for each additional year; p<0.001) and those who reported no current computer use (odds ratio=2.71; p<0.001). Intra-class correlations among clinics were at least as low (ICC≤0.013) as for interviewer measures (ICC≤0.023), reflecting good standardization. All cognitive measures loaded onto the first principal component (global cognitive function), which accounted for 40% of the overall variance. Conclusion Our results support the use of computer-based tools for assessing cognitive function in multicenter clinical trials of older individuals. PMID:23589390

  2. Community environment, cognitive impairment and dementia in later life: results from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A. Matthew; Jones, Andrew P.; Barnes, Linda E.; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background: few studies have investigated the impact of the community environment, as distinct from area deprivation, on cognition in later life. This study explores cross-sectional associations between cognitive impairment and dementia and environmental features at the community level in older people. Method: the postcodes of the 2,424 participants in the year-10 interview of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study in England were mapped into small area level geographical units (Lower-layer Super Output Areas) and linked to environmental data in government statistics. Multilevel logistic regression was conducted to investigate associations between cognitive impairment (defined as MMSE ≤ 25), dementia (organicity level ≥3 in GMS-AGECAT) and community level measurements including area deprivation, natural environment, land use mix and crime. Sensitivity analyses tested the impact of people moving residence within the last two years. Results: higher levels of area deprivation and crime were not significantly associated with cognitive impairment and dementia after accounting for individual level factors. Living in areas with high land use mix was significantly associated with a nearly 60% reduced odds of dementia (OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) after adjusting for individual level factors and area deprivation, but there was no linear trend for cognitive impairment. Increased odds of dementia (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2, 4.2) and cognitive impairment (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.0) were found in the highest quartile of natural environment availability. Findings were robust to exclusion of the recently relocated. Conclusion: features of land use have complex associations with cognitive impairment and dementia. Further investigations should focus on environmental influences on cognition to inform health and social policies. PMID:26464419

  3. Neuropsychological Characteristics and Their Association with Higher-Level Functional Capacity in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Kayoko; Matsui, Mie; Takashima, Shutaro; Tanaka, Kortaro

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Little is known about the relationship between cognitive functions and higher-level functional capacity (e.g. intellectual activity, social role, and social participation) in Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to clarify neuropsychological characteristics and their association with higher-level functional capacity in PD patients. Methods Participants were 31 PD patients and 23 demographically matched healthy controls. Neuropsychological tests were conducted. One year later, a questionnaire survey evaluated higher-level functional capacity in daily living. Results The PD group scored significantly lower than the control group in all cognitive domains, particularly executive function and processing. Executive function, processing speed, language, and memory were significantly correlated with higher-level functional capacity in PD patients. Stepwise regression showed that only executive function (Trail Making Test-B), together with disease severity (HY stage), predicted the higher-level functional capacity. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence of a relationship between executive function and higher-level functional capacity in patients with PD. PMID:26273243

  4. Gene by Neuroticism Interaction and Cognitive Function among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Robbins, John A.; Porsteinsson, Anton; Mapstone, Mark; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Both ApoE (apolipoprotein E) ε-4 allele(s) and elevated trait neuroticism, the tendency to experience distress, are associated with cognitive function among older adults. We predicted that neuroticism moderates the association between ApoE and cognitive function and also explored whether other personality dimensions (openness to experience, agreeableness, extraversion, and conscientiousness) affect the association between ApoE status and cognitive function. Method Five-hundred and ninety-seven older adults (mean age of 78) enrolled in the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory (GEM) study completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory of personality. Cognitive function was assessed via the cognitive portion of the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog), and a blood sample for ApoE genotyping was drawn. Results As hypothesized, regression analysis indicated that neuroticism moderated the relationship between the presence of ApoE ε-4 and cognitive function. Individuals with high neuroticism scores had significantly lower ADAS-cog scores compared with individual with low neuroticism scores, but this was true only among carriers of ApoE ε-4 (interaction effect β = .124, p = .028). There was scant evidence that other personality dimensions moderate the association between ApoE ε-4 and cognitive function. Conclusions Cognitive function may be affected by ApoE and neuroticism acting in tandem. Research on the underlying physiological mechanisms by which neuroticism amplifies the effect of ApoE ε-4 is warranted. The study of genotype by phenotype interactions provides an important and useful direction for the study of cognitive function among older adults and for the development of novel prevention programs. PMID:23042108

  5. The evolved basis and adaptive functions of cognitive distortions.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, P

    1998-12-01

    This paper explores common cognitive distortions from the perspective of evolutionary psychology. It is suggested that cognitive distortions are natural consequences of using fast track defensive algorithms that are sensitive to threat. In various contexts, especially those of threat, humans evolved to think adaptively rather than logically. Hence cognitive distortions are not strictly errors in brain functioning and it can be useful to inform patients that 'negative thinking' may be dysfunctional but is a reflection of basic brain design and not personal irrationality. The evolved nature of cognitive distortions has been implicit in cognitive therapy from its early days (Beck, 1963; Ellis, 1962) but has not been fully articulated in what is now known about evolved mental processes. Many forms of cognitive distortion can be seen to use the (previously) adaptive heuristic of better safe than sorry. PMID:9875955

  6. Mothers' depressive symptoms and children's cognitive and social agency: Predicting first-grade cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ni; Dix, Theodore

    2016-08-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364), the present study supports an agentic perspective; it demonstrates that mothers' depressive symptoms in infancy predict children's poor first-grade cognitive functioning because depressive symptoms predict children's low social and cognitive agency-low motivation to initiate social interaction and actively engage in activities. When mothers' depressive symptoms were high in infancy, children displayed poor first-grade cognitive functioning due to (a) tendencies to become socially withdrawn by 36 months and low in mastery motivation by 54 months and (b) tendencies for children's low agency to predict declines in mothers' sensitivity and cognitive stimulation. Findings suggest that mothers' depressive symptoms undermine cognitive development through bidirectional processes centered on children's low motivation to engage in social interaction and initiate and persist at everyday tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27389834

  7. Social-cognitive functioning and schizotypal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joseph; Shean, Glenn

    2006-05-01

    The authors examined the relationship between social cognition and a feature of schizotypal personality referred to as magical ideation, defined broadly as the presence and intensity of illogical beliefs about causality and the nature of reality. The measures of social cognition used in this study were the Character Intention Task (CIT) and the adult version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Regression analyses indicated that understanding of character intentions, as measured by CIT scores, and ability to identify emotions on the Eyes test were related to non-realistic beliefs. Principal components analysis of the Magical Ideation Scale generated 3 factors: Occult Beliefs, Non-Realism, and New Age Ideas. Results indicated that impaired understanding of character intentions and ability to identify emotions on the Eyes test were related to non-realistic beliefs. Understanding the cognitive impairments associated with schizotypal characteristics can facilitate development of more targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:16916074

  8. Human Cognitive Function and the Obesogenic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Ashley A.; Davidson, Terry L.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating which suggests that, in addition to leading to unprecedented rates of obesity, the current food environment is contributing to the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. Recent experimental research indicates that many of the cognitive deficits associated with obesity involve fundamental inhibitory processes that have important roles in the control of food intake, implicating these cognitive impairments as a risk factor for weight gain. Here, we review experiments that link obesity with deficits in memory, attentional, and behavioral control and contemplate how these deficits may predispose individuals to overeat. Specifically, we discuss how deficits in inhibitory control may reduce one’s ability to resist eating when confronted with the variety of foods and food cues that are ubiquitous in today’s environment. Special attention is given to the importance of memory inhibition to the control of eating and appetitive behavior, and the role of the hippocampus in this process. We also discuss the potential etiology of both obesity and obesity-related cognitive impairment, highlighting non-human animal research which links both of these effects to the consumption of the modern “Western” diet that is high in saturated fats and simple carbohydrates. We conclude that part of what makes the current food environment “obesogenic” is the increased presence of food cues and the increased consumption of a diet which compromises our ability to resist those cues. A multi-dimensional intervention which focuses on improving control over food-related cognitive processing may be useful not only for combating the obesity epidemic but also for minimizing the risk of serious cognitive disorder later in life. PMID:24631299

  9. Human cognitive function and the obesogenic environment.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ashley A; Davidson, Terry L

    2014-09-01

    Evidence is accumulating which suggests that, in addition to leading to unprecedented rates of obesity, the current food environment is contributing to the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. Recent experimental research indicates that many of the cognitive deficits associated with obesity involve fundamental inhibitory processes that have important roles in the control of food intake, implicating these cognitive impairments as a risk factor for weight gain. Here, we review experiments that link obesity with deficits in memory, attentional, and behavioral control and contemplate how these deficits may predispose individuals to overeat. Specifically, we discuss how deficits in inhibitory control may reduce one's ability to resist eating when confronted with the variety of foods and food cues that are ubiquitous in today's environment. Special attention is given to the importance of memory inhibition to the control of eating and appetitive behavior, and the role of the hippocampus in this process. We also discuss the potential etiology of both obesity and obesity-related cognitive impairment, highlighting non-human animal research which links both of these effects to the consumption of the modern "Western" diet that is high in saturated fats and simple carbohydrates. We conclude that part of what makes the current food environment "obesogenic" is the increased presence of food cues and the increased consumption of a diet which compromises our ability to resist those cues. Improving control over food-related cognitive processing may be useful not only for combating the obesity epidemic but also for minimizing the risk of serious cognitive disorder later in life. PMID:24631299

  10. Assessment of Higher Order Thinking Skills. Current Perspectives on Cognition, Learning and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraw, Gregory, Ed.; Robinson, Daniel H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This volume examines the assessment of higher order thinking skills from the perspectives of applied cognitive psychology and measurement theory. The volume considers a variety of higher order thinking skills, including problem solving, critical thinking, argumentation, decision making, creativity, metacognition, and self-regulation. Fourteen…

  11. Cognitive functioning in meningioma patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Meskal, Ikram; Gehring, Karin; Rutten, Geert-Jan M; Sitskoorn, Margriet M

    2016-06-01

    This systematic review evaluates relevant findings and methodologic aspects of studies on cognitive functioning in meningioma patients prior to and/or following surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy. PubMed and Web of Science electronic databases were searched until December 2015. From 1012 initially identified articles, 11 met the inclusion criteria for this review. Multiple methodological limitations were identified which include the lack of pre-treatment assessments, variations in the number and types of neuropsychological tests used, the normative data used to identify patients with cognitive deficits, and the variety of definitions for cognitive impairment. Study results suggest that most of meningioma patients are faced with cognitive deficits in several cognitive domains prior to surgery. Following surgery, most of these patients seem to improve in cognitive functioning. However, they still have impairments in a wide range of cognitive functions compared to healthy controls. Suggestions are given for future research. Adequate diagnosis and treatment of cognitive deficits may ultimately lead to improved outcome and quality of life in meningioma patients. PMID:27048208

  12. Aerobic Exercise as an Adjunct Therapy for Improving Cognitive Function in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Gary, Rebecca A.; Brunn, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Persons with heart failure (HF) are typically older and are at a much higher risk for developing cognitive impairment (CI) than persons without HF. Increasingly, CI is recognized as a significant, independent predictor of worse clinical outcomes, more frequent hospital readmissions, and higher mortality rates in persons with HF. CI can have devastating effects on ability to carry out HF effective self-care behaviors. If CI occurs, however, there are currently no evidence based guidelines on how to manage or improve cognitive function in this population. Improvement in cognition has been reported following some therapies in HF and is thought to be the consequence of enhanced cerebral perfusion and oxygenation, suggesting that CI may be amenable to intervention. Because there is substantial neuronal loss with dementia and no effective restorative therapies, interventions that slow, reverse, or prevent cognitive decline are essential. Aerobic exercise is documented to increase cerebral perfusion and oxygenation by promoting neuroplasticity and neurogenesis and, in turn, cognitive functioning. Few studies have examined exercise as a potential adjunct therapy for attenuating or alleviating cognitive decline in HF. In this review, the potential benefit of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in HF is presented along with future research directions. PMID:25105053

  13. Time away from work predicts later cognitive function: Differences by activity during leave

    PubMed Central

    Leist, Anja K.; Glymour, M Maria; Mackenbach, Johan P; van Lenthe, Frank J; Avendano, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine how different activities performed during employment gaps are associated with later cognitive function and change. Method Five cognitive measures were used to indicate cognitive impairment of 18,259 respondents to the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (age 50-73) in 2004/5 or 2006/7. Using complete employment histories, employment gaps of six months or more between ages 25 and 65 were identified. Results Controlling for early-life socioeconomic status, school performance, and education, higher risk of cognitive impairment was associated with employment gaps described as unemployment (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.18, 95 % Confidence Interval [CI] 1.04, 1.35) and sickness (OR = 1.78, 95 % CI 1.52, 2.09). In contrast, lower risk of cognitive impairment was associated with employment gaps described as training (OR = 0.73, 95 % CI 0.52, 1.01) or maternity (OR = 0.65, 95 % CI 0.57, 0.79). In longitudinal mixed effects models, training and maternity spells were associated with lower two-year aging-related cognitive decline. Discussion Periods away from work described as unemployment or sickness are associated with lower cognitive function, whereas maternity and training spells are associated with better late-life cognitive function. Both causation and selection mechanisms may explain these findings. PMID:23889855

  14. Associations Between Ankle-Brachial Index and Cognitive Function: Results from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Trial

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Newman, Anne B.; Sink, Kaycee; Gill, Thomas M.; King, Abby C.; Miller, Michael E.; Guralnik, Jack; Katula, Jeff; Church, Timothy; Manini, Todd; Reid, Kieran F.; McDermott, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between ankle-brachial index (ABI) and indicators of cognitive function DESIGN Randomized clinical trial (Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Trial) SETTING Eight US academic centers PARTICIPANTS 1,601 adults (ages 70–89 years, sedentary, non-demented, and with functional limitations MEASUREMENTS Baseline ABI and interviewer- and computer-administered cognitive function assessments were obtained from which compared a physical activity intervention with a health education control. Cognitive function was re-assessed 24 months later (interviewer-administered) and 18 or 30 months later (computer-administered) and central adjudication was used to classify individuals as having mild cognitive impairment, probable dementia, or neither. RESULTS Lower ABI had a modest independent association poorer cognitive functioning at baseline (partial r=0.09; p<0.001). While, lower baseline ABI was not associated with overall changes in cognitive function test scores, it was associated with higher odds for two-year progression to a composite of either mild cognitive impairment or probable dementia (OR=2.60 per unit lower ABI; 95% confidence interval [1.06,6.37]). Across two years, changes in ABI were not associated with changes in cognitive function. CONCLUSION In an older cohort of non-demented sedentary individuals with functional limitations, lower baseline ABI was independently correlated with cognitive function and associated with greater 2-year risk for progression to mild cognitive impairment or probable dementia. PMID:25869993

  15. Effects of glucose load on cognitive functions in elderly people.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaluw, Nikita L; van de Rest, Ondine; Kessels, Roy P C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2015-02-01

    Glucose is the main fuel for the brain, and manipulation of the glucose supply may consequently affect brain function. The present review was conducted to provide an overview of studies that investigated the acute effects of glucose load on memory and other cognitive functions in elderly people. The effects of sucrose on cognition and suggested mechanisms were also explored. A total of twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. In the majority of studies, episodic memory was investigated and a beneficial role for glucose in that specific cognitive domain was suggested. Other cognitive domains, i.e., working memory, semantic memory, visual memory, information-processing speed, attention, executive function, and visual/spatial function, have been studied less frequently and evidence for a beneficial effect of glucose was equivocal. Mechanisms are suggested to be mainly related to the human body's need for glucose as a metabolic substrate for physiological mechanisms in both central and peripheral processes. PMID:26024496

  16. Sleep and cognitive (memory) function: research and clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Roth, T; Costa e Silva, J A; Chase, M H

    2001-09-01

    The field of memory and sleep is controversial and extremely interesting, and the relationships between thought processes, i.e. cognition and sleep, have recently been examined in a variety of clinical and basic research settings, as well as being the object of intense interest by the general public. For example, there are data which demonstrate that insomnia, as well as specific sleep disorders, can have a negative impact on sleep cognition as well as affect daytime patterns of cognitive functioning. Thus, sleep, disturbed sleep and the lack of sleep appear to affect cognitive and memory functions. An International Workshop dealing with Sleep and Cognitive Function: Research and Clinical Perspectives was convened in Cancún, Mexico, 1-4 March 1999 under the auspices of the World Health Organization Worldwide Project on Sleep and Health and the World Federation of Sleep Research Societies. A great number of areas of intersection between sleep and cognitive function were examined during the course of the Workshop, such as aging, cognition and sleep and the dream process and sleep. The results of these discussions are included in a WHO publication (WHO Doc.: MSD/MBD/00.8). In the present report we concentrate on presenting a summary of a coherent set of data which examine memory consolidation during sleep and the impact of insomnia on cognitive functions. Based upon these data, a review of memory and drug effects that are sleep-related, and an examination of the relationship between hypnotics and cognitive function are included. Finally, a summary of recommendations of the Workshop participants is presented. PMID:14592387

  17. Oxytocin, but not vasopressin, impairs social cognitive ability among individuals with higher levels of social anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Benjamin A; Meyer, Meghan L; Dutcher, Janine M; Castle, Elizabeth; Irwin, Michael R; Lieberman, Matthew D; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are characterized by a high degree of social sensitivity, which can coincide with impairments in social cognitive functioning (e.g. theory of mind). Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) have been shown to improve social cognition, and OT has been theorized as a potential therapeutic agent for individuals with social anxiety disorder. However, no study has investigated whether these neuropeptides improve social cognitive ability among socially anxious individuals. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, between-subjects design we investigated whether social anxiety moderated the effects of OT or AVP (vs placebo) on social working memory (i.e. working memory that involves manipulating social information) and non-social working memory. OT vs placebo impaired social working memory accuracy in participants with higher levels of social anxiety. No differences were found for non-social working memory or for AVP vs placebo. Results suggest that OT administration in individuals with higher levels of social anxiety may impair social cognitive functioning. Randomized-controlled trial registration: NCT01680718. PMID:27053769

  18. Cognitive Functioning in Children with Learning Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwenck, Christina; Dummert, Friederike; Endlich, Darius; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Several cognitive deficits associated with reading and mathematics problems have been identified. However, only few studies assessed the impact of these variables in children with combined problems in reading and arithmetics, and none of these studies included children with low IQ. This longitudinal study was designed to assess the impact of…

  19. Changing cognitive functioning in rehabilitation of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, W D; Sullivan, M; Weiler, M; Reed, D; Richardson, C; Storzbach, D

    1994-01-01

    A three-factor model is proposed for clinical assessment of cognitive and neuropsychological impairments in schizophrenia. The first factor is stable, pervasive and vulnerability-linked. The second and third include executive, memory and conceptual abilities and are episode-linked. The third factor may be amendable to psychosocial treatment. PMID:7879633

  20. Effects of Acute Exposures to Carbon Dioxide Upon Cognitive Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, R. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Ryder, V. E.; Lam, C. W.; Statish, U.; Basner, M.

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) originate from human metabolism and typically, within spacecraft, remain about 10-fold higher in concentration than at the earth's surface. There have been recurring complaints by crew members of episodes of "mental viscosity" adversely affecting their performance, and there is evidence from the International Space Station (ISS) that associates CO2 levels with reports of headaches by crewmembers. Additionally, there is concern that CO2 may contribute to vision impairment and intracranial pressure that has been observed in some crewmembers. Consequently, flight rules have been employed to control the level of CO2 below 4 mm Hg, which is well below the existing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) of 10 mm Hg for 24-hour exposures, and 5.3 mm Hg for exposures of 7 to 180 days. However, the flight rule imposed limit, which places additional demands upon resources and current technology, still exceeds the lower bound of the threshold range for reportable headaches (2 - 5 mm Hg). Headaches, while sometime debilitating themselves, are also symptoms that can provide evidence that physiological defense mechanisms have been breached. The causes of the headaches may elicit other subtle adverse effects that occur at CO2 levels well below that for headaches. The concern that CO2 may have effects at levels below the threshold for headaches appears to be substantiated in unexpected findings that CO2 at concentrations below 2 mm Hg substantially reduced some cognitive functions that are associated with the ability to make complex decisions in conditions that are characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, ambiguity, and delayed feedback. These are conditions that could be encountered by crews in off-nominal situations or during the first missions beyond low earth orbit. If findings of the earlier study are confirmed in crew-like subjects, our findings would provide additional evidence that CO2 may need to be

  1. Executive cognitive function and heavy drinking behavior among college students.

    PubMed

    Blume, A W; Marlatt, G A; Schmaling, K B

    2000-09-01

    Executive cognitive functions (ECFs) seem important for motivating change and self-regulation of problem drinking. Evidence for executive cognitive deficits have been found among heavy-drinking college students. Although college students who abuse alcohol often experience a variety of negative consequences related to their drinking behavior, executive cognitive dysfunction may interfere with recognizing consequences and responding skillfully to avoid future harm. Fifty college students with drinking problems completed assessments of ECFs. Greater negative drinking consequences and short-term memory function significantly predicted greater awareness of drinking problems. ECF may be an important factor for motivation to change drinking behavior among college students. PMID:10998956

  2. Electroencephalographic imaging of higher brain function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevins, A.; Smith, M. E.; McEvoy, L. K.; Leong, H.; Le, J.

    1999-01-01

    High temporal resolution is necessary to resolve the rapidly changing patterns of brain activity that underlie mental function. Electroencephalography (EEG) provides temporal resolution in the millisecond range. However, traditional EEG technology and practice provide insufficient spatial detail to identify relationships between brain electrical events and structures and functions visualized by magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography. Recent advances help to overcome this problem by recording EEGs from more electrodes, by registering EEG data with anatomical images, and by correcting the distortion caused by volume conduction of EEG signals through the skull and scalp. In addition, statistical measurements of sub-second interdependences between EEG time-series recorded from different locations can help to generate hypotheses about the instantaneous functional networks that form between different cortical regions during perception, thought and action. Example applications are presented from studies of language, attention and working memory. Along with its unique ability to monitor brain function as people perform everyday activities in the real world, these advances make modern EEG an invaluable complement to other functional neuroimaging modalities.

  3. Monitoring Cognitive Functioning: Psychometric Properties of the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT)

    PubMed Central

    Lachman, Margie E.; Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Tun, Patricia A.; Weaver, Suzanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of cognitive functioning is an important component of telephone surveys of health. Previous cognitive telephone batteries have been limited in scope with a primary focus on dementia screening. The Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT) assesses multiple dimensions central for effective functioning across adulthood: episodic memory, working memory, reasoning, verbal fluency, and executive function. The BTACT is the first instrument which includes measures of processing speed, reaction time, and task switching/inhibitory control for use over the telephone. We administered the battery to a national sample (N = 4,268), aged 32 to 84, from the study of Midlife in the United States and examined age, education and sex differences, reliability, and factor structure. We found good evidence for construct validity with a subsample tested in person. Implications of the findings are considered for efficient neuropsychological assessment and monitoring changes in cognitive aging, for clinical and research applications by telephone or in person. PMID:24322011

  4. Cognitive functioning in schizophrenia: implications for psychiatric rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, W D; Fleming, S K; Reed, D; Sullivan, M; Storzbach, D; Lam, M

    1999-01-01

    Research in psychopathology and the cognitive neurosciences suggests new applications in psychiatric rehabilitation. Analysis of performance deficits on laboratory tasks can contribute to treatment planning, individual and family counseling, and staff consultation, much like it does in cases of brain injury and other types of central nervous system neuropathology. Recognition of the nature of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia can inform design of psychosocial techniques such as social and living skills training. Cognitive impairments are increasingly seen as potential targets for pharmacological and psychosocial treatment and rehabilitation. In this article, three key issues for application of cognitive technology in psychiatric rehabilitation of schizophrenia and related disorders are formulated as straightforward, clinically relevant questions: (1) What is the prognostic significance of cognitive impairment in acute psychosis? (2) Can cognitive functioning improve in the chronic, residual course? (3) How does cognitive improvement benefit other aspects of recovery and rehabilitation? These questions are addressed through review of previous findings and new multivariate analyses of cognitive functioning in the acute, post-acute, and chronic residual phases of schizophrenia. PMID:10416731

  5. Exercise Training and Cognitive Rehabilitation: A Symbiotic Approach for Rehabilitating Walking and Cognitive Functions in Multiple Sclerosis?

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W; Sandroff, Brian M; DeLuca, John

    2016-07-01

    The current review develops a rationale and framework for examining the independent and combined effects of exercise training and cognitive rehabilitation on walking and cognitive functions in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). To do so, we first review evidence for improvements in walking and cognitive outcomes with exercise training and cognitive rehabilitation in MS. We then review evidence regarding cognitive-motor coupling and possible cross-modality transfer effects of exercise training and cognitive rehabilitation. We lastly present a macro-level framework for considering mechanisms that might explain improvements in walking and cognitive dysfunction with exercise and cognitive rehabilitation individually and combined in MS. We conclude that researchers should consider examining the effects of exercise training and cognitive rehabilitation on walking, cognition, and cognitive-motor interactions in MS and the possible physiological and central mechanisms for improving these functions. PMID:27261483

  6. Enhancement of cognitive and neural functions through complex reasoning training: evidence from normal and clinical populations.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Sandra B; Mudar, Raksha A

    2014-01-01

    Public awareness of cognitive health is fairly recent compared to physical health. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training offers promise in augmenting cognitive brain performance in normal and clinical populations. Targeting higher-order cognitive functions, such as reasoning in particular, may promote generalized cognitive changes necessary for supporting the complexities of daily life. This data-driven perspective highlights cognitive and brain changes measured in randomized clinical trials that trained gist reasoning strategies in populations ranging from teenagers to healthy older adults, individuals with brain injury to those at-risk for Alzheimer's disease. The evidence presented across studies support the potential for Gist reasoning training to strengthen cognitive performance in trained and untrained domains and to engage more efficient communication across widespread neural networks that support higher-order cognition. The meaningful benefits of Gist training provide compelling motivation to examine optimal dose for sustained benefits as well as to explore additive benefits of meditation, physical exercise, and/or improved sleep in future studies. PMID:24808834

  7. Enhancement of cognitive and neural functions through complex reasoning training: evidence from normal and clinical populations

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Sandra B.; Mudar, Raksha A.

    2014-01-01

    Public awareness of cognitive health is fairly recent compared to physical health. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training offers promise in augmenting cognitive brain performance in normal and clinical populations. Targeting higher-order cognitive functions, such as reasoning in particular, may promote generalized cognitive changes necessary for supporting the complexities of daily life. This data-driven perspective highlights cognitive and brain changes measured in randomized clinical trials that trained gist reasoning strategies in populations ranging from teenagers to healthy older adults, individuals with brain injury to those at-risk for Alzheimer's disease. The evidence presented across studies support the potential for Gist reasoning training to strengthen cognitive performance in trained and untrained domains and to engage more efficient communication across widespread neural networks that support higher-order cognition. The meaningful benefits of Gist training provide compelling motivation to examine optimal dose for sustained benefits as well as to explore additive benefits of meditation, physical exercise, and/or improved sleep in future studies. PMID:24808834

  8. Height and cognitive function at older ages: is height a useful summary measure of early childhood experiences?

    PubMed

    Guven, Cahit; Lee, Wang Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Previous research using US data suggests that height, as a marker for early investments in health, is associated with better cognitive functioning in later life, but this association disappears once education is controlled for. Using an English cohort of men and women older than 50 years, we find that the association between height and cognitive outcomes remains significant after controlling for education suggesting that height affects cognitive functioning not simply via higher educational attainment. Furthermore, the significant association between height and cognitive function remains even after controls for early life indicators have been included. PMID:22231981

  9. Luminous efficiency functions at higher intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Lawrence Kent

    Two psychophysical measurement techniques, flicker photometry and successive heterochromatic brightness matching, were used to measure changes in luminance efficiency functions with increasing levels of light adaptation. Both measurement techniques were performed using the same optical system and the same seven healthy adults as subjects. Measurements were taken at four reference stimulus intensities, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 foot-lamberts. Luminous efficiency was found to depend on both the technique and the reference stimulus intensity with which the measurements were taken. For heterochromatic brightness matching, luminous efficiency increased for longer wavelengths as reference intensity increased. Peak luminous efficiency shifted from approximately 540nm to greater than 600nm with increasing intensity for all seven subjects. Peak luminous efficiency was constant for flicker photometry across all intensities but the function narrowed slightly at 100 foot-lamberts.

  10. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years.

    PubMed

    Huijgen, Barbara C H; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13-17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for "higher-level" cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). "Lower-level" cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA's showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the "higher-level" cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p < .05). Using stepwise discriminant analysis, 62.5% of subjects was correctly assigned to one of the groups based on their metacognition, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility performance. Controlling for training hours and academic level, MANCOVA's showed differences in favor of the elite youth soccer players on inhibitory control (p = .001), and cognitive flexibility (p = .042), but not on metacognition (p = .27). No differences were found concerning working memory nor the "lower-level" cognitive processes (p > .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal

  11. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M.; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13–17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for “higher-level” cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). “Lower-level” cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA’s showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the “higher-level” cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p < .05). Using stepwise discriminant analysis, 62.5% of subjects was correctly assigned to one of the groups based on their metacognition, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility performance. Controlling for training hours and academic level, MANCOVA’s showed differences in favor of the elite youth soccer players on inhibitory control (p = .001), and cognitive flexibility (p = .042), but not on metacognition (p = .27). No differences were found concerning working memory nor the “lower-level” cognitive processes (p > .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the

  12. Long-term cognitive function change among breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ying; Luo, Jianfeng; Bao, Pingping; Cai, Hui; Hong, Zhen; Ding, Ding; Jackson, James C.; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline is a common health problem among breast cancer patients and understanding trajectories of cognitive change following among breast cancer survivors is an important public health goal. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the cognitive function changes from 18 month to 3 years after breast cancer diagnosis among participants of the Shanghai Breast cancer survivor study, a population-based cohort study of breast cancer survivors. In our study, we completed cognitive function evaluation for 1,300 breast cancer survivors at the 18th month’s survey and 1,059 at 36th month’s survey, respectively, using a battery of cognitive function measurements. We found the scores in attention and executive function, immediate memory and delayed memory significantly improved from 18 to 36 months after breast cancer diagnosis. The improvements appeared in breast cancer survivors receiving treatments (i.e., surgery, radiotherapy, tamoxifen, or chemotherapy combined with or without tamoxifen), but not in those who received neither chemotherapy nor tamoxifen treatment. The results indicate that cognitive functions, particularly immediate verbal episodic memory, and delayed memory significantly improved among breast cancer survivors from 18 to 36 months after cancer diagnosis. In general, comorbidity was inversely associated with the improvements. PMID:25005574

  13. Conduct disorder and cognitive functioning: testing three causal hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, I S; Shaffer, D; O'Connor, P; Portnoy, S

    1988-08-01

    The sample consisted of black adolescents who were members of the Columbia-Presbyterian chapter of the Collaborative Perinatal Project from birth to age 7. At age 17, subjects and their parents were administered a battery of instruments that included standardized psychiatric diagnostic interviews as part of a call-back study. Results from least-squares and logistic regression analyses were compatible with the hypothesis that deficiencies in cognitive functioning are causally related to adolescent conduct disorder as defined by DSM III. The results suggested that the relation of cognitive functioning to psychiatric status appears to be specific to conduct disorders. The results were incompatible with a "third" variable hypothesis (third factors included neurological status and environmental disadvantage) and the hypothesis that conduct problems lead to deficits in cognitive functioning. The 3 most (and equally) important factors in accounting for age-17 conduct disorder were cognitive functioning, parent psychopathology, and early aggression. A closer look at the data tentatively suggested that a broad deficiency in acculturational learning, rather than narrowly focused social cognitive differences or native endowment, constitutes a key element in the link between cognitive functioning and conduct disorder. Test bias was ruled out as a possible explanation for the results. PMID:3168633

  14. Cognitive self-regulation, social functioning and psychopathology in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Santosh, Shivani; Roy, Debdulal Dutta; Kundu, Partha Sarathi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To explore relation between cognitive self-regulation, social functioning, and psychopathology in schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 were taken from Department of Psychiatry of two postgraduate hospitals of Kolkata, India. All subjects gave informed consent. After recording sociodemographic and clinical details, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS), Schizophrenia Research Foundation India-Social Functioning Index (SCARF-SFI), and specially designed questionnaire on cognitive self-regulation was administered. Results: All the four subtests of SCARF-SFI, that is, self-concern, occupational role, social role and family role, and symptoms scale of PANSS were significantly correlated with cognitive self-regulation. Cognitive self-regulation along with positive and negative symptoms was able to predict social functioning. Conclusion: Cognitive self-regulation is significantly and positively correlated to social functioning. Cognitive self-regulation along with positive and negative symptoms is a significant predictor of social functioning. PMID:27212815

  15. Body Mass Index and Decline of Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sujin; Kim, Yongjoo; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive function is a public health issue. This study investigated the relationship between obesity and cognitive impairment which was assessed by the Korean version of the Mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE) among mid- and old-aged people in South Korea. Methods A cohort of 5,125 adults, age 45 or older with normal cognitive function (K-MMSE≥24) at baseline (2006), was derived from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) 2006~2012. The association between baseline BMI and risk of cognitive impairment was assessed using multiple logistic regression models. We also assessed baseline BMI and change of cognitive function over the 6-year follow-up using multiple linear regressions. Results During the follow-up, 358 cases of severe cognitive impairment were identified. Those with baseline BMI≥25 kg/m2 than normal-weight (18.5≤BMI<23 kg/m2) were marginally less likely to experience the development of severe cognitive impairment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.52 to 1.03; Ptrend = 0.03). This relationship was stronger among female (aOR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.40 to 1.00; Ptrend = 0.01) and participants with low-normal K-MMSE score (MMSE: 24–26) at baseline (aOR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.35 to 0.98; Ptrend<0.01). In addition, a slower decline of cognitive function was observed in obese individuals than those with normal weight, especially among women and those with low-normal K-MMSE score at baseline. Conclusion In this nationally representative study, we found that obesity was associated with lower risk of cognitive decline among mid- and old-age population. PMID:26867138

  16. Obesity Reduces Cognitive and Motor Functions across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuanming; Chan, John S. Y.; Ren, Lijie; Yan, Jin H.

    2016-01-01

    Due to a sedentary lifestyle, more and more people are becoming obese nowadays. In addition to health-related problems, obesity can also impair cognition and motor performance. Previous results have shown that obesity mainly affects cognition and motor behaviors through altering brain functions and musculoskeletal system, respectively. Many factors, such as insulin/leptin dysregulation and inflammation, mediate the effect of obesity and cognition and motor behaviors. Substantial evidence has suggested exercise to be an effective way to improve obesity and related cognitive and motor dysfunctions. This paper aims to discuss the association of obesity with cognition and motor behaviors and its underlying mechanisms. Following this, mechanisms of exercise to improve obesity-related dysfunctions are described. Finally, implications and future research direction are raised. PMID:26881095

  17. Brain structure and function related to cognitive reserve variables in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Solé-Padullés, Cristina; Bartrés-Faz, David; Junqué, Carme; Vendrell, Pere; Rami, Lorena; Clemente, Imma C; Bosch, Beatriu; Villar, Amparo; Bargalló, Núria; Jurado, M Angeles; Barrios, Maite; Molinuevo, Jose Luis

    2009-07-01

    Cognitive reserve (CR) is the brain's capacity to cope with cerebral damage to minimize clinical manifestations. The 'passive model' considers head or brain measures as anatomical substrates of CR, whereas the 'active model' emphasizes the use of brain networks effectively. Sixteen healthy subjects, 12 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 16 cases with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) were included to investigate the relationships between proxies of CR and cerebral measures considered in the 'passive' and 'active' models. CR proxies were inferred premorbid IQ (WAIS Vocabulary test), 'education-occupation', a questionnaire of intellectual and social activities and a composite CR measure. MRI-derived whole-brain volumes and brain activity by functional MRI during a visual encoding task were obtained. Among healthy elders, higher CR was related to larger brains and reduced activity during cognitive processing, suggesting more effective use of cerebral networks. In contrast, higher CR was associated with reduced brain volumes in MCI and AD and increased brain function in the latter, indicating more advanced neuropathology but that active compensatory mechanisms are still at work in higher CR patients. The right superior temporal gyrus (BA 22) and the left superior parietal lobe (BA 7) showed greatest significant differences in direction of slope with CR and activation between controls and AD cases. Finally, a regression analysis revealed that fMRI patterns were more closely related to CR proxies than brain volumes. Overall, inverse relationships for healthy and pathological aging groups emerged between brain structure and function and CR variables. PMID:18053618

  18. Chronobiology, cognitive function and depressive symptoms in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Melissa Voigt

    2014-09-01

    Biological rhythms are essential for the regulation of many life processes. Disturbances of the circadian rhythm are known to affect human health, performance and well-being and the negative consequences are numerous and widespread. Cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, pain, sleep disturbances and mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are common problems arising around the time of surgery or in the course of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment period. The importance of investigating prevention or treatment possibilities in these populations is significant due to the extent of the problems and the derived consequences on morbidity and mortality. Genetic predisposition to these problems is also an issue in focus. In this thesis we initially investigated whether the specific clock gene genotype PER(5/5) was associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction one week after non-cardiac surgery. We did not find any association, although this could have been due to the size of the study. Yet, if PER3(5/5) is associated with a higher incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, the risk seems to be only modestly increased and by less than 10%. Melatonin is a hormone with well-known chronobiotic and hypnotic effects. In addition, exogenous melatonin is also known to have anxiolytic, analgesic, antidepressant and positive cognitive effects. Based on the lack of studies investigating these effects of melatonin, we conducted the MELODY trial in which we investigated the effect of 6 mg oral melatonin on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, cognitive function and fatigue in patients with breast cancer in a three month time period after surgery. Melatonin had an effect on reducing the risk of developing depressive symptoms and also increased sleep efficiency perioperatively and total sleep time postoperatively. No effect was found on anxiety, sleep quality, sleepiness, general well-being or pain, however melatonin seemed to positively

  19. Lead exposure and rate of change in cognitive function in older women

    PubMed Central

    Power, Melinda C; Korrick, Susan; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Nie, Linda H; Grodstein, Francine; Hu, Howard; Weuve, Jennifer; Schwartz, Joel; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2014-01-01

    Background Higher long-term cumulative lead exposure predicts faster cognitive decline in older men, but evidence of an association in women is lacking. Objective To determine if there is an association between lead exposure and cognitive decline in women. Methods This study considers a sample of 584 women from the Nurses’ Health Study who live in or near Boston, Massachusetts. We quantified lead exposure using biomarkers of lead exposure assessed in 1993–2004 and evaluated cognitive decline by repeated performance on a telephone battery of cognitive tests primarily assessing learning, memory, executive function, and attention completed in 1995–2008. All cognitive test scores were z-transformed for use in analyses. We used linear mixed models with random effects to quantify the association between each lead biomarker and change in cognition overall and on each individual test. Results Consideration of individual tests showed greater cognitive decline with increased tibia lead concentrations, a measure of long-term cumulative exposure, for story memory and category fluency. The estimated excess annual decline in overall cognitive test z-score per SD increase in tibia bone lead concentration was suggestive, although the confidence intervals included the null (0.024 standard units, 95% confidence interval: −0.053 , 0.004 – an additional decline in function equivalent to being 0.33 years older). We found little support for associations between cognitive decline and patella or blood lead, which provide integrated measures of exposure over shorter timeframes. Conclusions Long-term cumulative lead exposure may be weakly associated with faster cognitive decline in community-dwelling women, at least in some cognitive domains. PMID:24529005

  20. Association between somatic growth trajectory and cognitive functioning in young children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Puffer, Eve S; Schatz, Jeffrey C; Roberts, Carla W

    2016-08-01

    Children with sickle cell disease are at risk of cognitive deficits and somatic growth delays beginning in early childhood. We examined growth velocity from age 2 years (height and body mass index progression over time) and cognitive functioning in 46 children with sickle cell disease 4 to 8 years of age. Height-for-age velocity was not associated with cognitive outcomes. Higher body mass index velocity was associated with higher scores on global cognitive and visual-motor abilities but not processing resources or academic achievement. Body mass index progression over time may be a clinically useful indicator of neurocognitive risk in sickle cell disease, as it may reflect multiple sickle cell disease-related risk factors. PMID:25488939

  1. Nutritional factors in physical and cognitive functions of elderly people.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, I H; Miller, J W

    1992-06-01

    The quality of life of aging individuals depends profoundly on their capacity for physical mobility, mental alertness, and cognitive function. Independence and self-esteem are strongly determined by physical and mental capacities. Stimulated by reports of declining function with age, investigators have examined the relationships between lifestyle factors and maintenance of functional status. Growing evidence supports the view that continued physical activity and good nutritional status are important determinants of physical and cognitive function. It is possible that some of the decline in cognitive function associated with aging is preventable or reversible with improved vitamin nutriture, especially vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, and folate. It might well be argued that the most practical outcome of research on the relationship of diet and nutrition to the aging process would be a better understanding of the ways in which our behavior can maintain a vigorous quality of life. PMID:1590263

  2. Cognition and resting-state functional connectivity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, Julia M; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia consistently display deficits in a multitude of cognitive domains, but the neurobiological source of these cognitive impairments remains unclear. By analyzing the functional connectivity of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) data in clinical populations like schizophrenia, research groups have begun elucidating abnormalities in the intrinsic communication between specific brain regions, and assessing relationships between these abnormalities and cognitive performance in schizophrenia. Here we review studies that have reported analysis of these brain-behavior relationships. Through this systematic review we found that patients with schizophrenia display abnormalities within and between regions comprising (1) the cortico-cerebellar-striatal-thalamic loop and (2) task-positive and task-negative cortical networks. Importantly, we did not observe unique relationships between specific functional connectivity abnormalities and distinct cognitive domains, suggesting that the observed functional systems may underlie mechanisms that are shared across cognitive abilities, the disturbance of which could contribute to the "generalized" cognitive deficit found in schizophrenia. We also note several areas of methodological change that we believe will strengthen this literature. PMID:26698018

  3. Role of Dietary Protein and Thiamine Intakes on Cognitive Function in Healthy Older People: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Freda; Charlton, Karen; Walton, Karen; McMahon, Anne-Therese

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of nutritional interventions to prevent and maintain cognitive functioning in older adults has been gaining interest due to global population ageing. A systematic literature review was conducted to obtain and appraise relevant studies on the effects of dietary protein or thiamine on cognitive function in healthy older adults. Studies that reported on the use of nutritional supplementations and/or populations with significant cognitive impairment were excluded. Seventeen eligible studies were included. Evidence supporting an association between higher protein and/or thiamine intakes and better cognitive function is weak. There was no evidence to support the role of specific protein food sources, such as types of meat, on cognitive function. Some cross-sectional and case-control studies reported better cognition in those with higher dietary thiamine intakes, but the data remains inconclusive. Adequate protein and thiamine intake is more likely associated with achieving a good overall nutritional status which affects cognitive function rather than single nutrients. A lack of experimental studies in this area prevents the translation of these dietary messages for optimal cognitive functioning and delaying the decline in cognition with advancing age. PMID:25849949

  4. Role of dietary protein and thiamine intakes on cognitive function in healthy older people: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Koh, Freda; Charlton, Karen; Walton, Karen; McMahon, Anne-Therese

    2015-04-01

    The effectiveness of nutritional interventions to prevent and maintain cognitive functioning in older adults has been gaining interest due to global population ageing. A systematic literature review was conducted to obtain and appraise relevant studies on the effects of dietary protein or thiamine on cognitive function in healthy older adults. Studies that reported on the use of nutritional supplementations and/or populations with significant cognitive impairment were excluded. Seventeen eligible studies were included. Evidence supporting an association between higher protein and/or thiamine intakes and better cognitive function is weak. There was no evidence to support the role of specific protein food sources, such as types of meat, on cognitive function. Some cross-sectional and case-control studies reported better cognition in those with higher dietary thiamine intakes, but the data remains inconclusive. Adequate protein and thiamine intake is more likely associated with achieving a good overall nutritional status which affects cognitive function rather than single nutrients. A lack of experimental studies in this area prevents the translation of these dietary messages for optimal cognitive functioning and delaying the decline in cognition with advancing age. PMID:25849949

  5. Clinical assessment of social cognitive function in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Henry, Julie D; von Hippel, William; Molenberghs, Pascal; Lee, Teresa; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2016-01-01

    Social cognition broadly refers to the processing of social information in the brain that underlies abilities such as the detection of others' emotions and responding appropriately to these emotions. Social cognitive skills are critical for successful communication and, consequently, mental health and wellbeing. Disturbances of social cognition are early and salient features of many neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders, and often occur after acute brain injury. Its assessment in the clinic is, therefore, of paramount importance. Indeed, the most recent edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) introduced social cognition as one of six core components of neurocognitive function, alongside memory and executive control. Failures of social cognition most often present as poor theory of mind, reduced affective empathy, impaired social perception or abnormal social behaviour. Standard neuropsychological assessments lack the precision and sensitivity needed to adequately inform treatment of these failures. In this Review, we present appropriate methods of assessment for each of the four domains, using an example disorder to illustrate the value of these approaches. We discuss the clinical applications of testing for social cognitive function, and finally suggest a five-step algorithm for the evaluation and treatment of impairments, providing quantitative evidence to guide the selection of social cognitive measures in clinical practice. PMID:26670297

  6. Cognitive function at rest and during exercise following breakfast omission.

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Takaaki; Sudo, Mizuki; Okuda, Naoki; Yasuno, Tetsuhiko; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Higaki, Yasuki; Ando, Soichi

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that breakfast omission, as opposed to breakfast consumption, has the detrimental effects on cognitive function. However, the effects of acute exercise following breakfast omission on cognitive function are poorly understood, particularly during exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactive effects of breakfast and exercise on cognitive function. Ten participants completed cognitive tasks at rest and during exercise in the breakfast consumption or omission conditions. Blood glucose concentration was measured immediately after each cognitive task. We used cognitive tasks to assess working memory [Spatial Delayed Response (DR) task] and executive function [Go/No-Go (GNG) task]. The participants cycled ergometer for 30 min while keeping their heart rate at 140 beats·min(-1). Accuracy of the GNG task was lower at rest in the breakfast omission condition than that in the breakfast consumption condition (Go trial: P=0.012; No-Go trial: P=0.028). However, exercise improved accuracy of the Go trial in the breakfast omission condition (P=0.013). Reaction time in the Go trial decreased during exercise relative to rest in both conditions (P=0.002), and the degree of decreases in reaction time was not different between conditions (P=0.448). Exercise and breakfast did not affect the accuracy of the Spatial DR task. The present results indicate that breakfast omission impairs executive function, but acute exercise improved executive function even after breakfast omission. It appears that beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive function are intact following breakfast omission. PMID:26876456

  7. Inefficient DMN Suppression in Schizophrenia Patients with Impaired Cognitive Function but not Patients with Preserved Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Li; Pu, Weidan; Wang, Jingjuan; Liu, Haihong; Wu, Guowei; Liu, Chang; Mwansisya, Tumbwene E.; Tao, Haojuan; Chen, Xudong; Huang, Xiaojun; Lv, Dongsheng; Xue, Zhimin; Shan, Baoci; Liu, Zhening

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have observed reduced suppression of the default mode network (DMN) during cognitive tasks in schizophrenia, suggesting inefficient DMN suppression is critical for the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. Cognitive function in schizophrenia patients, however, varies from relatively intact to severely impaired. This study, which compared the DMN suppression patterns between first-episode schizophrenia patients with (SZ-Imp) and without (SZ-Pre) impaired cognitive function, may provide further insight into the role of DMN dysfunction in cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to resting-state fMRI data to identify the DMN in each subject, and then general linear modeling based on the task-fMRI data was used to examine the different DMN activation patterns between groups. We observed that the SZ-Imp group, but not the SZ-Pre group, showed reduced suppression in the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulated cortex when compared to the healthy controls (HC) group. Moreover, less DMN suppression was associated with poorer task performance in both HC and patient groups. Our findings provide the first direct evidence that disrupted DMN activity only exists in schizophrenia patients with impaired cognitive function, supporting the specific neuro-pathological role of inefficient DMN suppression in cognitive deficits of first-episode schizophrenia. PMID:26882844

  8. Inefficient DMN Suppression in Schizophrenia Patients with Impaired Cognitive Function but not Patients with Preserved Cognitive Function.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Pu, Weidan; Wang, Jingjuan; Liu, Haihong; Wu, Guowei; Liu, Chang; Mwansisya, Tumbwene E; Tao, Haojuan; Chen, Xudong; Huang, Xiaojun; Lv, Dongsheng; Xue, Zhimin; Shan, Baoci; Liu, Zhening

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have observed reduced suppression of the default mode network (DMN) during cognitive tasks in schizophrenia, suggesting inefficient DMN suppression is critical for the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. Cognitive function in schizophrenia patients, however, varies from relatively intact to severely impaired. This study, which compared the DMN suppression patterns between first-episode schizophrenia patients with (SZ-Imp) and without (SZ-Pre) impaired cognitive function, may provide further insight into the role of DMN dysfunction in cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to resting-state fMRI data to identify the DMN in each subject, and then general linear modeling based on the task-fMRI data was used to examine the different DMN activation patterns between groups. We observed that the SZ-Imp group, but not the SZ-Pre group, showed reduced suppression in the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulated cortex when compared to the healthy controls (HC) group. Moreover, less DMN suppression was associated with poorer task performance in both HC and patient groups. Our findings provide the first direct evidence that disrupted DMN activity only exists in schizophrenia patients with impaired cognitive function, supporting the specific neuro-pathological role of inefficient DMN suppression in cognitive deficits of first-episode schizophrenia. PMID:26882844

  9. Increased GABA concentrations in type 2 diabetes mellitus are related to lower cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    van Bussel, Frank C G; Backes, Walter H; Hofman, Paul A M; Puts, Nicolaas A J; Edden, Richard A E; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Schram, Miranda T; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Wildberger, Joachim E; Jansen, Jacobus F A

    2016-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with accelerated cognitive decline. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms still remain to be elucidated although it is known that insulin signaling modulates neurotransmitter activity, including inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and excitatory glutamate (Glu) receptors. Therefore, we examined whether levels of GABA and Glu are related to diabetes status and cognitive performance.Forty-one participants with type 2 diabetes and 39 participants without type 2 diabetes underwent detailed cognitive assessments and 3-Tesla proton MR spectroscopy. The associations of neurotransmitters with type 2 diabetes and cognitive performance were examined using multivariate regression analyses controlling for age, sex, education, BMI, and percentage gray/white matter ratio in spectroscopic voxel.Analysis revealed higher GABA+ levels in participants with type 2 diabetes, in participants with higher fasting blood glucose levels and in participants with higher HbA1c levels, and higher GABA+ levels in participants with both high HbA1c levels and less cognitive performance.To conclude, participants with type 2 diabetes have alterations in the GABAergic neurotransmitter system, which are related to lower cognitive functioning, and hint at the involvement of an underlying metabolic mechanism. PMID:27603392

  10. Does perinatal asphyxia impair cognitive function without cerebral palsy?

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, F F; Miller, S P

    2006-01-01

    Some studies on neurodevelopmental outcomes after neonatal encephalopathy have suggested that cognitive deficits do not occur in the absence of cerebral palsy. It is increasingly apparent that childhood survivors of overt neonatal encephalopathy may have cognitive impairments, even in the absence of functional motor deficits. The risk of cognitive deficits is related to the severity of neonatal encephalopathy and the pattern of brain injury on neuroimaging, particularly the watershed pattern of injury. A better understanding of the risk factors for cognitive abnormalities after neonatal encephalopathy will ultimately lead to interventions to prevent these deficits. Identifying the full spectrum of neurodevelopmental outcomes after neonatal encephalopathy will also allow care givers to identify children requiring early intervention to maximise their potential for independent function throughout development. PMID:17056843

  11. Cognitive Stimulation and Cognitive and Functional Decline in Alzheimer's Disease: The Cache County Dementia Progression Study

    PubMed Central

    Treiber, Katherine A.; Carlson, Michelle C.; Corcoran, Chris; Norton, Maria C.; Breitner, John C. S.; Piercy, Kathleen W.; DeBerard, Michael Scott; Stein, David; Foley, Beth; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.; Frye, Amber; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the association of engagement in cognitively stimulating activities with cognitive and functional decline in a population-based sample of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). Method. After diagnosis, 187 participants (65% females) were followed semiannually for a mean 2.7 (SD = 0.4) years. Mean age and education were 84.6 (SD = 5.8) and 13.2 (SD = 2.9) years. Caregivers enumerated cognitively stimulating leisure activities via the Lifestyle Activities Questionnaire. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and functional ability via the Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes. Linear mixed models tested the association between stimulating activities and change over time in each outcome. Covariates were demographic factors, estimated premorbid IQ, presence/absence of the APOE ϵ4 allele, duration of dementia, level of physical activity, and general health. Results. At initial assessment, 87% of participants were engaged in one or more stimulating activities, with mean (SD) activities = 4.0 (3.0). This number declined to 2.4 (2.0) at the final visit. There was a statistical interaction between dementia duration and number of activities in predicting rate of cognitive decline (p = .02) and overall functional ability (p = .006). Discussion. Active involvement in cognitively stimulating pursuits may be beneficial for persons with AD. PMID:21441386

  12. Down syndrome: Cognitive and behavioral functioning across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Grieco, Julie; Pulsifer, Margaret; Seligsohn, Karen; Skotko, Brian; Schwartz, Alison

    2015-06-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) commonly possess unique neurocognitive and neurobehavioral profiles that emerge within specific developmental periods. These profiles are distinct relative to others with similar intellectual disability (ID) and reflect underlying neuroanatomic findings, providing support for a distinctive phenotypic profile. This review updates what is known about the cognitive and behavioral phenotypes associated with DS across the lifespan. In early childhood, mild deviations from neurotypically developing trajectories emerge. By school-age, delays become pronounced. Nonverbal skills remain on trajectory for mental age, whereas verbal deficits emerge and persist. Nonverbal learning and memory are strengths relative to verbal skills. Expressive language is delayed relative to comprehension. Aspects of language skills continue to develop throughout adolescence, although language skills remain compromised in adulthood. Deficits in attention/executive functions are present in childhood and become more pronounced with age. Characteristic features associated with DS (cheerful, social nature) are personality assets. Children are at a lower risk for psychopathology compared to other children with ID; families report lower levels of stress and a more positive outlook. In youth, externalizing behaviors may be problematic, whereas a shift toward internalizing behaviors emerges with maturity. Changes in emotional/behavioral functioning in adulthood are typically associated with neurodegeneration and individuals with DS are higher risk for dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Individuals with DS possess many unique strengths and weaknesses that should be appreciated as they develop across the lifespan. Awareness of this profile by professionals and caregivers can promote early detection and support cognitive and behavioral development. PMID:25989505

  13. Higher cognitive ability buffers stress-related depressive symptoms in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Riglin, Lucy; Collishaw, Stephan; Shelton, Katherine H; McManus, I C; Ng-Knight, Terry; Sellers, Ruth; Thapar, Ajay K; Frederickson, Norah; Rice, Frances

    2016-02-01

    Stress has been shown to have a causal effect on risk for depression. We investigated the role of cognitive ability as a moderator of the effect of stressful life events on depressive symptoms and whether this varied by gender. Data were analyzed in two adolescent data sets: one representative community sample aged 11-12 years (n = 460) and one at increased familial risk of depression aged 9-17 years (n = 335). In both data sets, a three-way interaction was found whereby for girls, but not boys, higher cognitive ability buffered the association between stress and greater depressive symptoms. The interaction was replicated when the outcome was a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. This buffering effect in girls was not attributable to coping efficacy. However, a small proportion of the variance was accounted for by sensitivity to environmental stressors. Results suggest that this moderating effect of cognitive ability in girls is largely attributable to greater available resources for cognitive operations that offer protection against stress-induced reductions in cognitive processing and cognitive control which in turn reduces the likelihood of depressive symptomatology. PMID:25801205

  14. Cardiac Modulation of Startle: Effects on Eye Blink and Higher Cognitive Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Andre; Reichert, Carolin F.; Richter, Steffen; Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac cycle time has been shown to affect pre-attentive brainstem startle processes, such as the magnitude of acoustically evoked reflexive startle eye blinks. These effects were attributed to baro-afferent feedback mechanisms. However, it remains unclear whether cardiac cycle time plays a role in higher startle-related cognitive processes, as…

  15. EEG-based research on brain functional networks in cognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Niannian; Zhang, Li; Liu, Guozhong

    2015-01-01

    Recently, exploring the cognitive functions of the brain by establishing a network model to understand the working mechanism of the brain has become a popular research topic in the field of neuroscience. In this study, electroencephalography (EEG) was used to collect data from subjects given four different mathematical cognitive tasks: recite numbers clockwise and counter-clockwise, and letters clockwise and counter-clockwise to build a complex brain function network (BFN). By studying the connectivity features and parameters of those brain functional networks, it was found that the average clustering coefficient is much larger than its corresponding random network and the average shortest path length is similar to the corresponding random networks, which clearly shows the characteristics of the small-world network. The brain regions stimulated during the experiment are consistent with traditional cognitive science regarding learning, memory, comprehension, and other rational judgment results. The new method of complex networking involves studying the mathematical cognitive process of reciting, providing an effective research foundation for exploring the relationship between brain cognition and human learning skills and memory. This could help detect memory deficits early in young and mentally handicapped children, and help scientists understand the causes of cognitive brain disorders. PMID:26405867

  16. Perceived Stress and Change in Cognitive Function Among Adults Aged 65 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Neelum T.; Wilson, Robert S.; Beck, Todd L.; Rajan, Kumar B.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Evans, Denis A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Exposure to acute and chronic stress can affect learning and memory but most evidence comes from animal studies or clinical observations. Almost no population-based studies have investigated the relation of stress to cognition or changes in cognition over time. We examined whether higher levels of perceived stress were associated with accelerated decline in cognitive function in older blacks and whites from a community-based population sample. Methods Participants included 6,207 black and white adults (65.7% black, 63.3% women) from the Chicago Health and Aging project. Two to five in-home assessments were completed over an average of 6.8 years of follow up, and included sociodemographics, health behaviors, psychosocial measures, cognitive function tests, and health history. Perceived stress was measured by a 6-item scale, and a composite measure of four tests of cognition was used to determine cognitive function at each assessment. Results Mixed effects regression models showed that increasing levels of perceived stress were related to lower initial cognitive scores (B=-0.0379, SE=0.0025, p<.001) and a faster rate of cognitive decline (stress × time interaction: B=-0.0015, SE=0.0004, p<.001). Results were similar after adjusting for demographic variables, smoking, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, chronic medical conditions, and psychosocial factors and did not vary by race, sex, age or education. Conclusion Increasing levels of stress are independently associated with accelerated declines in cognitive function in black and white adults aged 65 and above. PMID:24367123

  17. The Relationship between Stress, Fatigue, and Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Laura K.; Economou, Peter; Cruz, Daniel; Abraham-Cook, Shannon; Huntington, Jodi S.; Maris, Marika; Makhija, Nita; Welsh, Toni; Maley, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    There is a plethora of research suggesting that daily stressors and fatigue can have a significant effect on learning and various cognitive functions in young adults. Little is known, however, about how these effects impact learning and other neurocognitive functions in students with learning challenges when compared to their counterparts without…

  18. The Relationship between Stress, Fatigue, and Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Laura K.

    2013-01-01

    There is a plethora of research suggesting that daily stressors and fatigue can have a significant effect on learning and various cognitive functions in young adults. Little is known, however, about how these effects impact learning and other neurocognitive functions in students with learning challenges when compared to their counterparts without…

  19. The Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Profile and Cognitive Function in Old Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Linhong; Zhen, Jie; Ma, Weiwei; Cai, Can; Huang, Xiaochen; Xiao, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the erythrocyte fatty acid profile and cognition in elderly Chinese adults. Methods: 60 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects and 60 age- and gender-matched control adults (aged 55 years and above) were involved in this cross-sectional study. Cognitive function was measured by using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test. Information regarding the demographic characteristics and lifestyle of the participants was collected with a questionnaire. A semi-quantified food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) method was used for dietary assessment. The erythrocytes fatty acid profile was measured. Results: The MCI subjects had a lower education level than the control subjects (p < 0.05). Compared with control subjects, MCI subjects had higher daily poultry intake and lower fish intake (p < 0.05). Erythrocyte fatty acid profile of the MCI subjects was characterized as lower erythrocyte proportions of 20:4 n-6, 20:5 n-3, and total n-3 fatty acids compared with control subjects (p < 0.05). An association of erythrocyte proportions of 18:0, 22:0, total SFA, 18:2 n-6, 24:4 n-6 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and total n-6 PUFAs with cognition in elderly Chinese adults was detected. Conclusion: The erythrocyte fatty acid profile was related to cognitionin the elderly. Lower erythrocyte unsaturated fatty acid and higher saturated fatty acid proportions might predict cognitive function decline in elderly Chinese adults. PMID:27347995

  20. Brain structure and function correlates of cognitive subtypes in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Daniel; Walton, Esther; Naylor, Melissa; Roessner, Veit; Lim, Kelvin O; Charles Schulz, S; Gollub, Randy L; Calhoun, Vince D; Sponheim, Scott R; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2015-10-30

    Stable neuropsychological deficits may provide a reliable basis for identifying etiological subtypes of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to identify clusters of individuals with schizophrenia based on dimensions of neuropsychological performance, and to characterize their neural correlates. We acquired neuropsychological data as well as structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging from 129 patients with schizophrenia and 165 healthy controls. We derived eight cognitive dimensions and subsequently applied a cluster analysis to identify possible schizophrenia subtypes. Analyses suggested the following four cognitive clusters of schizophrenia: (1) Diminished Verbal Fluency, (2) Diminished Verbal Memory and Poor Motor Control, (3) Diminished Face Memory and Slowed Processing, and (4) Diminished Intellectual Function. The clusters were characterized by a specific pattern of structural brain changes in areas such as Wernicke's area, lingual gyrus and occipital face area, and hippocampus as well as differences in working memory-elicited neural activity in several fronto-parietal brain regions. Separable measures of cognitive function appear to provide a method for deriving cognitive subtypes meaningfully related to brain structure and function. Because the present study identified brain-based neural correlates of the cognitive clusters, the proposed groups of individuals with schizophrenia have some external validity. PMID:26341950

  1. Linked Sex Differences in Cognition and Functional Connectivity in Youth.

    PubMed

    Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Wolf, Daniel H; Roalf, David R; Ruparel, Kosha; Erus, Guray; Vandekar, Simon; Gennatas, Efstathios D; Elliott, Mark A; Smith, Alex; Hakonarson, Hakon; Verma, Ragini; Davatzikos, Christos; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2015-09-01

    Sex differences in human cognition are marked, but little is known regarding their neural origins. Here, in a sample of 674 human participants ages 9-22, we demonstrate that sex differences in cognitive profiles are related to multivariate patterns of resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rsfc-MRI). Males outperformed females on motor and spatial cognitive tasks; females were faster in tasks of emotion identification and nonverbal reasoning. Sex differences were also prominent in the rsfc-MRI data at multiple scales of analysis, with males displaying more between-module connectivity, while females demonstrated more within-module connectivity. Multivariate pattern analysis using support vector machines classified subject sex on the basis of their cognitive profile with 63% accuracy (P < 0.001), but was more accurate using functional connectivity data (71% accuracy; P < 0.001). Moreover, the degree to which a given participant's cognitive profile was "male" or "female" was significantly related to the masculinity or femininity of their pattern of brain connectivity (P = 2.3 × 10(-7)). This relationship was present even when considering males and female separately. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that sex differences in patterns of cognition are in part represented on a neural level through divergent patterns of brain connectivity. PMID:24646613

  2. Brain Protection and Cognitive Function: Cocoa Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Davide; Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia are major public health social problems, suggesting the specific need to provide research into risk factors for cognitive decline as priority topic. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress and neuroinflammation might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of cognitive decline. Further, cognitive dysfunction and dementia in Alzheimer's disease as well as in vascular dementia seem to be also the consequence of cerebral blood flow decrease and deregulation, also suggesting a putative pathophysiological convergence of mechanisms between atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. In keeping with this, a growing interest has been addressed to flavonoids as potential nutraceuticals with neuroprotective effects. Of interest, cocoa beans have been described as a fundamental source of anti-oxidant flavonoids with the flavan-3-ols and their derivatives being present in high concentrations. Therefore, recent studies specifically focused on the favorable effects of flavonoid-rich cocoa and chocolate on cerebrovascular risk factors and cognitive function. Aim of this review is to summarize new findings concerning the cocoa effects on cognitive function, particularly focusing on some putative mechanisms of vascular and antioxidant action involved in preventing dementia. PMID:26561075

  3. Critical Periods of Brain Growth and Cognitive Function in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Catharine R.; O'Callaghan, Finbar J.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Law, Catherine M.; Martyn, Christopher N.

    2004-01-01

    There is evidence that IQ tends to be higher in those who were heavier at birth or who grew taller in childhood and adolescence. Although these findings imply that growth in both foetal and postnatal life influences cognitive performance, little is known about the relative importance of brain growth during different periods of development. We…

  4. Cognitive Functioning in Long Duration Head-down Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaton, Kimberly A.; Slack, Kelley J.; Sipes, Walter A.; Bowie, Kendra

    2008-01-01

    The Space Flight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a self-administered battery of tests used on the International Space Station for evaluating cognitive functioning. Here, WinSCAT was used to assess cognitive functioning during extended head-down bed rest. Thirteen subjects who participated in 60 or 90 days of 6 deg head-down bed rest took WinSCAT during the pre-bed rest phase, the in-bed rest phase, and the post-bed rest (reconditioning) phase of study participation. After adjusting for individual baseline performance, 12 off-nominal scores were observed out of 351 total observations during bed rest and 7 of 180 during reconditioning. No evidence was found for systematic changes in off-nominal incidence as time in bed rest progressed, or during the reconditioning period. Cognitive functioning does not appear to be adversely affected by long duration head-down bed rest. Individual differences in underlying cognitive ability and motivation level are likely explanations for the current findings.

  5. Hydration and cognitive function in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate fluid intake is critical for survival. While adults are at liberty to drink fluids, as they will, children and infants are dependent upon caregivers for food and fluid. Children are at greater risk for dehydration than adults due to higher surface-to-mass ratio. Additionally, children ha...

  6. Steady-state BOLD Response to Higher-order Cognition Modulates Low-Frequency Neural Oscillations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Feng; Dai, Gang-Shu; Liu, Feng; Long, Zhi-Liang; Yan, Jin H; Chen, Hua-Fu

    2015-12-01

    Steady-state responses (SSRs) reflect the synchronous neural oscillations evoked by noninvasive and consistently repeated stimuli at the fundamental or harmonic frequencies. The steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs; the representative form of the SSRs) have been widely used in the cognitive and clinical neurosciences and brain-computer interface research. However, the steady-state evoked potentials have limitations in examining high-frequency neural oscillations and basic cognition. In addition, synchronous neural oscillations in the low frequency range (<1 Hz) and in higher-order cognition have received a little attention. Therefore, we examined the SSRs in the low frequency range using a new index, the steady-state BOLD responses (SSBRs) evoked by semantic stimuli. Our results revealed that the significant SSBRs were induced at the fundamental frequency of stimuli and the first harmonic in task-related regions, suggesting the enhanced variability of neural oscillations entrained by exogenous stimuli. The SSBRs were independent of neurovascular coupling and characterized by sensorimotor bias, an indication of regional-dependent neuroplasticity. Furthermore, the amplitude of SSBRs may predict behavioral performance and show the psychophysiological relevance. Our findings provide valuable insights into the understanding of the SSRs evoked by higher-order cognition and how the SSRs modulate low-frequency neural oscillations. PMID:26284992

  7. Cardiovascular Health and Cognitive Function: The Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Georgina E.; Elias, Merrill F.; Davey, Adam; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking, physical inactivity, and poor diet, along with obesity, fasting glucose and blood pressure have been independently associated with poorer cognitive performance. Few studies have related scales representing a combination of these variables to multiple domains of cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between overall cardiovascular health, incorporating seven components, and cognitive function. Methods A cross-sectional analysis employing 972 participants, from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study was undertaken. Four health behaviors (body mass index, physical activity, diet, smoking) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were measured. Each was categorized according to the American Heart Association definitions for ideal cardiovascular health, except diet, for which two food scores were calculated. A Cardiovascular Health Score was determined by summing the number of cardiovascular metrics at ideal levels. Cognitive function was assessed using a thorough neuropsychological test battery. Results Cardiovascular Health Score was positively associated with seven out of eight measures of cognitive function, with adjustment for age, education, and gender. With further adjustment for cardiovascular and psychological variables, these associations remained significant for Visual-Spatial Memory, Working Memory, Scanning and Tracking, Executive Function and the Global Composite score (p<0.05 for all). Ideal levels of a number of health factors and behaviors were positively associated with global cognitive performance. Conclusion Increasing cardiovascular health, indexed by a higher number of metrics at ideal levels, is associated with greater cognitive performance. Smoking, physical activity, and diet are important components of cardiovascular health that impact upon cognition. PMID:24595096

  8. Epidemiological investigation of muscle-strengthening activities and cognitive function among older adults.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-06-01

    Limited research has examined the association of muscle-strengthening activities and executive cognitive function among older adults, which was this study's purpose. Data from the 1999-2002 NHANES were employed (N = 2157; 60-85 years). Muscle-strengthening activities were assessed via self-report, with cognitive function assessed using the digit symbol substitution test. After adjusting for age, age-squared, gender, race-ethnicity, poverty level, body mass index, C-reactive protein, smoking, comorbid illness and physical activity, muscle-strengthening activities were significantly associated with cognitive function (βadjusted = 3.4; 95% CI: 1.7-5.1; P < 0.001). Compared to those not engaging in aerobic exercise and not meeting muscle-strengthening activity guidelines, those doing 1 (βadjusted = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.9-5.4; P < 0.001) and both (βadjusted = 6.6; 95% CI: 4.8-8.3; P < 0.001) of these behaviors had a significantly higher executive cognitive function score. In conclusion, muscle-strengthening activities are associated with executive cognitive function among older U.S. adults, underscoring the importance of promoting both aerobic exercise and muscle-strengthening activities to older adults. PMID:27048445

  9. Cognitive functioning in young children with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cato, M Allison; Mauras, Nelly; Ambrosino, Jodie; Bondurant, Aiden; Conrad, Amy L; Kollman, Craig; Cheng, Peiyao; Beck, Roy W; Ruedy, Katrina J; Aye, Tandy; Reiss, Allan L; White, Neil H; Hershey, Tamara

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cognitive functioning in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine whether glycemic history influences cognitive function. Neuropsychological evaluation of 216 children (healthy controls, n = 72; T1D, n = 144) ages 4-10 years across five DirecNet sites. Cognitive domains included IQ, Executive Functions, Learning and Memory, and Processing Speed. Behavioral, mood, parental IQ data, and T1D glycemic history since diagnosis were collected. The cohorts did not differ in age, gender or parent IQ. Median T1D duration was 2.5 years and average onset age was 4 years. After covarying age, gender, and parental IQ, the IQ and the Executive Functions domain scores trended lower (both p = .02, not statistically significant adjusting for multiple comparisons) with T1D relative to controls. Children with T1D were rated by parents as having more depressive and somatic symptoms (p < .001). Learning and memory (p = .46) and processing speed (p = .25) were similar. Trends in the data supported that the degree of hyperglycemia was associated with Executive Functions, and to a lesser extent, Child IQ and Learning and Memory. Differences in cognition are subtle in young children with T1D within 2 years of onset. Longitudinal evaluations will help determine whether these findings change or become more pronounced with time. PMID:24512675

  10. Assessing cognitive function in clinical trials of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Jennifer H; Robbins, Trevor W; Leeson, Verity C; Sahakian, Barbara J; Joyce, Eileen M; Blackwell, Andrew D

    2010-07-01

    Cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia is an important target for novel therapies. Effectively measuring the cognitive effects of compounds in clinical trials of schizophrenia could be a major barrier to drug development. The Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) programme produced a consensus cognitive battery which is now widely used, however alternative assessments have advantages and disadvantages when compared with MATRICS. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a computerised assessment developed from animal behaviour paradigms and human neuropsychology. We review the utility of CANTAB according to MATRICS and CNTRICS recommendations. CANTAB tests have been used in more than 60 studies of psychotic disorders. Their neural bases are well understood through patient and neuroimaging studies and directly equivalent tests in rodents and non-human primates. The tests' sensitivity to pharmacological manipulation is well established. Future studies should collect more data regarding psychometric properties in patients over short time periods, and should continue to study the tests' relationships to functional outcomes. Computerised cognitive assessment may optimise the statistical power of cognitive trials by reducing measurement error and between-site variability and decreasing patient attrition through increased tolerability. PMID:20105440

  11. Lifetime affect and midlife cognitive function: prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Richards, M.; Barnett, J. H.; Xu, M. K.; Croudace, T. J.; Gaysina, D.; Kuh, D.; Jones, P. B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent affective problems are predictive of cognitive impairment, but the timing and directionality, and the nature of the cognitive impairment, are unclear. Aims To test prospective associations between life-course affective symptoms and cognitive function in late middle age. Method A total of 1668 men and women were drawn from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort). Longitudinal affective symptoms spanning age 13-53 years served as predictors; outcomes consisted of self-reported memory problems at 60-64 years and decline in memory and information processing from age 53 to 60-64 years. Results Regression analyses revealed no clear pattern of association between longitudinal affective symptoms and decline in cognitive test scores, after adjusting for gender, childhood cognitive ability, education and midlife socioeconomic status. In contrast, affective symptoms were strongly, diffusely and independently associated with self-reported memory problems. Conclusions Affective symptoms are more clearly associated with self-reported memory problems in late midlife than with objectively measured cognitive performance. PMID:24357571

  12. Test experience effects in longitudinal comparisons of adult cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Salthouse, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    It is widely recognized that experience with cognitive tests can influence estimates of cognitive change. Prior research has estimated experience effects at the level of groups by comparing the performance of a group of participants tested for the second time with the performance of a different group of participants at the same age tested for the first time. This twice-minus-once-tested method was adapted in the current study to derive estimates of test experience at the level of individual participants. Among the major findings were that experience estimates were smaller at older ages, with measures of vocabulary and speed compared to measures of memory, reasoning, and spatial visualization, and with longer intervals between the first and second occasion. Although relations of overall cognitive ability with test experience effects were weak, there were significant correlations among the experience estimates in different cognitive domains. These results imply that at least in adulthood, simple measures of cognitive change likely underestimate maturational influences on cognitive functioning, and to a greater extent in young adults than in older adults. PMID:26098579

  13. Analysis of PCB congeners related to cognitive functioning in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Newman, Joan; Gallo, Mia V; Schell, Lawrence M; DeCaprio, Anthony P; Denham, Melinda; Deane, Glenn D

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the characteristics of PCBs that are linked to cognitive functioning, those congeners that were concurrently found in 271 Mohawk adolescents were grouped according to structure (dioxin-like or non-dioxin-like) and persistence (persistent or low-persistent). After the effects of the congener groups were orthogonalized, regression analyses (controlling for a number of variables found to be related to the cognitive outcomes) examined the relationship of each congener group to scores on three cognitive tests (the non-verbal Ravens Progressive Matrices, the Test of Memory and Learning, and the Woodcock Johnson-Revised). Five subtests from these cognitive tests were found to be associated with one or more PCB congener groups, most often at a moderate level. Two measures of long-term memory (Delayed Recall and Long Term Retrieval) were associated with all four congener groups. Nevertheless, examination of the role of individual congeners in the significantly related congener groups revealed that almost all congeners associated with cognitive outcomes were non-dioxin-like and ortho-substituted. A notable exception was the Ravens test where scores were associated only with dioxin-like congeners. This finding adds to the limited evidence of neurotoxic effects of dioxin-like congeners. Auditory Processing was related only to the persistent congener group. The association of the non-persistent congener group with three cognitive test scores (Delayed Recall, Long Term Retrieval and Comprehension-Knowledge) suggests that the Mohawk adolescents have experienced continuing or recent environmental exposure to PCBs that is sufficient to result in detectable cognitive decrements. Comparison of our findings with those of other human studies was limited by the relative lack of specificity of both PCB measures and cognitive outcome measures in much previous work. PMID:19465051

  14. ANALYSIS OF PCB CONGENERS RELATED TO COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Joan; Gallo, Mia V.; Schell, Lawrence M.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Denham, Melinda; Deane, Glenn D.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of PCBs that are linked to cognitive functioning, those congeners that were concurrently found in 271 Mohawk adolescents were grouped according to structure (dioxin-like or non-dioxin-like) and persistence (persistent or low-persistent). After the effects of the congener groups were orthogonalized, regression analyses (controlling for a number of variables found to be related to the cognitive outcomes) examined the relationship of each congener group to scores on three cognitive tests (the non-verbal Ravens Progressive Matrices, the Test of Memory and Learning, and the Woodcock Johnson – Revised). Five subtests from these cognitive tests were found to be associated with one or more PCB congener groups, most often at a moderate level. Two measures of long term memory (Delayed Recall and Long Term Retrieval) were associated with all four congener groups. Nevertheless, examination of the role of individual congeners in the significantly related congener groups revealed that almost all congeners associated with cognitive outcomes were non-dioxin-like and ortho-substituted. A notable exception was the Ravens test where scores were associated only with dioxin-like congeners. This finding adds to the limited evidence of neurotoxic effects of dioxin-like congeners. Auditory Processing was related only to the persistent congener group. The association of the non-persistent congener group with three cognitive test scores (Delayed Recall, Long Term Retrieval and Comprehension-knowledge) suggests that the Mohawk adolescents have experienced continuing or recent environmental exposure to PCBs that is sufficient to result in detectable cognitive decrements. Comparison of our findings with those of other human studies was limited by the relative lack of specificity of both PCB measures and cognitive outcome measures in much previous work. PMID:19465051

  15. Cognitive Mediators of Treatment Outcomes in Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Rona L.; Langer, Shelby L.; Romano, Joan M.; Labus, Jennifer; Walker, Lynn S.; Murphy, Tasha B.; Van Tilburg, Miranda; Feld, Lauren D.; Christie, Dennis L.; Whitehead, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cognitive-behavioral interventions improve outcomes for many pediatric health conditions, but little is known about which mechanisms mediate these outcomes. The goal of this study was to identify whether changes in targeted process variables from baseline to one week post-treatment mediate improvement in outcomes in a randomized controlled trial of a brief cognitive-behavioral intervention for idiopathic childhood abdominal pain. Methods Two-hundred children with persistent functional abdominal pain and their parents were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: a 3-session social learning and cognitive-behavioral treatment (SLCBT) (N=100), or a 3-session educational intervention controlling for time and attention (N=100). Outcomes were assessed at 3, 6 and 12 month follow-ups. The intervention focused on altering parental responses to pain and on increasing adaptive cognitions and coping strategies related to pain in both parents and children. Results Multiple mediation analyses were applied to examine the extent to which the effects of the SLCBT condition on child GI symptom severity and pain as reported by children and their parents were mediated by changes in targeted cognitive process variables and parents’ solicitous responses to their child’s pain symptoms. Reductions in parents’ perceived threat regarding their child’s pain mediated reductions in both parent- and child-reported GI symptom severity and pain. Reductions in children’s catastrophic cognitions mediated reductions in child-reported GI symptom severity but no other outcomes. Reductions in parental solicitousness did not mediate outcomes. Discussion Results suggest that reductions in reports of children’s pain and GI symptoms following a social learning and cognitive-behavioral intervention were mediated at least in part by decreasing maladaptive parent and child cognitions. PMID:24469611

  16. Role of Educational Status in Explaining the Association between Body Mass Index and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yi-Te; Kao, Tung-Wei; Peng, Tao-Chun; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Yang, Hui-Fang; Sun, Yu-Shan; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Preserving physical and cognitive function becomes an important issue as people age. A growing number of studies have found that the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive function changes in different age groups. It is obvious that higher educational status is linked to higher cognitive function in terms of numerous risk factors that influence cognitive function. This study aimed to investigate the interplay between obesity and cognitive function categorized by different educational status. This study included 5021 participants aged 20 to 59 years who completed 3 neurocognitive function tests, including a simple reaction time test (SRTT), a symbol digit substitution test (SDST), and a serial digit learning test (SDLT) as reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III database. The associations between neurocognitive function and BMI were analyzed using multivariate linear regression while controlling for confounders. After adjusting for pertinent covariates in mode 3, the β coefficients in the female participants with more than 12 years of education (interpreted as change of 3 neurocognitive function tests for each increment in BMI) comparing obesity groups to those with normal BMI were 16.2 (P < 0.001 for SRTT), 0.14 (P < 0.05 for SDST), and 0.9 (P < 0.05 for SDLT). Male participants with more than 12 years of education and female participants with fewer than 12 years of education demonstrated increased impairment as their BMI increased. However, this association was not significant after adjustments. Obese individuals had worse neurocognitive function than those of normal weight or overweight, especially in women with a high educational level. PMID:26844489

  17. Functionalism as a philosophical theory of the cognitive sciences.

    PubMed

    Polger, Thomas W

    2012-05-01

    Functionalism is a philosophical theory (or family of theories) concerning the nature of mental states. According to functionalism psychological/cognitive states are essentially functional states of whole systems. Functionalism characterizes psychological states essentially according to what they do, by their relations to stimulus inputs and behavioral outputs as well as their relations to other psychological and nonpsychological internal states of a system. The central constructive relation for functionalism is the so-called realization relation. Realization is a proposal for how psychological states can be real, physical, and causally efficacious while at the same time preserving the autonomy of cognitive explanations and avoiding reduction or elimination. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:337-348. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1170 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26301466

  18. Assessment of Functional Change and Cognitive Correlates in the Progression from Healthy Cognitive Aging to Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Parsey, Carolyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is currently limited understanding of the course of change in everyday functioning that occurs with normal aging and dementia. To better characterize the nature of this change, we evaluated the types of errors made by participants as they performed everyday tasks in a naturalistic environment. Method Participants included cognitively healthy younger adults (YA; N = 55) and older adults (OA; N =88), and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI: N =55) and dementia (N = 18). Participants performed eight scripted everyday activities (e.g., filling a medication dispenser) while under direct observation in a campus apartment. Task performances were coded for the following errors: inefficient actions, omissions, substitutions, and irrelevant actions. Results Performance accuracy decreased with age and level of cognitive impairment. Relative to the YAs, the OA group exhibited more inefficient actions which were linked to performance on neuropsychological measures of executive functioning. Relative to the OAs, the MCI group committed significantly more omission errors which were strongly linked to performance on memory measures. All error types were significantly more prominent in individuals with dementia. Omission errors uniquely predicted everyday functional status as measured by both informant-report and a performance-based measure. Conclusions These findings suggest that in the progression from healthy aging to MCI, everyday task difficulties may evolve from task inefficiencies to task omission errors, leading to inaccuracies in task completion that are recognized by knowledgeable informants. Continued decline in cognitive functioning then leads to more substantial everyday errors, which compromise ability to live independently. PMID:24933485

  19. Geographic Elevation and Cognitive Function among Elderly Residents in Rural Mountainous Areas: Shimane CoHRE Study.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Onoda, Keiichi; Takeda, Miwako; Sundquist, Kristina; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Nabika, Toru

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether there is an association between elevation and cognitive function among elderly residents in rural mountainous areas. Data were collected in 2012 from a cross-sectional study conducted in Ohnan Town, which is located in a rural mountainous area in the southern part of Shimane Prefecture, Japan. Cognitive function was evaluated using CADi (Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version) and elevation was estimated by using Geographic Information Systems according to the participant's address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 866 participants were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, higher elevation was significantly associated with decreased cognitive function. This finding suggests that it is important to consider the physical environment, i.e., elevation, that would affect accessibility to health-promoting goods, services, and resources when seeking to maintain cognitive function in elderly people living in rural mountainous areas. PMID:26512683

  20. Cognitive function during early abstinence from opioid dependence: a comparison to age, gender, and verbal intelligence matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Rapeli, Pekka; Kivisaari, Reetta; Autti, Taina; Kähkönen, Seppo; Puuskari, Varpu; Jokela, Olga; Kalska, Hely

    2006-01-01

    Background Individuals with opioid dependence have cognitive deficits during abuse period in attention, working memory, episodic memory, and executive function. After protracted abstinence consistent cognitive deficit has been found only in executive function. However, few studies have explored cognitive function during first weeks of abstinence. The purpose of this study was to study cognitive function of individuals with opioid dependence during early abstinence. It was hypothesized that cognitive deficits are pronounced immediately after peak withdrawal symptoms have passed and then partially recover. Methods Fifteen patients with opioid dependence and fifteen controls matched for, age, gender, and verbal intelligence were tested with a cognitive test battery When patients performed worse than controls correlations between cognitive performance and days of withdrawal, duration of opioid abuse, duration of any substance abuse, or opioid withdrawal symptom inventory score (Short Opiate Withdrawal Scale) were analyzed. Results Early abstinent opioid dependent patients performed statistically significantly worse than controls in tests measuring complex working memory, executive function, and fluid intelligence. Their complex working memory and fluid intelligence performances correlated statistically significantly with days of withdrawal. Conclusion The results indicate a rather general neurocognitive deficit in higher order cognition. It is suggested that cognitive deficit during early abstinence from opioid dependence is related to withdrawal induced neural dysregulation in the prefrontal cortex and is partly transient. PMID:16504127

  1. Aberrant Functional Connectivity and Structural Atrophy in Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment: Relationship with Cognitive Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xia; Hu, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Haibao; Zhu, Xiaoqun; Xu, Liyan; Sun, Zhongwu; Yu, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal structures in the cortical and subcortical regions have been identified in subcortical vascular cognition impairment (SVCI). However, little is known about the functional alterations in SVCI, and no study refers to the functional connectivity in the prefrontal and subcortical regions in this context. The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is an important region of the executive network and default mode network, and the subcortical thalamus plays vital roles in mediating or modulating these two networks. To investigate both thalamus- and MPFC-related functional connectivity as well as its relationship with cognition in SVCI, 32 SVCI patients and 23 control individuals were administered neuropsychological assessments. They also underwent structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Voxel-based morphometry and functional connectivity analysis were performed to detect gray matter (GM) atrophy and to characterize the functional alterations in the thalamus and the MPFC. For structural data, we observed that GM atrophy was distributed in both cortical regions and subcortical areas. For functional data, we observed that the thalamus functional connectivity in SVCI was significantly decreased in several cortical regions [i.e., the orbitofrontal lobe (OFL)], which are mainly involved in executive function and memory function. However, connectivity was increased in several frontal regions (i.e., the inferior frontal gyrus), which may be induced by the compensatory recruitment of the decreased functional connectivity. The MPFC functional connectivity was also decreased in executive- and memory-related regions (i.e., the anterior cingulate cortex) along with a motor region (i.e., the supplementary motor area). In addition, the cognitive performance was closely correlated with functional connectivity between the left thalamus and the left OFL in SVCI. The present study, thus, provides evidence for an association between structural and functional alterations

  2. The relationship between sleep and cognitive functioning in adult people.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Sara Sitara; Ansari, Basit; Qureshi, Masood A; Zohra, Raheela Rahmat

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of the current study is to find out if subjective sleep complaints will have less cognitive functioning in older people (50 years and above). Sleep was assessed with the subscale Sleep Problems of the Symptoms Checklist-90 (Arrendell & Ettema 1986). Cognitive performance was measured with the Mini Mental Status Examination (Folstein, et al 1975) which is used as a dependent variable. Subjective complaints would be negatively associated with cognitive performance, since in elder people biological sleep is likely to be related with cognitive changes. A group of 12 people were given the task of collecting data through purposeful sampling techniques. Sample size of 120 participants was assessed. Each member of the group collected data from 10 subjects. Pearson Correlation Moment was applied for data analysis. In older persons the coefficient of falling asleep difficulty was -0.05 (p=0.33) and for waking up too early the coefficient was -0.13 (p=0.012) while for restless sleep coefficient was calculated as -0.09 (p=0.094). The assumption was verified that sleep problems negatively associated with cognitive functioning. PMID:26045378

  3. The Association of Cognitive Function and Social Support with Glycemic Control in Adults with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Okura, Toru; Heisler, Michele; Langa, Kenneth M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine whether cognitive impairment among adults with diabetes is associated with worse glycemic control and to assess if level of social support for diabetes care modifies this relationship. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis SETTING The 2003 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Mail Survey on Diabetes and the 2004 wave of the HRS PARTICIPANTS Adults age > 50 with diabetes in the United States (N=1097, mean age=69.2) MEASUREMENTS Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level, cognitive function measured with the 35-point HRS cognitive scale (HRS-cog), sociodemographic variables, duration of diabetes, depressed mood, social support for diabetes care, self-reported understanding score of diabetes knowledge, diabetes treatments, diabetes-related components of the Total Illness Burden Index, and functional limitations. RESULTS In an ordered logistic regression model for the three ordinal levels of HbA1c (<7.0, 7.0–7.9, ≥8.0 mg/dl), respondents with HRS-cog scores in the lowest quartile had significantly higher HbA1c levels compared to those in the highest cognitive quartile (adjusted odds ratio, 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.11–2.92). This association was modified by a high level of social support for diabetes care: among respondents in the lowest cognitive quartile, those with high levels of support had significantly lower odds of having higher HbA1c compared to those with low levels of support (1.11 vs. 2.87, p=0.016). CONCLUSION Although cognitive impairment was associated with worse glycemic control, higher levels of social support for diabetes care ameliorated this negative relationship. Identifying the level of social support available to cognitively-impaired adults with diabetes may help to target interventions for better glycemic control. PMID:19682129

  4. Modulation of Higher-Order Olfaction Components on Executive Functions in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Fagundo, Ana B.; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Islam, Mohammed Anisul; de la Torre, Rafael; Pastor, Antoni; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Granero, Roser; Baños, Rosa; Botella, Cristina; Fernández-Real, Jose M.; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Menchón, José M.; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The prefrontal (PFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) appear to be associated with both executive functions and olfaction. However, there is little data relating olfactory processing and executive functions in humans. The present study aimed at exploring the role of olfaction on executive functioning, making a distinction between primary and more cognitive aspects of olfaction. Three executive tasks of similar difficulty were used. One was used to assess hot executive functions (Iowa Gambling Task-IGT), and two as a measure of cold executive functioning (Stroop Colour and Word Test-SCWT and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-WCST). Sixty two healthy participants were included: 31 with normosmia and 31 with hyposmia. Olfactory abilities were assessed using the ‘‘Sniffin’ Sticks’’ test and the olfactory threshold, odour discrimination and odour identification measures were obtained. All participants were female, aged between 18 and 60. Results showed that participants with hyposmia displayed worse performance in decision making (IGT; Cohen’s-d = 0.91) and cognitive flexibility (WCST; Cohen’s-d between 0.54 and 0.68) compared to those with normosmia. Multiple regression adjusted by the covariates participants’ age and education level showed a positive association between odour identification and the cognitive inhibition response (SCWT-interference; Beta = 0.29; p = .034). The odour discrimination capacity was not a predictor of the cognitive executive performance. Our results suggest that both hot and cold executive functions seem to be associated with higher-order olfactory functioning in humans. These results robustly support the hypothesis that olfaction and executive measures have a common neural substrate in PFC and OFC, and suggest that olfaction might be a reliable cognitive marker in psychiatric and neurologic disorders. PMID:26083418

  5. The Longitudinal Association of Cumulative Lead Dose with Cognitive Function in Community-dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Glass, Thomas A.; Bolla, Karen I.; Todd, Andrew C.; Schwartz, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    Background To evaluate whether cumulative lead dose from environmental exposures is associated with cognitive function and decline, and whether persistent, reversible, or progressive effects are indicated. Methods We used longitudinal linear modeling to evaluate associations of tibia lead concentration with cognitive function and decline in socio-demographically diverse, community-dwelling adults, aged 50-70 years, randomly selected from neighborhoods in Baltimore. Six summary measures of cognitive function were created from standard tests in these domains: language, processing speed, eye-hand coordination, executive functioning, verbal memory and learning, and visual memory. Results The mean (SD) tibia lead level was 18.8 (11.6) μg/g. In models adjusting for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status (SES), and race/ethnicity, higher tibia lead was associated with a progressive decline in eye-hand coordination in all subjects; stratified analysis substantiated this association only in African-Americans. In all subjects, tibia lead was associated with persistent effects with worse cognitive function in all six domains, but these associations weakened after increasing covariate control. In fully adjusted stratified analysis, persistent effects were present in whites in eye-hand coordination, executive functioning, and verbal memory and learning. Conclusions The study presents the strongest adult evidence to date in a diverse population of the impacts of cumulative lead dose on cognitive function independent of SES. As the study population was relatively young and the average total duration of follow-up short (< 30 months), the findings may represent the lower bound of what the impact of cumulative lead dose might be on the cognitive function of older Americans. PMID:19752734

  6. Cognitive Variability in Adults with ADHD and AS: Disentangling the Roles of Executive Functions and Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Baez, Sandra; Torralva, Teresa; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Rattazzi, Alexia; Bein, Victoria; Rogg, Katharina; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Asperger's Syndrome (AS) share a heterogeneous cognitive profile. Studies assessing executive functions (EF) and social cognition in both groups have found preserved and impaired performances. These inconsistent findings would be partially explained by the cognitive variability reported in these…

  7. Gender Characteristics of Cerebral Hemodynamics during Complex Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misteli, Maria; Duschek, Stefan; Richter, Andre; Grimm, Simone; Rezk, Markus; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Boeker, Heinz; Seifritz, Erich; Schuepbach, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Functional Transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) has been applied to assess peak mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MFV) with a high temporal resolution during cognitive activation. Yet, little attention has been devoted to gender-related alterations of MFV, including spectral analysis. In healthy subjects, fTCD was used to investigate a series…

  8. Environmental exposure to manganese in air: Associations with cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, Rosemarie M.; Kornblith, Erica S.; Gocheva, Vihra V.; Colledge, Michelle A.; Bollweg, George; Kim, Yangho; Beseler, Cheryl L.; Wright, Chris W.; Adams, Shane W.; Lobdell, Danelle T.

    2016-01-01

    Manganese (Mn), an essential element, can be neurotoxic in high doses. This cross-sectional study explored the cognitive function of adults residing in two towns (Marietta and East Liverpool, Ohio, USA) identified as having high levels of environmental airborne Mn from industrial sources. Air-Mn site surface emissions method modeling for total suspended particulate (TSP) ranged from 0.03 to 1.61 μg/m3 in Marietta and 0.01–6.32 μg/m3 in East Liverpool. A comprehensive screening test battery of cognitive function, including the domains of abstract thinking, attention/concentration, executive function and memory was administered. The mean age of the participants was 56 years (±10.8 years). Participants were mostly female (59.1) and primarily white (94.6%). Significant relationships (p < 0.05) were found between Mn exposure and performance on working and visuospatial memory (e.g., Rey-O Immediate β = −0.19, Rey-O Delayed β = −0.16) and verbal skills (e.g., Similarities β = −0.19). Using extensive cognitive testing and computer modeling of 10-plus years of measured air monitoring data, this study suggests that long-term environmental exposure to high levels of air-Mn, the exposure metric of this paper, may result in mild deficits of cognitive function in adult populations. PMID:26096496

  9. Preschooler Sleep Patterns Related to Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe-Cooperman, Kathleen; Brady-Amoon, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Preschoolers' sleep patterns were examined related to cognitive and adaptive functioning. The sample consisted of 874 typically developing preschool children with a mean age of 40.01 months. Parent/caregiver reports of children's sleep pattern factors, Stanford-Binet 5 intelligence scale scores, and Behavior Assessment…

  10. Sleep and Cognitive Functioning in Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders and sleep of insufficient duration and quality have been associated with impaired cognitive functioning in typically developing children and in children with a wide array of disabilities and medical conditions. Among children with disabilities, those with intellectual disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism…

  11. Functional Neuroimaging of Social and Nonsocial Cognitive Control in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatino, Antoinette; Rittenberg, Alison; Sasson, Noah J.; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Bodfish, James W.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated cognitive control of social and nonsocial information in autism using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and a neurotypical control group completed an oddball target detection task where target stimuli were either faces or nonsocial objects previously shown to be related…

  12. Testing for Cognitive Function in Animals in a Regulatory Context

    EPA Science Inventory

    Superior cognitive functions have allowed the human species to dominate a world of incredible biological diversity. Threats to these essential capacities cannot be ignored, and a strategy is needed to evaluate the hazard posed by exposure to chemical and other agents. Because peo...

  13. An automated system for assessing cognitive function in any environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesnes, Keith A.

    2005-05-01

    The Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized assessment system has been in use in worldwide clinical trials for over 20 years. It is a computer based system which assesses core aspects of human cognitive function including attention, information, working memory and long-term memory. It has been extensively validated and can be performed by a wide range of clinical populations including patients with various types of dementia. It is currently in worldwide use in clinical trials to evaluate new medicines, as well as a variety of programs involving the effects of age, stressors illnesses and trauma upon human cognitive function. Besides being highly sensitive to drugs which will impair or improve function, its utility has been maintained over the last two decades by constantly increasing the number of platforms upon which it can operate. Besides notebook versions, the system can be used on a wrist worn device, PDA, via tht telephone and over the internet. It is the most widely used automated cognitive function assessment system in worldwide clinical research. It has dozens of parallel forms and requires little training to use or administer. The basic development of the system wil be identified, and the huge databases (normative, patient population, drug effects) which have been built up from hundreds of clinical trials will be described. The system is available for use in virtually any environment or type of trial.

  14. Cognitive Function in Individuals with Atypical Pubertal Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovet, Joanne F.; And Others

    A study of 55 growth-disturbed children, aged 8-17, was conducted to assess how rate of physical maturation and pubertal development influences cognitive and neuropsychological functioning. The sample included 27 boys with short stature and delayed pubertal development (SSB), 15 girls with delayed puberty (DPG), and 13 girls with precocious…

  15. Cognitive Functioning and Work Success in Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leather, Carol; Hogh, Henriette; Seiss, Ellen; Everatt, John

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexic adults completed questionnaires designed to investigate relationships between cognitive functioning, especially executive aspects, and work success. The study was designed to determine whether quantitative support could be provided for the model of adult dyslexic success derived from the work of Gerber and his colleagues (Gerber,…

  16. Association Between Dental Student-Developed Exam Questions and Learning at Higher Cognitive Levels.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Cabezas, Carlos; Anderson, Olivia S; Wright, Mary C; Fontana, Margherita

    2015-11-01

    New dental accreditation standards emphasize that graduates must be competent in the use of critical thinking (a high cognitive-level skill). Despite this new standard, most written assessments in dental school courses are still based on low cognitive-level questions. The aim of this study was to determine if an exercise that allows students to collaboratively write exam questions would help cultivate higher cognitive levels of learning. To evaluate this exercise at one U.S. dental school, the cognitive level (according to Bloom's taxonomy) of multiple-choice exam questions and students' scores across two cohorts in a cariology course were compared. This evaluation took place using a control group in which questions were instructor-generated and an intervention group in which students worked in groups to develop questions. All students in one first-year class participated in the intervention group (n=104); all students in the first-year class two years earlier served as the control group (n=106). Among students in the intervention group, the response rate to a post-intervention survey measuring students' attitudes about the experience was 70% (N=73). The results showed that the students generating their own assessments developed higher cognitive-level exam questions than the instructor-generated assessments. The intervention group (with student-generated assessments) also performed as well or better on tests compared to the control group (with instructor-generated assessments). In the intervention group survey, the vast majority of students agreed that the exercise was helpful for their overall learning experience, but working in teams was said to be the least valuable component of the activity for their learning. This study suggests that student-driven, collaborative assessments can be an important tool for building critical thinking skills in dental classrooms and that it may be worthwhile to expand this type of exercise into other courses. PMID:26522634

  17. The Effects of Isoflurane and Desflurane on Cognitive Function in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Tian, Ming; Zhen, Yu; Yue, Yun; Sherman, Janet; Zheng, Hui; Li, Shuren; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Xie, Zhongcong

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) remains to be determined. Anesthetic isoflurane, but not desflurane, may induce neurotoxicity. However, the functional consequences of these effects have not been assessed. We therefore performed a pilot study to determine the effects of isoflurane and desflurane on cognitive function in humans. METHODS: The subjects included patients who had lower extremity or abdominal surgery under spinal anesthesia alone (S, n = 15), spinal plus desflurane anesthesia (SD, n = 15), or spinal plus isoflurane anesthesia (SI, n = 15) by randomization. Each of the subjects received cognitive tests immediately before and 1 week after anesthesia and surgery administered by an investigator who was blinded to the anesthesia regimen. POCD was defined using the scores from each of these tests. RESULTS: We studied 45 subjects, 24 males and 21 females. The mean age of the subjects was 69.0 ± 1.9 years. There was no significant difference in age and other characteristics among the treatment arms. The mean number of cognitive function declines in the S, SD, and SI groups was 1.13, 1.07, and 1.40, respectively. POCD incidence after SI (27%), but not SD (0%), anesthesia was higher than that after S (0%), P = 0.028 (3-way comparison). CONCLUSION: These findings from our pilot study suggest that isoflurane and desflurane may have different effects on postoperative cognitive function, and additional studies with a larger sample size and longer times of follow-up testing are needed. PMID:22075020

  18. Impact of preeclampsia on cognitive function in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Rätsep, Matthew T; Hickman, Andrew F; Maser, Brandon; Pudwell, Jessica; Smith, Graeme N; Brien, Donald; Stroman, Patrick W; Adams, Michael A; Reynolds, James N; Croy, B Anne; Paolozza, Angelina

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a significant clinical disorder occurring in 3-5% of all human pregnancies. Offspring of PE pregnancies (PE-F1s) are reported to exhibit greater cognitive impairment than offspring from uncomplicated pregnancies. Previous studies of PE-F1 cognitive ability used tests with bias that do not assess specific cognitive domains. To improve cognitive impairment classification in PE-F1s we used standardized clinical psychometric testing and eye tracking studies of saccadic eye movements. PE-F1s (n=10) and sex/age matched control participants (n=41 for psychometrics; n=59 for eye-tracking) were recruited from the PE-NET study or extracted from the NeuroDevNet study databases. Participants completed a selected array of psychometric tests which assessed executive function, working memory, attention, inhibition, visuospatial processing, reading, and math skills. Eye-tracking studies included the prosaccade, antisaccade, and memory-guided tasks. Psychometric testing revealed an impairment in working memory among PE-F1s. Eye-tracking studies revealed numerous impairments among PE-F1s including additional saccades required to reach the target, poor endpoint accuracy, and slower reaction time. However, PE-F1s made faster saccades than controls, and fewer sequence errors in the memory-guided task. Our study provides a comprehensive assessment of cognitive function among PE-F1s. The development of PE may be seen as an early predictor of reduced cognitive function in children, specifically in working memory and oculomotor control. Future studies should extended to a larger study populations, and may be valuable for early studies of children born to pregnancies complicated by other disorders, such as gestational diabetes or intrauterine growth restriction. PMID:26784561

  19. Elevated body mass index and maintenance of cognitive function in late life: exploring underlying neural mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chun Liang; Voss, Michelle W.; Best, John R.; Handy, Todd C.; Madden, Kenneth; Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with vascular risk factors that in turn, may increase dementia risk. However, higher body mass index (BMI) in late life may be neuroprotective. The possible neural mechanisms underlying the benefit of higher BMI on cognition in older adults are largely unknown. Thus, we used functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) to examine: (1) the relationship between BMI and functional brain connectivity; and (2) the mediating role of functional brain connectivity in the association between baseline BMI and change in cognitive function over a 12-month period. Methods:We conducted a 12-month, prospective study among 66 community-dwelling older adults, aged 70 to 80 years, who were categorized as: normal weight (BMI from 18.50 to 24.99); overweight (BMI from 25.00 to 29.99); and obese (BMI ≥ 30.00). At baseline, participants performed a finger-tapping task during fMRI scanning. Relevant neural networks were initially identified through independent component analysis (ICA) and subsequently examined through seed-based functional connectivity analysis. At baseline and 12-months, we measured three executive cognitive processes: (1) response inhibition; (2) set shifting; and (3) working memory. Results:Obese individuals showed lower task-related functional connectivity during finger tapping in the default mode network (DMN) compared with their healthy weight counterparts (p < 0.01). Lower task-related functional connectivity in the DMN at baseline was independently associated with better working memory performance at 12-months (p = 0.02). Finally, DMN functional connectivity during finger tapping significantly mediated the relationship between baseline BMI and working memory at 12-months (indirect effect: −0.155, 95% confidence interval [−0.313, −0.053]). Conclusions:These findings suggest that functional connectivity of the DMN may be an underlying mechanism by which higher BMI confers protective effects to cognition in

  20. Development of orthogonal task designs in fMRI studies of higher cognition: The NIMH experience

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper chronicles one researcher’s journey at the National Institute of Mental Health, exploring ways to understand the neural systems responsible for the cognitive sub-processes of working memory tasks. Both the opportunities and the pitfalls with applying the idea of cognitive subtraction to neuroimaging data were well-known from studies using positron emission tomography. We took advantage of the improved temporal resolution of fMRI with a delayed-recognition task and identified the time-courses of the different stages of the task (encoding, memory delay, and recognition test) as predictor variables in a multiple regression analysis. Because these signals were temporally independent, individual components of tasks could be contrasted with one another, rather than entire tasks, reducing the problem of violations of pure insertion in cognitive subtraction. This approach enabled us to draw more detailed conclusions about the neural systems of higher cognition and the organization of prefrontal cortex than had been possible before fMRI. Further enhancements and innovations over the last 20 years by a multitude of researchers across the field have greatly expanded this knowledge, but this approach called “orthogonal task design” has remained a fundamental component of many of these modern studies. PMID:22245651

  1. Effect of age on exercise-induced alterations in cognitive executive function: relationship to cerebral perfusion.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Ainslie, Philip N; Murrell, Carissa J; Thomas, Kate N; Franz, Elizabeth A; Cotter, James D

    2012-08-01

    Regular exercise improves the age-related decline in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and is associated with improved cognitive function; however, less is known about the direct relationship between CBF and cognitive function. We examined the influence of healthy aging on the capability of acute exercise to improve cognition, and whether exercise-induced improvements in cognition are related to CBF and cortical hemodynamics. Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv; Doppler) and cortical hemodynamics (NIRS) were measured in 13 young (24±5 y) and 9 older (62±3 y) participants at rest and during cycling at 30% and 70% of heart rate range (HRR). Cognitive performance was assessed using a computer-adapted Stroop task (i.e., test of executive function cognition) at rest and during exercise. Average response times on the Stroop task were slower for the older compared to younger group for both simple and difficult tasks (P<0.01). Independent of age, difficult-task response times improved during exercise (P<0.01), with the improvement greater at 70% HRR exercise (P=0.04 vs. 30% HRR). Higher MCAv was correlated with faster response times for simple and difficult tasks at rest (R(2)=0.47 and R(2)=0.47, respectively), but this relation uncoupled progressively during exercise. Exercise-induced increases in MCAv were similar and unaltered during cognitive tasks for both age groups. In contrast, prefrontal cortical hemodynamic NIRS measures [oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb) and total hemoglobin (tHb)] were differentially affected by exercise intensity, age and cognitive task; e.g., there were smaller increases in [O(2)Hb] and [tHb] in the older group between exercise intensities (P<0.05). These data indicate that: 1) Regardless of age, cognitive (executive) function is improved while exercising; 2) while MCAv is strongly related to cognition at rest, this relation becomes uncoupled during exercise, and 3) there is dissociation between global CBF and regional cortical oxygenation and

  2. Physical activity and cognitive functioning in the oldest old: Within- and between-person cognitive activity and psychosocial mediators

    PubMed Central

    Robitaille, Annie; Muniz, Graciela; Lindwall, Magnus; Piccinin, Andrea M.; Hoffman, Lesa; Johansson, Boo; Hofer, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current study examines the role of social contact intensity, cognitive activity, and depressive symptoms as within- and between-person mediators for the relationships between physical activity and cognitive functioning. Method All three types of mediators were considered simultaneously using multilevel structural equations modeling with longitudinal data. The sample consisted of 470 adults ranging from 79.37 to 97.92 years of age (M = 83.4; SD = 3.2) at the first occasion. Results Between-person differences in cognitive activity mediated the relationship between physical activity and cognitive functioning, such that individuals who participated in more physical activities, on average, engaged in more cognitive activities and, in turn, showed better cognitive functioning. Mediation of between-person associations between physical activity and memory through social contact intensity was also significant. At the within-person level, only cognitive activity mediated the relationship between physical activity and change in cognition; however, the indirect effect was small. Depressive symptomatology was not found to significantly mediate within- or between-person effects on cognitive change. Discussion Our findings highlight the implications of physical activity participation for the prevention of cognitive decline and the importance of meditational processes at the between-person level. Physical activity can provide older adults with an avenue to make new friendships and engage in more cognitive activities which, in turn, attenuates cognitive decline. PMID:25598770

  3. Evidence-based Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Pediatric Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ronald T.; Cavanagh, Sarah E.; Vess, Sarah F.; Segall, Mathew J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To review the evidence base for measures of cognitive functioning frequently used within the field of pediatric psychology. Methods From a list of 47 measures identified by the Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Evidence-Based Assessment Task Force Workgroup, 27 measures were included in the review. Measures were organized, reviewed, and evaluated according to general domains of functioning (e.g., attention/executive functioning, memory). Results Twenty-two of 27 measures reviewed demonstrated psychometric properties that met “Well-established” criteria as set forth by the Assessment Task Force. Psychometric properties were strongest for measures of general cognitive ability and weakest for measures of visual-motor functioning and attention. Conclusions We report use of “Well-established” measures of overall cognitive functioning, nonverbal intelligence, academic achievement, language, and memory and learning. For several specific tests in the domains of visual-motor functioning and attention, additional psychometric data are needed for measures to meet criteria as “Well established.” PMID:18194973

  4. From ear to uncertainty: vestibular contributions to cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Paul F.; Zheng, Yiwen

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the deficits in the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is substantial evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and neocortex play in spatial orientation. In this review we summarize the evidence that vestibular loss causes cognitive disorders, especially spatial memory deficits, in animals and humans and critically evaluate the evidence that these deficits are not due to hearing loss, problems with motor control, oscillopsia or anxiety and depression. We review the evidence that vestibular lesions affect head direction and place cells as well as the emerging evidence that artificial activation of the vestibular system, using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), can modulate cognitive function. PMID:24324413

  5. Prefrontal cortical blood flow and cognitive function in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, D R; Berman, K F; Iadarola, M; Driesen, N; Zec, R F

    1988-01-01

    To examine the relationship between cortical physiology and dementia in Huntington's disease, rCBF during three different behavioural conditions, one of which emphasised prefrontal cognition, was determined by xenon-133 inhalation in 14 patients with Huntington's disease and in matched controls. Cortical rCBF was not reduced in Huntington's disease patients even while they manifested overt prefrontal-type cognitive deficits. Caudate atrophy on CT and rCBF were significantly correlated, but only during the prefrontal behaviour where the correlation was positive. These results suggest a qualification of the subcortical dementia concept as applied to Huntington's disease and implicate an interaction between pathology that is subcortical and cognitive function that is cortical. Images PMID:2965218

  6. From ear to uncertainty: vestibular contributions to cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul F; Zheng, Yiwen

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the deficits in the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is substantial evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and neocortex play in spatial orientation. In this review we summarize the evidence that vestibular loss causes cognitive disorders, especially spatial memory deficits, in animals and humans and critically evaluate the evidence that these deficits are not due to hearing loss, problems with motor control, oscillopsia or anxiety and depression. We review the evidence that vestibular lesions affect head direction and place cells as well as the emerging evidence that artificial activation of the vestibular system, using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), can modulate cognitive function. PMID:24324413

  7. Cognitive functioning, weight change and therapy in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Green, M W; Elliman, N A; Wakeling, A; Rogers, P J

    1996-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is associated with impairments in cognitive function which have been hypothesized to be fundamentally attentional in nature. The current study investigated whether therapy and weight gain affect these impairments. A group of anorexics (N = 12) completed a battery of cognitive performance tasks and self-report measures of psychopathology on three occasions, over the course of 12 weeks of in-patient treatment. A non-clinical control population (N = 17) completed the same measures. The anorexics improved on all measures of psychopathology and affective state as a result of therapy. Anorexics displayed poorer recall, reaction times, and motor speed than the control subjects. Although there was a gain in weight over the course of therapy, there was no corresponding improvement in cognitive performance. Impaired task performance in anorexics was not directly related to their psychopathology or affective state. PMID:8923343

  8. Alterations in cognitive and psychological functioning after organic solvent exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, L.A.; Ryan, C.M.; Hodgson, M.J.; Robin, N. )

    1990-05-01

    Exposure to organic solvents has been linked repeatedly to alterations in both personality and cognitive functioning. To assess the nature and extent of these changes more thoroughly, 32 workers with a history of exposure to mixtures of organic solvents and 32 age- and education-matched blue-collar workers with no history of exposure were assessed with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Although both groups were comparable on measures of general intelligence, significant differences were found in virtually all other cognitive domains tested (Learning and Memory, Visuospatial, Attention and Mental Flexibility, Psychomotor Speed). In addition, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories of exposed workers indicated clinically significant levels of depression, anxiety, somatic concerns and disturbances in thinking. The reported psychological distress was unrelated to degree of cognitive deficit. Finally, several exposure-related variables were associated with poorer performance on tests of memory and visuospatial ability.

  9. The effect of cognitive functioning on treatment attendance and adherence in comorbid bipolar disorder and cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Colleen S; Carmody, Thomas J; McClintock, Shawn M; Suris, Alina; Nakamura, Alyson; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Lo, Alexander; Brown, E Sherwood

    2015-02-01

    Although bipolar disorder and substance dependence are both associated with treatment non-adherence and cognitive impairment, no studies have investigated relationships between treatment adherence and cognitive functioning in this population. As part of a clinical trial, baseline performance on two neuropsychological tests in 120 outpatients with bipolar disorder and cocaine dependence was used to examine whether cognitive functioning was associated with appointment attendance, medication adherence, and return of medication bottles. This study found that higher baseline cognitive functioning measured by the Stroop Color-Word condition predicted better treatment adherence. However, this study also reports measurement sensitivity of cognition as it relates to treatment adherence when applied to this dual diagnosis population. Poorer performance in simple visual attention tasks as assessed by the Stroop Word condition was inversely associated with some measures of adherence. Future studies are warranted that include a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and advanced medication adherence measures to confirm these findings. PMID:25108685

  10. Nutrient intake, nutritional status, and cognitive function with aging.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2016-03-01

    With the demographic aging of populations worldwide, diseases associated with aging are becoming more prevalent and costly to individuals, families, and healthcare systems. Among aging-related impairments, a decline in cognitive function is of particular concern, as it erodes memory and processing abilities and eventually leads to the need for institutionalized care. Accumulating evidence suggests that nutritional status is a key factor in the loss of cognitive abilities with aging. This is of tremendous importance, as dietary intake is a modifiable risk factor that can be improved to help reduce the burden of cognitive impairment. With respect to nutrients, there is evidence to support the critical role of several B vitamins in particular, but also of vitamin D, antioxidant vitamins (including vitamin E), and omega-3 fatty acids, which are preferentially taken up by brain tissue. On the other hand, high intakes of nutrients that contribute to hypertension, atherosclerosis, and poor glycemic control may have negative effects on cognition through these conditions. Collectively, the evidence suggests that considerable slowing and reduction of cognitive decline may be achieved by following a healthy dietary pattern, which limits intake of added sugars, while maximizing intakes of fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds. PMID:27116240

  11. The dystrophin gene and cognitive function in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Vojinovic, Dina; Adams, Hieab HH; van der Lee, Sven J; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Brouwer, Rutger; van den Hout, Mirjam CGN; Oole, Edwin; van Rooij, Jeroen; Uitterlinden, Andre; Hofman, Albert; van IJcken, Wilfred FJ; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; van Ommen, GertJan B; Ikram, M Arfan; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Amin, Najaf

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study is to investigate whether single-nucleotide dystrophin gene (DMD) variants associate with variability in cognitive functions in healthy populations. The study included 1240 participants from the Erasmus Rucphen family (ERF) study and 1464 individuals from the Rotterdam Study (RS). The participants whose exomes were sequenced and who were assessed for various cognitive traits were included in the analysis. To determine the association between DMD variants and cognitive ability, linear (mixed) modeling with adjustment for age, sex and education was used. Moreover, Sequence Kernel Association Test (SKAT) was used to test the overall association of the rare genetic variants present in the DMD with cognitive traits. Although no DMD variant surpassed the prespecified significance threshold (P<1 × 10−4), rs147546024:A>G showed strong association (β=1.786, P-value=2.56 × 10−4) with block-design test in the ERF study, while another variant rs1800273:G>A showed suggestive association (β=−0.465, P-value=0.002) with Mini-Mental State Examination test in the RS. Both variants are highly conserved, although rs147546024:A>G is an intronic variant, whereas rs1800273:G>A is a missense variant in the DMD which has a predicted damaging effect on the protein. Further gene-based analysis of DMD revealed suggestive association (P-values=0.087 and 0.074) with general cognitive ability in both cohorts. In conclusion, both single variant and gene-based analyses suggest the existence of variants in the DMD which may affect cognitive functioning in the general populations. PMID:25227141

  12. Associations between Markers of Glucose and Insulin Function and Cognitive Function in Healthy African American Elders

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Jeannine S.; Morgan, Amy; Hernandez-Saucedo, Hector; Hansen, Angela; Corbett, Selena; Arbuckle, Matthew; Leverenz, James BA; Wilkins, Consuelo H.; Craft, Suzanne; Baker, Laura D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Glucose and insulin are important moderators of cognitive function. African Americans have poorer glycemic control across the glycemic spectrum and are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes and poor cognitive health. It is unclear which glucoregulatory markers predict cognitive function in this at-risk population. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between cognitive function and common markers of glucoregulation in non-diabetic African Americans elders. Methods Thirty-four, community-dwelling African Americans, aged 50-75 years completed cognitive testing and blood collection as part of a health screening assessment. Cognitive outcomes were composite scores derived from neuropsychological tests of executive function and verbal memory. Linear regression was used to examine relationships between cognitive composite scores and fasting blood levels of glucose, insulin, and hemoglobin A1C, with adjustments for age, education, body mass index, and antihypertensive medication use. Results Fasting plasma glucose was negatively associated with executive function (β=−0.41, p=0.03). There was a trend of an association between fasting plasma glucose and verbal memory (β=−0.34, p=0.06). Fasting insulin and hemoglobin A1c were not associated with cognitive function. Conclusion High non-diabetic fasting glucose levels were associated with poorer executive function and verbal memory. These results provide preliminary support for proactive glucose control in older African Americans even before glycemic criteria for type 2 diabetes are met. Our findings suggests that high-normal FPG levels may represent an early red-flag to signify increased risk of cognitive impairment or decline. PMID:26798567

  13. Beta-Band Functional Connectivity is Reorganized in Mild Cognitive Impairment after Combined Computerized Physical and Cognitive Training.

    PubMed

    Klados, Manousos A; Styliadis, Charis; Frantzidis, Christos A; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-01-01

    Physical and cognitive idleness constitute significant risk factors for the clinical manifestation of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. In contrast, a physically and cognitively active lifestyle may restructure age-declined neuronal networks enhancing neuroplasticity. The present study, investigated the changes of brain's functional network in a group of elderly individuals at risk for dementia that were induced by a combined cognitive and physical intervention scheme. Fifty seniors meeting Petersen's criteria of Mild Cognitive Impairment were equally divided into an experimental (LLM), and an active control (AC) group. Resting state electroencephalogram (EEG) was measured before and after the intervention. Functional networks were estimated by computing the magnitude square coherence between the time series of all available cortical sources as computed by standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). A statistical model was used to form groups' characteristic weighted graphs. The introduced modulation was assessed by networks' density and nodes' strength. Results focused on the beta band (12-30 Hz) in which the difference of the two networks' density is maximum, indicating that the structure of the LLM cortical network changes significantly due to the intervention, in contrast to the network of AC. The node strength of LLM participants in the beta band presents a higher number of bilateral connections in the occipital, parietal, temporal and prefrontal regions after the intervention. Our results show that the combined training scheme reorganizes the beta-band functional connectivity of MCI patients. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02313935 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02313935. PMID:26973445

  14. Beta-Band Functional Connectivity is Reorganized in Mild Cognitive Impairment after Combined Computerized Physical and Cognitive Training

    PubMed Central

    Klados, Manousos A.; Styliadis, Charis; Frantzidis, Christos A.; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Bamidis, Panagiotis D.

    2016-01-01

    Physical and cognitive idleness constitute significant risk factors for the clinical manifestation of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. In contrast, a physically and cognitively active lifestyle may restructure age-declined neuronal networks enhancing neuroplasticity. The present study, investigated the changes of brain's functional network in a group of elderly individuals at risk for dementia that were induced by a combined cognitive and physical intervention scheme. Fifty seniors meeting Petersen's criteria of Mild Cognitive Impairment were equally divided into an experimental (LLM), and an active control (AC) group. Resting state electroencephalogram (EEG) was measured before and after the intervention. Functional networks were estimated by computing the magnitude square coherence between the time series of all available cortical sources as computed by standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). A statistical model was used to form groups' characteristic weighted graphs. The introduced modulation was assessed by networks' density and nodes' strength. Results focused on the beta band (12–30 Hz) in which the difference of the two networks' density is maximum, indicating that the structure of the LLM cortical network changes significantly due to the intervention, in contrast to the network of AC. The node strength of LLM participants in the beta band presents a higher number of bilateral connections in the occipital, parietal, temporal and prefrontal regions after the intervention. Our results show that the combined training scheme reorganizes the beta-band functional connectivity of MCI patients. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02313935 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02313935. PMID:26973445

  15. Correlation between physical function, cognitive function, and health-related quality of life in elderly persons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, DeokJu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to assess the quality of life of elderly people related to physical function, cognitive function, and health, and devised methods to enhance their health-related quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted from November 2014 to January 2015 in 140 people over 65 registered at welfare centers. Those with a functional psychological disorder or difficulty communicating were excluded. Data were collected for physical function, cognitive function, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using an assessment tool and questionnaire for healthy elderly people over 65. Physical function was measured using muscle strength muscle endurance, reaction time, and balance. [Results] Correlations were observed between cognitive function and endurance, reaction time, and balance. Physical HRQOL showed correlations with all domains of physical function; mental HRQOL showed correlations with all items of physical function except muscle strength. Among factors that influence HRQOL, all items except educational background were significant variables. Educational background had no influence on HRQOL. [Conclusion] Interventions will correct factors with a negative influence on HRQOL, utilizing regular checks on physical, cognitive, and other functions of elderly people, with early detection and intervention to enhance HRQOL. Cognitive intervention related to physical and other functions will be applied. PMID:27390430

  16. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xingwang; Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened beverages or sweetened solid foods are associated with cognitive function. The present study included 737 participants without diabetes, aged 45–75 years, from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, 2004–9. Cognitive function was measured with a battery of seven tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning, digit span, clock drawing, figure copying, and Stroop and verbal fluency tests. Usual dietary intake was assessed with a validated FFQ. Greater intakes of total sugars, added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages, but not of sugar-sweetened solid foods, were significantly associated with lower MMSE score, after adjusting for covariates. Adjusted OR for cognitive impairment (MMSE score <24) were 2·23 (95 % CI 1·24, 3·99) for total sugars and 2·28 (95 % CI 1·26, 4·14) for added sugars, comparing the highest with lowest intake quintiles. Greater intake of total sugars was also significantly associated with lower word list learning score. In conclusion, higher sugar intake appears to be associated with lower cognitive function, but longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the direction of causality. PMID:21736803

  17. Functional Brain Networks Are Altered in Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes: Signs for Compensation of Cognitive Decrements? The Maastricht Study.

    PubMed

    van Bussel, Frank C G; Backes, Walter H; van Veenendaal, Tamar M; Hofman, Paul A M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Schram, Miranda T; Sep, Simone J S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Schaper, Nicolaas; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Wildberger, Joachim E; Jansen, Jacobus F A

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with cognitive decrements, accelerated cognitive decline, and increased risk for dementia. Patients with the metabolic syndrome, a major risk factor for diabetes, may display comparable cognitive decrements as seen in type 2 diabetes. Currently, the impact of diabetes and prediabetes on cognition and the underlying organization of functional brain networks still remain to be elucidated. This study investigated whether functional brain networks are affected in type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. Forty-seven participants with diabetes, 47 participants with prediabetes, and 45 control participants underwent detailed cognitive testing and 3-Tesla resting state functional MRI. Graph theoretical network analysis was performed to investigate alterations in functional cerebral networks. Participants with diabetes displayed altered network measures, characterized by a higher normalized cluster coefficient and higher local efficiency, compared with control participants. The network measures of the participants with prediabetes fell between those with diabetes and control participants. Lower processing speed was associated with shorter path length and higher global efficiency. Participants with type 2 diabetes have altered functional brain networks. This alteration is already apparent in the prediabetic stage to a somewhat lower level, hinting at functional reorganization of the cerebral networks as a compensatory mechanism for cognitive decrements. PMID:27217484

  18. Obstructive Sleep Apnea is Related to Impaired Cognitive and Functional Status after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Aaronson, Justine A.; van Bennekom, Coen A.M.; Hofman, Winni F.; van Bezeij, Tijs; van den Aardweg, Joost G.; Groet, Erny; Kylstra, Wytske A.; Schmand, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder in stroke patients and is associated with prolonged hospitalization, decreased functional outcome, and recurrent stroke. Research on the effect of OSA on cognitive functioning following stroke is scarce. The primary objective of this study was to compare stroke patients with and without OSA on cognitive and functional status upon admission to inpatient rehabilitation. Design: Case-control study. Setting and Patients: 147 stroke patients admitted to a neurorehabilitation unit. Interventions: N/A. Measurements: All patients underwent sleep examination for diagnosis of OSA. We assessed cognitive status by neuropsychological examination and functional status by two neurological scales and a measure of functional independence. Results: We included 80 stroke patients with OSA and 67 stroke patients without OSA. OSA patients were older and had a higher body mass index than patients without OSA. OSA patients performed worse on tests of attention, executive functioning, visuoperception, psychomotor ability, and intelligence than those without OSA. No differences were found for vigilance, memory, and language. OSA patients had a worse neurological status, lower functional independence scores, and a longer period of hospitalization in the neurorehabilitation unit than the patients without OSA. OSA status was not associated with stroke type or classification. Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with a lower cognitive and functional status in patients admitted for stroke rehabilitation. This underlines the importance of OSA as a probable prognostic factor, and calls for well-designed randomized controlled trials to study its treatability. Citation: Aaronson JA, van Bennekom CA, Hofman WF, van Bezeij T, van den Aardweg JG, Groet E, Kylstra WA, Schmand B. Obstructive sleep apnea is related to impaired cognitive and functional status after stroke. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1431–1437. PMID

  19. A functional approach for research on cognitive control: Analysing cognitive control tasks and their effects in terms of operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Liefooghe, Baptist; De Houwer, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive control is an important mental ability that is examined using a multitude of cognitive control tasks and effects. The present paper presents the first steps in the elaboration of a functional approach, which aims to uncover the communalities and differences between different cognitive control tasks and their effects. Based on the idea that responses in cognitive control tasks qualify as operant behaviour, we propose to reinterpret cognitive control tasks in terms of operant contingencies and cognitive control effects as instances of moderated stimulus control. We illustrate how our approach can be used to uncover communalities between topographically different cognitive control tasks and can lead to novel questions about the processes underlying cognitive control. PMID:26033418

  20. Evaluation of Cognitive Function in the Group Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzolo, Peter J.; And Others

    Prevalence rates of cognitive impairment in persons 75 to 85 years of age have been documented in the range of 10-15%, and exceeding 20% after age 85. A recent study has demonstrated even higher prevalence rates: 18.7% between the ages of 75-84 and 47% in persons over 85 years of age. Screening for dementia in persons 75 years of age and older…

  1. The grounding of higher order concepts in action and language: a cognitive robotics model.

    PubMed

    Stramandinoli, Francesca; Marocco, Davide; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we present a neuro-robotic model that uses artificial neural networks for investigating the relations between the development of symbol manipulation capabilities and of sensorimotor knowledge in the humanoid robot iCub. We describe a cognitive robotics model in which the linguistic input provided by the experimenter guides the autonomous organization of the robot's knowledge. In this model, sequences of linguistic inputs lead to the development of higher-order concepts grounded on basic concepts and actions. In particular, we show that higher-order symbolic representations can be indirectly grounded in action primitives directly grounded in sensorimotor experiences. The use of recurrent neural network also permits the learning of higher-order concepts based on temporal sequences of action primitives. Hence, the meaning of a higher-order concept is obtained through the combination of basic sensorimotor knowledge. We argue that such a hierarchical organization of concepts can be a possible account for the acquisition of abstract words in cognitive robots. PMID:22386502

  2. Cognitive function in acromegaly: description and brain volumetric correlates.

    PubMed

    Sievers, Caroline; Sämann, P G; Pfister, H; Dimopoulou, C; Czisch, M; Roemmler, J; Schopohl, J; Stalla, G K; Zihl, J

    2012-09-01

    In acromegaly, we reported on increased rates of affective disorders such as dysthymia and depression, as well as structural brain changes. Objective of this study was to determine if cognitive impairments in patients with acromegaly exist and whether such impairments are associated with structural brain alterations defined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this cross-sectional study, 55 patients with biochemically confirmed acromegaly were enrolled. MRI data were compared with 87 control subjects. Main outcome measures were performance levels in 13 cognitive tests covering the domains of attention, memory and executive function, with performance below the cut-off level of the 16th percentile rated as impaired. In addition, individual global and hippocampal volume changes were defined for each patient in reference to a normative sample. We found that up to 33.3% of the patients were impaired in the attention, up to 24.1% in the memory, and up to 16.7% in the executive function domain. 67.3% of the patients failed to reach the cut-off level in at least one subtest. MRI demonstrated increased global, left and right hippocampal grey matter and white matter, particularly early in the disease course. Rather few positive than expected negative correlations could be established between the hippocampal grey matter gain and cognitive performance. Cognitive dysfunction, particularly attentional deficits, are common in acromegaly, rendering neuropsychological testing essential in the diagnostic work-up. PMID:21735089

  3. Impact of vocational rehabilitation on social functioning, cognitive functioning, and psychopathology in patients with chronic schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Suresh Kumar, P. N.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess the impact of vocational rehabilitation on psychopathology, social functioning and cognitive functioning in schizophrenia Materials and Methods: 34 patients with DSM IV diagnosis of chronic schizophrenia were compared 40 patients with same diagnosis but not attending vocational rehabilitation using PANSS, SCARF social functioning Index and MMSE. Results and Discussion: Basic psycho-socio-demographic data were comparable in both groups except more hospitalization in the no rehabilitation group. Comparison of social functioning, cognitive functioning and psychopathology showed significant improvement in rehabilitated patients. Cognitive functioning had positive correlation with occupational role in the rehabilitated group and negative correlation in the rehabilitated group. Social functioning had negative correlation with positive and negative symptoms, general psychopathology and total PANSS score and cognitive symptoms in patients without rehabilitation. Conclusion: The present concludes that there is a definite limitation in the domains of social functioning, cognitive functioning and psychopathology in chronic schizophrenia patients who had no rehabilitation. However vocational rehabilitation significantly improves these limitations, which in turn help these patients to integrate into the society so as to function efficiently in their roles as parents, home makers and social beings. PMID:19823610

  4. Cognitive function and endogenous cytokine levels in children with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Abu Faddan, N H; Shehata, G A; Abd Elhafeez, H A; Mohamed, A O; Hassan, H S; Abd El Sameea, F

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about how hepatitis C (HCV) infection affects cognitive function in children. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of HCV infection on cognitive function of children with normal liver functions and their relationships to endogenous IFN-α, IL-6 and TNF-α. IFN-α, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured and the Arabic version of the Stanford-Binet test used to assess cognitive functions in 35 children with HCV infection and 23 controls. Serum levels of IL-6 and IFN-α were significantly higher in patients compared to controls. There was a significant effect on vocabulary, comprehension, and abstract visual reasoning, quantitative reasoning and bead memory tests, as well as total short-term memory and intelligence quotient in patients compared to controls. There was a significant positive correlation between IFN-α and IL-6. Also there were significant negative correlations between IFN-α and Abstract visual reasoning test, Quantitative reasoning test, Bead memory test, Total short-term memory and Intelligence quotient; and between IL-6 and Abstract visual reasoning test, Quantitative reasoning test and Intelligence quotient. There was no significant correlation between TNF-α and any of the cognitive functions. Cytokine levels were not related to demographic characteristics of the patients or viral load (PCR). Children with chronic hepatitis C infection in its early stages showed signs of cognitive impairment, with the memory tasks being mostly affected. There was a significant correlation between endogenous cytokines and cognitive impairment in these children. Further studies are needed to define the effect of successful antiviral treatment. PMID:25496114

  5. A Cognitive Engineering Analysis of the Vertical Navigation (VNAV) Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherry, Lance; Feary, Michael; Polson, Peter; Mumaw, Randall; Palmer, Everett

    2001-01-01

    A cognitive engineering analysis of the Flight Management System (FMS) Vertical Navigation (VNAV) function has identified overloading of the VNAV button and overloading of the Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA) used by the VNAV function. These two types of overloading, resulting in modal input devices and ambiguous feedback, are well known sources of operator confusion, and explain, in part, the operational issues experienced by airline pilots using VNAV in descent and approach. A proposal to modify the existing VNAV design to eliminate the overloading is discussed. The proposed design improves pilot's situational awareness of the VNAV function, and potentially reduces the cost of software development and improves safety.

  6. Does Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy Affect Cognitive Function?

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, P.; Blackburne, H.; Dixon, L.; Dobbs, B.; Eglinton, T.; Ing, A.; Mulder, R.; Porter, R.J.; Wakeman, C.; Frizelle, F.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Colonoscopy is a common procedure used in the diagnosis and treatment of a range of bowel disorders. Prior preparation involving potent laxatives is a necessary stage to ensure adequate visualization of the bowel wall. It is known that the sedatives given to most patients during the colonoscopy cause a temporary impairment in cognitive function; however, the potential for bowel preparation to affect cognitive function has not previously been investigated. To assess the effect of bowel preparation for colonoscopy on cognitive function. This was a prospective, nonrandomized controlled study of cognitive function in patients who had bowel preparation for colonoscopy compared with those having gastroscopy and therefore no bowel preparation. Cognitive function was assessed using the Modified Mini Mental State Examination (MMMSE) and selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Individual test scores and changes between initial and subsequent tests were compared between the groups. Age, gender, and weight were also compared. Forty-three colonoscopy and 25 gastroscopy patients were recruited. The 2 groups were similar for age and gender; however, patients having gastroscopy were heavier. MMMSE scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 28.6 and 29.5 (P = 0.24) at baseline, 28.7 and 29.8 (P = 0.32) at test 2, 28.1 and 28.5 (P = 0.76) at test 3. Motor screening scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 349.3 and 354.1 (P = 0.97) at baseline, 307.5 and 199.7 (P = 0.06) at test 2, 212.0 and 183.2 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Spatial working memory scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 14.4 and 6.7 (P = 0.29) at baseline, 9.7 and 4.3 (P = 0.27) at test 2, 10 and 4.5 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Digit Symbol Substitution Test scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 36.3 and 37.8 (P = 0.84) at baseline, 36.4 and

  7. Does Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy Affect Cognitive Function?

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, P; Blackburne, H; Dixon, L; Dobbs, B; Eglinton, T; Ing, A; Mulder, R; Porter, R J; Wakeman, C; Frizelle, F A

    2015-11-01

    Colonoscopy is a common procedure used in the diagnosis and treatment of a range of bowel disorders. Prior preparation involving potent laxatives is a necessary stage to ensure adequate visualization of the bowel wall. It is known that the sedatives given to most patients during the colonoscopy cause a temporary impairment in cognitive function; however, the potential for bowel preparation to affect cognitive function has not previously been investigated. To assess the effect of bowel preparation for colonoscopy on cognitive function. This was a prospective, nonrandomized controlled study of cognitive function in patients who had bowel preparation for colonoscopy compared with those having gastroscopy and therefore no bowel preparation. Cognitive function was assessed using the Modified Mini Mental State Examination (MMMSE) and selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Individual test scores and changes between initial and subsequent tests were compared between the groups. Age, gender, and weight were also compared. Forty-three colonoscopy and 25 gastroscopy patients were recruited. The 2 groups were similar for age and gender; however, patients having gastroscopy were heavier. MMMSE scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 28.6 and 29.5 (P = 0.24) at baseline, 28.7 and 29.8 (P = 0.32) at test 2, 28.1 and 28.5 (P = 0.76) at test 3. Motor screening scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 349.3 and 354.1 (P = 0.97) at baseline, 307.5 and 199.7 (P = 0.06) at test 2, 212.0 and 183.2 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Spatial working memory scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 14.4 and 6.7 (P = 0.29) at baseline, 9.7 and 4.3 (P = 0.27) at test 2, 10 and 4.5 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Digit Symbol Substitution Test scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 36.3 and 37.8 (P = 0.84) at baseline, 36.4 and 40.0 (P

  8. Cognitive adaptations to stressful environments: When childhood adversity enhances adult executive function.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Chiraag; Griskevicius, Vladas; Simpson, Jeffry A; Sung, Sooyeon; Young, Ethan S

    2015-10-01

    Can growing up in a stressful childhood environment enhance certain cognitive functions? Drawing participants from higher-income and lower-income backgrounds, we tested how adults who grew up in harsh or unpredictable environments fared on 2 types of executive function tasks: inhibition and shifting. People who experienced unpredictable childhoods performed worse at inhibition (overriding dominant responses), but performed better at shifting (efficiently switching between different tasks). This finding is consistent with the notion that shifting, but not inhibition, is especially useful in unpredictable environments. Importantly, differences in executive function between people who experienced unpredictable versus predictable childhoods emerged only when they were tested in uncertain contexts. This catalyst suggests that some individual differences related to early life experience are manifested under conditions of uncertainty in adulthood. Viewed as a whole, these findings indicate that adverse childhood environments do not universally impair mental functioning, but can actually enhance specific types of cognitive performance in the face of uncertainty. PMID:26414842

  9. Neurocognitive performance of children with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders on the NEPSY-II.

    PubMed

    Barron-Linnankoski, Sarianna; Reinvall, Outi; Lahervuori, Anne; Voutilainen, Arja; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Korkman, Marit

    2015-01-01

    This study examined patterns of strengths and weaknesses in the neurocognitive performance of children with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The participants were 30 children with higher functioning ASD ranging from 6 to 11 years, and 60 typically developing (TD) children, who were matched with the children with higher functioning ASD in terms of age, gender, and maternal education. The TD children were drawn from the Finnish standardization sample for the NEPSY-II. The cognitive abilities of the children with higher functioning ASD were assessed with the WISC-III, and the neurocognitive performance of the children with higher functioning ASD and TD children on the NEPSY-II was compared. The children with higher functioning ASD were found to have strengths in verbal reasoning skills with respect to the population mean and weaknesses in set-shifting, verbal fluency, and narrative memory in comparison with the TD children. Minor weaknesses were also observed in facial memory and fine and visuomotor skills. PMID:24397431

  10. Enrichment Effects on Adult Cognitive Development: Can the Functional Capacity of Older Adults Be Preserved and Enhanced?

    PubMed

    Hertzog, Christopher; Kramer, Arthur F; Wilson, Robert S; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2008-10-01

    In this monograph, we ask whether various kinds of intellectual, physical, and social activities produce cognitive enrichment effects-that is, whether they improve cognitive performance at different points of the adult life span, with a particular emphasis on old age. We begin with a theoretical framework that emphasizes the potential of behavior to influence levels of cognitive functioning. According to this framework, the undeniable presence of age-related decline in cognition does not invalidate the view that behavior can enhance cognitive functioning. Instead, the course of normal aging shapes a zone of possible functioning, which reflects person-specific endowments and age-related constraints. Individuals influence whether they function in the higher or lower ranges of this zone by engaging in or refraining from beneficial intellectual, physical, and social activities. From this point of view, the potential for positive change, or plasticity, is maintained in adult cognition. It is an argument that is supported by newer research in neuroscience showing neural plasticity in various aspects of central nervous system functioning, neurochemistry, and architecture. This view of human potential contrasts with static conceptions of cognition in old age, according to which decline in abilities is fixed and individuals cannot slow its course. Furthermore, any understanding of cognition as it occurs in everyday life must make a distinction between basic cognitive mechanisms and skills (such as working-memory capacity) and the functional use of cognition to achieve goals in specific situations. In practice, knowledge and expertise are critical for effective functioning, and the available evidence suggests that older adults effectively employ specific knowledge and expertise and can gain new knowledge when it is required. We conclude that, on balance, the available evidence favors the hypothesis that maintaining an intellectually engaged and physically active lifestyle

  11. Assessment of Cognitive Functions in Methadone Maintenance Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mazhari, Shahrzad; Keshvari, Zeinab; Sabahi, Abdolreza; Mottaghian, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Background Methadone maintenance has received little scientific attention regarding neurocognitive effects. This study is aimed to assess the neuropsychological performance of methadone maintenance patients (MMP) compared to those healthy controls. Methods Thirty-five MMP and 35 healthy controls, matched for age, gender, education and employment status, examined on a battery of tests aimed at assessing verbal fluency, executive functions, verbal memory, and working memory, using controlled oral word association test (COWAT), trial making test (TMT) Part A and B, Rey auditory verbal learning test (RAVLT), and backward digit span. Findings MMP performed significantly poorly than controls in cognitive domains of verbal fluency, executive function, and verbal memory. MMP did not exhibit impairment in working memory, and TMT Part A compared to controls. Conclusion These results suggest that methadone consumption induces significant cognitive impairment that could compromise drug-treatment outcomes in MMP. PMID:26885347

  12. The cognitive neuroscience toolkit for the neuroeconomist: A functional overview

    PubMed Central

    Kable, Joseph W.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides the beginning neuroeconomist with an introductory overview to the different methods used in human neuroscience. It describes basic strengths and weaknesses of each technique, points to examples of how each technique has been used in neuroeconomic studies, and provides key tutorial references that contain more detailed information. In addition to this overview, the article presents a framework that organizes human neuroscience methods functionally, according to whether they provide tests of the association between brain activity and cognition or behavior, or whether they test the necessity or the sufficiency of brain activity for cognition and behavior. This framework demonstrates the utility of a multi-method research approach, since converging evidence from tests of association, necessity and sufficiency provides the strongest inference regarding brain-behavior relationships. Set against this goal of converging evidence, human neuroscience studies in neuroeconomics currently rely far too heavily on methods that test association, most notably functional MRI. PMID:21796272

  13. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: Involvement of neuroinflammation and neuronal functioning.

    PubMed

    Hovens, Iris B; Schoemaker, Regien G; van der Zee, Eddy A; Absalom, Anthony R; Heineman, Erik; van Leeuwen, Barbara L

    2014-05-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) has been hypothesized to be mediated by surgery-induced inflammatory processes, which may influence neuronal functioning either directly or through modulation of intraneuronal pathways, such as the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mediated pathway. To study the time course of post-surgical (neuro)inflammation, changes in the BDNF-pathway and POCD, we subjected 3months old male Wistar rats to abdominal surgery and implanted a jugular vein catheter for timed blood sampling. Cognition, affective behavior and markers for (neuro)inflammation, BDNF and neurogenesis were assessed at 1, 2 and 3weeks following surgery. Rats displayed changes in exploratory activity shortly after surgery, associated with postoperatively elevated IL-6 plasma levels. Spatial learning and memory were temporarily impaired in the first 2weeks following surgery, whereas non-spatial cognitive functions seemed unaffected. Analysis of brain tissue revealed increased neuroinflammation (IL-1B and microgliosis) 7days following surgery, decreased BDNF levels on postoperative day 14 and 21, and decreased neurogenesis until at least 21days following surgery. These findings indicate that in young adult rats only spatial learning and memory is affected by surgery, suggesting hippocampal dependent cognition is especially vulnerable to surgery-induced impairment. The observed differences in time course following surgery and relation to plasma IL-6 suggest cognitive dysfunction and mood changes comprise distinct features of postoperative behavioral impairment. The postoperative changes in neuroinflammation, BDNF and neurogenesis may represent aspects of the underlying mechanism for POCD. Future research should be aimed to elucidate how these players interact. PMID:24517920

  14. Association between Tooth Loss and Cognitive Function among 3063 Chinese Older Adults: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jianfeng; Wu, Bei; Zhao, Qianhua; Guo, Qihao; Meng, Haijiao; Yu, Lirong; Zheng, Li; Hong, Zhen; Ding, Ding

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral health has been found to be associated with cognitive function in basic research and epidemiology studies. Most of these studies had no comprehensive clinical diagnosis on cognitive function. This study firstly reported the association between tooth loss and cognitive function among Chinese older population. Methods The study included 3,063 community dwelling older adults aged 60 or above from the Shanghai Aging Study. Number of teeth missing was obtained from self-reporting questionnaire and confirmed by trained interviewers. Participants were diagnosed as “dementia”, “mild cognitive impairment (MCI)”, or “cognitive normal” by neurologists using DSM-IV and Petersen criteria. Multivariate logistic regression model was applied to examine the association between number of teeth missing and cognitive function. Results The study participants had an average of 10.2 teeth lost. Individuals with dementia lost 18.7 teeth on average, much higher than those with MCI (11.8) and cognitive normal (9.3) (p<0.001). After adjusted for sex, age, education year, living alone, body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, anxiety, depression, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and APOE-ε4, tooth loss of >16 were significantly associated with dementia with an OR of 1.56 (95%CI 1.12-2.18). Conclusion Having over 16 missing teeth was associated with severe cognitive impairment among Chinese older adults. Poor oral health might be considered as a related factor of neurodegenerative symptom among older Chinese population. PMID:25803052

  15. Breakfast glycaemic index and cognitive function in adolescent school children.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Simon B; Bandelow, Stephan; Nute, Maria L; Morris, John G; Nevill, Mary E

    2012-06-01

    It has been suggested that a low-glycaemic index (GI) breakfast may be beneficial for some elements of cognitive function (e.g. memory and attention), but the effects are not clear, especially in adolescents. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a low-GI breakfast, a high-GI breakfast and breakfast omission on cognitive function in adolescents. A total of fifty-two adolescents aged 12-14 years were recruited to participate in the study. Participants consumed a low-GI breakfast, a high-GI breakfast or omitted breakfast. A battery of cognitive function tests was completed 30 and 120 min following breakfast consumption and capillary blood samples were taken during the 120 min postprandial period. The findings show that there was a greater improvement in response times following a low-GI breakfast, compared with breakfast omission on the Stroop (P = 0·009) and Flanker (P = 0·041) tasks, and compared with a high-GI breakfast on the Sternberg paradigm (P = 0·013). Furthermore, accuracy on all three tests was better maintained on the low-GI trial compared with the high-GI (Stroop: P = 0·039; Sternberg: P = 0·018; Flanker: P = 0·014) and breakfast omission (Stroop: P < 0·001; Sternberg: P = 0·050; Flanker: P = 0·014) trials. Following the low-GI breakfast, participants displayed a lower glycaemic response (P < 0·001) than following the high-GI breakfast, but there was no difference in the insulinaemic response (P = 0·063) between the high- and low-GI breakfasts. Therefore, we conclude that a low-GI breakfast is most beneficial for adolescents' cognitive function, compared with a high-GI breakfast or breakfast omission. PMID:22017815

  16. The Function Machine as a Cognitive Root for the Function Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tall, David; McGowen, Mercedes; DeMarois, Phil

    The concept of function is considered as foundational in mathematics. Yet, it proves to be elusive and subtle for students. A generic image that can act as a cognitive root for the concept is the function box. This is not a simple pattern-spotting device, but a concept that embodies the salient features of the idea of function, including process…

  17. Lagged Associations of Metropolitan Statistical Area- and State-Level Income Inequality with Cognitive Function: The Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Griffin, Beth Ann; Kabeto, Mohammed; Escarce, José; Langa, Kenneth M.; Shih, Regina A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Much variation in individual-level cognitive function in late life remains unexplained, with little exploration of area-level/contextual factors to date. Income inequality is a contextual factor that may plausibly influence cognitive function. Methods In a nationally-representative cohort of older Americans from the Health and Retirement Study, we examined state- and metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level income inequality as predictors of individual-level cognitive function measured by the 27-point Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) scale. We modeled latency periods of 8–20 years, and controlled for state-/metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level and individual-level factors. Results Higher MSA-level income inequality predicted lower cognitive function 16–18 years later. Using a 16-year lag, living in a MSA in the highest income inequality quartile predicted a 0.9-point lower TICS-m score (β = -0.86; 95% CI = -1.41, -0.31), roughly equivalent to the magnitude associated with five years of aging. We observed no associations for state-level income inequality. The findings were robust to sensitivity analyses using propensity score methods. Conclusions Among older Americans, MSA-level income inequality appears to influence cognitive function nearly two decades later. Policies reducing income inequality levels within cities may help address the growing burden of declining cognitive function among older populations within the United States. PMID:27332986

  18. Cognitive function and prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Schull, W J; Otake, M

    1999-04-01

    It is clear from the many studies of the prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that exposure to ionizing radiation during gestation has harmful effects on the developing human brain, particularly if that exposure occurs at critical stages in the development of the neocortex. Data on a variety of measures of cognitive function, including the occurrence of severe mental retardation as well as variation in the intelligence quotient (IQ) and school performance, show significant effects on those survivors exposed 8-15 weeks and 16-25 weeks after ovulation. Studies of seizures, primarily those without known precipitating cause, also exhibit a radiation effect on those individuals exposed in the first 16 weeks after ovulation. The cellular and molecular events that subtend these abnormalities are still largely unknown although some progress toward an understanding has occurred. For example, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain of some of the mentally retarded survivors has revealed a large region of abnormally situated gray matter, suggesting an abnormality in neuronal migration, but cell killing could also contribute importantly to the effects on cognitive function that have been seen. The retardation of growth in stature observed in individuals exposed in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy suggests that the development of an atypically small head size, without conspicuously impaired cognitive function, may reflect a generalized retardation of growth. PMID:10331523

  19. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves cognitive functioning after brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Su; Shen, Guangyu; Deng, Shukun; Wang, Xiubin; Wu, Qinfeng; Guo, Aisong

    2013-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been widely applied and recognized in the treatment of brain injury; however, the correlation between the protective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and changes of metabolites in the brain remains unclear. To investigate the effect and potential mechanism of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cognitive functioning in rats, we established traumatic brain injury models using Feeney's free falling method. We treated rat models with hyperbaric oxygen therapy at 0.2 MPa for 60 minutes per day. The Morris water maze test for spatial navigation showed that the average escape latency was significantly prolonged and cognitive function decreased in rats with brain injury. After treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy for 1 and 2 weeks, the rats’ spatial learning and memory abilities were improved. Hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis showed that the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased at 1 week, and the N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio was significantly increased at 2 weeks after hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Nissl staining and immunohistochemical staining showed that the number of nerve cells and Nissl bodies in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased, and glial fibrillary acidic protein positive cells were decreased after a 2-week hyperbaric oxygen therapy treatment. Our findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen therapy significantly improves cognitive functioning in rats with traumatic brain injury, and the potential mechanism is mediated by metabolic changes and nerve cell restoration in the hippocampal CA3 region. PMID:25206655

  20. Defeatist Beliefs as a Mediator of Cognitive Impairment, Negative Symptoms, and Functioning in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Paul M.; Beck, Aaron T.

    2009-01-01

    Poor social and vocational outcomes have long been observed in schizophrenia. Two of the most consistent predictors are negative symptoms and cognitive impairment. We investigate the hypothesis that cognitive content—defeatist beliefs regarding performance—provides a link between cognitive impairment, negative symptoms, and poor functioning in schizophrenia. A total of 77 individuals (55 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 22 healthy controls) participated in a cross-sectional study of psychopathology. Tests of memory, abstraction, attention, and processing speed, as well as current psychopathology, functioning, and endorsement of defeatist beliefs, were employed. Greater neurocognitive impairment was associated with elevated defeatist belief endorsement, higher negative symptom levels, and worse social and vocational functioning. Notably, statistical modeling indicated that defeatist belief endorsements were mediators in the relationship between cognitive impairment and both negative symptoms and functioning. These effects were independent of depression and positive symptom levels. The results add to the emerging biopsychosocial understanding of negative symptoms and introduce defeatist beliefs as a new psychotherapeutic target. PMID:18308717

  1. Carotenoid-rich dietary patterns during midlife and subsequent cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Andreeva, Valentina A; Ducros, Véronique; Jeandel, Claude; Julia, Chantal; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar

    2014-03-14

    Carotenoids may help to prevent the ageing of the brain. Previous findings regarding β-carotene alone are not consistent. In the present study, we evaluated the cross-time association between a carotenoid-rich dietary pattern (CDP) and subsequent cognitive performance using a sample of 2983 middle-aged adults participating in the SU.VI.MAX (Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants) study. Cognitive performance was assessed in 2007-9 using six neuropsychological tests, and a composite cognitive score was computed. The cognitive data were related to dietary data obtained by repeated 24 h dietary records (1994-6) and to measurements of baseline plasma concentrations of carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α-carotene, trans-β-carotene and cis-β-carotene). DP were extracted using the reduced rank regression method for 381 participants and then extrapolated to the whole sample using plasma carotenoid concentrations as response variables. Associations between a CDP and cognitive function measured 13 years later were estimated with ANCOVA providing mean difference values and 95 % CI across the tertiles of CDP. A correlation between CDP and consumption of orange- and green-coloured fruits and vegetables, vegetable oils and soup was observed. CDP was found to be associated with a higher composite cognitive score (mean difference 1·04, 95 % CI 0·20, 1·87, P for trend 0·02), after adjustment for sociodemographic, lifestyle and health factors. Similar findings were obtained for scores obtained in the cued recall task, backward digit span task, trail making test and semantic fluency task (all P for trend < 0·05). Further studies ought to confirm whether a diet providing sufficient quantity and variety of coloured fruits and vegetables may contribute to the preservation of cognitive function during ageing. PMID:24073964

  2. Serum folate, vitamin B-12 and cognitive function in middle and older age: The HAPIEE study

    PubMed Central

    Horvat, Pia; Gardiner, Julian; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Schöttker, Ben; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Jansen, Eugene; Bobak, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Nutrient status of B vitamins, particularly folate and vitamin B-12, may be related to cognitive ageing but epidemiological evidence remains inconclusive. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the association of serum folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations with cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults from three Central and Eastern European populations. Methods Men and women aged 45–69 at baseline participating in the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study were recruited in Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six urban centres in the Czech Republic. Tests of immediate and delayed recall, verbal fluency and letter search were administered at baseline and repeated in 2006–2008. Serum concentrations of biomarkers at baseline were measured in a sub-sample of participants. Associations of vitamin quartiles with baseline (n = 4166) and follow-up (n = 2739) cognitive domain-specific z-scores were estimated using multiple linear regression. Results After adjusting for confounders, folate was positively associated with letter search and vitamin B-12 with word recall in cross-sectional analyses. In prospective analyses, participants in the highest quartile of folate had higher verbal fluency (p < 0.01) and immediate recall (p < 0.05) scores compared to those in the bottom quartile. In addition, participants in the highest quartile of vitamin B-12 had significantly higher verbal fluency scores (β = 0.12; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21). Conclusions Folate and vitamin B-12 were positively associated with performance in some but not all cognitive domains in older Central and Eastern Europeans. These findings do not lend unequivocal support to potential importance of folate and vitamin B-12 status for cognitive function in older age. Long-term longitudinal studies and randomised trials are required before drawing conclusions on the role of these vitamins in cognitive decline. PMID:26808046

  3. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination-Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The "MFDF" dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the "WNC" dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults. PMID:26035243

  4. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination–Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The “MFDF” dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the “WNC” dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44–0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults. PMID:26035243

  5. Sustaining multiple ecosystem functions in grassland communities requires higher biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Zavaleta, Erika S; Pasari, Jae R; Hulvey, Kristin B; Tilman, G David

    2010-01-26

    Society places value on the multiple functions of ecosystems from soil fertility to erosion control to wildlife-carrying capacity, and these functions are potentially threatened by ongoing biodiversity losses. Recent empirically based models using individual species' traits suggest that higher species richness is required to provide multiple ecosystem functions. However, no study to date has analyzed the observed functionality of communities of interacting species over multiple temporal scales to assess the relationship between biodiversity and multifunctionality. We use data from the longest-running biodiversity-functioning field experiment to date to test how species diversity affects the ability of grassland ecosystems to provide threshold levels of up to eight ecosystem functions simultaneously. Across years and every combination of ecosystem functions, minimum-required species richness consistently increases with the number of functions considered. Moreover, tradeoffs between functions and variability among years prevent any one community type from providing high levels of multiple functions, regardless of its diversity. Sustained multifunctionality, therefore, likely requires both higher species richness than single ecosystem functionality and a diversity of species assemblages across the landscape. PMID:20080690

  6. Difference in nutritional risk between mild cognitive impairment group and normal cognitive function elderly group.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Soo; Hong, Chang Hyung; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Oh, Byoung Hoon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate the difference in nutritional risk between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) groups and normal cognitive function (NCF) elderly groups in the community. Data obtained from 490 subjects (237 NCF elderly and 253 MCI subjects) between 60 and 90 years of age were analyzed. The study protocol comprised demographic characteristics, history of current and past illnesses, drug history, Korean version of short-form Geriatric Depression Scale (K-SGDS), and nutritional screening initiative (NSI) checklist. Cognitive function was assessed by digit span, Korean short version of Boston naming test (K-BNT), simple Rey figure test, auditory verbal learning test (AVLT), controlled oral word association test (COWAT), stroop, go-no go, and contrasting program. Also, we examined the blood pressure, fasting serum glucose level, lipid profile, body mass index (BMI), and ApoE genotype. Multiple logistic regression analysis found that MCI was associated with moderate or high nutritional risk after adjustment for age, sex, educational level, and K-SGDS score (odds ratio (OR)=1.13, 95%; confidence interval (CI)=1.01-1.26). These results suggest that MCI may be associated with nutritional risk. Screening for nutritional risk should be included in multidimensional geriatric evaluation. PMID:18524396

  7. Testing for cognitive function in animals in a regulatory context.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Superior cognitive functions have allowed the human species to proliferate in a world of incredible biological diversity. Threats to these essential capacities cannot be ignored, and a strategy is needed to evaluate the hazard posed by exposure to chemical and other agents. Because people exposed to chemicals often complain about confusion and forgetfulness, it is commonly thought that cognitive functions should be sensitive indicators of adverse consequences of chemical exposure. For these reasons, complex tests of cognitive function have been developed and deployed in experimental animal laboratories for decades. However, the results of these tests are rarely used as points of departure for chemical risk assessments. Due to their high cost in time, animals, and equipment, the efficacy and utility of these tests need to be evaluated in relation to cheaper and faster whole-animal screening methods. This review examines evidence for the assertions that cognitive functions represent uniquely sensitive indicators of chemical exposure, and that animal models of these functions are necessary to detect and quantify the neurotoxicity of chemicals. Studies conducted since the early 1980s to compare these approaches to assess the neurotoxicity of chemicals are reviewed for both adult and perinatal exposures in experimental rodents. Forty-one studies of 35 chemicals were found that directly compared acute effects using complex tests (i.e., tests that require training animals) with acute effects using screening tests (i.e., tests that do not require training animals) in adult rodents. Complex tests detected effects of three substances (bitertanol, iso-amyl nitrite, and Pfiesteria toxin) that had no effect on screening tests; for an additional five chemicals (carbaryl, deltamethrin, methyl mercury, tetraethyl tin, and Isopar-C), complex tests identified effects at lower doses than did screening tests. Fewer comparable cases were found for developmental exposures: screening and

  8. Posterior Teeth Occlusion Associated with Cognitive Function in Nursing Home Older Residents: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Kenji; Izumi, Maya; Furuta, Michiko; Takeshita, Toru; Shibata, Yukie; Kageyama, Shinya; Ganaha, Seijun; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Early detection and subsequent reduction of modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline is important for extending healthy life expectancy in the currently aging society. Although a recent increase in studies on the state or number of the teeth and cognitive function, few studies have focused on the association between posterior teeth occlusion necessary to maintain chewing function and cognitive function among older adults. This study examined the association between posterior teeth occlusion and cognitive function in nursing home older residents. In this cross-sectional study, 279 residents aged ≥60 years from eight nursing homes in Aso City, Japan participated in cognitive function and dental status assessments and completed a comprehensive questionnaire survey in 2014. Cognitive function was measured using a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Posterior teeth occlusion was assessed using a total number of functional tooth units (total-FTUs), depending on the number and location of the remaining natural and artificial teeth on implant-supported, fixed, and removable prostheses. Linear regression models were used to assess univariate and multivariate associations between total-FTUs and MMSE scores. Models were sequentially adjusted for demographic characteristics, number of natural teeth, socioeconomic status, health behaviors, comorbidities, physical function, and nutritional status. Among the 200 residents included in our analysis, mean MMSE scores and total-FTUs were 11.0 ± 8.6 and 9.3 ± 4.6, respectively. Higher total-FTUs were significantly associated with higher MMSE scores after adjustment for demographics and teeth number (B = 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.22-0.74). The association remained significant even after adjustment for all covariates (B = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.01-0.49). The current findings demonstrated that loss of posterior teeth occlusion was independently associated with cognitive decline in nursing home older residents in Japan

  9. Impact of Controlled Induced Hypotension on Cognitive Functions of Patients Undergoing Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Stanislaw; Oldak, Anna; Kluzik, Anna; Drobnik, Leon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Controlled induced hypotension guarantees less blood loss and better visibility of the surgical site. The impact of hypotension on post-operative cognitive functions is still being discussed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of controlled induced hypotension on the cognitive functions of patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We allocated 47 patients with a good grade of preoperative cognitive functions evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination to 3 groups (1 - mild hypotension, 2 - intermediate hypotension, 3 - severe hypotension) according to the degree of mean intraoperative arterial pressure compared with preoperative blood pressure. Cognitive functions were evaluated preoperatively, 6 h, and 30 h postoperatively with standardized tests: the Stroop Test, Trail Making Test (TMT), and Verbal Fluency Test (VFT). A decrease in the test results and increase in the number of mistakes made were considered an impairment of cognitive functions. RESULTS A total of 47 patients (group 1 - mild hypotension - 15, group 2 - intermediate hypotension - 19, group 3 - severe hypotension - 13) were included in the study. A significant decrease was observed in all the 3 groups after Stroop A test 6h postoperatively but it improved 30h postoperatively, without differences between the groups. Neither a significant decrease in the test results nor an increase in the number of mistakes was noted for Stroop B tests, TMT A&B tests and VFT. CONCLUSIONS The degree of controlled intraoperative hypotension during FESS did not influence the results of psychometric tests. PMID:26991989

  10. Oral zinc supplementation may improve cognitive function in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    de Moura, José Edson; de Moura, Edna Nubia Oliveira; Alves, Camila Xavier; Vale, Sancha Helena de Lima; Dantas, Márcia Marília Gomes; Silva, Alfredo de Araújo; Almeida, Maria das Graças; Leite, Lúcia Dantas; Brandão-Neto, José

    2013-10-01

    Zinc is an important micronutrient for humans, and zinc deficiency among schoolchildren is deleterious to growth and development, immune competence, and cognitive function. However, the effect of zinc supplementation on cognitive function remains poorly understood. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral zinc supplementation (5 mg Zn/day for 3 months) on the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal Intelligence Quotient (VIQ), and Performance Intelligence Quotient (PIQ) using a Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III). We studied 36 schoolchildren aged 6 to 9 years (7.8 ± 1.1) using a nonprobability sampling method. The baseline serum zinc concentrations increased significantly after zinc supplementation (p < 0.0001), with no difference between sexes. Tests were administered under basal conditions before and after zinc supplementation, and there was no difference in FSIQ according to gender or age. The results demonstrated that zinc improved the VIQ only in the Information Subtest (p = 0.009), although the supplementation effects were more significant in relation to the PIQ, as these scores improved for the Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement, Block Design, and Object Assembly Subtests (p = 0.0001, for all subtests). In conclusion, zinc supplementation improved specific cognitive abilities, thereby positively influencing the academic performance of schoolchildren, even those without marginal zinc deficiency. PMID:23892699

  11. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    PubMed Central

    Ghayour Najafabadi, Mahboubeh; Rahbar Nikoukar, Laya; Memari, Amir; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Beygi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n = 9) and nonfasting (n = 8) groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan). Digit span test (DST) and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p < 0.05). Interference indices did not change significantly across the study except in post-Ramadan period of fasting group (p < 0.05). Group × week interaction was significant only for error numbers (p < 0.05). Athletes in nonfasting showed a significant decrease in number of errors in Ramadan compared to baseline (p < 0.05). The results suggest that Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes. PMID:26697263

  12. Is Prospective Memory a Dissociable Cognitive Function in HIV infection?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh; Woods, Steven Paul; Weber, Erica; Dawson, Matthew S.; Grant, Igor

    2010-01-01

    An emerging literature indicates that HIV infection is associated with deficits in prospective memory (ProM), or the ability to execute a future intention. This literature offers evidence of neurobiological dissociability of ProM from other cognitive abilities and its incremental ecological validity as a predictor of poorer everyday functioning outcomes (e.g., medication non-adherence). The present study evaluated the hypothesis that ProM represents a unique cognitive construct in HIV disease. A confirmatory 4-factor structural equation model was tested on data derived from 162 participants with HIV. The model posited that measures of ProM comprise a unique factor, apart from standard clinical tests of retrospective memory, executive functions, and motor skills. The fit of the model was evaluated using the Bollen-Stine bootstrap method and indicated a 4-factor model with measures of ProM loading on a unique factor fit the data well, and better than a model with a single common factor hypothesized to drive cognitive performance. The results of this study lend further evidence to the dissociability of ProM in HIV infection, are consistent with prior studies in healthy adults, and contribute to a growing literature on the construct validity of ProM in HIV disease. PMID:20425662

  13. Functional MRI in investigating cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rocca, M A; De Meo, E; Filippi, M

    2016-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that the severity of the clinical manifestations of multiple sclerosis (MS) does not simply result from the extent of tissue destruction, but it rather represents a complex balance between tissue damage, tissue repair, and cortical reorganization. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides information about the plasticity of the human brain. Therefore, it has the potential to provide important pieces of information about brain reorganization following MS-related structural damage. When investigating cognitive systems, fMRI changes have been described in virtually all patients with MS and different clinical phenotypes. These functional changes have been related to the extent of brain damage within and outside T2-visible lesions as well as to the involvement of specific central nervous system structures. It has also been suggested that a maladaptive recruitment of specific brain regions might be associated with the appearance of clinical symptoms in MS, such as fatigue and cognitive impairment. fMRI studies from clinically (and cognitively) impaired MS patients may be influenced by different task performances between patients and controls. As a consequence, new strategies have been introduced to assess the role, if any, of brain reorganization in severely impaired patients, including the analysis of resting-state networks. The enhancement of any beneficial effects of this brain adaptive plasticity should be considered as a potential target of therapy for MS. PMID:27580905

  14. Clinical, Functional, and Biological Correlates of Cognitive Dimensions in Major Depressive Disorder - Rationale, Design, and Characteristics of the Cognitive Function and Mood Study (CoFaM-Study).

    PubMed

    Baune, Bernhard T; Air, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies exploring clinical, functional, and biological correlates of major depressive disorder are frequent. In this type of research, depression is most commonly defined as a categorical diagnosis based on studies using diagnostic instruments. Given the phenotypic and biological heterogeneity of depression, we chose to focus the phenotypic assessments on three cognitive dimensions of depression including (a) cognitive performance, (b) emotion processing, and (c) social cognitive functioning. Hence, the overall aim of the study is to investigate the long-term clinical course of these cognitive dimensions in depression and its functional (psychosocial) correlates. We also aim to identify biological "genomic" correlates of these three cognitive dimensions of depression. To address the above overall aim, we created the Cognition and Mood Study (CoFaMS) with the key objective to investigate the clinical, functional, and biological correlates of cognitive dimensions of depression by employing a prospective study design and including a healthy control group. The study commenced in April 2015, including patients with a primary diagnosis of a major depressive episode of major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. The assessments cover the three cognitive dimensions of depression (cognitive performance, emotion processing, and social cognition), cognitive function screening instrument, plus functional scales to assess general, work place, and psychosocial function, depression symptom scales, and clinical course of illness. Blood is collected for comprehensive genomic discovery analyses of biological correlates of cognitive dimensions of depression. The CoFaM-Study represents an innovative approach focusing on cognitive dimensions of depression and its functional and biological "genomic" correlates. The CoFaMS team welcomes collaborations with both national and international researchers. PMID:27616997

  15. Physical Activity and Cognitive Function in the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spirduso, Waneen W.; Asplund, Lesli A.

    1995-01-01

    A relationship between physical fitness and cognition has been difficult to document. The paper describes cognition and examines the effects of aging on cognition, the fitness-cognition relationship hypothesis, difficulties in determining the fitness-cognition relationship, and the current status of the relationship. (SM)

  16. NMDA Receptor Function During Senescence: Implication on Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, a family of L-glutamate receptors, play an important role in learning and memory, and are critical for spatial memory. These receptors are tetrameric ion channels composed of a family of related subunits. One of the hallmarks of the aging human population is a decline in cognitive function; studies in the past couple of years have demonstrated deterioration in NMDA receptor subunit expression and function with advancing age. However, a direct relationship between impaired memory function and a decline in NMDA receptors is still ambiguous. Recent studies indicate a link between an age-associated NMDA receptor hypofunction and memory impairment and provide evidence that age-associated enhanced oxidative stress might be contributing to the alterations associated with senescence. However, clear evidence is still deficient in demonstrating the underlying mechanisms and a relationship between age-associated impaired cognitive faculties and NMDA receptor hypofunction. The current review intends to present an overview of the research findings regarding changes in expression of various NMDA receptor subunits and deficits in NMDA receptor function during senescence and its implication in age-associated impaired hippocampal-dependent memory function. PMID:26732087

  17. Sprint-based exercise and cognitive function in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Simon B; Bandelow, Stephan; Nute, Maria L; Dring, Karah J; Stannard, Rebecca L; Morris, John G; Nevill, Mary E

    2016-12-01

    Moderate intensity exercise has been shown to enhance cognition in an adolescent population, yet the effect of high-intensity sprint-based exercise remains unknown and was therefore examined in the present study. Following ethical approval and familiarisation, 44 adolescents (12.6 ± 0.6 y) completed an exercise (E) and resting (R) trial in a counter-balanced, randomised crossover design. The exercise trial comprised of 10 × 10 s running sprints, interspersed by 50 s active recovery (walking). A battery of cognitive function tests (Stroop, Digit Symbol Substitution (DSST) and Corsi blocks tests) were completed 30 min pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise and 45 min post-exercise. Data were analysed using mixed effect models with repeated measures. Response times on the simple level of the Stroop test were significantly quicker 45 min following sprint-based exercise (R: 818 ± 33 ms, E: 772 ± 26 ms; p = 0.027) and response times on the complex level of the Stroop test were quicker immediately following the sprint-based exercise (R: 1095 ± 36 ms, E: 1043 ± 37 ms; p = 0.038), while accuracy was maintained. Sprint-based exercise had no immediate or delayed effects on the number of items recalled on the Corsi blocks test (p = 0.289) or substitutions made during the DSST (p = 0.689). The effect of high intensity sprint-based exercise on adolescents' cognitive function was dependant on the component of cognitive function examined. Executive function was enhanced following exercise, demonstrated by improved response times on the Stroop test, whilst visuo-spatial memory and general psycho-motor speed were unaffected. These data support the inclusion of high-intensity sprint-based exercise for adolescents during the school day to enhance cognition. PMID:27413677

  18. Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis. From Genes to Cognition

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aimone, J. B.; Li, Y.; Lee, S. W.; Clemenson, G. D.; Deng, W.; Gage, F. H.

    2014-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. Our review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages ofmore » maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. Furthermore, the increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders.« less

  19. Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis. From Genes to Cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Aimone, J. B.; Li, Y.; Lee, S. W.; Clemenson, G. D.; Deng, W.; Gage, F. H.

    2014-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. Our review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages of maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. Furthermore, the increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders.

  20. Does Vitamin C Deficiency Affect Cognitive Development and Function?

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(−/−) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies. PMID:25244370

  1. Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis: From Genes to Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Aimone, James B.; Li, Yan; Lee, Star W.; Clemenson, Gregory D.; Deng, Wei; Gage, Fred H.

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. This review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages of maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. The increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders. PMID:25287858

  2. Functional neuroimaging of Social and Nonsocial Cognitive Control in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Sabatino, Antoinette; Rittenberg, Alison; Sasson, Noah J.; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Bodfish, James W.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated cognitive control of social and nonsocial information in autism using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and a neurotypical control group completed an oddball target detection task where target stimuli were either faces or nonsocial objects previously shown to be related to circumscribed interests in autism. The ASD group demonstrated relatively increased activation to social targets in right insular cortex and in left superior frontal gyrus and relatively decreased activation to nonsocial targets related to circumscribed interests in multiple frontostriatal brain regions. Findings suggest that frontostriatal recruitment during cognitive control in ASD is contingent on stimulus type, with increased activation for social stimuli and decreased activation for nonsocial stimuli related to circumscribed interests. PMID:23636715

  3. Cognitive Function During Nicotine Withdrawal: Implications for Nicotine Dependence Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ashare, Rebecca L.; Falcone, Mary; Lerman, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine withdrawal is associated with deficits in neurocognitive function including sustained attention, working memory, and response inhibition. Several convergent lines of evidence suggest that these deficits may represent a core dependence phenotype and a target for treatment development efforts. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying withdrawal-related cognitive deficits may lead to improve nicotine dependence treatment. We begin with an overview of the neurocognitive effects of withdrawal in rodent and human models, followed by discussion of the neurobehavioral mechanisms that are thought to underlie these effects. We then review individual differences in withdrawal-related neurocognitive effects including genetics, gender, and psychiatric comorbidity. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of this research for developing improved therapies, both pharmacotherapy and behavioral treatments, that target cognitive symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. PMID:23639437

  4. The touchscreen operant platform for assessing cognitive functions in a rat model of depression.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thao Phuong; Christensen, Helle Lyng; Bertelsen, Freja Cecilia Brandt; Bouzinova, Elena; Møller, Arne; Wiborg, Ove

    2016-07-01

    In the present study we assessed alterations in cognitive functions in a chronic mild stress (CMS) rat model of depression. Cognitive functions were assessed in two different tasks applying the translational operant platform touchscreen technology; the visual discrimination/acquisition task was used to assess the ability to perceive and distinguish visual stimuli and to assess associative stimulus-reward learning. The visual discrimination/reversal learning task was used to assess functional brain plasticity or reprogramming of previously acquired stimulus-reward associations. These tasks permit the dissociation of multiple cognitive domains. The CMS model is a validated depression model with the useful feature that rats upon stress exposure show a graduated, individual stress response allowing the segregation of rats into different phenotypes including stress-resilient and anhedonic-like subgroups. Anhedonic-like rats are less likely to acquire the pairwise discrimination task, and they have a slower acquisition rate than controls. In the reversal learning task, resilient rats performed significantly better than anhedonic-like rats over time and 50% passed criterion as opposed to 25% for controls and only 14% for anhedonic-like rats. This indicates that resilient rats have higher cognitive flexibility than anhedonic-like rats. Thus they perform better in learning a novel task, which at the same time potentially implies an increased ability to inhibit previously rewarded behavior. PMID:27083126

  5. Cognitive Functioning in Space Exploration Missions: A Human Requirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiedler, Edan; Woolford, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Solving cognitive issues in the exploration missions will require implementing results from both Human Behavior and Performance, and Space Human Factors Engineering. Operational and research cognitive requirements need to reflect a coordinated management approach with appropriate oversight and guidance from NASA headquarters. First, this paper will discuss one proposed management method that would combine the resources of Space Medicine and Space Human Factors Engineering at JSC, other NASA agencies, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Wyle Labs, and other academic or industrial partners. The proposed management is based on a Human Centered Design that advocates full acceptance of the human as a system equal to other systems. Like other systems, the human is a system with many subsystems, each of which has strengths and limitations. Second, this paper will suggest ways to inform exploration policy about what is needed for optimal cognitive functioning of the astronaut crew, as well as requirements to ensure necessary assessment and intervention strategies for the human system if human limitations are reached. Assessment strategies will include clinical evaluation and fitness-to-perform evaluations. Clinical intervention tools and procedures will be available to the astronaut and space flight physician. Cognitive performance will be supported through systematic function allocation, task design, training, and scheduling. Human factors requirements and guidelines will lead to well-designed information displays and retrieval systems that reduce crew time and errors. Means of capturing process, design, and operational requirements to ensure crew performance will be discussed. Third, this paper will describe the current plan of action, and future challenges to be resolved before a lunar or Mars expedition. The presentation will include a proposed management plan for research, involvement of various organizations, and a timetable of deliverables.

  6. The impact of constructivist teaching strategies on the acquisition of higher order cognition and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, Alison Saricks

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative mixed design study was to compare the effectiveness of brain-based teaching strategies versus a traditional lecture format in the acquisition of higher order cognition as determined by test scores. A second purpose was to elicit student feedback about the two teaching approaches. The design was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design study with repeated measures on the last factor. The independent variables were type of student, teaching method, and a within group change over time. Dependent variables were a between group comparison of pre-test, post-test gain scores and a within and between group comparison of course examination scores. A convenience sample of students enrolled in medical-surgical nursing was used. One group (n=36) was made up of traditional students and the other group (n=36) consisted of second-degree students. Four learning units were included in this study. Pre- and post-tests were given on the first two units. Course examinations scores from all four units were compared. In one cohort two of the units were taught via lecture format and two using constructivist activities. These methods were reversed for the other cohort. The conceptual basis for this study derives from neuroscience and cognitive psychology. Learning is defined as the growth of new dendrites. Cognitive psychologists view learning as a constructive activity in which new knowledge is built on an internal foundation of existing knowledge. Constructivist teaching strategies are designed to stimulate the brain's natural learning ability. There was a statistically significant difference based on type of teaching strategy (t = -2.078, df = 270, p = .039, d = .25)) with higher mean scores on the examinations covering brain-based learning units. There was no statistical significance based on type of student. Qualitative data collection was conducted in an on-line forum at the end of the semester. Students had overall positive responses about the

  7. Long-term Cognitive and Functional Effects of Potentially Inappropriate Medications in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. The use of potentially inappropriate medications in older adults can lead to known adverse drug events, but long-term effects are less clear. We therefore conducted a prospective cohort study of older women to determine whether PIM use is associated with risk of functional impairment or low cognitive performance. Methods. We followed up 1,429 community-dwelling women (≥75 years) for a period of 5 years at four clinical sites in the United States. The primary predictor at baseline was PIM use based on 2003 Beers Criteria. We also assessed anticholinergic load using the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden scale. Outcomes included scores on a battery of six cognitive tests at follow-up and having one or more incident impairments in instrumental activities of daily living. Regression models were adjusted for baseline age, race, education, smoking, physical activity, a modified Charlson Comorbidity Index, and cognitive score. Results. The mean ± SD age of women at baseline was 83.2 ± 3.3. In multivariate models, baseline PIM use and higher ACB scores were significantly associated with poorer performance in category fluency (PIM: p = .01; ACB: p = .02) and immediate (PIM: p = .04; ACB: p = .03) and delayed recall (PIM: p = .04). Both PIM use (odds ratio [OR]: 1.36 [1.05–1.75]) and higher ACB scores (OR: 1.11 [1.04–1.19]) were also strongly associated with incident functional impairment. Conclusions. The results provide suggestive evidence that PIM use and increased anticholinergic load may be associated with risk of functional impairment and low cognitive performance. More cautious selection of medications in older adults may reduce these potential risks. PMID:24293516

  8. Sweet Taste Receptor Signaling Network: Possible Implication for Cognitive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Menizibeya O.; Mastorakis, Nikos E.; Pereverzev, Vladimir A.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special “sweet” molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose) regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning. PMID:25653876

  9. Certified normal: Alzheimer's disease biomarkers and normative estimates of cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Hassenstab, Jason; Chasse, Rachel; Grabow, Perri; Benzinger, Tammie L S; Fagan, Anne M; Xiong, Chengjie; Jasielec, Mateusz; Grant, Elizabeth; Morris, John C

    2016-07-01

    Normative samples drawn from older populations may unintentionally include individuals with preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, resulting in reduced means, increased variability, and overestimation of age effects on cognitive performance. A total of 264 cognitively normal (Clinical Dementia Rating = 0) older adults were classified as biomarker negative ("Robust Normal," n = 177) or biomarker positive ("Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease" [PCAD], n = 87) based on amyloid imaging, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, and hippocampal volumes. PCAD participants performed worse than robust normals on nearly all cognitive measures. Removing PCAD participants from the normative sample yielded higher means and less variability on episodic memory, visuospatial ability, and executive functioning measures. These results were more pronounced in participants aged 75 years and older. Notably, removing PCAD participants from the sample significantly reduced age effects across all cognitive domains. Applying norms from the robust normal sample to a separate cohort did not improve Clinical Dementia Rating classification when using standard deviation cutoff scores. Overall, removing individuals with biomarker evidence of preclinical AD improves normative sample quality and substantially reduces age effects on cognitive performance but provides no substantive benefit for diagnostic classifications. PMID:27255812

  10. School and Cognitive Functioning Problems in Adolescent Bariatric Surgery Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Freidl, Eve Khlyavich; Sysko, Robyn; Devlin, Michael J.; Zitsman, Jeffrey L.; Kaplan, Simona C.; Timothy Walsh, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior studies have found that students with overweight and obesity have impairments in performance IQ and executive function, and worse school functioning in comparison to normal weight peers. Objectives The current study assessed school and cognitive functioning in a sample of adolescents with severe obesity being evaluated for laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Setting: Psychiatry Department, University Medical Center, United States. Methods Eligible candidates for bariatric surgery were referred for psychiatric evaluation which included a semi-structured clinical interview measuring school functioning and the vocabulary and matrix reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). Results Self-reported school problems were common, with 55.5% of adolescents failing a grade or subject, 38.7% attending summer school, and 17.8% failing a citywide exam. A significant relationship was observed between body mass index (BMI),estimated WASI IQ(r= −0.250, p=0.005), and the vocabulary subtest (r= −0.241, p=0.006), but not matrix reasoning (r= −0.126, p=NS). Conclusions Even among a sample of adolescents with severe obesity, increased BMI was associated with lower WASI IQ and vocabulary subtest scores. Increasing awareness of potential cognitive and school problems in bariatric candidates among teachers, school counselors, and other mental health providers is an important first step to improving academic support and educational systems deficiencies for students with overweight and obesity. PMID:23932993

  11. The Early Indicators of Functional Decrease in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Kubicki, Alexandre; Fautrelle, Lilian; Bourrelier, Julien; Rouaud, Olivier; Mourey, France

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Motor deficiency is associated with cognitive frailty in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairments (MCI). In this study we aimed to test the integrity in muscle synergies involved in an arm-pointing movement in functionally unimpaired MCI patients. We hypothesized that early motor indicators exist in this population at a preclinical level. Methods: Electromyographic signals were collected for 11 muscles in 3 groups: Young Adults (YA), Older Adults (OA), and MCI patients. The OA and MCI groups presented the same functional status. Each subject performed 20 arm-pointing movements from a standing position. Results: The main differences were (1) an earlier activation of the left Obliquus internus in MCI compared with OA group, (2) an earlier activation for the MCI compared with both OA and YA. The temporal differences in muscle synergies between MCI and OA groups were linked with executive functions of MCI patients, assessed by the trail making test. Moreover, the results show a delayed activation of the right Biceps Femoris and the right Erector Spinae at l3 in MCI and OA compared with YA. Interpretation: The motor program changes highlighted in our patient MCI group suggest that discrete modifications of the motor command seem to exist even in the absence of functional impairment. Instead of showing an indication of delayed muscle activation in the MCI patients, our results highlight some early activation of several trunk muscles. PMID:27570509

  12. Brief Report: Social and Communication Abilities and Disabilities in Higher Functioning Individuals with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saulnier, Celine A.; Klin, Ami

    2007-01-01

    Individuals with higher functioning autism (HFA) fail to translate their cognitive potential into real-life adaptation, and the severity of their symptoms is considerable despite their intellectual ability. This paper reports on a subsample from a larger study (A. Klin et al., in press) analyzed here by autism spectrum subtypes. It focuses on the…

  13. Higher-order automatic differentiation of mathematical functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, Isabelle; Dal Cappello, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Functions of mathematical physics such as the Bessel functions, the Chebyshev polynomials, the Gauss hypergeometric function and so forth, have practical applications in many scientific domains. On the one hand, differentiation formulas provided in reference books apply to real or complex variables. These do not account for the chain rule. On the other hand, based on the chain rule, the automatic differentiation has become a natural tool in numerical modeling. Nevertheless automatic differentiation tools do not deal with the numerous mathematical functions. This paper describes formulas and provides codes for the higher-order automatic differentiation of mathematical functions. The first method is based on Faà di Bruno's formula that generalizes the chain rule. The second one makes use of the second order differential equation they satisfy. Both methods are exemplified with the aforementioned functions.

  14. Cognitive Function and Quality of Life in Community-Dwelling Seniors with Mild Cognitive Impairment in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hua-Tsen; Li, Shu-Ying; Yang, Ya-Ping; Lin, Linda L; Lin, Sang-I; Wang, Jing-Jy

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the relationships between overall cognitive function and the quality of life (QOL) domains, and to compare the differences in these by age, gender, and educational level in community-dwelling seniors in Taiwan. A cross-sectional study was conducted, with the participants screened and recruited from Southern Tainan. The Saint Louis University Mental Status Examination was used to screen the cognitive status of the participants. A total of 144 seniors participated in this study were assessed using the Taiwanese version of WHOQOL-BREF. The results showed that the participants performed better in the cognitive domains of "figure identification" and "orientation" while they performed poor in "delayed recall" and "immediate paragraph recall". No significant relationship between cognitive function and overall QOL, but a positive relationship between cognitive function and the physical health domain of QOL was found. The findings of this study provide valuable information for community healthcare providers. PMID:26993652

  15. PTEN recruitment controls synaptic and cognitive function in Alzheimer's models.

    PubMed

    Knafo, Shira; Sánchez-Puelles, Cristina; Palomer, Ernest; Delgado, Igotz; Draffin, Jonathan E; Mingo, Janire; Wahle, Tina; Kaleka, Kanwardeep; Mou, Liping; Pereda-Perez, Inmaculada; Klosi, Edvin; Faber, Erik B; Chapman, Heidi M; Lozano-Montes, Laura; Ortega-Molina, Ana; Ordóñez-Gutiérrez, Lara; Wandosell, Francisco; Viña, Jose; Dotti, Carlos G; Hall, Randy A; Pulido, Rafael; Gerges, Nashaat Z; Chan, Andrew M; Spaller, Mark R; Serrano, Manuel; Venero, César; Esteban, José A

    2016-03-01

    Dyshomeostasis of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is responsible for synaptic malfunctions leading to cognitive deficits ranging from mild impairment to full-blown dementia in Alzheimer's disease. Aβ appears to skew synaptic plasticity events toward depression. We found that inhibition of PTEN, a lipid phosphatase that is essential to long-term depression, rescued normal synaptic function and cognition in cellular and animal models of Alzheimer's disease. Conversely, transgenic mice that overexpressed PTEN displayed synaptic depression that mimicked and occluded Aβ-induced depression. Mechanistically, Aβ triggers a PDZ-dependent recruitment of PTEN into the postsynaptic compartment. Using a PTEN knock-in mouse lacking the PDZ motif, and a cell-permeable interfering peptide, we found that this mechanism is crucial for Aβ-induced synaptic toxicity and cognitive dysfunction. Our results provide fundamental information on the molecular mechanisms of Aβ-induced synaptic malfunction and may offer new mechanism-based therapeutic targets to counteract downstream Aβ signaling. PMID:26780512

  16. Cognitive functioning after pallidotomy for refractory Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Perrine, K.; Dogali, M.; Fazzini, E.; Sterio, D.; Kolodny, E.; Eidelberg, D.; Devinsky, O.; Beric, A.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Earlier approaches to pallidotomy for refractory Parkinson's disease had significant complication rates. More recent approaches show fewer complications, but the effect of pallidotomy on cognition is unclear. The current study was conducted to examine the neuropsychological effects of unilateral pallidotomy.
METHODS—Neuropsychological testing was performed on patients with medically refractory, predominantly unilateral Parkinson's disease at baseline and after unilateral ventral pallidotomy (n=28) or after an equivalent period without surgery in control patients (n=10).
RESULTS—Pallidotomy patients showed no significant changes from baseline to retesting relative to the control group for any measure. Across all of the tests administered, only five of the surgery patients showed a significant decline, and of these five none declined on more than one test. Depression did not relate to preoperative or postoperative cognition. The pallidotomy group showed a significant improvement in motor functioning and activities of daily living whereas the control group did not. These measures were not associated with the neuropsychological test scores at baseline or retest.
CONCLUSIONS—Stereotactic unilateral ventral pallidotomy does not seem to produce dramatic cognitive declines in most patients.

 PMID:9703163

  17. Journey into the Problem-Solving Process: Cognitive Functions in a PBL Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chua, B. L.; Tan, O. S.; Liu, W. C.

    2016-01-01

    In a PBL environment, learning results from learners engaging in cognitive processes pivotal in the understanding or resolution of the problem. Using Tan's cognitive function disc, this study examines the learner's perceived cognitive functions at each stage of PBL, as facilitated by the PBL schema. The results suggest that these learners…

  18. Cognitive Function in Childhood and Lifetime Cognitive Change in Relation to Mental Wellbeing in Four Cohorts of Older People

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Catharine R.; Cooper, Rachel; Craig, Leone; Elliott, Jane; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus; Starr, John M.; Whalley, Lawrence J.; Deary, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Poorer cognitive ability in youth is a risk factor for later mental health problems but it is largely unknown whether cognitive ability, in youth or in later life, is predictive of mental wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cognitive ability at age 11 years, cognitive ability in later life, or lifetime cognitive change are associated with mental wellbeing in older people. Methods We used data on 8191 men and women aged 50 to 87 years from four cohorts in the HALCyon collaborative research programme into healthy ageing: the Aberdeen Birth Cohort 1936, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921, the National Child Development Survey, and the MRC National Survey for Health and Development. We used linear regression to examine associations between cognitive ability at age 11, cognitive ability in later life, and lifetime change in cognitive ability and mean score on the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale and meta-analysis to obtain an overall estimate of the effect of each. Results People whose cognitive ability at age 11 was a standard deviation above the mean scored 0.53 points higher on the mental wellbeing scale (95% confidence interval 0.36, 0.71). The equivalent value for cognitive ability in later life was 0.89 points (0.72, 1.07). A standard deviation improvement in cognitive ability in later life relative to childhood ability was associated with 0.66 points (0.39, 0.93) advantage in wellbeing score. These effect sizes equate to around 0.1 of a standard deviation in mental wellbeing score. Adjustment for potential confounding and mediating variables, primarily the personality trait neuroticism, substantially attenuated these associations. Conclusion Associations between cognitive ability in childhood or lifetime cognitive change and mental wellbeing in older people are slight and may be confounded by personality trait differences. PMID:22970320

  19. Education and Physical Activity Mediate the Relationship between Ethnicity and Cognitive Function in Late Middle Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Masel, Meredith C.; Raji, Mukaila; Peek, M. Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Objective Minority status has been implicated as a risk factor for disparate scores on cognitive function tests in older adults. Research on ethnicity and cognitive function has yielded socioeconomic status (SES), particularly education, as a primary reason for the discrepancy. Other factors, such as physical activity may provide insight into the relationship. Despite this knowledge, few studies have thoroughly examined the mediating characteristics of education or physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function in younger aged groups. Most research conducted focuses only on older adults during a time when degeneration of brain tissue may complicate the exploration of the relationships among ethnicity and cognitive function. The current research will expand existing knowledge about education, physical activity, and cognitive function in minority groups. Design The study presents data from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults (n=9,204, mean age +-sd=55.8+-3.1). Regression and mediation testing determined the mediating effects of education and physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function. Results Significant association between white ethnicity and higher scores on cognitive tests was evident as early as late middle age. The magnitude of the association significantly diminished on adjusting for education and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion Our data suggest a potential mediating role of education and physical activity on the ethnic differences in cognitive tests in late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults. Our findings suggest a need for studies to understand if adult education and culturally-appropriate physical activity interventions in middle age influence ethnic disparities in prevalence of cognitive impairment in old age. PMID:20401816

  20. Functions of Boards of Trustees in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Higher Education, Newark, NJ. Middle States Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools.

    Many different kinds of structure and procedures characterize the governing boards of American institutions of higher education. A board's effectiveness does not depend on adherence to any particular pattern but on the clear understanding of its function and acceptance of responsibility for it. This document presents some primary aspects of the…

  1. Structural brain differences and cognitive functioning related to body mass index in older females.

    PubMed

    Walther, Katrin; Birdsill, Alex C; Glisky, Elizabeth L; Ryan, Lee

    2010-07-01

    Little is known about the effect of obesity on brain structures and cognition in healthy older adults. This study examined the association between body mass index (BMI), regional volume differences in gray and white matter measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cognitive functioning in older females. Participants included 95 community-dwelling older females (ages 52-92 years) who underwent extensive neuropsychological testing and high-resolution MRI scanning. Optimized voxel-based morphometry techniques were employed to determine the correlation between BMI and regional gray and white matter volumes. Volumes of significant regions were then correlated with cognitive functioning. Higher BMI was associated with decreased gray matter volumes in the left orbitofrontal, right inferior frontal, and right precentral gyri, a right posterior region including the parahippocampal, fusiform, and lingual gyri, and right cerebellar regions, as well as increased volumes of white matter in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes, even when hypertension was considered. Compared to normal weight women, obese women performed poorer on tests of executive functioning. Smaller gray matter volume in the left orbitofrontal region was associated with lower executive functioning. Additionally, despite the lack of significant group differences in memory and visuomotor speed, gray and white matter volumes predicted performance on these measures. The results provide additional evidence for a negative link between increased body fat and brain functioning in older females. PMID:19998366

  2. [Cognitive and linguistic abilities of a boy with PVL showing relatively higher VIQ compared to PIQ].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Yukako; Natsume, Jun; Nakamura, Miho

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the cognitive processing and language abilities of a 13-year-old boy with moderate periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), spastic diplegia and exotropia who had discrepant scores in the verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ) and performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) in the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, third edition (VIQ; 82 > PIQ; under 40). In the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children and Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System, his performance was poor at simultaneous processing compared to sequential processing. He could not copy three-dimensional figures, and he could place only two out of eight blocks correctly in the second level models of Benton three-dimensional block construction test, showing visuospatial impairment typical of patients with PVL. Despite the relatively high score in VIQ, there was a gap among the scores of the subtests in the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. He tended to get low scores in tests that required visual abilities. In addition, there was also an impairment in reading fluency tested by the Diagnostic Criteria and Medical Guideline for Specific Developmental Disorders. He was much less fluent in reading syllables, words or sentences (6.0 SD or more compared to 12-year-old boys). The relatively higher score in VIQ superficially suggests adequate language ability. However, in the present study, precise investigation revealed some discrepancies even within the field of language. Thus, defining stronger and weaker points of a patient is important in order to determine optimal medical or educational approaches. PMID:26502654

  3. Alcohol Consumption and Domain-Specific Cognitive Function in Older Adults: Longitudinal Data From the Johns Hopkins Precursors Study

    PubMed Central

    Rebok, George W.; Ford, Daniel E.; Chu, Audrey Y.; Gallo, Joseph J.; Liang, Kung-Yee; Meoni, Lucy A.; Shihab, Hasan M.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Klag, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The association of alcohol consumption with performance in different cognitive domains has not been well studied. Methods. The Johns Hopkins Precursors Study was used to examine associations between prospectively collected information about alcohol consumption ascertained on multiple occasions starting at age 55 years on average with domain-specific cognition at age 72 years. Cognitive variables measured phonemic and semantic fluency, attention, verbal memory, and global cognition. Results. Controlling for age, hypertension, smoking status, sex, and other cognitive variables, higher average weekly quantity and frequency of alcohol consumed in midlife were associated with lower phonemic fluency. There were no associations with four other measures of cognitive function. With respect to frequency of alcohol intake, phonemic fluency was significantly better among those who drank three to four alcoholic beverages per week as compared with daily or almost daily drinkers. A measure of global cognition was not associated with alcohol intake at any point over the follow-up. Discussion. Results suggest that higher alcohol consumption in midlife may impair some components of executive function in late life. PMID:20937708

  4. Optimized higher-order automatic differentiation for the Faddeeva function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, Isabelle

    2016-08-01

    Considerable research efforts have been directed at implementing the Faddeeva function w(z) and its derivatives with respect to z, but these did not consider the key computing issue of a possible dependence of z on some variable t. The general case is to differentiate the compound function w(z(t)) = w ∘ z(t) with respect to t by applying the chain rule for a first order derivative, or Faà di Bruno's formula for higher-order ones. Higher-order automatic differentiation (HOAD) is an efficient and accurate technique for derivative calculation along scientific computing codes. Although codes are available for w(z) , a special symbolic HOAD is required to compute accurate higher-order derivatives for w ∘ z(t) in an efficient manner. A thorough evaluation is carried out considering a nontrivial case study in optics to support this assertion.

  5. Environmental lead exposure and children’s cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    CANFIELD, R. L.; JUSKO, T. A.; KORDAS, K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent research has substantially increased knowledge about the effects of low-level lead exposure on children’s neurobehavioral development. This update article focuses on two specific areas of recent research: low-level effects on cognitive function, and results from experimental and observational studies designed to prevent or reverse the damaging effects of lead on intellectual development, either through chelation therapy or micronutrient supplementation. Taken as a whole, these studies suggest that there is no safe level of lead exposure for young children and, although small, these effects are enduring and possibly permanent. PMID:26660292

  6. Regional cortical volume and cognitive functioning following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Gershon; Bigler, Erin D; Abildskov, Tracy; Maller, Jerome J; O'Sullivan, Richard; Ponsford, Jennie L

    2013-10-01

    There has been limited examination of the effect of brain pathology on subsequent function. The current study examined the relationships between regional variation in grey matter volume, age and cognitive impairment using a semi-automated image analysis tool. This study included 69 individuals with mild-to-severe TBI, 41 of whom also completed neuropsychological tests of attention, working memory, processing speed, memory and executive functions. A widespread reduction in grey matter volume was associated with increasing age. Regional volumes that were affected also related to the severity of injury, whereby the most severe TBI participants displayed the most significant pathology. Poorer retention of newly learned material was associated with reduced cortical volume in frontal, parietal, and occipital brain regions. In addition, poorer working memory and executive control performance was found for individuals with lower cortical volume in temporal, parietal, and occipital regions. These findings are largely in line with previous literature, which suggests that frontal, temporal, and parietal regions are integral for the encoding of memories into long-term storage, memory retrieval, and working memory. The present study suggests that automated image analysis methods may be used to explore the relationships between regional variation in grey matter volume and cognitive function following TBI. PMID:23872098

  7. Effects of missing breakfast on the cognitive functions of school children of differing nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Simeon, D T; Grantham-McGregor, S

    1989-04-01

    We examined the effects of omitting breakfast on the cognitive functions of three groups of children: stunted, nonstunted controls, and previously severely malnourished. They were admitted to a metabolic ward twice. After an overnight fast half the children received breakfast on their first visit and a cup of tea the second time. The treatment order was reversed for the other half. When breakfast was omitted, both the stunted and previously malnourished groups responded similarly. The malnourished groups had lower scores in fluency and coding whereas the control group had higher scores in arithmetic. The children were divided into wasted and nonwasted groups. Wasted children were adversely affected in the digit span backwards tests, and wasted members of the malnourished groups were adversely affected in efficiency of problem solving and those in the control group in digit span forwards. These results indicate that cognitive functions are more vulnerable to missing breakfast in poorly nourished children. PMID:2929486

  8. Who would have thought that 'Jaws' also has brains? Cognitive functions in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Schluessel, V

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation of brain structures, function and higher cognitive abilities most likely have contributed significantly to the evolutionary success of elasmobranchs, but these traits remain poorly studied when compared to other vertebrates, specifically mammals. While the pallium of non-mammalian vertebrates lacks the mammalian neocortical organization responsible for all cognitive abilities of mammals, several behavioural and neuroanatomical studies in recent years have clearly demonstrated that elasmobranchs, just like teleosts and other non-mammalian vertebrates, can nonetheless solve a multitude of cognitive tasks. Sharks and rays can learn and habituate, possess spatial memory; can orient according to different orientation strategies, remember spatial and discrimination tasks for extended periods of time, use tools; can imitate and learn from others, distinguish between conspecifics and heterospecifics, discriminate between either visual objects or electrical fields; can categorize visual objects and perceive illusory contours as well as bilateral symmetry. At least some neural correlates seem to be located in the telencephalon, with some pallial regions matching potentially homologous areas in other vertebrates where similar functions are being processed. Results of these studies indicate that the assessed cognitive abilities in elasmobranchs are as well developed as in teleosts or other vertebrates, aiding them in fundamental activities such as food retrieval, predator avoidance, mate choice and habitat selection. PMID:24889655

  9. Higher visual dependency increases balance control perturbation during cognitive task fulfilment in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Jamet, Mallaury; Deviterne, Dominique; Gauchard, Gérome C; Vançon, Guy; Perrin, Philippe P

    2004-04-01

    Ageing results in a decrease in balance control and correlatively raises the risk of falling. Furthermore, dual task situations can increase this age-related imbalance. Within this context, this study aimed to determine the differentiated effects of carrying out cognitive tasks on balance control in 40 healthy older adults. The visuo-verbal Stroop task did not affect postural regulation precision whereas a mental counting task provoked higher instability. Moreover, the results showed a correlation between the degree of visual dependency and postural perturbation. Executing a mental counting task can cause reorientation of visual attention from external landmarks to internal visual images of the calculation. As elderly subjects are more dependent on visual information to ensure balance control, this loss of external visual anchorage when executing a mental task therefore explains the balance perturbation observed. PMID:15050712

  10. The Influence of Frontal Lobe Tumors and Surgical Treatment on Advanced Cognitive Functions.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shengyu; Wang, Yinyan; Jiang, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Brain cognitive functions affect patient quality of life. The frontal lobe plays a crucial role in advanced cognitive functions, including executive function, meta-cognition, decision-making, memory, emotion, and language. Therefore, frontal tumors can lead to serious cognitive impairments. Currently, neurosurgical treatment is the primary method to treat brain tumors; however, the effects of the surgical treatments are difficult to predict or control. The treatment may both resolve the effects of the tumor to improve cognitive function or cause permanent disabilities resulting from damage to healthy functional brain tissue. Previous studies have focused on the influence of frontal lesions and surgical treatments on patient cognitive function. Here, we review cognitive impairment caused by frontal lobe brain tumors. PMID:27072331

  11. Functional relations and cognitive psychology: Lessons from human performance and animal research.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Robert W; Urcuioli, Peter J

    2016-02-01

    We consider requirements for effective interdisciplinary communication and explore alternative interpretations of "building bridges between functional and cognitive psychology." If the bridges are intended to connect radical behaviourism and cognitive psychology, or functional contextualism and cognitive psychology, the efforts are unlikely to be successful. But if the bridges are intended to connect functional relationships and cognitive theory, no construction is needed because the bridges already exist within cognitive psychology. We use human performance and animal research to illustrate the latter point and to counter the claim that the functional approach is unique in offering a close relationship between science and practice. Effective communication will be enhanced and, indeed, may only occur if the goal of functional contextualism extends beyond just "the advancement of functional contextual cognitive and behavioral science and practice" to "the advancement of cognitive and behavioral science and practice" without restriction. PMID:26111342

  12. Simultaneous interpreters vs. professional multilingual controls: Group differences in cognitive control as well as brain structure and function.

    PubMed

    Becker, Maxi; Schubert, Torsten; Strobach, Tilo; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kühn, Simone

    2016-07-01

    There is a vast amount of literature indicating that multiple language expertise leads to positive transfer effects onto other non-language cognitive domains possibly due to enhanced cognitive control. However, there is hardly any evidence about underlying mechanisms on how complex behavior like simultaneous interpreting benefits cognitive functioning in other non-language domains. Therefore, we investigated whether simultaneous interpreters (SIs) exhibit cognitive benefits in tasks measuring aspects of cognitive control compared to a professional multilingual control group. We furthermore investigated in how far potential cognitive benefits are related to brain structure (using voxel-based morphometry) and function (using regions-of-interest-based functional connectivity and graph-analytical measures on low-frequency BOLD signals in resting-state brain data). Concerning cognitive control, the results reveal that SIs exhibit less mixing costs in a task switching paradigm and a dual-task advantage compared to professional multilingual controls. In addition, SIs show more gray matter volume in the left frontal pole (BA 10) compared to controls. Graph theoretical analyses revealed that this region exhibits higher network values for global efficiency and degree and is functionally more strongly connected to the left inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus in SIs compared to controls. Thus, the data provide evidence that SIs possess cognitive benefits in tasks measuring cognitive control. It is discussed in how far the central role of the left frontal pole and its stronger functional connectivity to the left inferior frontal gyrus represents a correlate of the neural mechanisms for the observed behavioral effects. PMID:27085505

  13. Effect of a human-type communication robot on cognitive function in elderly women living alone

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Yamano, Emi; Ogikubo, Hiroki; Okazaki, Masatsugu; Kamimura, Kazuro; Konishi, Yasuharu; Emoto, Shigeru; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Considering the high prevalence of dementia, it would be of great value to develop effective tools to improve cognitive function. We examined the effects of a human-type communication robot on cognitive function in elderly women living alone. Material/Methods In this study, 34 healthy elderly female volunteers living alone were randomized to living with either a communication robot or a control robot at home for 8 weeks. The shape, voice, and motion features of the communication robot resemble those of a 3-year-old boy, while the control robot was not designed to talk or nod. Before living with the robot and 4 and 8 weeks after living with the robot, experiments were conducted to evaluate a variety of cognitive functions as well as saliva cortisol, sleep, and subjective fatigue, motivation, and healing. Results The Mini-Mental State Examination score, judgement, and verbal memory function were improved after living with the communication robot; those functions were not altered with the control robot. In addition, the saliva cortisol level was decreased, nocturnal sleeping hours tended to increase, and difficulty in maintaining sleep tended to decrease with the communication robot, although alterations were not shown with the control. The proportions of the participants in whom effects on attenuation of fatigue, enhancement of motivation, and healing could be recognized were higher in the communication robot group relative to the control group. Conclusions This study demonstrates that living with a human-type communication robot may be effective for improving cognitive functions in elderly women living alone. PMID:22936190

  14. Aerobic Exercise Improves Cognition and Motor Function Poststroke

    PubMed Central

    Quaney, Barbara M.; Boyd, Lara A.; McDowd, Joan M.; Zahner, Laura H.; He, Jianghua; Mayo, Matthew S.; Macko, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cognitive deficits impede stroke recovery. Aerobic exercise (AEX) improves cognitive executive function (EF) processes in healthy individuals, although the learning benefits after stroke are unknown. Objective To understand AEX-induced improvements in EF, motor learning, and mobility poststroke. Methods Following cardiorespiratory testing, 38 chronic stroke survivors were randomized to 2 different groups that exercised 3 times a week (45-minute sessions) for 8 weeks. The AEX group (n = 19; 9 women; 10 men; 64.10 ± 12.30 years) performed progressive resistive stationary bicycle training at 70% maximal heart rate, whereas the Stretching Exercise (SE) group (n = 19; 12 women; 7 men; 58.96 ± 14.68 years) performed stretches at home. Between-group comparisons were performed on the change in performance at “Post” and “Retention” (8 weeks later) for neuropsychological and motor function measures. Results Vo2max significantly improved at Post with AEX (P = .04). AEX also improved motor learning in the less-affected hand, with large effect sizes (Cohen’s d calculation). Specifically, AEX significantly improved information processing speed on the serial reaction time task (SRTT; ie, “procedural motor learning”) compared with the SE group at Post (P = .024), but not at Retention. Also, at Post (P = .038), AEX significantly improved predictive force accuracy for a precision grip task requiring attention and conditional motor learning of visual cues. Ambulation and sit-to-stand transfers were significantly faster in the AEX group at Post (P = .038), with balance control significantly improved at Retention (P = .041). EF measurements were not significantly different for the AEX group. Conclusion AEX improved mobility and selected cognitive domains related to motor learning, which enhances sensorimotor control after stroke. PMID:19541916

  15. Effect of trataka on cognitive functions in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Talwadkar, Shubhada; Jagannathan, Aarti; Raghuram, Nagarathna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Trataka, a type of yoga practice is considered to improve cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to test the effect of trataka on cognitive functions of the elderly. Materials and Methods: Elderly subjects were recruited based on inclusion and exclusion criteria (n = 60) and randomly divided using randomized block design into two groups: Trataka and wait list control group. Trataka (a visual cleansing technique) was given for a period of 1 month (26 days). The subjects in both groups were assessed on day 1 (pre- and postintervention in trataka group and after quiet sitting in control group) and on day 30 on Digit Span Test, Six Letter Cancellation Test (SLCT), and Trail Making Test-B (TMT-B). Results: Friedman's test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that at the 2nd follow-up there was significant improvement in digit span scores (z = −3.35, P < 0.01) in the trataka group. SLCT scores (t = 5.08, P < 0.01) and TMT-B scores (t = −4.26, P < 0.01) improved immediately after the practice of trataka (when baseline compared to first follow-up). At 1 month follow-up, trataka group showed significantly better performance in the SLCT test compared to baseline (t = −3.93, P < 0.01) and TMT-B scores (t = 7.09, P < 0.01). Repeated measure analysis of variance (RM ANOVA) results also reiterated that there was significant interaction effect at the end of 1 month of trataka intervention as compared to control group on TMT-B and SLCT scores. Conclusions: The results of this study establish that Trataka can be used as a technique to enhance cognition in the elderly. PMID:25035618

  16. Contrasting Evolutionary Patterns of Functional Connectivity in Sensorimotor and Cognitive Regions after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huaigui; Tian, Tian; Qin, Wen; Li, Kuncheng; Yu, Chunshui

    2016-01-01

    The human brain is a highly connected and integrated system. Local stroke lesions can evoke reorganization in multiple functional networks. However, the temporally-evolving patterns in different functional networks after stroke remain unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate the dynamic evolutionary patterns of functional connectivity density (FCD) and strength (FCS) of the brain after subcortical stroke involving in the motor pathways. Eight male patients with left subcortical infarctions were longitudinally examined at five time points within a year. Voxel-wise FCD analysis was used to identify brain regions with significant dynamic changes. The temporally-evolving patterns in FCD and FCS in these regions were analyzed by a mixed-effects model. Associations between these measures and clinical variables were also explored in stroke patients. Voxel-wise analysis revealed dynamic FCD changes only in the sensorimotor and cognitive regions after stroke. FCD and FCS in the sensorimotor regions decreased initially, as compared to controls, remaining at lower levels for months, and finally returned to normal levels. In contrast, FCD and FCS in the cognitive regions increased initially, remaining at higher levels for months, and finally returned to normal levels. Most of these measures were correlated with patients’ motor scores. These findings suggest a network-specific dynamic functional reorganization after stroke. Besides the sensorimotor regions, the spared cognitive regions may also play an important role in stroke recovery. PMID:27147993

  17. Selective role of the catalytic PI3K subunit p110β in impaired higher-order cognition in Fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Christina; Raj, Nisha; Molinaro, Gemma; Allen, Amanda G.; Whyte, Alonzo J.; Gibson, Jay R.; Huber, Kimberly M.; Gourley, Shannon L.; Bassell, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Distinct isoforms of the PI3K catalytic subunit have specialized functions in the brain, but their role in cognition is unknown. Here, we show that the catalytic subunit p110β plays an important role in prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent cognitive defects in mouse models of Fragile X syndrome (FXS), an inherited intellectual disability. FXS is caused by loss of function of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), which binds and translationally represses mRNAs. PFC-selective knockdown of p110β, an FMRP target that is translationally upregulated in FXS, reverses deficits in higher cognition in Fmr1 knockout mice. Genetic full-body reduction of p110β in Fmr1 knockout mice normalizes excessive PI3K activity, restores stimulus-induced protein synthesis, and corrects increased dendritic spine density and behavior. Notably, adult-onset PFC-selective Fmr1 knockdown mice show impaired cognition, which is rescued by simultaneous p110β knockdown. Our results suggest that FMRP-mediated control of p110β is crucial for neuronal protein synthesis and cognition. PMID:25921527

  18. Does Domain Knowledge Moderate Involvement of Working Memory Capacity in Higher-Level Cognition? A Test of Three Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, D.Z.; Oswald, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that both working memory capacity and domain knowledge contribute to individual differences in higher-level cognition. This study evaluated three hypotheses concerning the interplay between these factors. The compensation hypothesis predicts that domain knowledge attenuates the influence of working memory capacity on higher-level…

  19. Cognitive control, goal maintenance, and prefrontal function in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Jessica L; Barch, Deanna M; Racine, Caroline A; Braver, Todd S

    2008-05-01

    Cognitive control impairments in healthy older adults may partly reflect disturbances in the ability to actively maintain goal-relevant information, a function that depends on the engagement of lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). In 2 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, healthy young and older adults performed versions of a task in which contextual cues provide goal-relevant information used to bias processing of subsequent ambiguous probes. In Study 1, a blocked design and manipulation of the cue-probe delay interval revealed a generalized pattern of enhanced task-related brain activity in older adults but combined with a specific delay-related reduction of activity in lateral PFC regions. In Study 2, a combined blocked/event-related design revealed enhanced sustained (i.e., across-trial) activity but a reduction in transient trial-related activation in lateral PFC among older adults. Further analyses of within-trial activity dynamics indicated that, within these and other lateral PFC regions, older adults showed reduced activation during the cue and delay period but increased activation at the time of the probe, particularly on high-interference trials. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that age-related impairments in goal maintenance abilities cause a compensatory shift in older adults from a proactive (seen in young adults) to a reactive cognitive control strategy. PMID:17804479

  20. Specific cognitive functions and depressive symptoms as predictors of activities of daily living in older adults with heterogeneous cognitive backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Jonas J.; Diniz, Breno S.; Bicalho, Maria A.; Albuquerque, Maicon Rodrigues; Nicolato, Rodrigo; de Moraes, Edgar N.; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive functioning influences activities of daily living (ADL). However, studies reporting the association between ADL and neuropsychological performance show inconsistent results regarding what specific cognitive domains are related to each specific functional domains. Additionally, whether depressive symptoms are associated with a worse functional performance in older adults is still under explored. We investigated if specific cognitive domains and depressive symptoms would affect different aspects of ADL. Participants were 274 older adults (96 normal aging participants, 85 patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 93 patients probable with mild Alzheimer’s disease dementia) with low formal education (∼4 years). Measures of ADL included three complexity levels: Self-care, Instrumental-Domestic, and Instrumental-Complex. The specific cognitive functions were evaluated through a factorial strategy resulting in four cognitive domains: Executive Functions, Language/Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory, and Visuospatial Abilities. The Geriatric Depression Scale measured depressive symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis showed executive functions and episodic memory as significant predictors of Instrumental-Domestic ADL, and executive functions, episodic memory and language/semantic memory as predictors of Instrumental-Complex ADL (22 and 28% of explained variance, respectively). Ordinal regression analysis showed the influence of specific cognitive functions and depressive symptoms on each one of the instrumental ADL. We observed a heterogeneous pattern of association with explained variance ranging from 22 to 38%. Different instrumental ADL had specific cognitive predictors and depressive symptoms were predictive of ADL involving social contact. Our results suggest a specific pattern of influence depending on the specific instrumental daily living activity. PMID:26257644

  1. Higher-Order Theory for Functionally Graded Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the full generalization of the Cartesian coordinate-based higher-order theory for functionally graded materials developed by the authors during the past several years. This theory circumvents the problematic use of the standard micromechanical approach, based on the concept of a representative volume element, commonly employed in the analysis of functionally graded composites by explicitly coupling the local (microstructural) and global (macrostructural) responses. The theoretical framework is based on volumetric averaging of the various field quantities, together with imposition of boundary and interfacial conditions in an average sense between the subvolumes used to characterize the composite's functionally graded microstructure. The generalization outlined herein involves extension of the theoretical framework to enable the analysis of materials characterized by spatially variable microstructures in three directions. Specialization of the generalized theoretical framework to previously published versions of the higher-order theory for materials functionally graded in one and two directions is demonstrated. In the applications part of the paper we summarize the major findings obtained with the one-directional and two-directional versions of the higher-order theory. The results illustrate both the fundamental issues related to the influence of microstructure on microscopic and macroscopic quantities governing the response of composites and the technologically important applications. A major issue addressed herein is the applicability of the classical homogenization schemes in the analysis of functionally graded materials. The technologically important applications illustrate the utility of functionally graded microstructures in tailoring the response of structural components in a variety of applications involving uniform and gradient thermomechanical loading.

  2. Specific cognitive deficits and differential domains of social functioning impairment in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alex S; Forbes, Courtney B; Mann, Monica C; Blanchard, Jack J

    2006-01-31

    There is considerable inconsistency in findings regarding the relationship between specific cognitive deficits and social impairment in patients with schizophrenia. This inconsistency may relate to variability across studies in how social functioning is measured and preliminary evidence suggests that different indices of social functioning (e.g., laboratory test, community assessment) may have different cognitive correlates. The present study examined this issue by evaluating the relationships between cognitive deficits (including social cognitive deficits), role-play test performance, and community social functioning in 28 inpatients with schizophrenia. We expected the two measures of social functioning to have only modest convergence with each other. Moreover, informed by the literature on cognitive functioning in schizophrenia, we identified specific cognitive processes that were hypothesized to be associated with role-play performance (delayed verbal memory and attentional vigilance) and social functioning in the community (delayed verbal memory and executive functioning). As expected, the two measures of social functioning were modestly correlated with each other. Community social functioning was associated with a relatively constrained pattern of cognitive deficits and received a significant contribution (Deltar2=0.24) from specific cognitive processes beyond that of general cognitive functioning and symptom severity. In contrast to our hypotheses, role-play test performance was associated with a wide range of cognitive impairments and received little contribution from the specific cognitive processes beyond the effects of general cognitive functioning. Community social functioning, but not role-play test performance, was significantly associated with social cognition. These findings highlight the importance of conceptualizing social functioning as a multidimensional construct for schizophrenia research. PMID:16260120

  3. Vestibular involvement in cognition: Visuospatial ability, attention, executive function, and memory.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Robin T; Agrawal, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests the inner ear vestibular system has a substantial impact on cognitive function. The strongest evidence exists in connecting vestibular function to the cognitive domain of visuospatial ability, which includes spatial memory, navigation, mental rotation, and mental representation of three-dimensional space. Substantial evidence also exists suggesting the vestibular system has an impact on attention and cognitive processing ability. The cognitive domains of memory and executive function are also implicated in a number of studies. We will review the current literature, discuss possible causal links between vestibular dysfunction and cognitive performance, and suggest areas of future research. PMID:26410672

  4. Gait and risk of falls associated with frontal cognitive functions at different stages of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Flávia Gomes de Melo; Stella, Florindo; de Andrade, Larissa Pires; Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira; Gobbi, Sebastião; Costa, José Luiz Riani; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken

    2012-09-01

    The decline in frontal cognitive functions contributes to alterations of gait and increases the risk of falls in patients with dementia, a category which included Alzheimer's disease (AD). The objective of the present study was to compare the gait parameters and the risk of falls among patients at different stages of AD, and to relate these variables with cognitive functions. This is a cross-sectional study with 23 patients with mild and moderate AD. The Clinical Dementia Rating was used to classify the dementia severity. The kinematic parameters of gait (cadence, stride length, and stride speed) were analyzed under two conditions: (a) single task (free gait) and (b) dual task (walking and counting down). The risk of falls was evaluated using the Timed Up-and-Go test. The frontal cognitive functions were evaluated using the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) and the Symbol Search Subtest. The patients who were at the moderate stage suffered reduced performance in their stride length and stride speed in the single task and had made more counting errors in the dual task and still had a higher fall risk. Both the mild and the moderate patients exhibited significant decreases in stride length, stride speed and cadence in the dual task. Was detected a significant correlation between CDT, FAB, and stride speed in the dual task condition. We also found a significant correlation between subtest Similarities, FAB and cadence in the dual task condition. The dual task produced changes in the kinematic parameters of gait for the mild and moderate AD patients and the gait alterations are related to frontal cognitive functions, particularly executive functions. PMID:22360785

  5. Impact of Controlled Induced Hypotension on Cognitive Functions of Patients Undergoing Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Stanisław; Ołdak, Anna; Kluzik, Anna; Drobnik, Leon

    2016-01-01

    Background Controlled induced hypotension guarantees less blood loss and better visibility of the surgical site. The impact of hypotension on post-operative cognitive functions is still being discussed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of controlled induced hypotension on the cognitive functions of patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Material/Methods We allocated 47 patients with a good grade of preoperative cognitive functions evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination to 3 groups (1 – mild hypotension, 2 – intermediate hypotension, 3 – severe hypotension) according to the degree of mean intraoperative arterial pressure compared with preoperative blood pressure. Cognitive functions were evaluated preoperatively, 6 h, and 30 h postoperatively with standardized tests: the Stroop Test, Trail Making Test (TMT), and Verbal Fluency Test (VFT). A decrease in the test results and increase in the number of mistakes made were considered an impairment of cognitive functions. Results A total of 47 patients (group 1 – mild hypotension – 15, group 2 – intermediate hypotension – 19, group 3 – severe hypotension – 13) were included in the study. A significant decrease was observed in all the 3 groups after Stroop A test 6h postoperatively but it improved 30h postoperatively, without differences between the groups. Neither a significant decrease in the test results nor an increase in the number of mistakes was noted for Stroop B tests, TMT A&B tests and VFT. Conclusions The degree of controlled intraoperative hypotension during FESS did not influence the results of psychometric tests. PMID:26991989

  6. Students' Self-Assessment in Chemistry Examinations Requiring Higher- and Lower-Order Cognitive Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoller*, Uri; Fastow, Michal; Lubezky, Aviva; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    1999-01-01

    The development of students' higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) in the context of both chemistry and the complex interrelationships of science, technology, environment, and society is widely accepted as one of the most important goals of chemical education. Consequently, the translation of this goal into teaching, assessment, and learning strategies is a central issue in chemistry teaching. Students' self-assessment in chemistry examinations is a HOCS-promoting strategy. We evaluated the differences between students' self-assessment and their professors' assessment on midterm exams in introductory college courses in Israel and Greece, together with the students' appraisal of their capability for self- and peer-assessment. We found that (i) there were small (not significant) and large (significant) differences between students' self-grading and their professors' grading on LOCS and HOCS exam questions, respectively; (ii) students' estimates of their grades were higher than those of their professors, particularly for HOCS questions; and (iii) students believed that they were capable of self- and peer-assessment and were confident in making these assessments. Our results suggest that (i) students' self-assessment of LOCS-type exams can be successfully implemented immediately, whereas (ii) implementation of self-assessment for HOCS-type exam questions should be gradual, following appropriate preparation to close the gap between the future HOCS and contemporary dominant LOCS orientations in chemistry teaching and learning.

  7. Cognitive Profile of Students Who Enter Higher Education with an Indication of Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Brysbaert, Marc

    2012-01-01

    For languages other than English there is a lack of empirical evidence about the cognitive profile of students entering higher education with a diagnosis of dyslexia. To obtain such evidence, we compared a group of 100 Dutch-speaking students diagnosed with dyslexia with a control group of 100 students without learning disabilities. Our study showed selective deficits in reading and writing (effect sizes for accuracy between d = 1 and d = 2), arithmetic (d≈1), and phonological processing (d>0.7). Except for spelling, these deficits were larger for speed related measures than for accuracy related measures. Students with dyslexia also performed slightly inferior on the KAIT tests of crystallized intelligence, due to the retrieval of verbal information from long-term memory. No significant differences were observed in the KAIT tests of fluid intelligence. The profile we obtained agrees with a recent meta-analysis of English findings suggesting that it generalizes to all alphabetic languages. Implications for special arrangements for students with dyslexia in higher education are outlined. PMID:22719864

  8. Education Attenuates the Effect of Medial Temporal Lobe Atrophy on Cognitive Function in Alzheimer’s Disease: The MIRAGE Study

    PubMed Central

    Perneczky, Robert; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Green, Robert C.; DeCarli, Charles; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Kurz, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Functional imaging and neuropathological studies suggest that individuals with higher education have better cognitive performance at the same level of brain pathology than less educated subjects. No in vivo studies are available that directly test how education modifies the effect of structural pathology on cognition in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The present study therefore aimed to measure this effect using data from a large multi-center study. 270 patients with AD underwent cognitive testing using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping, and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. A linear regression analysis was used to examine the relation of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA), as a proxy of AD pathology, to MMSE score, adjusting for age, gender, APOE, cerebrovascular disease, ethnicity, education, and disease duration. An interaction term for MTA and education was introduced to test the hypothesis that education modifies the effect of MTA on cognition. There was a significant inverse association between MTA and cognition. Most interestingly, the interaction term between education and MTA was significant suggesting that education modifies the relation of MTA to cognition. At any level of pathology, cognition remained higher for better educated individuals. PMID:19542606

  9. From higher order thinking to higher order behavior: exploring the relationship between early cognitive skills and social competence in black boys.

    PubMed

    Scott, Kristin M; Barbarin, Oscar A; Brown, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relations of higher order (i.e., abstract) thinking (HOT) skills to specific domains of social competence in Black boys (n = 108) attending publicly sponsored prekindergarten (pre-K) programs. Data for the study were collected as part of the National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL) Multi-State Study, a national, longitudinal study examining the quality and outcomes in a representative sample of publicly sponsored pre-K programs in six states (N = 240). Pre-K and kindergarten teachers rated randomly selected children on measures of abstract thinking, self-regulation, and social functioning at the beginning and end of each school year. Applying structural equation modeling, compared with earlier time points, HOT measured in the fall of kindergarten significantly predicted each of the domains of social competence in the spring of kindergarten, with the exception of peer social skills, while controlling for general cognitive ability. Results suggest that early intervention to improve HOT may be an effective and more focused approach to address concerns about Black boys' early social competencies in specific domains and potentially reduce the risk of later social difficulties. PMID:23889011

  10. Cognitive functions and cerebral oxygenation changes during acute and prolonged hypoxic exposure.

    PubMed

    Davranche, Karen; Casini, Laurence; Arnal, Pierrick J; Rupp, Thomas; Perrey, Stéphane; Verges, Samuel

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to assess specific cognitive processes (cognitive control and time perception) and hemodynamic correlates using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during acute and prolonged high-altitude exposure. Eleven male subjects were transported via helicopter and dropped at 14 272 ft (4 350 meters) of altitude where they stayed for 4 days. Cognitive tasks, involving a conflict task and temporal bisection task, were performed at sea level the week before ascending to high altitude, the day of arrival (D0), the second (D2) and fourth (D4) day at high altitude. Cortical hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) area were monitored with fNIRS at rest and during the conflict task. Results showed that high altitude impacts information processing in terms of speed and accuracy. In the early hours of exposure (D0), participants displayed slower reaction times (RT) and decision errors were twice as high. While error rate for simple spontaneous responses remained twice that at sea level, the slow-down of RT was not detectable after 2 days at high-altitude. The larger fNIRS responses from D0 to D2 suggest that higher prefrontal activity partially counteracted cognitive performance decrements. Cognitive control, assessed through the build-up of a top-down response suppression mechanism, the early automatic response activation and the post-error adjustment were not impacted by hypoxia. However, during prolonged hypoxic exposure the temporal judgments were underestimated suggesting a slowdown of the internal clock. A decrease in cortical arousal level induced by hypoxia could consistently explain both the slowdown of the internal clock and the persistence of a higher number of errors after several days of exposure. PMID:27262217

  11. Cognitive and functional impairment in Chinese elderly with late-onset depression.

    PubMed

    Tam, C W C; Lam, L C W

    2012-03-01

    OBJECTIVES. To investigate cognitive and functional impairment in Chinese elderly subjects with late-onset depression. METHODS. Subjects with late-onset depression and who were clinically non-demented were recruited. Their cognitive and functional scores were compared with those of cognitively normal elderly controls and elderly persons with mild cognitive impairment. Functional ability was assessed by the Disability Assessment for Dementia score. Various cognitive domains were assessed including global cognitive function, delayed episodic memory, working memory, and categorical verbal fluency test. RESULTS. A total of 105 depressed subjects and 324 non-depressed controls (149 normal elderly controls and 175 with mild cognitive impairment) were recruited. The depression group had significantly poorer performance in all cognitive assessments compared to the normal elderly control group. The depression group had a similar cognitive profile to those with mild cognitive impairment, except that its subjects had slightly better performance in the Categorical Verbal Fluency Test, delayed recall testing, and the Chinese version of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale test. Depressed subjects had significantly lower functional scores in instrumental activities of daily living than the non-depressed, normal elderly controls, and those with mild cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS. Our results demonstrate that Chinese elderly with late-onset depression had cognitive impairments in multiple domains similar to those encountered in the age- and sex-matched non-depressed controls with mild cognitive impairment. However, their functional performance was significantly poorer than that in these controls. This study provided extensive characterisation of the range and depth of cognitive and functional impairments in elderly patients with late-onset depression. PMID:22447802

  12. Efficiency of weak brain connections support general cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Galli, Giulia; Polizzotto, Nicola Riccardo; Rossi, Alessandro; Rossi, Simone

    2014-09-01

    Brain network topology provides valuable information on healthy and pathological brain functioning. Novel approaches for brain network analysis have shown an association between topological properties and cognitive functioning. Under the assumption that "stronger is better", the exploration of brain properties has generally focused on the connectivity patterns of the most strongly correlated regions, whereas the role of weaker brain connections has remained obscure for years. Here, we assessed whether the different strength of connections between brain regions may explain individual differences in intelligence. We analyzed-functional connectivity at rest in ninety-eight healthy individuals of different age, and correlated several connectivity measures with full scale, verbal, and performance Intelligent Quotients (IQs). Our results showed that the variance in IQ levels was mostly explained by the distributed communication efficiency of brain networks built using moderately weak, long-distance connections, with only a smaller contribution of stronger connections. The variability in individual IQs was associated with the global efficiency of a pool of regions in the prefrontal lobes, hippocampus, temporal pole, and postcentral gyrus. These findings challenge the traditional view of a prominent role of strong functional brain connections in brain topology, and highlight the importance of both strong and weak connections in determining the functional architecture responsible for human intelligence variability. PMID:24585433

  13. Cognitive Functions and Cognitive Reserve in Relation to Blood Pressure Components in a Population-Based Cohort Aged 53 to 94 Years

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Nunzia; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Palatini, Paolo; Bascelli, Anna; Boschetti, Giovanni; De Lazzari, Fabia; Grasselli, Carla; Martini, Bortolo; Caffi, Sandro; Piccoli, Antonio; Mazza, Alberto; Bisiacchi, Patrizia; Casiglia, Edoardo

    2012-01-01

    In 288 men and women from general population in a cross-sectional survey, all neuropsychological tests were negatively associated with age; memory and executive function were also positively related with education. The hypertensives (HT) were less efficient than the normotensives (NT) in the test of memory with interference at 10 sec (MI-10) (−33%, P = 0.03), clock drawing test (CLOX) (−28%, P < 0.01), and mini-mental state examination (MMSE) (−6%, P = 0.02). Lower MMSE, MI-10, and CLOX were predicted by higher systolic (odds ratio, OR, 0.97, P = 0.02; OR 0.98, P < 0.005; OR 0.95, P < 0.001) and higher pulse blood pressure (BP) (OR 0.97, P = 0.02; OR 0.97, P < 0.01; and 0.95, P < 0.0001). The cognitive reserve index (CRI) was 6% lower in the HT (P = 0.03) and was predicted by higher pulse BP (OR 0.82, P < 0.001). The BP vectors of lower MMSE, MI-10, and CLOX were directed towards higher values of systolic and diastolic BP, that of low CRI towards higher systolic and lower diastolic. The label of hypertension and higher values of systolic or pulse BP are associated to worse memory and executive functions. Higher diastolic BP, although insufficient to impair cognition, strengthens this association. CRI is predicted by higher systolic BP associated to lower diastolic BP. PMID:22548150

  14. Association between adjuvant regional radiotherapy and cognitive function in breast cancer patients treated with conservation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shibayama, Osamu; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Eisho; Sugawara, Yuriko; Akechi, Tatsuo; Wada, Noriaki; Imoto, Shigeru; Murakami, Koji; Ogawa, Asao; Akabayashi, Akira; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2014-01-01

    Although protracted cognitive impairment has been reported to occur after radiotherapy even when such therapy is not directed to brain areas, the mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated whether breast cancer patients exposed to local radiotherapy showed lower cognitive function mediated by higher plasma interleukin (IL)-6 levels than those unexposed. We performed the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) and measured plasma IL-6 levels for 105 breast cancer surgical patients within 1 year after the initial therapy. The group differences in each of the indices of WMS-R were investigated between cancer patients exposed to adjuvant regional radiotherapy (n = 51) and those unexposed (n = 54) using analysis of covariance. We further investigated a mediation effect by plasma IL-6 levels on the relationship between radiotherapy and the indices of WMS-R using the bootstrapping method. The radiotherapy group showed significantly lower Immediate Verbal Memory Index and Delayed Recall Index (P = 0.001, P = 0.008, respectively). Radiotherapy exerted an indirect effect on the lower Delayed Recall Index of WMS-R through elevation of plasma IL-6 levels (bootstrap 95% confidence interval = −2.6626 to −0.0402). This study showed that breast cancer patients exposed to adjuvant regional radiotherapy in conservation therapy might have cognitive impairment even several months after their treatment. The relationship between the therapy and the cognitive impairment could be partially mediated by elevation of plasma IL-6 levels. PMID:24756915

  15. Neuropsychological Assessment of a New Computerized Cognitive Task that Was Developed to Train Several Cognitive Functions Simultaneously

    PubMed Central

    Ichihara-Takeda, Satoe; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Ikeda, Nozomu; Matsuyama, Kiyoji; Funahashi, Shintaro

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that computerized cognitive training is effective as therapy for reducing the cognitive decline with aging and the dysfunction associated with neuropsychiatric illness. Although cognitive trainings that targets a specific function and multi-domain cognitive training have both been shown to have significant effects, we need one simple behavioral training paradigm to improve multiple domains of cognitive functions easily and simultaneously. We had developed a new computerized task that seeks to engage the cognitive functions of planning, mental calculation, and divergent thinking based on a working memory task in a single task. The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive features of our new task by comparing the scores of seven known neuropsychological batteries in healthy elderly subjects. The relationships between performance in our task and the scores obtained by the neuropsychological batteries were examined. The percentage of correct performance on our task was correlated with the scores on the category fluency test, the digit span backward task, and the Trail making test B. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that the scores on the category fluency test and the Trail making test B showed significant positive correlations with the percentage of correct performance on our task. Although the present study did not show high correlations between the percentage of correct performance on our task and working memory functions as a primary target, we observed mid-level correlations between the percentage of correct performance on our task and functions for divided attention and word fluency. Our new task requires not only working memory, but also attention and divergent thinking. Thus, this task might be a useful tool for training multiple cognitive functions simultaneously. PMID:27148110

  16. Independent and Interactive Influences of the APOE Genotype and Beta-Amyloid Burden on Cognitive Function in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the independent and interactive influences of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 and beta-amyloid (Aβ) on multiple cognitive domains in a large group of cognitively normal (CN) individuals and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Participants were included if clinical and cognitive assessments, amyloid imaging, and APOE genotype were all available from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database (CN = 324, MCI = 502, AD = 182). Individuals with one or two copies of ε4 were designated as APOE ε4 carriers (ε4+); individuals with no ε4 were designated as APOE ε4 non-carriers (ε4−). Based on mean florbetapir standard uptake value ratios, participants were classified as Aβ burden-positive (Aβ+) or Aβ burden-negative (Aβ−). In MCI, APOE ε4 effects were predominantly observed on frontal executive function, with ε4+ participants exhibiting poorer performances; Aβ positivity had no influence on this effect. Aβ effects were observed on global cognition, memory, and visuospatial ability, with Aβ+ participants exhibiting poorer performances. Measures of frontal executive function were not influenced by Aβ. Interactive effects of APOE ε4+ and Aβ were observed on global cognition and verbal recognition memory. Aβ, not APOE ε4+, influenced clinical severity and functional status. The influences of APOE ε4+ and Aβ on cognitive function were minimal in CN and AD. In conclusion, we provide further evidence of both independent and interactive influences of APOE ε4+ and Aβ on cognitive function in MCI, with APOE ε4+ and Aβ showing dissociable effects on executive and non-executive functions, respectively. PMID:26839485

  17. Serum KIBRA mRNA and Protein Expression and Cognitive Functions in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Talarowska, Monika; Szemraj, Janusz; Kowalczyk, Małgorzata; Gałecki, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Background Genes participating in synaptic signalling or plasticity in brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the hippocampus have been implicated in cognition. Recently, a new gene (KIBRA, WWC1) has been added to this group due to its impact on memory performance. Recurrent depressive disorder (rDD) is a multifactorial disease, that one of the typical features is cognitive impairment. The main objective of this study was to perform an analysis of the KIBRA gene on both mRNA and protein levels in patients suffering from rDD and to investigate the relationship between KIBRA expression and cognitive performance. Material/Methods The study comprised 236 subjects: patients with rDD (n=131) and healthy subjects (n=105, HS). Cognitive function assessment was based on: Trail Making Test, The Stroop Test, Verbal Fluency Test and Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Results Both mRNA and protein expression levels of KIBRA gene were significantly higher in healthy subjects when compared to rDD. The presented relationship is clear even after taking age, education and sex of the examined subjects into consideration. No statistically significant relationship was found in the experiments between any of the conducted tests and KIBRA gene expression on mRNA level for both the rDD and HS groups. The presented study has limitations related to the fact that patients were being treated with antidepressant. This is relevant due to the fact that some antidepressants may affect mRNA expression. Number of patients and healthy subjects may result in the lack of statistical significance in some cases. Conclusions 1. The results of our study show decreased expression of the KIBRA gene on both mRNA and protein levels in depression. 2. We did not find any significant relationship between KIBRA gene expression and cognitive functions in case of both the healthy subjects and the patients affected by rDD. PMID:26768155

  18. Intraoperative cerebral high intensity transient signals and postoperative cognitive function: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kristin K; Wigginton, Jeremy B.; Babikian, Viken L; Pochay, Val E.; Crittenden, Michael D.; Rudolph, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Microemboli during surgery have been hypothesized to cause postoperative cognitive changes. The purpose of this article was to systematically review the available literature related to intraoperative microemboli, measured with transcranial Doppler ultrasound and postoperative cognitive function. The literature remains largely undecided on the role of microemboli and cognitive impairment after surgery, because most studies underpowered to show a relationship. PMID:18723157

  19. Automated Semantic Indices Related to Cognitive Function and Rate of Cognitive Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakhomov, Serguei V. S.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Lim, Kelvin O.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study is to introduce a fully automated, computational linguistic technique to quantify semantic relations between words generated on a standard semantic verbal fluency test and to determine its cognitive and clinical correlates. Cognitive differences between patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment are…

  20. Cognitive and psychological functioning in focal dermal hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Deidrick, Kathleen K M; Early, Martha; Constance, Jordan; Stein, Margot; Fete, Timothy J

    2016-03-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is a condition caused by heterozygous mutation of the PORCN gene on chromosome Xp22.3. It impacts the primitive ectoderm and mesoderm, affecting skin, teeth, nails, hair, musculoskeletal development, and vision and hearing. To date, there has been no systematic research examining the psychoeducational impact of the disorder. The current study examined emotional, behavioral, adaptive, and intellectual ability in 17 subjects with ages ranging from 3 to 55 with FDH attending the 2013 Annual Family Conference of the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasias. Findings suggested overall average functioning in all areas. However, wide variability was noted in this sample, with 3 participants (18%) exhibiting overall cognitive ability in the borderline to impaired range. These findings are consistent with previous reports suggesting intellectual impairment in 15% of persons with FDH. Similarly, a subgroup of children was rated by parents as exhibiting difficulties with behavior (2 out of 11; 18%) and emotions (5 out of 11; 45%). Of particular concern was withdrawn behavior, reported by 65% of parents. These findings suggest that clinicians should routinely screen persons with FDH to rule out cognitive and emotional/behavioral difficulties and offer timely treatment. Future research should focus on identifying risk factors for psychoeducational problems in this population. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26818018

  1. Effects of allantoin on cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Young Je; Park, Se Jin; Woo, Hyun; Lee, Hyung Eun; Kim, Hyun Ji; Kwon, Guyoung; Gao, Qingtao; Jang, Dae Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2014-02-01

    Allantoin is contained in Nelumbo nucifera (lotus) and a well-known cosmetic ingredient reported to have anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we investigated whether allantoin affects cognitive function in mice. The subchronic administration of allantoin (1, 3 or 10 mg/kg, for 7 days) significantly increased the latency time measured during the passive avoidance task in scopolamine-induced cholinergic blockade and normal naïve mice. Allantoin treatment (3 or 10 mg/kg, for 7 days) also increased the expression levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Doublecortin and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine immunostaining revealed that allantoin significantly increased the neuronal cell proliferation of immature neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus region. In conclusion, allantoin has memory-enhancing effects, and these effects may be partly mediated by the PI3K-Akt-GSK-3β signal pathway. These findings suggest that allantoin has therapeutic potential for the cognitive dysfunctions observed in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24296131

  2. Stress as a predictor of cognitive functioning in lupus.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Ramírez, M I; Coín-Mejías, M A; Jiménez-Alonso, J; Ortego-Centeno, N; Callejas-Rubio, J L; Caracuel-Romero, A; Pérez-García, M

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the possible effects of the daily stress experienced during a six-month period on the cognitive functioning of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). For this purpose, we evaluated the daily stress of 21 patients with lupus every day for six months. Later, we carried out a neuropsychological exam that included an evaluation of attention and memory. At the same time, scores on depression and anxiety were recorded with the objective of controlling other emotional variables that might be influencing these cognitive processes. The results show that daily stress was able to predict the scores on the neuropsychological variables studied. Specifically, the daily stress experienced in the previous six months is the variable with the greatest explanatory-predictive power on the scores for delayed recall visual memory, visual fluency and attention speed. This relationship proved to be negative in all three cases (R2 corr = 0.290; t = -2.712, P < 0.014); (R2 corr = 0.318; t = -2.818, P < 0.012); (R2 corr = 0.319; t = -2.906, P < 0.009), which means that the greater the daily stress, the lower the score on visual memory, fluency and total attention speed. We can state that daily stress is related to impairments in visual memory, fluency and attention in patients with SLE. This effect was not found with other emotional variables, such as depression and anxiety. PMID:17211991

  3. Dnmt3a2: a hub for enhancing cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A M M; Hemstedt, T J; Freitag, H E; Bading, H

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms responsible for fear memory formation and extinction are far from being understood. Uncovering the molecules and mechanisms regulating these processes is vital for identifying molecular targets for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for anxiety and fear disorders. Cognitive abilities require the activation of gene expression necessary to the consolidation of lasting changes in neuronal function. In this study we established a key role for an epigenetic factor, the de novo DNA methyltransferase, Dnmt3a2, in memory formation and extinction. We found that Dnmt3a2 overexpression in the hippocampus of young adult mice induced memory enhancements in a variety of situations; it converted a weak learning experience into long-term memory, enhanced fear memory formation and facilitated fear memory extinction. Dnmt3a2 overexpression was also associated with the increased expression of plasticity-related genes. Furthermore, the knockdown of Dnmt3a2 expression impaired the animals' ability to extinguish memories, identifying Dnmt3a2 as a key player in extinction. Thus, Dnmt3a2 is at the core of memory processes and represents a novel target for cognition-enhancing therapies to ameliorate anxiety and fear disorders and boost memory consolidation. PMID:26598069

  4. Assessing cognitive function and capacity in older adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    McKoy, June M; Burhenn, Peggy S; Browner, Ilene S; Loeser, Kari L; Tulas, Katrina M; Oden, Megan R; Rupper, Randall W

    2014-01-01

    The number of older individuals with cancer is increasing exponentially, mandating that oncologists contemplate more comprehensive and multidisciplinary approaches to treatment of this cohort. Recruitment of assessment instruments validated in older patients can be invaluable for guiding treatment and decision-making by both patients and providers, and can arguably contribute to improving outcomes and health-related quality of life. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment is one such validated instrument that can be used by oncologists to assess patient readiness and appropriateness for prescribed cancer therapy. As a multidisciplinary diagnostic and treatment process, it comprises functional status, cognitive status, social support, and advance care preferences, and is an ideal instrument for evaluating complex older individuals. It is well established that many older individuals with cancer travel with multiple comorbid illnesses, including cognitive impairment, and when presented with a cancer diagnosis struggle to choose from multiple treatment options. In addition to the complete medical history, the ability of patients to decide on a course of therapy in concert with their oncologist is critically important. Alternatively, many oncologists are conflicted as to whether true informed consent for treatment can be obtained from many older patients. Having a roadmap to decision-making capacity is therefore an inescapable imperative in geriatric oncology, because careful attention must be directed at identifying older patients with cancer who might benefit from these assessments and the individualized treatment plans that emerge. PMID:24453297

  5. Higher Education is an Age-Independent Predictor of White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Control in Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S.; Grieve, Stuart M.; Brickman, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is ongoing. During late adolescence it is possible to disambiguate age- and education-related effects on the development of these processes. Here we assessed the degree to which higher educational attainment was related to performance on a cognitive control task, controlling for age. We then used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess the degree to which white matter microstructure might mediate this relationship. When covarying age, significant associations were found between educational attainment and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cingulum bundle (CB). Further, when covarying age, FA in these regions was associated with cognitive control. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the age-independent association between educational attainment and cognitive control was completely accounted for by FA in these regions. The uncinate fasciculus, a late-myelinated control region not implicated in cognitive control, did not mediate this effect. PMID:24033571

  6. Higher functioning children with prenatal alcohol exposure: is there a specific neurocognitive profile?

    PubMed

    Quattlebaum, Justin L; O'Connor, Mary J

    2013-01-01

    Recent attempts to identify a neurocognitive profile of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) have led to an emerging "generalized deficit" conceptualization marked by diffuse information processing and integration difficulties as opposed to a specific profile. This study examines whether this conceptualization can be extended to higher functioning children with PAE who are without intellectual disability and addresses several limitations of previous research. One hundred twenty-five children aged 6-12 years with social skills deficits, 97 of whom met diagnostic criteria for a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), underwent a comprehensive, multi-informant assessment of neurocognitive, emotional, social, behavioral, and adaptive functioning. Multivariate analyses of variance examined differences in functioning between the PAE group and a nonexposed comparison group with and without controlling for child IQ. Results indicated that the PAE group returned significantly poorer scores than the nonexposed group on every construct assessed, including executive functioning, attention, working/visuospatial memory, linguistic abstraction, adaptive behavior, emotional/behavioral functioning, and social cognition. These differences largely maintained after controlling for IQ and were similar regardless of informant, although teachers reported somewhat fewer group differences. Within the PAE group, no differences were found across FASD subtypes. These results provide evidence extending the emerging generalized deficit conceptualization of children with PAE to those higher functioning individuals without global intellectual disability. PMID:22905880

  7. Distinct Functions of Egr Gene Family Members in Cognitive Processes

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Roseline; Cheval, Hélène; Mailhes, Caroline; Garel, Sonia; Charnay, Patrick; Davis, Sabrina; Laroche, Serge

    2008-01-01

    The different gene members of the Egr family of transcriptional regulators have often been considered to have related functions in brain, based on their co-expression in many cell-types and structures, the relatively high homology of the translated proteins and their ability to bind to the same consensus DNA binding sequence. Recent research, however, suggest this might not be the case. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of the functional roles of the different Egr family members in learning and memory. We briefly outline evidence from mutant mice that Egr1 is required specifically for the consolidation of long-term memory, while Egr3 is primarily essential for short-term memory. We also review our own recent findings from newly generated forebrain-specific conditional Egr2 mutant mice, which revealed that Egr2, as opposed to Egr1 and Egr3, is dispensable for several forms of learning and memory and on the contrary can act as an inhibitory constraint for certain cognitive functions. The studies reviewed here highlight the fact that Egr family members may have different, and in certain circumstances antagonistic functions in the adult brain. PMID:18982106

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Moderate Effects of Physical Activity on Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Leckie, Regina L.; Manuck, Stephen B.; Bhattacharee, Neha; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Flory, Janine M.; Erickson, Kirk I.

    2014-01-01

    Greater amounts of physical activity (PA) and omega-3 fatty acids have both been independently associated with better cognitive performance. Because of the overlapping biological effects of omega-3 fatty acids and PA, fatty acid intake may modify the effects of PA on neurocognitive function. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining whether the ratio of serum omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid levels would moderate the association between PA and executive and memory functions in 344 participants (Mean age = 44.42 years, SD = 6.72). The Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ), serum fatty acid levels, and performance on a standard neuropsychological battery were acquired on all subjects. A principal component analysis reduced the number of cognitive outcomes to three factors: n-back working memory, Trail Making test, and Logical Memory. We found a significant interaction between PA and the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid serum levels on Trail Making performance and n-back performance, such that higher amounts of omega-3 levels offset the deleterious effects of lower amounts of PA. These effects remained significant in a subsample (n=299) controlling for overall dietary fat consumption. There were no significant additive or multiplicative benefits of higher amounts of both omega-3 and PA on cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids might mitigate the effect of lower levels of PA on cognitive performance. This study illuminates the importance of understanding dietary and PA factors in tandem when exploring their effects on neurocognitive health. PMID:24813150

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids moderate effects of physical activity on cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Leckie, Regina L; Manuck, Stephen B; Bhattacharjee, Neha; Muldoon, Matthew F; Flory, Janine M; Erickson, Kirk I

    2014-07-01

    Greater amounts of physical activity (PA) and omega-3 fatty acids have both been independently associated with better cognitive performance. Because of the overlapping biological effects of omega-3 fatty acids and PA, fatty acid intake may modify the effects of PA on neurocognitive function. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining whether the ratio of serum omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid levels would moderate the association between PA and executive and memory functions in 344 participants (Mean age=44.42 years, SD=6.72). The Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ), serum fatty acid levels, and performance on a standard neuropsychological battery were acquired on all subjects. A principal component analysis reduced the number of cognitive outcomes to three factors: n-back working memory, Trail Making test, and Logical Memory. We found a significant interaction between PA and the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid serum levels on Trail Making performance and n-back performance, such that higher amounts of omega-3 levels offset the deleterious effects of lower amounts of PA. These effects remained significant in a subsample (n=299) controlling for overall dietary fat consumption. There were no significant additive or multiplicative benefits of higher amounts of both omega-3 and PA on cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids might mitigate the effect of lower levels of PA on cognitive performance. This study illuminates the importance of understanding dietary and PA factors in tandem when exploring their effects on neurocognitive health. PMID:24813150

  10. The association between cognitive function and objective adherence to dietary sodium guidelines in patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Dolansky, Mary A; Schaefer, Julie T; Hawkins, Misty AW; Gunstad, John; Basuray, Anup; Redle, Joseph D; Fang, James C; Josephson, Richard A; Moore, Shirley M; Hughes, Joel W

    2016-01-01

    Background Although cognitive impairment is common in heart failure (HF) patients, its effects on sodium adherence recommendations are unknown. Purpose Our aim is to examine if cognitive function is associated with patient sodium adherence. Methods Sodium collection/excretion and cognitive function were assessed for 339 HF patients over a 5–8-week period. Neuropsychological testing was performed at baseline (Visit 1), whereas two 24-hour urine samples were collected within 7 weeks postbaseline. The ability to collect two 24-hour urine samples and the estimation of sodium excretion levels from these samples were used to estimate sodium adherence recommendations. Results Nearly half (47%) of the study participants (n=159) were unable to give two valid 24-hour urine samples. Participants who were unable to adhere to two valid 24-hour urine samples had significantly poorer attention and global cognition tests (P<0.044), with a trend for poorer executive function (P=0.064). Among those with valid samples, urine sodium level was not associated with global cognitive function, attention, executive function, or memory after adjusting for covariates. Female sex was associated with lower sodium excretion (all P<0.01); individuals with knowledge of sodium guidelines had less intake of sodium, resulting in excretion of less sodium (all P≤0.03). Conversely, higher socioeconomic status (SES) and body mass index (BMI) were associated with greater sodium (all P≤0.02 and P≤0.01). Conclusion Adherence to urine sodium collection was poor, especially among those with poorer cognitive function. Sodium consumption exceeded recommended amounts and was unrelated to cognitive function. Interventions for improving sodium adherence should focus on at-risk groups (high SES and BMI) and at improving knowledge of recommended salt intake. PMID:27042017

  11. The functional significance of delta oscillations in cognitive processing

    PubMed Central

    Harmony, Thalía

    2013-01-01

    Ample evidence suggests that electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillatory activity is linked to a broad variety of perceptual, sensorimotor, and cognitive operations. However, few studies have investigated the delta band (0.5–3.5 Hz) during different cognitive processes. The aim of this review is to present data and propose the hypothesis that sustained delta oscillations inhibit interferences that may affect the performance of mental tasks, possibly by modulating the activity of those networks that should be inactive to accomplish the task. It is clear that two functionally distinct and potentially competing brain networks can be broadly distinguished by their contrasting roles in attention to the external world vs. the internally directed mentation or concentration. During concentration, EEG delta (1–3.5 Hz) activity increases mainly in frontal leads in different tasks: mental calculation, semantic tasks, and the Sternberg paradigm. This last task is considered a working memory task, but in neural, as well as phenomenological, terms, working memory can be best understood as attention focused on an internal representation. In the Sternberg task, increases in power in the frequencies from 1 to 3.90 Hz in frontal regions are reported. In a Go/No-Go task, power increases at 1 Hz in both conditions were observed during 100–300 ms in central, parietal and temporal regions. However, in the No-Go condition, power increases were also observed in frontal regions, suggesting its participation in the inhibition of the motor response. Increases in delta power were also reported during semantic tasks in children. In conclusion, the results suggest that power increases of delta frequencies during mental tasks are associated with functional cortical deafferentation, or inhibition of the sensory afferences that interfere with internal concentration. These inhibitory oscillations would modulate the activity of those networks that should be inactive to accomplish the task. PMID

  12. Evolution of mirror systems: a simple mechanism for complex cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Bonini, Luca; Ferrari, Pier Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons (MNs) were first discovered in monkeys and subsequently in humans and birds. While MNs are deemed to play a number of high level cognitive functions, here we propose that they serve a unitary form of sensorimotor recognition of others’ behavior. We caution that this basic function should not be confounded with the higher-order functions that stem from the wider cortical systems in which MNs are embedded. Depending on the species, MNs function at different levels of motor event recognition, from motor goals to fine grained movements, thus contributing to social learning and imitative phenomena. Recent studies show that MN coding has a prospective nature, suggesting that MNs also play a role in anticipating and predicting the behavior of others during social interactions. The presence of mirroring mechanisms in subcortical structures related to visceromotor reactions and the large diffusion of imitative phenomena among animals suggest that MN systems may be more ancient and widespread than previously thought. PMID:21535003

  13. On skew tau-functions in higher spin theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, D.; Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies of higher spin theory in three dimensions concentrate on Wilson loops in Chern-Simons theory, which in the classical limit reduce to peculiar corner matrix elements between the highest and lowest weight states in a given representation of SL( N ). Despite these "skew" tau-functions can seem very different from conventional ones, which are the matrix elements between the two highest weight states, they also satisfy the Toda recursion between different fundamental representations. Moreover, in the most popular examples they possess simple representations in terms of matrix models and Schur functions. We provide a brief introduction to this new interesting field, which, after quantization, can serve as an additional bridge between knot and integrability theories.

  14. Effect of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function: an event-related cortical desynchronization study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Wei, Gao-Xia

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function using the Stroop test and event-related desynchronization (ERD) in an aged population. Old adults (63.10 ± 2.89 years) were first assigned to either a high-fitness or a low-fitness group, and they were then subjected to an acute exercise treatment and a reading control treatment in a counterbalanced order. Alpha ERD was recorded during the Stroop test, which was administered after both treatments. Acute exercise improved cognitive performance regardless of the level of cognition, and old adults with higher fitness levels received greater benefits from acute exercise. Additionally, acute exercise, rather than overall fitness, elicited greater lower and upper alpha ERDs relative to the control condition. These findings indirectly suggest that the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance may result from exercise-induced attentional control observed during frontal neural excitation. PMID:25308605

  15. Cognitive function, social functioning and quality of life in first-episode psychosis: A 1-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Popolo, Raffaele; Vinci, Giancarlo; Balbi, Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Abstract Objective. The majority of patients with schizophrenia have cognitive deficits early in the disease. We evaluated the relationship between cognitive function, social functioning and quality of life in patients with first-episode psychosis. Methods. This was a longitudinal study in 15 patients aged 18-30 years who had recently experienced a first psychotic episode and were treated with the atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole, cognitive-behavioural therapy, psycho-educational sessions, family supportive sessions and social interventions. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after 1 year. Cognitive assessment included attention, memory, language skills and problem solving. Social functioning, quality of life, and psychopathological evaluation were performed with validated tools. Results. At baseline, patients had a severe impairment of social functioning and a low quality of life, while a specific pattern of cognitive functions was not identified. After 1-year, we observed a significant improvement in social functioning and quality of life, without a significant decrease in cognitive function. Conclusion. Contrary to previous findings, we found that social functioning and quality of life are related, but independent of cognitive impairment. The use of antipsychotic agents that do not interefere with cognitive function plus psychological assistance is a valuable treatment approach in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. PMID:24917230

  16. Relations between Recent Past Leisure Activities with Risks of Dementia and Cognitive Functions after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Adrian; Lau, Alexander Y. L.; Lo, Eugene; Tang, Michael; Wang, Zhaolu; Liu, Wenyan; Tanner, Nicole; Chau, Natalie; Law, Lorraine; Shi, Lin; Chu, Winnie C. W.; Yang, Jie; Xiong, Yun-yun; Lam, Bonnie Y. K.; Au, Lisa; Chan, Anne Y. Y.; Soo, Yannie; Leung, Thomas W. H.; Wong, Lawrence K. S.; Lam, Linda C. W.; Mok, Vincent C. T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Leisure activity participation has been shown to lower risks of cognitive decline in non-stroke populations. However, effects of leisure activities participation upon cognitive functions and risk of dementia after stroke are unclear. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of recent past leisure activities participation upon cognitive functions and risk of incident dementia after stroke. Methods Hospital-based, retrospective cohort study. 88 of 1,013 patients with stroke or TIA having no prestroke dementia were diagnosed to have incident poststroke dementia (PSD) 3–6 months after stroke. Regular participation (≥3 times per week) in intellectual, recreational, social and physical activities over the year before the index stroke was retrospectively recorded at 3–6 months after stroke. Results Logistic regression analyses showed that regular participation in intellectual (RR 0.36, 95%CI 0.20–0.63) and stretching & toning physical exercise (0.37, 0.21–0.64) was significantly associated with a reduced risk of PSD after controlling for age, education, prestroke cognitive decline, stroke subtype, prior strokes and chronic brain changes including white matter changes, old infarcts and global atrophy. Results were similar in patients with past strokes in unadjusted models. Participation in increased number of activities in general (r = 0.41, p<0.01) and in intellectual (r = 0.40, p<0.01), recreational (r = 0.24, p<0.01), strenuous aerobic (r = 0.23, p<0.01) and mind-body (r = 0.10, p<0.01) activities was associated with higher poststroke Mini-mental State Examination scores in models adjusted for prestroke cognitive decline. Conclusions Regular participation in intellectual activities and stretching & toning exercise was associated with a significantly reduced short-term risk of PSD in patients with and without recurrent strokes. Participation in greater number of recent past leisure activities was associated with better poststroke cognitive

  17. Multifactorial determinants of cognition — Thyroid function is not the only one

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Roy; Ortner, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Background Since the 1960s hypothyroidism together with iodine deficiency have been considered to be a principal determinant of cognition development. Following iodine supplementation programs and improved treatment options for hypothyroidism this relation might not be valid in 2015. On the other hand neurosciences have added different inputs also related to cognition. Scope of review We will examine the characteristics of the original and current publications on thyroid function and cognition and also add some general determinants of intelligence and cognition. One central issue for us is the relation of stress to cognition knowing that both physical and psychological stress, are frequent elements in subjects with thyroid dysfunction. We have considered a special type of stress called pre-natal stress which can influence cognitive functions. Fear and anxiety can be intermingled requiring mechanisms of fear extinction. Major conclusions Recent studies have failed to show an influence of thyroid medication during pregnancy on intellectual development. Neuroscience offers a better explanation of cognition than hypothyroidism and iodine deficiency. Additional factors relevant to cognition are nutrition, infection, prenatal stress, and early life stress. In turn stress is related to low magnesium levels. Magnesium supplementation can correct both latent hypothyroidism and acquired mild cognitive deficits. General significance Cognition is a complex process that depends on many determinants and not only on thyroid function. Magnesium deficiency appears to be a basic mechanism for changes in thyroid function as well as of cognition. PMID:26672993

  18. Physical Activity and Cognitive Function in Older Adults: The Mediating Effect of Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Vance, David E; Marson, Daniel C; Triebel, Kristen L; Ball, Karlene K; Wadley, Virginia G; Cody, Shameka L

    2016-01-01

    Depressive symptoms and social networks may influence the relationship between physical activity and cognition. Using structural equation modeling, depressive symptoms and social networks were examined as mediators between physical activity and cognition in community-dwelling older adults (N = 122), with a range of cognitive abilities (e.g., normal, mild cognitive impairment). The model included age, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleeping, social networks, depressive symptoms, and cognitive function. A path was observed between physical activity, depressive symptoms, and cognition; specifically, those who were more physically active experienced less depression and better cognitive functioning. No relationship between social networks and cognition was found. This model fits the data well (goodness-of-fit index = .93, adjusted goodness-of-fit index = .90, root mean square error of approximation = .06). Results suggest that physical activity may mitigate depressive symptoms, with beneficial effects on cognitive functioning in both those with and without mild cognitive impairment. Suggestions for managing depression and improving cognitive functioning are provided. PMID:27224681

  19. Higher-dimensional Wannier functions of multiparameter Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanke, Jan-Philipp; Freimuth, Frank; Blügel, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy

    2015-05-01

    When using Wannier functions to study the electronic structure of multiparameter Hamiltonians H(k ,λ ) carrying a dependence on crystal momentum k and an additional periodic parameter λ , one usually constructs several sets of Wannier functions for a set of values of λ . We present the concept of higher-dimensional Wannier functions (HDWFs), which provide a minimal and accurate description of the electronic structure of multiparameter Hamiltonians based on a single set of HDWFs. The obstacle of nonorthogonality of Bloch functions at different λ is overcome by introducing an auxiliary real space, which is reciprocal to the parameter λ . We derive a generalized interpolation scheme and emphasize the essential conceptual and computational simplifications in using the formalism, for instance, in the evaluation of linear response coefficients. We further implement the necessary machinery to construct HDWFs from ab initio within the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method (FLAPW). We apply our implementation to accurately interpolate the Hamiltonian of a one-dimensional magnetic chain of Mn atoms in two important cases of λ : (i) the spin-spiral vector q and (ii) the direction of the ferromagnetic magnetization m ̂. Using the generalized interpolation of the energy, we extract the corresponding values of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy, Heisenberg exchange constants, and spin stiffness, which compare very well with the values obtained from direct first principles calculations. For toy models we demonstrate that the method of HDWFs can also be used in applications such as the virtual crystal approximation, ferroelectric polarization, and spin torques.

  20. Confronting Social Injustice: Cognitive Dissonance and Civic Development in Higher Education Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Leslie Cohen

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative, insider account of student civic development in a university service-learning course has two primary goals. One is to propose frameworks for describing the process of civic development of service-learning students that are situated in theories of civic identity, cognitive development, and cognitive dissonance. The other is to…

  1. Understanding the Complexities of Cognition and Creativity to Reform Higher Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welkener, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the connections between the cognitive dimension of human meaning-making and creativity, using a metaphor from the artistic process of additive sculpture as a framework. The author weaves together various theoretical perspectives about cognition and creativity and shares the promise of recognizing the nexus of these notions…

  2. Cognitive reserve is associated with the functional organization of the brain in healthy aging: a MEG study

    PubMed Central

    López, María E.; Aurtenetxe, Sara; Pereda, Ernesto; Cuesta, Pablo; Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Bruña, Ricardo; Niso, Guiomar; Maestú, Fernando; Bajo, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of elderly people in the population has increased rapidly in the last century and consequently “healthy aging” is expected to become a critical area of research in neuroscience. Evidence reveals how healthy aging depends on three main behavioral factors: social lifestyle, cognitive activity, and physical activity. In this study, we focused on the role of cognitive activity, concentrating specifically on educational and occupational attainment factors, which were considered two of the main pillars of cognitive reserve (CR). Twenty-one subjects with similar rates of social lifestyle, physical and cognitive activity were selected from a sample of 55 healthy adults. These subjects were divided into two groups according to their level of CR; one group comprised subjects with high CR (9 members) and the other one contained those with low CR (12 members). To evaluate the cortical brain connectivity network, all participants were recorded by Magnetoencephalography (MEG) while they performed a memory task (modified version of the Sternberg's Task). We then applied two algorithms [Phase Locking Value (PLV) and Phase Lag Index (PLI)] to study the dynamics of functional connectivity. In response to the same task, the subjects with lower CR presented higher functional connectivity than those with higher CR. These results may indicate that participants with low CR needed a greater “effort” than those with high CR to achieve the same level of cognitive performance. Therefore, we conclude that CR contributes to the modulation of the functional connectivity patterns of the aging brain. PMID:24982632

  3. Cognitive reserve is associated with the functional organization of the brain in healthy aging: a MEG study.

    PubMed

    López, María E; Aurtenetxe, Sara; Pereda, Ernesto; Cuesta, Pablo; Castellanos, Nazareth P; Bruña, Ricardo; Niso, Guiomar; Maestú, Fernando; Bajo, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of elderly people in the population has increased rapidly in the last century and consequently "healthy aging" is expected to become a critical area of research in neuroscience. Evidence reveals how healthy aging depends on three main behavioral factors: social lifestyle, cognitive activity, and physical activity. In this study, we focused on the role of cognitive activity, concentrating specifically on educational and occupational attainment factors, which were considered two of the main pillars of cognitive reserve (CR). Twenty-one subjects with similar rates of social lifestyle, physical and cognitive activity were selected from a sample of 55 healthy adults. These subjects were divided into two groups according to their level of CR; one group comprised subjects with high CR (9 members) and the other one contained those with low CR (12 members). To evaluate the cortical brain connectivity network, all participants were recorded by Magnetoencephalography (MEG) while they performed a memory task (modified version of the Sternberg's Task). We then applied two algorithms [Phase Locking Value (PLV) and Phase Lag Index (PLI)] to study the dynamics of functional connectivity. In response to the same task, the subjects with lower CR presented higher functional connectivity than those with higher CR. These results may indicate that participants with low CR needed a greater "effort" than those with high CR to achieve the same level of cognitive performance. Therefore, we conclude that CR contributes to the modulation of the functional connectivity patterns of the aging brain. PMID:24982632

  4. Intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia: relationships to cognitive function, depression, anxiety, and personality.

    PubMed

    Barch, Deanna M; Yodkovik, Naomi; Sypher-Locke, Hannah; Hanewinkel, Melissa

    2008-11-01

    The goal of the current project was to assess subjective reports of intrinsic motivation and their relationship to cognitive function, mood, and personality in schizophrenia. The authors used the Motivational Trait Questionnaire to examine 3 components of intrinsic motivation (personal mastery, competitive excellence, motivation related to anxiety). They also examined fluid intelligence, context processing, and working memory, as well as self-reports of mood and personal traits related to motivation. Participants were 66 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 44 healthy controls. Self-reports of personal mastery and competitive excellence did not differ between controls and individuals with schizophrenia, though patients did report significantly higher motivation related to anxiety. Among controls, but not patients, self-reports of intrinsic motivation were strongly related to cognitive performance. In contrast, both controls and patients showed similar strong relationships between self-reports of intrinsic motivation and related measures of mood and personality. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis that motivational deficits in schizophrenia reflect impairments in intrinsic motivation. However, they do suggest that the normal relationship between self-reports of intrinsic motivation and cognitive function is disrupted in schizophrenia. PMID:19025225

  5. Evaluating Effects of Heat Stress on Cognitive Function among Workers in a Hot Industry

    PubMed Central

    Mazloumi, Adel; Golbabaei, Farideh; Mahmood Khani, Somayeh; Kazemi, Zeinab; Hosseini, Mostafa; Abbasinia, Marzieh; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh

    2014-01-01

    Background:Heat stress, as one of the most common occupational health problems, can impair operators' cognitive processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of thermal stress on cognitive function among workers in a hot industry. Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted in Malibel Saipa Company in 2013, workers were assigned into two groups: one group were exposed to heat stress (n=35), working in casting unit and the other group working in machining unit (n=35) with a normal air conditioning. Wet Bulb Globe Temperature was measured at three heights of ankle, abdomen, and head. In order to evaluate the effects of heat stress on attention and reaction time, Stroop tests 1, 2, and 3 were conducted before starting the work and during the work. Results: A significant positive correlation was observed between WBGT and test duration (P=0.01) and reaction time of Stroop test 3 (P=0.047), and between number of errors in Stroop tests 1, 2, and 3, during the work (P= 0.001). Moreover, Stroop test 3 showed a significant higher score for both test duration and reaction time of workers in case group. Conclusion: Results of the present study, conducted in a real work environment, confirmed the impairment of cognitive functions, including selective attention and reaction time, under heat stress conditions. PMID:25649311

  6. Effect of Permanent Atrial Fibrillation on Cognitive Function in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Coma, Maria; González-Moneo, Maria Jesús; Enjuanes, Cristina; Velázquez, Paula Poveda; Espargaró, Deva Bas; Pérez, Bernardo Andrés; Tajes, Marta; Garcia-Elias, Anna; Farré, Núria; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Martí-Almor, Julio; Comin-Colet, Josep; Benito, Begoña

    2016-01-15

    In patients with chronic heart failure (HF), cognitive impairment (CI) is associated with poorer treatment adherence and higher readmission and mortality rates. Previous studies suggest that atrial fibrillation (AF) could impair cognitive function. This study sought to assess the association between permanent AF (permAF) and CI in patients with HF. We evaluated cognitive function in 881 patients with stable HF (73 ± 11 years, 44% women, 48% with preserved ejection fraction) using the Mini-Mental State Examination test (n = 876) and the Pfeiffer's Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (n = 848). CI was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination score <24 or Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (errors) >2. The independent association between permAF and CI was assessed by binary logistic regression analysis. A total of 295 patients (33.5%) had CI, in 5.1% of cases moderate/severe. Patients with permAF had more frequently any degree of CI (43% vs 31%), and moderate/severe CI (8% vs 5%). In the multivariate analysis, CI was associated with permAF (odds ratio 1.54, 95% C.I. 1.05 to 2.28), an older age, female gender, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, previous stroke, New York Heart Association class III/IV, and lower systolic blood pressure. No interaction was found for AF and CI between patients with reduced and preserved ejection fraction. In conclusion, the presence of permAF is independently associated with CI in patients with HF, both with reduced and preserved ejection fraction. Given the clinical impact of CI in the HF population, active assessment of cognitive function is particularly warranted in patients with HF with permAF. PMID:26686573

  7. Alzheimer's disease neurodegenerative biomarkers are associated with decreased cognitive function but not β-amyloid in cognitively normal older individuals.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Miranka; Madison, Cindee M; Rabinovici, Gil D; Oh, Hwamee; Landau, Susan M; Jagust, William J

    2013-03-27

    β-Amyloid (Aβ) plaque deposition and neurodegeneration within temporoparietal and hippocampal regions may indicate increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study examined relationships between AD biomarkers of Aβ and neurodegeneration as well as cognitive performance in cognitively normal older individuals. Aβ burden was quantified in 72 normal older human subjects from the Berkeley Aging Cohort (BAC) using [(11)C] Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) positron emission tomography. In the same individuals, we measured hippocampal volume, as well as glucose metabolism and cortical thickness, which were extracted from a template of cortical AD-affected regions. The three functional and structural biomarkers were merged into a highly AD-sensitive multimodality biomarker reflecting neural integrity. In the normal older individuals, there was no association between elevated PIB uptake and either the single-modality or the multimodality neurodegenerative biomarkers. Lower neural integrity within the AD-affected regions and a control area (the visual cortex) was related to lower scores on memory and executive function tests; the same association was not found with PIB retention. The relationship between cognition and the multimodality AD biomarker was stronger in individuals with the highest PIB uptake. The findings indicate that neurodegeneration occurs within AD regions regardless of Aβ deposition and accounts for worse cognition in cognitively normal older people. The impact of neural integrity on cognitive functions is, however, enhanced in the presence of high Aβ burden for brain regions that are most affected in AD. PMID:23536070

  8. The effects of cognitive rehabilitation on Alzheimer’s dementia patients’ cognitive assessment reference diagnosis system performance based on level of cognitive functioning

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jung-Ha; Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Cho, Hyuk-Shin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to apply cognitive rehabilitation according to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients’ level of cognitive functioning to compare changes in Cognitive Assessment Reference Diagnosis System performance and present standards for effective intervention. [Subjects] Subjects were 30 inpatients diagnosed with AD. Subjects were grouped by Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) class (CDR-0.5, CDR-1, or CDR-2, n = 10 per group), which is based on level of cognitive functioning, and cognitive rehabilitation was applied for 50 minutes per day, five days per week, for four weeks. [Methods] After cognitive rehabilitation intervention, CARDS tests were conducted to evaluate memory. [Results] Bonferroni tests comparing the three groups revealed that the CDR-0.5 and CDR-1 groups showed significant increases in Delayed 10 word-list, Delayed 10 object-list, Recognition 10 object, and Recent memory performance compared to the CDR-2 group. In addition, the CDR-0.5 group showed significant decreases in Recognition 10 word performance compared to the CDR-1 group. [Conclusion] Cognitive rehabilitation, CDR-0.5 or CDR-1 subjects showed significantly greater memory improvements than CDR-2 subjects. Moreover, was not effective for CDR-2 subjects. PMID:26504315

  9. Failing to get the gist of what's being said: background noise impairs higher-order cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Marsh, John E; Ljung, Robert; Nöstl, Anatole; Threadgold, Emma; Campbell, Tom A

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic interplay is known to exist between auditory processing and human cognition. For example, prior investigations of speech-in-noise have revealed there is more to learning than just listening: Even if all words within a spoken list are correctly heard in noise, later memory for those words is typically impoverished. These investigations supported a view that there is a "gap" between the intelligibility of speech and memory for that speech. Here, the notion was that this gap between speech intelligibility and memorability is a function of the extent to which the spoken message seizes limited immediate memory resources (e.g., Kjellberg et al., 2008). Accordingly, the more difficult the processing of the spoken message, the less resources are available for elaboration, storage, and recall of that spoken material. However, it was not previously known how increasing that difficulty affected the memory processing of semantically rich spoken material. This investigation showed that noise impairs higher levels of cognitive analysis. A variant of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure that encourages semantic elaborative processes was deployed. On each trial, participants listened to a 36-item list comprising 12 words blocked by each of 3 different themes. Each of those 12 words (e.g., bed, tired, snore…) was associated with a "critical" lure theme word that was not presented (e.g., sleep). Word lists were either presented without noise or at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5 decibels upon an A-weighting. Noise reduced false recall of the critical words, and decreased the semantic clustering of recall. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:26052289

  10. Failing to get the gist of what's being said: background noise impairs higher-order cognitive processing

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, John E.; Ljung, Robert; Nöstl, Anatole; Threadgold, Emma; Campbell, Tom A.

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic interplay is known to exist between auditory processing and human cognition. For example, prior investigations of speech-in-noise have revealed there is more to learning than just listening: Even if all words within a spoken list are correctly heard in noise, later memory for those words is typically impoverished. These investigations supported a view that there is a “gap” between the intelligibility of speech and memory for that speech. Here, the notion was that this gap between speech intelligibility and memorability is a function of the extent to which the spoken message seizes limited immediate memory resources (e.g., Kjellberg et al., 2008). Accordingly, the more difficult the processing of the spoken message, the less resources are available for elaboration, storage, and recall of that spoken material. However, it was not previously known how increasing that difficulty affected the memory processing of semantically rich spoken material. This investigation showed that noise impairs higher levels of cognitive analysis. A variant of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure that encourages semantic elaborative processes was deployed. On each trial, participants listened to a 36-item list comprising 12 words blocked by each of 3 different themes. Each of those 12 words (e.g., bed, tired, snore…) was associated with a “critical” lure theme word that was not presented (e.g., sleep). Word lists were either presented without noise or at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5 decibels upon an A-weighting. Noise reduced false recall of the critical words, and decreased the semantic clustering of recall. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:26052289

  11. Self-reported sleep duration mitigates the association between inflammation and cognitive functioning in hospitalized older men.

    PubMed

    Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Song, Yeonsu; Fung, Constance H; Rodriguez, Juan C; Jouldjian, Stella; Alessi, Cathy A; Breen, Elizabeth C; Irwin, Michael R; Martin, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Examination of predictors of late-life cognitive functioning is particularly salient in at-risk older adults, such as those who have been recently hospitalized. Sleep and inflammation are independently related to late-life cognitive functioning. The potential role of sleep as a moderator of the relationship between inflammation and global cognitive functioning has not been adequately addressed. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration, inflammatory markers, and general cognitive functioning in hospitalized older men. Older men (n = 135; Mean age = 72.9 ± 9.7 years) were recruited from inpatient rehabilitation units at a VA Medical Center to participate in a cross-sectional study of sleep. Participants completed the Mini-Mental State Examination and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and underwent an 8 a.m. blood draw to measure inflammatory markers [i.e., C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)]. Hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for age, education, race, depression, pain, health comorbidity, and BMI) revealed that higher levels of CRP and sICAM are associated with higher global cognitive functioning in older men with sleep duration ≥6 h (β = -0.19, β = -0.18, p's < 0.05, respectively), but not in those with short sleep durations (p's > 0.05). In elderly hospitalized men, sleep duration moderates the association between inflammation and cognitive functioning. These findings have implications for the clinical care of older men within medical settings. PMID:26257670

  12. Cognitive Impairment Precedes and Predicts Functional Impairment in Mild Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu-Seifert, Hong; Siemers, Eric; Price, Karen; Han, Baoguang; Selzler, Katherine J.; Henley, David; Sundell, Karen; Aisen, Paul; Cummings, Jeffrey; Raskin, Joel; Mohs, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The temporal relationship of cognitive deficit and functional impairment in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is not well characterized. Recent analyses suggest cognitive decline predicts subsequent functional decline throughout AD progression. Objective: To better understand the relationship between cognitive and functional decline in mild AD using autoregressive cross-lagged (ARCL) panel analyses in several clinical trials. Methods: Data included placebo patients with mild AD pooled from two multicenter, double-blind, Phase 3 solanezumab (EXPEDITION/2) or semagacestat (IDENTITY/2) studies, and from AD patients participating in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Cognitive and functional outcomes were assessed using AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog), AD Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living instrumental subscale (ADCS-iADL), or Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ), respectively. ARCL panel analyses evaluated relationships between cognitive and functional impairment over time. Results: In EXPEDITION, ARCL panel analyses demonstrated cognitive scores significantly predicted future functional impairment at 5 of 6 time points, while functional scores predicted subsequent cognitive scores in only 1 of 6 time points. Data from IDENTITY and ADNI programs yielded consistent results whereby cognition predicted subsequent function, but not vice-versa. Conclusions: Analyses from three databases indicated cognitive decline precedes and predicts subsequent functional decline in mild AD dementia, consistent with previously proposed hypotheses, and corroborate recent publications using similar methodologies. Cognitive impairment may be used as a predictor of future functional impairment in mild AD dementia and can be considered a critical target for prevention strategies to limit future functional decline in the dementia process. PMID:26402769

  13. Association between Lifetime Physical Activity and Cognitive Functioning in Middle-Aged and Older Community Dwelling Adults: Results from the Brain in Motion Study.

    PubMed

    Gill, Stephanie J; Friedenreich, Christine M; Sajobi, Tolulope T; Longman, R Stewart; Drogos, Lauren L; Davenport, Margie H; Tyndall, Amanda V; Eskes, Gail A; Hogan, David B; Hill, Michael D; Parboosingh, Jillian S; Wilson, Ben J; Poulin, Marc J

    2015-11-01

    To determine if total lifetime physical activity (PA) is associated with better cognitive functioning with aging and if cerebrovascular function mediates this association. A sample of 226 (52.2% female) community dwelling middle-aged and older adults (66.5 ± 6.4 years) in the Brain in Motion Study, completed the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire and underwent neuropsychological and cerebrovascular blood flow testing. Multiple robust linear regressions were used to model the associations between lifetime PA and global cognition after adjusting for age, sex, North American Adult Reading Test results (i.e., an estimate of premorbid intellectual ability), maximal aerobic capacity, body mass index and interactions between age, sex, and lifetime PA. Mediation analysis assessed the effect of cerebrovascular measures on the association between lifetime PA and global cognition. Post hoc analyses assessed past year PA and current fitness levels relation to global cognition and cerebrovascular measures. Better global cognitive performance was associated with higher lifetime PA (p=.045), recreational PA (p=.021), and vigorous intensity PA (p=.004), PA between the ages of 0 and 20 years (p=.036), and between the ages of 21 and 35 years (p.5), but partially mediated the relation between current fitness and global cognition. This study revealed significant associations between higher levels of PA (i.e., total lifetime, recreational, vigorous PA, and past year) and better cognitive function in later life. Current fitness levels relation to cognitive function may be partially mediated through current cerebrovascular function. PMID:26581793

  14. Development of Knowledge Frameworks and Higher Order Cognitive Operations among Secondary School Students Who Studied a Unit on Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischoff, Paul J.; Anderson, O. Roger

    2001-01-01

    Interviews 9th and 10th grade students (n=13) who studied an ecology unit and analyzed tape-recorded data for changes in organization of knowledge, represented by ideational networks and the development of higher cognitive operations. Provides insights into how students developed knowledge schemata, ideational networks, and the capacity to express…

  15. Differences in General Cognitive Abilities and Domain-Specific Skills of Higher-and Lower-Achieving Students in Stoichiometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Eilks, Ingo; Bowman, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a comparison of a group of higher-and lower-achieving undergraduate chemistry students, 17 in total, as separated on their ability in stoichiometry. This exploratory study of 17 students investigated parallels and differences in the students' general and domain-specific cognitive abilities. Performance, strategies, and…

  16. The Impact of Learning Driven Constructs on the Perceived Higher Order Cognitive Skills Improvement: Multimedia vs. Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagarukayo, Emily; Weide, Theo; Mbarika, Victor; Kim, Min

    2012-01-01

    The study aims at determining the impact of learning driven constructs on Perceived Higher Order Cognitive Skills (HOCS) improvement when using multimedia and text materials. Perceived HOCS improvement is the attainment of HOCS based on the students' perceptions. The research experiment undertaken using a case study was conducted on 223 students…

  17. Cooperative Weblog Learning in Higher Education: Its Facilitating Effects on Social Interaction, Time Lag, and Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tien-Chi; Huang, Yueh-Min; Yu, Fu-Yun

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of using weblog technologies to support cooperative learning in higher education. The study focused on the effects of features embedded in weblogs on social interactions, time lags, and cognitive loads. A quasi-experimental control-group research design was adopted. The participants were 115 undergraduates who were…

  18. Philosophical and Socio-Cognitive Foundations for Teaching in Higher Education through Collaborative Approaches to Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the implications for higher education of recent work on narrative theory, distributed cognition and artificial intelligence. These perspectives are contrasted with the educational implications of Heidegger's ontological phenomenology [being-there and being-aware (Da-sein)] and with the classic and classical foundations of…

  19. [Cognitive Function and Calcium. Cognitive improvement through T type calcium channel stimulation].

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Kohji

    2015-02-01

    Low-threshold Ca2+ spikes are mediated by T-type Ca2+ channels, which have fast inactivation and slow deactivation kinetics (transient) , and single channel conductance. The activation are triggered by -60 to -65 mV. T-type Ca2+ channels are predominantly expressed in the brain and heart pacemaker cells. Three subtypes of T-type Ca2+ channels Cav3.1 (α1G), Cav3.2 (α1H), Cav3.3 (α1I) encoding by CACNA1G, CACNA1H, CACNA1I genes have been cloned. Although high-threshold voltage-gated Ca2+ channels have auxiliary α2δ, β, γ subunits, T-type Ca2+ channels are composed only by α1 subunit. Although T-type Ca2+ channels are involved in the pace making in heart and a robust low-threshold Ca2+ spike in neurons, the physiological functions in the memory and synaptic plasticity remain unclear. In this paper, I would like to focus on the pathophysiological relevance of T-type Ca2+ channels in the brain functions including cognition. PMID:25634050

  20. What is your patient’s cognitive profile? Three distinct subgroups of cognitive function in persons with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Misty A.W.; Schaefer, Julie T.; Gunstad, John; Dolansky, Mary A.; Redle, Joseph D.; Josephson, Richard; Moore, Shirley M.; Hughes, Joel W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether patients with heart failure (HF) have distinct profiles of cognitive impairment. Background Cognitive impairment is common in HF. Recent work found three cognitive profiles in HF patients— (1) intact, (2) impaired, and (3) memory-impaired. We examined the reproducibility of these profiles and clarified mechanisms. Methods HF patients (68.6±9.7years; N=329) completed neuropsychological testing. Composite scores were created for cognitive domains and used to identify clusters via agglomerative-hierarchical cluster analysis. Results A 3-cluster solution emerged. Cluster 1 (n=109) had intact cognition. Cluster 2 (n=123) was impaired across all domains. Cluster 3 (n=97) had impaired memory only. Clusters differed in age, race, education, SES, IQ, BMI, and diabetes (ps ≤.026) but not in mood, anxiety, cardiovascular, or pulmonary disease (ps≥.118). Conclusions We replicated three distinct patterns of cognitive function in persons with HF. These profiles may help providers offer tailored care to patients with different cognitive and clinical needs. PMID:25510559

  1. [Effect of Stellate Ganglion Block on Bilateral Regional Cerebral Oxygen Saturation and Postoperative Cognitive Function].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Qian, Yanning; Bao, Hongguang; Shi, Hongwei; Zhou, Jianwei

    2016-02-01

    The present study was to examine the effect of stellate ganglion block (SGB) on bilateral regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) and postoperative cognitive function. Eighty patients undergoing selective coronary artery bypass graft with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were randomly and equally divided into two groups. The patients in group S were given right SGB with ropivacaine, while the patients in group C were injected with normal saline. We compared the bilateral rSO2 after SGB. Minimum Mental State Examination (MMSE), Visual Verbal Learning Test (VVLT), and Digital Span Test (DST) were applied to observe the effect on cognitive function. We found that the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) 7 days after surgery in group S was lower than that in group C. The level of blocked side rSO₂ of S group were significantly higher before CPB time of rewarming than that before SGB (P < 0.05), much higher than corresponding non-blocked side rSO₂ before CPB (P < 0.05), and much higher than rSO₂ level in group C before CPB and after CPB (P < 0.05). The non-blocked side rSO₂ in group S before anesthesia were much lower than basic levels and those in group C (P < 0.05). It could be concluded from the above results that there was significant increase in the blocked-side rSO₂ compared to the non-blocked side and there was significant decrease in the incidence of POCD compared to the control group after SGB. PMID:27382753

  2. Mediterranean diet, healthy eating index 2005, and cognitive function in middle-aged and older Puerto Rican adults.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xingwang; Scott, Tammy; Gao, Xiang; Maras, Janice E; Bakun, Peter J; Tucker, Katherine L

    2013-02-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean diet has recently been shown to protect against cognitive decline and dementia. It remains unclear, however, whether such protection extends to different ethnic groups and middle-aged individuals and how it might compare with adherence to the US Department of Agriculture's 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (measured with Healthy Eating Index 2005 [HEI 2005]). This study examined associations between diet quality, as assessed by the Mediterranean diet and HEI 2005, and cognitive performance in a sample of 1,269 Puerto Rican adults aged 45 to 75 years and living in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts. Dietary intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire specifically designed for and validated with this population. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed with a 0- to 9-point scale, and the HEI 2005 score was calculated with a maximum score of 100. Cognitive performance was measured with a battery of seven tests and the Mini Mental State Examination was used for global cognitive function. Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with higher Mini Mental State Examination score (P trend=0.012) and lower likelihood (odds ratio=0.87 for each additional point; 95% CI 0.80 to 0.94; P<0.001) of cognitive impairment, after adjustment for confounders. Similarly, individuals with higher HEI 2005 score had higher Mini Mental State Examination score (P trend=0.011) and lower odds of cognitive impairment (odds ratio=0.86 for each 10 points; 95% CI 0.74 to 0.99; P=0.033). In conclusion, high adherence to either the Mediterranean diet or the diet recommended by the US Department of Agriculture 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans can protect cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:23351632

  3. The association between dairy product consumption and cognitive function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Park, Keigan M; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2013-03-28

    The present cross-sectional study sought to determine the potential relationships between the intake of dairy foods (total dairy products, milk and cheese) and cognitive function through information garnered in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1988-94 and 1999-2002). Cognitive measures of vasomotor speed, coding speed and immediate memory recall were assessed from a simple reaction time task (SRTT), symbol-digit substitution test (SDST) and serial digit learning task, respectively, in adults 20-59 years of age. A summation of the percentile rank scores on each of the three tests provided a measure of overall cognitive function. In adults 60 years of age and above, a story recall test and a digit-symbol substitution test (DSST) were utilised to determine cognitive function in an elderly population. The results indicated that cognitive scores for the SRTT were not different between consumers and non-consumers of dairy foods. However, there were associations observed between 20- and 59-year-old consumers of total dairy foods and a higher SDST percentile score (53.2 (SE 1.3) to 49.4 (SE 2.0)) and a calculated global cognitive percentile score (53.3 (SE 1.1) to 50.2 (SE 1.4)) compared with non-consumers. A similar significant association was observed with cheese consumers. In adults over 60 years of age, an association between total dairy product consumption and higher DSST percentile scores (51.5 (SE 1.9) to 46.2 (se 3.0)) was also observed. These findings highlight the need for additional research on how dairy products may affect cognition and by what mechanisms, through its nutrients or other components. PMID:23168329

  4. Pain Reports by Older Hospice Cancer Patients and Family Caregivers: The Role of Cognitive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Rebecca S.; Haley, William E.; Small, Brent J.; McMillan, Susan C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Prior research in nursing homes has shown that cognitive impairment may reduce self-reported pain, but this relation has not been systematically explored among hospice patients. The assessment and treatment of pain is a primary goal of hospice care, and both disease processes and the use of opioid analgesics may lead to cognitive impairment among hospice patients. However, little is known about how cognitive functioning may impact the self-report of pain or the report of care recipient pain by family caregivers. Design and Methods We explored the associations between pain, cognitive functioning, and gender among cancer patients and their family caregivers (N = 176 dyads) during in-home hospice care. This was a cross-sectional, correlational study. Results Contrary to expectation, care recipients with cognitive impairment reported more intense pain than care recipients with intact cognitive functioning. However, cognitive impairment among care recipients had no impact on the pain report of family caregivers. Care recipient cognitive impairment was related to greater discrepancy in the pain reports of caregivers and care recipients. No gender differences in pain intensity report were found. Implications Measurement issues and implications for assessing self-reported pain among hospice cancer patients with impaired cognitive functioning and the report of care recipient pain by family caregivers are discussed. Specifically, hospice staff must educate family caregivers regarding the potential impact of care recipient cognitive impairment on pain reports in order to facilitate accurate pain assessment and management. PMID:12145378

  5. Impact of Ramadan intermittent fasting on cognitive function in trained cyclists: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chamari, K; Briki, W; Farooq, A; Patrick, T; Belfekih, T; Herrera, C P

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed selected measures of cognitive function in trained cyclists who observed daylight fasting during Ramadan. Eleven cyclists volunteered to participate (age: 21.6±4.8 years, VO2max: 57.7±5.6 ml kg(-1)·min(-1)) and were followed for 2 months. Cognitive function (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), Reaction Time index (RTI) and Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) tests) and sleep architecture (ambulatory EEG) were assessed: before Ramadan (BR), in the 1st week (RA1) and 4th week of Ramadan (RA4), and 2 weeks post-Ramadan (PR). Both cognitive tests were performed twice per day: before and after Ramadan at 8-10 a.m. and 4-6 p.m., and during Ramadan at 4-6 p.m. and 0-2 a.m., respectively. Training load (TL) by the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) method and wellness (Hooper index) were measured daily. If the TL increased over the study period, this variable was stable during Ramadan. The perceived fatigue and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) increased at RA4. Sleep patterns and architecture showed clear disturbances, with significant increases in the number of awakenings and light sleep durations during Ramadan (RA1 and RA4), together with decreased durations of deep and REM sleep stages at PR. RTI (simple and multiple reaction index) reaction and movement times did not vary over the study period. The RVP test showed reduced false alarms during Ramadan, suggesting reduced impulsivity. Overall accuracy significantly increased at RA1, RA4 and PR compared to baseline. At RA4, the accuracy was higher at 0-2 a.m. compared to 4-6 p.m. Despite the observed disturbances in sleep architecture, Ramadan fasting did not negatively impact the cognitive performance of trained cyclists from the Middle East. PMID:26985134

  6. Impact of Ramadan intermittent fasting on cognitive function in trained cyclists: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Briki, W; Farooq, A; Patrick, T; Belfekih, T; Herrera, CP

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed selected measures of cognitive function in trained cyclists who observed daylight fasting during Ramadan. Eleven cyclists volunteered to participate (age: 21.6±4.8 years, VO2max: 57.7±5.6 ml kg−1·min−1) and were followed for 2 months. Cognitive function (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), Reaction Time index (RTI) and Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) tests) and sleep architecture (ambulatory EEG) were assessed: before Ramadan (BR), in the 1st week (RA1) and 4th week of Ramadan (RA4), and 2 weeks post-Ramadan (PR). Both cognitive tests were performed twice per day: before and after Ramadan at 8-10 a.m. and 4-6 p.m., and during Ramadan at 4-6 p.m. and 0-2 a.m., respectively. Training load (TL) by the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) method and wellness (Hooper index) were measured daily. If the TL increased over the study period, this variable was stable during Ramadan. The perceived fatigue and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) increased at RA4. Sleep patterns and architecture showed clear disturbances, with significant increases in the number of awakenings and light sleep durations during Ramadan (RA1 and RA4), together with decreased durations of deep and REM sleep stages at PR. RTI (simple and multiple reaction index) reaction and movement times did not vary over the study period. The RVP test showed reduced false alarms during Ramadan, suggesting reduced impulsivity. Overall accuracy significantly increased at RA1, RA4 and PR compared to baseline. At RA4, the accuracy was higher at 0-2 a.m. compared to 4-6 p.m. Despite the observed disturbances in sleep architecture, Ramadan fasting did not negatively impact the cognitive performance of trained cyclists from the Middle East. PMID:26985134

  7. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Normalizes Functional Connectivity for Social Threat in Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Mason, Liam; Peters, Emmanuelle R; Dima, Danai; Williams, Steven C; Kumari, Veena

    2016-05-01

    Psychosis is often characterized by paranoia and poor social functioning. Neurally, there is evidence of functional dysconnectivity including abnormalities when processing facial affect. We sought to establish whether these abnormalities are resolved by cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp). The study involved 38 outpatients with one or more persistent positive psychotic symptoms, and 20 healthy participants. All participants completed an implicit facial affect processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subsequently, patients either continued to receive standard care only (SCO,n= 16) or received CBTp on top of standard care (+CBTp,n= 22), with fMRI repeated 6-8 months later. To examine the mechanisms underlying CBTp-led changes in threat processing and appraisal, functional connectivity during the social threat (angry faces) condition was assessed separately from left amygdala and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) seeds. At baseline, patients, compared with healthy participants, showed greater amygdala connectivity with the insula and visual areas, but less connectivity with somatosensory areas. These differences normalized following CBTp and, compared with the SCO group, the +CBTp group showed greater increases in amygdala connectivity with DLPFC and inferior parietal lobule, with the latter correlating with improvement in positive symptoms. From the DLPFC seed, the +CBTp (compared with SCO) group showed significantly greater increase in DLPFC connectivity with other prefrontal regions including dorsal anterior cingulate and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings indicate that CBTp strengthens connectivity between higher-order cognitive systems and those involved in threat and salience, potentially facilitating reappraisal. PMID:26508777

  8. The Class-Size Effect upon Activity and Cognitive Dimensions of Lessons in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, Sophia; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of the relationship of class size to the length, frequency, and cognitive level and diversity of both teacher and student verbalizations in medical instruction in an Israeli university is reported. (MSE)

  9. Relationship of cognitive function with B vitamin status, homocysteine, and tissue factor pathway inhibitor in cognitively impaired elderly: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ggotpin; Kim, Hyesook; Kim, Ki Nam; Son, Jung In; Kim, Seong Yoon; Tamura, Tsunenobu; Chang, Namsoo

    2013-01-01

    Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) has recently emerged as a candidate marker of endothelial damage in AD. We investigated the relationship between plasma levels of folate, vitamin B12, Hcy, and TFPI, as well as cognitive function in 321 [100 each with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD, 121 normal subjects] Korean elderly (mean age 74.8 ± 7.2 years). Plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were analyzed by radioimmunoassay, Hcy by the HPLC-fluorescence method, and TFPI by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels were higher in patients with AD and MCI than those in normal subjects (p < 0.001). The AD group had higher proportions of hyperhomocysteinemic (>15 μM) and folate deficient (<3.0 ng/mL) (p = 0.026) subjects. A multiple regression analysis after adjusting for covariates revealed positive relationships between plasma folate and the MMSE-KC and Boston Naming Test, and between plasma vitamin B12 and the Word List Memory Test in the AD group, but negative associations between plasma Hcy and the Word List Memory and Constructional Recall Tests and between plasma TFPI and the Boston Naming, Word List Recall, and Constructional Recall Tests. In contrast, only plasma folate level was positively associated with the MMSE-KC and Boston Naming Test in the MCI group. No associations were observed in the normal group. These results suggest that plasma folate, vitamin B12, Hcy, and TFPI are associated with cognitive function in cognitively impaired (AD and MCI) elderly and that the association was stronger in patients with AD. PMID:23042212

  10. The effect of total sleep deprivation on cognitive functions in normal adult male subjects.

    PubMed

    Kim, D J; Lee, H P; Kim, M S; Park, Y J; Go, H J; Kim, K S; Lee, S P; Chae, J H; Lee, C T

    2001-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of acute sleep deprivation on cognitive functions. A total of 18 healthy right handed males were deprived of sleep for 24 hours. Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery and calculation & digit-span subtest of K-WAIS were administered before and after sleep deprivation in order to examine the changes of cognitive functions. There were no differences in freedom from distractibility, tacile function, visual function, reading, writing, arithmetic and intellectual process function. However, the cognitive functions such as motor, rhythm, receptive & expressive speech, memory and complex verbal arithmetic function were decreased after sleep deprivation. All of these functions are known to be related to the right anterior hemisphere. For localization scales, the scores of right frontal and right temporal dysfunction scale were increased after sleep deprivation. These results indicate that sleep deprivation has a negative effect on cognitive functions, especially those associated with right anterior hemisphere or subcortical areas. PMID:11699337

  11. Cognitive, Linguistic and Adaptive Functioning in Williams Syndrome: Trajectories from Early to Middle Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlin, Patricia; Elison, Sarah; Udwin, Orlee; Stinton, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about trajectories of cognitive functioning as individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) move though adulthood. Method: The present study investigated cognitive, linguistic and adaptive functioning in adults with WS aged 19-55 years, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches. Results: Data from the…

  12. Cognitive Functioning and Social Competence as Predictors of Maladjustment in Sexually Abused Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Jeremy P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    To explain sexually abused children's various degrees of maladjustment, assessed behavior problems, social competence, and cognitive functioning in 53 black girls (5 to 16 years old). Internalizing dysfunction was positively related to three cognition-related variables: intellectual functioning, academic achievement, and age. Anxiety over the…

  13. How Do Cognitive Function and Knowledge Affect Heart Failure Self-Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Lee, Christopher S.; Riegel, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive patient education, few heart failure (HF) patients master self-care. Impaired cognitive function may explain why patient education is ineffective. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was used to explore how knowledge and cognitive function influence HF self-care. A total of 41 adults with HF participated in interviews…

  14. Insights from Cognitive Neuroscience: The Importance of Executive Function for Early Reading Development and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Kelly B.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Executive function begins to develop in infancy and involves an array of processes, such as attention, inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, which provide the means by which individuals control their own behavior, work toward goals, and manage complex cognitive processes. Thus, executive function plays a…

  15. A Physical Activity Program Improves Behavior and Cognitive Functions in Children with ADHD: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verret, Claudia; Guay, Marie-Claude; Berthiaume, Claude; Gardiner, Phillip; Beliveau, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to explore the effects of a moderate- to high-intensity physical activity program on fitness, cognitive functions, and ADHD-related behavior in children with ADHD. Method: Fitness level, motor skills, behaviors, and cognitive functions are assessed by standardized tests before and after a 10-week training…

  16. Vitamin D is associated with cognitive function in elders receiving home health services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D status has recently been associated with neurological disorders, but little research has evaluated vitamin D and cognitive function. We conducted a cross-sectional investigation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and cognitive function in 377 black and 703 non-black (Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian...

  17. Cognitive and Academic Functioning of Homeless Children Compared with Housed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, David H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studied the effect of homelessness on cognitive and academic functioning of children 6 to 11 years old in comparison to a control group of housed children in the same classroom. Found no differences in cognitive functioning between homeless and housed children, but did find that homeless children performed significantly more poorly than housed…

  18. Cognitive Functioning in Children with Pantothenate-Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration Undergoing Deep Brain Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Rachel; Selway, Richard; Lin, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To examine the cognitive functioning of young people with pantothenate-kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) after pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS). PKAN is characterized by progressive generalized dystonia and has historically been associated with cognitive decline. With growing evidence that DBS can improve motor function in…

  19. The Role of the Pediatric Cerebellum in Motor Functions, Cognition, and Behavior: A Clinical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Salman, Michael S; Tsai, Peter

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses the contribution of the pediatric cerebellum to locomotion, ocular motor control, speech articulation, cognitive function, and behavior modulation. Hypotheses on cerebellar function are discussed. Clinical features in patients with cerebellar disorders are outlined. Cerebellar abnormalities in cognitive and behavioral disorders are detailed. PMID:27423796

  20. Sleep, Fatigue, and Problems With Cognitive Function in Adults Living With HIV.

    PubMed

    Byun, Eeeseung; Gay, Caryl L; Lee, Kathryn A

    2016-01-01

    Up to 50% of people living with HIV have some neurocognitive impairment. We examined associations of sleep and fatigue with self-reported cognitive problems in 268 adults living with HIV. Multivariate regression was used to examine associations between cognitive problems, self-reported sleep quality, actigraphy-measured total sleep time and wake after sleep onset, and fatigue severity. Poorer self-reported sleep quality (p < .001), short or long total sleep time (<7 or >8 vs. 7-8 hours, p = .015), and greater fatigue (p < .001) were associated with lower self-reported cognitive function scores after controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics. However, objective measure of wake after sleep onset was unrelated to self-reported cognitive function scores. Findings suggest that assessing and treating poor sleep and complaints about fatigue would be areas for intervention that could have a greater impact on improving cognition function than interventions that target only cognitive problems. PMID:26547298

  1. Trajectories of cognitive decline and functional status in the frail older adults.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Rossitza; Demers, Louise; Béland, François

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the implications of different levels of cognitive decline on functional status in frail older adults. Four cognitive trajectories, including two with catastrophic cognitive decline, were defined in a 3-year study. Participants with complete cognitive and functional status data at baseline, 12 and 36 months of follow-up were included in the study (n=456). Data were analysed with repeated measures statistics. Substantial functional deterioration over time was observed for the participants with catastrophic cognitive decline. Catastrophic cognitive decline influenced performance in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and activities of daily living (ADL) at 12 months, whereas basic physical and mental actions were affected at 36 months. IADL were found to deteriorate more than ADL. The results have implications on planning appropriate geriatric rehabilitation and long-term care program. PMID:17976840

  2. HIV-related ocular microangiopathic syndrome and cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Geier, S A; Perro, C; Klauss, V; Naber, D; Kronawitter, U; Bogner, J R; Goebel, F D; Lund, O E; Hippius, H

    1993-03-01

    Ocular microangiopathic syndrome is found frequently in patients with AIDS or severe HIV infection. Symptoms of this microvascular syndrome can include cotton-wool spots, hemorrhages, and Roth's spots. The clinical and functional significance of HIV-related ocular microangiopathic syndrome has not been clarified as yet. The objective of this study was to evaluate a possible association between HIV-related ocular microangiopathic syndrome and cognitive functioning. Thirty-seven patients infected with HIV (24 with AIDS) underwent ophthalmological and neuropsychological examination. HIV-related ocular microangiopathic syndrome was measured by counting the number of cotton-wool spots in both eyes. Neuropsychological examination included five standardized tests, with the first three primarily measuring function of short-term memory; these tests were as follows: the Auditory-Verbal Learning Test, the Benton Test, the Stroop Colour Word Test, the Trail-Making Part B test, and the Vocabulary for Measuring Premorbid Intelligence test. HIV-related ocular microangiopathic syndrome was found in 15 patients with AIDS (62.5%), and in one patient, staged Walter Reed 5. In 10 patients, one eye was affected (mean count of cotton-wool spots 1.5). In six patients, both eyes were affected (mean count of cotton-wool spots 7.0). Univariate correlations between the number of cotton-wool spots in both eyes and test scores were as follows: Auditory-Verbal Learning Test: 0.56 (p < 0.001); Benton Test: 0.51 (p < 0.001); Stroop Colour and Word: 0.50 (p < 0.001); Trail-Making Part B: 0.15 (not significant); Vocabulary for Measuring Premorbid Intelligence: -0.05 (not significant). Multiple correlation between the test scores and the number of cotton-wool spots was 0.70 (p < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8450400

  3. Toward a more embedded/extended perspective on the cognitive function of gestures

    PubMed Central

    Pouw, Wim T. J. L.; de Nooijer, Jacqueline A.; van Gog, Tamara; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Paas, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Gestures are often considered to be demonstrative of the embodied nature of the mind (Hostetter and Alibali, 2008). In this article, we review current theories and research targeted at the intra-cognitive role of gestures. We ask the question how can gestures support internal cognitive processes of the gesturer? We suggest that extant theories are in a sense disembodied, because they focus solely on embodiment in terms of the sensorimotor neural precursors of gestures. As a result, current theories on the intra-cognitive role of gestures are lacking in explanatory scope to address how gestures-as-bodily-acts fulfill a cognitive function. On the basis of recent theoretical appeals that focus on the possibly embedded/extended cognitive role of gestures (Clark, 2013), we suggest that gestures are external physical tools of the cognitive system that replace and support otherwise solely internal cognitive processes. That is gestures provide the cognitive system with a stable external physical and visual presence that can provide means to think with. We show that there is a considerable amount of overlap between the way the human cognitive system has been found to use its environment, and how gestures are used during cognitive processes. Lastly, we provide several suggestions of how to investigate the embedded/extended perspective of the cognitive function of gestures. PMID:24795687

  4. Functional architecture of higher plant photosystem II supercomplexes

    PubMed Central

    Caffarri, Stefano; Kouřil, Roman; Kereïche, Sami; Boekema, Egbert J; Croce, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it to homogeneity. In this work, homogeneous preparations ranging from a newly identified particle composed by a monomeric core and antenna proteins to the largest C2S2M2 supercomplex were isolated. Characterization by biochemical methods and single particle electron microscopy allowed to relate for the first time the supramolecular organization to the protein content. A projection map of C2S2M2 at 12 Å resolution was obtained, which allowed determining the location and the orientation of the antenna proteins. Comparison of the supercomplexes obtained from WT and Lhcb-deficient plants reveals the importance of the individual subunits for the supramolecular organization. The functional implications of these findings are discussed and allow redefining previous suggestions on PSII energy transfer, assembly, photoinhibition, state transition and non-photochemical quenching. PMID:19696744

  5. Reduced Cognitive Function Predicts Functional Decline in Patients with Heart Failure over 12 months

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Colbert, Lisa H.; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Impaired activities of daily living (ADL) are common in heart failure (HF) patients and contribute to the elevated mortality and hospitalization rates in this population. Cognitive impairment is also prevalent in HF, though its ability to predict functional decline over time is unknown. Aims This study examined the longitudinal pattern of activities of daily living in HF persons and whether reduced baseline cognitive status predicts functional decline in this population. Methods 110 persons with HF completed the Lawton-Brody Activities of Daily Living Scale and were administered the Modified Mini-Mental Status Examination (3MS) at baseline and a 12-month follow-up. Three composite scores were derived from the Lawton-Brody, including total, instrumental, and basic ADLs. Results HF patients reported high rates of baseline impairments in instrumental ADLs, including shopping, food preparation, housekeeping duties, laundry, among others. Repeated measures analyses showed significant declines in total and instrumental ADLs from baseline to the 12-month follow-up in HF (p < .05). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that poorer baseline performance on the 3MS predicted worse total ADL performance at 12-months (β = .15, p = .049), including greater dependence in shopping, driving, feeding, and physical ambulation (p < .05 for all). Conclusion The current results show that HF patients report significant functional decline over a 12-month period and brief cognitive tests can identify those patients at highest risk for decline. If replicated, such findings encourage the use of cognitive screening measures to identify HF patients most likely to require assistance with ADL tasks. PMID:23754840

  6. The Relationship between Nonverbal Cognitive Functions and Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Goverts, S. Theo; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and memory and attention when nonverbal, visually presented cognitive tests are used. Method: Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and IQ were measured in 30 participants with mild to severe hearing loss. Participants performed cognitive tests of pattern recognition memory,…

  7. Achievement as a Function of Abstractness and Cognitive Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, David E.

    A multiple choice achievement test was constructed in which both cognitive level and degree of abstractness were controlled. Subjects were 75 students from a major university in the Southwest. A group of 13 judges, also university students, classified the concepts for degree of abstractness. Results indicated that both cognitive level and degree…

  8. Test Experience Effects in Longitudinal Comparisons of Adult Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    It is widely recognized that experience with cognitive tests can influence estimates of cognitive change. Prior research has estimated experience effects at the level of groups by comparing the performance of a group of participants tested for the second time with the performance of a different group of participants at the same age tested for the…

  9. Motivation and its Relationship to Neurocognition, Social Cognition, and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Gard, David E.; Fisher, Melissa; Garrett, Coleman; Genevsky, Alexander; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Objective A burgeoning area of research has focused on motivational deficits in schizophrenia, producing hypotheses about the role that motivation plays in the well-known relationship between neurocognition and functional outcome. However, little work has examined the role of motivation in more complex models of outcome that include social cognition, despite our increased understanding of the critical role of social cognition in community functioning in schizophrenia, and despite new basic science findings on the association between social cognitive and reward processing in neural systems in humans. Using path analysis, we directly contrasted whether motivation 1) causally influences known social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, leading to poor outcome or 2) mediates the relationship between social cognitive deficits and outcome in this illness. Method Ninety one patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed interview-based measures of motivation and functional outcome as well as standardized measures of neurocognition and social cognition in a cross-sectional design. Results In line with recent research, motivation appears to mediate the relationship between neurocognition, social cognition and functional outcome. A model with motivation as a causal factor resulted in poor fit indicating that motivation does not appear to precede neurocognition. Conclusions Findings in the present study indicate that motivation plays a significant and mediating role between neurocognition, social cognition, and functional outcome. Potential psychosocial treatment implications are discussed, especially those that emphasize social cognitive and motivational enhancement. PMID:19783407

  10. Brain imaging and cognitive neuroscience. Toward strong inference in attributing function to structure.

    PubMed

    Sarter, M; Berntson, G G; Cacioppo, J T

    1996-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience has emerged from the neurosciences and cognitive psychology as a scientific discipline that aims at the determination of "how brain function gives rise to mental activity" (S. M. Kosslyn & L. M. Shin, 1992, p. 146). While research in cognitive neuroscience combines many levels of neuroscientific and psychological analyses, modern imaging techniques that monitor brain activity during behavioral or cognitive operations have significantly contributed to the emergence of this discipline. The conclusions deduced from these studies are inherently localizationistic in nature; in other words, they describe cognitive functions as being localized in focal brain regions (brain activity in a defined brain region, phi, is involved in specific cognitive function, psi). A broad discussion about the virtues and limitations of such conclusions may help avoid the emergence of a mentalistic localizationism (i.e., the attribution of mentalistic concepts such as happiness, morality, or consciousness to brain structure) and illustrates the importance of a convergence with information generated by different research strategies (such as, for example, evidence generated by studies in which the effects of experimental manipulations of local neuronal processes on cognitive functions are assessed). Progress in capitalizing on brain-imaging studies to investigate questions of the form "brain structure or event phi is associated with cognitive function psi" may be impeded because of the way in which inferences are typically formulated in the brain imaging literature. A conceptual framework to advance the interpretation of data describing the relationships between cognitive phenomena and brain structure activity is provided. PMID:8585670

  11. Genetic Variants in KLOTHO Associate With Cognitive Function in the Oldest Old Group.

    PubMed

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Soerensen, Mette; Nygaard, Marianne; McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare; Christiansen, Lene

    2016-09-01

    Decline in cognitive abilities is a major concern in aging individuals. A potential important factor for functioning of the central nervous system in late-life stages is the KLOTHO (KL) gene. KL is expressed in various organs including the brain and is involved in multiple biological processes, for example, growth factor signaling. In the present study, 19 tagging gene variants in KL were studied in relation to 2 measures of cognitive function, a 5-item cognitive composite score and the Mini Mental State Examination, in 1,480 Danes 92-100 years of age. We found that heterozygotes for the previously reported KL-VS had poorer cognitive function than noncarriers. Two other variants positioned in the 5' end of the gene, rs398655 and rs562020, were associated with better cognitive function independently of KL-VS, and the common haplotype AG was associated with poorer cognition, consistently across two cognitive measures in two cohort strata. The haplotype effect was stronger than that of KL-VS. Two variants, rs2283368 and rs9526984, were the only variants significantly associated with cognitive decline over 7 years. We discuss an age-dependent effect of KL and the possibility that multiple gene variants in KL are important for cognitive function among the oldest old participants. PMID:26405063

  12. Relationships of exercise with frailty, depression, and cognitive function in older women.

    PubMed

    Jeoung, Bog Ja

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide basic data to identify which types of exercise promote health of older adults. To this end, this study investigated how exercise affects frailty, depression, and cognitive functions in older adults. Frailty, depression, and cognitive function assessed in the exercise participants, 164 older adult women. Results revealed that participants' frailty and depression varied according to exercise participation time and frequency. In particular, dancing was more effective than other types of exercise in reducing frailty and depression. Exercise duration and frequency did not influence cognitive function, but results indicated that table tennis exerted a greater influence on cognitive function than other types of exercise did. In addition, cognitive function differed according to the degree of frailty participants displayed. PMID:25426466

  13. Studies of higher nervous activity in functional phychoses.

    PubMed

    Astrup, C

    1975-01-01

    Psychiatric illnesses can be conceived of as experiments of nature, providing a variety of pathopsychological mechanisms which may elucidate normal psychological processes. Clinically the reactive psychoses are predominantly psychogenic reaction types. They present disturbances of higher nervous activity, similar to those of the neuroses. The unconditional reflex activity is practically as in normal controls, and the most outstanding finding was the large effect of psychodynamic complex structures. This is a physiological parallel to the clinical manifestations with great concern over experienced mental trauma. In the manic-depressive psychoses the most characteristic feature is a marked disturbance of unconditional reflex activity. This factor may be an important physiological mechanism underlying the more biological than psychodynamic reaction type and partly explain the changes of mood and associated interferences with sleep, body weight, sexual activity, aggression and other instinctual and vegetative functions. Schizophrenic psychoses also present changes of unconditional reflex activity, predominantly in the direction of inhibition of response. In addition there are severe dissociations within and between the three levels of unconditional reflexes and the two signaling systems. It is suggested that schizophrenia represents a functional maladaptation, which can be explained from the principles of autokinesis and schizokinesis established by Gantt in animal experiments. Prognostic models based on experimentally established impairment of performances were shown to predict long-term risks of schizophrenic defects just as well as models based on constellations of clinical symptoms. I would predict that psychophysiology and experimental psychology will become increasingly more important for establishing diagnosis and prognosis in the functional psychoses. The data of this article point toward a basis for a prophylactic psychiatry. PMID:1236657

  14. The association between social cognition and executive functioning and symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Hollocks, Matthew J; Jones, Catherine R G; Pickles, Andrew; Baird, Gillian; Happé, Francesca; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily

    2014-04-01

    While high levels of anxiety and depression are now recognized as major co-occurring problems in children and young people with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research examining possible associations with individual differences in neurocognitive functioning has been limited. This study included 90 adolescents with an ASD aged 14-16 years with a full-scale IQ > 50. Using structural equation modeling, we examined the independent relationships between multiple measures of executive functioning and social cognition on severity of anxiety or depressive symptoms. Results indicated a significant association between poorer executive functioning and higher levels of anxiety, but not depression. In contrast, social cognition ability was not associated with either anxiety or depression. This study is the first to report significant associations between executive functions and anxiety in ASD. This may suggest that poor executive functioning is one factor associated with the high prevalence of anxiety disorder in children and adolescents with ASD. PMID:24737743

  15. The Effects of Early Neglect on Cognitive, Language, and Behavioral Functioning in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Spratt, Eve G.; Friedenberg, Samantha L.; Swenson, Cynthia C.; LaRosa, Angela; De Bellis, Michael D.; Macias, Michelle M.; Summer, Andrea P.; Hulsey, Thomas C.; Runyan, Des K.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Few studies have explored the impact of different types of neglect on children’s development. Measures of cognition, language, behavior, and parenting stress were used to explore differences between children experiencing various forms of neglect, as well as to compare children with and without a history of early neglect. Methods Children, ages 3 to 10 years with a history of familial neglect (USN), were compared to children with a history of institutional rearing (IA) and children without a history of neglect using the Differential Abilities Scale, Test of Early Language Development, Child Behavior Checklist, and Parenting Stress Index. Factors predicting child functioning were also explored. Results Compared with youth that were not neglected, children with a history of USN and IA demonstrated lower cognitive and language scores and more behavioral problems. Both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were most common in the USN group. Externalizing behavior problems predicted parenting stress. Higher IQ could be predicted by language scores and an absence of externalizing behavior problems. When comparing the two neglect groups, shorter time spent in a stable environment, lower scores on language skills, and the presence of externalizing behavior predicted lower IQ. Conclusion These findings emphasize the importance of early stable, permanent placement of children who have been in neglectful and pre-adoptive international settings. While an enriching environment may promote resilience, children who have experienced early neglect are vulnerable to cognitive, language and behavioral deficits and neurodevelopmental and behavioral evaluations are required to identify those in need of intervention. PMID:23678396

  16. Effects of hydration on cognitive function of pilots.

    PubMed

    Lindseth, Paul D; Lindseth, Glenda N; Petros, Thomas V; Jensen, Warren C; Caspers, Julie

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of fluid intake and possible dehydration on cognitive flight performance of pilots. A repeated-measures, counterbalanced, mixed study design was used to examine differences in working memory, spatial orientation, and cognitive flight performance of 40 randomly selected healthy pilots after having high and low fluid intakes. Serial weights were also analyzed to determine differences in cognitive flight performance of the dehydrated (1-3% weight loss) and hydrated study participants. Results showed flight performance and spatial cognition test scores were significantly (p < 0.05) poorer for pilots who had low fluid intakes and experienced dehydration in comparison to the hydrated pilots. These findings indicate fluid intake differences resulting in dehydration may have safety implications because peak cognitive performance among pilots is critical for flight safety. PMID:23820354

  17. The Impact of Acute Phase Domain-Specific Cognitive Function on Post-stroke Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jihong; Lee, Gangpyo; Lee, Shi-Uk

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the cognitive function in the acute stage evaluated by domain-specific neuropsychological assessments would be an independent predictor of functional outcome after stroke. Methods Forty patients underwent 4 domain-specific neuropsychological examinations about 3 weeks after the onset of stroke. The tests included the Boston Naming Test (BNT), the construction recall test (CRT), the construction praxis test (CPT), and the verbal fluency test (VFT). The Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) at 3 months and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 6 months were investigated as functional outcome after stroke. Functional improvement was assessed using the change in K-MBI during the first 3 months and subjects were dichotomized into 'good status' and 'poor status' according to mRS at 6 months. The domain-specific cognitive function along with other possible predictors for functional outcome was examined using regression analysis. Results The z-score of CPT (p=0.044) and CRT (p<0.001) were independent predictors for functional improvement measured by the change in K-MBI during the first 3 months after stroke. The z-score of CPT (p=0.049) and CRT (p=0.048) were also independent predictors of functional status at post-stroke 6 months assessed by mRS. Conclusion Impairment in visuospatial construction and memory within one month after stroke can be an independent prognostic factor of functional outcome. Domain-specific neuropsychological assessments could be considered in patients with stroke in the acute phase to predict long-term functional outcome. PMID:27152270

  18. Indomethacin and cognitive function in healthy elderly volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bruce-Jones, P N; Crome, P; Kalra, L

    1994-07-01

    1. Cognitive function was studied after single and multiple doses of indomethacin (I) and matched placebo (P) in 20 healthy elderly volunteers using a double-blind crossover design. 2. Arousal, attention, integration, coordination, memory and mood were investigated using a battery of psychomotor tests and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Assessments were performed before and after the first and last doses of a 7 day course of medication. 3. Critical flicker fusion threshold fell by a mean of 1.96% on indomethacin compared with a 1.13% rise on placebo 5 h after the first dose (P = 0.029). A beneficial effect on choice reaction time latency (P = 0.012) was seen both after acute and continuing administration of indomethacin. Performance at the most discriminating level (level 3) of the paired word association test was significantly better following 8 days of treatment with indomethacin in the younger (55-65 year-old) age group (P = 0.001). 4. There was no significant difference in performance on the symbol-digit substitution test and the continuous attention task. No change was seen in hospital anxiety and depression scale scores. 5. These results suggest that performance on tests of sensorimotor coordination and short term memory may improve in healthy volunteers following indomethacin administration, whereas tests of attention and psychomotor speed remain unaffected. However, further controlled studies in rheumatic patients are needed to evaluate fully the psychomotor effects of indomethacin and other NSAIDs in clinical practice. PMID:7946936

  19. Functional Imaging of Cognitive Control During Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Beth M; Stevens, Michael C; Meda, Shashwath; Jordan, Kathryn; Calhoun, Vince D; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2010-01-01

    The anterior cingulate and a collection of other prefrontal and parietal brain regions are implicated in error processing and cognitive control. The effects of different doses of alcohol on activity within these brain regions during an fMRI task where errors are frequently committed have not been fully explored. This study examined the impact of a placebo [Breath Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) = 0.00%], moderate (BrAC = 0.05%) and high (BrAC = 0.10%) doses of alcohol on brain hemodynamic activity during a functional MRI (fMRI) Go/No-Go task in thirty-eight healthy volunteers. Alcohol increased reaction time and false alarm errors in a dose-dependent manner. FMRI analyses showed alcohol decreased activity in anterior cingulate, lateral prefrontal cortex, insula and parietal lobe regions during false alarm responses to No-Go stimuli. These findings indicate that brain regions implicated in error processing are affected by alcohol and might provide a neural basis for alcohol's effects on behavioral performance. PMID:20958334

  20. Association between alcohol drinking behaviour and cognitive function: results from a nationwide longitudinal study of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sujin; Kim, Yongjoo; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This research intends to determine how drinking behaviour, such as episodic heavy drinking, is related to cognitive performance in middle-aged and old-aged people in South Korea. Methods A cohort data of 5157 adults, age 45 years or older, with normal cognitive function (the Korean version of the Mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE) ≥24) at baseline (2006), was derived from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. Alcohol drinking behaviour was assessed using the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener) questionnaire. The relationships between baseline drinking behaviour (in 2006) to the extent of cognitive decline (between 2006 and 2012) and development of cognitive impairment (in 2012) were assessed. Results Individuals with problematic drinking behaviour at baseline experienced a faster decline in cognitive function than those with non-problematic drinking (p<0.05) during 6 years of follow-up, especially among those with relatively lownormal K-MMSE score (24–26) at baseline (p<0.05). Problematic alcohol drinking behaviour was also significantly associated with onset of severe cognitive impairment (SCI) (K-MMSE score ≤17) among those with relatively low-normal K-MMSE score (adjusted OR (aOR)=3.76, 95% CI 1.46 to 9.67). In addition, abstinence, compared with non-problematic drinking, was related to higher risk for developing SCI among men (aOR=1.62, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.39). Conclusions Our results suggest that those with problematic alcohol drinking behaviour could be at an increased risk of cognitive impairment/decline. While further research will provide stronger evidence, intervention targeting alcohol abuse may play a role in prevention of cognitive impairment. PMID:27118285

  1. Exploring the cognitive and motor functions of the basal ganglia: an integrative review of computational cognitive neuroscience models

    PubMed Central

    Helie, Sebastien; Chakravarthy, Srinivasa; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2013-01-01

    Many computational models of the basal ganglia (BG) have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the BG, computational cognitive neuroscience (CCN) models have focused on how the BG can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on CCN models of the BG and how they use the neuroanatomy of the BG to account for cognitive and motor functions such as categorization, instrumental conditioning, probabilistic learning, working memory, sequence learning, automaticity, reaching, handwriting, and eye saccades. A total of 19 BG models accounting for one or more of these functions are reviewed and compared. The review concludes with a discussion of the limitations of existing CCN models of the BG and prescriptions for future modeling, including the need for computational models of the BG that can simultaneously account for cognitive and motor functions, and the need for a more complete specification of the role of the BG in behavioral functions. PMID:24367325

  2. Health literacy and global cognitive function predict e-mail but not internet use in heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Schprechman, Jared P; Gathright, Emily C; Goldstein, Carly M; Guerini, Kate A; Dolansky, Mary A; Redle, Joseph; Hughes, Joel W

    2013-01-01

    Background. The internet offers a potential for improving patient knowledge, and e-mail may be used in patient communication with providers. However, barriers to internet and e-mail use, such as low health literacy and cognitive impairment, may prevent patients from using technological resources. Purpose. We investigated whether health literacy, heart failure knowledge, and cognitive function were related to internet and e-mail use in older adults with heart failure (HF). Methods. Older adults (N = 119) with heart failure (69.84 ± 9.09 years) completed measures of health literacy, heart failure knowledge, cognitive functioning, and internet use in a cross-sectional study. Results. Internet and e-mail use were reported in 78.2% and 71.4% of this sample of patients with HF, respectively. Controlling for age and education, logistic regression analyses indicated that higher health literacy predicted e-mail (P < .05) but not internet use. Global cognitive function predicted e-mail (P < .05) but not internet use. Only 45% used the Internet to obtain information on HF and internet use was not associated with greater HF knowledge. Conclusions. The majority of HF patients use the internet and e-mail, but poor health literacy and cognitive impairment may prevent some patients from accessing these resources. Future studies that examine specific internet and email interventions to increase HF knowledge are needed. PMID:24282634

  3. Health Literacy and Global Cognitive Function Predict E-Mail but Not Internet Use in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schprechman, Jared P.; Gathright, Emily C.; Goldstein, Carly M.; Guerini, Kate A.; Dolansky, Mary A.; Redle, Joseph; Hughes, Joel W.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The internet offers a potential for improving patient knowledge, and e-mail may be used in patient communication with providers. However, barriers to internet and e-mail use, such as low health literacy and cognitive impairment, may prevent patients from using technological resources. Purpose. We investigated whether health literacy, heart failure knowledge, and cognitive function were related to internet and e-mail use in older adults with heart failure (HF). Methods. Older adults (N = 119) with heart failure (69.84 ± 9.09 years) completed measures of health literacy, heart failure knowledge, cognitive functioning, and internet use in a cross-sectional study. Results. Internet and e-mail use were reported in 78.2% and 71.4% of this sample of patients with HF, respectively. Controlling for age and education, logistic regression analyses indicated that higher health literacy predicted e-mail (P < .05) but not internet use. Global cognitive function predicted e-mail (P < .05) but not internet use. Only 45% used the Internet to obtain information on HF and internet use was not associated with greater HF knowledge. Conclusions. The majority of HF patients use the internet and e-mail, but poor health literacy and cognitive impairment may prevent some patients from accessing these resources. Future studies that examine specific internet and email interventions to increase HF knowledge are needed. PMID:24282634

  4. Effects of cognitive, motor, and karate training on cognitive functioning and emotional well-being of elderly people.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Petra; Dahmen-Zimmer, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of cognitive, motor, and Karate (accordingly the guidelines of the German-Karate-Federation, DKV) training on the cognitive functioning and mental state of older people between 67 and 93 years of age. The three training groups each consisted of 12 elderly participants; the waiting control group included 9 participants. Before the training, participants were evaluated with cognitive measurements (cognitive speed: number-connection test, number-symbol test; memory performance: digit-span test, blocking-tapping test, figure test) and a measurement of emotional well-being. After this pre-testing they participated the specific training in on average sixteen 1-h training sessions. The cognitive training exercised inductive thinking ability, the motor training worked on easy stretching and mobilization techniques, and the Karate training taught tasks of self-defense, partner training, and Katas. After completion of the training sessions, all tests were applied again. The results show no significant difference in cognitive improvement dependent on group between the three training conditions. However a significant improvement was found in the emotional mental state measurement for the Karate group compared to the waiting control group. This result suggests that the integrated involvement in Karate leads to a feeling of self-worth and that, even in elderly people, integration of new sports helps to improve quality of life. PMID:22363311

  5. Functional relationship between cognitive representations of movement directions and visuomotor adaptation performance.

    PubMed

    Lex, Heiko; Weigelt, Matthias; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    The aim of our study was to explore whether or not different types of learners in a sensorimotor task possess characteristically different cognitive representations. Participants' sensorimotor adaptation performance was measured with a pointing paradigm which used a distortion of the visual feedback in terms of a left-right reversal. The structure of cognitive representations was assessed using a newly established experimental method, the Cognitive Measurement of Represented Directions. A post hoc analysis revealed inter-individual differences in participants' adaptation performance, and three different skill levels (skilled, average, and poor adapters) have been defined. These differences in performance were correlated with the structure of participants' cognitive representations of movement directions. Analysis of these cognitive representations revealed performance advantages for participants possessing a global cognitive representation of movement directions (aligned to cardinal movement axes), rather than a local representation (aligned to each neighboring direction). Our findings are evidence that cognitive representation structures play a functional role in adaptation performance. PMID:23007723

  6. Psychometrically matched measures of global cognition, memory, and executive function for assessment of cognitive decline in older persons.

    PubMed

    Mungas, Dan; Reed, Bruce R; Kramer, Joel H

    2003-07-01

    Item response theory methods were used to derive psychometrically sophisticated measures of global cognition, memory, and executive function. Goals were that these measures (a) could be derived from commonly used neuropsychological tests, (b) would have linear measurement properties, and (c) would be psychometrically matched. Scale development was based on a sample of 400 older individuals with cognitive function ranging from normal to demented. Scales were reasonably matched with linear measurement over an ability range relevant to many important clinical applications. Cognitively normal, mild impairment, and dementia participant groups differed on baseline measures and rate of decline. Association of measures with quantitative structural magnetic resonance imaging variables followed expected patterns. This approach to scale development may have applications for other neuropsychological assessment problems. PMID:12959504

  7. Neurocognitive insight and objective cognitive functioning in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Burton, Cynthia Z; Harvey, Philip D; Patterson, Thomas L; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2016-03-01

    Neurocognitive impairment is a core component of schizophrenia affecting everyday functioning; the extent to which individuals with schizophrenia show awareness of neurocognitive impairment (neurocognitive insight) is unclear. This study investigated neurocognitive insight and examined the cross-sectional relationships between neurocognitive insight and objective neurocognition and functional capacity performance in a large outpatient sample. 214 participants with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders completed measures of neurocognition, functional capacity, and self-reported neurocognitive problems. Latent profile analysis classified participants with regard to neuropsychological performance and self-report of neurocognitive problems. The resulting classes were then compared on executive functioning performance, functional capacity performance, and psychiatric symptom severity. More than three quarters of the sample demonstrated objective neurocognitive impairment (global deficit score≥0.50). Among the participants with neurocognitive impairment, 54% were classified as having "impaired" neurocognitive insight (i.e., reporting few neurocognitive problems despite having objective neurocognitive impairment). Participants with impaired vs. intact neurocognitive insight did not differ on executive functioning measures or measures of functional capacity or negative symptom severity, but those with intact neurocognitive insight reported higher levels of positive and depressive symptoms. A substantial portion of individuals with schizophrenia and objectively measured neurocognitive dysfunction appear unaware of their deficits. Patient self-report of neurocognitive problems, therefore, is not likely to reliably assess neurocognition. Difficulty self-identifying neurocognitive impairment appears to be unrelated to executive functioning, negative symptoms, and functional capacity. For those with intact neurocognitive insight, improving depressive and psychotic symptoms may be

  8. Relations Between Cognitive Functioning and Alcohol Use, Craving, and Post-Traumatic Stress: An Examination Among Trauma-Exposed Military Veterans With Alcohol Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Adrienne J; Pennington, David L; Cohen, Nicole; Schmeling, Brandi; Lasher, Brooke A; Schrodek, Emily; Batki, Steven L

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is commonly observed among individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and trauma exposure and is, in turn, associated with worse clinical outcomes. Accordingly, disruptions in cognitive functioning may be conceptualized as a trans-disease phenomenon representing a potential high-yield target for intervention. Less is known though about how different cognitive functions covary with alcohol use, craving, and post-traumatic stress symptom severity among trauma-exposed individuals with AUD. Sixty-eight male and female trauma-exposed military veterans with AUD, entering treatment trials to reduce alcohol use, completed measures assessing alcohol use and craving, post-traumatic stress symptom severity, and cognitive functioning. In multivariate models, after controlling for post-traumatic stress symptom severity, poorer learning and memory was associated with higher alcohol consumption and higher risk taking/impulsivity was associated with stronger preoccupations with alcohol and compulsions to drink. Alcohol consumption and craving, but not performance on cognitive tests, were positively associated with post-traumatic stress symptom severity. Findings suggest that interventions to strengthen cognitive functioning might be used as a preparatory step to augment treatments for AUD. Clinicians are encouraged to consider a standard assessment of cognitive functioning, in addition to post-traumatic stress symptom severity, in treatment planning and delivery for this vulnerable and high-risk population. PMID:27391620

  9. Relations between cognitive functioning and alcohol use, craving, and posttraumatic stress: An examination among trauma exposed military Veterans with alcohol use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Adrienne J.; Pennington, David L.; Cohen, Nicole; Schmeling, Brandi; Lasher, Brooke A.; Schrodek, Emily; Batki, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is commonly observed among individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) and trauma exposure and is, in turn, associated with worse clinical outcomes. Accordingly, disruptions in cognitive functioning may be conceptualized as a trans-disease phenomenon representing a potential high-yield target for intervention. Less is known though about how different cognitive functions co-vary with alcohol use, craving, and posttraumatic stress symptom severity among trauma exposed individuals with AUD. Sixty-eight male and female trauma exposed military Veterans with AUD, entering treatment trials to reduce alcohol use, completed measures assessing alcohol use and craving, posttraumatic stress symptom severity, and cognitive functioning. In multivariate models, after controlling for posttraumatic stress symptom severity, poorer learning and memory was associated with higher alcohol consumption and higher risk-taking/impulsivity was associated with stronger pre-occupations with alcohol and compulsions to drink. Alcohol consumption and craving, but not performance on cognitive tests, were positively associated with posttraumatic stress symptom severity. Findings suggest that interventions to strengthen cognitive functioning might be used as a preparatory step to augment treatments for AUD. Clinicians are encouraged to consider a standard assessment of cognitive functioning, in addition to posttraumatic stress symptom severity, in treatment planning and delivery for this vulnerable and high-risk population. PMID:27391620

  10. Involuntary cognitions in everyday life: exploration of type, quality, content, and function.

    PubMed

    Krans, Julie; de Bree, June; Moulds, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research into spontaneous or intrusive cognitions has typical