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1

The role of the prefrontal cortex in higher cognitive functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The higher cognitive functions, working memory, mental imagery and willed action, are all intimately associated with consciousness. The common process underlying all these functions is that information is “held in mind” for a period of time. This information, which may be about stimuli or responses, can be derived from the past or generated for the future. Brain imaging studies show

Chris Frith; Ray Dolan

1996-01-01

2

Microtubule ionic conduction and its implications for higher cognitive functions.  

PubMed

The neuronal cytoskeleton has been hypothesized to play a role in higher cognitive functions including learning, memory and consciousness. Experimental evidence suggests that both microtubules and actin filaments act as biological electrical wires that can transmit and amplify electric signals via the flow of condensed ion clouds. The potential transmission of electrical signals via the cytoskeleton is of extreme importance to the electrical activity of neurons in general. In this regard, the unique structure, geometry and electrostatics of microtubules are discussed with the expected impact on their specific functions within the neuron. Electric circuit models of ionic flow along microtubules are discussed in the context of experimental data, and the specific importance of both the tubulin C-terminal tail regions, and the nano-pore openings lining the microtubule wall is elucidated. Overall, these recent results suggest that ions, condensed around the surface of the major filaments of the cytoskeleton, flow along and through microtubules in the presence of potential differences, thus acting as transmission lines propagating intracellular signals in a given cell. The significance of this conductance to the functioning of the electrically active neuron, and to higher cognitive function is also discussed. PMID:20589950

Craddock, Travis J A; Tuszynski, Jack A; Priel, Avner; Freedman, Holly

2010-06-01

3

Sex Differences in Cognitive Domains and Their Clinical Correlates in Higher-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the skewed sex ratio, few studies have addressed possible cognitive sex differences in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study compared visual attention to detail (ATTD) and selected executive functions (EF) in 35 males and 21 females with higher-functioning ASD and unaffected sibling controls. Females with ASD outperformed males on…

Bolte, Sven; Duketis, Eftichia; Poustka, Fritz; Holtmann, Martin

2011-01-01

4

The cognitive structure of higher functioning autism and schizophrenia: a comparative study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine whether performance on a standard cognitive test-battery can be used to clearly separate higher functioning autism from schizophrenia. Revised Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) or Adults (WAIS-R) profiles of 20 autistic and 20 schizophrenic adolescent young adult subjects matched for age, sex, and IQ level were contrasted. On average, autistic individuals had higher values on the subtest "Similarities," while schizophrenic participants scored better on "Comprehension." Discriminant analysis showed that a prognosis of the psychiatric classification can be made with 82.5% accuracy if all subscale data are considered. Even though this finding probably has limited merit for making judgements in clinical practice, it might be of exploratory value in the pursuit of differentiating autism and schizophrenia on a cognitive level. PMID:12107870

Bölte, Sven; Rudolf, Liane; Poustka, Fritz

2002-01-01

5

Self-directedness, integration and higher cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I discuss connections between self-directedness, integration and higher cognition. I present a model of self-directedness as a basis for approaching higher cognition from a situated cognition perspective. According to this model increases in sensorimotor complexity create pressure for integrative higher order control and learning processes for acquiring information about the context in which action occurs. This generates

Wayne Christensen

2004-01-01

6

Cognitive function and hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of lowering blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive subjects is well known but the relationship between hypertension and cognitive function is controversial. This article reviews the role of hypertension in the aetiology of cognitive impairment and the relationships between BP, cerebral perfusion and cognition. It also summarizes findings of studies addressing the effect of antihypertensive therapy and cognition. An

J Birns; L Kalra

2009-01-01

7

Cognition: A Functional View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposing a shift in the locus of theoretical analysis of cognition, this paper argues that cognitive functioning may be more readily characterized without the mediation of long-term mental associations and structure. An account of cognition is proposed in which mental relations are transient functional relations, and in which psychological…

Iran-Nejad, Asghar; Ortony, Andrew

8

Mapping Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Cognitive functions are fundamental to being human. Although tremendous progress has been made in the science of cognition using neuroimaging, the clinical applications of neuroimaging are just beginning to be realized. A unifying theme of this chapter is the concept that a more complete understanding of cognition only comes through integration of multimodal structural and functional imaging technologies.

Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Rosen, Bruce

2009-01-01

9

The Role of Higher-Level Cognitive Function in Gait: Executive Dysfunction Contributes to Fall Risk in Alzheimer’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is generally understood as primarily affecting cognition while sparing motor function, at least until the later stages of the disease. Studies reported over the past 10 years, however, have documented a prevalence of falls in AD patients significantly higher than in age-matched normal elders; also persons with AD have been observed to have different walking patterns with

Pamela L. Sheridan; Jeffrey M. Hausdorff

2007-01-01

10

The hierarchical and functional connectivity of higher-order cognitive mechanisms: neurorobotic model to investigate the stability and flexibility of working memory.  

PubMed

Higher-order cognitive mechanisms (HOCM), such as planning, cognitive branching, switching, etc., are known to be the outcomes of a unique neural organizations and dynamics between various regions of the frontal lobe. Although some recent anatomical and neuroimaging studies have shed light on the architecture underlying the formation of such mechanisms, the neural dynamics and the pathways in and between the frontal lobe to form and/or to tune the stability level of its working memory remain controversial. A model to clarify this aspect is therefore required. In this study, we propose a simple neurocomputational model that suggests the basic concept of how HOCM, including the cognitive branching and switching in particular, may mechanistically emerge from time-based neural interactions. The proposed model is constructed such that its functional and structural hierarchy mimics, to a certain degree, the biological hierarchy that is believed to exist between local regions in the frontal lobe. Thus, the hierarchy is attained not only by the force of the layout architecture of the neural connections but also through distinct types of neurons, each with different time properties. To validate the model, cognitive branching and switching tasks were simulated in a physical humanoid robot driven by the model. Results reveal that separation between the lower and the higher-level neurons in such a model is an essential factor to form an appropriate working memory to handle cognitive branching and switching. The analyses of the obtained result also illustrates that the breadth of this separation is important to determine the characteristics of the resulting memory, either static memory or dynamic memory. This work can be considered as a joint research between synthetic and empirical studies, which can open an alternative research area for better understanding of brain mechanisms. PMID:23423881

Alnajjar, Fady; Yamashita, Yuichi; Tani, Jun

2013-01-01

11

Expression of constitutively active erythropoietin receptor in pyramidal neurons of cortex and hippocampus boosts higher cognitive functions in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR) are expressed in the developing brain and their transcription is upregulated in adult neurons and glia upon injury or neurodegeneration. We have shown neuroprotective effects and improved cognition in patients with neuropsychiatric diseases treated with EPO. However, the critical EPO targets in brain are unknown, and separation of direct and indirect effects has remained difficult, given the role of EPO in hematopoiesis and brain oxygen supply. Results Here we demonstrate that mice with transgenic expression of a constitutively active EPOR isoform (cEPOR) in pyramidal neurons of cortex and hippocampus exhibit enhancement of spatial learning, cognitive flexibility, social memory, and attentional capacities, accompanied by increased impulsivity. Superior cognitive performance is associated with augmented long-term potentiation of cEPOR expressing neurons in hippocampal slices. Conclusions Active EPOR stimulates neuronal plasticity independent of any hematopoietic effects and in addition to its neuroprotective actions. This property of EPOR signaling should be exploited for defining novel strategies to therapeutically enhance cognitive performance in disease conditions.

2011-01-01

12

Meditation in Higher Education: Does It Enhance Cognition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We predicted that students in a sociology course that included contemplative practices (i.e., mindfulness meditation) would show an increase in performance on higher level cognitive abilities (executive functions) over the semester compared to a control group of students. Change in executive functions performance was not significantly different…

Helber, Casey; Zook, Nancy A.; Immergut, Matthew

2012-01-01

13

Epoetin and cognitive function.  

PubMed

The uremia of chronic renal failure (CRF) can alter brain electrophysiology and cognitive function, even in the well-dialyzed patient. The effect of uremia on brain function can be assessed by electrophysiologic techniques such as electroencephalogram (EEG), sensory-evoked potentials (EPs), and cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs), and through a series of neuropsychologic tests. Five tests have been used clinically to measure the speed and efficiency of cognitive functioning and include the following: Number Cancellation, Trailmaking Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test. Test performance by patients with CRF is often below that of healthy controls. Auditory ERPs, a sensitive indicator of subtle changes in central nervous system (CNS) function in uremia, result in the generation of a P300 component wave that varies in amplitude and latency with patient variables such as attention and effort. Although dialysis tends to normalize P300 latencies, the waves remain somewhat prolonged in most patients. The anemia often observed in patients receiving chronic dialysis appears to aggravate uremic encephalopathy. This effect can be reversed when anemia is corrected following administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin). Improvement in P300 amplitudes, and, in some cases, decreases in P300 latencies correlated well with epoetin-induced increases in hematocrit levels. With the correction of anemia, that component of brain dysfunction not attributable to retention of uremic toxins can largely be reversed. PMID:1626553

Nissenson, A R

1992-07-01

14

Soy isoflavones and cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing interest in the physiological functions of soy isoflavones, especially in whether they affect cognitive function and have beneficial effects on neurodegenerative diseases. Here we review the recent evidence from clinical and experimental studies supporting a role for soy isoflavones in cognitive function. Soy isoflavones may mimic the actions and functions of estrogens on brain, and they have

Yoon-Bok Lee; Hyong Joo Lee; Heon Soo Sohn

2005-01-01

15

[Sex hormones and cognitive function].  

PubMed

Endogenous estrogen is considered to be protective against cognitive dysfunction. However, clinical trials examining the efficacy of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women showed rather deteriorating effects of HRT on cognitive function and dementia, resulting in the recommendation of no use of HRT for the prevention of dementia. By contrast, recent advances in androgen research have suggested the effects of androgen on cognitive function in older men with mild cognitive impairment, pending the mechanistic clarification and clinical trials. Also, the protective role of androgen in cognitive and physical function in older women has been highlighted. Recent topics on the relationship between sex hormones and cognitive function were overviewed in this paper. PMID:24796093

Akishita, Masahiro

2014-04-01

16

Cognitive mediators of ego functioning in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has often been assumed that a relationship exists between higher levels of cognitive functioning, particularly formal operations, and mature ego functioning in adolescence. This research examined the relationships between ego functioning and two domains of operational thinking: social interpersonal reasoning and physical-mathematical reasoning in 139 high school seniors. Subjects were given two measures of physical-mathematical reasoning, two measures of

Anita Landau Hurtig; Anne C. Petersen; Maryse H. Richards; Idy Barasch Gitelson

1985-01-01

17

Cognitive reserve preserves cognitive function in obese individuals.  

PubMed

Obesity is an established risk factor for cognitive impairment. Theories of cognitive reserve suggest that premorbid factors, such as intellectual ability, may attenuate the expression of cognitive impairment due to age or disease. The current study examined whether cognitive reserve, defined as estimated premorbid intellectual ability, moderates the relationship between obesity and cognitive function in obese adults. Participants without major medical or psychological conditions completed a computerized battery of neuropsychological tests. Hierarchical regression models found a significant interaction between BMI and cognitive reserve for attention/executive function and memory, suggesting that cognitive reserve attenuates the expression of obesity-related cognitive impairment. PMID:23339557

Galioto, Rachel M; Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Stanek, Kelly M; Gunstad, John

2013-01-01

18

Measuring higher cognitive development in anatomy and physiology students  

Microsoft Academic Search

To estimate the higher cognitive development of college science students, performance on lecture exams at different cognitive levels was measured in a two-semester sequence of anatomy and physiology at Idaho State University. Lecture exams consisted of multiple-choice test items, each classified at various cognitive levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. These included the knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis levels. The investigation comprised

Christopher Dobson

2001-01-01

19

Natural teeth and cognitive function in humans.  

PubMed

A number of neurobiological, psychological and social factors may account for cognitive impairment. In animal studies a relation between dental status and cognitive performance has been found. It is unclear whether such a relation exists for humans. In a first step we compared the performance of 1,351 participants (53% women, 47% men; age M = 54.0) with natural teeth to 487 edentulous participants (59% women, 41% men; age M = 71.3) on 12 cognitive tests. The natural teeth group had a lower mean age, fewer women, more years of education, higher mini-mental state (MMSE), and performed significantly higher on several cognitive tests. In a subsequent analysis, the cognitive performance of a subset of the participants (50-85 years) was examined. In this analysis, 211 had natural dentition and 188 were edentulous. The groups were matched for gender, age, social variables, diseases, stress and MMSE. The cognitive disadvantage of the edentulous group was still apparent. The results suggest that functional natural teeth relate to relatively preserved cognitive functioning in older age. PMID:18028078

Bergdahl, Maud; Habib, Reza; Bergdahl, Jan; Nyberg, Lars; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

2007-12-01

20

Cortisol and cognitive function in midlife: The role of childhood cognition and educational attainment.  

PubMed

Adult cognition and age-related cognitive decline can be influenced by dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis with concomitant changes in cortisol levels. However, very little is known about the role of childhood cognition and educational attainment in this relationship. Using data from the British 1946 birth cohort, the present study investigated: (1) associations between cortisol levels and patterns and cognitive function in midlife; (2) direct and interactive effects of childhood cognition, educational attainment and cortisol on cognitive function in midlife. Verbal memory, letter search speed and reaction time were assessed at age 60-64 years. Salivary cortisol samples (wakening, 30min after wakening and evening) were collected at the same age. Childhood cognitive ability was measured at ages 8, 11, and 15, and educational level was reported at age 26. Associations between cortisol, childhood cognition, educational attainment and cognitive function in midlife were tested using linear regression and structural equation modelling approaches. Higher evening cortisol level was associated with slower reaction time and lower verbal memory. These associations were independent of childhood cognition and education as well as a range of other potential confounders. Childhood cognition and education were not directly associated with evening cortisol. However, there was a significant interaction effect between childhood cognition and evening cortisol on reaction time (p=.002): higher evening cortisol was associated with slower reaction time only among those with low childhood cognitive ability. There was little evidence of associations between the other cortisol measures and cognitive function. PMID:25001968

Gaysina, Darya; Gardner, Michael P; Richards, Marcus; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

2014-09-01

21

Does retirement affect cognitive functioning?  

PubMed

This paper analyses the effect of retirement on cognitive functioning using a longitudinal survey among older Americans, which allows controlling for individual heterogeneity and endogeneity of the retirement decision by using the eligibility age for social security as an instrument. The results highlight a significant negative effect of retirement on cognitive functioning. Our findings suggest that reforms aimed at promoting labour force participation at an older age may not only ensure the sustainability of social security systems but may also create positive health externalities for older individuals. PMID:22538324

Bonsang, Eric; Adam, Stéphane; Perelman, Sergio

2012-05-01

22

[Advances in research on cognitive function related to temporal lobe epilepsy: focus on social cognitive function].  

PubMed

Research on cognitive function related to temporal lobe epilepsy has thus far focused on memory, language, and general intelligence. Recently, however, the concept of social cognitive function has been proposed in the field of neuropsychology. Social cognitive function refers collectively to the higher cognitive functions that are essential in our social lives, and its representative aspects are facial expression recognition and decision-making. Emotional processing centered around the amygdala is thought to play a key role in the neural mechanism of this function. We conducted a study on the social cognitive function (decision-making) of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, and found that this function is reduced in these patients, and that the right amygdalo-hippocampal complexes play an important role. In order to ensure the best possible treatment for epilepsy patients, it is necessary not only to make an accurate diagnosis and provide appropriate treatment, but also to provide support for enabling a smoother social life from the perspective of social cognitive function. Future research developments in this field are expected to contribute to total management in medical care for epilepsy patients. PMID:23035344

Yamano, Mitsuhiko; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

2012-09-01

23

Methods and compositions for improving cognitive function  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention relates to treating age-related cognitive impairment. This invention in particular relates to the use of inhibitors of synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A), such as levetiracetam, seletracetam, and brivaracetam, in improving cognitive function in subjects that exhibit age-related cognitive impairment or are at risk thereof, including, without limitation, subjects having or at risk for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), Age-related Cognitive Decline (ARCD) or Age-Associated Memory Impairment (AAMI).

2013-12-10

24

Cognitive Function in the Community Setting: The Neighborhood as a Source of "Cognitive Reserve"?  

PubMed Central

Background Existing research has found a positive association between cognitive function and residence in a socioeconomically advantaged neighborhood. Yet, the mechanisms underlying this relationship have not been empirically investigated. This study tests the hypothesis that neighborhood socioeconomic structure is related to cognitive function partly through the availability of neighborhood physical and social resources (e.g. recreational facilities, community centers and libraries), which promote cognitively beneficial activities such as exercise and social integration. Methods Using data from a representative survey of community-dwelling adults in the City of Chicago (N = 949 adults age 50 and over) we assessed cognitive function with a modified version of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS) instrument. Neighborhood socioeconomic structure was derived from US Census indicators. Systematic Social Observation was used to directly document the presence of neighborhood resources on the blocks surrounding each respondent’s residence. Results Using multilevel linear regression, residence in an affluent neighborhood had a net positive effect on cognitive function after adjusting for individual risk factors. For white respondents, the effects of neighborhood affluence operated in part through a greater density of institutional resources (e.g. community centers) that promote cognitively beneficial activities such as physical activity. Stable residence in an elderly neighborhood was associated with higher cognitive function (potentially due to greater opportunities for social interaction with peers), but long term exposure to such neighborhoods was negatively related to cognition. Conclusions Neighborhood resources have the potential to promote “cognitive reserve” for adults who are aging in place in an urban setting.

Clarke, Philippa J.; Ailshire, Jennifer A.; House, James S.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.; King, Katherine; Melendez, Robert; Langa, Kenneth M.

2012-01-01

25

Strategic Learning in Youth with Traumatic Brain Injury: Evidence for Stall in Higher-Order Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about strategic learning ability in preteens and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Strategic learning is the ability to combine and synthesize details to form abstracted gist-based meanings, a higher-order cognitive skill associated with frontal lobe functions and higher classroom performance. Summarization tasks were…

Gamino, Jacquelyn F.; Chapman, Sandra B.; Cook, Lori G.

2009-01-01

26

Hormone therapy and cognitive function  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Clinical trials yield discrepant information about the impact of hormone therapy on verbal memory and executive function. This issue is clinically relevant because declines in verbal memory are the earliest predictor of Alzheimer's disease and declines in executive function are central to some theories of normal, age-related changes in cognition. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials of hormone therapy (i.e. oral, transdermal, i.m.) and verbal memory, distinguishing studies in younger (i.e. ?65 years of age; n = 9) versus older (i.e. >65 years; n = 7) women and studies involving estrogen alone versus estrogen plus progestogen. Out of 32 placebo-controlled trials, 17 were included (13 had no verbal memory measures and 2 involved cholinergic manipulations). We also provide a narrative review of 25 studies of executive function (two trials), since there are insufficient clinical trial data for systematic review. RESULTS There is some evidence for a beneficial effect of estrogen alone on verbal memory in younger naturally post-menopausal women and more consistent evidence from small-n studies of surgically post-menopausal women. There is stronger evidence of a detrimental effect of conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate on verbal memory in younger and older post-menopausal women. Observational studies and pharmacological models of menopause provide initial evidence of improvements in executive function with hormone therapy. CONCLUSIONS Future studies should include measures of executive function and should address pressing clinical questions; including what formulation of combination hormone therapy is cognitively neutral/beneficial, yet effective in treating hot flashes in the early post-menopause.

Maki, Pauline M.; Sundermann, Erin

2009-01-01

27

Epigenetics, genomic mutations and cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. There is growing interest in the role of single genes in cognitive functions. Association studies are the most commonly applied method in this field. This method assumes that the genetic information affecting cognitive processes is “static” and unchanging. However, there is accumulating evidence that dynamic genomic and epigenetic alterations can modulate complex cognitive processes, and influence susceptibility to disorders

Abraham Reichenberg; Jonathan Mill; James H. MacCabe

2009-01-01

28

Running head: Evolution of cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creative re-use of existing cognitive capacities may have played a significant role in the evolutionary development of the brain. There are obvious evolutionary advantages to such redeployment, and the data presented here confirm three important empirical predictions of this account of the development of cognition: (1) a typical brain area will be utilized by many cognitive functions in diverse

Michael L. Anderson

29

Measuring higher cognitive development in anatomy and physiology students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To estimate the higher cognitive development of college science students, performance on lecture exams at different cognitive levels was measured in a two-semester sequence of anatomy and physiology at Idaho State University. Lecture exams consisted of multiple-choice test items, each classified at various cognitive levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. These included the knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis levels. The investigation comprised students who completed both semesters from the same instructor during the same academic year. Data was collected on two separate cohorts of students. One completed the sequence during 1998--1999 and the other during the 1999--2000 school year. Student performance was assessed on four exams each semester, for a total of eight exams each year of the study. Based on preliminary analysis of the 1998--1999 data, the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) was incorporated as an independent and discipline-neutral measure of higher-level thinking. The CCTST was administered during the beginning, middle, and end of the 1999--2000 school year. Two years of data analysis confirmed the cumulative hierarchical relationship of the knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis levels of the taxonomy. Performance at successively higher cognitive levels was significantly and consistently lower than at preceding levels. Higher-level thinking was substantially more difficult for students than lower-level thinking. Students averaged 73% at the knowledge level and 53% at the application and analysis levels on lecture exams. No improvement in higher-level thinking was detected at either the application and analysis levels of Bloom's Taxonomy or on the CCTST over two semesters. The ability to detect improvement was likely complicated by varying exam topics and a lack of student motivation on the CCTST. The results of this investigation highlight the need for higher cognitive development across the curriculum. The findings have implications for curricular decision-making and course management, and are relevant at an institutional and an individual course level. This study demonstrates how Bloom's Taxonomy can provide a framework for systematically and purposefully monitoring higher-level thinking in students. At the very least, Bloom's Taxonomy provides a mechanism for distinguishing among students who can and cannot perform at higher cognitive levels.

Dobson, Christopher

30

Thyroid Function and Cognition during Aging  

PubMed Central

We summarize here the studies examining the association between thyroid function and cognitive performance from an aging perspective. The available data suggest that there may be a continuum in which cognitive dysfunction can result from increased or decreased concentrations of thyroid hormones. Clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism in middle-aged and elderly adults are both associated with decreased cognitive functioning, especially memory, visuospatial organization, attention, and reaction time. Mild variations of thyroid function, even within normal limits, can have significant consequences for cognitive function in the elderly. Different cognitive deficits possibly related to thyroid failure do not necessarily follow a consistent pattern, and L-thyroxine treatment may not always completely restore normal functioning in patients with hypothyroidism. There is little or no consensus in the literature regarding how thyroid function is associated with cognitive performance in the elderly.

Begin, M. E.; Langlois, M. F.; Lorrain, D.; Cunnane, S. C.

2008-01-01

31

Cognitive mediators of ego functioning in adolescence.  

PubMed

It has often been assumed that a relationship exists between higher levels of cognitive functioning, particularly formal operations, and mature ego functioning in adolescence. This research examined the relationships between ego functioning and two domains of operational thinking: social interpersonal reasoning and physical-mathematical reasoning in 139 high school seniors. Subjects were given two measures of physical-mathematical reasoning, two measures of interpersonal reasoning, and the Sentence Completion Test of ego functioning, as well as a measure of verbal intelligence. Results indicated significant differences between males and females in patterns of correlations as well as in patterns of relationships in a causal analysis. Ego functioning was predicted by interpersonal reasoning for females and by physical-mathematical reasoning and verbal intelligence for males. PMID:24301321

Hurtig, A L; Petersen, A C; Richards, M H; Gitelson, I B

1985-03-01

32

Heterogeneity of late-life depression: relationship with cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: Late-life depression is a heterogeneous disorder, whereby cognitive impairments are often observed. This study examines which clinical characteristics and symptom dimensions of late-life depression are especially impacting on specific cognitive domains. Methods: Cross-sectional data of 378 depressed and 132 non-depressed older adults between 60-93 years, from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older adults (NESDO) were used. Depressed older adults were recruited from both inpatient and outpatient mental healthcare institutes and general practices, and diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Multivariable associations were examined with depression characteristics (severity, onset, comorbidity, psychotropic medication) and symptom dimensions as independent variables and cognitive domains (episodic memory, processing speed, interference control, working memory) as dependent variables. Results: Late-life depression was associated with poorer cognitive functioning. Within depressed participants, higher severity of psychopathology and having a first depressive episode was associated with poorer cognitive functioning. The use of tricyclic antidepressants, serotonergic and noradrenergic working antidepressants, and benzodiazepines was associated with worse cognitive functioning. Higher scores on the mood dimension were associated with poorer working memory and processing speed, whereas higher scores on a motivational and apathy dimension were associated with poorer episodic memory and processing speed. Conclusions: Heterogeneity in late-life depression may lead to differences in cognitive functioning. Higher severity and having a first depressive episode was associated with worse cognitive performance. Additionally, different domains of cognitive functioning were associated with specific symptom dimensions. Our findings on the use of psychotropic medication suggest that close monitoring on cognitive side effects is needed. PMID:24565278

Korten, Nicole C M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Kok, Rob M; Stek, Max L; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Deeg, Dorly J H; Comijs, Hannie C

2014-06-01

33

[Cognitive function in eating disorders].  

PubMed

Eating disorders are characterized by uncontrolled eating behaviors. The core psychopathology is expressed in a variety of ways: body image distortion, preoccupation with food and weight, fear of weight gain, and so on. Brain-imaging techniques provide many opportunities to study neural circuits related symptoms in eating disorder. The present article focuses studies about functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of eating disorders. Studies of anorexia nervosa suggest 1) relationship between amygdala activation and fear of weight gain, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive flexibility. Studies of bulimic eating disorder (bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and so on) suggest 1) relationship between brain reward system and overeating, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and impulse control. PMID:24796094

Okamoto, Yuri

2014-04-01

34

Mental work demands, retirement, and longitudinal trajectories of cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Age-related changes in cognitive abilities are well-documented, and a very important indicator of health, functioning, and decline in later life. However, less is known about the course of cognitive functioning before and after retirement and specifically whether job characteristics during one's time of employment (i.e., higher vs. lower levels of mental work demands) moderate how cognition changes both before and after the transition to retirement. We used data from n = 4,182 (50% women) individuals in the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative panel study in the United States, across an 18 year time span (1992-2010). Data were linked to the O*NET occupation codes to gather information about mental job demands to examine whether job characteristics during one's time of employment moderates level and rate of change in cognitive functioning (episodic memory and mental status) both before and after retirement. Results indicated that working in an occupation characterized by higher levels of mental demands was associated with higher levels of cognitive functioning before retirement, and a slower rate of cognitive decline after retirement. We controlled for a number of important covariates, including socioeconomic (education and income), demographic, and health variables. Our discussion focuses on pathways through which job characteristics may be associated with the course of cognitive functioning in relation to the important transition of retirement. Implications for job design as well as retirement are offered. PMID:24635733

Fisher, Gwenith G; Stachowski, Alicia; Infurna, Frank J; Faul, Jessica D; Grosch, James; Tetrick, Lois E

2014-04-01

35

Cognitive function in schizophrenia. Deficits, functional consequences, and future treatment.  

PubMed

This article has discussed the relationship between cognitive deficits and functional outcome in schizophrenia. This relationship was noted first by Kraepelin and Bleuler at the beginning of the twentieth century. With the introduction of conventional neuroleptics, the focus shifted toward the treatment of positive symptoms. In the past few decades, cognitive dysfunction has been recognized as a fundamental feature of schizophrenia and has been shown repeatedly to have a negative association with functional outcome [6]. Improvement in cognitive functioning became one of the most important clinical targets in the treatment of schizophrenia in the 1990s [82]. Main domains of cognition that are disrupted significantly in schizophrenia include attention, executive function, verbal and visuospatial working memory, and learning and memory. Although conventional antipsychotics are effective in treating positive symptoms, they lack the ability to improve cognitive impairment and produce poor functional outcome. Previous research has shown superior efficacy of atypical antipsychotics on cognitive impairments in schizophrenia compared with conventional antipsychotics. Because the heterogeneity of atypical antipsychotics in their pharmacologic properties, they have differential profiles of cognitive efficacy in patients with schizophrenia. Establishing the cognitive profile of each atypical antipsychotic is an important task. This knowledge can be used to address individual cognitive problems and needs. Because cognitive deficits have been shown to have associations with different aspects of clinical symptoms, limited learning in rehabilitation programs, and functional outcome in schizophrenia, targeting individual cognitive deficits would lead to greater treatment success in terms of clinical and functional outcome. Although atypical antipsychotics have some benefit on cognitive function, further efforts to improve cognitive function are required. Attempts at improving cognition in schizophrenia with specific cognitive enhancers pharmacologically and psychological therapies such as cognitive remediation might lead to better functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:12683258

Sharma, Tonmoy; Antonova, Lena

2003-03-01

36

[Music therapy for dementia and higher cognitive dysfunction: a review].  

PubMed

Music is known to affect the human mind and body. Music therapy utilizes the effects of music for medical purposes. The history of music therapy is quite long, but only limited evidence supports its usefulness in the treatment of higher cognitive dysfunction. As for dementia, some studies conclude that music therapy is effective for preventing cognitive deterioration and the occurrence of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). In patients receiving music therapy for the treatment of higher cognitive dysfunction, aphasia was reported as the most common symptom. Many studies have been conducted to determine whether singing can improve aphasic symptoms: singing familiar and/or unfamiliar songs did not show any positive effect on aphasia. Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a method that utilizes melody and rhythm to improve speech output. MIT is a method that is known to have positive effects on aphasic patients. Some studies of music therapy for patients with unilateral spatial neglect; apraxia; hemiparesis; and walking disturbances, including parkinsonian gait, are available in the literature. Studies showed that the symptoms of unilateral spatial neglect and hemiparesis significantly improved when musical instruments were played for several months as a part of the music therapy. Here, I describe my study in which mental singing showed a positive effect on parkinsonian gait. Music is interesting, and every patient can go through training without any pain. Future studies need to be conducted to establish evidence of the positive effects of music therapy on neurological and neuropsychological symptoms. PMID:22147456

Satoh, Masayuki

2011-12-01

37

Dietary boron, brain function, and cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Although the trace element boron has yet to be recognized as an essential nutrient for humans, recent data from animal and human studies suggest that boron may be important for mineral metabolism and membrane function. To investigate further the functional role of boron, brain electrophysiology and cognitive performance were assessed in response to dietary manipulation of boron (approximately 0.25 versus approximately 3.25 mg boron/2000 kcal/day) in three studies with healthy older men and women. Within-subject designs were used to assess functional responses in all studies. Spectral analysis of electroencephalographic data showed effects of dietary boron in two of the three studies. When the low boron intake was compared to the high intake, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the proportion of low-frequency activity, and a decrease in the proportion of higher-frequency activity, an effect often observed in response to general malnutrition and heavy metal toxicity. Performance (e.g., response time) on various cognitive and psychomotor tasks also showed an effect of dietary boron. When contrasted with the high boron intake, low dietary boron resulted in significantly poorer performance (p < 0.05) on tasks emphasizing manual dexterity (studies II and III); eye-hand coordination (study II); attention (all studies); perception (study III); encoding and short-term memory (all studies); and long-term memory (study I). Collectively, the data from these three studies indicate that boron may play a role in human brain function and cognitive performance, and provide additional evidence that boron is an essential nutrient for humans. PMID:7889884

Penland, J G

1994-11-01

38

Personality Predicts Cognitive Function Over Seven Years in Older Persons  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether Neuroticism, as well as the less-studied dimensions the Five Factor Model of personality (Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) were associated with 7-year trajectories of cognitive functioning in older persons. Design Primary analysis of existing clinical trial data. Participants 602 persons of average age 79 at baseline. Measurements The NEO-Five Factor Inventory of personality, completed at baseline, and the modified Mini Mental Status Exam (3MSE) measured every 6 months for 7 years. Results Controlling for demographics, baseline morbidities including depression, health behaviors, Apolipoprotein E4 genotype, and self-rated health, higher Neuroticism was associated with worse average cognitive functioning and a steeper rate of decline over follow-up. Higher Extraversion and lower Openness were both associated with worse average cognitive functioning prospectively, while persons higher in Conscientiousness showed a slower rate of cognitive decline. Conclusions In addition to Neuroticism, other dispositional tendencies appear prognostically relevant for cognitive functioning in older persons. More work is needed to understand the mechanisms by which traits operate, as well as whether mitigation of certain dispositional tendencies can facilitate a better course of cognitive function.

Chapman, Benjamin; Duberstein, Paul; Tindle, Hilary A; Sink, Kaycee M; Robbins, John; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Franks, Peter

2011-01-01

39

Relationship disorders and cognitive functioning in young children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive functioning of young children with or without relationship disorders with their mother. Mother-infant dyads were recruited during the first three postpartum days. Parent Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIRGAS) scores and mother-child relationship disorders were decided when children were 41-49 months of age by integrating the data obtained from psychiatric interview with mothers, Clinical Problem Solving Procedure (CPSP) and home observation. Cognitive functioning of young children was evaluated with Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. The young children without relationship problems/disorders had higher intelligence quotient (IQ) scores even after controlling for the effect of independent variables on cognitive functioning. These findings suggest that there is a link between the quality of the mother-child relationship and cognitive functioning in young children. Therefore, physicians should assess the interactions of children with their mothers even if they are brought for reasons other than relationship problems. PMID:21434537

Akdemir, Devrim; Chadaro?lu-Cetin, Füsun; Ozusta, Seniz; Karada?, Ferda

2010-01-01

40

The effect of retirement on cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment has emerged as a major driver of disability in old age, with profound effects on individual well-being and decision making at older ages. In the light of policies aimed at postponing retirement ages, an important question is whether continued labour supply helps to maintain high levels of cognition at older ages. We use data of older men from the US Health and Retirement Study to estimate the effect of continued labour market participation at older ages on later-life cognition. As retirement itself is likely to depend on cognitive functioning and may thus be endogenous, we use offers of early retirement windows as instruments for retirement in econometric models for later-life cognitive functioning. These offers of early retirement are legally required to be nondiscriminatory and thus, inter alia, unrelated to cognitive functioning. At the same time, these offers of early retirement options are significant predictors of retirement. Although the simple ordinary least squares estimates show a negative relationship between retirement duration and various measures of cognitive functioning, instrumental variable estimates suggest that these associations may not be causal effects. Specifically, we find no clear relationship between retirement duration and later-life cognition for white-collar workers and, if anything, a positive relationship for blue-collar workers. PMID:21818822

Coe, Norma B; von Gaudecker, Hans-Martin; Lindeboom, Maarten; Maurer, Jürgen

2012-08-01

41

Continuous ASL perfusion fMRI investigation of higher cognition  

PubMed Central

Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion fMRI is an emerging method in clinical neuroimaging. Its non-invasiveness, absence of low frequency noise, and ability to quantify the absolute level of cerebral blood flow (CBF) make the method ideal for longitudinal designs or low frequency paradigms. Despite the usefulness in the study of cognitive dysfunctions in clinical populations, perfusion activation studies to date have been conducted for simple sensorimotor paradigms or with single-slice acquisition, mainly due to technical challenges. Using our recently developed amplitude-modulated continuous ASL (CASL) perfusion fMRI protocol, we assessed the feasibility of a higher level cognitive activation study in twelve healthy subjects. Taking advantage of the ASL noise properties, we were able to study tonic CBF changes during uninterrupted 6-min continuous performance of working memory and sustained attention tasks. For the visual sustained attention task, regional CBF increases (6-12 ml/100 g/min) were detected in the right middle frontal gyrus, the bilateral occipital gyri, and the anterior cingulate/medial frontal gyri. During the 2-back working memory task, significantly increased activations (7-11 ml/100 g/min) were found in the left inferior frontal/precentral gyri, the left inferior parietal lobule, the anterior cingulate/medial frontal gyri, and the left occipital gyrus. Locations of activated and deactivated areas largely concur with previous PET and BOLD fMRI studies utilizing similar paradigms. These results demonstrate that CASL perfusion fMRI can be successfully utilized for the investigation of the tonic CBF changes associated with high level cognitive operations. Increased applications of the method to the investigation of cognitively impaired populations are expected to follow.

Kim, Junghoon; Whyte, John; Wang, Jiongjiong; Rao, Hengyi; Tang, Kathy Z.; Detre, John A.

2008-01-01

42

Genotype differences in cognitive functioning in Noonan syndrome.  

PubMed

Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal-dominant genetic disorder associated with highly variable features, including heart disease, short stature, minor facial anomalies and learning disabilities. Recent gene discoveries have laid the groundwork for exploring whether variability in the NS phenotype is related to differences at the genetic level. In this study, we examine the influence of both genotype and nongenotypic factors on cognitive functioning. Data are presented from 65 individuals with NS (ages 4-18) who were evaluated using standardized measures of intellectual functioning. The cohort included 33 individuals with PTPN11 mutations, 6 individuals with SOS1 mutations, 1 individual with a BRAF mutation and 25 participants with negative, incomplete or no genetic testing. Results indicate that genotype differences may account for some of the variation in cognitive ability in NS. Whereas cognitive impairments were common among individuals with PTPN11 mutations and those with unknown mutations, all of the individuals with SOS1 mutations exhibited verbal and nonverbal cognitive skills in the average range or higher. Participants with N308D and N308S mutations in PTPN11 also showed no (or mild) cognitive delays. Additional influences such as hearing loss, motor dexterity and parental education levels accounted for significant variability in cognitive outcomes. Severity of cardiac disease was not related to cognitive functioning. Our results suggest that some NS-causing mutations have a more marked impact on cognitive skills than others. PMID:19077116

Pierpont, E I; Pierpont, M E; Mendelsohn, N J; Roberts, A E; Tworog-Dube, E; Seidenberg, M S

2009-04-01

43

Cognitive reserve moderates relation between global cognition and functional status in older adults.  

PubMed

The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) is necessary for independent living. Research suggests that community-dwelling older adults are at risk for experiencing subtle decrements in the performance of IADLs. Neuropsychological tests have been used to account for differences in IADL status. Studies of the relationship between cognitive ability and functional status have produced variable results, however, and cognitive ability appears to be only a moderate predictor. Several studies of normal aging have revealed cognitive and functional benefits of higher cognitive reserve (CR) in healthy, nondemented older adults. The purposes of the present study were to: (a) examine the relationship between global cognitive ability and IADL performance among 53 community-dwelling older adults, and (b) determine whether formal education, as a proxy of CR, significantly moderates this relationship. Consistent with previous findings, global cognitive ability accounted for a considerable portion of variance in IADL performance [?R(2) = .54; ?F(2, 53) = 67.96; p < .001]. Additionally, CR modestly but significantly attenuated this relationship [?R(2) = .044; ?F(4, 53) = 5.98; p = .018; total R(2) = .65]. This finding suggests that community-dwelling older adults with lower levels of formal education may be at greater risk for functional decrements associated with age-related cognitive decline. PMID:24611794

Duda, Bryant; Puente, Antonio N; Miller, Lloyd Stephen

2014-05-01

44

Functional brain networks and cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Graph-theoretical analyses of functional networks obtained with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have recently proven to be a useful approach for the study of the substrates underlying cognitive deficits in different diseases. We used this technique to investigate whether cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with changes in global and local network measures. Thirty-six healthy controls (HC) and 66 PD patients matched for age, sex, and education were classified as having mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or not based on performance in the three mainly affected cognitive domains in PD: attention/executive, visuospatial/visuoperceptual (VS/VP), and declarative memory. Resting-state fMRI and graph theory analyses were used to evaluate network measures. We have found that patients with MCI had connectivity reductions predominantly affecting long-range connections as well as increased local interconnectedness manifested as higher measures of clustering, small-worldness, and modularity. The latter measures also tended to correlate negatively with cognitive performance in VS/VP and memory functions. Hub structure was also reorganized: normal hubs displayed reduced centrality and degree in MCI PD patients. Our study indicates that the topological properties of brain networks are changed in PD patients with cognitive deficits. Our findings provide novel data regarding the functional substrate of cognitive impairment in PD, which may prove to have value as a prognostic marker. Hum Brain Mapp 35:4620-4634, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24639411

Baggio, Hugo-Cesar; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Segura, Bàrbara; Marti, Maria-José; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Compta, Yaroslau; Tolosa, Eduardo; Junqué, Carme

2014-09-01

45

Functional Examination of Intermediate Cognitive Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis contains a functional examination of the cognitive processing which occurs between the acquisition of representations and the execution of responses. Three separate types of processing are proposed: explicit self-instruction, general non-verba...

D. B. Porter

1986-01-01

46

Nicotinic systems and cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have been found to be important for maintaining optimal performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. In humans, nicotine-induced improvement of rapid information processing is particularly well documented. In experimental animals nicotine has been found to improve learning and memory on a variety of tasks, while the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine has been found to impair memory performance.

Edward D. Levin

1992-01-01

47

Normal cognitive functions in joubert syndrome.  

PubMed

Developmental delay and subsequent impaired cognitive functions are present in almost all patients with Joubert syndrome (JS). We report on a 20-year-old woman with mild clinical signs of JS (minimal truncal ataxia and oculomotor apraxia) but typical molar tooth sign on neuroimaging, normal full scale (IQ=93), verbal (IQ=93), and performance intelligence quotient (IQ=94). Only minor difficulties in visual-spatial organization and in some executive functions could be detected. This pattern of deficits is partly reminiscent of the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. Her diagnosis was only reached following the diagnosis of JS in two brothers with severe cognitive impairment. Molecular investigations demonstrated a homozygous mutation in the INPP5E gene. This exceptional observation confirms that normal cognitive functions are possible in JS and corroborates the well known intrafamilial variability. PMID:20446224

Poretti, A; Dietrich Alber, F; Brancati, F; Dallapiccola, B; Valente, E M; Boltshauser, E

2009-12-01

48

Towards a concept of disorders of "higher vestibular function"  

PubMed Central

Background: Vestibular disorders are commonly characterized by a combination of perceptual, ocular motor, postural, and vegetative manifestations, which cause the symptoms of vertigo, nystagmus, ataxia, and nausea. Multisensory convergence and numerous polysynaptic pathways link the bilaterally organized central vestibular network with limbic, hippocampal, cerebellar, and non-vestibular cortex structures to mediate “highercognitive functions. Anatomical classification of vestibular disorders: The traditional classification of vestibular disorders is based on the anatomical site of the lesion. While it distinguishes between the peripheral and the central vestibular systems, certain weaknesses become apparent when applied clinically. There are two reasons for this: first, peripheral and central vestibular disorders cannot always be separated by the clinical syndrome; second, a third category, namely disorders of “higher vestibular function”, is missing. These disorders may be caused by peripheral as well as central vestibular lesions. Functional classification: Here we discuss a new concept of disorders of higher vestibular function which involve cognition and more than one sensory modality. Three conditions are described that exemplify such higher disorders: room tilt illusion, spatial hemineglect, and bilateral vestibulopathy all of which present with deficits of orientation and spatial memory. Conclusions: Further elaboration of such disorders of higher multisensory functions with respect to lesion site and symptomatology is desirable. The room tilt illusion and spatial hemineglect involve vestibular and visual function to the extent that both conditions can be classified as either disorders of higher vestibular or of higher visual functions. A possible way of separating these disorders in a first step is to determine whether the causative lesion site affects the vestibular or the visual system. For the vestibular system this lesion site may be peripheral or central. The criterion of “higher function” is fulfilled if cognition or senses other than the primarily affected one come into play.

Brandt, Thomas; Strupp, Michael; Dieterich, Marianne

2014-01-01

49

Common and specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: relationships to function  

PubMed Central

The goals of the present study were to assess the interrelationships among tasks from the MATRICS and CNTRACS batteries, to determine the degree to which tasks from each battery capture unique variance in cognitive dys-function in schizophrenia, and to determine the ability of tasks from each battery to predict functional outcome. Subjects were 104 schizophrenia patients and 132 healthy control subjects recruited as part of the CNTRACS initiative. All subjects completed four CNTRACS tasks and two tasks from the MATRICS battery: Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia Symbol Coding and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test. Functional outcome was also assessed in the schizophrenia subjects. In both the patient and control groups, we found significant intercorrelations between all higher order cognitive tasks (episodic memory, goal maintenance, processing speed, verbal learning) but minimal relationships with the visual task. For almost all tasks, scores were significantly related to measures of functional outcome, with higher associations between CNTRACS tasks and performance-based measures of function and between one of the MATRICS tasks and self-reported functioning, relative to the other functioning measures. After regressing out variance shared by other tasks, we continued to observe group differences in performance among task residuals, particularly for measures of episodic memory from both batteries, although these residuals did not correlate as robustly with functional outcome as raw test scores. These findings suggest that there exists both shared and specific variance across cognitive tasks related to cognitive and functional impairments in schizophrenia and that measures derived from cognitive neuroscience can predict functional capacity and status in schizophrenia.

Sheffield, Julia M.; Gold, James M.; Strauss, Milton E.; Carter, Cameron S.; MacDonald, Angus W.; Ragland, J. Daniel; Silverstein, Steven M.; Barch, Deanna M.

2014-01-01

50

Psychopathology, cognitive function, and social functioning of patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES. To explore the relationship between cognitive functions, social functioning, and psychopathology in schizophrenia. METHODS. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, according to the ICD-10 criteria, were enrolled from the Department of Psychiatry of 2 postgraduate hospitals in Kolkata, India. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Research Foundation India-Social Functioning Index, and a cognitive test battery were administered. RESULTS. Regarding the 100 patients recruited into the study, 4 subtests (self-care, occupational role, social role, and family role) of the social functioning were found to be significantly correlated with cognitive functions. Cognitive function battery performance scores were more inversely correlated with negative symptoms than with positive symptoms. CONCLUSION. Positive and negative symptoms along with verbal fluency were able to predict social functioning. PMID:23807631

Santosh, S; Dutta Roy, D; Kundu, P S

2013-06-01

51

Characterizing executive functioning in older special populations: from cognitively elite to cognitively impaired.  

PubMed

The authors examined the structure and invariance of executive functions (EF) across (a) a continuum of cognitive status in 3 groups of older adults (cognitively elite [CE], cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and (b) a 3-year longitudinal interval. Using latent variable analyses (LISREL 8.80), the authors tested 3-factor models ("Inhibition": Hayling [Burgess & Shallice, 1997], Stroop [Regard, 1981]; "Shifting": Brixton [Burgess & Shallice, 1997], Color Trails [D'Elia et al., 1996]; and "Updating": Reading and Computational Span [Salthouse & Babcock, 1991]) and 1-factor models within each group. Participants (initial N = 570; 53-90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study (Sample 3, Waves 1 and 2). Cross-sectionally, the authors observed a 3-factor EF structure especially for the CE group and 1-factor solutions for all 3 groups. Longitudinally, temporal invariance was supported for the 3-factor model (CE and CN groups) and the 1-factor model (CI and CN groups). Subgroups with higher cognitive status and greater 3-year stability performed better on EF factors than corresponding groups with lower cognitive status and less stability. Studies of EF structure, performance, dedifferentiation, and dysfunction will benefit from considering initial cognitive status and longitudinal stability. PMID:19899836

de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A; Strauss, Esther

2009-11-01

52

Nutraceutical intervention improves older adults' cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Interventions to improve the cognitive health of older adults are of critical importance. In the current study, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a pill-based nutraceutical (NT-020) that contained a proprietary formulation of blueberry, carnosine, green tea, vitamin D3, and Biovin to evaluate the impact on changes in multiple domains of cognitive functioning. One hundred and five cognitively intact adults aged 65-85 years of age (M=73.6 years) were randomized to receive NT-020 (n=52) or a placebo (n=53). Participants were tested with a battery of cognitive performance tests that were classified into six broad domains--episodic memory, processing speed, verbal ability, working memory, executive functioning, and complex speed at baseline and 2 months later. The results indicated that persons taking NT-020 improved significantly on two measures of processing speed across the 2-month test period in contrast to persons on the placebo whose performance did not change. None of the other cognitive ability measures were related to intervention group. The results also indicated that the NT-020 was well tolerated by older adults, and the presence of adverse events or symptoms did not differ between the NT-020 and placebo groups. Overall, the results of the current study were promising and suggest the potential for interventions like these to improve the cognitive health of older adults. PMID:24134194

Small, Brent J; Rawson, Kerri S; Martin, Christina; Eisel, Sarah L; Sanberg, Cyndy D; McEvoy, Cathy L; Sanberg, Paul R; Shytle, R Douglas; Tan, Jun; Bickford, Paula C

2014-02-01

53

Cognitive functioning in depersonalization disorder.  

PubMed

Depersonalization disorder (DPD) is a dissociative disorder characterized by a subjective sense of unreality and detachment, and has been associated with deficits in perception and short-term memory. In this study, 21 DPD and 17 healthy comparison participants free of psychiatric disorders were administered a comprehensive neuropsychologic battery. The groups did not differ in full-scale, verbal, and performance IQ (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), in working memory (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test), or in selective attention (Digit Span with Distracters). The DPD group performed significantly worse on immediate visual and verbal recall (Wechsler Memory Scale, Revised), but not on delayed recall. Dissociation severity was significantly correlated with processing slowness and distractibility. We conclude that DPD is associated with cognitive disruptions in early perceptual and attentional processes. PMID:18091191

Guralnik, Orna; Giesbrecht, Timo; Knutelska, Margaret; Sirroff, Beth; Simeon, Daphne

2007-12-01

54

Does Cognitive Function Increase over Time in the Healthy Elderly?  

PubMed Central

Background In dementia screening, most studies have focused on early cognitive impairment by comparing patients suffering from mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment with normal subjects. Few studies have focused on modifications over time of the cognitive function in the healthy elderly. The objective of the present study was to analyze the cognitive function changes of two different samples, born > 15 years apart. Method A first sample of 204 cognitively normal participants was recruited in the memory clinic of Broca hospital between 1991 and 1997. A second sample of 177 cognitively normal participants was recruited in 2008–2009 in the same institution. Both samples were from the same districts of Paris and were assessed with the same neuropsychological test battery. Mean cognitive test scores were compared between 1991 and 2008 samples, between < 80 years old and ? 80 years old in 1991 and 2008 samples, and finally between subjects < 80 year old of 1991 sample and subjects ? 80 years old of the 2008 sample. Means were compared with T-tests stratified on gender, age-groups and educational level. Results Cognitive scores were significantly higher in the 2008 sample. Participants < 80 years old outperformed those ? 80 in both samples. However, participants < 80 years old in 1991 sample and subjects ? 80 in the 2008 sample, born on average in 1923, performed mostly identically. Conclusion This study showed a significant increase of cognitive scores over time. Further, contemporary octogenarians in the later sample performed like septuagenarians in the former sample. These findings might be consistent with the increase in life expectancy and life span in good health. The study highlights the necessity to take into account factors which may contaminate and artificially inflate the age-related differences in favor of younger to the older adults.

de Rotrou, Jocelyne; Wu, Ya-Huei; Mabire, Jean-Bernard; Moulin, Florence; de Jong, Laura W.; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Hanon, Olivier; Vidal, Jean-Sebastien

2013-01-01

55

Cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions affecting physical functioning: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been\\u000a proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitive function through behavioral interventions\\u000a or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive\\u000a and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning

Giuseppe Pichierri; Peter Wolf; Kurt Murer; Eling D de Bruin

2011-01-01

56

[Cognitive function related to temporal lobe epilepsy: advances in research on new cognitive function].  

PubMed

The importance of neuropsychological examinations in epilepsy care and, especially, in epilepsy surgery is centered on the following roles: they offer a means to confirm the epileptic focus by multi-modal preoperative assessments and they help to assess postoperative functional changes based on preoperative cognitive functions. Furthermore, assessments of the cognitive functions of patients with epilepsy using various tests aid in providing comprehensive medical care. Thus far, research on cognitive functions related to temporal lobe epilepsy has focused on memory, language, and general intelligence. However, the concept of social cognitive function has been recently proposed in the field of neuropsychology. This cognitive function, proposed by Brothers in 1990, is a collective term for functions needed in social life; these include functions required to interpret the expressions, feelings, and intentions of others and to form and maintain smooth human relationships while making decisions necessary for self-survival. These functions mainly involve facial expression recognition and decision-making. Findings of research on neural mechanisms underlying social cognitive functions have emphasized the roles of the cerebral limbic system, such as the amygdalo-hippocampal complexes, and the emotional system in the ventromedial prefrontal area. Studies on social cognitive functions in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy are being pursued currently. Early-onset right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis is the key substrate determining a severe deficit in recognizing emotional facial expressions and decision-making. In the future, neuropsychological examinations of social cognition, in addition to those of global intelligence, memory, and verbal function, will contribute to the provision of comprehensive medical care to patients with epilepsy. PMID:23667120

Yamano, Mitsuhiko; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

2013-05-01

57

Test-Wiseness: A Cognitive Function?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the findings of an attempt to improve test-wiseness (TW) through direct instruction in selected test-taking strategies. TW was defined as "a cognitive function, subject to improvement through both general exposure to a wide variety of test items, and specific training in test-taking skills." The total investigation included:…

Woodley, Katheryn K.

58

Mental exercises for cognitive function: clinical evidence.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the beneficial effects of a new cognitive intervention program designed for the care and prevention of dementia, namely Learning Therapy. The training program used systematized basic problems in arithmetic and Japanese language as training tasks. In study 1, 16 individuals in the experimental group and 16 in the control group were recruited from a nursing home. In both groups, all individuals were clinically diagnosed with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. In study 2, we performed a single-blind, randomized controlled trial in our cognitive intervention program of 124 community-dwelling seniors. In both studies, the daily training program using reading and arithmetic tasks was carried out approximately 5 days a week, for 15 to 20 minutes a day in the intervention groups. Neuropsychological measures were determined simultaneously in the groups both prior to and after six months of the intervention. The results of our investigations indicate that our cognitive intervention using reading and arithmetic problems demonstrated a transfer effect and they provide convincing evidence that cognitive training maintains and improves the cognitive functions of dementia patients and healthy seniors. PMID:23412645

Kawashima, Ryuta

2013-01-01

59

Cognitive Function in Peripheral Autonomic Disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective aims of the current study were 1) to evaluate global cognitive function in patients with autonomic failure (AF) of peripheral origin and 2) to investigate the effect of a documented fall in blood pressure (BP) fulfilling the criteria for orthostatic hypotension (OH) on cognitive performances. Methods we assessed 12 consecutive patients (10 males, 68±7 years old) with pure AF (PAF) or autoimmune autonomic neuropathy (AAN) and 12 age- and gender-matched controls. All patients had no clinical signs of central nervous system involvement and normal brain CT/MRI scan. Cognitive function was assessed on two consecutive days in 3 conditions: on day 1, while sitting, by means of a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests; on day 2, while tilted (HUT) and during supine rest (supine) in a randomized manner. BP and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded non-invasively for the whole duration of the examination. Results patients with PAF or AAN displayed a preserved global cognitive function while sitting. However, compared to supine assessment, during HUT patients scored significantly worse during the Trail Making Test A and B, Barrage test, Analogies test, Immediate Visual Memory, Span Forward and Span Backward test. Pathological scores, with regard to Italian normative range values, were observed only during HUT in the Barrage test and in the Analogies test in 3 and 6 patients respectively. On the contrary, in healthy controls, results to neuropsychological tests were not significantly different, during HUT compared to supine rest. Conclusions these data demonstrate that patients with PAF and AAN present a normal sitting global cognitive evaluation. However, their executive functions worsen significantly during the orthostatic challenge, possibly because of transient frontal lobes hypoperfusion.

Guaraldi, Pietro; Poda, Roberto; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Solieri, Laura; Sambati, Luisa; Gallassi, Roberto; Cortelli, Pietro

2014-01-01

60

Serum leptin and cognitive function in people with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

People with obesity and type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of cognitive impairment. We aimed to investigate the association of leptin with cognitive abilities in an elderly population with type 2 diabetes. We performed a cross-sectional study of 1057 men and women aged 60-75 years with type 2 diabetes living in Lothian (Scotland). A cognitive battery was administered. Prior intelligence was estimated from vocabulary testing and adjustment for scores on this test was used to estimate lifetime cognitive change. Relationships between fasting morning leptin levels and cognitive ability and estimated cognitive change were tested. Higher leptin levels were associated with significantly poorer estimated overall cognitive decline, and poorer performance in 2 cognitive domains assessing mental flexibility and executive function, only amongst men (p < 0.05). High morning leptin levels in elderly men with type 2 diabetes are associated with estimated age-related cognitive change. PMID:22475620

Labad, Javier; Price, Jacqueline F; Strachan, Mark W J; Deary, Ian J; Seckl, Jonathan R; Sattar, Naveed; Reynolds, Rebecca M

2012-12-01

61

A Meta-analysis of Cerebellar Contributions to Higher Cognition from PET and fMRI studies  

PubMed Central

A growing interest in cerebellar function and its involvement in higher cognition have prompted much research in recent years. Cerebellar presence in a wide range of cognitive functions examined within an increasing body of neuroimaging literature has been observed. We applied a meta-analytic approach, which employed the activation likelihood estimate method, to consolidate results of cerebellar involvement accumulated in different cognitive tasks of interest and systematically identified similarities among the studies. The current analysis included 88 neuroimaging studies demonstrating cerebellar activations in higher cognitive domains involving emotion, executive function, language, music, timing and working memory. While largely consistent with a prior meta-analysis by Stoodley and Schmahmann (2009), our results extended their findings to include music and timing domains to provide further insights into cerebellar involvement and elucidate its role in higher cognition. In addition, we conducted inter- and intra-domain comparisons for the cognitive domains of emotion, language and working memory. We also considered task differences within the domain of verbal working memory by conducting a comparison of the Sternberg with the n-back task, as well as an analysis of the differential components within the Sternberg task. Results showed a consistent cerebellar presence in the timing domain, providing evidence for a role in time keeping. Unique clusters identified within the domain further refine the topographic organization of the cerebellum.

Keren-Happuch, E; Chen, Shen-Hsing Annabel; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Desmond, John E.

2013-01-01

62

A meta-analysis of cerebellar contributions to higher cognition from PET and fMRI studies.  

PubMed

A growing interest in cerebellar function and its involvement in higher cognition have prompted much research in recent years. Cerebellar presence in a wide range of cognitive functions examined within an increasing body of neuroimaging literature has been observed. We applied a meta-analytic approach, which employed the activation likelihood estimate method, to consolidate results of cerebellar involvement accumulated in different cognitive tasks of interest and systematically identified similarities among the studies. The current analysis included 88 neuroimaging studies demonstrating cerebellar activations in higher cognitive domains involving emotion, executive function, language, music, timing and working memory. While largely consistent with a prior meta-analysis by Stoodley and Schmahmann ([2009]: Neuroimage 44:489-501), our results extended their findings to include music and timing domains to provide further insights into cerebellar involvement and elucidate its role in higher cognition. In addition, we conducted inter- and intradomain comparisons for the cognitive domains of emotion, language, and working memory. We also considered task differences within the domain of verbal working memory by conducting a comparison of the Sternberg with the n-back task, as well as an analysis of the differential components within the Sternberg task. Results showed a consistent cerebellar presence in the timing domain, providing evidence for a role in time keeping. Unique clusters identified within the domain further refine the topographic organization of the cerebellum. PMID:23125108

E, Keren-Happuch; Chen, Shen-Hsing Annabel; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Desmond, John E

2014-02-01

63

Higher-order awareness, misrepresentation and function  

PubMed Central

Conscious mental states are states we are in some way aware of. I compare higher-order theories of consciousness, which explain consciousness by appeal to such higher-order awareness (HOA), and first-order theories, which do not, and I argue that higher-order theories have substantial explanatory advantages. The higher-order nature of our awareness of our conscious states suggests an analogy with the metacognition that figures in the regulation of psychological processes and behaviour. I argue that, although both consciousness and metacognition involve higher-order psychological states, they have little more in common. One thing they do share is the possibility of misrepresentation; just as metacognitive processing can misrepresent one's cognitive states and abilities, so the HOA in virtue of which one's mental states are conscious can, and sometimes does, misdescribe those states. A striking difference between the two, however, has to do with utility for psychological processing. Metacognition has considerable benefit for psychological processing; in contrast, it is unlikely that there is much, if any, utility to mental states' being conscious over and above the utility those states have when they are not conscious.

Rosenthal, David

2012-01-01

64

Maturation of Widely Distributed Brain Function Subserves Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive and brain maturational changes continue throughout late childhood and adolescence. During this time, increasing cognitive control over behavior enhances the voluntary suppression of reflexive\\/impulsive response tendencies. Recently, with the advent of functional MRI, it has become possible to characterize changes in brain activity during cognitive development. In order to investigate the cognitive and brain maturation subserving the ability to

Beatriz Luna; Keith R. Thulborn; Douglas P. Munoz; Elisha P. Merriam; Krista E. Garver; Nancy J. Minshew; Matcheri S. Keshavan; Christopher R. Genovese; William F. Eddy; John A. Sweeney

2001-01-01

65

Questions for Assessing Higher-Order Cognitive Skills: It's Not Just Bloom's  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an exploratory study of biologists' ideas about higher-order cognition questions. We documented the conversations of biologists who were writing and reviewing a set of higher-order cognition questions. Using a qualitative approach, we identified the themes of these conversations. Biologists in our study used Bloom's Taxonomy to…

Lemons, Paula P.; Lemons, J. Derrick

2013-01-01

66

Higher and lower-order cognitive skills: The case of chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major driving force in the current effort to reform science education is the conviction that it is vital for our students to develop their higher-order cognitive skills capacity in order to function effectively in our modem, complex science and technology-based society. In line with this rationale, this study focuses on the use of examinations for studying student performance in chemistry examination on items that require higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) or lower-order cognitive skills (LOCS). This usage of examinations is explored and demonstrated via “post-factum” data analysis of two case studies: the General Examination (in chemistry) and the Panhellenic Chemistry Competition administered natinally in Greece for secondary-school graduates in 1991. The main findings were: (a) students performed considerably lower on questions requiring HOCS than on those requiring LOCS; (b) performance on questions requiring HOCS may not correlate with that on questions requiring LOCS for which affective factors, LOCS-orientation in teaching and the extent of prior examination preparation may be responsible; and (c) examinations that contain intems of both types can be effectively used to identify HOCS- and LOCS- students within various contexts of chemistry teaching. Based on the above and previous related studies, the fostering of students' HOCS by appropriate teaching and assessment trategies is advocated.

Zoller, Uri; Tsaparlis, Georgios

1997-03-01

67

On higher genus Weierstrass sigma-function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this paper is to propose a new way to generalize the Weierstrass sigma-function to higher genus Riemann surfaces. Our definition of the odd higher genus sigma-function is based on a generalization of the classical representation of the elliptic sigma-function via the Jacobi theta-function. Namely, the odd higher genus sigma-function ??(u) (for u?Cg) is defined as a product of the theta-function with odd half-integer characteristic ??, associated with a spin line bundle ?, an exponent of a certain bilinear form, the determinant of a period matrix and a power of the product of all even theta-constants which are non-vanishing on a given Riemann surface. We also define an even sigma-function corresponding to an arbitrary even spin structure. Even sigma-functions are constructed as a straightforward analog of a classical formula relating even and odd sigma-functions. In higher genus the even sigma-functions are well-defined on the moduli space of Riemann surfaces outside of a subspace defined by vanishing of the corresponding even theta-constant.

Korotkin, D.; Shramchenko, V.

2012-12-01

68

Sensory and Cognitive Factors Influencing Functional Ability in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Age-related sensory and cognitive impairments have been related to functional performance in older adults. With regard to cognitive abilities, processing speed in particular may be strongly related to older adults’ abilities to perform everyday tasks. Identifying and comparing cognitive correlates of functional performance is particularly important in order to design interventions to promote independence and prevent functional disability. Objective:

Kimberly M. Wood; Jerri D. Edwards; Olivio J. Clay; Virginia G. Wadley; Daniel L. Roenker; Karlene K. Ball

2005-01-01

69

Functional Relationships for Investigating Cognitive Processes  

PubMed Central

Functional relationships (from systematic manipulation of critical variables) are advocated for revealing fundamental processes of (comparative) cognition—through examples from my work in psychophysics, learning, and memory. Functional relationships for pigeon wavelength (hue) discrimination revealed best discrimination at the spectral points of hue transition for pigeons—a correspondence (i.e., functional relationship) similar to that for humans. Functional relationships for learning revealed: Item-specific or relational learning in matching to sample as a function of the pigeons’ sample-response requirement, and same/different abstract-concept learning as a function of the training set size for rhesus monkeys, capuchin monkeys, and pigeons. Functional relationships for visual memory revealed serial position functions (a 1st order functional relationship) that changed systematically with retention delay (a 2nd order relationship) for pigeons, capuchin monkeys, rhesus monkeys, and humans. Functional relationships for rhesus-monkey auditory memory also revealed systematic changes in serial position functions with delay, but these changes were opposite to those for visual memory. Functional relationships for proactive interference revealed interference that varied as a function of a ratio of delay times. Functional relationships for change detection memory revealed (qualitative) similarities and (quantitative) differences in human and monkey visual short term memory as a function of the number of memory items. It is concluded that these findings were made possible by varying critical variables over a substantial portion of the manipulable range to generate functions and derive relationships.

Wright, Anthony A.

2013-01-01

70

Compensatory mechanisms in higher-educated subjects with Alzheimer's disease: a study of 20 years of cognitive decline.  

PubMed

A better knowledge of long-term trajectories of cognitive decline is a central feature of the study of the process leading to Alzheimer's dementia. Several factors may mitigate such decline, among which is education, a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. The aim of our work was to compare the pattern and duration of clinical trajectories before Alzheimer's dementia in individuals with low and high education within the PAQUID cohort involving 20 years of follow-up. The sample comprises 442 participants with incident Alzheimer's disease (27.2% were male)--171 with low education (mean age=86.2 years; standard deviation=5.3 years) and 271 with higher education (mean age=86.5; standard deviation=5.4)--and 442 control subjects matched according to age, sex and education. At each visit and up to the 20-year follow-up visit, several cognitive and clinical measures were collected and incident cases of Alzheimer's disease clinically diagnosed. The evolution of clinical measures in pre-demented subjects and matched controls was analysed with a semi-parametric extension of the mixed effects linear model. The results show that the first signs of cognitive decline occurred 15 to 16 years before achieving dementia threshold in higher-educated subjects whereas signs occurred at 7 years before dementia in low-educated subjects. There seemed to be two successive periods of decline in higher-educated subjects. Decline started ?15 to 16 years before dementia with subtle impairment restricted to some cognitive tests and with no impact during the first 7 to 8 years on global cognition, cognitive complaints, or activities of daily living scales. Then, ?7 years before dementia, global cognitive abilities begin to deteriorate, along with difficulties dealing with complex activities of daily living, the increase in self-perceived difficulties and depressive symptoms. By contrast, lower-educated subjects presented a single period of decline lasting ?7 years, characterized by decline concomitantly affecting specific and more global cognitive function along with alteration in functional abilities. This study demonstrates how early cognitive symptoms may emerge preceding Alzheimer's dementia particularly in higher-educated individuals, for whom decline occurred up to 16 years before dementia. It also demonstrates the protective role of education in the clinical trajectory preceding Alzheimer's dementia. We suggest that the initial decline in cognition occurs at the onset of comparable Alzheimer's disease pathology in both groups, and is associated with immediate decline to dementia in the lower education group. In contrast, higher education protects against further cognitive decline for ?7 years until pathology becomes more severe. PMID:24578544

Amieva, Hélène; Mokri, Hind; Le Goff, Mélanie; Meillon, Céline; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Stern, Yaakov; Dartigues, Jean-François

2014-04-01

71

Assessment of higher order cognitive skills in undergraduate education: modified essay or multiple choice questions? Research paper  

PubMed Central

Background Reliable and valid written tests of higher cognitive function are difficult to produce, particularly for the assessment of clinical problem solving. Modified Essay Questions (MEQs) are often used to assess these higher order abilities in preference to other forms of assessment, including multiple-choice questions (MCQs). MEQs often form a vital component of end-of-course assessments in higher education. It is not clear how effectively these questions assess higher order cognitive skills. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of the MEQ to measure higher-order cognitive skills in an undergraduate institution. Methods An analysis of multiple-choice questions and modified essay questions (MEQs) used for summative assessment in a clinical undergraduate curriculum was undertaken. A total of 50 MCQs and 139 stages of MEQs were examined, which came from three exams run over two years. The effectiveness of the questions was determined by two assessors and was defined by the questions ability to measure higher cognitive skills, as determined by a modification of Bloom's taxonomy, and its quality as determined by the presence of item writing flaws. Results Over 50% of all of the MEQs tested factual recall. This was similar to the percentage of MCQs testing factual recall. The modified essay question failed in its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the MCQ frequently tested more than mere recall of knowledge. Conclusion Construction of MEQs, which will assess higher order cognitive skills cannot be assumed to be a simple task. Well-constructed MCQs should be considered a satisfactory replacement for MEQs if the MEQs cannot be designed to adequately test higher order skills. Such MCQs are capable of withstanding the intellectual and statistical scrutiny imposed by a high stakes exit examination.

Palmer, Edward J; Devitt, Peter G

2007-01-01

72

Coupled Cognitive and Functional Change in Alzheimer's Disease and the Influence of Depressive Symptoms  

PubMed Central

In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), cognition and function are only moderately correlated in cross-sectional studies, and studies of their longitudinal association are less common. One potential non-cognitive contributor to function is depression, which has been associated with poorer clinical outcomes. The current study investigated longitudinal associations between functional abilities, cognitive status, and depressive symptoms in AD. 517 patients diagnosed with probable AD and enrolled in The Multicenter Study of Predictors of Disease Course in Alzheimer’s Disease were included. Patients were followed at 6-month intervals over 5.5 years. Longitudinal changes in the Blessed Dementia Rating Scale, modified Mini-Mental State Exam, and the depression subscale of the Columbia University Scale for Psychopathology in AD were examined in a multivariate latent growth curve model that controlled for gender, age, education, and recruitment site. Results showed that cognition and function worsened over the study period, whereas depressive symptoms were largely stable. Rates of change in cognition and function were correlated across participants and coupled within participants, indicating that they travel together over time. Worse initial cognitive status was associated with faster subsequent functional decline, and vice versa. Higher level of depressive symptoms was associated with worse initial functioning and faster subsequent cognitive and functional decline. These findings highlight the importance of both cognitive and psychiatric assessment for functional prognosis. Targeting both cognitive and depressive symptoms in the clinical treatment of AD may have incremental benefit on functional abilities.

Zahodne, Laura B.; Devanand, D.P.; Stern, Yaakov

2013-01-01

73

Improving Cognition and Function Through Exercise Intervention in Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To analyze the effects of cognition on function and to explore the potential of aerobic exercise for promoting cognitive and functional capacities. Design: Integrative review of literature. Methods: Studies were selected based on an extensive search of electronic databases and man- ual cross-referencing for 1980 to 2006, using the combination of key words: Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia, or cognitive

Fang Yu; Ann M. Kolanowski; Neville E. Strumpf; Paul J. Eslinger

2006-01-01

74

Testosterone and cognitive function: current clinical evidence of a relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Testosterone levels decline as men age, as does cognitive function. Whether there is more than a temporal relationship between testosterone and cognitive function is unclear. Chemical castration studies in men with prostate cancer suggest that low serum testosterone may be associated with cognitive dysfunction. Low testosterone levels have also been observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild

Olivier Beauchet

2006-01-01

75

Evidence for a cytokine model of cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming at a formulation of a cytokine model of cognitive function under immunologically unchallenged physiological conditions, this article reviews the cytokine biology in the central nervous system (CNS) and recent developments in normal cytokine functions within the CNS that subserve cognitive processes. Currently available evidence shows that the cytokines IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? play a role in complex cognitive processes

J. McAfoose; B. T. Baune

2009-01-01

76

[Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].  

PubMed

Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders. PMID:17471820

Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Ma?gorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

2006-01-01

77

The cerebellum: its role in language and related cognitive and affective functions.  

PubMed

The traditional view on the cerebellum as the sole coordinator of motor function has been substantially redefined during the past decades. Neuroanatomical, neuroimaging and clinical studies have extended the role of the cerebellum to the modulation of cognitive and affective processing. Neuroanatomical studies have demonstrated cerebellar connectivity with the supratentorial association areas involved in higher cognitive and affective functioning, while functional neuroimaging and clinical studies have provided evidence of cerebellar involvement in a variety of cognitive and affective tasks. This paper reviews the recently acknowledged role of the cerebellum in linguistic and related cognitive and behavioral-affective functions. In addition, typical cerebellar syndromes such as the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS) and the posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) will be briefly discussed and the current hypotheses dealing with the presumed neurobiological mechanisms underlying the linguistic, cognitive and affective modulatory role of the cerebellum will be reviewed. PMID:23333152

De Smet, Hyo Jung; Paquier, Philippe; Verhoeven, Jo; Mariën, Peter

2013-12-01

78

Individual and Area Level Socioeconomic Status and Its Association with Cognitive Function and Cognitive Impairment (Low MMSE) among Community-Dwelling Elderly in Singapore  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) can affect cognitive function. We assessed cognitive function and cognitive impairment among community-dwelling elderly in a multi-ethnic urban low-SES Asian neighborhood and compared them with a higher-SES neighborhood. Methods The study population involved all residents aged ?60 years in two housing estates comprising owner-occupied housing (higher SES) and rental flats (low SES) in Singapore in 2012. Cognitive impairment was defined as <24 on the Mini Mental State Examination. Demographic/clinical details were collected via questionnaire. Multilevel linear regression was used to evaluate factors associated with cognitive function, while multilevel logistic regression determined predictors of cognitive impairment. Results Participation was 61.4% (558/909). Cognitive impairment was found in 26.2% (104/397) of residents in the low-SES community and in 16.1% (26/161) of residents in the higher-SES community. After adjusting for other sociodemographic variables, living in a low-SES community was independently associated with poorer cognitive function (? = ?1.41, SD = 0.58, p < 0.01) and cognitive impairment (adjusted odds ratio 5.13, 95% CI 1.98–13.34). Among cognitively impaired elderly in the low-SES community, 96.2% (100/104) were newly detected. Conclusion Living in a low-SES community is independently associated with cognitive impairment in an urban Asian society.

Wee, Liang En; Yeo, Wei Xin; Yang, Gui Rong; Hannan, Nazirul; Lim, Kenny; Chua, Christopher; Tan, Mae Yue; Fong, Nikki; Yeap, Amelia; Chen, Lionel; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat; Shen, Han Ming

2012-01-01

79

Higher and Lower-Order Cognitive Skills: The Case of Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores student performance in chemistry examinations on items that require higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) or lower-order cognitive skills (LOCS). Findings indicate that students performed considerably lower on questions requiring HOCS than on those requiring LOCS. Performance on questions requiring HOCS may not correlate with that on…

Zoller, Uri; Tsaparlis, Georgios

1997-01-01

80

Cognitive enhancements and the values of higher education.  

PubMed

Drugs developed to treat cognitive impairments are proving popular with healthy college students seeking to boost their focus and productivity. Concerned observers have called these practices a form of cheating akin to athletes' use of steroids, with some proposing testing students' urine to deter "academic doping." The ease with which critics analogize the academic enterprise to competitive sport, and the impulse to crack down on students using study drugs, reflect the same social influences and trends that spur demand for these interventions-our hyper-competitive culture, the commodification of education, and our attraction to technological quick-fixes. Rather than focusing on the technologies that are being put to troubling uses, we would be better served reforming the culture that makes these practices attractive. PMID:23007891

Lamkin, Matt

2012-12-01

81

Higher-order generic functions for CLOS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a framework for developing higher-order generic functions within the Common Lisp Object System similar to the ones in Common Lisp for processing sequences. The framework consist of several CLOS classes which define a protocol that allo...

J. E. Hernandez

1992-01-01

82

Cognitive and sexual functions in patients with traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has an immense psychosocial impact on an individual as well as on the close relatives. Sexuality is one among the functions which are usually found compromised post injury. The aim of present study was to examine cognitive and sexual functions post TBI. The objective of the study was to explore these domains and their relationship with each other. Tools: The tools used were sociodemographics record sheet, Edinburg handedness inventory, brief sexual function inventory, depression anxiety stress scales-21 and NIMHANS head injury battery. The sample consisted of 30 patients with mild-to-moderate TBI. All the subjects were tested individually in their regional language. Results: On cognitive domain, patients performed inadequately on all the tests; however, the percentage was higher in mental speed (43.3%), sustained attention (26.7%), verbal working memory (30%), response inhibition (36.7%), verbal memory (immediate and delayed) (43%) and visual (immediate, 23.3% and delayed, 26.7%). On the domain of sexual functions, all the four domains (sexual drive, erection, ejaculation and problem assessment) were affected however overall satisfaction (93.3%) was adequate. Among the four domains higher percentage of involvement was noted on problem assessment (70%), ejaculation (56.7%), and erection (46.7%). Significant correlation was found between mental speed, verbal working memory, planning, and visual memory with sexual drive, erection, ejaculation and overall satisfaction domains of sexual functioning. Negative correlation was found between motor speed and sustained attention with sexual drive, erection and ejaculation. Conclusion: Both cognitive and sexual functioning were found effected post TBI. However less emphasis is given to sexual functioning by the professionals. Educational intervention is needed to sensitize professional about this area and to include this area for better management.

War, Firdous A.; Jamuna, R.; Arivazhagan, A.

2014-01-01

83

A cognitive neurobiological account of deception: evidence from functional neuroimaging.  

PubMed Central

An organism may use misinformation, knowingly (through deception) or unknowingly (as in the case of camouflage), to gain advantage in a competitive environment. From an evolutionary perspective, greater tactical deception occurs among primates closer to humans, with larger neocortices. In humans, the onset of deceptive behaviours in childhood exhibits a developmental trajectory, which may be regarded as 'normal' in the majority and deficient among a minority with certain neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). In the human adult, deception and lying exhibit features consistent with their use of 'higher' or 'executive' brain systems. Accurate detection of deception in humans may be of particular importance in forensic practice, while an understanding of its cognitive neurobiology may have implications for models of 'theory of mind' and social cognition, and societal notions of responsibility, guilt and mitigation. In recent years, functional neuroimaging techniques (especially functional magnetic resonance imaging) have been used to study deception. Though few in number, and using very different experimental protocols, studies published in the peer-reviewed literature exhibit certain consistencies. Attempted deception is associated with activation of executive brain regions (particularly prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices), while truthful responding has not been shown to be associated with any areas of increased activation (relative to deception). Hence, truthful responding may comprise a relative 'baseline' in human cognition and communication. The subject who lies may necessarily engage 'higher' brain centres, consistent with a purpose or intention (to deceive). While the principle of executive control during deception remains plausible, its precise anatomy awaits elucidation.

Spence, Sean A; Hunter, Mike D; Farrow, Tom F D; Green, Russell D; Leung, David H; Hughes, Catherine J; Ganesan, Venkatasubramanian

2004-01-01

84

Chronic Insomnia and Cognitive Functioning Among Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic insomnia and cognitive impairment are both common complaints among older adults. This study explores the association between chronic insomnia and changes in cognitive functioning among older adults. The study population comprised two groups: 64 older adults without insomnia and 35 older adult insomniacs. The cognitive capacity of each participant was tested at the participant's home using the computerized “MindFit”

Iris Haimov; Einat Hanuka; Yael Horowitz

2008-01-01

85

Sleep and cognition in preschool years: specific links to executive functioning.  

PubMed

This study investigated the prospective links between sleep in infancy and preschoolers' cognitive performance. Mothers of 65 infants completed a sleep diary when infants were aged 1 year, and children completed two subscales of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence at 4 years, indexing general cognitive ability and complex executive functioning. Consistent with hypotheses, children getting higher proportions of their sleep at night as infants were found to perform better on executive functions, but did not show better general cognition. Relations held after controlling for family socioeconomic status and prior cognitive functioning. These findings suggest that the special importance of sleep for higher order cognition, documented among adults, may appear very early in life. PMID:23432661

Bernier, Annie; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Bouvette-Turcot, Andrée-Anne; Carlson, Stephanie M; Carrier, Julie

2013-01-01

86

Cognitive Function and Emotional Status of Middle-aged Chinese Hypertensive Patients Without Detectable White Matter Brain Lesions or Lacunar Infarctions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Essential hypertension (EH) is associated with cognitive deficits, and higher blood pressure levels have been related to lower levels of cognitive function. Executive functions, speed of processing, memory and attention are especially impacted. Hypertensi...

H. L. Rogers

2006-01-01

87

Physical inactivity and cognitive functioning: results from bed rest studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to multiple health benefits, participation in physical activity can enhance cognitive functioning. Less clear\\u000a is how reducing physical activity levels affects cognition, an issue potentially addressed by bed rest studies having included\\u000a cognitive tests. Detailed and reviewed here are 17 such studies, featuring 251 subjects, bed rest for 7–70 days, and tests\\u000a of cognition ranging from reaction time to

Darren M. Lipnicki; Hanns-Christian Gunga

2009-01-01

88

Cognitive variability in adults with ADHD and AS: disentangling the roles of executive functions and social cognition.  

PubMed

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Asperger's Syndrome (AS) share a heterogeneous cognitive profile. Studies assessing executive functions (EF) and social cognition in both groups have found preserved and impaired performances. These inconsistent findings would be partially explained by the cognitive variability reported in these disorders. First, the present study explored the inter-individual variability in EF and social cognition in both patient groups. Second, we compared differential characteristics and commonalities in the cognitive profiles of EF and social cognition between ADHD, AS and control adults. We assessed 22 patients with ADHD, 23 adults with AS and 21 matched typically developing subjects using different measures of EF (working memory, cognitive flexibility and multitasking) and social cognition (theory of mind and decision-making). Group comparisons and multiple case series analyses (MCSA) were conducted. The between-group comparisons showed an EF deficit in working memory in ADHD and a theory of mind (ToM) impairment in AS. The MCSA evidenced that, compared to controls, ADHD patients had a higher inter-individual variability in EF, while individuals with AS had a more heterogeneous profile in social cognition tasks compared to both groups. Finally, the AS and ADHD groups presented higher task-related variability compared to controls and shared a common heterogeneous profile in EF. This is the first study to compare variability in EF and social cognition profiles of ADHD and AS. We propose that heterogeneity in EF performance is a link between ADHD and AS which may explain the overlap of symptomatology between both diagnoses. In addition, patients with AS seem to show a unique heterogeneous profile in ToM which may explain the low probability of finding AS symptoms in patients with ADHD. PMID:23220737

Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Baez, Sandra; Torralva, Teresa; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Rattazzi, Alexia; Bein, Victoria; Rogg, Katharina; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

2013-02-01

89

Cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions affecting physical functioning: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitive function through behavioral interventions or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments that are similar to cognitive impairments seen in aging. The aim was to identify potentially promising methods that might be used in future intervention type studies for older adults. Methods A systematic search was conducted for the Medline/Premedline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. The search was focused on older adults over the age of 65. To increase the number of articles for review, we also included those discussing adult patients with neurological impairments due to trauma, as these cognitive impairments are similar to those seen in the aging population. The search was restricted to English, German and French language literature without any limitation of publication date or restriction by study design. Cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions were defined as dual-tasking, virtual reality exercise, cognitive exercise, or a combination of these. Results 28 articles met our inclusion criteria. Three articles used an isolated cognitive rehabilitation intervention, seven articles used a dual-task intervention and 19 applied a computerized intervention. There is evidence to suggest that cognitive or motor-cognitive methods positively affects physical functioning, such as postural control, walking abilities and general functions of the upper and lower extremities, respectively. The majority of the included studies resulted in improvements of the assessed functional outcome measures. Conclusions The current evidence on the effectiveness of cognitive or motor-cognitive interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments is limited. The heterogeneity of the studies published so far does not allow defining the training methodology with the greatest effectiveness. This review nevertheless provides important foundational information in order to encourage further development of novel cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions, preferably with a randomized control design. Future research that aims to examine the relation between improvements in cognitive skills and the translation to better performance on selected physical tasks should explicitly take the relation between the cognitive and physical skills into account.

2011-01-01

90

Novel Television-Based Cognitive Training Improves Working Memory and Executive Function  

PubMed Central

The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60–87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of “adequate” to “high” system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition.

Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecka, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bures, Vladimir

2014-01-01

91

Novel television-based cognitive training improves working memory and executive function.  

PubMed

The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60-87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of "adequate" to "high" system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bureš, Vladimír

2014-01-01

92

Semantic memory functional MRI and cognitive function after exercise intervention in mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with early memory loss, Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, inefficient or ineffective neural processing, and increased risk for AD. Unfortunately, treatments aimed at improving clinical symptoms or markers of brain function generally have been of limited value. Physical exercise is often recommended for people diagnosed with MCI, primarily because of its widely reported cognitive benefits in healthy older adults. However, it is unknown if exercise actually benefits brain function during memory retrieval in MCI. Here, we examined the effects of exercise training on semantic memory activation during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Seventeen MCI participants and 18 cognitively intact controls, similar in sex, age, education, genetic risk, and medication use, volunteered for a 12-week exercise intervention consisting of supervised treadmill walking at a moderate intensity. Both MCI and control participants significantly increased their cardiorespiratory fitness by approximately 10% on a treadmill exercise test. Before and after the exercise intervention, participants completed an fMRI famous name discrimination task and a neuropsychological battery, Performance on Trial 1 of a list-learning task significantly improved in the MCI participants. Eleven brain regions activated during the semantic memory task showed a significant decrease in activation intensity following the intervention that was similar between groups (p-values ranged 0.048 to 0.0001). These findings suggest exercise may improve neural efficiency during semantic memory retrieval in MCI and cognitively intact older adults, and may lead to improvement in cognitive function. Clinical trials are needed to determine if exercise is effective to delay conversion to AD. PMID:23803298

Smith, J Carson; Nielson, Kristy A; Antuono, Piero; Lyons, Jeri-Annette; Hanson, Ryan J; Butts, Alissa M; Hantke, Nathan C; Verber, Matthew D

2013-01-01

93

Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older age: results from the Women's Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background Adherence to a Mediterranean diet may help prevent cognitive decline in older age, but studies are limited. We examined the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with cognitive function and decline. Methods We included 6,174 participants, aged 65+ years, from the cognitive sub-study of the Women’s Health Study. Women provided dietary information in 1998 and completed a cognitive battery 5 years later, followed by two assessments at 2-year intervals. The primary outcomes were composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. The alternate Mediterranean diet adherence 9-point-score was constructed based on intakes of: vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts, fish, red and processed meats, moderate alcohol, and the ratio of monounsaturated-to-saturated fats. Results After multivariable adjustment, the alternate Mediterranean diet score was not associated with trajectories of repeated cognitive scores (P-trend across quintiles=0.26 and 0.40 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively), nor with overall global cognition and verbal memory at older ages, assessed by averaging the three cognitive measures (P-trend=0.63 and 0.44, respectively). Among alternate Mediterranean diet components, higher monounsaturated-to-saturated fats ratio was associated with more favorable cognitive trajectories (P-trend=0.03 and 0.05 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively). Greater whole grain intake was not associated with cognitive trajectories, but was related to better average global cognition (P-trend=0.02). Conclusions In this large study of older women, we observed no association of the Mediterranean diet with cognitive decline. Relations between individual Mediterranean diet components, particularly whole grains, and cognitive function merit further study.

Samieri, Cecilia; Grodstein, Francine; Rosner, Bernard A.; Kang, Jae H.; Cook, Nancy R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Willett, Walter C.; Okereke, Olivia I.

2013-01-01

94

Cognitive Adequacy in Structural-Functional Theories of Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the role played by cognition in three linguistic theories which may be labelled as "structural-functional": Functional (Discourse) Grammar, Role and Reference Grammar and Systemic Functional Grammar. It argues that if we are to achieve true cognitive adequacy, we must go well beyond the grammar itself to include the processes…

Butler, Christopher S.

2008-01-01

95

Cognitive fitness of cost-efficient brain functional networks  

PubMed Central

The human brain's capacity for cognitive function is thought to depend on coordinated activity in sparsely connected, complex networks organized over many scales of space and time. Recent work has demonstrated that human brain networks constructed from neuroimaging data have economical small-world properties that confer high efficiency of information processing at relatively low connection cost. However, it has been unclear how the architecture of complex brain networks functioning at different frequencies can be related to behavioral performance on cognitive tasks. Here, we show that impaired accuracy of working memory could be related to suboptimal cost efficiency of brain functional networks operating in the classical ? frequency band, 15–30 Hz. We analyzed brain functional networks derived from magnetoencephalography data recorded during working-memory task performance in 29 healthy volunteers and 28 people with schizophrenia. Networks functioning at higher frequencies had greater global cost efficiency than low-frequency networks in both groups. Superior task performance was positively correlated with global cost efficiency of the ?-band network and specifically with cost efficiency of nodes in left lateral parietal and frontal areas. These results are consistent with biophysical models highlighting the importance of ?-band oscillations for long-distance functional connections in brain networks and with pathophysiological models of schizophrenia as a dysconnection syndrome. More generally, they echo the saying that “less is more”: The information processing performance of a network can be enhanced by a sparse or low-cost configuration with disproportionately high efficiency.

Bassett, Danielle S.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Apud, Jose A.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Coppola, Richard

2009-01-01

96

Depression, Cognition, and Self-Appraisal of Functional Abilities in HIV: An Examination of Subjective Appraisal Versus Objective Performance  

PubMed Central

Depression frequently co-occurs with HIV infection and can result in self-reported overestimates of cognitive deficits. Conversely, genuine cognitive dysfunction can lead to an under-appreciation of cognitive deficits. The degree to which depression and cognition influence self-report of capacity for instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) requires further investigation. This study examined the effects of depression and cognitive deficits on self-appraisal of functional competence among 107 HIV-infected adults. As hypothesized, higher levels of depression were found among those who over-reported problems in medication management, driving, and cognition when compared to those who under-reported or provided accurate self-assessments. In contrast, genuine cognitive dysfunction was predictive of under-reporting of functional deficits. Together, these results suggest that over-reliance on self-reported functional status poses risk for error when diagnoses require documentation of both cognitive impairment and associated functional disability in everyday life.

Thames, April D.; Becker, Brian W.; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Hines, Lindsay J.; Foley, Jessica M.; Ramezani, Amir; Singer, Elyse J.; Castellon, Steven A.; Heaton, Robert K.; Hinkin, Charles H.

2013-01-01

97

Effects of Gestational Age at Birth on Cognitive Performance: A Function of Cognitive Workload Demands  

PubMed Central

Objective Cognitive deficits have been inconsistently described for late or moderately preterm children but are consistently found in very preterm children. This study investigates the association between cognitive workload demands of tasks and cognitive performance in relation to gestational age at birth. Methods Data were collected as part of a prospective geographically defined whole-population study of neonatal at-risk children in Southern Bavaria. At 8;5 years, n?=?1326 children (gestation range: 23–41 weeks) were assessed with the K-ABC and a Mathematics Test. Results Cognitive scores of preterm children decreased as cognitive workload demands of tasks increased. The relationship between gestation and task workload was curvilinear and more pronounced the higher the cognitive workload: GA2 (quadratic term) on low cognitive workload: R2?=?.02, p<0.001; moderate cognitive workload: R2?=?.09, p<0.001; and high cognitive workload tasks: R2?=?.14, p<0.001. Specifically, disproportionally lower scores were found for very (<32 weeks gestation) and moderately (32–33 weeks gestation) preterm children the higher the cognitive workload of the tasks. Early biological factors such as gestation and neonatal complications explained more of the variance in high (12.5%) compared with moderate (8.1%) and low cognitive workload tasks (1.7%). Conclusions The cognitive workload model may help to explain variations of findings on the relationship of gestational age with cognitive performance in the literature. The findings have implications for routine cognitive follow-up, educational intervention, and basic research into neuro-plasticity and brain reorganization after preterm birth.

Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Wolke, Dieter

2013-01-01

98

Vitamin K status and cognitive function in healthy older adults.  

PubMed

Evidence is accumulating that vitamin K could have a role in cognition, especially in aging. Using data from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge), a cross-sectional analysis was conducted to examine the associations between vitamin K status, measured as serum phylloquinone concentrations, and performance in verbal and non-verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of processing. The sample included 320 men and women aged 70 to 85 years who were free of cognitive impairment. After adjustment for covariates, higher serum phylloquinone concentration (log-transformed) was associated with better verbal episodic memory performances (F = 2.43, p = 0.048); specifically with the scores (Z-transformed) on the second (? = 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.13-0.82), third (? = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.06-0.75), and 20-minute delayed (? = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.12-0.82) free recall trials of the RL/RI-16 Free and Cued Recall Task. No associations were found with non-verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of processing. Our study adds evidence to the possible role of vitamin K in cognition during aging, specifically in the consolidation of the memory trace. PMID:23850343

Presse, Nancy; Belleville, Sylvie; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Greenwood, Carol E; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Morais, Jose A; Payette, Hélène; Shatenstein, Bryna; Ferland, Guylaine

2013-12-01

99

Sex hormones and cognitive functioning in men.  

PubMed

Blood and saliva samples were obtained from 117 healthy young men, following which radioimmunoassays were used to determine the serum concentrations of testosterone (Tser), 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and the level of free testosterone (Tsal) in the saliva. The cognitive functioning was determined by five spatial and six verbal ipsative test scores, reflecting intra-individual variance in the performance of these tasks, independent of the person's general level of achievement. Within the normal physiological range of androgen levels--especially Tser and to a lesser extent DHT and Tsal--showed a significantly positive correlation with measures of spatial ability and field dependence-independence and a significantly negative correlation with measures of verbal production. PMID:3444523

Christiansen, K; Knussmann, R

1987-01-01

100

Everyday functioning in mild cognitive impairment and its relationship with executive cognition  

PubMed Central

Objective Elderly persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are at increased risk of dementia and functional impairments. The present study investigated the contribution of three domains of executive cognition to everyday functioning among persons with MCI. Methods 124 MCI patients and 68 cognitively normal elderly participants were administered a cognitive screening battery. These tests were used to divide patients into four subgroups (amnestic single domain, amnestic multiple domain, non-amnestic single domain, and non-amnestic multiple domain). Subjects were then administered 18 executive function tests that assess planning/problem-solving, working memory, and judgment. Performance of everyday activities and everyday cognition was rated with two informant-reported measures. Results All MCI subtypes had more difficulties in everyday activities than cognitively normal elderly participants. Multiple domain MCI patients had more functional impairments than single domain MCI patients. Contrary to our expectations, only one executive function component, working memory, contributed significantly to functional status after controlling for demographic, health-related and other cognitive factors. Conclusions Functional abilities are compromised in all MCI subtypes. Working memory may be associated with functional impairments, but general cognitive measures account for more unique variance.

Aretouli, Eleni; Brandt, Jason

2010-01-01

101

Cognitive domains and trajectories of functional independence in non-demented elderly  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive impairment in general is known to predict functional disability, but it is not clear whether performance on specific cognitive domains predicts future disability trends among non-demented elderly. Method In a representative elderly community-based cohort over up to 10 years of follow-up, we examined predictors of longitudinal trajectories in ability to perform Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) among non-demented elderly. We used trajectory analyses to identify homogeneous groups with respect to trends over time in the numbers of IADL disabilities, and their association with baseline demographics, social engagement, depression, physical well-being, general and domain-specific cognitive functions. We excluded from these analyses those found to have dementia at baseline or at any time during follow-up. Results Trajectory analysis revealed 3 homogeneous latent groups which we characterized as No Decline (no decline in abilities to perform IADL tasks over the course of study), Moderate Decline (some functional decline) and Sharp Decline (steep functional decline followed by death). Compared to the Sharp Decline group, the No Decline group was associated with higher baseline functions in all cognitive domains, and the Moderate Decline group was associated with higher baseline functions in all cognitive domains except psychomotor speed and naming. The Moderate and No Decline Groups did not differ on any cognitive measure. Conclusion Among community dwelling elderly who remained free from dementia throughout the study, poorer scores in all cognitive domains predicted sharp functional decline followed by death.

Dodge, Hiroko H.; Du, Yangchun; Saxton, Judith A.; Ganguli, Mary

2006-01-01

102

Modeling higher-order cognitive skills in technology enhanced distance learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supporting the development of higher-order cognitive skills necessary for successful life-long learning, such as metacognition and communication skills presents a significant challenge in distance education. Current approaches to supporting a learner's cognition in distance learning tend to be developed as stand-alone systems that are often difficult to assess. This paper outlines how existing and validated psychometric tests may be used

Victoria Macarthur; Owen Conlan

2010-01-01

103

Benzodiazepine use and cognitive function among community-dwelling elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the relation between benzodiazepine use and cognitive function among community-dwelling elderly.Methods: This prospective cohort study included 2765 self-reporting subjects from the Duke Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. The subjects were cognitively intact at baseline (1986–1987) and alive at follow-up data collection 3 years later. Cognitive function was assessed with the Short Portable Mental Status

Joseph T. Hanlon; Ronnie D. Horner; Kenneth E. Schmader; Gerda G. Fillenbaum; Ingrid K. Lewis; William E. Wall; Lawrence R. Landerman; Carl F. Pieper; Dan G. Blazer; Harvey Jay Cohen

1998-01-01

104

Lifestyle engagement affects cognitive status differences and trajectories on executive functions in older adults.  

PubMed

The authors first examined the concurrent moderating role of lifestyle engagement on the relation between cognitive status (cognitively elite, cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and executive functioning (EF) in older adults. Second, the authors examined whether baseline participation in lifestyle activities predicted differential 4.5-year stabilities and transitions in cognitive status. Participants (initial N = 501; 53-90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. EF was represented by a 1-factor structure. Lifestyle activities were measured in multiple domains of engagement (e.g., cognitive, physical, and social). Two-wave status stability groups included sustained normal aging, transitional early impairment, and chronic impairment. Hierarchical regressions showed that baseline participation in social activities moderated cognitive status differences in EF. CI adults with high (but not low) social engagement performed equivalently to CN adults on EF. Longitudinally, logistic regressions showed that engagement in physical activities was a significant predictor of stability of cognitive status. CI adults who were more engaged in physical activities were more likely to improve in their cognitive status over time than their more sedentary peers. Participation in cognitive activities was a significant predictor of maintenance in a higher cognitive status group. Given that lifestyle engagement plays a detectable role in healthy, normal, and impaired neuropsychological aging, further research in activity-related associations and interventions is recommended. PMID:24323561

de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A

2014-02-01

105

Cognitive Function, Mental Health, and Health-related Quality of Life after Lung Transplantation.  

PubMed

Rationale: Cognitive and psychiatric impairments are threats to functional independence, general health, and quality of life. Evidence regarding these outcomes after lung transplantation is limited. Objectives: Determine the frequency of cognitive and psychiatric impairment after lung transplantation and identify potential factors associated with cognitive impairment after lung transplantation. Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, we assessed cognitive function, mental health, and health-related quality of life using a validated battery of standardized tests in 42 subjects post-transplantation. The battery assessed cognition, depression, anxiety, resilience, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cognitive function was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, a validated screening test with a range of 0 to 30. We hypothesized that cognitive function post-transplantation would be associated with type of transplant, cardiopulmonary bypass, primary graft dysfunction, allograft ischemic time, and physical therapy post-transplantation. We used multivariable linear regression to examine the relationship between candidate risk factors and cognitive function post-transplantation. Measurements and Main Results: Mild cognitive impairment (score, 18-25) was observed in 67% of post-transplant subjects (95% confidence interval [CI]: 50-80%) and moderate cognitive impairment (score, 10-17) was observed in 5% (95% CI, 1-16%) of post-transplant subjects. Symptoms of moderate to severe anxiety and depression were observed in 21 and 3% of post-transplant subjects, respectively. No transplant recipients reported symptoms of PTSD. Higher resilience correlated with less psychological distress in the domains of depression (P < 0.001) and PTSD (P = 0.02). Prolonged graft ischemic time was independently associated with worse cognitive performance after lung transplantation (P = 0.001). The functional gain in 6-minute-walk distance achieved at the end of post-transplant physical rehabilitation (P = 0.04) was independently associated with improved cognitive performance post-transplantation. Conclusions: Mild cognitive impairment was present in the majority of patients after lung transplantation. Prolonged allograft ischemic time may be associated with cognitive impairment. Poor physical performance and cognitive impairment are linked, and physical rehabilitation post-transplant and psychological resilience may be protective against the development of long-term impairment. Further study is warranted to confirm these potential associations and to examine the trajectory of cognitive function after lung transplantation. PMID:24605992

Cohen, David G; Christie, Jason D; Anderson, Brian J; Diamond, Joshua M; Judy, Ryan P; Shah, Rupal J; Cantu, Edward; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Blumenthal, Nancy P; Demissie, Ejigayehu; Hopkins, Ramona O; Mikkelsen, Mark E

2014-05-01

106

Assessment of Higher Order Thinking Skills. Current Perspectives on Cognition, Learning and Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume examines the assessment of higher order thinking skills from the perspectives of applied cognitive psychology and measurement theory. The volume considers a variety of higher order thinking skills, including problem solving, critical thinking, argumentation, decision making, creativity, metacognition, and self-regulation. Fourteen…

Schraw, Gregory, Ed.; Robinson, Daniel H., Ed.

2011-01-01

107

Higher-order social cognition in first-episode major depression.  

PubMed

Patients suffering from major depression experience difficulties in multiple cognitive faculties. A growing body of research has linked affective disorders to abnormalities in social cognition and specifically the processing of discrete emotional stimuli. However, little inquiry has gone into possible impairment in higher-order social cognition including theory of mind, social perception and metacognition. Forty-four medication-naïve patients with first-episode unipolar major depressive disorder and an equal number of matched controls were assessed by the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated (MAS-A), The Frith-Happé animations (FHA) and The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT). Additionally, neurocognition was assessed utilyzing the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Depressed patients showed impairment in all domains of higher-order social cognitive ability. Importantly, social cognitive variables retained their inter-group significance after controlling for possible covariates including neurocognition. Results indicate that first-episode depressed patients experience difficulties in all domains of higher-order social cognition including theory of mind, social perception and metacognition. PMID:24524945

Ladegaard, Nicolai; Larsen, Erik Roj; Videbech, Poul; Lysaker, Paul H

2014-04-30

108

Obesity, cognitive functioning and dementia: back to the future.  

PubMed

The conditions of chronic obesity and overweight status are risk factors for lower cognitive performance, cognitive decline, cognitive deficit, and dementia. But lower cognitive performance early in life itself may be a risk factor for an increase in body weight over time. With this in mind, we review important papers in the literature that advance our knowledge of relations between weight and cognitive functioning, with an emphasis on papers that illustrate methodological and theoretical issues of importance. We describe the evolution in research on weight and cognition with respect to two major features: (a) the move backward in time from the diagnosis of dementia to the pre-clinical period of dementia in order to better identify risk factors; and (b) the evolution of studies from an earlier emphasis on obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors as major mediators of relations between obesity and cognition to a more recent emphasis on metabolic variables, lifestyle variables, genotype, and other mechanisms that explain relations among weight change, obesity, and cognition. We conclude that: 1) a complete understanding of the causal links between weight and cognitive functioning requires a lifespan perspective; 2) practically speaking, lifespan research may need to amalgamate and integrate research at different segments of the lifespan until such time that we can include the entire life cycle within a single study of weight and cognition; and 3) we need more studies that examine reciprocal relations between weight and cognition, especially early in life. PMID:22057026

Elias, Merrill F; Goodell, Amanda L; Waldstein, Shari R

2012-01-01

109

Endogenous Glucocorticoids Are Essential for Maintaining Prefrontal Cortical Cognitive Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucocorticoid hormones are important in the maintenance of many brain functions. Although their receptors are distributed abun- dantly throughout the brain, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), it is not clear how glucocorticoid functions, particularly with regard to cognitive processing in the PFC. There is evidence of PFC cognitive deficits such as working memory impairment in several stress- related neuropsychiatric disorders,

Kazushige Mizoguchi; Atsushi Ishige; Shuichi Takeda; Masaki Aburada; Takeshi Tabira

2004-01-01

110

Cognitive functioning and school performance in children with renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although previous studies have documented neuropsychological deficits in children with end-stage renal disease, few have evaluated and compared the cognitive functioning and the school performance of children with renal failure. The current study evaluated the influence of chronic renal failure on cognitive functioning and school performance in children and adolescents with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis and after renal transplantation.

Kathleen W. Lawryl; Ben H. Brouhardl; Robert J. Cunningham

1994-01-01

111

Trace Element Levels and Cognitive Function in Rural Elderly Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Trace elements are involved in metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction reactions in the central nervous system and could have a possible effect on cognitive function. The relationship between trace elements measured in individual biological samples and cognitive function in an elderly population had not been investigated extensively. Methods. The participant population is part of a large cohort study of 2000

Sujuan Gao; Yinlong Jin; Frederick W. Unverzagt; Feng Ma; Kathleen S. Hall; Jill R. Murrell; Yibin Cheng; Jianzhao Shen; Bo Ying; Rongdi Ji; Janetta Matesan; Chaoke Liang; Hugh C. Hendrie

112

Face Perception in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: Interface Between Cognitive and Social Cognitive Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Perceiving facial features, both affective and non-affective, plays a vital role in everyday life. While it is known that\\u000a the processing of facial emotion expressions is compromised in schizophrenia, the mechanisms underlying face perception and\\u000a their connection with cognitive and social cognitive functioning are somewhat elusive. Two important and unresolved issues\\u000a have been whether visual and cognitive processing of face

Yue Chen

113

Research progress of cognitive function in schizophrenia in China  

PubMed Central

Summary Cognitive impairment – one of the core symptoms of schizophrenia – has become a focus of research about schizophrenia in China and elsewhere. The main reason for the interest in cognitive functioning is that the degree of cognitive impairment is associated both with the current severity of the illness and with the prognosis of the illness due to its effect on individuals' ability to live independently and on their occupational and social functioning. The first study on cognitive function in schizophrenia in China was conducted in the late 1970s; more recently there has been a resurgence of interest in the area because of new information that has emerged as neuroimaging technologies have improved. The current review summarizes studies on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia conducted in China and proposes directions for future research in this area.

LIU, Dengtang; WANG, Yingchan; XU, Yifeng; JIANG, Kaida

2013-01-01

114

Cognitive functionality of older men in St. Catherine, Jamaica  

PubMed Central

Background: The scientific literature is replete with factors that influence the cognitive functionality of older men but no such study has been done in Jamaica. Aims: In this study we report our findings on the cognitive functionality of three cohorts of older men in a rural area. This is the first data published on the cognitive functionality of older men from Jamaica. Material and Method: The investigation was carried out with the administration of a 132-item questionnaire. The measure includes items on demographics, retirement and health status, the seeking and avoidance of medical care, health treatment, medication use, childhood illness, happiness and the mini-mental status examination. The measure was given to 2,000 men 55 years and older who were randomly selected from St. Catherine. Results: The multivariate analysis of the model revealed three significant determinants of cognitive functionality: Age (OR = 0.346, 95% CI = 0.206, 0.582), social support (OR = 0.683, 95% CI = 0.443, 1.053) and having children (OR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.130, 5.183). There is a negative relationship between age and cognitive functionality and a positive relationship between having children and cognitive functionality. Conclusions: Our main conclusions are that the two significant determinants of cognitive functionality of older men (age and having children) in Jamaica are unique given the many determinants of cognitive functioning cited in the scientific literature. The plethora of factors points to the need for further research to understand the range of factors that influence the cognitive functionality of older Jamaicans.

Bourne, Paul A.; Charles, Christopher A.D.; Warren, Stan

2010-01-01

115

High Risk of Cognitive and Functional Decline after Postoperative Delirium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate the association of postoperative delirium with the outcomes of cognitive impairment, functional disability and death. Methods: Hip surgery patients aged 60 years or over (n = 200) underwent preoperative and daily postoperative assessment of their cognitive status during hospital stay. Outcome variables were determined at an average of 8 and 38

Horst Bickel; Reiner Gradinger; Eberhard Kochs; Hans Förstl

2008-01-01

116

Cognitive Adequacy in a Dialogic Functional Discourse Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG), as a theory of the organization of natural languages, seeks to attain pragmatic, typological and cognitive adequacy. The attempt to achieve cognitive adequacy has been fraught with problems stemming from the vagueness of the concept and the difficulty of adapting to trends in psycholinguistics. Specifically,…

Mackenzie, J. Lachlan

2012-01-01

117

Walking and the Preservation of Cognitive Function in Older Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This cross-sectional study takes a unique look at the association between patterns of walking and cognitive functioning by examining whether older adults with mild cognitive impairment differ in terms of the community settings where they walk and the frequency, intensity, or duration of walking. Design and Methods: The sample was based on…

Prohaska, Thomas R.; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Satariano, William A.; Hunter, Rebecca; Bayles, Constance M.; Kurtovich, Elaine; Kealey, Melissa; Ivey, Susan L.

2009-01-01

118

Connections between Vision, Hearing, and Cognitive Function in Old Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses findings of studies that examined the relationship between vision, hearing, and cognitive function in normally aging adults. Indicates that most found at least modest significant relationships between sensory and cognitive measures based on diverse assessment and design methods. (Contains 42 references.) (JOW)

Wahl, Hans-Werner; Heyl, Vera

2003-01-01

119

Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and physiological (heart…

Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

2010-01-01

120

Towards an understanding of cognitive function in Friedreich ataxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is limited documentation regarding cognitive function in individuals with Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), possibly because FRDA is widely held to predominantly affect the spinal cord, peripheral sensory nerves and cerebellum and not to affect cognition. Traditionally, the cerebellum has been thought to coordinate voluntary movement and motor tone, posture and gait. However, recent studies have implicated the cerebellum in a

Louise A. Corben; Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis; Michael C. Fahey; Elsdon Storey; Andrew Churchyard; Malcolm Horne; John L. Bradshaw; Martin B. Delatycki

2006-01-01

121

Neuroanatomical correlates of cognitive functioning in prodromal Huntington disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction The brain mechanisms of cognitive impairment in prodromal Huntington disease (prHD) are not well understood. Although striatal atrophy correlates with some cognitive abilities, few studies of prHD have investigated whether cortical gray matter morphometry correlates in a regionally specific manner with functioning in different cognitive domains. This knowledge would inform the selection of cognitive measures for clinical trials that would be most sensitive to the target of a treatment intervention. Method In this study, random forest analysis was used to identify neuroanatomical correlates of functioning in five cognitive domains including attention and information processing speed, working memory, verbal learning and memory, negative emotion recognition, and temporal processing. Participants included 325 prHD individuals with varying levels of disease progression and 119 gene-negative controls with a family history of HD. In intermediate analyses, we identified brain regions that showed significant differences between the prHD and the control groups in cortical thickness and striatal volume. Brain morphometry in these regions was then correlated with cognitive functioning in each of the domains in the prHD group using random forest methods. We hypothesized that different regional patterns of brain morphometry would be associated with performances in distinct cognitive domains. Results The results showed that performances in different cognitive domains that are vulnerable to decline in prHD were correlated with regionally specific patterns of cortical and striatal morphometry. Putamen and/or caudate volumes were top-ranked correlates of performance across all cognitive domains, as was cortical thickness in regions related to the processing demands of each domain. Conclusions The results underscore the importance of identifying structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) markers of functioning in different cognitive domains, as their relative sensitivity depends on the extent to which processing is called upon by different brain networks. The findings have implications for identifying neuroimaging and cognitive outcome measures for use in clinical trials.

Harrington, Deborah L; Liu, Dawei; Smith, Megan M; Mills, James A; Long, Jeffrey D; Aylward, Elizabeth H; Paulsen, Jane S

2014-01-01

122

Promoting the Use of Higher-Order Cognitive Skills in Qualitative Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to promote higher order cognitive skills (HOCS) in a chemistry class using the GOAL (Gather, Organize, Analyze, and Learn) method. Students were assigned four qualitative problems specifically designed to be solved with the method over the course of the semester outside of normal homework and testing. The problems served as a…

Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Justice, Jason

2008-01-01

123

The Use of Scaffolds for Teaching Higher-Level Cognitive Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although scaffolds (forms of support to help students bridge the gap between their current abilities and intended goals) can be applied to teaching all skills, they are almost indispensable for teaching higher-level cognitive strategies. Especially helpful scaffolds for clarifying thoughts, summarizing, and solving mathematical problems are…

Rosenshine, Barak; Meister, Carla

1992-01-01

124

Cardiac Modulation of Startle: Effects on Eye Blink and Higher Cognitive Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cardiac cycle time has been shown to affect pre-attentive brainstem startle processes, such as the magnitude of acoustically evoked reflexive startle eye blinks. These effects were attributed to baro-afferent feedback mechanisms. However, it remains unclear whether cardiac cycle time plays a role in higher startle-related cognitive processes, as…

Schulz, Andre; Reichert, Carolin F.; Richter, Steffen; Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Schachinger, Hartmut

2009-01-01

125

Sleep Onset/Maintenance Difficulties and Cognitive Function in Nondemented Older Adults: the Role of Cognitive Reserve  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined the relationship between cognitive function and sleep onset/maintenance difficulties (SO/MD) in nondemented older adults. We hypothesized that SO/MD negatively impacts cognition and that older adults with lower education would be especially vulnerable to its effects. Methods The sample comprised 549 older adults from the Einstein Aging Study (EAS), a community-based sample. Participants completed neuropsychological assessment and a sleep questionnaire. Univariate ANCOVAs were performed with cognitive performance as a dependent variable, SO/MD (present or absent) and education (lower:?12 years; higher:>12 years) as between-subjects factors, and age, ethnicity, gender, depression, and cardiovascular comorbidies as covariates. Results Participants were an average age of 79.7±5.0 years (range=71–97). Fifty-seven percent (n=314) of the sample met criteria for SO/MD. Among participants with SO/MD, those with lower education performed more poorly on a test of category fluency than participants with higher education (means: 35.2 vs. 41.0, p<0.001); among older adults without SO/MD, educational attainment had no measurable effect on cognition (SO/MD × education interaction (F(1,536)=14.5, p=0.00)). Conclusions Consistent with the cognitive reserve hypothesis, older adults with lower education appear selectively vulnerable to the negative effects of sleep onset/maintenance difficulties on tests of verbal fluency.

Zimmerman, Molly E.; Bigal, Marcelo E.; Katz, Mindy J.; Brickman, Adam M.; Lipton, Richard B.

2013-01-01

126

Pulmonary Function Impairment May be An Early Risk Factor for Late-Life Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Low pulmonary function (PF) is associated with poor cognitive function and dementia. There are few studies of change in PF in mid-life and late-life cognitive status. Design and Participants We studied this is 3,665 subjects from AGES-Reykjavik Study who had at least one measure of forced expiratory volume/ 1 sec (FEV1) and were cognitively tested on average 23 years later. A subset of 1,281 subjects had two or three measures of FEV1 acquired over a 7.8 year period. PF was estimated as FEV1/Height2. Rate of PF decline was estimated as the slope of decline over time. Cognitive status was measured with continuous scores of memory, speed of processing, and executive function, and as the dichotomous outcomes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Results Lower PF measured in mid-life predicted lower memory, speed of processing, executive function, and higher likelihood of MCI and dementia 23 years later. Decrease of PF over a 7.8-year period in mid-life was not associated with lower cognitive function or dementia. Conclusion Reduced PF measured in mid-life may be an early marker of later cognitive problems. Additional studies characterizing early and late PF changes are needed.

Vidal, Jean-Sebastien; Aspelund, Thor; Jonsdottir, Maria K.; Jonsson, Palmi V.; Harris, Tamara B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J.

2012-01-01

127

Elevated S-adenosylhomocysteine in Alzheimer brain: influence on methyltransferases and cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Hyperhomocysteinemia is common in Alzheimer’s disease and is negatively correlated with cognitive function. Hyperhomocysteinemia can increase S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), a potent methyltransferase inhibitor. This study investigates the role of brain SAH in the cognitive and neurological disruption in Alzheimer’s disease. SAH was significantly (26%) higher in prefrontal cortex of Alzheimer patients than normals. Brain homogenates from Alzheimer patients inhibited an

B. P. Kennedy; T. Bottiglieri; E. Arning; M. G. Ziegler; L. A. Hansen; E. Masliah

2004-01-01

128

Diabetes is associated with lower global cognitive function in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Co-morbidity of schizophrenia (SZ) and metabolic problems such as diabetes mellitus (DM) has been suggested by many studies. Nonetheless, it is still debated whether DM affects cognitive dysfunction associated with SZ and how much treatment for DM is beneficial for cognitive functions in SZ. We addressed these questions by re-assessing the cognitive dataset from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia study. Methods We identified 1289 SZ patients in which scores for several cognitive domains of verbal memory, vigilance, processing speed, reasoning, and working memory together with the composite score and metabolic characteristics (body mass index, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and DM) were available at baseline of the trial. We performed multiple linear regression analyses to assess the impact of DM on cognitive performance of SZ patients, controlling for a number of other confounding factors including obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. We also conducted analyses of covariance to compare cognitive performance among SZ patients without DM and diabetic SZ sub-groups based on anti-diabetic drugs they were receiving at baseline of the trial. Results Co-morbid DM with SZ predicted worse overall cognitive performance and lower scores for three cognitive domains (vigilance, processing speed, and reasoning), but none of the other metabolic factors (i.e., obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia) correlated with cognitive function in SZ. Furthermore, SZ patients with untreated DM showed poorer overall cognitive performance and a significantly lower score in the domain of vigilance compared with SZ patients without DM. Conclusion Our data suggest that DM negatively affects the overall cognitive function of SZ patients.

Takayanagi, Yoichiro; Cascella, Nicola G.; Sawa, Akira; Eaton, William W.

2014-01-01

129

Cognitive functioning moderates the relation between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and alcohol use in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work revealed that cognitive functioning moderated the relation between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms and alcohol use [Alcohol., Clin. Exp. Res. 23 (1999) 224]. ADHD Symptoms correlated significantly with alcohol use for individuals with a poorer performance on tasks assessing prefrontal area functioning but not for individuals with higher scores on these tasks. The current study proposes to

Sherry A. Span; Mitchell Earleywine

2004-01-01

130

[Cognitive function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].  

PubMed

It is increasingly recognized that COPD is a multi-component disease, but little attention has been paid to its effects on cognition. Cognitive dysfunction is associated with increased disability of daily living and mortality. However, it remains to be elucidated in COPD. Our main findings are: 1) cognitive dysfunction in patients with COPD is related to the grade of activity of daily livings and hypoxemia, especially in exercise-induced hypoxemia; 2) cognitive impairment such as perception, attention and short memory are impaired; 3) attention function determined by Trail Making Test is improved by O2 inhalation with the increase in the prefrontal cortex oxygenation; 4) by 8 week exercise training, cognitive function in COPD is improved with the increase in the prefrontal circulation. PMID:24796104

Fujimoto, Shigeo; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Hirata, Kazuto

2014-04-01

131

Enhancement of cognitive and neural functions through complex reasoning training: evidence from normal and clinical populations  

PubMed Central

Public awareness of cognitive health is fairly recent compared to physical health. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training offers promise in augmenting cognitive brain performance in normal and clinical populations. Targeting higher-order cognitive functions, such as reasoning in particular, may promote generalized cognitive changes necessary for supporting the complexities of daily life. This data-driven perspective highlights cognitive and brain changes measured in randomized clinical trials that trained gist reasoning strategies in populations ranging from teenagers to healthy older adults, individuals with brain injury to those at-risk for Alzheimer's disease. The evidence presented across studies support the potential for Gist reasoning training to strengthen cognitive performance in trained and untrained domains and to engage more efficient communication across widespread neural networks that support higher-order cognition. The meaningful benefits of Gist training provide compelling motivation to examine optimal dose for sustained benefits as well as to explore additive benefits of meditation, physical exercise, and/or improved sleep in future studies.

Chapman, Sandra B.; Mudar, Raksha A.

2014-01-01

132

Enhancement of cognitive and neural functions through complex reasoning training: evidence from normal and clinical populations.  

PubMed

Public awareness of cognitive health is fairly recent compared to physical health. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training offers promise in augmenting cognitive brain performance in normal and clinical populations. Targeting higher-order cognitive functions, such as reasoning in particular, may promote generalized cognitive changes necessary for supporting the complexities of daily life. This data-driven perspective highlights cognitive and brain changes measured in randomized clinical trials that trained gist reasoning strategies in populations ranging from teenagers to healthy older adults, individuals with brain injury to those at-risk for Alzheimer's disease. The evidence presented across studies support the potential for Gist reasoning training to strengthen cognitive performance in trained and untrained domains and to engage more efficient communication across widespread neural networks that support higher-order cognition. The meaningful benefits of Gist training provide compelling motivation to examine optimal dose for sustained benefits as well as to explore additive benefits of meditation, physical exercise, and/or improved sleep in future studies. PMID:24808834

Chapman, Sandra B; Mudar, Raksha A

2014-01-01

133

Social Cognition in Psychosis: Multidimensional Structure, Clinical Correlates, and Relationship With Functional Outcome  

PubMed Central

Social cognitive impairments are common, detectable across a wide range of tasks, and appear to play a key role in explaining poor outcome in schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. However, little is known about the underlying factor structure of social cognition in people with psychotic disorders due to a lack of exploratory factor analyses using a relatively comprehensive social cognitive assessment battery. In a sample of 85 outpatients with psychosis, we examined the factor structure and clinical/functional correlates of eight indexes derived from five social cognition tasks that span the domains of emotional processing, social perception, attributional style, and Theory of Mind. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors with relatively low inter-correlations that explained a total of 54% of the variance: (1) Hostile attributional style, (2) Lower-level social cue detection, and (3) Higher-level inferential and regulatory processes. None of the factors showed significant correlations with negative symptoms. Factor 1 significantly correlated with clinical symptoms (positive, depression-anxiety, agitation) but not functional outcome, whereas Factors 2 and 3 significantly correlated with functional outcome (functional capacity and real-world social and work functioning) but not clinical symptoms. Furthermore, Factor 2 accounted for unique incremental variance in functional capacity, above and beyond non-social neurocognition (measured with MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery) and negative symptoms. Results suggest that multiple separable dimensions of social cognition can be identified in psychosis, and these factors show distinct patterns of correlation with clinical features and functional outcome.

Mancuso, Francesco; Horan, William P.; Kern, Robert S.; Green, Michael F.

2010-01-01

134

Compositions and Methods for Enhancing Cognitive Function and Synaptic Plasticity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention provides compositions and methods for enhancing cognitive function and synaptic plasticity. According to the method, Ca.sup.++ influx into excitatory neurons (nerve cells) is decreased by treatment with a number of different agents i...

G. Liu I. Slutsky

2004-01-01

135

Cogimir: A Study of Cognitive Functions in Microgravity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nonspecific (attention psychomotor speed) and specific (mental flexibility, time estimation, visuospatial perception, and memory) cognitive functions were measured in a single case study during a six day visit on the Russian orbital complex Mir using comp...

T. Benke O. Koserenko F. Gerstenbrand N. Watson

1992-01-01

136

AR, apoE, and cognitive function  

PubMed Central

Reduced androgen levels in aged men and women might be risk factors for age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Ongoing clinical trials are designed to evaluate the potential benefit of estrogen in women and of testosterone in men. In this review, we discuss the potential beneficial effects of androgens and androgen receptors (ARs) in males and females. In addition, we discuss the hypothesis that AR interacts with apolipoprotein (apoE)4, encoded by ?4 and a risk factor for age-related cognitive decline and AD, and the potential consequences of this interaction.

Raber, Jacob

2008-01-01

137

Cognitive function, numeracy and retirement saving trajectories  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the extent to which cognitive abilities relate to differences in trajectories for key economic outcomes as individuals move towards and through their retirement. We look at whether differences in baseline numeracy (measured in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing in 2002) and broader cognitive ability predict the subsequent trajectories of outcomes such as wealth, retirement income and key dimensions of retirement expectations. Those with lower numeracy are shown to have different wealth trajectories both pre- and post-retirement than their more numerate counterparts, but the distributions of retirement expectations and net replacement rates are similar across numeracy groups.

Banks, James; O'Dea, Cormac; Oldfield, Zoe

2011-01-01

138

Urinary 8-Hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and Cognitive Function in Puerto Rican Adults  

PubMed Central

DNA oxidative stress has been suggested as an important pathogenic mechanism in cognitive impairment and dementia. With baseline data collected from 2004 to 2008, the authors examined whether urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of global DNA oxidation, was associated with cognitive function in a sample of 1,003 Puerto Rican adults, aged 45–75 years, living in Boston, Massachusetts, and the surrounding area. Cognitive function was measured by using a battery of 7 tests: the Mini-Mental State Examination, word list learning, digit span, clock drawing and figure copying, Stroop, and verbal fluency tests. The primary outcome was a global cognitive score, averaging standardized scores across all cognitive tests. A higher 8-OHdG concentration was significantly associated with lower global cognitive scores, after adjustment for age, education, status of the gene for apolipoprotein E (APOE), and other covariates (Ptrend = 0.01). The difference in the global score, comparing participants in the 2 extreme 8-OHdG quartiles, was ?0.11 (95% confidence interval: ?0.20, ?0.02), which was equivalent to accelerating cognitive aging by about 4 years, as observed in this population. Prospective studies are needed to elucidate whether elevated urinary 8-OHdG concentrations can predict the rate of cognitive decline and incident dementia.

Gao, Xiang; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Scott, Tammy; Shen, Jian; Cai, Tianxi; Ordovas, Jose M.; Tucker, Katherine L.

2010-01-01

139

Gait and Cognition: A Complementary Approach to Understanding Brain Function and the Risk of Falling  

PubMed Central

Until recently, clinicians and researchers have performed gait assessments and cognitive assessments separately when evaluating older adults. Increasing evidence from clinical practice, epidemiological studies, and clinical trials shows that gait and cognition are inter-related in older adults. Quantifiable alterations in gait among older adults are associated with falls, dementia, and disability. At the same time, emerging evidence indicates that early disturbances in cognitive processes such as attention, executive function, and working memory are associated with slower gait and gait instability during single and dual-task testing, and that these cognitive disturbances assist in the prediction of future mobility loss, falls, and progression to dementia. This paper reviews the importance of the gait-cognition inter-relationship in aging and presents evidence that gait assessments can provide a window into the understanding of cognitive function and dysfunctions, and fall risk in older people in clinical practice. To this end, the benefits of dual-task gait assessments (e.g., walking while performing an attention-demanding task) as a marker of fall risk are summarized. Further, we also present a potential complementary approach for reducing the risk of falls by improving certain aspects of cognition through both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments. Untangling the relationship between early gait disturbances and early cognitive changes may be helpful for identifying older adults at higher risk of experiencing mobility decline, falls and the progression to dementia.

Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Verghese, Joe; Beauchet, Olivier; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

2012-01-01

140

Clinical implications of cognitive function in bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

In recent years there has been increased interest in cognitive function in bipolar disorder (BD) as a means of understanding and exploring biological mechanisms relating to predisposition, disease expression and outcome. Despite significant methodological differences between studies we can begin to discern meaningful patterns from existing data. The evidence reviewed suggests that: (a) premorbid cognitive dysfunction is not a dominant feature of BD; in contrast to other severe psychiatric conditions, enhanced cognitive function may be a risk marker for BD; (b) in BD patients with established syndromal disease, trait-related cognitive impairment is reliably seen in the speed of information processing, verbal Learning and memory and response inhibition; (c) cognitive function appears to remain stable post-disease onset in the majority of patients although the risk of dementia in old age is increased; (d) cognitive impairment is a key predictor of functional outcome in BD. These findings underscore the importance of cognition in BD as a marker of neural integrity across all phases of the illness and as a therapeutic target in disability reduction.

Kumar, C. T. Sudhir; Frangou, Sophia

2010-01-01

141

Is Cognitive Functioning Impaired in Methamphetamine Users? A Critical Review  

PubMed Central

The prevailing view is that recreational methamphetamine use causes a broad range of severe cognitive deficits, despite the fact that concerns have been raised about interpretations drawn from the published literature. This article addresses an important gap in our knowledge by providing a critical review of findings from recent research investigating the impact of recreational methamphetamine use on human cognition. Included in the discussion are findings from studies that have assessed the acute and long-term effects of methamphetamine on several domains of cognition, including visuospatial perception, attention, inhibition, working memory, long-term memory, and learning. In addition, relevant neuroimaging data are reviewed in an effort to better understand neural mechanisms underlying methamphetamine-related effects on cognitive functioning. In general, the data on acute effects show that methamphetamine improves cognitive performance in selected domains, that is, visuospatial perception, attention, and inhibition. Regarding long-term effects on cognitive performance and brain-imaging measures, statistically significant differences between methamphetamine users and control participants have been observed on a minority of measures. More importantly, however, the clinical significance of these findings may be limited because cognitive functioning overwhelmingly falls within the normal range when compared against normative data. In spite of these observations, there seems to be a propensity to interpret any cognitive and/or brain difference(s) as a clinically significant abnormality. The implications of this situation are multiple, with consequences for scientific research, substance-abuse treatment, and public policy.

Hart, Carl L; Marvin, Caroline B; Silver, Rae; Smith, Edward E

2012-01-01

142

Aspirin use and cognitive function in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decline in cognitive function in the elderly is common and represents a major clinical and public health concern. Aspirin may reduce the decline in cognitive function by influencing multi-infarct dementia, but data are sparse. The East Boston Senior Health Project is a population-based cohort study that enrolled 3,809 community-dwelling residents aged 65 years and older in 1982-1983 and followed them

Til Sturmer; Robert J. Glynn; Terry S. Field; James O. Taylor; Charles H. Hennekens

1996-01-01

143

Nicotinic acetylcholine involvement in cognitive function in animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotinic cholinergic systems are involved with several important aspects of cognitive function including attention, learning\\u000a and memory. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors are located in many regions of the brain, including areas important for cognitive\\u000a function such as the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Nicotinic agonists have been found in rodent and non-human primate studies\\u000a to improve performance on a variety of memory

E. D. Levin; Barbara B. Simon

1998-01-01

144

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Bipolar Disorder: Effects on Cognitive Functioning  

PubMed Central

Bipolar disorder is associated with impairments in cognition, including difficulties in executive functioning, even when patients are euthymic (neither depressed nor manic). The purpose of this study was to assess changes in self-reported cognitive functioning in patients with bipolar disorder who participated in an open pilot trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Following MBCT, patients reported significant improvements in executive functioning, memory, and ability to initiate and complete tasks, as measured by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe). Changes in cognitive functioning were correlated with increases in mindful, nonjudgmental observance and awareness of thoughts, feelings, and sensations, and were not associated with decreases in depression. Improvements tended to diminish after termination of treatment, but some improvements, particularly those in executive functioning, persisted after 3 months. These results provide preliminary evidence that MBCT may be a treatment option that can be used as an adjunct to medication to improve cognitive functioning in bipolar disorder.

Stange, Jonathan P.; Eisner, Lori R.; Holzel, Britta K.; Peckham, Andrew D.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Rauch, Scott L.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Lazar, Sara; Deckersbach, Thilo

2012-01-01

145

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for bipolar disorder: effects on cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Bipolar disorder is associated with impairments in cognition, including difficulties in executive functioning, even when patients are euthymic (neither depressed nor manic). The purpose of this study was to assess changes in self-reported cognitive functioning in patients with bipolar disorder who participated in an open pilot trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Following MBCT, patients reported significant improvements in executive functioning, memory, and ability to initiate and complete tasks, as measured by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe). Changes in cognitive functioning were correlated with increases in mindful, nonjudgmental observance and awareness of thoughts, feelings, and sensations, and were not associated with decreases in depression. Improvements tended to diminish after termination of treatment, but some improvements, particularly those in executive functioning, persisted after 3 months. These results provide preliminary evidence that MBCT may be a treatment option that can be used as an adjunct to medication to improve cognitive functioning in bipolar disorder. PMID:22108398

Stange, Jonathan P; Eisner, Lori R; Hölzel, Britta K; Peckham, Andrew D; Dougherty, Darin D; Rauch, Scott L; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Lazar, Sara; Deckersbach, Thilo

2011-11-01

146

Effects of topiramate on cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo explore the impact of topiramate on tests of intellect and other cognitive processes.METHODSThis was a retrospective study. The neuropsychological test scores of 18 patients obtained before and after the introduction of treatment with topiramate (median dose 300 mg) were compared with changes in test performance of 18 patients who had undergone repeat neuropsychological assessments at the same time intervals.

P J Thompson; S A Baxendale; J S Duncan; J W A S Sander

2000-01-01

147

[Tolerance of neuroleptics, deficit syndrome and cognitive functions].  

PubMed

Neuroleptics have been held responsible for cognitive impairments and negative symptoms in the course of schizophrenia. On the other hand, recent data suggest that alterations in information processing, cognitive and neuro-psychological functions are present at early stages in the developmental course of the illness. Two recent reviews, by D. King and G. Cassens suggest that, although acute administration of neuroleptics may alter performances in some neuro-psychological functions, there is no convincing evidence so far, to support a significant role of chronic neuroleptic treatment in the development of negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. Despite several methodological limitations, which preclude any definitive statement, experimental and clinical data suggest that chronic neuroleptic treatment might improve neuropsychological functioning and the deficit syndrome, in some groups of schizophrenic patients. These results are examined in the framework of recent theoretical developments, which emphasize the role of cognitive dysfunction in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:8767043

Kahn, J P

1996-06-01

148

Long-term cognitive function change among breast cancer survivors.  

PubMed

Cognitive decline is a common health problem among breast cancer patients and understanding trajectories of cognitive change following among breast cancer survivors is an important public health goal. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the cognitive function changes from 18 month to 3 years after breast cancer diagnosis among participants of the Shanghai Breast cancer survivor study, a population-based cohort study of breast cancer survivors. In our study, we completed cognitive function evaluation for 1,300 breast cancer survivors at the 18th month's survey and 1,059 at 36th month's survey, respectively, using a battery of cognitive function measurements. We found the scores in attention and executive function, immediate memory and delayed memory significantly improved from 18 to 36 months after breast cancer diagnosis. The improvements appeared in breast cancer survivors receiving treatments (i.e., surgery, radiotherapy, tamoxifen, or chemotherapy combined with or without tamoxifen), but not in those who received neither chemotherapy nor tamoxifen treatment. The results indicate that cognitive functions, particularly immediate verbal episodic memory, and delayed memory significantly improved among breast cancer survivors from 18 to 36 months after cancer diagnosis. In general, comorbidity was inversely associated with the improvements. PMID:25005574

Zheng, Ying; Luo, Jianfeng; Bao, Pingping; Cai, Hui; Hong, Zhen; Ding, Ding; Jackson, James C; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Dai, Qi

2014-08-01

149

Effects of Growth Hormone on Cognitive Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and\\/or treatment in childhood and adolescence influences cognitive outcome in children with GHD or girls with Turner syndrome (TS) is controversial. Previous studies also suggest that quality of life (QoL) is reduced in adults with GHD, particularly in the areas of social isolation and fatigue. Baseline QoL scores were significantly lower in patients with GHD

Judith L. Ross

2005-01-01

150

Electroencephalographic imaging of higher brain function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temporal resolution is necessary to resolve the rapidly changing patterns of brain activity that underlie mental function. Electroencephalography (EEG) provides temporal resolution in the millisecond range. However, traditional EEG technology and practice provide insufficient spatial detail to identify relationships between brain electrical events and structures and functions visualized by magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography. Recent advances help to overcome this problem by recording EEGs from more electrodes, by registering EEG data with anatomical images, and by correcting the distortion caused by volume conduction of EEG signals through the skull and scalp. In addition, statistical measurements of sub-second interdependences between EEG time-series recorded from different locations can help to generate hypotheses about the instantaneous functional networks that form between different cortical regions during perception, thought and action. Example applications are presented from studies of language, attention and working memory. Along with its unique ability to monitor brain function as people perform everyday activities in the real world, these advances make modern EEG an invaluable complement to other functional neuroimaging modalities.

Gevins, A.; Smith, M. E.; McEvoy, L. K.; Leong, H.; Le, J.

1999-01-01

151

Auditory verbal hallucinations and cognitive functioning in healthy individuals.  

PubMed

Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a characteristic symptom in schizophrenia, and also occur in the general, non-clinical population. In schizophrenia patients, several specific cognitive deficits, such as in speech processing, working memory, source memory, attention, inhibition, episodic memory and self-monitoring have been associated with auditory verbal hallucinations. Such associations are interesting, as they may identify specific cognitive traits that constitute a predisposition for AVH. However, it is difficult to disentangle a specific relation with AVH in patients with schizophrenia, as so many other factors can affect the performance on cognitive tests. Examining the cognitive profile of healthy individuals experiencing AVH may reveal a more direct association between AVH and aberrant cognitive functioning in a specific domain. For the current study, performance in executive functioning, memory (both short- and long-term), processing speed, spatial ability, lexical access, abstract reasoning, language and intelligence performance was compared between 101 healthy individuals with AVH and 101 healthy controls, matched for gender, age, handedness and education. Although performance of both groups was within the normal range, not clinically impaired, significant differences between the groups were found in the verbal domain as well as in executive functioning. Performance on all other cognitive domains was similar in both groups. The predisposition to experience AVH is associated with lower performance in executive functioning and aberrant language performance. This association might be related to difficulties in the inhibition of irrelevant verbal information. PMID:21839618

Daalman, Kirstin; van Zandvoort, Martine; Bootsman, Florian; Boks, Marco; Kahn, René; Sommer, Iris

2011-11-01

152

Methadone maintenance treatment and cognitive function: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Methadone has been used as a pharmacotherapy for the treatment of opiate dependence since the mid-1960s. Many studies examining the benefits of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opiate dependence have documented a significant reduction in both criminal behavior and the use of other opiates. Nevertheless, emerging evidence suggests that MMT may impair cognitive function. However, it is unclear as to the part methadone dose, duration of MMT or plasma level may play in any observed deficits. Given the large number of people enrolled in MMT world-wide and the potential for deficits in cognitive function, a systematic review of the research investigating the association between MMT and cognitive function seemed warranted. The following databases were searched with a combination of free-text and thesaurus terms (methadone AND cognition): MEDLINE In-Process, EMBASE, PsycINFO and EBM Reviews-Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Seventy-eight articles were retrieved of which 35 met the inclusion criteria. The majority of research suggests that MMT is associated with impaired cognitive function and that deficits extended across a range of domains. However, caution is required when interpreting these results due to the methodological limitations associated with many studies. Further research that includes a combination of psychological and physiological measures within well-controlled group comparison studies is required to more accurately assess which cognitive domains are affected. PMID:23773088

Wang, Grace Y; Wouldes, Trecia A; Russell, Bruce R

2013-09-01

153

COMT val108/158met genotype, cognitive function, and cognitive improvement with clozapine in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Preliminary evidence suggests that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), the val108/158met SNP, within the gene that codes for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), a key enzyme involved in regulating dopamine (DA) transmission within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), is related to cognitive function in schizophrenia and cognitive improvement with atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs). Specifically, several studies have identified an association between working memory and executive functions, and COMT val108/158met genotype in schizophrenia; although there have been several negative findings that are likely related to small sample sizes and, possibly, medication status of patients at the time of testing. The association between COMT val108/158met genotype, cognitive function, and cognitive improvement with clozapine was investigated in a relatively large prospective sample of patients with schizophrenia, most of whom were unmedicated at baseline. Patients were genotyped for the COMT val108/158met SNP after completing a cognitive battery consisting of tests of attention, working memory, verbal learning and memory, executive function, and verbal fluency at baseline and after 6 weeks and 6 months of treatment with clozapine. Consistent with several previous studies, an association between COMT genotype and tests of executive function and working memory was identified at baseline. In addition, a novel interaction between genotype and improvement on tests of attention and verbal fluency was identified. Specifically, met homozygous and val/met heterozygous patients demonstrated significantly greater improvement than val homozygous patients following 6 months of treatment with clozapine. The results are discussed in relation to previous cross-sectional studies and prospective investigations of the associations between COMT genotype, cognition, and cognitive improvement with atypical APDs in schizophrenia. PMID:17123785

Woodward, Neil D; Jayathilake, Karu; Meltzer, Herbert Y

2007-02-01

154

Does cerebral oxygenation affect cognitive function during exercise?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested whether cerebral oxygenation affects cognitive function during exercise. We measured reaction times (RT)\\u000a of 12 participants while they performed a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task, at rest and while cycling. In the\\u000a exercise condition, participants performed the cognitive task at rest and while cycling at three workloads [40, 60, and 80%\\u000a of peak oxygen uptake

Soichi Ando; Masahiro Kokubu; Yosuke Yamada; Misaka Kimura

155

Cognitive Function in Children With Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To quantify the magnitude and pattern of cognitive difficulties in pediatric type 1 diabetes as well as the effects associated with earlier disease onset and severe hypoglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Pediatric studies of cognitive function since 1985 were identified for study inclusion using MEDLINE and PsycInfo. Effect size (ES, Cohen's d) between the diabetic and control groups, expressed in SD units, were calculated within cognitive domains to standardize meta-analysis test performance. RESULTS—The meta-analysis sample of 2,144 children consisted of 1,393 study subjects with type 1 diabetes and 751 control subjects from 19 studies. Overall, type 1 diabetes was associated with slightly lower overall cognition (ES ?0.13), with small differences compared with control subjects across a broad range of domains, excluding learning and memory, which were similar for both groups. Learning and memory skills, both verbal and visual (?0.28 and ?0.25), were more affected for children with early-onset diabetes (EOD) than late-onset diabetes (LOD), along with attention/executive function skills (?0.27). Compared with nondiabetic control subjects, EOD effects were larger, up to one-half SD lower, particularly for learning and memory (?0.49). Generally, seizures were associated with a negligible overall cognition ES of ?0.06, with slight and inconsistent cognitive effects found on some measures, possibly reflecting the opposing effects of poorer versus better metabolic control. CONCLUSIONS—Pediatric diabetes generally relates to mildly lower cognitive scores across most cognitive domains. Cognitive effects are most pronounced and pervasive for EOD, with moderately lower performance compared with control subjects. Seizures are generally related to nominal, inconsistent performance differences.

Gaudieri, Patricia A.; Chen, Rusan; Greer, Tammy F.; Holmes, Clarissa S.

2008-01-01

156

Insight dimensions and cognitive function in psychosis: a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background It has been reported that lack of insight is significantly associated with cognitive disturbance in schizophrenia. This study examines the longitudinal relationships between insight dimensions and cognitive performance in psychosis. Methods Participants were 75 consecutively admitted inpatients with schizophrenia, affective disorder with psychotic symptoms or schizoaffective disorder. Assessments were conducted at two time points during the study: at the time of hospital discharge after an acute psychotic episode and at a follow-up time that occurred more than 6 months after discharge. A multidimensional approach of insight was chosen and three instruments for its assessment were used: the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD), three items concerning insight on the Assessment and Documentation in Psychopathology (AMDP) system and the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire. The neuropsychological battery included a wide range of tests that assessed global cognitive function, attention, memory, and executive functions. Results After conducting adequate statistical correction to avoid Type I bias, insight dimensions and cognitive performance were not found to be significantly associated at cross-sectional and longitudinal assessments. In addition, baseline cognitive performance did not explain changes in insight dimensions at follow-up. Similar results were found in the subset of patients with schizophrenia (n = 37). The possibility of a Type II error might have increased due to sample attrition at follow-up. Conclusion These results suggest that lack of insight dimensions and cognitive functioning may be unrelated phenomena in psychosis.

Cuesta, Manuel J; Peralta, Victor; Zarzuela, Amalia; Zandio, Maria

2006-01-01

157

Factors Predicting Reversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Normal Cognitive Functioning: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. However, many individuals diagnosed with MCI are found to have reverted to normal cognition on follow-up. This study investigated factors predicting or associated with reversion from MCI to normal cognition. Methods Our analyses considered 223 participants (48.9% male) aged 71–89 years, drawn from the prospective, population-based Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. All were diagnosed with MCI at baseline and subsequently classified with either normal cognition or repeat diagnosis of MCI after two years (a further 11 participants who progressed from MCI to dementia were excluded). Associations with reversion were investigated for (1) baseline factors that included diagnostic features, personality, neuroimaging, sociodemographics, lifestyle, and physical and mental health; (2) longitudinal change in potentially modifiable factors. Results There were 66 reverters to normal cognition and 157 non-reverters (stable MCI). Regression analyses identified diagnostic features as most predictive of prognosis, with reversion less likely in participants with multiple-domain MCI (p?=?0.011), a moderately or severely impaired cognitive domain (p?=?0.002 and p?=?0.006), or an informant-based memory complaint (p?=?0.031). Reversion was also less likely for participants with arthritis (p?=?0.037), but more likely for participants with higher complex mental activity (p?=?0.003), greater openness to experience (p?=?0.041), better vision (p?=?0.014), better smelling ability (p?=?0.040), or larger combined volume of the left hippocampus and left amygdala (p<0.040). Reversion was also associated with a larger drop in diastolic blood pressure between baseline and follow-up (p?=?0.026). Discussion Numerous factors are associated with reversion from MCI to normal cognition. Assessing these factors could facilitate more accurate prognosis of individuals with MCI. Participation in cognitively enriching activities and efforts to lower blood pressure might promote reversion.

Sachdev, Perminder S.; Lipnicki, Darren M.; Crawford, John; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A.; Trollor, Julian N.; Wen, Wei; Draper, Brian; Slavin, Melissa J.; Kang, Kristan; Lux, Ora; Mather, Karen A.; Brodaty, Henry; Team, Ageing Study

2013-01-01

158

Lower-Extremity Function in Cognitively Healthy Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine differences in lower-extremity function in cognitive healthy older persons, older persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and older persons with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Design Descriptive study. Setting University Alzheimer’s disease clinical and research program. Participants Older persons (N=66) were studied (mean age, 76.7y); 22 were cognitively normal, 22 were diagnosed with probable MCI, 22 were diagnosed with probable AD. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Lower-extremity function was assessed by the four-meter walk test (4MWT), Timed Up & Go (TUG) test, and sit-to-stand (STS) test. Results Analysis of variance, adjusting for covariates, revealed that performance on the 4MWT was significantly lower in the MCI and AD groups as compared with controls. TUG test performance was worse in the AD group compared with controls. No significant group differences were found for STS performance. Conclusions These results suggest an association between cognitive impairment and lower-limb function in older persons Walking speed could be evaluated for its possible utility in screening older persons at risk for cognitive impairment and falls.

Eggermont, Laura H.; Gavett, Brandon E.; Volkers, Karin M.; Blankevoort, Christiaan G.; Scherder, Erik J.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Steinberg, Eric; Nair, Anil; Green, Robert C.; Stern, Robert A.

2010-01-01

159

Computer-assisted cognitive function assessment of pilots  

Microsoft Academic Search

in an environment unforgiving of human error, where cogni- tive failure can lead to catastrophic consequences. Cognitive function testing is one means of selecting mentally capable pilots. It is also a means of screening for covert disease, and it can be used to establish baseline performance data and pro- vide ongoing monitoring of health. (For these reasons, cog- nitive function

Roderick Westerman; David G Darby; Paul Maruff; Alexander Collie

2001-01-01

160

Identifying Similarities in Cognitive Subtest Functional Requirements: An Empirical Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the cognitive test interpretation literature, a Rational/Intuitive, Indirect Empirical, or Combined approach is typically used to construct conceptual taxonomies of the functional (behavioral) similarities between subtests. To address shortcomings of these approaches, the functional requirements for 49 subtests from six individually…

Frisby, Craig L.; Parkin, Jason R.

2007-01-01

161

The Relationship between Stress, Fatigue, and Cognitive Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a plethora of research suggesting that daily stressors and fatigue can have a significant effect on learning and various cognitive functions in young adults. Little is known, however, about how these effects impact learning and other neurocognitive functions in students with learning challenges when compared to their counterparts without…

Palmer, Laura K.

2013-01-01

162

Evidence-based Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Pediatric Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To review the evidence base for measures of cognitive functioning frequently used within the field of pediatric psychology. Methods From a list of 47 measures identified by the Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Evidence-Based Assessment Task Force Workgroup, 27 measures were included in the review. Measures were organized, reviewed, and evaluated according to general domains of functioning (e.g.,

Jonathan M. Campbell; Ronald T. Brown; Sarah E. Cavanagh; Sarah F. Vess; Mathew J. Segall

2008-01-01

163

Structural and functional organization of a developing brain and formation of cognitive functions in child ontogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of multidisciplinary studies, including neuromorphological, neurophysiological, neuropsychological, and psychphysiological\\u000a studies, are reviewed. They allow the brain mechanisms of cognition formation and development during maturation to be identified.\\u000a The role of regulatory (modulatory) brain systems in forming the cognitive function in the child is demonstrated. Data on\\u000a considerable changes in the brain systems responsible for the development of cognitive functions

M. M. Bezrukikh; R. I. Machinskaya; D. A. Farber

2009-01-01

164

Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review The effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular and chronic diseases has been largely evidenced. Although nutrition constitutes an interesting approach in preventing age-related brain disorders, the association between the Mediterranean-style diet and cognitive functions has been very occasionally explored. Recent findings Results are provided from only two recent prospective cohorts of older Americans and French individuals (?65 y) on the relationship of Mediterranean diet to cognitive functions. A high adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been associated with slower cognitive decline, with reduced risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment conversion to Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and with reduced risk of AD. Summary The possibility that the Mediterranean diet may affect not only the risk for AD, but also the evolution of cognitive performances a long time before the clinical diagnosis of dementia and subsequent disease course constitutes major promising results. Replication of these results in other populations seems necessary to allow their generalization and to propose the Mediterranean diet as a potential preventive approach against cognitive decline or dementia in addition to its expected benefits against many other unfavorable outcomes in a public health perspective.

Feart, Catherine; Samieri, Cecilia; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

2010-01-01

165

Prenatal undernutrition and cognitive function in late adulthood  

PubMed Central

At the end of World War II, a severe 5-mo famine struck the cities in the western part of The Netherlands. At its peak, the rations dropped to as low as 400 calories per day. In 1972, cognitive performance in 19-y-old male conscripts was reported not to have been affected by exposure to the famine before birth. In the present study, we show that cognitive function in later life does seem affected by prenatal undernutrition. We found that at age 56 to 59, men and women exposed to famine during the early stage of gestation performed worse on a selective attention task, a cognitive ability that usually declines with increasing age. We hypothesize that this decline may be an early manifestation of an accelerated cognitive aging process.

de Rooij, Susanne R.; Wouters, Hans; Yonker, Julie E.; Painter, Rebecca C.; Roseboom, Tessa J.

2010-01-01

166

Automated Semantic Indices Related to Cognitive Function and Rate of Cognitive Decline  

PubMed Central

The objective of our study is to introduce a fully automated, computational linguistic technique to quantify semantic relations between words generated on a standard semantic verbal fluency test and to determine its cognitive and clinical correlates. Cognitive differences between patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment are evident in their performance on the semantic verbal fluency test. In addition to the semantic verbal fluency test score, several other performance characteristics sensitive to disease status and predictive of future cognitive decline have been defined in terms of words generated from semantically related categories (clustering) and shifting between categories (switching). However, the traditional assessment of clustering and switching has been performed manually in a qualitative fashion resulting in subjective scoring with limited reproducibility and scalability. Our approach uses word definitions and hierarchical relations between the words in WordNet®, a large electronic lexical database, to quantify the degree of semantic similarity and relatedness between words. We investigated the novel semantic fluency indices of mean cumulative similarity and relatedness between all pairs of words regardless of their order, and mean sequential similarity and relatedness between pairs of adjacent words in a sample of patients with clinically diagnosed probable (n=55) or possible (n=27) Alzheimer’s disease or mild cognitive impairment (n=31). The semantic fluency indices differed significantly between the diagnostic groups, and were strongly associated with neuropsychological tests of executive function, as well as the rate of global cognitive decline. Our results suggest that word meanings and relations between words shared across individuals and computationally modeled via WordNet and large text corpora provide the necessary context to account for the variability in language-based behavior and relate it to cognitive dysfunction observed in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease.

Pakhomov, Serguei V.S.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Lim, Kelvin O.

2012-01-01

167

Screening for cognitive functioning in psychiatric outpatients with schizophrenia, alcohol dependence, and dual diagnosis.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment is common to both schizophrenia and alcoholism. Despite increasing recognition that people with both disorders represent a problematic client group, little is known about the possible additive effect of a dual diagnosis upon impaired cognitive function. This study investigates impairment of cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia, alcohol dependence, or a dual diagnosis of schizophrenia and alcohol use disorder. It was hypothesised that patients with dual diagnosis would show greater cognitive impairment than those with a single diagnosis. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and standardised measures of psychiatric health and substance use were administered to 120 community psychiatric patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, alcohol dependence and both conditions (dual diagnosis). Higher rates of cognitive impairment were found among dual diagnosis patients compared to the schizophrenia or alcohol patients. This was shown in age-adjusted measures of global functioning, and on the tests of language, reading and writing, and visuospatial construction. Despite its common usage, global MMSE scores were insensitive to the cognitive impairments typically found in these clinical groups. Where the MMSE is used as a screening tool, it is recommended that scores are adjusted for the effects of age. PMID:17300919

Manning, Victoria; Wanigaratne, Shamil; Best, David; Strathdee, Geraldine; Schrover, Isabella; Gossop, Michael

2007-03-01

168

Personalized Cognitive Training in Unipolar and Bipolar Disorder: A Study of Cognitive Functioning  

PubMed Central

Patients with unipolar depressive disorder and in the depressive phase of bipolar disorder often manifest psychological distress and cognitive deficits, notably in executive control. We used computerized cognitive training in an attempt to reduce psychological affliction, improve everyday coping, and cognitive function. We asked one group of patients (intervention group) to engage in cognitive training three times a week, for 20?min each time, for eight consecutive weeks. A second group of patients (control group) received standard care only. Before the onset of training we administered to all patients self-report questionnaires of mood, mental and psychological health, and everyday coping. We also assessed executive control using a broad computerized neurocognitive battery of tests which yielded, among others, scores in Working Memory, Shifting, Inhibition, Visuomotor Vigilance, Divided Attention, Memory Span, and a Global Executive Function score. All questionnaires and tests were re-administered to the patients who adhered to the study at the end of training. When we compared the groups (between-group comparisons) on the amount of change that had taken place from baseline to post-training, we found significantly reduced depression level for the intervention group. This group also displayed significant improvements in Shifting, Divided Attention, and in the Global executive control score. Further exploration of the data showed that the cognitive improvement did not predict the improvements in mood. Single-group data (within-group comparisons) show that patients in the intervention group were reporting fewer cognitive failures, fewer dysexecutive incidents, and less difficulty in everyday coping. This group had also improved significantly on the six executive control tests and on the Global executive control score. By contrast, the control group improved only on the reports of cognitive failure and on working memory.

Preiss, Marek; Shatil, Evelyn; Cermakova, Radka; Cimermanova, Dominika; Ram, Ilana

2013-01-01

169

Mediterranean diet habits in older individuals: associations with cognitive functioning and brain volumes.  

PubMed

To examine the association between dietary habits, cognitive functioning and brain volumes in older individuals, data from 194 cognitively healthy individuals who participated in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors cohort were used. At age 70, participants kept diaries of their food intake for 1week. These records were used to calculate a Mediterranean diet (MeDi) score (comprising dietary habits traditionally found in Mediterranean countries, e.g. high intake of fruits and low intake of meat), with higher scores indicating more pronounced MeDi-like dietary habits. Five years later, participants' cognitive capabilities were examined by the seven minute screening (7MS) (a cognitive test battery used by clinicians to screen for dementia), and their brain volumes were measured by volumetric magnetic resonance imaging. Multivariate linear regression analyses were constructed to examine the association between the total MeDi score and cognitive functioning and brain volumes. In addition, possible associations between MeDi's eight dietary features and cognitive functioning and brain volumes were investigated. From the eight dietary features included in the MeDi score, pertaining to a low consumption of meat and meat products was linked to a better performance on the 7MS test (P=0.001) and greater total brain volume (i.e. the sum of white and gray matter, P=0.03) when controlling for potential confounders (e.g. BMI) in the analysis. Integrating all dietary features into the total MeDi score explained less variance in cognitive functioning and brain volumes than its single dietary component meat intake. These observational findings suggest that keeping to a low meat intake could prove to be an impact-driven public health policy to support healthy cognitive aging, when confirmed by longitudinal studies. Further, they suggest that the MeDi score is a construct that may mask possible associations of single MeDi features with brain health domains in elderly populations. PMID:24126083

Titova, Olga E; Ax, Erika; Brooks, Samantha J; Sjögren, Per; Cederholm, Tommy; Kilander, Lena; Kullberg, Joel; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Johansson, Lars; Ahlström, Håkan; Lind, Lars; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

2013-12-01

170

The Effects of Poor Sleep Quality on Cognitive Function of Patients with Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the ill-defined relationship between sleep quality and multiple, specific domains of cognitive function in patients with cirrhosis. Methods: A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests (divided into six neurocognitive domains) and a standardized, validated measure of sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) were administered to patients with cirrhosis and without evidence of overt hepatic encephalopathy, recruited from liver transplant and advanced liver disease clinics (n = 34). An inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) control group (n = 23) was similarly recruited and evaluated to control for the secondary effect of a chronic illness on cognition. PSQI global and component scores were used to predict cognitive function in each neurocognitive domain, using linear regression Results: Global PSQI scores were significantly higher (indicating poorer sleep quality) in the cirrhosis group (median [range] = 10 [1-19]) than in IBD controls = 5 (1-14); p = 0.002). After controlling for age and education, short duration of sleep was associated with impaired memory for patients with cirrhosis; the use of soporific agents was associated with poor visual-perceptual function in patients with IBD. Conclusions: Poor sleep was associated with worsening of the already impaired cognitive function of patients with cirrhosis. Citation: Stewart CA; Auger R; Enders FTB; Felmlee-Devine D; Smith GE. The effects of poor sleep quality on cognitive function of patients with cirrhosis. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(1):21-26.

Stewart, Charmaine A.; Auger, Robert; Enders, Felicity T. B.; Felmlee-Devine, Donna; Smith, Glenn E.

2014-01-01

171

Aging Reduces the Stimulating Effect of Blue Light on Cognitive Brain Functions  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Light exposure, particularly blue light, is being recognized as a potent mean to stimulate alertness and cognition in young individuals. Aging is associated with changes in alertness regulation and cognition. Whether the effect of light on cognitive brain function changes with aging is unknown, however. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Functional Neuroimaging Unit, University of Montreal Geriatric Institute. Participants: Sixteen younger (23 ± 4.1 y) and 14 older (61 ± 4.5 y) healthy participants were recruited in the current study. Intervention: Blue light administration. Measurements: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to record brain responses to an auditory working memory task in young and older healthy individuals, alternatively maintained in darkness or exposed to blue light. Results: Results show that the older brain remains capable of showing sustained responses to light in several brain areas. However, compared to young individuals, the effect of blue light is decreased in the pulvinar, amygdala, and tegmentum as well as in the insular, prefrontal, and occipital cortices in elderly individuals. Conclusion: The effect of blue light on brain responses diminishes with aging in areas typically involved in visual functions and in key regions for alertness regulation and higher executive processes. Our findings provide the first indications that the effect of light on cognition may be reduced in healthy aging. Citation: Daneault V; Hébert M; Albouy G; Doyon J; Dumont M; Carrier J; Vandewalle G. Aging reduces the stimulating effect of blue light on cognitive brain functions. SLEEP 2014;37(1):85-96.

Daneault, Veronique; Hebert, Marc; Albouy, Genevieve; Doyon, Julien; Dumont, Marie; Carrier, Julie; Vandewalle, Gilles

2014-01-01

172

Critical Periods of Brain Growth and Cognitive Function in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence that IQ tends to be higher in those who were heavier at birth or who grew taller in childhood and adolescence. Although these findings imply that growth in both foetal and postnatal life influences cognitive performance, little is known about the relative importance of brain growth during different periods of development. We…

Gale, Catharine R.; O'Callaghan, Finbar J.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Law, Catherine M.; Martyn, Christopher N.

2004-01-01

173

Assessment of cognitive function in the heterozygous reeler mouse.  

PubMed Central

RATIONALE The heterozygous reeler mouse has been proposed as a genetic mouse model of schizophrenia, based on several neuroanatomical and behavioral similarities between these mice and patients with schizophrenia. However, the effect of reelin haploinsufficiency on one of the cardinal symptoms of schizophrenia, the impairment of prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive function, has yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE Here, we investigated multiple aspects of cognitive function in heterozygous reeler mice that are known to be impaired in schizophrenic patients. METHODS Heterozygous reeler mice were assessed for (1) cognitive flexibility in an instrumental reversal learning task; (2) impulsivity in an inhibitory control task; (3) attentional function in a three-choice serial reaction time task; and (4) working memory in a delayed matching-to-position task. RESULTS No differences were found between heterozygous reeler mice and wild-type littermate controls in any prefrontal-related cognitive measures. However, heterozygous reeler mice showed deficits in the acquisition of two operant tasks, consistent with a role for reelin in certain forms of learning. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that heterozygous reeler mice may not be an appropriate model for the core prefrontal-dependent cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia, but may model more general learning deficits that are associated with many psychiatric disorders.

Krueger, Dilja D.; Howell, Jessica L.; Hebert, Britni F.; Olausson, Peter; Taylor, Jane R.; Nairn, Angus C.

2006-01-01

174

Omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive function in women  

PubMed Central

Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) could play an important role in maintaining cognitive function in aging individuals. The omega-3 FA docosahexaenoic acid is a major constituent of neuronal membranes and, along with the other long-chain omega-3 FAs from fish such as eicosapentaentoic acid, has been shown to have a wide variety of beneficial effects on neuronal functioning, inflammation, oxidation and cell death, as well as on the development of the characteristic pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. Omega-3 FAs may prevent vascular dementia via salutary effects on lipids, inflammation, thrombosis and vascular function. Epidemiologic studies have generally supported a protective association between fish and omega-3 FA levels and cognitive decline. Some of the small, short-term, randomized trials of docosahexaenoic acid and/or eicosapentaentoic acid supplementation have found positive effects on some aspects of cognition in older adults who were cognitively intact or had mild cognitive impairment, although little effect was found in participants with Alzheimer’s disease. Large, long-term trials in this area are needed.

Robinson, Jennifer G; Ijioma, Nkechinyere; Harris, William

2010-01-01

175

Cognitive Functioning in Long Duration Head-down Bed Rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Flight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a self-administered battery of tests used on the International Space Station for evaluating cognitive functioning. Here, WinSCAT was used to assess cognitive functioning during extended head-down bed rest. Thirteen subjects who participated in 60 or 90 days of 6 deg head-down bed rest took WinSCAT during the pre-bed rest phase, the in-bed rest phase, and the post-bed rest (reconditioning) phase of study participation. After adjusting for individual baseline performance, 12 off-nominal scores were observed out of 351 total observations during bed rest and 7 of 180 during reconditioning. No evidence was found for systematic changes in off-nominal incidence as time in bed rest progressed, or during the reconditioning period. Cognitive functioning does not appear to be adversely affected by long duration head-down bed rest. Individual differences in underlying cognitive ability and motivation level are likely explanations for the current findings.

Seaton, Kimberly A.; Slack, Kelley J.; Sipes, Walter A.; Bowie, Kendra

2008-01-01

176

Validity of the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) screen for higher cerebral functions in stroke patients with good functional outcome.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairments are often under diagnosed in stroke patients with good functional outcome. There is a need for a cognitive screening instrument that is sufficiently sensitive to cognitive impairments in these stroke patients. For this goal, we tested the feasibility and validity of the Barrow Neurological Institute Screen for Higher Cerebral Functions (BNIS). Stroke patients with good functional outcome (Barthel Index 19/20) within 1 year poststroke were administered the BNIS and a brief neuropsychological assessment (NPA) including tests for perception, language, memory, attention, reasoning, and executive functioning. We compared the BNIS with the NPA to investigate its feasibility, internal consistency, floor and ceiling effects, concurrent validity, sensitivity and specificity. Fifty-four stroke patients were included. It took significantly less time to administer the BNIS (median = 16 minutes) than the NPA (median = 32.7 minutes). The BNIS showed good internal consistency (alpha = .82) and no floor or ceiling effects. The recommended cutoff values yielded good sensitivity and low to good specificity, depending on age. Except for perception (Spearman correlation .33), BNIS domain scores were significantly (0.44-0.55) associated with matching neuropsychological tests. This study provides promising results for the BNIS as a measure to detect cognitive impairments in stroke patients with good functional outcome. PMID:23472712

Boosman, Hileen; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Post, Marcel W M; Duits, Annelien; van Heugten, Caroline M

2013-01-01

177

Impact of regional white matter lesions on cognitive function in subcortical vascular cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Objectives: Exact characterization and localization of white matter lesions (WMLs) as they relate and contribute to vascular cognitive impairment is highly debated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of WML on cognitive function by using a new anatomy-based classification method. Methods: We detected WML accurately by using a three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D FLAIR) imaging technique and subsequently segmented WMLs by using an anatomy-based method. Participants included 56 consecutive patients diagnosed with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SubVCI). The volume of WMLs in different anatomic regions was measured. The volume of the hippocampus, the corpus callosum (CC), any lacunar infarcts, total gray matter (GM), and total brain volumes were also calculated. Results: Hippocampal (P ?=? 0·005) as well as temporal WML volumes (P ?=? 0·039) were both independently associated with mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score. Only the parietal WML volume (P ?=? 0·000) was independently associated with Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score. Frontal WMLs were independently correlated with executive function. Occipital WMLs were independently associated with visuospatial and recall function. Language impairment was independently correlated with both parietal GM and parietal WML volume. Functions related to orientation were independently associated with parietal WML volume. Discussion: The volume of WMLs in the temporal region as well as in the hippocampus were both independently associated with MMSE score. For the MoCA score, however, only parietal WML volumes were independently correlated. White matter lesions within different anatomic regions were separately correlated with different subdomains of cognitive function. PMID:24641691

Ai, Qing; Pu, Yue-Hua; Sy, Christopher; Liu, Li-Ping; Gao, Pei-Yi

2014-05-01

178

Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults123  

PubMed Central

Background: Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 Puerto Ricans aged 45–75 y living in Massachusetts in relation to cognitive function performances. Design: Food security was assessed with the US Household Food Security Scale. Cognitive function was measured to capture general cognition with a battery of 7 tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning (verbal memory), digit span (attention), clock drawing and figure copying (visual-spatial ability), and Stroop and verbal fluency tests (fluency executive functioning). Results: The overall prevalence of food insecurity during the past 12 mo was 12.1%; 6.1% of the subjects reported very low food security. Food insecurity was inversely associated with global cognitive performance, as assessed by the MMSE score. The adjusted difference in the MMSE score was ?0.90 (95% CI: ?1.6, ?0.19; P for trend = 0.003) for a comparison of participants with very low food security with those who were food secure, after adjustment for age, smoking, education, poverty status, income, acculturation, plasma homocysteine, alcohol, diabetes, and hypertension. Food insecurity was significantly associated with lower scores for word-list learning, percentage retention, letter fluency, and digit span backward tests. Conclusions: Very low food security was prevalent among the study subjects and was associated with lower cognitive performance. Further studies, both observational and experimental, are warranted to clarify the direction of causality in this association.

Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Falcon, Luis M; Wilde, Parke E; Tucker, Katherine L

2009-01-01

179

Roles of Brain Angiotensin II in Cognitive Function and Dementia  

PubMed Central

The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been highlighted as having a pathological role in stroke, dementia, and neurodegenerative disease. Particularly, in dementia, epidemiological studies indicate a preventive effect of RAS blockade on cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease (AD). Moreover, basic experiments suggest a role of brain angiotensin II in neural injury, neuroinflammation, and cognitive function and that RAS blockade attenuates cognitive impairment in rodent dementia models of AD. Therefore, RAS regulation is expected to have therapeutic potential for AD. Here, we discuss the role of angiotensin II in cognitive impairment and AD. Angiotensin II binds to the type 2 receptor (AT2) and works mainly by binding with the type 1 receptor (AT1). AT2 receptor signaling plays a role in protection against multiple-organ damage. A direct AT2 receptor agonist is now available and is expected to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress and enhance cell differentiation. We and other groups reported that AT2 receptor activation enhances neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth in the brain. Here, we also review the effect of the AT2 receptor on cognitive function. RAS modulation may be a new therapeutic option for dementia including AD in the future.

Mogi, Masaki; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

2012-01-01

180

PTSD and cognitive functioning: importance of including performance validity testing.  

PubMed

Many studies have observed an association between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cognitive deficits across several domains including memory, attention, and executive functioning. The inclusion of response bias measures in these studies, however, remains largely unaddressed. The purpose of this study was to identify possible cognitive impairments correlated with PTSD in returning OEF/OIF/OND veterans after excluding individuals failing a well-validated performance validity test. Participants included 126 men and 8 women with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) referred for a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation as part of a consortium of five Veterans Affairs hospitals. The PTSD CheckList (PCL) and Word Memory Test (WMT) were used to establish symptoms of PTSD and invalid performance, respectively. Groups were categorized as follows: Control (PCL < 50, pass WMT), PTSD-pass (PCL ? 50, pass WMT), and PTSD-fail (PCL ? 50, fail WMT). As hypothesized, failure on the WMT was associated with significantly poorer performance on almost all cognitive tests administered; however, no significant differences were detected between individuals with and without PTSD symptoms after separating out veterans failing the WMT. These findings highlight the importance of assessing respondent validity in future research examining cognitive functioning in psychiatric illness and warrant further consideration of prior studies reporting PTSD-associated cognitive deficits. PMID:24354897

Wisdom, Nick M; Pastorek, Nicholas J; Miller, Brian I; Booth, Jane E; Romesser, Jennifer M; Linck, John F; Sim, Anita H

2014-01-01

181

Decreased Motor Function Is Associated with Poorer Cognitive Function in Elderly with Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Impaired motor function has been associated with cognitive impairment and dementia, but this relationship is poorly understood in elderly with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We thus investigated it in a large sample (n = 726) of cognitively normal elderly with T2D. Methods In this cross-sectional study, hierarchical linear regressions assessed correlations of 3 motor measures (timed walk, grip strength, and self-reported motor difficulties) with episodic memory, attention/working memory, semantic categorization, executive function, and overall cognition controlling for demographics. Results Longer timed walk and weaker grip strength were associated with poorer performance in all cognitive domains except episodic memory. Conclusions Associations of motor and cognitive functions in T2D and non-T2D samples are consistent. A lack of association of motor function with episodic memory may suggest non-Alzheimer's disease-related underlying mechanisms.

Guerrero-Berroa, Elizabeth; Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Heymann, Anthony; Schmeidler, James; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sano, Mary; Koifmann, Keren; Preiss, Rachel; Hoffman, Hadas; Schnaider Beeri, Michal

2014-01-01

182

Social Cognitive Impairments and Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Are There Subtypes With Distinct Functional Correlates?  

PubMed Central

Social cognitive impairments and negative symptoms are core features of schizophrenia closely associated with impaired community functioning. However, little is known about whether these are independent dimensions of illness and if so, whether individuals with schizophrenia can be meaningfully classified based on these dimensions (SANS) and potentially differentially treated. Five social cognitive measures plus Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores in a sample of 77 outpatients produced 2 distinct factors—a social cognitive factor and a negative symptom factor. Factor scores were used in a cluster analysis, which yielded 3 well-defined groupings—a high negative symptom group (HN) and 2 low negative symptom groups, 1 with higher social cognition (HSC) and 1 with low social cognition (LSC). To make these findings more practicable for research and clinical settings, a rule of thumb for categorizing using only the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test and PANSS negative component was created and produced 84.4% agreement with the original cluster groups. An additional 63 subjects were added to cross validate the rule of thumb. When samples were combined (N = 140), the HSC group had significantly better quality of life and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores, higher rates of marriage and more hospitalizations. The LSC group had worse criminal and substance abuse histories. With 2 common assessment instruments, people with schizophrenia can be classified into 3 subgroups that have different barriers to community integration and could potentially benefit from different treatments.

Bell, Morris D.; Corbera, Silvia; Johannesen, Jason K.; Fiszdon, Joanna M.; Wexler, Bruce E.

2013-01-01

183

Cognitive functioning in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) patients, 12 psychiatric patients matched for severity of psychopathology, and 12 normal controls were assessed for cognitive functioning by means of a comprehensive test battery. Both patient groups felt subjectively more impaired than normals. Performance on measures of intelligence, organicity, verbal fluency, memory, and attention was significantly poorer in patients than in normals. The performance

Tzvi Gil; Avraham Calev; David Greenberg; Sol Kugelmass; Bernard Lerer I

1990-01-01

184

Cognitive Function in Early Onset Schizophrenia: A Selective Review  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is widely regarded as the clinical outcome of aberrant neurodevelopment caused by a combination of genetic and non-genetic factors. Early Onset Schizophrenia (EOS) manifests in childhood or adolescence and represents a more severe variant of the Adult Onset form of the disorder (AOS). EOS offers a unique opportunity of exploring the impact of disease related mechanisms on the developmental trajectory of cognitive function. The present review focused on the domains of general intellectual ability (IQ), attention, executive function and memory. Significant methodological variability was noted across the different studies that examined these aspects of cognition in EOS patients. Despite this, a consistent pattern emergent from the data suggesting that (a) EOS patients compared to healthy children and adolescents show impairments of medium to large effect size in IQ, attention, memory and executive function (b) despite increased clinical severity, the cognitive profile of EOS patients is comparable to that of AOS patients (c) healthy adolescents show age-related improvement in their ability to perform tests of attention, memory and executive function; this is not present in EOS patients thus resulting in increased age-related deviance in patients’ performance. This apparent decline is mostly attributable to patients’ failure to acquire new information and to use more sophisticated cognitive strategies.

Frangou, Sophia

2009-01-01

185

Influence of Caffeine on Physiological and Cognitive Functions of Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review is devoted to the analysis of the effect of caffeine on physiological and cognitive functions of humans. The methodological aspects of experiments with the use of caffeine are discussed, in particular, the dosage, the frequency of use, and in combination with other products. The possibilities of the use of caffeine for studying physiological and mental phenomena, as well

S. A. Schapkin

2002-01-01

186

Educational attainment, MRI changes, and cognitive function in older postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.  

PubMed

The relationship between neuropathology and clinically manifested functional and cognitive deficits is complex. Clinical observations of individuals with greater neuropathology who function better than some individuals with less neuropathology are common and puzzling. Educational attainment, a proxy for "cognitive reserve," may help to explain this apparent contradiction. The objective of this study is to determine if educational attainment is correlated with cognitive decline, brain lesion volume, and total brain atrophy. One thousand three hundred ninety of the 7,479 community-dwelling women 65 years of age and older enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study, two parallel randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials comparing unopposed and opposed postmenopausal hormone therapy with placebo, were studied. Study participants received annual assessments of global cognitive function with the Modified Mini Mental State exam. One thousand sixty-three participants also received supplemental neurocognitive battery and neuroimaging studies. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to calculate total ischemic lesion and brain volumes. Incident cases of probable dementia and mild cognitive impairment were centrally adjudicated. After adjustment for total lesion and total brain volumes (atrophy), higher educational attainment predicted better cognitive performance (p < 0.001). Following conversion to dementia/MCI, higher education predicted steeper declines in cognitive function (p < 0.001). Thus, higher educational attainment was associated with a delay in diagnosis of dementia/MCI in the face of a growing neuropathological load. PMID:24552037

Rapp, Stephen R; Espeland, Mark A; Manson, Joann E; Resnick, Susan M; Bryan, Nick R; Smoller, Sylvia; Coker, Laura H; Phillips, Lawrence S; Stefanick, Marcia L; Sarto, Gloria E

2013-01-01

187

The Thinking Team: Toward a Cognitive Model of Administrative Teamwork in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study identified eight cognitive roles played by college presidents' administrative teams and concluded that the resulting complexity, although difficult to manage, may improve executive-level leadership. Teams with multiple cognitive roles typically include a cognitively complex president, norms favoring cognitive diversity, and varied…

Neumann, Anna

1991-01-01

188

Correlations between motor performance and cognitive functions in children born < 1250 g at school age.  

PubMed

Very low birth weight born children manifest a higher prevalence of motor and cognitive impairments than term children. Seventy-four prospectively enrolled children born < 1250 g underwent testing of motor (Zurich neuromotor assessment ZNA: timed motor performances and associated movements) and cognitive functions (Kaufman-ABC) at age six years. Children with cerebral palsy or mental retardation were excluded. Adaptive motor tasks (pegboard and dynamic balance) and visuomotor cognitive functions were specifically impaired, and a distinct correlation pattern between motor and cognitive abilities was detected. The adaptive fine motor task (pegboard) correlated with visuomotor functions of the Kaufman-ABC ("triangles", r = 0.35; "matrix analogies", r = 0.39), while pure motor tasks of the ZNA (repetitive, alternating, and sequential movements) did not in spite of impaired motor performance. Timed motor performance below the 10th percentile correlated strongly with cognitive delay (IQ < 85: adaptive fine motor: OR 6.0 [95% CI] 4.7-7.3; adaptive gross motor: OR 7.0 [CI 5.6-8.4]; static balance: OR 9.6 [CI 8.2-11.0]). In conclusion, motor deficits in children born < 1250 g without severe disabilities correlate with specific cognitive impairments, in particular of the visuomotor domain. The correlation pattern may indicate specific dysfunction in visuomotor transformation, the intermediate process between visual-perceptual input and motor output. Early assessment of both motor and cognitive functions using standardized assessment tools is important to determine the extent and combination of specific developmental disturbances and to tailor therapeutic intervention. PMID:16541362

Seitz, J; Jenni, O G; Molinari, L; Caflisch, J; Largo, R H; Latal Hajnal, B

2006-02-01

189

Long-Term Enhancement of Brain Function and Cognition Using Cognitive Training and Brain Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Summary Noninvasive brain stimulation has shown considerable promise for enhancing cognitive functions by the long-term manipulation of neuroplasticity [1–3]. However, the observation of such improvements has been focused at the behavioral level, and enhancements largely restricted to the performance of basic tasks. Here, we investigate whether transcranial random noise stimulation (TRNS) can improve learning and subsequent performance on complex arithmetic tasks. TRNS of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a key area in arithmetic [4, 5], was uniquely coupled with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure online hemodynamic responses within the prefrontal cortex. Five consecutive days of TRNS-accompanied cognitive training enhanced the speed of both calculation- and memory-recall-based arithmetic learning. These behavioral improvements were associated with defined hemodynamic responses consistent with more efficient neurovascular coupling within the left DLPFC. Testing 6 months after training revealed long-lasting behavioral and physiological modifications in the stimulated group relative to sham controls for trained and nontrained calculation material. These results demonstrate that, depending on the learning regime, TRNS can induce long-term enhancement of cognitive and brain functions. Such findings have significant implications for basic and translational neuroscience, highlighting TRNS as a viable approach to enhancing learning and high-level cognition by the long-term modulation of neuroplasticity.

Snowball, Albert; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Popescu, Tudor; Thompson, Jacqueline; Delazer, Margarete; Zamarian, Laura; Zhu, Tingting; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

2013-01-01

190

The effects of immunologic brainstem encephalopathy on cognitive function following awakening from a progressive autoimmune coma.  

PubMed

We describe a unique patient who experienced a progressive autoimmune coma from age 14 to 17. The patient awoke after treatment with immunosuppressant medication. Although alertness, verbalization, and mobilization markedly improved, the patient reported persistent cognitive difficulties. Neuropsychological assessment from age 21 showed impairments in selective attention, distractibility, and memory. Conversely, higher-order executive functions were preserved. Electrophysiological analysis also identified abnormal neural signatures of selective attention. Eighteen months after the neuropsychological assessment, voxel-based morphometry revealed reduced white matter in the medulla compared to controls. The findings are discussed in terms of the impact of brainstem encephalopathy on cognitive mechanisms. PMID:23998396

Salomone, Simona; Robertson, Ian H; Lynch, Tim; Balsters, Joshua H; Fearon, Conor; Marnane, Michael; Pender, Niall P; Dockree, Paul M

2014-10-01

191

The role of anterior midcingulate cortex in cognitive motor control: Evidence from functional connectivity analyses.  

PubMed

The rostral cingulate cortex has been associated with a multitude of cognitive control functions. Recent neuroimaging data suggest that the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) has a key role for cognitive aspects of movement generation, i.e., intentional motor control. We here tested the functional connectivity of this area using two complementary approaches: (1) resting-state connectivity of the aMCC based on fMRI scans obtained in 100 subjects, and (2) functional connectivity in the context of explicit task conditions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) over 656 imaging experiment. Both approaches revealed a convergent functional network architecture of the aMCC with prefrontal, premotor and parietal cortices as well as anterior insula, area 44/45, cerebellum and dorsal striatum. To specifically test the role of the aMCC's task-based functional connectivity in cognitive motor control, separate MACM analyses were conducted over "cognitive" and "action" related experimental paradigms. Both analyses confirmed the same task-based connectivity pattern of the aMCC. While the "cognition" domain showed higher convergence of activity in supramodal association areas in prefrontal cortex and anterior insula, "action" related experiments yielded higher convergence in somatosensory and premotor areas. Secondly, to probe the functional specificity of the aMCC's convergent functional connectivity, it was compared with a neural network of intentional movement initiation. This exemplary comparison confirmed the involvement of the state independent FC network of the aMCC in the intentional generation of movements. In summary, the different experiments of the present study suggest that the aMCC constitute a key region in the network realizing intentional motor control. Hum Brain Mapp 35:2741-2753, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24115159

Hoffstaedter, Felix; Grefkes, Christian; Caspers, Svenja; Roski, Christian; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Laird, Angie R; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B

2014-06-01

192

Cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive function in African Americans.  

PubMed

The present study examined the cross-sectional association of medically determined cardiovascular risk factors with cognitive function in 43 African Americans (aged 43-82 yr; 83% women). Measures of attention, memory, and executive functions were evaluated in relation to blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and fitness level (peak O(2)). Multiple regression analyses with age, education, number of antihypertensive medications, HbA1c, diastolic BP, and peak O(2) as predictors revealed significant (and marginally significant) associations between lower levels of fitness (peak O(2)) and poorer executive functions and delayed verbal memory. Antihypertensive medications were associated with poorer attention, but better delayed verbal memory. In addition, greater levels of HbA1c were positively related to attention. These results suggest that cardiovascular risk factors are important predictors of cognitive function among middle-aged and older African Americans. PMID:12084788

Izquierdo-Porrera, Anna Maria; Waldstein, Shari R

2002-07-01

193

The impact of constructivist teaching strategies on the acquisition of higher order cognition and learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative mixed design study was to compare the effectiveness of brain-based teaching strategies versus a traditional lecture format in the acquisition of higher order cognition as determined by test scores. A second purpose was to elicit student feedback about the two teaching approaches. The design was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design study with repeated measures on the last factor. The independent variables were type of student, teaching method, and a within group change over time. Dependent variables were a between group comparison of pre-test, post-test gain scores and a within and between group comparison of course examination scores. A convenience sample of students enrolled in medical-surgical nursing was used. One group (n=36) was made up of traditional students and the other group (n=36) consisted of second-degree students. Four learning units were included in this study. Pre- and post-tests were given on the first two units. Course examinations scores from all four units were compared. In one cohort two of the units were taught via lecture format and two using constructivist activities. These methods were reversed for the other cohort. The conceptual basis for this study derives from neuroscience and cognitive psychology. Learning is defined as the growth of new dendrites. Cognitive psychologists view learning as a constructive activity in which new knowledge is built on an internal foundation of existing knowledge. Constructivist teaching strategies are designed to stimulate the brain's natural learning ability. There was a statistically significant difference based on type of teaching strategy (t = -2.078, df = 270, p = .039, d = .25)) with higher mean scores on the examinations covering brain-based learning units. There was no statistical significance based on type of student. Qualitative data collection was conducted in an on-line forum at the end of the semester. Students had overall positive responses about the constructivist activities. Major themes were described. Constructivist strategies help bridge the gap between neurological and cognitive sciences and classroom teaching and learning. A variety of implications for nursing educators are outlined as well as directions for future research.

Merrill, Alison Saricks

194

Functional Impairment and Cognition in Bipolar Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bipolar disorder is a common, chronic and severe mental disorder, affecting approximately 2% of the adult population. Bipolar disorder causes substantial psychosocial morbidity that frequently affects the patient's marriage, children, occupation, and other aspects of the patient's life. Few studies have examined the functional impairment in patients with affective illness. Earlier outcome studies of mania reported favorable long-term outcomes. However,

Carlos A. Zarate; Mauricio Tohen; Michelle Land; Sarah Cavanagh

2000-01-01

195

Cognitive Processes Functional in Spatial Recall.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the precise nature of the processing, storage, and recall strategies functional in spatial recall. High school and college samples completed tasks in field-dependence-independence, figural creativity, and verbal abilities. Spatial recall ability was assessed through a map reconstruction task in which subjects were required to…

Shaha, Steven H.

196

The relationship between alcoholic cerebellar degeneration and cognitive and emotional functioning.  

PubMed

Although it is now widely acknowledged that the cerebellum contributes to the modulation of higher-order cognitive and emotional functions, this relationship has not been extensively explored in perhaps the largest group of individuals with cerebellar damage, chronic alcoholics. Localised damage to the cerebellum has been associated with a specific constellation of deficits and has been termed the 'cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome' (CCAS) [Schmahmann, J.D., Sherman, J.C., 1998. The cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. Brain 121, 561-579]. The CCAS describes a profile of impairments, including deficits in executive functioning and visuospatial skills, language disruption and altered personality and affective behaviour. It is conceivable that the CCAS may also develop in a subgroup of alcoholics with alcoholic cerebellar degeneration and may in part account for a proportion of the cognitive and affective deficits commonly observed with the condition. While evidence has emerged supporting such a relationship, methodological limitations and the lack of theoretically driven investigation of the contribution of cerebellar dysfunction to cognitive and emotional functioning in chronic alcoholics, preclude definitive conclusions being drawn. PMID:17919727

Fitzpatrick, L E; Jackson, M; Crowe, S F

2008-01-01

197

Cognitive and Functional Outcome After Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest  

PubMed Central

The nature of residual cognitive deficits after out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is incompletely described and has never been defined against a cardiac control (CC) group. The objective of this study is to examine neuropsychological outcomes 3 months after OHCA in patients in a “middle range” of acute severity. Thirty prospective OHCA admissions with coma >1 day and responsive but confused at 1 week, and 30 non-OHCA coronary care admissions were administered standard tests in five cognitive domains. OHCA subjects fell into two deficit profiles. One group (N = 20) had mild memory deficits and borderline psychomotor deficits compared to the CC group; 40% had returned to work. The other group (N = 10) had severe impairments in all domains. Coma duration was associated with group. Neither group had a high prevalence of depression. For most patients within the “middle range” of acute severity of OHCA, cognitive and functional outcomes at 3 months were encouraging.

Alexander, Michael P.; Lafleche, Ginette; Schnyer, David; Lim, Chun; Verfaellie, Mieke

2014-01-01

198

High-fat diets, insulin resistance and declining cognitive function.  

PubMed

Results from our work in rats and others findings from human epidemiologic studies demonstrate deficits in cognitive performance following chronic ingestion of high fat, high saturated fat, diets. Yet, the precise physiologic mechanism underlying these deficits is not well understood. We report that older adults with insulin resistance show remarkably similar deficits in cognitive function and respond to glucose ingestion in a comparable manner to rodents fed a high-fat diet, suggesting that insulin resistance is a probable mediator of these diet-induced deficits. As insulin resistance worsens to overt type 2 diabetes, profound deficits in cognitive functions, especially those dependent on the medial temporal lobes, are apparent in both obese Zucker rats and humans with type 2 diabetes. Unlike the older adult with insulin resistance, glucose ingestion further impairs medial temporal lobe function in adults with type 2 diabetes. Collectively, the human and rodent data point to a role of diet-induced endocrine abnormalities, including the development of insulin resistance, as mediating the cognitive deficits associated with high fat consumption. PMID:16257476

Greenwood, Carol E; Winocur, Gordon

2005-12-01

199

Gender differences in cognitive function of patients with chronic schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Schizophrenic patients have cognitive impairments, but gender differences in these cognitive deficits have had limited study. This study assessed cognitive functioning in 471 subjects including 122 male and 78 female schizophrenic patients and 141 male and 130 female healthy controls. We found that immediate memory, language, delayed memory and total RBANS scores were significantly decreased in schizophrenia compared with healthy controls for both genders. Male patients had significant lower immediate memory, delayed memory and total RBANS scores than female patients, and healthy controls showed a similar gender difference. The RBANS showed modest correlations with PANSS scores, duration of illness and antipsychotic dose (chlorpromazine equivalents). Almost all RBANS scores in the schizophrenics and healthy controls showed significant positive correlations with education. Thus, patients of both sexes with schizophrenia experienced more deteriorated performance than healthy controls on cognitive domains of immediate memory, language and delayed memory. Furthermore, male schizophrenic patients had more serious cognitive deficits than female patients in immediate and delayed memory, but not in language, visuospatial and attention indices. PMID:22820676

Han, Mei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Chen, Da Chun; Xiu, Mei Hong; Hui, Li; Liu, Haibo; Kosten, Thomas R; Zhang, Xiang Yang

2012-12-01

200

Evidence-based Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Pediatric Psychology  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the evidence base for measures of cognitive functioning frequently used within the field of pediatric psychology. Methods From a list of 47 measures identified by the Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Evidence-Based Assessment Task Force Workgroup, 27 measures were included in the review. Measures were organized, reviewed, and evaluated according to general domains of functioning (e.g., attention/executive functioning, memory). Results Twenty-two of 27 measures reviewed demonstrated psychometric properties that met “Well-established” criteria as set forth by the Assessment Task Force. Psychometric properties were strongest for measures of general cognitive ability and weakest for measures of visual-motor functioning and attention. Conclusions We report use of “Well-established” measures of overall cognitive functioning, nonverbal intelligence, academic achievement, language, and memory and learning. For several specific tests in the domains of visual-motor functioning and attention, additional psychometric data are needed for measures to meet criteria as “Well established.”

Brown, Ronald T.; Cavanagh, Sarah E.; Vess, Sarah F.; Segall, Mathew J.

2008-01-01

201

Subjective Cognitive Complaints and the Role of Executive Cognitive Functioning in the Working Population: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive functioning is important for managing work and life in general. However, subjective cognitive complaints (SCC), involving perceived difficulties with concentration, memory, decision making, and clear thinking are common in the general and working population and can be coupled with both lowered well-being and work ability. However, the relation between SCC and cognitive functioning across the adult age-span, and in the work force, is not clear as few population-based studies have been conducted on non-elderly adults. Thus, the present study aimed to test the relation between SCC and executive cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of employees. Methods Participants were 233 employees with either high (cases) or low (controls) levels of SCC. Group differences in neuropsychological test performance on three common executive cognitive tests were analysed through a set of analyses of covariance tests, including relevant covariates. Results & Conclusions In line with the a priori hypotheses, a high level of SCC was associated with significantly poorer executive cognitive performance on all three executive cognitive tests used, compared to controls with little SCC. Additionally, symptoms of depression, chronic stress and sleeping problems were found to play a role in the relations between SCC and executive cognitive functioning. No significant associations remained after adjusting for all these factors. The current findings contribute to an increased understanding of what characterizes SCC in the work force and may be used at different levels of prevention of- and intervention for SCC and related problems with executive cognitive functioning.

Stenfors, Cecilia U. D.; Marklund, Petter; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Theorell, Tores; Nilsson, Lars-Goran

2013-01-01

202

Effect of Leisure Activities on Inflammation and Cognitive Function in an Aging Sample  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDRFs) increase the risk of dementia. The purpose of this study was to examine whether leisure activities (mental, physical, and social activities) modified the effect of CVDRFs on inflammatory markers and cognitive function in middle and old age. A secondary-data analysis study was conducted using data from 405 middle-age participants (40 –59 years) and 342 old-age participants (60 – 84 years) who participated in the Survey of Midlife Development in the United States. CVDRFs were obtained from a combination of self-report medical history and blood-based biomarkers. Three CVDRF groups (?1, 2, and ?3 CVDRFs) were identified. More CVDRFs were significantly associated with higher levels of inflammatory markers in both age groups, and associated with lower levels of executive function in the old age group. CVDRFs were not related to the frequency of leisure activities in either age group. After controlling for covariates, higher levels of physical activities were significantly associated with lower levels of inflammatory markers, and higher levels of mental activities were associated with higher levels of cognitive function. In the old age group, physical activities also moderated the effect of CVDRFs on episodic memory, and mental activities moderated the effect of CVDRFs on interleukin-6. Multiple CVDRFs may be associated with poorer cognitive function and higher inflammatory markers, but middle-age and older adults with CVDRFs may not engage in frequent physical and cognitive activities that may be protective. It is important to develop strategies to facilitate engagement in these activities from midlife.

Friedman, Elliot; Quinn, Jill; Chen, Ding-Geng (Din); Mapstone, Mark

2012-01-01

203

Kidney function and cognitive health in older adults: the cardiovascular health study.  

PubMed

Recent evidence has demonstrated the importance of kidney function in healthy aging. We examined the association between kidney function and change in cognitive function in 3,907 participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study who were recruited from 4 US communities and studied from 1992 to 1999. Kidney function was measured by cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcys). Cognitive function was assessed using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test, which were administered up to 7 times during annual visits. There was an association between eGFRcys and change in cognitive function after adjustment for confounders; persons with an eGFRcys of less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) had a 0.64 (95% confidence interval: 0.51, 0.77) points/year faster decline in Modified Mini-Mental State Examination score and a 0.42 (95% confidence interval: 0.28, 0.56) points/year faster decline in Digit Symbol Substitution Test score compared with persons with an eGFRcys of 90 or more mL/minute/1.73 m(2). Additional adjustment for intermediate cardiovascular events modestly affected these associations. Participants with an eGFRcys of less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) had fewer cognitive impairment-free life-years on average compared with those with eGFRcys of 90 or more mL/minute/1.73 m(2), independent of confounders and mediating cardiovascular events (mean difference = -0.44, 95% confidence interval: -0.62, -0.26). Older adults with lower kidney function are at higher risk of worsening cognitive function. PMID:24844846

Darsie, Brendan; Shlipak, Michael G; Sarnak, Mark J; Katz, Ronit; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Odden, Michelle C

2014-07-01

204

Physical Work and Cognitive Function During Acute Heat Exposure before and after Heat Acclimation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eight physically active males, without a history of heat acclimation were studied during heat exposure for 22 consecutive days. Physiological adaptation and cognitive function were evaluated during heat stress tests. Four cognitive function tests were adm...

M. J. Patterson N. A. Taylor D. Amos

1998-01-01

205

Social and Cognitive Functioning as Risk Factors for Suicide: A Historical-Prospective Cohort Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objectives- Previous studies have shown that poor cognitive and social functioning are associated with increased risk of suicide. This study aimed to examine the association between social and cognitive functioning in adolescence and later completed suici...

E. Fruchter G. Lubin N. Rotem N. Werbeloff R. Neidorf

2011-01-01

206

Association between Cytomegalovirus Antibody Levels and Cognitive Functioning in Non-Elderly Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated levels of antibodies to Cytomegalovirus (CMV) have been associated with cognitive impairment, but the quantitative relationship between CMV antibody levels and domains of cognitive functioning in younger adults has not been established. Methods We measured IgG class antibodies to Cytomegalovirus in 521 individuals, mean age 32.8 years. Participants were selected for the absence of psychiatric disorder and of a serious medical condition that could affect brain functioning. Cognitive functioning was measured with the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test part A, and the WAIS III Letter Number Sequencing subtest. Linear regression analyses were used to measure the quantitative association between cognitive scores and Cytomegalovirus IgG antibody level. Logistic regression analyses were used to measure the odds of low cognitive scores and elevated antibody levels defined as an antibody level >?=?50th, 75th, and 90th percentile of the group. Results Higher levels of CMV antibodies were associated with lower performance on RBANS Total (coefficient ?1.03, p<.0002), Delayed Memory (coefficient ?0.94, p<.001), Visuospatial/Constructional (coefficient ?1.77, p<5×10?7), and Letter Number Sequencing (coefficient ?0.15, p<.03). There was an incremental relationship between the level of CMV antibody elevation and the odds of a low RBANS Total score. The odds of a low total cognitive score were 1.63 (95th % CI 1.01, 2.64; p<.045), 2.22 (95th % CI 1.33, 3.70; p<.002), and 2.46 (95th % CI 1.24, 4.86; p<.010) with a CMV antibody level greater than or equal to the 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile respectively. Conclusions Higher levels of Cytomegalovirus antibodies are associated with lower levels of cognitive functioning in non-elderly adults. Methods for the prevention and treatment of CMV infection should be evaluated to determine if they result in an improvement in cognitive functioning in otherwise healthy adults.

Dickerson, Faith; Stallings, Cassie; Origoni, Andrea; Katsafanas, Emily; Schweinfurth, Lucy A. B.; Savage, Christina L. G.; Yolken, Robert

2014-01-01

207

Higher visual dependency increases balance control perturbation during cognitive task fulfilment in elderly people.  

PubMed

Ageing results in a decrease in balance control and correlatively raises the risk of falling. Furthermore, dual task situations can increase this age-related imbalance. Within this context, this study aimed to determine the differentiated effects of carrying out cognitive tasks on balance control in 40 healthy older adults. The visuo-verbal Stroop task did not affect postural regulation precision whereas a mental counting task provoked higher instability. Moreover, the results showed a correlation between the degree of visual dependency and postural perturbation. Executing a mental counting task can cause reorientation of visual attention from external landmarks to internal visual images of the calculation. As elderly subjects are more dependent on visual information to ensure balance control, this loss of external visual anchorage when executing a mental task therefore explains the balance perturbation observed. PMID:15050712

Jamet, Mallaury; Deviterne, Dominique; Gauchard, Gérome C; Vançon, Guy; Perrin, Philippe P

2004-04-01

208

Research and Teaching: Promoting the Use of Higher-Order Cognitive Skills in Qualitative Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A study was conducted to promote higher order cognitive skills (HOCS) in a chemistry class using the GOAL (Gather, Organize, Analyze, and Learn) method. Students were assigned four qualitative problems specifically designed to be solved with the method over the course of the semester outside of normal homework and testing. The problems served as a platform to encourage students to use HOCS in their Learn responses. The study focused on students' use of HOCS in these Learn responses regardless of whether HOCS were used in the actual solving of the problems or not. The results of this study suggest that consistent use of the Learn response in problem solving promotes reflection with an accompanied increase in use of HOCS by students during a semester.

Justice, Jason; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria

2008-05-01

209

Effects of age, gender, and cognitive, functional and motor status on functional outcomes of stroke rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Our objective was to evaluate the relation between age, gender, initial functional, cognitive and motor condition, spasticity, diabetes mellitus, and functional outcome after rehabilitation of stroke patients. Eighty-eight patients who had suffered stroke were administered in this study. Participants were stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation in Istanbul Physical Treatment and Rehabilitation Training and Research Hospital. Functional condition (Functional Independence Measurement (FIM)), spasticity (Ashworth Scale), cognitive condition (Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE)), post-treatment FIM were measured. A significant positive association between MMSE at admission and the functional discharge measures was observed. A significant positive association Brunnstrom (upper lower extremity assessment) scores and the functional discharge measures was observed. A significant positive association between spasticity at admission and the functional discharge measures was observed. In conclusions, the admission functional, motor, cognition condition, age, spasticity were a significant predictors of total and motor FIM score at discharge, but not gender and diabetes mellitus. PMID:20037216

One?, Kadrye; Yalçinkaya, Ebru Yilmaz; Toklu, Banu Cetnkaya; Ca?lar, Nil

2009-01-01

210

Relationships among cognitive function, fine motor speed and age in the rhesus monkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declines in fine motor skills and cognitive function are well known features of human aging. Yet, the relationship between\\u000a age-related impairments in motor and cognitive function remains unclear. Rhesus monkeys, like humans, show marked decline\\u000a in cognitive and fine motor function with age and are excellent models to investigate potential interactions between age-related\\u000a declines in cognitive and motor functioning. We

Agnès Lacreuse; Paola M. Espinosa; James G. Herndon

2006-01-01

211

Chronic Kidney Disease and Cognitive Function in Older Adults: Findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Cognitive Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate cognitive impairment in older, ethnically diverse individuals with a broad range of kidney function, to evaluate a spectrum of cognitive domains and to determine whether the relationship between CKD and cognitive function is independent of demographic and clinical factors. Design Cross sectional. Setting Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Participants 825 adults ?55 years with CKD. Measurements We estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m2) using the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. We compared cognitive scores on six cognitive tests across eGFR strata using linear regression; multivariable logistic regression was used to examine level of CKD and clinically significant cognitive impairment (score ?1 sd from mean). Results Mean age of the participants was 64.9 years, 50% were male and 45% were Black. After multi-variable adjustment, participants with lower eGFR had lower cognitive scores on most cognitive domains (P<0.05). In addition, compared with persons who had mild or moderate CKD (eGFR 45-59), participants with advanced CKD (eGFR <30) were more likely to have clinically significant cognitive impairment on global cognition (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.9), naming (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.3), attention (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.3-4.5), executive function (OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.9- 4.4) and delayed memory, (OR=1.5, 95%CI 0.9-2.6) but not on category fluency (OR=1.1, 95% CI 0.6-2.0). Conclusions Among older adults with CKD, lower level of kidney function was associated with lower cognitive function on most domains. Our results suggest that older patients with advanced CKD should be screened for cognitive impairment.

Yaffe, Kristine; Ackerson, Lynn; Tamura, Manjula Kurella; Le Blanc, Patti; Kusek, John W.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.; Cohen, Debbie; Anderson, Cheryl; Appel, Lawrence; DeSalvo, Karen; Ojo, Akinlolu; Seliger, Stephen; Robinson, Nancy; Makos, Gail; Go, Alan S.

2009-01-01

212

A Reevaluation of the Common Factor Theory of Shared Variance Among Age, Sensory Function, and Cognitive Function in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common cause hypothesis of the relationship among age, sensory measures, and cognitive measures in very old adults was reevaluated. Both sensory function and processing speed were evaluated as mediators of the rela- tionship between age and cognitive function. Cognitive function was a latent variable that comprised 3 factors in- cluding memory, speed, and verbal ability. The sample was population

Kaarin J. Anstey; Mary A. Luszcz; Linnett Sanchez

2001-01-01

213

Carotenoid-rich dietary patterns during midlife and subsequent cognitive function.  

PubMed

Carotenoids may help to prevent the ageing of the brain. Previous findings regarding ?-carotene alone are not consistent. In the present study, we evaluated the cross-time association between a carotenoid-rich dietary pattern (CDP) and subsequent cognitive performance using a sample of 2983 middle-aged adults participating in the SU.VI.MAX (Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants) study. Cognitive performance was assessed in 2007-9 using six neuropsychological tests, and a composite cognitive score was computed. The cognitive data were related to dietary data obtained by repeated 24 h dietary records (1994-6) and to measurements of baseline plasma concentrations of carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, ?-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, ?-carotene, trans-?-carotene and cis-?-carotene). DP were extracted using the reduced rank regression method for 381 participants and then extrapolated to the whole sample using plasma carotenoid concentrations as response variables. Associations between a CDP and cognitive function measured 13 years later were estimated with ANCOVA providing mean difference values and 95 % CI across the tertiles of CDP. A correlation between CDP and consumption of orange- and green-coloured fruits and vegetables, vegetable oils and soup was observed. CDP was found to be associated with a higher composite cognitive score (mean difference 1·04, 95 % CI 0·20, 1·87, P for trend 0·02), after adjustment for sociodemographic, lifestyle and health factors. Similar findings were obtained for scores obtained in the cued recall task, backward digit span task, trail making test and semantic fluency task (all P for trend < 0·05). Further studies ought to confirm whether a diet providing sufficient quantity and variety of coloured fruits and vegetables may contribute to the preservation of cognitive function during ageing. PMID:24073964

Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Andreeva, Valentina A; Ducros, Véronique; Jeandel, Claude; Julia, Chantal; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar

2014-03-14

214

Longitudinal study of cognitive and psychiatric functions in spinocerebellar ataxia types 1 and 2.  

PubMed

The role of the cerebellum in cognition, both in healthy subjects and in patients with cerebellar diseases, is debated. Neuropsychological studies in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) and type 2 (SCA2) demonstrated impairments in executive functions, verbal memory, and visuospatial performances, but prospective evaluations are not available. Our aims were to assess progression of cognitive and psychiatric functions in patients with SCA1 and SCA2 in a longitudinal study. We evaluated at baseline 20 patients with SCA1, 22 patients with SCA2 and 17 matched controls. Two subgroups of patients (9 SCA1, 11 SCA2) were re-evaluated after 2 years. We tested cognitive functions (Mini Mental State Examination, digit span, Corsi span, verbal memory, attentional matrices, modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Raven Progressive Matrices, Benton test, phonemic and semantic fluency), psychiatric status (Scales for Assessment of Negative and Positive Symptoms, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales), neurological conditions (Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia), and functional abilities (Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale–part IV). At baseline, SCA1 and SCA2 patients had significant deficits compared to controls, mainly in executive functions (phonemic and semantic fluencies, attentional matrices); SCA2 showed further impairment in visuospatial and visuoperceptive tests (Raven matrices, Benton test, Corsi span). Both SCA groups had higher depression and negative symptoms, particularly apathy, compared to controls. After 2 years, motor and functional disability worsened, while only attentive performances deteriorated in SCA2. This longitudinal study showed dissociation in progression of motor disability and cognitive impairment, suggesting that in SCA1 and SCA2 motor and cognitive functions might be involved with different progression rates. PMID:24122064

Fancellu, Roberto; Paridi, Dominga; Tomasello, Chiara; Panzeri, Marta; Castaldo, Anna; Genitrini, Silvia; Soliveri, Paola; Girotti, Floriano

2013-12-01

215

A Cognitive Engineering Analysis of the Vertical Navigation (VNAV) Function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cognitive engineering analysis of the Flight Management System (FMS) Vertical Navigation (VNAV) function has identified overloading of the VNAV button and overloading of the Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA) used by the VNAV function. These two types of overloading, resulting in modal input devices and ambiguous feedback, are well known sources of operator confusion, and explain, in part, the operational issues experienced by airline pilots using VNAV in descent and approach. A proposal to modify the existing VNAV design to eliminate the overloading is discussed. The proposed design improves pilot's situational awareness of the VNAV function, and potentially reduces the cost of software development and improves safety.

Sherry, Lance; Feary, Michael; Polson, Peter; Mumaw, Randall; Palmer, Everett

2001-01-01

216

Factors Associated with Changing Cognitive Function in Older Adults: Implications for Nursing Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the significant effects of aging on cognitive function. As people age, brain tissue volume decreases, white matter hyperintensities increase, and associated deficits are seen in working memory, attention, and executive function. Comorbidities include hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors. Another factor that affects cognitive function is the presence of apolipoprotein E-4, which is negatively correlated with cognitive

Jamie S. Myers

217

The cognitive neuroscience toolkit for the neuroeconomist: A functional overview  

PubMed Central

This article provides the beginning neuroeconomist with an introductory overview to the different methods used in human neuroscience. It describes basic strengths and weaknesses of each technique, points to examples of how each technique has been used in neuroeconomic studies, and provides key tutorial references that contain more detailed information. In addition to this overview, the article presents a framework that organizes human neuroscience methods functionally, according to whether they provide tests of the association between brain activity and cognition or behavior, or whether they test the necessity or the sufficiency of brain activity for cognition and behavior. This framework demonstrates the utility of a multi-method research approach, since converging evidence from tests of association, necessity and sufficiency provides the strongest inference regarding brain-behavior relationships. Set against this goal of converging evidence, human neuroscience studies in neuroeconomics currently rely far too heavily on methods that test association, most notably functional MRI.

Kable, Joseph W.

2011-01-01

218

Breakfast glycaemic index and cognitive function in adolescent school children.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that a low-glycaemic index (GI) breakfast may be beneficial for some elements of cognitive function (e.g. memory and attention), but the effects are not clear, especially in adolescents. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a low-GI breakfast, a high-GI breakfast and breakfast omission on cognitive function in adolescents. A total of fifty-two adolescents aged 12-14 years were recruited to participate in the study. Participants consumed a low-GI breakfast, a high-GI breakfast or omitted breakfast. A battery of cognitive function tests was completed 30 and 120 min following breakfast consumption and capillary blood samples were taken during the 120 min postprandial period. The findings show that there was a greater improvement in response times following a low-GI breakfast, compared with breakfast omission on the Stroop (P = 0·009) and Flanker (P = 0·041) tasks, and compared with a high-GI breakfast on the Sternberg paradigm (P = 0·013). Furthermore, accuracy on all three tests was better maintained on the low-GI trial compared with the high-GI (Stroop: P = 0·039; Sternberg: P = 0·018; Flanker: P = 0·014) and breakfast omission (Stroop: P < 0·001; Sternberg: P = 0·050; Flanker: P = 0·014) trials. Following the low-GI breakfast, participants displayed a lower glycaemic response (P < 0·001) than following the high-GI breakfast, but there was no difference in the insulinaemic response (P = 0·063) between the high- and low-GI breakfasts. Therefore, we conclude that a low-GI breakfast is most beneficial for adolescents' cognitive function, compared with a high-GI breakfast or breakfast omission. PMID:22017815

Cooper, Simon B; Bandelow, Stephan; Nute, Maria L; Morris, John G; Nevill, Mary E

2012-06-01

219

Correlates of Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study administered cognitive function tests to more than 14,000 middle-aged adults in 1990–1992. The battery included the Delayed Word Recall test, the Digit Symbol Subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, and the Controlled Oral Word Association (Word Fluency) test. Test performance was correlated positively with education level, negatively with age, was better in women

James R. Cerhan; Aaron R. Folsom; James A. Mortimer; Eyal Shahar; David S. Knopman; Paul G. McGovern; Melissa A. Hays; Larry D. Crum; Gerardo Heiss

1998-01-01

220

Hemispheric lateralization of cognitive functions in children with centrotemporal spikes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the impact of unilateral epileptic foci in benign idiopathic partial epilepsy of childhood with rolandic discharges (BECT) on performance and hemispheric specialization in lateralized cognitive functions. Six children with BECT with a left-sided focus (BECT-L), 6 children with BECT with a right-sided focus (BECT-R), and 12 control children were tested in verbal, visual–spatial, and visual-attention tasks, with visual

N. Bedoin; V. Herbillon; I. Lamoury; P. Arthaud-Garde; K. Ostrowsky; J. De Bellescize; P. Kéo Kosal; G. Damon; Ch. Rousselle

2006-01-01

221

with the cognitive function of attention in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale Patients suffering from Alzheimer' sd isease (AD) experience a marked reduction in cortical nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In particular, selective loss of the ?4?2 nAChR subtype was observed in postmortem AD brain tissue. The ?4 and ?7 nAChR subunits were suggested to play an important role in cognitive function. Positron emission tomography (PET) has so far been used to

Ahmadul Kadir; Ove Almkvist; Anders Wall; Bengt Långström; Agneta Nordberg

222

Higher height, higher ability: judgment confidence as a function of spatial height perception.  

PubMed

Based on grounded cognition theories, the current study showed that judgments about ability were regulated by the subjects' perceptions of their spatial height. In Experiment 1, we found that after seeing the ground from a higher rather than lower floor, people had higher expectations about their performance on a knowledge test and assigned themselves higher rank positions in a peer comparison evaluation. In Experiment 2, we examined the boundary conditions of the spatial height effects and showed that it could still occur even if we employed photos rather than actual building floors to manipulate the perceptions of spatial heights. In addition, Experiment 2 excluded processing style as an explanation for these observations. In Experiment 3, we investigated a potential mechanism for the spatial height effect by manipulating the scale direction in the questionnaire. Consequently, consistent with our representational dependence account, the effect of spatial heights on ability judgments was eliminated when the mental representation of ability was disturbed by a reverse physical representation. These results suggest that people's judgments about their ability are correlated with their spatial perception. PMID:21818299

Sun, Yan; Wang, Fei; Li, Shu

2011-01-01

223

The effect of l -deprenyl on behavior, cognitive function, and biogenic amines in the dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral and pharmacological effects of oral administration ofl-deprenyl in the dog are described. Spontaneous behavior is unaffected at doses below 3 mg\\/kg while at higher doses there was stereotypical responding. There was evidence of improved cognitive function in animals chronically treated with a 1 mg\\/kg dose but the effectiveness varied considerably between subjects. Chronic administration produced a dose dependent inhibition

N. W. Milgram; G. O. Ivy; E. Head; M. P. Murphy; P. H. Wu; W. W. Ruehl; P. H. Yu; D. A. Durden; B. A. Davis; I. A. Paterson; A. A. Boulton

1993-01-01

224

PET STUDIES OF THE DOPAMINE SYSTEM IN RELATION TO COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The human,brain is intricately designed to execute cognitive functions such as perception, attention, memory and learning. Deficits in cognitive functions accompany major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease. The biological underpinnings,of cognitive functions, is however poorly understood. One of the neurotransmitters proposed to play a central role in cognition is dopamine (DA). Positron

Nina Erixon-Lindroth

2007-01-01

225

Effects of Galvanic vestibular stimulation on cognitive function.  

PubMed

Although imaging studies suggest activation of cortical areas by vestibular input, there is little evidence of an adverse effect of non-veridical vestibular input on cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that degraded vestibular afferent input adversely affects cognition, we compared performance on a cognitive test battery in a group undergoing suprathreshold bilateral bipolar Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) with a control group receiving no GVS or subthreshold stimulation. The battery consisted of six cognitive tests as follows: reaction time, dual tasking, Stroop, mental rotation, perspective-taking and matching-to-sample, as well as a simple visuomotor (manual tracking) task. Subjects performed the test battery before, during and after suprathreshold GVS exposure or subthreshold stimulation. Suprathreshold GVS significantly increased error rate for the match-to-sample and perspective-taking tasks relative to the subthreshold group, demonstrating a negative effect of non-veridical vestibular input in these specific cognitive tasks. Reaction time, dual tasking, mental rotation and manual tracking were unaffected by GVS exposure. The adverse effect of suprathreshold GVS on perspective taking but not mental rotation is consistent with imaging studies, which have demonstrated that egocentric mental transformations (perspective taking) occur primarily in cortical areas that receive vestibular input (the parietal-temporal junction and superior parietal lobule), whereas object-based transformations (mental rotation) occur in the frontoparietal region. The increased error rate during the match-to-sample task is likely due to interference with hippocampal processing related to spatial memory, as suggested by imaging studies on vestibular patients. PMID:22076407

Dilda, Valentina; MacDougall, Hamish G; Curthoys, Ian S; Moore, Steven T

2012-01-01

226

Cognitive Function in Childhood and Lifetime Cognitive Change in Relation to Mental Wellbeing in Four Cohorts of Older People  

PubMed Central

Background Poorer cognitive ability in youth is a risk factor for later mental health problems but it is largely unknown whether cognitive ability, in youth or in later life, is predictive of mental wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cognitive ability at age 11 years, cognitive ability in later life, or lifetime cognitive change are associated with mental wellbeing in older people. Methods We used data on 8191 men and women aged 50 to 87 years from four cohorts in the HALCyon collaborative research programme into healthy ageing: the Aberdeen Birth Cohort 1936, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921, the National Child Development Survey, and the MRC National Survey for Health and Development. We used linear regression to examine associations between cognitive ability at age 11, cognitive ability in later life, and lifetime change in cognitive ability and mean score on the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale and meta-analysis to obtain an overall estimate of the effect of each. Results People whose cognitive ability at age 11 was a standard deviation above the mean scored 0.53 points higher on the mental wellbeing scale (95% confidence interval 0.36, 0.71). The equivalent value for cognitive ability in later life was 0.89 points (0.72, 1.07). A standard deviation improvement in cognitive ability in later life relative to childhood ability was associated with 0.66 points (0.39, 0.93) advantage in wellbeing score. These effect sizes equate to around 0.1 of a standard deviation in mental wellbeing score. Adjustment for potential confounding and mediating variables, primarily the personality trait neuroticism, substantially attenuated these associations. Conclusion Associations between cognitive ability in childhood or lifetime cognitive change and mental wellbeing in older people are slight and may be confounded by personality trait differences.

Gale, Catharine R.; Cooper, Rachel; Craig, Leone; Elliott, Jane; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus; Starr, John M.; Whalley, Lawrence J.; Deary, Ian J.

2012-01-01

227

Cognitive function and gait speed under normal and dual-task walking among older adults with mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Gait ability and cognitive function are interrelated during both normal walking (NW) and dual-task walking (DTW), and gait ability is thus adversely affected by cognitive impairment in both situations. However, this association is insufficiently understood in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here, we conducted a study with MCI participants, to examine whether the association depends on walking conditions and MCI subtypes. Methods We classified 389 elderly adults into amnestic MCI (n?=?191) and non-amnestic MCI (n?=?198), assessed their cognitive functions, and administered gait experiments under NW and DTW conditions. Gait ability was defined as gait speed. Five aspects of cognitive function were assessed: processing speed, executive function, working memory, verbal memory, and visual memory. Results Regression analysis adjusted for covariates showed a significant association between cognitive functions and gait speed. Processing speed and executive function correlated with gait speed during both NW and DTW (p?cognitive function depends on walking condition and MCI subtypes. Additional studies are necessary to determine the neural basis for the disruption in gait control in older adults with MCI.

2014-01-01

228

Cognitive Profile of Students Who Enter Higher Education with an Indication of Dyslexia  

PubMed Central

For languages other than English there is a lack of empirical evidence about the cognitive profile of students entering higher education with a diagnosis of dyslexia. To obtain such evidence, we compared a group of 100 Dutch-speaking students diagnosed with dyslexia with a control group of 100 students without learning disabilities. Our study showed selective deficits in reading and writing (effect sizes for accuracy between d?=?1 and d?=?2), arithmetic (d?1), and phonological processing (d>0.7). Except for spelling, these deficits were larger for speed related measures than for accuracy related measures. Students with dyslexia also performed slightly inferior on the KAIT tests of crystallized intelligence, due to the retrieval of verbal information from long-term memory. No significant differences were observed in the KAIT tests of fluid intelligence. The profile we obtained agrees with a recent meta-analysis of English findings suggesting that it generalizes to all alphabetic languages. Implications for special arrangements for students with dyslexia in higher education are outlined.

Brysbaert, Marc

2012-01-01

229

Evaluation of postprocedure cognitive function using 3 distinct standard sedation regimens for endoscopic procedures.  

PubMed

The primary purpose of this investigation was to evaluate postprocedure cognitive function associated with 3 distinct standard sedation regimens used for endoscopic procedures. A secondary aim was to identify complications requiring provider interventions. Subjects scheduled for colonoscopies were approached for enrollment the day of their procedure. A convenience sample of 96 subjects was randomly assigned. Cognitive function was recorded on the day of surgery using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and 24 and 48 hours postoperatively using the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status (TICS). The propofol plus fentanyl group had a mean TICS score of 34.53 at 24 hours compared with 34.96 at 48 hours (P = .017). The midazolam plus fentanyl group had a mean TICS score of 34.76 at 24 hours compared with 36.26 at 48 hours (P = .004). The propofol-alone group had a mean TICS score of 35.09 at 24 hours compared with 35.98 at 48 hours (P = .924). The results of this investigation indicate that the sedation regimen of propofol alone has the least impact on postprocedure cognitive function. Additionally, the number of jaw lift interventions was significantly higher in both groups who received fentanyl. PMID:24902456

Watkins, Tobie J; Bonds, Raymond L; Hodges, Kedrin; Goettle, Brooks B; Dobson, D Anne Marie; Maye, John P

2014-04-01

230

The Function Machine as a Cognitive Root for the Function Concept.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of function is considered as foundational in mathematics. Yet, it proves to be elusive and subtle for students. A generic image that can act as a cognitive root for the concept is the function box. This is not a simple pattern-spotting device, but a concept that embodies the salient features of the idea of function, including process…

Tall, David; McGowen, Mercedes; DeMarois, Phil

231

Higher education is an age-independent predictor of white matter integrity and cognitive control in late adolescence.  

PubMed

Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is ongoing. During late adolescence it is possible to disambiguate age- and education-related effects on the development of these processes. Here we assessed the degree to which higher educational attainment was related to performance on a cognitive control task, controlling for age. We then used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess the degree to which white matter microstructure might mediate this relationship. When covarying age, significant associations were found between educational attainment and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cingulum bundle (CB). Further, when covarying age, FA in these regions was associated with cognitive control. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the age-independent association between educational attainment and cognitive control was completely accounted for by FA in these regions. The uncinate fasciculus, a late-myelinated control region not implicated in cognitive control, did not mediate this effect. PMID:24033571

Noble, Kimberly G; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Grieve, Stuart M; Brickman, Adam M

2013-09-01

232

Computerized Testing of Neurocognitive Function in Euthymic Bipolar Patients Compared to Those with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Cognitively Healthy Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: While neuropsychological impairment in bipolar disorder is well documented, the effect size of this impairment is rarely compared directly to that in other clinically familiar cognitive disorders. This study compares neuropsychological functioning of euthymic bipolar patients to those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as well as healthy controls. Methods: Following evaluation during regular follow-up in a mood disorders clinic,

Y. Osher; A. Dobron; R. H. Belmaker; Y. Bersudsky; T. Dwolatzky

2011-01-01

233

Lateralization of Cognitive Functions in Aphasia after Right Brain Damage  

PubMed Central

Purpose The lateralization of cognitive functions in crossed aphasia in dextrals (CAD) has been explored and compared mainly with cases of aphasia with left hemisphere damage. However, comparing the neuropsychological aspects of CAD and aphasia after right brain damage in left-handers (ARL) could potentially provide more insights into the effect of a shift in the laterality of handedness or language on other cognitive organization. Thus, this case study compared two cases of CAD and one case of ARL. Materials and Methods The following neuropsychological measures were obtained from three aphasic patients with right brain damage (two cases of CAD and one case of ARL); language, oral and limb praxis, and nonverbal cognitive functions (visuospatial neglect and visuospatial construction). Results All three patients showed impaired visuoconstructional abilities, whereas each patient showed a different level of performances for oral and limb praxis, and visuospatial neglect. Conclusion Based on the analysis of these three aphasic patients' performances, we highlighted the lateralization of language, handedness, oral and limb praxis, visuospatial neglect and visuospatial constructive ability in aphasic patients with right brain damage.

Ha, Ji-Wan; Hwang, Yu Mi; Sim, Hyunsub

2012-01-01

234

Is Prospective Memory a Dissociable Cognitive Function in HIV infection?  

PubMed Central

An emerging literature indicates that HIV infection is associated with deficits in prospective memory (ProM), or the ability to execute a future intention. This literature offers evidence of neurobiological dissociability of ProM from other cognitive abilities and its incremental ecological validity as a predictor of poorer everyday functioning outcomes (e.g., medication non-adherence). The present study evaluated the hypothesis that ProM represents a unique cognitive construct in HIV disease. A confirmatory 4-factor structural equation model was tested on data derived from 162 participants with HIV. The model posited that measures of ProM comprise a unique factor, apart from standard clinical tests of retrospective memory, executive functions, and motor skills. The fit of the model was evaluated using the Bollen-Stine bootstrap method and indicated a 4-factor model with measures of ProM loading on a unique factor fit the data well, and better than a model with a single common factor hypothesized to drive cognitive performance. The results of this study lend further evidence to the dissociability of ProM in HIV infection, are consistent with prior studies in healthy adults, and contribute to a growing literature on the construct validity of ProM in HIV disease.

Gupta, Saurabh; Woods, Steven Paul; Weber, Erica; Dawson, Matthew S.; Grant, Igor

2010-01-01

235

Oral zinc supplementation may improve cognitive function in schoolchildren.  

PubMed

Zinc is an important micronutrient for humans, and zinc deficiency among schoolchildren is deleterious to growth and development, immune competence, and cognitive function. However, the effect of zinc supplementation on cognitive function remains poorly understood. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral zinc supplementation (5 mg Zn/day for 3 months) on the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal Intelligence Quotient (VIQ), and Performance Intelligence Quotient (PIQ) using a Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III). We studied 36 schoolchildren aged 6 to 9 years (7.8 ± 1.1) using a nonprobability sampling method. The baseline serum zinc concentrations increased significantly after zinc supplementation (p < 0.0001), with no difference between sexes. Tests were administered under basal conditions before and after zinc supplementation, and there was no difference in FSIQ according to gender or age. The results demonstrated that zinc improved the VIQ only in the Information Subtest (p = 0.009), although the supplementation effects were more significant in relation to the PIQ, as these scores improved for the Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement, Block Design, and Object Assembly Subtests (p = 0.0001, for all subtests). In conclusion, zinc supplementation improved specific cognitive abilities, thereby positively influencing the academic performance of schoolchildren, even those without marginal zinc deficiency. PMID:23892699

de Moura, José Edson; de Moura, Edna Nubia Oliveira; Alves, Camila Xavier; Vale, Sancha Helena de Lima; Dantas, Márcia Marília Gomes; Silva, Alfredo de Araújo; Almeida, Maria das Graças; Leite, Lúcia Dantas; Brandão-Neto, José

2013-10-01

236

Long-Term Effect of Diabetes and Its Treatment on Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Long-standing concern about the effects of type 1 diabetes on cognitive ability has increased with the use of therapies designed to bring glucose levels close to the non-diabetic range and the attendant increased risk of severe hypoglycemia. METHODS A total of 1144 patients with type 1 diabetes enrolled in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and its follow-up Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study were examined on entry to the DCCT (at mean age 27 years) and a mean of 18 years later with the same comprehensive battery of cognitive tests. Glycated hemoglobin levels were measured and the frequency of severe hypoglycemic events leading to coma or seizures was recorded during the follow-up period. We assessed the effects of original DCCT treatment-group assignment, mean glycated hemoglobin values, and frequency of hypoglycemic events on measures of cognitive ability, with adjustment for age at baseline, sex, years of education, length of follow-up, visual acuity, self-reported sensory loss due to peripheral neuropathy, and (to control for the effects of practice) the number of cognitive tests taken in the interval since the start of the DCCT. RESULTS Forty percent of the cohort reported having had at least one hypoglycemic coma or seizure. Neither frequency of severe hypoglycemia nor previous treatment-group assignment was associated with decline in any cognitive domain. Higher glycated hemoglobin values were associated with moderate declines in motor speed (P=0.001) and psychomotor efficiency (P<0.001), but no other cognitive domain was affected. CONCLUSIONS No evidence of substantial long-term declines in cognitive function was found in a large group of patients with type 1 diabetes who were carefully followed for an average of 18 years, despite relatively high rates of recurrent severe hypoglycemia. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00360893.)

2009-01-01

237

Predicting disease progression in Alzheimer's disease: the role of neuropsychiatric syndromes on functional and cognitive decline.  

PubMed

Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have heterogeneous rates of disease progression. The aim of the current study is to investigate whether neuropsychiatric disturbances predict cognitive and functional disease progression in AD, according to failure theory. We longitudinally examined 177 memory-clinic AD outpatients (mean age = 73.1, SD = 8.1; 70.6% women). Neuropsychiatric disturbances at baseline were categorized into five syndromes. Patients were followed for up to two years to detect rapid disease progression defined as a loss of ? 1 abilities in Activities of Daily living (ADL) or a drop of ? 5 points on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated with Gompertz regression, adjusting for sociodemographics, baseline cognitive and functional status, and somatic comorbidities. Most patients (74.6%) exhibited one or more neuropsychiatric syndromes at baseline. The most common neuropsychiatric syndrome was Apathy (63.8%), followed by Affective (37.3%), Psychomotor (8.5%), Manic (7.9%), and Psychotic (5.6%) syndromes. The variance between the observed (Kaplen Meier) and predicted (Gompertz) decline for disease progression in cognition (0.30, CI = 0.26-0.35), was higher than the variance seen for functional decline (0.22, CI = 0.18-0.26). After multiple adjustment, patients with the Affective syndrome had an increased risk of functional decline (HR = 2.0; CI = 1.1-3.6), whereas the risk of cognitive decline was associated with the Manic (HR = 3.2, CI = 1.3-7.5) syndrome. In conclusion, specific neuropsychiatric syndromes are associated with functional and cognitive decline during the progression of AD, which may help with the long-term planning of care and treatment. These results highlight the importance of incorporating a thorough psychiatric examination in the evaluation of AD patients. PMID:21157019

Palmer, Katie; Lupo, Federica; Perri, Roberta; Salamone, Giovanna; Fadda, Lucia; Caltagirone, Carlo; Musicco, Massimo; Cravello, Luca

2011-01-01

238

From higher order thinking to higher order behavior: exploring the relationship between early cognitive skills and social competence in black boys.  

PubMed

This study examines the relations of higher order (i.e., abstract) thinking (HOT) skills to specific domains of social competence in Black boys (n = 108) attending publicly sponsored prekindergarten (pre-K) programs. Data for the study were collected as part of the National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL) Multi-State Study, a national, longitudinal study examining the quality and outcomes in a representative sample of publicly sponsored pre-K programs in six states (N = 240). Pre-K and kindergarten teachers rated randomly selected children on measures of abstract thinking, self-regulation, and social functioning at the beginning and end of each school year. Applying structural equation modeling, compared with earlier time points, HOT measured in the fall of kindergarten significantly predicted each of the domains of social competence in the spring of kindergarten, with the exception of peer social skills, while controlling for general cognitive ability. Results suggest that early intervention to improve HOT may be an effective and more focused approach to address concerns about Black boys' early social competencies in specific domains and potentially reduce the risk of later social difficulties. PMID:23889011

Scott, Kristin M; Barbarin, Oscar A; Brown, Jeffrey M

2013-01-01

239

Alcohol Consumption and Domain-Specific Cognitive Function in Older Adults: Longitudinal Data From the Johns Hopkins Precursors Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The association of alcohol consumption with performance in different cognitive domains has not been well studied. Methods. The Johns Hopkins Precursors Study was used to examine associations between prospectively collected information about alcohol consumption ascertained on multiple occasions starting at age 55 years on average with domain-specific cognition at age 72 years. Cognitive variables measured phonemic and semantic fluency, attention, verbal memory, and global cognition. Results. Controlling for age, hypertension, smoking status, sex, and other cognitive variables, higher average weekly quantity and frequency of alcohol consumed in midlife were associated with lower phonemic fluency. There were no associations with four other measures of cognitive function. With respect to frequency of alcohol intake, phonemic fluency was significantly better among those who drank three to four alcoholic beverages per week as compared with daily or almost daily drinkers. A measure of global cognition was not associated with alcohol intake at any point over the follow-up. Discussion. Results suggest that higher alcohol consumption in midlife may impair some components of executive function in late life.

Rebok, George W.; Ford, Daniel E.; Chu, Audrey Y.; Gallo, Joseph J.; Liang, Kung-Yee; Meoni, Lucy A.; Shihab, Hasan M.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Klag, Michael J.

2011-01-01

240

Relative sensitivity of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging to cognitive function among nondemented individuals infected with HIV.  

PubMed

In the present study, we examined the relationships among cognitive function, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) brain metabolite indices measured in the basal ganglia, and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the caudate nucleus and the putamen in the earliest stages of HIV-related cognitive involvement. Participants included 22 HIV-positive individuals and 20 HIV-negative individuals. HIV-positive individuals performed significantly more poorly than the HIV-negative individuals on several cognitive measures. In addition, the choline/creatine ratio was significantly higher and the N-acetyl aspartate/choline ratio was significantly lower among HIV patients. The caudate and putamen sizes were smaller among HIV-positive patients compared with controls; however, the differences did not reach statistical significance. Correlation analyses revealed associations between cognitive function and select MRS indices. In addition, caudate size was significantly correlated with performances on higher-order thinking tests whereas putamen size was significantly correlated with performances on motor tests. The results suggest that MRS differences are more pronounced than area size differences between seropositive and seronegative individuals in mild stages of HIV-related cognitive impairment. However, basal ganglia size remains an important contributor to cognitive status in this population. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the evolution of these imaging correlates of HIV-cognitive impairment in HIV. PMID:18764968

Paul, Robert H; Ernst, Thomas; Brickman, Adam M; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Tate, David F; Cohen, Ronald A; Navia, Bradford A

2008-09-01

241

Higher-order theory for functionally graded materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the full generalization of the Cartesian coordinate-based higher-order theory for functionally graded materials developed by the authors during the past several years. This theory circumvents the problematic use of the standard micromechanical approach, based on the concept of a representative volume element, commonly employed in the analysis of functionally graded composites by explicitly coupling the local (microstructural)

J. Aboudi; M.-J. Pindera; S. M. Arnold

1999-01-01

242

Dietary Phytoestrogen Intakes and Cognitive Function During the Menopause Transition: Results from the SWAN Phytoestrogen Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Phytoestrogens, which consist mainly of isoflavones, lignans and coumestans have estrogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Prior research suggests that higher dietary or supplemental intakes of isoflavones and lignans are related to better cognitive performance in middle aged and older women. Methods We conducted longitudinal analysis of dietary phytoestrogens and cognitive performance in a cohort of African-American, white, Chinese and Japanese women undergoing the menopause transition (MT). Tests were: Symbol Digit Modalities, East Boston Memory and Digits Span Backward. Phytoestrogens were assessed by Food Frequency Questionnaire. We modeled each cognitive score as a function of concurrent value of the primary predictors (highest tertile of isoflavones, lignans or coumestrol) and covariates including MT stage. Results Coumestrol and isoflavone intakes were 10 and 25 times greater, respectively, in Asian versus non-Asian participants. During late perimenopause and postmenopause, Asian women with high isoflavone intakes did better on processing speed, but during early perimenopause and postmenopause, high isoflavone Asian consumers performed worse on verbal memory. The highest isoflavone consumers among non-Asians likewise posted lower verbal memory scores during early perimenopause. A verbal memory benefit of higher dietary lignan consumption was apparent only during late perimenopause, when women from all ethnic/racial groups who were in the highest tertile of intake demonstrated a small advantage. Coumestrol was unrelated to cognitive performance. Conclusions Cognitive effects of dietary phytoestrogens are small, appear to be class-specific, vary by menopause stage and cognitive domain and differ among ethic/racial groups (but whether this is related to dose or to host factors cannot be discerned).

Greendale, Gail A.; Huang, Mei-Hua; Leung, Katherine; Crawford, Sybil L.; Gold, Ellen B.; Wight, Richard; Waetjen, Elaine; Karlamangla, Arun S.

2011-01-01

243

Cognitive function in breast cancer patients prior to adjuvant treatment  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the neuropsychological functioning of breast cancer patients with invasive cancer and noninvasive cancer prior to adjuvant treatment. Patients and Methods Breast cancer patients (N = 132) with invasive (Stages 1–3, N = 110, age = 54.1 ± 8.1) or noninvasive (Stage 0, N = 22, age = 55.8 ± 8.0) disease completed a battery of neuropsychological and psychological instruments following surgery but prior to initiation of chemotherapy, radiation or hormonal therapy. Matched healthy controls (N = 45, age = 52.9 ± 10.0) completed the same battery of instruments. For the patients, data on menstrual status, type of surgery, time of general anesthesia, CBC and platelets, nutritional status (B12 and folate), and thyroid function were collected. Results Comparison of mean neuropsychological test scores revealed that all groups scored within the normal range; however, patients with Stage 1–3 cancer scored significantly lower than healthy controls on the Reaction Time domain (p = 0.005). Using a definition of lower than expected cognitive performance that corrected for misclassification error, Stage 1–3 patients were significantly (p = 0.002) more likely to be classified as having lower than expected overall cognitive performance (22%) as compared to Stage 0 patients (0%) and healthy controls (4%). No differences were observed between patients classified as having lower than expected cognitive performance compared to those classified as normal performance on measures of depression, anxiety, fatigue, menstrual status, surgery/anesthesia or any of the blood work parameters. Conclusion Patients with Stage 1–3 breast cancer were more likely to be classified as having lower than expected cognitive performance prior to adjuvant treatment as compared to Stage 0 patients and healthy controls, although correction for misclassification error produced a lower rate than previously reported.

Saykin, Andrew J.; McDonald, Brenna C.; Furstenberg, Charlotte T.; Cole, Bernard F.; Hanscom, Brett S.; Mulrooney, Tamsin J.; Schwartz, Gary N.; Kaufman, Peter A.

2011-01-01

244

Cognitive Functioning in Space Exploration Missions: A Human Requirement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solving cognitive issues in the exploration missions will require implementing results from both Human Behavior and Performance, and Space Human Factors Engineering. Operational and research cognitive requirements need to reflect a coordinated management approach with appropriate oversight and guidance from NASA headquarters. First, this paper will discuss one proposed management method that would combine the resources of Space Medicine and Space Human Factors Engineering at JSC, other NASA agencies, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Wyle Labs, and other academic or industrial partners. The proposed management is based on a Human Centered Design that advocates full acceptance of the human as a system equal to other systems. Like other systems, the human is a system with many subsystems, each of which has strengths and limitations. Second, this paper will suggest ways to inform exploration policy about what is needed for optimal cognitive functioning of the astronaut crew, as well as requirements to ensure necessary assessment and intervention strategies for the human system if human limitations are reached. Assessment strategies will include clinical evaluation and fitness-to-perform evaluations. Clinical intervention tools and procedures will be available to the astronaut and space flight physician. Cognitive performance will be supported through systematic function allocation, task design, training, and scheduling. Human factors requirements and guidelines will lead to well-designed information displays and retrieval systems that reduce crew time and errors. Means of capturing process, design, and operational requirements to ensure crew performance will be discussed. Third, this paper will describe the current plan of action, and future challenges to be resolved before a lunar or Mars expedition. The presentation will include a proposed management plan for research, involvement of various organizations, and a timetable of deliverables.

Fiedler, Edan; Woolford, Barbara

2005-01-01

245

APOE Genotype and Cognitive Functioning in a Large Age-Stratified Population Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that the cognitive effects of Alzheimer's disease can be seen decades before disease diagnosis. If this is the case, then the apolipoprotein E (APOE)*E4 allele might be expected to have effects on cognitive functioning earlier in the life span. To assess such effects, the authors examined data on the *E4 allele and cognitive functioning from a population

Anthony F. Jorm; Karen A. Mather; Peter Butterworth; Kaarin J. Anstey; Helen Christensen; Simon Easteal

2007-01-01

246

Brief Report: Feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Adults with High Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with…

Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Perry, Timothy D.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.; Penn, David L.

2008-01-01

247

The relationship of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) to functional capacity and real-world functional outcome.  

PubMed

The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) assesses five different domains of cognitive function with six tests, and takes about 30-35 minutes to complete in patients with schizophrenia. Previous work has demonstrated the reliability of this measure, and its sensitivity to the deficits of schizophrenia. However, the relationship of this brief cognitive measure to functional outcome has not been determined. Further, future registration trials for potentially cognitive enhancing compounds may not only assess efficacy with cognitive performance measures, but with assessments of real-world functional outcome and functional capacity. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the BACS and a potential co-primary measure for treatment studies of cognition in schizophrenia, and to determine if such a measure accounts for significant variance in functioning beyond that provided by cognitive function. The current study assessed 60 patients with schizophrenia over the course of six months. Cognitive functions were measured with the BACS. Functional capacity was measured with the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA). Real-world functional outcome was measured with the Independent Living Skills Inventory (ILSI). BACS composite scores were significantly correlated with functional capacity as measured by the UPSA (r = .65, df = 55, p < .001), and real-world functional outcome as assessed by the ILSI (r = .37, df = 56, p = .005). In multiple regression analyses, UPSA scores did not account for additional variance in real-world functioning beyond that accounted for by the BACS. These data suggest that brief cognitive assessments such as the BACS are able to assess aspects of cognition that are related to important functional measures in clinical trials of cognitive enhancement. They also suggest that the measures being considered as potential co-primary indicators of cognitive function for registration trials are significantly correlated with cognition as assessed by brief cognitive assessments. PMID:16484097

Keefe, Richard S E; Poe, Margaret; Walker, Trina M; Harvey, Philip D

2006-02-01

248

Cognitive Functioning, Retirement Status, and Age: Results from the Cognitive Changes and Retirement among Senior Surgeons Study  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate assessment of cognitive functioning is an important step in understanding how to better evaluate both clinical and cognitive competence in practicing surgeons. As part of the Cognitive Changes and Retirement among Senior Surgeons study, we examined the objective cognitive functioning of senior surgeons in relation to retirement status and age. Study Design Computerized cognitive tasks measuring visual sustained attention, reaction time, and visual learning and memory were administered to both practicing and retired surgeons at annual meetings of the American College of Surgeons. Data from 168 senior surgeons aged 60 and older were compared with data from 126 younger surgeons aged 45 to 59, with performance below 1.5 standard deviations or more indicating a significant difference between the groups. Results Sixty-one percent of practicing senior surgeons performed within the range of the younger surgeons on all cognitive tasks. Seventy-eight percent of practicing senior surgeons aged 60 to 64 performed within the range of the younger surgeons on all tasks compared with 38% of practicing senior surgeons aged 70 and older. Forty-five percent of retired senior surgeons performed within the range of the younger surgeons on all tasks. No senior surgeon performed below the younger surgeons on all 3 tasks. Conclusions The majority of practicing senior surgeons performed at or near the level of their younger peers on all cognitive tasks, as did almost half of the retired senior surgeons. This suggests that older age does not inevitably preclude cognitive proficiency. The variability in cognitive performance across age groups and retirement status suggests the need for formal measures of objective cognitive functioning to help surgeons detect changes in cognitive performance and aid in their decisions to retire.

Drag, Lauren L; Bieliauskas, Linas A; Langenecker, Scott A; Greenfield, Lazar J

2014-01-01

249

Effect of Purpose in Life on the Relation Between Alzheimer Disease Pathologic Changes on Cognitive Function in Advanced Age  

PubMed Central

Context Purpose in life is associated with a substantially reduced risk of Alzheimer disease (AD), but the neurobiologic basis of this protective effect remains unknown. Objective To test the hypothesis that purpose in life reduces the deleterious effects of AD pathologic changes on cognition in advanced age. Design A longitudinal, epidemiologic, clinicopathologic study of aging was conducted that included detailed annual clinical evaluations and brain autopsy. Participants Two hundred forty-six community-based older persons from the Rush Memory and Aging Project participated. Main Outcome Measures Purpose in life was assessed via structured interview, and cognitive function was evaluated annually and proximate to death. On postmortem examination, 3 indexes of AD pathologic features were quantified: global AD pathologic changes, amyloid, and tangles. The associations of disease pathologic changes and purpose in life with cognition were examined using linear regression and mixed models. Results Purpose in life modified the association between the global measure of AD pathologic changes and cognition (mean [SE] parameter estimate, 0.532 [0.211]; P=.01), such that participants who reported higher levels of purpose in life exhibited better cognitive function despite the burden of the disease. Purpose in life also reduced the association of tangles with cognition (parameter estimate, 0.042 [0.019]; P=.03), and the protective effect of purpose in life persisted even after controlling for several potentially confounding variables. Furthermore, in analyses examining whether purpose in life modified the association between AD pathologic effects and the rate of cognitive decline, we found that higher levels of purpose in life reduced the effect of AD pathologic changes on cognitive decline (parameter estimate, 0.085 [0.039]; P=.03). Conclusion Higher levels of purpose in life reduce the deleterious effects of AD pathologic changes on cognition in advanced age.

Boyle, Patricia A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Wilson, Robert S.; Yu, Lei; Schneider, Julie A.; Bennett, David A.

2012-01-01

250

Cognitive Functions in Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia Type 2  

PubMed Central

Background: Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2) is characterized by cerebellar atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, oculomotor apraxia, and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. The disease is caused by a recessive mutation in the senataxin gene. Since it is a very rare cerebellar disorder, no detailed examination of cognitive functions in AOA2 has been published to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile of a 54-year-old patient with AOA2. Methods: A broad range of neuropsychological examination protocol was administered including the following domains: short-term, working- and episodic-memories, executive functions, implicit sequence learning, and the temporal parameters of speech. Results: The performance on the Listening Span, Letter Fluency, Serial Reaction Time Task, and pause ratio in speech was 2 or more standard deviations (SD) lower compared to controls, and 1 SD lower on Backward Digit Span, Semantic Fluency, articulation rate, and speech tempo. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the pathogenesis of the cerebrocerebellar circuit in AOA2 is responsible for the weaker coordination of complex cognitive functions such as working memory, executive functions, speech, and sequence learning.

Klivenyi, Peter; Nemeth, Dezso; Sefcsik, Tamas; Janacsek, Karolina; Hoffmann, Ildiko; Haden, Gabor Peter; Londe, Zsuzsa; Vecsei, Laszlo

2012-01-01

251

Utility of TICS-M for the assessment of cognitive function in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Background Routine screening of high-risk elderly people for early cognitive impairment is constrained by the limitations of currently available cognitive function tests. The Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status is a novel instrument for assess- ment of cognitive function that can be administered in person or by telephone. Objective To evaluate the determinants and utility of TICS-M (13-item modified version)

Celeste A. de Jager; Marc M. Budge; Robert Clarke

2003-01-01

252

Metabolic Syndrome and Cognitive Function in Healthy Middle-Aged and Older Adults without Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Few studies have addressed whether the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components are associated with cognitive function in middle-aged and older populations, as well as whether specific areas of cognition are more affected than others. We examined the cross-sectional association between MetS and six areas of cognitive function in healthy cognitively intact adults without diabetes (n?=?853, mean age

Nicole M. Gatto; Victor W. Henderson; Jan A. St. John; Carol McCleary; Howard N. Hodis; Wendy J. Mack

2008-01-01

253

Teaching for Transfer of Core/Key Skills in Higher Education: Cognitive Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a result of a completed survey of the mainly cognitive science literature on the transferability of those skills which have been described variously as "core", "key", and "generic". The literature reveals that those predominantly cognitive skills which have been studied thoroughly (mainly problem solving) are transferable under…

Billing, David

2007-01-01

254

Executive Functioning as a Potential Mediator of Age-Related Cognitive Decline in Normal Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical requirements for the hypothesis that executive functioning is a potential mediator of age-related effects on cognitive functioning are that variables assumed to reflect executive functioning represent a distinct construct and that age-related effects on other types of cognitive functioning are reduced when measures of executive functioning are statistically controlled. These issues were investigated in a study involving 261 adults

Timothy A. Salthouse; Thomas M. Atkinson; Diane E. Berish

2003-01-01

255

Education is associated with higher later life IQ scores, but not with faster cognitive processing speed.  

PubMed

Recent reports suggest a causal relationship between education and IQ, which has implications for cognitive development and aging-education may improve cognitive reserve. In two longitudinal cohorts, we tested the association between education and lifetime cognitive change. We then tested whether education is linked to improved scores on processing-speed variables such as reaction time, which are associated with both IQ and longevity. Controlling for childhood IQ score, we found that education was positively associated with IQ at ages 79 (Sample 1) and 70 (Sample 2), and more strongly for participants with lower initial IQ scores. Education, however, showed no significant association with processing speed, measured at ages 83 and 70. Increased education may enhance important later life cognitive capacities, but does not appear to improve more fundamental aspects of cognitive processing. PMID:23276218

Ritchie, Stuart J; Bates, Timothy C; Der, Geoff; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

2013-06-01

256

Patterns and associates of cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health are important domains of function. Consistencies and inconsistencies in patterns of wellbeing across these domains may be informative about wellbeing in old age and the ways it is manifested amongst individuals. In this study we investigated whether there were groups of individuals with different profiles of scores across these domains. We also aimed to identify characteristics of any evident groups by comparing them on variables that were not used in identifying the groups. Methods The sample was the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, which included 1091 participants born in 1936. They are a community-dwelling, narrow-age-range sample of 70-year-olds. Most had taken part in the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 at an average age of 11, making available a measure of childhood intelligence. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to explore possible profiles using 9 variables indicating cognitive functioning, psychosocial wellbeing and health status. Demographic, personality, and lifestyle variables – none of which were used in the LCA – were used to characterize the resulting profile groups. Results We accepted a 3-group solution, which we labeled High Wellbeing (65.3%), Low Cognition (20.3%), and Low Bio-Psychosocial (14.5%). Notably, the High Wellbeing group had significantly higher childhood IQ, lower Neuroticism scores, and a lower percentage of current smokers than the other 2 groups. Conclusion The majority of individuals were functioning generally well; however, there was evidence of the presence of groups with different profiles, which may be explained in part in terms of cognitive ability differences. Results suggested that higher life-long intelligence, personality traits associated with less mental distress, and basic health practices such as avoiding smoking are important associates of wellbeing in old age.

2014-01-01

257

Comparison of social cognitive functioning in schizophrenia and high functioning autism: more convergence than divergence  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with schizophrenia and individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA) seem to share some social, behavioral and biological features. Although marked impairments in social cognition have been documented in both groups, little empirical work has compared the social cognitive functioning of these two clinical groups. Method Forty-four individuals with schizophrenia, 36 with HFA and 41 non-clinical controls completed a battery of social cognitive measures that have been linked previously to specific brain regions. Results The results indicate that the individuals with schizophrenia and HFA were both impaired on a variety of social cognitive tasks relative to the non-clinical controls, but did not differ from one another. When individuals with schizophrenia were divided into negative symptom and paranoid subgroups, exploratory analyses revealed that individuals with HFA may be more similar, in terms of the pattern of social cognition impairments, to the negative symptom group than to the paranoia group. Conclusions Our findings provide further support for similarities in social cognition deficits between HFA and schizophrenia, which have a variety of implications for future work on gene–brain–behavior relationships.

Couture, S. M.; Penn, D. L.; Losh, M.; Adolphs, R.; Hurley, R.; Piven, J.

2009-01-01

258

Cognitive functioning in sydenham's chorea: Part 2. executive functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten patients with Sydenham's chorea, ages 7 to 15 years, were tested on two executive functioning tasks—the Tower of Hanoi and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST). Both tasks have demonstrated deficits in performance by other basal ganglia disorders (e.g., Huntington's chorea, Parkinson's disease). Deficits were observed during performance of the Tower of Hanoi, but not the WCST, relative to

B. J. Casey; Yolanda C. Vauss; Amy Chused; Susan E. Swedo

1994-01-01

259

Cooperative Weblog Learning in Higher Education: Its Facilitating Effects on Social Interaction, Time Lag, and Cognitive Load  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the effects of using weblog technologies to support cooperative learning in higher education. The study focused on the effects of features embedded in weblogs on social interactions, time lags, and cognitive loads. A quasi-experimental control-group research design was adopted. The participants were 115 undergraduates who were…

Huang, Tien-Chi; Huang, Yueh-Min; Yu, Fu-Yun

2011-01-01

260

Philosophical and Socio-Cognitive Foundations for Teaching in Higher Education through Collaborative Approaches to Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the implications for higher education of recent work on narrative theory, distributed cognition and artificial intelligence. These perspectives are contrasted with the educational implications of Heidegger's ontological phenomenology [being-there and being-aware (Da-sein)] and with the classic and classical foundations of…

Jones, Adrian

2011-01-01

261

Can performance of daily activities discriminate between older adults with normal cognitive function and those with Mild Cognitive Impairment?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Our primary aim was to examine whether preclinical disability in performance of cognitively-focused instrumental activities of daily living (C-IADL) tasks can discriminate between older adults with normal cognitive function and those with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The secondary purpose was to determine the two tasks with the strongest psychometric properties and assess their discriminative ability. Our goal was to generate diagnosis-relevant information about cognitive changes associated with MCI and DSM-5 Mild Neurocognitive Disorder. DESIGN Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from a cohort of individuals diagnosed with normal cognitive function or MCI. SETTING Private home locations in Pittsburgh, PA. PARTICIPANTS Older adults with remitted major depression (N=157). MEASUREMENTS Diagnosis of cognitive status was made by the Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at the University of Pittsburgh. Performance of 8 C-IADL was measured using the criterion-referenced, observation-based Performance Assessment of Self-Care Skills (PASS). RESULTS A total of 96 older adults with normal cognitive function (mean age=72.5, SD=5.9) and 61 older adults with MCI (mean age=75.5, SD=6.3) participated. The 8 C-IADL demonstrated 81% accuracy in discriminating cognitive status (area under curve 0.81, p<0.001). Two tasks (shopping and checkbook balancing) were the most discriminating (area under curve 0.80, p<0.001); they demonstrated similar ability, as the 8 C-IADL, to discriminate cognitive status. Assessing performance on these two C-IADL takes 10–15 minutes. CONCLUSION This is the first demonstration of the discriminative ability of preclinical disability in distinguishing MCI from cognitively normal older adults. These findings highlight potential tasks, when measured with the observation-based PASS, which demonstrate increased effort for individuals with MCI. These tasks may be considered when attempting to diagnose MCI or Mild Neurocognitive Disorder in clinical practice and research.

Rodakowski, Juleen; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Butters, Meryl A.; Holm, Margo B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Rogers, Joan C.

2014-01-01

262

What's Cooking? - Cognitive Training of Executive Function in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Executive function involves the efficient and adaptive engagement of the control processes of updating, shifting, and inhibition (Miyake, 2000) to guide behavior toward a goal. It is associated with decrements in many other cognitive functions due to aging (West, 1996; Raz, 2000) with itself particularly vulnerable to the effect of aging (Treitz et al., 2007). Cognitive training in the form of structural experience with executive coordination demands exhibited effective enhancement in the elderly (Hertzog et al., 2008). The current study was thus aimed at the development and evaluation of a training regime for executive function in the elderly. The breakfast cooking task of Craik and Bialystok (2006) was adapted into a multitasking training task in a session (pre-test vs. post-test) by group (control vs. training). In the training condition, participants constantly switched, updated, and planned in order to control the cooking of several foods and concurrently performed a table setting secondary task. Training gains were exhibited on task related measures. Transfer effect was selectively observed on the letter–number sequencing and digit symbol coding test. The cooking training produced short term increase in the efficiency of executive control processing. These effects were interpreted in terms of the process overlap between the training and the transfer tasks.

Wang, Man-Ying; Chang, Chien-Yu; Su, Shou-Yi

2011-01-01

263

Effect of a human-type communication robot on cognitive function in elderly women living alone  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Considering the high prevalence of dementia, it would be of great value to develop effective tools to improve cognitive function. We examined the effects of a human-type communication robot on cognitive function in elderly women living alone. Material/Methods In this study, 34 healthy elderly female volunteers living alone were randomized to living with either a communication robot or a control robot at home for 8 weeks. The shape, voice, and motion features of the communication robot resemble those of a 3-year-old boy, while the control robot was not designed to talk or nod. Before living with the robot and 4 and 8 weeks after living with the robot, experiments were conducted to evaluate a variety of cognitive functions as well as saliva cortisol, sleep, and subjective fatigue, motivation, and healing. Results The Mini-Mental State Examination score, judgement, and verbal memory function were improved after living with the communication robot; those functions were not altered with the control robot. In addition, the saliva cortisol level was decreased, nocturnal sleeping hours tended to increase, and difficulty in maintaining sleep tended to decrease with the communication robot, although alterations were not shown with the control. The proportions of the participants in whom effects on attenuation of fatigue, enhancement of motivation, and healing could be recognized were higher in the communication robot group relative to the control group. Conclusions This study demonstrates that living with a human-type communication robot may be effective for improving cognitive functions in elderly women living alone.

Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Yamano, Emi; Ogikubo, Hiroki; Okazaki, Masatsugu; Kamimura, Kazuro; Konishi, Yasuharu; Emoto, Shigeru; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

2012-01-01

264

Apolipoprotein E Genotype Modifies the Association between Midlife Lung Function and Cognitive Function in Old Age  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Because poor lung function may be a risk factor for cognitive decline, we aimed to test the association of respiratory function with cognitive function and dementia later in life, as well as potential effect modification by APOE ?4 carrier status. Methods In a prospective population-based cohort study, forced vital capacity and forced expiratory flow were measured around 1965 in 857 men aged 45–64 years (394 from Finland, 208 from The Netherlands, and 255 from Italy). The Mini-Mental State Examination scores around 1990, 1995 and 2000 were analyzed using multilevel regression models and the Clinical Dementia Rating score around 1990 using multinomial logistic regression analyses. Results Midlife lung function was positively associated with cognitive function in old age in APOE ?4 non-carriers, but not in carriers (p < 0.05 for interaction). In Finland and Italy, 18.6% had questionable to mild dementia and 2.8% moderate to severe dementia after 25 years of follow-up. Dementia was inversely related to midlife lung function in APOE ?4 non-carriers, but not in carriers (p < 0.05 for interaction). Conclusions Small lung volumes were prospectively associated with an increased risk for poor cognitive function and dementia in non-carriers of the APOE ?4 gene.

Giltay, Erik J.; Nissinen, Aulikki; Giampaoli, Simona; Kromhout, Daan

2009-01-01

265

Retinal Microvascular Abnormalities and Cognitive Function in Latino Adults in Los Angeles  

PubMed Central

Purpose Retinal vessels may provide a readily accessible surrogate approach to study vascular disease in brain small vessels. Previous epidemiologic studies of retinal microvascular abnormalities and cognition have not included large numbers of Latinos who have a high prevalence of diabetes and hypertension. Methods We used data from 809 elderly Latino participants in the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) to assess whether retinal vessel caliber and microvascular abnormalities are cross-sectionally associated with lower cognitive function. Cognitive screening was conducted with the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument-Short form (CASI-S) and in-depth testing with the Spanish English Neuropsychological Assessment Scales (SENAS). Retinal photographs were used to identify retinopathy signs and measure retinal vessel caliber. Results A total of 65.8% had high blood pressure, 34.5% had diabetes; self-reported diagnoses of heart attack, heart failure, angina and stroke were rare. Retinal calibers and any retinopathy were not associated with the CASI-S, total SENAS or any SENAS cognitive factors assessed as continuous variables. The odds of a low CASI-S score were two times higher in subjects with generalized arteriolar narrowing (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.14, 3.66), and one and half times as high in those with both generalized arteriolar narrowing and retinopathy signs (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 0.47, 4.75) though this result was based on only four cases with both risk factors and confidence limits were wide and included the null. Conclusion Retinal microvasculature imaging may provide insights into small blood vessel influences on cognition in Latino populations. Additional studies in diverse populations and prospective settings are needed.

Gatto, Nicole M.; Varma, Rohit; Torres, Mina; Wong, Tien Y.; Johnson, Pam L.; Segal-Gidan, Freddi; Mack, Wendy J.

2013-01-01

266

Relation of neurocardiovascular instability to cognitive, emotional and functional domains.  

PubMed

There is bulk of evidence suggesting that blood pressure dysregulation, as low blood pressure (LBP) or hypotension, orthostatic hypotension (OH) and high blood pressure (HPB) or hypertension are associated with alterations in cognitive and emotional domains. Some studies suggest that LBP, neurocardiovascular instability, like the OH, and atherosclerosis resulting from long standing HBP, reduces cerebral blood flow, increasing the risk of cognitive impairment, morbidity and mortality. This study aims to evaluate whether patients with cognitive impairment and cardiovascular disease would show any differences in some anamnestic indicators and/or psychometric measures of cognitive performance and affective symptoms. We recruited 36 patients over 65 years of age admitted to both psycho- and cardio-geriatric ambulatories of our hospital during the last year. The population (mean age of 80.5 years, 72.2% females, 27.8% males) was divided in 2 groups, with OH (25%), and without OH (75%). The first group was subdivided in subgroups: patients with HBP, normal BP and LBP, respectively. Cognitive and depressive domains were assessed with the mini mental state examination (MMSE) and the Italian "scala di valutazione del benessere emotivo nell' anziano" (SVEBA). Information about the present status, comorbidities (cumulative illness rating scale=CIRS), functional ability (activities of daily living=ADL, instrumental ADL=IADL) and drugs were collected during clinical examination. BP was measured 4 times, at the beginning of examination, then with the patient in clinostatic and orthostatic position (1st and 3rd minute). Data were analyzed by MANCOVA, considering age and gender as covariates, MMSE, SVEBA, CIRS, ADL, IADL and drugs as dependent variables, and presence/absence of OH as factor. Covariates were not significant sources of variance, as well as overall factor. Due to the heuristic aim of the study, we considered of interest the results of subsequent ANOVAs showing significant differences in SVEBA and ADL with respect to the factor. These data give us the basis to develop a longitudinal study to confirm the detrimental effect of OH on a wide range of health domains. PMID:17317436

Bendini, C; Angelini, A; Salsi, F; Finelli, M E; Martini, E; Neviani, F; Mussi, C; Neri, M

2007-01-01

267

Effect of trataka on cognitive functions in the elderly  

PubMed Central

Background: Trataka, a type of yoga practice is considered to improve cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to test the effect of trataka on cognitive functions of the elderly. Materials and Methods: Elderly subjects were recruited based on inclusion and exclusion criteria (n = 60) and randomly divided using randomized block design into two groups: Trataka and wait list control group. Trataka (a visual cleansing technique) was given for a period of 1 month (26 days). The subjects in both groups were assessed on day 1 (pre- and postintervention in trataka group and after quiet sitting in control group) and on day 30 on Digit Span Test, Six Letter Cancellation Test (SLCT), and Trail Making Test-B (TMT-B). Results: Friedman's test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that at the 2nd follow-up there was significant improvement in digit span scores (z = ?3.35, P < 0.01) in the trataka group. SLCT scores (t = 5.08, P < 0.01) and TMT-B scores (t = ?4.26, P < 0.01) improved immediately after the practice of trataka (when baseline compared to first follow-up). At 1 month follow-up, trataka group showed significantly better performance in the SLCT test compared to baseline (t = ?3.93, P < 0.01) and TMT-B scores (t = 7.09, P < 0.01). Repeated measure analysis of variance (RM ANOVA) results also reiterated that there was significant interaction effect at the end of 1 month of trataka intervention as compared to control group on TMT-B and SLCT scores. Conclusions: The results of this study establish that Trataka can be used as a technique to enhance cognition in the elderly.

Talwadkar, Shubhada; Jagannathan, Aarti; Raghuram, Nagarathna

2014-01-01

268

Protocol for Fit Bodies, Fine Minds: a randomized controlled trial on the affect of exercise and cognitive training on cognitive functioning in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Declines in cognitive functioning are a normal part of aging that can affect daily functioning and quality of life. This study will examine the impact of an exercise training program, and a combined exercise and cognitive training program, on the cognitive and physical functioning of older adults. METHODS\\/DESIGN: Fit Bodies, Fine Minds is a randomized, controlled trial. Community-dwelling adults,

Siobhan T O'Dwyer; Nicola W Burton; Nancy A Pachana; Wendy J Brown

2007-01-01

269

Higher Integrability for Minimizers of the Mumford-Shah Functional  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove higher integrability for the gradient of local minimizers of the Mumford-Shah energy functional, providing a positive answer to a conjecture of De Giorgi (Free discontinuity problems in calculus of variations. Frontiers in pure and applied mathematics, North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp 55-62, 1991).

De Philippis, Guido; Figalli, Alessio

2014-08-01

270

Automated Semantic Indices Related to Cognitive Function and Rate of Cognitive Decline  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of our study is to introduce a fully automated, computational linguistic technique to quantify semantic relations between words generated on a standard semantic verbal fluency test and to determine its cognitive and clinical correlates. Cognitive differences between patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment are…

Pakhomov, Serguei V. S.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Lim, Kelvin O.

2012-01-01

271

Moving to higher ground: The dynamic field theory and the dynamics of visual cognition  

PubMed Central

In the present report, we describe a new dynamic field theory that captures the dynamics of visuo-spatial cognition. This theory grew out of the dynamic systems approach to motor control and development, and is grounded in neural principles. The initial application of dynamic field theory to issues in visuo-spatial cognition extended concepts of the motor approach to decision making in a sensori-motor context, and, more recently, to the dynamics of spatial cognition. Here we extend these concepts still further to address topics in visual cognition, including visual working memory for non-spatial object properties, the processes that underlie change detection, and the ‘binding problem’ in vision. In each case, we demonstrate that the general principles of the dynamic field approach can unify findings in the literature and generate novel predictions. We contend that the application of these concepts to visual cognition avoids the pitfalls of reductionist approaches in cognitive science, and points toward a formal integration of brains, bodies, and behavior.

Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Spencer, John P.; Schoner, Gregor

2009-01-01

272

Olfactory Acuity and Cognitive Function Converge in Older Adulthood: Support for the Common Cause Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual and auditory thresholds and cognitive variables have shown converging losses in old age, which might exist because standard cognitive tests rely on these modalities for assessment. The present study investigated the common cause hypothesis in another sensory modality. Structural equation modeling tested the fit of a model representing the common cause hypothesis for olfactory acuity and cognitive function data

Mario F. Dulay; Claire Murphy

2002-01-01

273

A Study to Investigate Whether Consistent Cognitive Functioning Cuts Across Number, Space, and Time Conceptualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study conducted on 58 girls aged six to nine years was undertaken to validate a major hypothesis deriving from Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development. This stated that general levels of cognitive functioning can be established which emerge simultaneously in all three areas of number, space, and time and make appropriate the concept of clearly identifiable stages in cognitive

Elizabeth Brittan

1979-01-01

274

The Role of Cognitive Functioning in Medication Adherence of Children and Adolescents with HIV Infection  

PubMed Central

Objective?To evaluate the relationship between cognitive functioning and medication adherence in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection.?Methods?Children and adolescents, ages 3–18 (N = 1,429), received a cognitive evaluation and adherence assessment. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify associations between adherence and cognitive status, adjusting for potential confounding factors.?Results?Children's average cognitive performance was within the low-average range; 16% of children were cognitively impaired (MDI/FSIQ <70). Cognitive status was not associated with adherence to full medication regimens; however, children with borderline/low average cognitive functioning (IQ 70–84) had increased odds of nonadherence to the protease inhibitor class of antiretroviral therapy. Recent stressful life events and child health characteristics, such as HIV RNA detectability, were significantly associated with nonadherence.?Conclusion?Cognitive status plays a limited role in medication adherence. Child and caregiver psychosocial and health characteristics should inform interventions to support adherence.

Williams, Paige L.; Montepiedra, Grace; Nichols, Sharon; Sirois, Patricia A.; Storm, Deborah; Farley, John; Kammerer, Betsy

2009-01-01

275

Association between adjuvant regional radiotherapy and cognitive function in breast cancer patients treated with conservation therapy  

PubMed Central

Although protracted cognitive impairment has been reported to occur after radiotherapy even when such therapy is not directed to brain areas, the mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated whether breast cancer patients exposed to local radiotherapy showed lower cognitive function mediated by higher plasma interleukin (IL)-6 levels than those unexposed. We performed the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) and measured plasma IL-6 levels for 105 breast cancer surgical patients within 1 year after the initial therapy. The group differences in each of the indices of WMS-R were investigated between cancer patients exposed to adjuvant regional radiotherapy (n = 51) and those unexposed (n = 54) using analysis of covariance. We further investigated a mediation effect by plasma IL-6 levels on the relationship between radiotherapy and the indices of WMS-R using the bootstrapping method. The radiotherapy group showed significantly lower Immediate Verbal Memory Index and Delayed Recall Index (P = 0.001, P = 0.008, respectively). Radiotherapy exerted an indirect effect on the lower Delayed Recall Index of WMS-R through elevation of plasma IL-6 levels (bootstrap 95% confidence interval = ?2.6626 to ?0.0402). This study showed that breast cancer patients exposed to adjuvant regional radiotherapy in conservation therapy might have cognitive impairment even several months after their treatment. The relationship between the therapy and the cognitive impairment could be partially mediated by elevation of plasma IL-6 levels.

Shibayama, Osamu; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Eisho; Sugawara, Yuriko; Akechi, Tatsuo; Wada, Noriaki; Imoto, Shigeru; Murakami, Koji; Ogawa, Asao; Akabayashi, Akira; Uchitomi, Yosuke

2014-01-01

276

Aerobic fitness and cognitive function in midlife: an association mediated by plasma insulin.  

PubMed

Insulin resistance in midlife increases the risk of dementia in late-life. In contrast, habitual aerobic exercise is an established strategy to ameliorate insulin resistance which may translate into better cognitive outcome. To determine the role of plasma insulin in mediating the relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function, fifty-eight adults completed assessments of plasma insulin levels, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), and neuropsychological test performance. Endurance-trained subjects demonstrated better cognitive outcome (total composite z-score: 0.21?±?0.08 versus -0.26?±?0.10, P?=?0.001) and lower concentrations of plasma insulin (12.6?±?0.6 versus 21.3?±?1.5 ulU/mL, P?higher memory performance (??=?0.37, P?=?0.01) and lower plasma insulin levels (??=?-0.68, P?cognitive enhancement may be mediated, at least in part, by plasma insulin levels. PMID:24000071

Tarumi, Takashi; Gonzales, Mitzi M; Fallow, Bennett; Nualnim, Nantinee; Lee, Jeongseok; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P

2013-12-01

277

Association between adjuvant regional radiotherapy and cognitive function in breast cancer patients treated with conservation therapy.  

PubMed

Although protracted cognitive impairment has been reported to occur after radiotherapy even when such therapy is not directed to brain areas, the mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated whether breast cancer patients exposed to local radiotherapy showed lower cognitive function mediated by higher plasma interleukin (IL)-6 levels than those unexposed. We performed the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) and measured plasma IL-6 levels for 105 breast cancer surgical patients within 1 year after the initial therapy. The group differences in each of the indices of WMS-R were investigated between cancer patients exposed to adjuvant regional radiotherapy (n = 51) and those unexposed (n = 54) using analysis of covariance. We further investigated a mediation effect by plasma IL-6 levels on the relationship between radiotherapy and the indices of WMS-R using the bootstrapping method. The radiotherapy group showed significantly lower Immediate Verbal Memory Index and Delayed Recall Index (P = 0.001, P = 0.008, respectively). Radiotherapy exerted an indirect effect on the lower Delayed Recall Index of WMS-R through elevation of plasma IL-6 levels (bootstrap 95% confidence interval = -2.6626 to -0.0402). This study showed that breast cancer patients exposed to adjuvant regional radiotherapy in conservation therapy might have cognitive impairment even several months after their treatment. The relationship between the therapy and the cognitive impairment could be partially mediated by elevation of plasma IL-6 levels. PMID:24756915

Shibayama, Osamu; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Eisho; Sugawara, Yuriko; Akechi, Tatsuo; Wada, Noriaki; Imoto, Shigeru; Murakami, Koji; Ogawa, Asao; Akabayashi, Akira; Uchitomi, Yosuke

2014-06-01

278

Aortic elastic properties and cognitive function in elderly individuals: The Ikaria Study.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The aim of this work was to evaluate the association between aortic elastic properties and cognitive function in elderly individuals, permanent inhabitants of Ikaria Island. METHODS: In 535 individuals (75±6 years, 53% males) aortic distensibility (AoD) was non-invasively calculated from the aortic diameters measured with echocardiography and brachial artery pressure using the formula by Stefanadis et al.; cognitive status was evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). RESULTS: 88% of the elders had normal values of MMSE score (i.e., ?24). Elders who achieved MMSE score ?24 had higher values of AoD (1.90±2.06 vs. 1.08±1.42, p<0.001), as well as were more physically active (85% vs. 69%, p=0.05), had higher educational status (8.5±2.8 years vs. 6±2 years, p=0.001), higher creatinine clearance levels (70±21 vs. 63±23, p=0.05) and lower pulse pressure (PP) values (63±16 vs. 68±18, p=0.06), as compared with those individuals with MMSE<24. Logistic regression analysis showed that for every unit increase in AoD there was a 25% higher likelihood of having MMSE?24 (OR per 1000×mmHg(-1)=1.25, 95%CI 0.99-1.58), after adjustments for age, gender, current smoking, cardiovascular disease, creatinine clearance, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, physical activity status and education status. Furthermore having PP levels in the upper tertile (>70mmHg), increases by 55% the likelihood of having MMSE<24 (OR for above 70mmHg=0.45, 95%CI 0.22, 0.92), after the same adjustments were made. CONCLUSION: Arterial aging seems to affect cognitive function; a finding that states a novel research hypothesis about the pathophysiological mechanisms of mental functioning. PMID:23265302

Chrysohoou, Christina; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Pitsavos, Christos; Lazaros, George; Skoumas, John; Oikonomou, Evagellos; Poulidakis, Emanouel; Striggou, Marina; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

2012-12-19

279

Gender differences of cognitive function in migraine patients: evidence from event-related potentials using the oddball paradigm  

PubMed Central

Background Migraine shows gender-specific incidence and has a higher prevalence in females. Gender plays an important role in the prevalence of migraine, but few studies have investigated the effect of gender on the cognitive functions of migraine patients. This study investigated gender differences in the cognitive function of migraine patients without aura. Methods We recruited 29 migraine patients (15 females; mean age 25.4 y) during the interictal period and 28 healthy age-matched participants (14 females; mean age 24.8 y). We used an auditory oddball paradigm to analyze target processing using event-related potentials. Results We investigated the N2 and P3 components. The P3 amplitude was decreased in patients compared with the control, and this reduction was not modulated by gender. These results of the P3 provided a new evidence for the dysfunction of cognitive function in migraine patients. The N2 amplitude was larger for male than female migraine patients, and this gender effect was not found in the control group. Conclusions These results of the P3 provided a new evidence for the dysfunction of cognitive function in migraine patients. And those of N2 may explain that male patients have the super-sensitivity of cerebral function relevant to the early target-selection and response preparation. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering gender when researching the cognitive function of migraine patients.

2014-01-01

280

School outcome, cognitive functioning, and behaviour problems in moderate and late preterm children and adults: a review.  

PubMed

A large number of children (6 to 11% of all births) are born at a gestational age between 32 and 36 weeks. Little is known of long term outcomes for these moderate and late preterm children. In this review, results of 28 studies on school outcome, cognitive functioning, behaviour problems, and psychiatric disorders are presented. Overall, more school problems, less advanced cognitive functioning, more behaviour problems, and higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders were found in moderate and late preterm born infants, children, and adults compared with full term peers. Suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:22364677

de Jong, Marjanneke; Verhoeven, Marjolein; van Baar, Anneloes L

2012-06-01

281

[Effect of aerospace weightlessness on cognitive functions and the relative dialectical analysis of Chinese medicine].  

PubMed

Aerospace medicine has paid more and more attention to abnormal changes of physiological functions induced by weightlessness and studies on their prevention during space flight. In this paper, the effect of space weightlessness on cognitive functions was introduced. We tried to analyze the correlation between the cognitive function changes and relevant Chinese medical syndromes, thus providing a potential available way to prevent and treat weightlessness induced cognitive deficit during space flight. PMID:24758090

Dong, Li; Liu, Xin-Min; Wu, Li-Sha; Yang, Si-Jin; Wang, Qiong

2014-03-01

282

Evaluating the Relationship Between Neuropsychological Function and Cognitive Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The last 2 decades have produced a vast literature describing relationships between cognitive performance and neuropsychological data. This literature has provided the foundation for countless theories about the neural correlates of cognitive processing a...

G. Gunzelmann J. L. Moore

2012-01-01

283

Omega-3 fatty acids moderate effects of physical activity on cognitive function.  

PubMed

Greater amounts of physical activity (PA) and omega-3 fatty acids have both been independently associated with better cognitive performance. Because of the overlapping biological effects of omega-3 fatty acids and PA, fatty acid intake may modify the effects of PA on neurocognitive function. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining whether the ratio of serum omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid levels would moderate the association between PA and executive and memory functions in 344 participants (Mean age=44.42 years, SD=6.72). The Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ), serum fatty acid levels, and performance on a standard neuropsychological battery were acquired on all subjects. A principal component analysis reduced the number of cognitive outcomes to three factors: n-back working memory, Trail Making test, and Logical Memory. We found a significant interaction between PA and the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid serum levels on Trail Making performance and n-back performance, such that higher amounts of omega-3 levels offset the deleterious effects of lower amounts of PA. These effects remained significant in a subsample (n=299) controlling for overall dietary fat consumption. There were no significant additive or multiplicative benefits of higher amounts of both omega-3 and PA on cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids might mitigate the effect of lower levels of PA on cognitive performance. This study illuminates the importance of understanding dietary and PA factors in tandem when exploring their effects on neurocognitive health. PMID:24813150

Leckie, Regina L; Manuck, Stephen B; Bhattacharjee, Neha; Muldoon, Matthew F; Flory, Janine M; Erickson, Kirk I

2014-07-01

284

Recovery of cognitive and dynamic motor function following concussion  

PubMed Central

Objective Neuropsychological testing has been advocated as an important tool of proper post?concussion management. Although these measures provide information that can be used in the decision of when to return an individual to previous levels of physical activity, they provide little data on motor performance following injury. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between measures of dynamic motor performance and neuropsychological function following concussion over the course of 28?days. Methods Participants completed two experimental protocols: gait stability and neuropsychological testing. The gait stability protocol measured whole?body centre of mass motion as subjects walked under conditions of divided and undivided attention. Neuropsychological testing consisted of a computerised battery of tests designed to assess memory, reaction time, processing speed and concussion symptoms. Correlation coefficients were computed between all neuropsychological and gait variables and comparisons of neuropsychological and gait stability post?concussion recovery curves were assessed. Results Dynamic motor tasks, such as walking under varying conditions of attention, are complex and demanding undertakings, which require a longer recovery time following a concussion than cognitive measures. Little statistical relationship was found between the neuropsychological and gait variables, and the recovery curves of neuropsychological and gait domains were observed to be independent. Conclusions In order to fully examine the effects of concussion and determine the optimal time for a safe return to activity, a multi?factorial approach, including both cognitive and motor tasks, should be employed.

Parker, Tonya M; Osternig, Louis R; van Donkelaar, Paul; Chou, Li-Shan

2007-01-01

285

Effects of allantoin on cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis.  

PubMed

Allantoin is contained in Nelumbo nucifera (lotus) and a well-known cosmetic ingredient reported to have anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we investigated whether allantoin affects cognitive function in mice. The subchronic administration of allantoin (1, 3 or 10 mg/kg, for 7 days) significantly increased the latency time measured during the passive avoidance task in scopolamine-induced cholinergic blockade and normal naïve mice. Allantoin treatment (3 or 10 mg/kg, for 7 days) also increased the expression levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?). Doublecortin and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine immunostaining revealed that allantoin significantly increased the neuronal cell proliferation of immature neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus region. In conclusion, allantoin has memory-enhancing effects, and these effects may be partly mediated by the PI3K-Akt-GSK-3? signal pathway. These findings suggest that allantoin has therapeutic potential for the cognitive dysfunctions observed in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24296131

Ahn, Young Je; Park, Se Jin; Woo, Hyun; Lee, Hyung Eun; Kim, Hyun Ji; Kwon, Guyoung; Gao, Qingtao; Jang, Dae Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

2014-02-01

286

Alzheimer's disease neurodegenerative biomarkers are associated with decreased cognitive function but not beta-amyloid in cognitively normal older individuals  

PubMed Central

Beta amyloid (A?)-plaque deposition and neurodegeneration within temporoparietal and hippocampal regions may indicate increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study examined relationships between AD biomarkers of A? and neurodegeneration as well as cognitive performance in cognitively normal older individuals. A? burden was quantified in 72 normal older human subjects from the Berkeley Aging Cohort (BAC) using [11C] Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) PET. In the same individuals, we measured hippocampal volume, as well as glucose metabolism and cortical thickness, which were extracted from a template of cortical AD-affected regions. The three functional and structural biomarkers were merged into a highly AD-sensitive multi-modality biomarker reflecting neural integrity. In the normal older individuals, there was no association between A? burden and either the single-modality or the multi-modality neurodegenerative biomarkers. While lower neural integrity within the AD-affected regions and a control area (the visual cortex) was related to lower scores on memory and executive function tests, the same association was not found with PIB retention. The relationship between cognition and the multi-modality AD biomarker was stronger in individuals with the highest PIB uptake. The findings indicate that neurodegeneration occurs within AD regions irrespective of A? deposition and accounts for worse cognition in cognitively normal older people. The impact of neural integrity on cognitive functions is enhanced in the presence of high A? burden for regions that are vulnerable to AD pathology.

Wirth, Miranka; Madison, Cindee M.; Rabinovici, Gil D.; Oh, Hwamee; Landau, Susan M.; Jagust, William J.

2013-01-01

287

Higher-Order Theory for Functionally Graded Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the full generalization of the Cartesian coordinate-based higher-order theory for functionally graded materials developed by the authors during the past several years. This theory circumvents the problematic use of the standard micromechanical approach, based on the concept of a representative volume element, commonly employed in the analysis of functionally graded composites by explicitly coupling the local (microstructural) and global (macrostructural) responses. The theoretical framework is based on volumetric averaging of the various field quantities, together with imposition of boundary and interfacial conditions in an average sense between the subvolumes used to characterize the composite's functionally graded microstructure. The generalization outlined herein involves extension of the theoretical framework to enable the analysis of materials characterized by spatially variable microstructures in three directions. Specialization of the generalized theoretical framework to previously published versions of the higher-order theory for materials functionally graded in one and two directions is demonstrated. In the applications part of the paper we summarize the major findings obtained with the one-directional and two-directional versions of the higher-order theory. The results illustrate both the fundamental issues related to the influence of microstructure on microscopic and macroscopic quantities governing the response of composites and the technologically important applications. A major issue addressed herein is the applicability of the classical homogenization schemes in the analysis of functionally graded materials. The technologically important applications illustrate the utility of functionally graded microstructures in tailoring the response of structural components in a variety of applications involving uniform and gradient thermomechanical loading.

Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M.

1999-01-01

288

Efficiency of weak brain connections support general cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Brain network topology provides valuable information on healthy and pathological brain functioning. Novel approaches for brain network analysis have shown an association between topological properties and cognitive functioning. Under the assumption that "stronger is better", the exploration of brain properties has generally focused on the connectivity patterns of the most strongly correlated regions, whereas the role of weaker brain connections has remained obscure for years. Here, we assessed whether the different strength of connections between brain regions may explain individual differences in intelligence. We analyzed-functional connectivity at rest in ninety-eight healthy individuals of different age, and correlated several connectivity measures with full scale, verbal, and performance Intelligent Quotients (IQs). Our results showed that the variance in IQ levels was mostly explained by the distributed communication efficiency of brain networks built using moderately weak, long-distance connections, with only a smaller contribution of stronger connections. The variability in individual IQs was associated with the global efficiency of a pool of regions in the prefrontal lobes, hippocampus, temporal pole, and postcentral gyrus. These findings challenge the traditional view of a prominent role of strong functional brain connections in brain topology, and highlight the importance of both strong and weak connections in determining the functional architecture responsible for human intelligence variability. Hum Brain Mapp 35:4566-4582, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24585433

Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Galli, Giulia; Polizzotto, Nicola Riccardo; Rossi, Alessandro; Rossi, Simone

2014-09-01

289

Effect of Dopamine Transporter Genotype on Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Depends on Cognitive State  

PubMed Central

Functional connectivity between brain regions can define large-scale neural networks and provide information about relationships between those networks. We examined how relationships within and across intrinsic connectivity networks were 1) sensitive to individual differences in dopaminergic function, 2) modulated by cognitive state, and 3) associated with executive behavioral traits. We found that regardless of cognitive state, connections between frontal, parietal, and striatal nodes of Task-Positive networks (TPNs) and Task-Negative networks (TNNs) showed higher functional connectivity in 10/10 homozygotes of the dopamine transporter gene, a polymorphism influencing synaptic dopamine, than in 9/10 heterozygotes. However, performance of a working memory task (a state requiring dopamine release) modulated genotype differences selectively, such that cross-network connectivity between TPNs and TNNs was higher in 10/10 than 9/10 subjects during working memory but not during rest. This increased cross-network connectivity was associated with increased self-reported measures of impulsivity and inattention traits. By linking a gene regulating synaptic dopamine to a phenotype characterized by inefficient executive function, these findings validate cross-network connectivity as an endophenotype of executive dysfunction.

Stollstorff, Melanie; Devaney, Joseph M.; Bean, Stephanie; Vaidya, Chandan J.

2012-01-01

290

Do aromatase inhibitors have adverse effects on cognitive function?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Aromatase inhibitors are an important component of treatment for most postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, early-stage breast cancer. Women taking aromatase inhibitors experience very low levels of circulating estrogen. This might be expected to result in cognitive dysfunction given the important relationship between estrogen and cognition in the basic science literature. Several studies have examined the cognitive effects of

Kelly Anne Phillips; Karin Ribi; Richard Fisher

2011-01-01

291

Mild Cognitive Impairment is Associated with Selected Functional Markers: Integrating Concurrent, Longitudinal, and Stability Effects  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined functional performance on multiple indicators for two cognitive status groups: (a) not impaired controls (NIC) and (b) mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We identified functional markers associated with differences, changes, and stability in cognitive status. Method In the Victoria Longitudinal Study (VLS) we examined cognitive status group effects in (a) cross-sectional functional performance, (b) longitudinal stability, (c) longitudinal functional performance change, and (d) functional marker prediction of later cognitive status. We assembled markers from five continuous clusters of MCI-related functional factors: biological vitality, activity lifestyle, psychosocial affect, subjective health, and global cognition. We used a cross-sectional sample and a two-wave longitudinal sample, stratified by age (mid-old, old-old) and cognitive status (MCI, NIC). Results First, cross-sectional results showed that eight markers differentiated MCI and NIC adults, with the latter performing uniformly better. The groups differed on diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, positive and negative affect, MMSE, and the lifestyle indicators of self-maintenance, travel, and novel cognitive activities. Second, Wave1 to Wave2 stabilities in cognitive status classification were high. Third, several markers differentiated the stable (NIC-to-NIC, MCI-to-MCI) from the unstable (NIC-to-MCI, MCI-to-NIC) cognitive status groups. Fourth, five relevant markers for identifying older adults at risk for cognitive status changes were: diastolic blood pressure, self-maintenance activities, novel cognitive activities, positive affect, and global cognitive status. Conclusion Selected risk and protective factors differentiate persons classified with MCI from those not currently cognitively impaired, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally.

Dolcos, Sanda; MacDonald, Stuart W.S.; Braslavsky, Anna; Camicioli, Richard; Dixon, Roger A.

2013-01-01

292

Developmental Maturation of Dynamic Causal Control Signals in Higher-Order Cognition: A Neurocognitive Network Model  

PubMed Central

Cognitive skills undergo protracted developmental changes resulting in proficiencies that are a hallmark of human cognition. One skill that develops over time is the ability to problem solve, which in turn relies on cognitive control and attention abilities. Here we use a novel multimodal neurocognitive network-based approach combining task-related fMRI, resting-state fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the maturation of control processes underlying problem solving skills in 7–9 year-old children. Our analysis focused on two key neurocognitive networks implicated in a wide range of cognitive tasks including control: the insula-cingulate salience network, anchored in anterior insula (AI), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, and the fronto-parietal central executive network, anchored in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). We found that, by age 9, the AI node of the salience network is a major causal hub initiating control signals during problem solving. Critically, despite stronger AI activation, the strength of causal regulatory influences from AI to the PPC node of the central executive network was significantly weaker and contributed to lower levels of behavioral performance in children compared to adults. These results were validated using two different analytic methods for estimating causal interactions in fMRI data. In parallel, DTI-based tractography revealed weaker AI-PPC structural connectivity in children. Our findings point to a crucial role of AI connectivity, and its causal cross-network influences, in the maturation of dynamic top-down control signals underlying cognitive development. Overall, our study demonstrates how a unified neurocognitive network model when combined with multimodal imaging enhances our ability to generalize beyond individual task-activated foci and provides a common framework for elucidating key features of brain and cognitive development. The quantitative approach developed is likely to be useful in investigating neurodevelopmental disorders, in which control processes are impaired, such as autism and ADHD.

Supekar, Kaustubh; Menon, Vinod

2012-01-01

293

Exploring Cognitive Functions in Babies, Children & Adults with Near Infrared Spectroscopy.  

PubMed

An explosion of functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) studies investigating cortical activation in relation to higher cognitive processes, such as language, memory, and attention is underway worldwide involving adults, children and infants with typical and atypical cognition. The contemporary challenge of using fNIRS for cognitive neuroscience is to achieve systematic analyses of data such that they are universally interpretable, and thus may advance important scientific questions about the functional organization and neural systems underlying human higher cognition. Existing neuroimaging technologies have either less robust temporal or spatial resolution. Event Related Potentials and Magneto Encephalography (ERP and MEG) have excellent temporal resolution, whereas Positron Emission Tomography and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET and fMRI) have better spatial resolution. Using non-ionizing wavelengths of light in the near-infrared range (700-1000 nm), where oxy-hemoglobin is preferentially absorbed by 680 nm and deoxy-hemoglobin is preferentially absorbed by 830 nm (e.g., indeed, the very wavelengths hardwired into the fNIRS Hitachi ETG-400 system illustrated here), fNIRS is well suited for studies of higher cognition because it has both good temporal resolution (approximately 5s) without the use of radiation and good spatial resolution (approximately 4 cm depth), and does not require participants to be in an enclosed structure. Participants cortical activity can be assessed while comfortably seated in an ordinary chair (adults, children) or even seated in mom s lap (infants). Notably, NIRS is uniquely portable (the size of a desktop computer), virtually silent, and can tolerate a participants subtle movement. This is particularly outstanding for the neural study of human language, which necessarily has as one of its key components the movement of the mouth in speech production or the hands in sign language. The way in which the hemodynamic response is localized is by an array of laser emitters and detectors. Emitters emit a known intensity of non-ionizing light while detectors detect the amount reflected back from the cortical surface. The closer together the optodes, the greater the spatial resolution, whereas the further apart the optodes, the greater depth of penetration. For the fNIRS Hitachi ETG-4000 system optimal penetration / resolution the optode array is set to 2cm. Our goal is to demonstrate our method of acquiring and analyzing fNIRS data to help standardize the field and enable different fNIRS labs worldwide to have a common background. PMID:19638948

Shalinsky, Mark H; Kovelman, Iouila; Berens, Melody S; Petitto, Laura-Ann

2009-01-01

294

Cognitive reserve is associated with the functional organization of the brain in healthy aging: a MEG study  

PubMed Central

The proportion of elderly people in the population has increased rapidly in the last century and consequently “healthy aging” is expected to become a critical area of research in neuroscience. Evidence reveals how healthy aging depends on three main behavioral factors: social lifestyle, cognitive activity, and physical activity. In this study, we focused on the role of cognitive activity, concentrating specifically on educational and occupational attainment factors, which were considered two of the main pillars of cognitive reserve (CR). Twenty-one subjects with similar rates of social lifestyle, physical and cognitive activity were selected from a sample of 55 healthy adults. These subjects were divided into two groups according to their level of CR; one group comprised subjects with high CR (9 members) and the other one contained those with low CR (12 members). To evaluate the cortical brain connectivity network, all participants were recorded by Magnetoencephalography (MEG) while they performed a memory task (modified version of the Sternberg's Task). We then applied two algorithms [Phase Locking Value (PLV) and Phase Lag Index (PLI)] to study the dynamics of functional connectivity. In response to the same task, the subjects with lower CR presented higher functional connectivity than those with higher CR. These results may indicate that participants with low CR needed a greater “effort” than those with high CR to achieve the same level of cognitive performance. Therefore, we conclude that CR contributes to the modulation of the functional connectivity patterns of the aging brain.

Lopez, Maria E.; Aurtenetxe, Sara; Pereda, Ernesto; Cuesta, Pablo; Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Bruna, Ricardo; Niso, Guiomar; Maestu, Fernando; Bajo, Ricardo

2014-01-01

295

Late-life depression, mild cognitive impairment and hippocampal functional network architecture.  

PubMed

Late-life depression (LLD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are associated with medial temporal lobe structural abnormalities. However, the hippocampal functional connectivity (HFC) similarities and differences related to these syndromes when they occur alone or coexist are unclear. Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (R-fMRI) technique was used to measure left and right HFC in 72 elderly participants (LLD [n = 18], aMCI [n = 17], LLD with comorbid aMCI [n = 12], and healthy controls [n = 25]). The main and interactive relationships of LLD and aMCI on the HFC networks were determined, after controlling for age, gender, education and gray matter volumes. The effects of depressive symptoms and episodic memory deficits on the hippocampal functional connections also were assessed. While increased and decreased left and right HFC with several cortical and subcortical structures involved in mood regulation were related to LLD, aMCI was associated with globally diminished connectivity. Significant LLD-aMCI interactions on the right HFC networks were seen in the brain regions critical for emotion processing and higher-order cognitive functions. In the interactive brain regions, LLD and aMCI were associated with diminished hippocampal functional connections, whereas the comorbid group demonstrated enhanced connectivity. Main and interactive effects of depressive symptoms and episodic memory performance were also associated with bilateral HFC network abnormalities. In conclusion, these findings indicate that discrete hippocampal functional network abnormalities are associated with LLD and aMCI when they occur alone. However, when these conditions coexist, more pronounced vulnerabilities of the hippocampal networks occur, which may be a marker of disease severity and impending cognitive decline. By utilizing R-fMRI technique, this study provides novel insights into the neural mechanisms underlying LLD and aMCI in the functional network level. PMID:24273715

Xie, Chunming; Li, Wenjun; Chen, Gang; Ward, B Douglas; Franczak, Malgorzata B; Jones, Jennifer L; Antuono, Piero G; Li, Shi-Jiang; Goveas, Joseph S

2013-01-01

296

Improvement in cognitive and psychosocial functioning and self image among adolescent inpatient suicide attempters  

PubMed Central

Background Psychiatric treatment of suicidal youths is often difficult and non-compliance in treatment is a significant problem. This prospective study compared characteristics and changes in cognitive functioning, self image and psychosocial functioning among 13 to 18 year-old adolescent psychiatric inpatients with suicide attempts (n = 16) and with no suicidality (n = 39) Methods The two-group pre-post test prospective study design included assessments by a psychiatrist, a psychologist and medical staff members as well as self-rated measures. DSM-III-R diagnoses were assigned using the SCID and thereafter transformed to DSM-IV diagnoses. Staff members assessed psychosocial functioning using the Global Assessment Scale (GAS). Cognitive performance was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, while the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire (OSIQ) was used to assess the subjects' self-image. ANCOVA with repeated measures was used to test changes from entry to discharge among the suicide attempters and non suicidal patients. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess variables associated with an improvement of 10 points or more in the GAS score. Results Among suicide attempter patients, psychosocial functioning, cognitive performance and both the psychological self and body-image improved during treatment and their treatment compliance and outcome were as good as that of the non-suicidal patients. Suicidal ideation and hopelessness declined, and psychosocial functioning improved. Changes in verbal cognitive performance were more pronounced among the suicide attempters. Having an improved body-image associated with a higher probability of improvement in psychosocial functioning while higher GAS score at entry was associated with lower probability of functional improvement in both patient groups. Conclusion These findings illustrate that a multimodal treatment program seems to improve psychosocial functioning and self-image among severely disordered suicidal adolescent inpatients. There were no changes in familial relationships, possibly indicating a need for more intensive family interventions when treating suicidal youths. Multimodal inpatient treatment including an individual therapeutic relationship seems recommendable for severely impaired psychiatric inpatients tailored to the suicidal adolescent's needs.

Hintikka, Ulla; Marttunen, Mauri; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Laukkanen, Eila; Viinamaki, Heimo; Lehtonen, Johannes

2006-01-01

297

An action function for a higher step Grushin operator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how we can construct the heat kernel for (sub)-Laplacian in an explicit (integral) form in terms of a certain class of special functions. Of course, such cases will be highly limited. Here we only treat a typical operator, called Grushin operator. So, first we explain two methods to construct the heat kernel of a "step 2" Grushin operator. One is the eigenfunction expansion which leads to an integral form for the heat kernel, then we treat the formula by a method called, complex Hamilton-Jacobi method invented by Beals-Gaveau-Greiner. One of the main result in this paper is to construct an action function for a higher order oscillator. Until now, no explicit expression of the heat kernel for higher order cases have been given in an explicit form and we show a phenomenon that our action function will play a role toward the construction of the heat kernel of higher step Grushin operators.

Furutani, Kenro; Iwasaki, Chisato; Kagawa, Toshinao

2012-09-01

298

"Biological rhythms, higher brain function, and behavior: gaps, opportunities and challenges"  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence suggests that disrupted temporal organization impairs behavior, cognition, and affect; further, disruption of circadian clock genes impairs sleep/wake cycle and social rhythms which may be implicated in mental disorders. Despite this strong evidence, a gap in understanding the neural mechanisms of this interaction obscures whether biological rhythms disturbances are the underlying causes or merely symptoms of these diseases. Here, we review current understanding, emerging concepts, gaps and opportunities pertinent to: (1) the neurobiology of the interactions between circadian oscillators and the neural circuits subserving higher brain function and behaviors of relevance to mental health, (2) the most promising approaches to determine how biological rhythms regulate brain function and behavior under normal and pathological conditions, (3) gaps and challenges to advancing knowledge on the link between disrupted circadian rhythms/sleep and psychiatric disorders, and (4) novel strategies for translation of basic science discoveries in circadian biology to clinical settings to define risk, prevent or delay onset of mental illnesses, design diagnostic tools and propose new therapeutic strategies. The review is organized around five themes pertinent to: (1) the impact of molecular clocks on physiology and behavior, (2) interactions between circadian signals and cognitive functions, (3) the interface of circadian rhythms with sleep (4) a clinical perspective on the relationship between circadian rhythm abnormalities and affective disorders, and (5) pre-clinical models of circadian rhythm abnormalities and mood disorders.

Benca, Ruth; Duncan, Marilyn J.; Frank, Ellen; McClung, Colleen; Nelson, Randy J.; Vicentic, Aleksandra

2009-01-01

299

Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to assess cognitive function in infants in rural Africa.  

PubMed

Cortical mapping of cognitive function during infancy is poorly understood in low-income countries due to the lack of transportable neuroimaging methods. We have successfully piloted functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a neuroimaging tool in rural Gambia. Four-to-eight month old infants watched videos of Gambian adults perform social movements, while haemodynamic responses were recorded using fNIRS. We found distinct regions of the posterior superior temporal and inferior frontal cortex that evidenced either visual-social activation or vocally selective activation (vocal > non-vocal). The patterns of selective cortical activation in Gambian infants replicated those observed within similar aged infants in the UK. These are the first reported data on the measurement of localized functional brain activity in young infants in Africa and demonstrate the potential that fNIRS offers for field-based neuroimaging research of cognitive function in resource-poor rural communities. PMID:24751935

Lloyd-Fox, Sarah; Papademetriou, M; Darboe, M K; Everdell, N L; Wegmuller, R; Prentice, A M; Moore, S E; Elwell, C E

2014-01-01

300

The Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory Function and Dysfunction in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Patients with schizophrenia have pronounced deficits in memory for events, or episodic memory. These deficits severely affect patients’ quality of life and functional outcome, and current medications have only a modest effect, making episodic memory an important domain for translational development of clinical trial paradigms. The current article provides a brief review of the significant progress that cognitive neuroscience has made in understanding basic mechanisms of episodic memory formation and retrieval that were presented and discussed at the first CNTRICS meeting in Washington, D.C. During that meeting a collaborative decision was made that measures of item-specific and relational memory were the most promising constructs for immediate translational development. A brief summary of research on episodic memory in schizophrenia is presented to provide a context for investigating item-specific and relational memory processes. Candidate brain regions are also discussed.

Ranganath, Charan; Minzenberg, Michael; Ragland, J. Daniel

2008-01-01

301

[Dopaminergic modulation of cerebral activity and cognitive functions].  

PubMed

Alterations in dopaminergic system are known to lie in the basis of such diseases as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Tourette syndrome, schizophrenia and drug abuse. This induced broad investigations of dopaminergic system in nearly all the areas of neuroscience. New insights into the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases have emerged. Research in the field of dopaminergic neurotransmission and memory was awarded Nobel prize in the year 2000. New avenues for the development of more selective drugs have been opened. In their daily practice clinicians are often prescribing medications acting on presynaptic or postsynaptic sites of dopaminergic units. Thus the aim of this review was to renew some knowledge on the architecture of dopaminergic system and also to glance through some of the studies implying its modulating effect on cognitive functions. PMID:12474782

Jucaite, Aurelija

2002-01-01

302

Cognitive functions in primary CNS lymphoma after single or combined modality regimens  

PubMed Central

The standard treatment for primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) involves high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy (HD-MTX) alone or in combination with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). The combined modality regimen carries a substantial risk for cognitive impairment, and HD-MTX alone has been used more often recently in part to reduce neurotoxicity. In this study, we assessed cognitive functioning and quality of life in PCNSL survivors treated with WBRT + HD-MTX or HD-MTX alone. Fifty PCNSL patients in disease remission underwent a posttreatment baseline neuropsychological evaluation, and a subset of patients completed a follow-up evaluation. Quality of life and extent of white matter disease and atrophy on MRI were assessed. Comparisons according to treatment type after controlling for age and time since treatment completion showed that patients treated with HD-MTX alone had significantly higher scores on tests of selective attention and memory than patients treated with the combined modality regimen. Patients treated with WBRT + HD-MTX had impairments across most cognitive domains, and these were of sufficient severity to interfere with quality of life, as over 50% were not working due to their illness. Patients treated with HD-MTX alone did not meet criteria for cognitive impairment but scored within 1 SD below the normative sample on most tests. Patients with more extensive white matter disease had lower scores on tests of set-shifting and memory. Cognitive dysfunction was more prevalent in PCNSL survivors treated with WBRT + HD-MTX compared with patients treated with HD-MTX alone.

Correa, Denise D.; Shi, Weiji; Abrey, Lauren E.; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Omuro, Antonio M.; Deutsch, Mariel B.; Thaler, Howard T.

2012-01-01

303

Mediterranean Diet, Healthy Eating Index-2005, and Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged and Older Puerto Rican Adults  

PubMed Central

Adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MeD) has recently been shown to protect against cognitive decline and dementia. It remains unclear, however, whether such protection extends to differing ethnic groups and middle-aged individuals, and how it may compare with adherence to the USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 (measured with Healthy Eating Index-2005, HEI-2005). This study examined associations between diet quality, as assessed by the MeD and HEI-2005, and cognitive performance in a sample of 1,269 Puerto Rican adults, aged 45–75 years, living in the Greater Boston area, Massachusetts. Dietary intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire specifically designed for and validated with this population. Adherence to the MeD was assessed with a 0 to 9 point scale, and the HEI-2005 score was calculated with a maximum score of 100. Cognitive performance was measured with a battery of seven tests; the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used for global cognitive function. Greater adherence to the MeD was associated with higher MMSE score (P trend = 0.012) and lower likelihood (OR = 0.87 for each additional point, 95% CI, 0.80–0.94, P <0.001) of cognitive impairment, after adjustment for confounders. Similarly, individuals with higher HEI-2005 score had higher MMSE score (P trend = 0.011) and lower odds of cognitive impairment (OR = 0.86 for each 10 points, 95% CI, 0.74–0.99, P = 0.033). In conclusion, high adherence to either the MeD or the diet recommended by the USDA dietary guidelines may protect cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults.

Ye, Xingwang; Scott, Tammy; Gao, Xiang; Maras, Janice E.; Bakun, Peter J.; Tucker, Katherine L.

2013-01-01

304

Higher visual dependency increases balance control perturbation during cognitive task fulfilment in elderly people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ageing results in a decrease in balance control and correlatively raises the risk of falling. Furthermore, dual task situations can increase this age-related imbalance. Within this context, this study aimed to determine the differentiated effects of carrying out cognitive tasks on balance control in 40 healthy older adults. The visuo-verbal Stroop task did not affect postural regulation precision whereas a

Mallaury Jamet; Dominique Deviterne; Gérome C Gauchard; Guy Vançon; Philippe P Perrin

2004-01-01

305

Learning in Higher Education--How Cognitive and Learning Styles Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cognitive and learning styles research domain is a highly complex one which has recently been the focus of rigour-relevance debates (Coffield et al. 2004; Evans and Sadler-Smith 2006; Rayner 2006). There is considerable support for the existence and value of style as a construct (Sternberg 1996) even though further work is needed to evidence…

Evans, Carol; Cools, Eva; Charlesworth, Zarina M.

2010-01-01

306

Studying in Higher Education: Students' Approaches to Learning, Self-Regulation, and Cognitive Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors looked at aspects of successful and problematic studying in terms of three different research traditions: students' approaches to learning, self-regulated learning and cognitive strategies. These frameworks have been widely applied when explaining university student learning. However, relations among different traditions have not been…

Heikkila, Annamari; Lonka, Kirsti

2006-01-01

307

Relationship of Cognitive Function and the Acquisition of Coping Skills in Computer Assisted Treatment for Substance Use Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Coping skills training is an important component of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), yet cognitive impairment and related limitations that are often associated with chronic substance use may interfere with an ability to learn, retain, or use new information. Little previous research has examined the cognitive or neuropsychological factors that may affect substance users' ability to learn new coping skills in CBT. Methods Fifty-two substance dependent individuals randomized to receive a computerized version of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT4CBT) or treatment as usual (TAU) were administered several cognitive and neuropsychological measures, as well as a coping skills measure prior to and upon completing an 8-week treatment period. Results Across treatment conditions, participants who scored above the median on a measure of IQ demonstrated greater improvement in the quality of their coping skills than those below the median on IQ (Group × Time, F(1,49) = 4.31, p<.05). Also, IQ had a significant indirect effect on substance use outcomes through an effect on the quality of coping skills acquired, specifically for those who received CBT4CBT. Conclusion Individuals with higher IQ at baseline improved the quality of their coping skills more than those with lower IQ, which in turn reduced rates of substance use following treatment. This highlights the impact of substance users' cognitive functioning and abilities on the acquisition of coping skills from CBT, and suggests need for greater awareness and tailoring of coping skills training for those with poorer functioning.

Kiluk, Brian D.; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M.

2010-01-01

308

The association between dairy product consumption and cognitive function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

The present cross-sectional study sought to determine the potential relationships between the intake of dairy foods (total dairy products, milk and cheese) and cognitive function through information garnered in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1988-94 and 1999-2002). Cognitive measures of vasomotor speed, coding speed and immediate memory recall were assessed from a simple reaction time task (SRTT), symbol-digit substitution test (SDST) and serial digit learning task, respectively, in adults 20-59 years of age. A summation of the percentile rank scores on each of the three tests provided a measure of overall cognitive function. In adults 60 years of age and above, a story recall test and a digit-symbol substitution test (DSST) were utilised to determine cognitive function in an elderly population. The results indicated that cognitive scores for the SRTT were not different between consumers and non-consumers of dairy foods. However, there were associations observed between 20- and 59-year-old consumers of total dairy foods and a higher SDST percentile score (53.2 (SE 1.3) to 49.4 (SE 2.0)) and a calculated global cognitive percentile score (53.3 (SE 1.1) to 50.2 (SE 1.4)) compared with non-consumers. A similar significant association was observed with cheese consumers. In adults over 60 years of age, an association between total dairy product consumption and higher DSST percentile scores (51.5 (SE 1.9) to 46.2 (se 3.0)) was also observed. These findings highlight the need for additional research on how dairy products may affect cognition and by what mechanisms, through its nutrients or other components. PMID:23168329

Park, Keigan M; Fulgoni, Victor L

2013-03-28

309

Nicotinic effects on cognitive function: behavioral characterization, pharmacological specification, and anatomic localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Nicotine has been shown in a variety of studies in humans and experimental animals to improve cognitive function. Nicotinic\\u000a treatments are being developed as therapeutic treatments for cognitive dysfunction.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  Critical for the development of nicotinic therapeutics is an understanding of the neurobehavioral bases for nicotinic involvement\\u000a in cognitive function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Specific and diverse cognitive functions affected by nicotinic treatments are reviewed,

Edward D. Levin; F. Joseph McClernon; Amir H. Rezvani

2006-01-01

310

Performance-Based Measures of Everyday Function in Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Objective The view that everyday function is preserved in mild cognitive impairment may be problematic. The objectives of this study were to determine the magnitude of impairment in everyday function in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease using a novel sensitive performance-based measure (the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment; UPSA), contrast it with use of an informant-based measure (the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study–Activities of Daily Living Inventory; ADCS-ADL), and model the relationship between cognitive measures and the performance-based measure. Method Fifty cognitively normal elders, 26 patients who met criteria for amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and 22 patients who suffered from mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease were assessed on the UPSA, the ADCS-ADL, and a battery of neurocognitive tests. Results Patients with mild cognitive impairment had significant impairments on the UPSA but not on the ADCS-ADL. The magnitude of the effect size between the cognitively healthy and the mild cognitive impairment group for the UPSA was large (d=0.86). A strong and significant relationship was observed between cognitive performances in speed (R2=0.37), episodic memory (R2=0.10), and semantic processing (R2=0.03) and UPSA score using multiple regression models. The psychometric properties of the UPSA were acceptable, as were its sensitivity and specificity in contrasts between cognitively normal elders and patients with mild cognitive impairment and between the latter group and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Conclusions These findings indicate that performance-based measures of function may be a sensitive tool in studies of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment and suggest the need for a reconceptualization of the relationship between cognition and function in mild cognitive impairment so that they can be usefully aligned.

Goldberg, Terry E.; Koppel, Jeremy; Keehlisen, Lynda; Christen, Erica; Dreses-Werringloer, Ute; Conejero-Goldberg, Concepcion; Gordon, Marc L.; Davies, Peter

2010-01-01

311

Cognitive function. Survey of elderly persons living at home in rural Newfoundland.  

PubMed Central

We tested the cognitive function of elderly, community-dwelling residents in rural Newfoundland using the Canadian Mental Status Questionnaire. The prevalence of moderate and severe cognitive impairment was 9.3%. Physicians in the community had recognized those with severe impairment, but had not recognized any of those with moderate impairment. Cognitive function testing should be part of the periodic health examination of older patients.

Worrall, G.; Moulton, N.

1993-01-01

312

Lower but not higher doses of transdermal nicotine facilitate cognitive performance in smokers on gender non-preferred tasks.  

PubMed

One of the most widely used treatments for smoking cessation is nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). There is some evidence that smokers experience abstinence-induced deficits in cognitive function, which are attenuated by NRTs. Additionally it's been suggested that the degree of reversal of cognitive deficits may depend on the NRT dose and the smoker's gender. In the present placebo-controlled study we investigated effects of three doses of transdermal nicotine (7 mg, 14 mg and 21 mg) on cognitive performance of 48 male and 48 female smokers after overnight abstinence and 6h of patch application. Cognitive tasks used in the study included the Conners' CPT, emotional Stroop, mental arithmetic, and verbal recall of affective prose passages. The results showed greater probability of attentional problems in the male sample compared to females as identified by the Conners' CPT. Within gender women showed improved performance in the 7 mg and 14 mg conditions on several measures of the Conners' CPT, and faster hit reaction time on the emotional Stroop test compared to women in the placebo and 21 mg of nicotine groups. Conversely, males showed a moderate overall advantage on the mental arithmetic task and were differentially sensitive to nicotine treatment on the prose recall task, on which the greatest improvement in recall of affective material was observed for the 14 mg group compared to the 21 mg group. The results are explained on the basis of an inverted U-shaped relationship between nicotinic stimulation and cognitive performance as well as greater sensitivity to nicotine dose manipulation on gender non-preferred cognitive tasks. PMID:22691869

Poltavski, Dmitri V; Petros, Thomas V; Holm, Jeffrey E

2012-09-01

313

Albuminuria, Cognitive Functioning and White Matter Hyperintensities in Homebound Elders  

PubMed Central

Background Albuminuria, a kidney marker of microvascular disease, may herald microvascular disease elsewhere, including in the brain. Study Design Cross sectional. Setting and Participants Boston, MA (USA) elders receiving home health services to maintain independent living who consented to brain magnetic resonance imaging. Predictor Urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR). Outcome Performance on a cognitive battery assessing executive function and memory using principal components analysis and white matter hyperintensity volume on brain imaging, evaluated in logistic and linear regression models. Results Of 335 participants, mean age was 73.4 ± 8.1 years; 123 participants had microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria. Each doubling of ACR was associated with worse executive function [?=-0.05 (p=0.005) in univariate and ?=-0.07 (p=0.004) in multivariable analyses controlling for age, sex, race, education, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, medications, and estimated glomerular filtration rate] but not with worse memory or working memory. Individuals with microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria were more likely to be in the lower versus the highest tertile of executive functioning [Odds ratio =1.18 (1.06 to 1.32) and 1.19 (1.05 to 1.35) per doubling of ACR in univariate and multivariable analyses, respectively]. Albuminuria was associated with qualitative white matter hyperintensity grade [Odds ratio =1.13 (1.02 to 1.25) and 1.15 (1.02 to 1.29) per doubling of ACR] in univariate and multivariable analyses, and with quantitative white matter hyperintensity volume [?=0.11 (p=0.007) and ?=0.10 (p=0.01)] in univariate and multivariable analyses of log-transformed data, respectively. Results were similar when excluding individuals with macroalbuminuria. Limitations Single measurement of ACR, indirect creatinine calibration and reliance on participant recall for elements of medical history Conclusions Albuminuria is associated with worse cognitive performance, particularly in executive functioning, as well as increased white matter hyperintensity volume. Albuminuria likely identifies greater brain microvascular disease burden.

Weiner, Daniel E.; Bartolomei, Keith; Scott, Tammy; Price, Lori Lyn; Griffith, John L.; Rosenberg, Irwin; Levey, Andrew S.; Folstein, Marshal F.; Sarnak, Mark J.

2009-01-01

314

Toward a more embedded/extended perspective on the cognitive function of gestures  

PubMed Central

Gestures are often considered to be demonstrative of the embodied nature of the mind (Hostetter and Alibali, 2008). In this article, we review current theories and research targeted at the intra-cognitive role of gestures. We ask the question how can gestures support internal cognitive processes of the gesturer? We suggest that extant theories are in a sense disembodied, because they focus solely on embodiment in terms of the sensorimotor neural precursors of gestures. As a result, current theories on the intra-cognitive role of gestures are lacking in explanatory scope to address how gestures-as-bodily-acts fulfill a cognitive function. On the basis of recent theoretical appeals that focus on the possibly embedded/extended cognitive role of gestures (Clark, 2013), we suggest that gestures are external physical tools of the cognitive system that replace and support otherwise solely internal cognitive processes. That is gestures provide the cognitive system with a stable external physical and visual presence that can provide means to think with. We show that there is a considerable amount of overlap between the way the human cognitive system has been found to use its environment, and how gestures are used during cognitive processes. Lastly, we provide several suggestions of how to investigate the embedded/extended perspective of the cognitive function of gestures.

Pouw, Wim T. J. L.; de Nooijer, Jacqueline A.; van Gog, Tamara; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Paas, Fred

2014-01-01

315

A Large, Cross-Sectional Observational Study of Serum BDNF, Cognitive Function, and Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Objective: The clinical relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cognitive function or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is not well-understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between serum BDNF and cognitive function and MCI, and determine whether serum BDNF level might be a useful biomarker for assessing risk for MCI in older people. Materials and Methods: A total of 4463 individuals aged 65?years or older (mean age 72?years) participating in the study. We measured performance in a battery of neuropsychological and cognitive function tests; serum BDNF concentration. Results: Eight hundred twenty-seven participants (18.8%) had MCI. After adjustment for sex, age, education level, diabetes, and current smoking, serum BDNF was associated with poorer performance in the story memory, and digit symbol substitution task scores. Serum BDNF was marginally associated with the presence of MCI (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.41, 1.00–1.99) when BDNF was 1.5 SD lower than the mean value standardized for sex and age, education level, diabetes, and current smoking. Conclusion: Low serum BDNF was associated with lower cognitive test scores and MCI. Future prospective studies should establish the discriminative value of serum BDNF for the risk of MCI.

Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Anan, Yuya; Uemura, Kazuki; Lee, Sangyoon; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao

2014-01-01

316

nu. N,. mu. N interactions: structure functions, higher twist  

SciTech Connect

Data on deep inelastic scattering of leptons by nucleons and nuclei have been accumulated for several years. Results exist from several experiments with electron, muon, neutrino beams. In this talk I shall review the most recent experiments which measured nucleon structure functions with ..nu.. and ..mu.. beams. In particular, I will summarize the results on R = sigma/sub L//sigma/sub T/ measurement, on F/sub 2/(x,Q/sup 2/), and xF/sub 3/(x,Q/sup 2/), and their interpretation in terms of QCD, including both gluon radiation and higher twist phenomena.

Matteuzzi, C.

1981-10-01

317

Patients with hepatitis C infection and normal liver function: an evaluation of cognitive function  

PubMed Central

Purpose of the study Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with neuropsychiatric complaints. Previous studies have associated cognitive alterations with HCV infection but have often included confounding factors in their samples. This study compares the cognitive performance between patients with HCV infection (HCV patients) and a control group while excluding other factors that may cause cognitive impairment. Study design This cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2010 through June 2011. HCV infected patients and healthy individuals between the ages of 18 and 80?years were considered eligible. The exclusion criteria included well established causes of cognitive impairment such as depression and cirrhosis. Study participants underwent neuropsychological testing involving measures of attention, memory, abstraction, visuoconstructive abilities, and executive function. Results Of 138 initial patients, 47 were excluded because of their medical records, three refused to participate, 23 did not attend the consultation, and 32 were excluded because of having Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores >11. In all, 33 patients underwent neuropsychological testing; however, three were excluded because of having hypothyroidism, and one was excluded because of having a cobalamin deficiency. For the control group, of the 33 healthy individuals that were selected, four were excluded because of having BDI scores >11. Thus, the final analysis included 29 HCV patients and 29 control participants. The groups did not differ in education, age, or gender. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups regarding cognitive performance. Conclusions In this study using strict selection criteria, there was no evidence of an association between HCV infection and cognitive impairment.

Abrantes, Jefferson; Torres, Daniel Simplicio; de Mello, Carlos Eduardo Brandao

2013-01-01

318

Cognitive Ability as a Resource for Everyday Functioning among Older Adults Who Are Visually Impaired  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study that investigated the role of cognitive resources in the everyday functioning of 121 older adults who were visually impaired and 150 sighted older adults, with a mean age of 82 years. Cognitive performance and everyday functioning were most strongly related in the group who were visually impaired. The authors…

Heyl, Vera; Wahl, Hans-Werner

2010-01-01

319

How Do Cognitive Function and Knowledge Affect Heart Failure Self-Care?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite extensive patient education, few heart failure (HF) patients master self-care. Impaired cognitive function may explain why patient education is ineffective. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was used to explore how knowledge and cognitive function influence HF self-care. A total of 41 adults with HF participated in interviews…

Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Lee, Christopher S.; Riegel, Barbara

2011-01-01

320

Cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using the Stroop task  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a key role in cognition, motor function, and emotion processing. However, little is known about how traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects the ACC system. Our purpose was to compare, by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, the patterns of cortical activation in patients with cognitive impairment after TBI and those of normal subjects. Cortical

Akio Soeda; Toshihiko Nakashima; Ayumi Okumura; Kazuo Kuwata; Jun Shinoda; Toru Iwama

2005-01-01

321

Relationship between cognitive function and prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Decrease in intrinsic motivation is a common complaint among elementary and junior high school students, and is related to poor academic performance. Since grade-dependent development of cognitive functions also influences academic performance by these students, we examined whether cognitive functions are related to the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation. METHODS: The study group consisted of 134 elementary

Kei Mizuno; Masaaki Tanaka; Sanae Fukuda; Kyoko Imai-Matsumura; Yasuyoshi Watanabe

2011-01-01

322

Insights From Cognitive Neuroscience: The Importance of Executive Function for Early Reading Development and Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: Executive function begins to develop in infancy and involves an array of processes, such as attention, inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, which provide the means by which individuals control their own behavior, work toward goals, and manage complex cognitive processes. Thus, executive function plays a critical role in the development of academic skills such as reading. This

Kelly B. Cartwright

2012-01-01

323

Smoking, drinking, and other life style factors and cognitive function in men in the Caerphilly cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine the cognitive function in a large, ongoing cohort study of older men, and to identify associations with social and lifestyle factors. DESIGN: A cross sectional study of cognitive function was conducted within the Caerphilly Prospective Study of Heart Disease and stroke. SETTING: The Caerphilly Study was originally set up in 1979-83 when the men were 45-59

P. C. Elwood; J. E. Gallacher; C. A. Hopkinson; J. Pickering; P. Rabbitt; B. Stollery; C. Brayne; F. A. Huppert; A. Bayer

1999-01-01

324

Preliminary study of Internet addiction and cognitive function in adolescents based on IQ tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential relationship between Internet addiction and certain cognitive function problems has been suggested by several studies. However, few or no studies have examined the differences in cognitive functioning between persons addicted to the Internet and persons not addicted using a standard neuropsychological test. This study screened 253 middle school students and 389 high school students for Internet addiction and

Min-Hyeon Park; E-Jin Park; Jeewook Choi; Sukhi Chai; Ji-Han Lee; Chul Lee; Dai-Jin Kim

325

Cognitive function with glucose tolerance status and obesity in Chinese middle-aged and aged adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate the relationship of cognitive function with glucose tolerance status and obesity in Chinese middle-aged or aged adults.Methods: A sample of 1722 subjects aged 40 years or order was investigated from four communities in Shijingshan District, Beijing, China. People with any emotional disorder, substance abuse, known diabetes or stroke were excluded. Global cognitive function was measured by the

Yanhui Lu; Juming Lu; Shuyu Wang; Chunlin Li; Lisheng Liu; Runping Zheng; Hui Tian; Xianling Wang; Lijuan Yang; Yuqing Zhang; Changyu Pan

2012-01-01

326

Alcohol Drinking and Cognitive Functions: Findings from the Cardiovascular Risk Factors Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Moderate alcohol drinking is suggested to be beneficial for cognitive functions, but the results of previous studies have varied greatly. Little is known about the effects of midlife alcohol drinking on the cognitive functions later in life. Methods: Participants were derived from random, population-based samples studied in Eastern Finland in 1972, 1977, 1982, or 1987. A total of 1,341

Tiia Ngandu; Eeva-Liisa Helkala; Hilkka Soininen; Bengt Winblad; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Aulikki Nissinen; Miia Kivipelto

2007-01-01

327

High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Cognitive Function and Mortality in a U.S. National Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low levels of both high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and cognitive function are associated with increased mortality risk. HDL plays an important role in brain metabolism. We test the hypotheses that the relative protective effect of high HDL level as related to mortality is greater in persons with impaired cognitive function than in others. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal

Richard F Gillum; Thomas O Obisesan

2011-01-01

328

Insights from Cognitive Neuroscience: The Importance of Executive Function for Early Reading Development and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Executive function begins to develop in infancy and involves an array of processes, such as attention, inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, which provide the means by which individuals control their own behavior, work toward goals, and manage complex cognitive processes. Thus, executive function plays a…

Cartwright, Kelly B.

2012-01-01

329

Alternatively activated myeloid (M2) cells enhance cognitive function in immune compromised mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was recently shown that adaptive immunity plays a key role in cognitive function. T cells appear to be major players in learning and memory; thus, mice devoid of functional T cells are impaired in performance of cognitive tasks such as Morris water maze (MWM), Barnes maze and others. This is a reversible phenomenon; injection of immune deficient mice with

Noel C. Derecki; Kayla M. Quinnies; Jonathan Kipnis

2011-01-01

330

Cognitive, Linguistic and Adaptive Functioning in Williams Syndrome: Trajectories from Early to Middle Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Little is known about trajectories of cognitive functioning as individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) move though adulthood. Method: The present study investigated cognitive, linguistic and adaptive functioning in adults with WS aged 19-55 years, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches. Results: Data from the…

Howlin, Patricia; Elison, Sarah; Udwin, Orlee; Stinton, Christopher

2010-01-01

331

Cognitive function and social abilities in patients with schizophrenia: Relationship with atypical antipsychotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although atypical antipsychotics have been associated with improvements in cognitive function in schizophrenia, the neurochemical basis for such effects is not well understood. Candidate neu- rotransmitter systems primarily involve dopamine and serotonin. The current study explored this issue by examining the cognitive abilities, social function and quality of life in patients with schizo- phrenia who were medicated with atypical antipsychotics.

PHILIP J. TYSON; KEITH R. LAWS; KENNETH A. FLOWERS; AGI TYSON; ANN M. MORTIMER

2006-01-01

332

Timing is everything: Neural response dynamics during syllable processing and its relation to higher-order cognition in schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects  

PubMed Central

Successful linguistic processing requires efficient encoding of successively-occurring auditory input in a time-constrained manner, especially under noisy conditions. In this study we examined the early neural response dynamics to rapidly-presented successive syllables in schizophrenia participants and healthy comparison subjects, and investigated the effects of noise on these responses. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to reveal the time-course of stimulus-locked activity over bilateral auditory cortices during discrimination of syllable pairs that differed either in voice onset time (VOT) or place of articulation (POA), in the presence or absence of noise. We also examined the association of these early neural response patterns to higher-order cognitive functions. The M100 response, arising from auditory cortex and its immediate environs, showed less attenuation to the second syllable in patients with schizophrenia than healthy comparison subjects during VOT-based discrimination in noise. M100 response amplitudes were similar between groups for the first syllable during all three discrimination conditions, and for the second syllable during VOT-based discrimination in quiet and POA-based discrimination in noise. Across subjects, the lack of M100 attenuation to the second syllable during VOT-based discrimination in noise was associated with poorer task accuracy, lower education and IQ, and lower scores on measures of Verbal Learning and Memory and Global Cognition. Because the neural response to the first syllable was not significantly different between groups, nor was a schizophrenia-related difference obtained in all discrimination tasks, early linguistic processing dysfunction in schizophrenia does not appear to be due to general sensory input problems. Rather, data suggest that faulty temporal integration occurs during successive syllable processing when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. Further, the neural mechanism by which the second syllable is suppressed during noise-challenged VOT discrimination appears to be important for higher-order cognition and provides a promising target for neuroscience-guided cognitive training approaches to schizophrenia.

Dale, Corby L.; Findlay, Anne M.; Adcock, R. Alison; Vertinski, Mary; Fisher, Melissa; Genevsky, Alexander; Aldebot, Stephanie; Subramaniam, Karuna; Luks, Tracy L.; Simpson, Gregory V.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Vinogradov, Sophia

2009-01-01

333

Higher twist parton distributions from light-cone wave functions  

SciTech Connect

We explore the possibility to construct higher-twist parton distributions in a nucleon at some low reference scale from convolution integrals of the light-cone wave functions (WFs). To this end we introduce simple models for the four-particle nucleon WFs involving three valence quarks and a gluon with total orbital momentum zero, and estimate their normalization (WF at the origin) using QCD sum rules. We demonstrate that these WFs provide one with a reasonable description of both polarized and unpolarized parton densities at large values of the Bjorken variable x{>=}0.5. Twist-three parton distributions are then constructed as convolution integrals of qqqg and the usual three-quark WFs. The cases of the polarized structure function g{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}) and single transverse spin asymmetries are considered in detail. We find that the so-called gluon pole contribution to twist-three distributions relevant for single spin asymmetry vanishes in this model, but is generated perturbatively at higher scales by the evolution, in the spirit of Glueck-Reya-Vogt parton distributions.

Braun, V. M.; Lautenschlager, T.; Pirnay, B. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Manashov, A. N. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Department of Theoretical Physics, St. Petersburg State University 199034, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2011-05-01

334

Higher spin de Sitter holography from functional determinants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss further aspects of the higher spin dS/CFT correspondence. Using a recent result of Dunne and Kirsten, it is shown how to numerically compute the partition function of the free Sp( N) model for a large class of SO(3) preserving deformations of the flat/round metric on ?3 /S 3 and the source of the spin-zero single-trace operator dual to the bulk scalar. We interpret this partition function as a Hartle-Hawking wavefunctional. It has a local maximum about the pure de Sitter vacuum. Restricting to SO(3) preserving deformations, other local maxima (which exceed the one near the de Sitter vacuum) can peak at inhomogeneous and anisotropic values of the late time metric and scalar profile. Numerical experiments suggest the remarkable observation that, upon fixing a certain average of the bulk scalar profile at , the wavefunction becomes normalizable in all the other (infinite) directions of the deformation. We elucidate the meaning of double trace deformations in the context of dS/CFT as a change of basis and as a convolution. Finally, we discuss possible extensions of higher spin de Sitter holography by coupling the free theory to a Chern-Simons term.

Anninos, Dionysios; Denef, Frederik; Konstantinidis, George; Shaghoulian, Edgar

2014-02-01

335

Exploring the cognitive and motor functions of the basal ganglia: an integrative review of computational cognitive neuroscience models  

PubMed Central

Many computational models of the basal ganglia (BG) have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the BG, computational cognitive neuroscience (CCN) models have focused on how the BG can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on CCN models of the BG and how they use the neuroanatomy of the BG to account for cognitive and motor functions such as categorization, instrumental conditioning, probabilistic learning, working memory, sequence learning, automaticity, reaching, handwriting, and eye saccades. A total of 19 BG models accounting for one or more of these functions are reviewed and compared. The review concludes with a discussion of the limitations of existing CCN models of the BG and prescriptions for future modeling, including the need for computational models of the BG that can simultaneously account for cognitive and motor functions, and the need for a more complete specification of the role of the BG in behavioral functions.

Helie, Sebastien; Chakravarthy, Srinivasa; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

2013-01-01

336

A mouse model of higher visual cortical function.  

PubMed

During sensory experience, the retina transmits a diverse array of signals to the brain, which must be parsed to generate meaningful percepts that can guide decisions and actions. Decades of anatomical and physiological studies in primates and carnivores have revealed a complex parallel and hierarchical organization by which distinct visual features are distributed to, and processed by, different brain regions. However, these studies have been limited in their ability to dissect the circuit mechanisms involved in the transformation of sensory inputs into complex cortical representations and action patterns. Multiple groups have therefore pushed to explore the organization and function of higher visual areas in the mouse. Here we review the anatomical and physiological findings of these recent explorations in mouse visual cortex. These studies find that sensory input is processed in a diverse set of higher areas that are each interconnected with specific limbic and motor systems. This hierarchical and parallel organization is consistent with the multiple streams that have been found in the higher visual areas of primates. We therefore propose that the mouse visual system is a useful model to explore the circuits underlying the transformation of sensory inputs into goal-directed perceptions and actions. PMID:24492075

Glickfeld, Lindsey L; Reid, R Clay; Andermann, Mark L

2014-02-01

337

Cognitive Training Changes Hippocampal Function in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

A randomized pilot experiment examined the neural substrates of response to cognitive training in participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Participants performed exercises previously demonstrated to improve verbal memory and an active control group performed other computer activities. An auditory-verbal fMRI task was conducted before and after the two-month training program. Verbal memory scores improved significantly and left hippocampal activation increased significantly in the experimental group (gains in 5 of 6 participants) relative to the control group (reductions in all 6 participants). Results suggest that the hippocampus in MCI may retain sufficient neuroplasticity to benefit from cognitive training.

Rosen, Allyson C.; Sugiura, Lisa; Kramer, Joel H.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D.

2012-01-01

338

Effects of higher-order cognitive strategy training on gist-reasoning and fact-learning in adolescents.  

PubMed

Improving the reasoning skills of adolescents across the United States has become a major concern for educators and scientists who are dedicated to identifying evidence-based protocols to improve student outcome. This small sample randomized, control pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of higher-order cognitive training on gist-reasoning and fact-learning in an inner-city public middle school. The study compared gist-reasoning and fact-learning performances after training in a smaller sample when tested in Spanish, many of the students' native language, versus English. The 54 eighth grade students who participated in this pilot study were enroled in an urban middle school, predominantly from lower socio-economic status families, and were primarily of minority descent. The students were randomized into one of three groups, one that learned cognitive strategies promoting abstraction of meaning, a group that learned rote memory strategies, or a control group to ascertain the impact of each program on gist-reasoning and fact-learning from text-based information. We found that the students who had cognitive strategy instruction that entailed abstraction of meaning significantly improved their gist-reasoning and fact-learning ability. The students who learned rote memory strategies significantly improved their fact-learning scores from a text but not gist-reasoning ability. The control group showed no significant change in either gist-reasoning or fact-learning ability. A trend toward significant improvement in overall reading scores for the group that learned to abstract meaning as well as a significant correlation between gist-reasoning ability and the critical thinking on a state-mandated standardized reading test was also found. There were no significant differences between English and Spanish performance of gist-reasoning and fact-learning. Our findings suggest that teaching higher-order cognitive strategies facilitates gist-reasoning ability and student learning. PMID:21833248

Gamino, Jacquelyn F; Chapman, Sandra B; Hull, Elizabeth L; Lyon, G Reid

2010-01-01

339

Effects of Higher-Order Cognitive Strategy Training on Gist-Reasoning and Fact-Learning in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Improving the reasoning skills of adolescents across the United States has become a major concern for educators and scientists who are dedicated to identifying evidence-based protocols to improve student outcome. This small sample randomized, control pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of higher-order cognitive training on gist-reasoning and fact-learning in an inner-city public middle school. The study compared gist-reasoning and fact-learning performances after training in a smaller sample when tested in Spanish, many of the students’ native language, versus English. The 54 eighth grade students who participated in this pilot study were enroled in an urban middle school, predominantly from lower socio-economic status families, and were primarily of minority descent. The students were randomized into one of three groups, one that learned cognitive strategies promoting abstraction of meaning, a group that learned rote memory strategies, or a control group to ascertain the impact of each program on gist-reasoning and fact-learning from text-based information. We found that the students who had cognitive strategy instruction that entailed abstraction of meaning significantly improved their gist-reasoning and fact-learning ability. The students who learned rote memory strategies significantly improved their fact-learning scores from a text but not gist-reasoning ability. The control group showed no significant change in either gist-reasoning or fact-learning ability. A trend toward significant improvement in overall reading scores for the group that learned to abstract meaning as well as a significant correlation between gist-reasoning ability and the critical thinking on a state-mandated standardized reading test was also found. There were no significant differences between English and Spanish performance of gist-reasoning and fact-learning. Our findings suggest that teaching higher-order cognitive strategies facilitates gist-reasoning ability and student learning.

Gamino, Jacquelyn F.; Chapman, Sandra B.; Hull, Elizabeth L.; Lyon, G. Reid

2010-01-01

340

Cognitive function in schizophrenia: insights from intelligence research.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is characterised by generalised cognitive impairment that is both a risk factor and a predictor of outcome. Recent research into human intelligence supports the view that, in schizophrenia, poor performance on disparate cognitive tasks can be explained by dysfunction of a frontoparietal neural network thought to support fluid intelligence. PMID:23999476

Joyce, Eileen M

2013-09-01

341

The Relationship between Nonverbal Cognitive Functions and Hearing Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and memory and attention when nonverbal, visually presented cognitive tests are used. Method: Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and IQ were measured in 30 participants with mild to severe hearing loss. Participants performed cognitive tests of pattern recognition memory,…

Zekveld, Adriana A.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Goverts, S. Theo; Kramer, Sophia E.

2007-01-01

342

Is Cognitive Functioning Impaired in Methamphetamine Users? A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevailing view is that recreational methamphetamine use causes a broad range of severe cognitive deficits, despite the fact that concerns have been raised about interpretations drawn from the published literature. This article addresses an important gap in our knowledge by providing a critical review of findings from recent research investigating the impact of recreational methamphetamine use on human cognition.

Carl L Hart; Caroline B Marvin; Rae Silver; Edward E Smith

2012-01-01

343

Long-term perturbation of spine plasticity results in distinct impairments of cognitive function.  

PubMed

Dendritic spines serve as the post-synaptic structural component of synapses. The structure and function of dendritic spines are dynamically regulated by a number of signaling pathways and allow for normal neural processing, whereas aberrant spine changes are thought to contribute to cognitive impairment in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, spine changes within different brain regions and their contribution to specific cognitive functions, especially later in adulthood, is not well understood. In this study, we used late-adult KALRN-deficient mice as a tool to investigate the vulnerability of different cognitive functions to long-term perturbations in spine plasticity in different forebrain regions. We found that in these mice, loss of one or both copies of KALRN lead to genotype and brain region-dependent reductions in spine density. Surprisingly, heterozygote and knockout mice showed differential impairments in cognitive phenotypes, including working memory, social recognition, and social approach. Correlation analysis between the site and magnitude of spine loss and behavioral alterations suggests that the interplay between brain regions is critical for complex cognitive processing and underscores the importance of spine plasticity in normal cognitive function. Long-term perturbation of spine plasticity results in distinct impairments of cognitive function. Using genetically modified mice deficient in a central regulator of spine plasticity, we investigated the brain region-specific contribution of spine numbers to various cognitive functions. We found distinct cognitive functions display differential sensitivity to spine loss in the cortex and hippocampus. Our data support spines as neuronal structures important for cognition and suggest interplay between brain regions is critical for complex cognitive processing. PMID:22862288

Vanleeuwen, Jon-Eric; Penzes, Peter

2012-12-01

344

Cognitive functioning and sex steroid hormone gene polymorphisms in women at midlife.  

PubMed

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype frequencies were examined to determine whether variation in 6 estrogen-related genes was associated with differences in cognitive functioning in women at midlife. DNA from a multiracial/multiethnic sample of 875 African American, Caucasian, Chinese, and Japanese women aged 45 to 56 years participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) was genotyped. Gene markers from the sex steroid hormone pathway were linked to measures of cognitive functioning including the Digit Span Backward Test (DSB), a measure of working memory; the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), a measure of perceptual speed; and the East Boston Memory Test (EBMT), a measure of episodic memory. Statistical models were fit using logistic regression and general linear models to estimate the strength of association of estrogen-related polymorphisms with DSB, SDMT, and EBMT scores. On the EBMT, African American women and Caucasian women with ESR1 rs9340799 GG genotypes had about 1.5 to 2.0 times greater odds of remembering story elements on the EBMT-immediate recall test. Caucasian women with ESR1 rs2234693 CC genotypes had 1.3 to 1.5 times greater odds of remembering story elements on the EBMT-delayed recall test. Chinese women with 17HSD rs615942 GG genotypes, 17HSD rs592389 TT genotypes, and 17HSD rs2830 GG genotypes had about 1.7 times greater odds of remembering story elements on the EBMT-immediate recall test. African American women with CYP 19 rs936306 CC genotypes had about 0.25 to 0.40 lower odds of remembering story elements on the EBMT-immediate recall test, whereas Chinese women with CYP 19 rs936306 CC genotypes had about 2.3 times greater odds of remembering story elements on both the EBMT-immediate and -delayed recall tests. On the DSB, African American women with CYP 19 rs749292 GG genotype had a higher mean score. On the SDMT, Japanese women with ESR1 rs728524 GG genotypes had a higher mean score. On the 3 tests of cognitive functioning, there was 1 significant finding for CYP1A1 and none for the CYP1B1 or ESR2 SNPs. We conclude that selected genes involved in estrogen synthesis and metabolism may be associated with performance differences on cognitive function tests. Also, the relevant estrogen-related polymorphisms may vary by race/ethnicity. PMID:16949394

Kravitz, Howard M; Meyer, Peter M; Seeman, Teresa E; Greendale, Gail A; Sowers, MaryFran R

2006-09-01

345

Differentiation at higher levels of cognitive ability: evidence from the United States.  

PubMed

Most psychologists and educators assume that intelligence is a linear construct, meaning that smart people simply have more intelligence than their less gifted peers. Likewise, individuals with mental retardation are thought to have less intelligence. In contrast to this widely accepted belief, the authors posed an alternative hypothesis--that intelligence is qualitatively different in various populations. Using factor analysis of a standardization sample of the Woodcock-Johnson Test of Cognitive Ability (R. W. Woodcock & M. B. Johnson, 1989), the authors examined the nature of intellect across ability. Results indicated that the amount of variance attributable to Spearman's g declined as measured intellectual ability increased. PMID:17278419

Kane, Harrison D; Oakland, Thomas D; Brand, Christopher R

2006-09-01

346

Effects of hydration on cognitive function of pilots.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of fluid intake and possible dehydration on cognitive flight performance of pilots. A repeated-measures, counterbalanced, mixed study design was used to examine differences in working memory, spatial orientation, and cognitive flight performance of 40 randomly selected healthy pilots after having high and low fluid intakes. Serial weights were also analyzed to determine differences in cognitive flight performance of the dehydrated (1-3% weight loss) and hydrated study participants. Results showed flight performance and spatial cognition test scores were significantly (p < 0.05) poorer for pilots who had low fluid intakes and experienced dehydration in comparison to the hydrated pilots. These findings indicate fluid intake differences resulting in dehydration may have safety implications because peak cognitive performance among pilots is critical for flight safety. PMID:23820354

Lindseth, Paul D; Lindseth, Glenda N; Petros, Thomas V; Jensen, Warren C; Caspers, Julie

2013-07-01

347

Functional significance of complex fluctuations in brain activity: from resting state to cognitive neuroscience  

PubMed Central

Behavioral studies have shown that human cognition is characterized by properties such as temporal scale invariance, heavy-tailed non-Gaussian distributions, and long-range correlations at long time scales, suggesting models of how (non observable) components of cognition interact. On the other hand, results from functional neuroimaging studies show that complex scaling and intermittency may be generic spatio-temporal properties of the brain at rest. Somehow surprisingly, though, hardly ever have the neural correlates of cognition been studied at time scales comparable to those at which cognition shows scaling properties. Here, we analyze the meanings of scaling properties and the significance of their task-related modulations for cognitive neuroscience. It is proposed that cognitive processes can be framed in terms of complex generic properties of brain activity at rest and, ultimately, of functional equations, limiting distributions, symmetries, and possibly universality classes characterizing them.

Papo, David

2014-01-01

348

Social Activity and Cognitive Functioning Over Time: A Coordinated Analysis of Four Longitudinal Studies  

PubMed Central

Social activity is typically viewed as part of an engaged lifestyle that may help mitigate the deleterious effects of advanced age on cognitive function. As such, social activity has been examined in relation to cognitive abilities later in life. However, longitudinal evidence for this hypothesis thus far remains inconclusive. The current study sought to clarify the relationship between social activity and cognitive function over time using a coordinated data analysis approach across four longitudinal studies. A series of multilevel growth models with social activity included as a covariate is presented. Four domains of cognitive function were assessed: reasoning, memory, fluency, and semantic knowledge. Results suggest that baseline social activity is related to some, but not all, cognitive functions. Baseline social activity levels failed to predict rate of decline in most cognitive abilities. Changes in social activity were not consistently associated with cognitive functioning. Our findings do not provide consistent evidence that changes in social activity correspond to immediate benefits in cognitive functioning, except perhaps for verbal fluency.

Brown, Cassandra L.; Gibbons, Laura E.; Kennison, Robert F.; Robitaille, Annie; Lindwall, Magnus; Mitchell, Meghan B.; Shirk, Steven D.; Atri, Alireza; Cimino, Cynthia R.; Benitez, Andreana; MacDonald, Stuart W. S.; Zelinski, Elizabeth M.; Willis, Sherry L.; Schaie, K. Warner; Johansson, Boo; Dixon, Roger A.; Mungas, Dan M.; Hofer, Scott M.; Piccinin, Andrea M.

2012-01-01

349

Metabolic Syndrome and Cognitive Function: A Population-Based Follow-Up Study in Elderly Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To test the hypothesis that metabolic syndrome predicts cognitive impairment, and to examine the association of single metabolic risk factors with cognitive functioning. Methods: Weperformed a 12-year follow-up study in a population-based sample of 101 women aged 60–70 years at baseline. Metabolic syndrome wasdefined by the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria (?3 out of 5 risk factors). Global cognitive

Pirjo Komulainen; Timo A. Lakka; Miia Kivipelto; Maija Hassinen; Eeva-Liisa Helkala; Irja Haapala; Aulikki Nissinen; Rainer Rauramaa

2007-01-01

350

Effect of antihypertensive therapy on cognitive functions of patients with hypertension  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Hypertension is known to be associated with cognitive decline. Many studies revealed that control of hypertension with antihypertensive therapy controls the cognitive decline associated with hypertension. While there are reports that suggest that antihypertensive drugs do not provide protection from cognitive decline, the present study is designed to evaluate the cognitive status of patients recently diagnosed as hypertensive and effect of 3 month long antihypertensive therapy on cognitive functions. Materials and Methods: A predesigned pretested questionnaire was used to collect the information. The PGI memory scale (PGIMS) was employed to assess memory function of patients. Baseline memory functions were evaluated before starting the treatment with antihypertensive and compared with the cognitive function scores of healthy volunteers. After the 3 months of treatment, cognitive functions were evaluated again by the same scale. The unpaired t-test was used to compare the cognitive functions between case and control and the paired t-test was used to compare pre- and post-treatment score. Results: This study revealed that mean scores of six subtests of cognitive functions were less in cases as compared to subjects in comparison group. After 3 months of antihypertensive therapy, scores of five sub-tests were found to be increased. Among these five subtests, four were those which were found declined at the baseline. Conclusion: This suggests that antihypertensive therapy given for 3 months improved the score of those cognitive function tests in which hypertensive patients perform poorly during recruitment and there was no deterioration of any test after 3 months of antihypertensive therapy.

Jaiswal, Ashok; Bhavsar, V.; Jaykaran; Kantharia, N. D.

2010-01-01

351

Impaired Sociability and Cognitive Function in Nrcam-null Mice  

PubMed Central

NRCAM (Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecule) has an important role in axonal guidance and the organization of neural circuitry during brain development. Association analyses in human populations have identified NRCAM as a candidate gene for autism susceptibility. In the present study, we evaluated Nrcam-null mice for sociability, social novelty preference, and reversal learning as a model for the social deficits, repetitive behavior, and cognitive rigidity characteristic of autism. Prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle responses was also measured, to reflect sensorimotor-gating deficits in autism spectrum disorders. Assays for anxiety-like behavior in an elevated plus maze and open field, motor coordination, and olfactory ability in a buried food test were conducted to provide control measures for the interpretation of results. Overall, the loss of Nrcam led to behavioral alterations in sociability, acquisition of a spatial task, and reversal learning, dependent on sex. In comparison to male wild type mice, male Nrcam-null mutants had significantly decreased sociability in a three-chambered choice task. Low sociability in the male null mutants was not associated with changes in anxiety-like behavior, activity, or motor coordination. Male, but not female, Nrcam-null mice had small decreases in prepulse inhibition. Nrcam deficiency in female mice led to impaired acquisition of spatial learning in the Morris water maze task. Reversal learning deficits were observed in both male and female Nrcam-null mice. These results provide evidence that NRCAM mediates domains of function relevant to symptoms observed in autism.

Moy, Sheryl S.; Nonneman, Randal J.; Young, Nancy B.; Demyanenko, Galina P.; Maness, Patricia F.

2009-01-01

352

Cognition, Function, and Disability in Patients With Schizophrenia: A Review of Longitudinal Studies  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to review longitudinal studies assessing the impact of cognition on function in patients with schizophrenia. PubMed and Scholars Portal were searched using search terms related to schizophrenia, cognition, function, and longitudinal studies. Some functional abilities have been studied more than others. Some studies suggest that the impact of cognition on function depends on the severity of baseline cognitive deficits. Other studies suggest that the impact of cognition on function depend on what phase of the illness the patient is in or what stage in that particular function the patient is involved in. Finally, few studies assessed interactions between cognition and other aspects of schizophrenia in predicting function, such as functional capacity, insight, motivation, and negative symptoms. More longitudinal and comprehensive studies are needed. A focus on community living is of high public significance as patients with schizophrenia continue to grow old. Future studies should also focus on the longitudinal interactions between cognition and other dimensions of schizophrenia as well as on the biological factors that underlie these interactions.

Rajji, Tarek K; Miranda, Dielle; Mulsant, Benoit H

2014-01-01

353

Cognition, function, and disability in patients with schizophrenia: a review of longitudinal studies.  

PubMed

This paper aims to review longitudinal studies assessing the impact of cognition on function in patients with schizophrenia. PubMed and Scholars Portal were searched using search terms related to schizophrenia, cognition, function, and longitudinal studies. Some functional abilities have been studied more than others. Some studies suggest that the impact of cognition on function depends on the severity of baseline cognitive deficits. Other studies suggest that the impact of cognition on function depend on what phase of the illness the patient is in or what stage in that particular function the patient is involved in. Finally, few studies assessed interactions between cognition and other aspects of schizophrenia in predicting function, such as functional capacity, insight, motivation, and negative symptoms. More longitudinal and comprehensive studies are needed. A focus on community living is of high public significance as patients with schizophrenia continue to grow old. Future studies should also focus on the longitudinal interactions between cognition and other dimensions of schizophrenia as well as on the biological factors that underlie these interactions. PMID:24444319

Rajji, Tarek K; Miranda, Dielle; Mulsant, Benoit H

2014-01-01

354

Preserving cognitive function for patients with overactive bladder: evidence for a differential effect with darifenacin  

PubMed Central

Background: Antimuscarinic agents used in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) differ in their potential to impair cognitive function. It is hypothesised that low brain concentrations and relatively low selectivity for the M1 muscarinic receptor may reduce the potential for adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects with darifenacin, compared with other antimuscarinics, particularly oxybutynin. Methods: Cognitive function studies evaluating darifenacin, oxybutynin, tolterodine, solifenacin and/or trospium were identified from publications databases (Medline, Biosis and Embase) and congress abstracts. Preclinical studies and randomised controlled trials in adults were reviewed. Results: Five randomised, double-blind, multiple-dose studies of cognitive function were identified. Oxybutynin was consistently associated with cognitive deficit (four studies), whereas darifenacin did not impair cognition (three studies). These findings were supported by data from sleep/attention and EEG studies. Tolterodine data were limited to one small study with each formulation. For solifenacin and trospium, there were no human studies evaluating memory, the cognitive function most vulnerable to CNS anticholinergics. Conclusions: There is compelling evidence of cognitive impairment with oxybutynin, whereas darifenacin stands out by demonstrating no impairment of memory or other cognitive functions in three randomised, controlled trials. This may be attributed to the differences in physicochemical properties, efflux mechanisms and relative M1 muscarinic receptor sparing. The risk of CNS impairment is of particular concern for vulnerable populations such as the elderly (a substantial proportion of the OAB population), and CNS-compromised neurogenic bladder patients such as those with multiple sclerosis or Parkinson’s disease.

Kay, G G; Ebinger, U

2008-01-01

355

Can We Understand Why Cognitive Function Predicts Mortality? Results from the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The association between cognitive function and mortality is of increasing interest. We followed 1870 men aged 55-69 years at cognitive assessment for 16 years to establish associations with all case and cause specific mortality. Cognitive assessment included AH4, 4 choice reaction time (used as estimates of mid-life cognition) and the National…

Gallacher, John; Bayer, Anthony; Dunstan, Frank; Yarnell, John; Elwood, Peter; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

2009-01-01

356

Cognitive Performance in a Subclinical Obsessive-Compulsive Sample 1: Cognitive Functions  

PubMed Central

Individuals who are not clinically diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but still display obsessive-compulsive (OC) tendencies may show cognitive impairments. The present study investigated whether there are subgroups within a healthy group showing characteristic cognitive and emotional performance levels similar to those found in OCD patients and whether they differ from OCD subgroups regarding performance levels. Of interest are those cases showing subclinical symptomatology. The results revealed no impairments in the subclinical OC participants on the neuropsychological tasks, while evidence suggests that there exist high and low scores on two standardised clinical instruments (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Cognitive Assessment Instrument of Obsessions and Compulsions) in a healthy sample. OC symptoms may diminish the quality of life and prolong sustainable return to work. It may be that occupational rehabilitation programmes are more effective in rectifying subclinical OC tendencies compared to the often complex symptoms of diagnosed OCD patients. The relationship between cognitive style and subclinical OC symptoms is discussed in terms of how materials and information might be processed. Although subclinical OC tendencies would not seem to constitute a diagnosis of OCD, the quality of treatment programmes such as cognitive behavioural therapy can be improved based on the current investigation.

Johansen, Thomas; Dittrich, Winand H.

2013-01-01

357

Mental exercising through simple socializing: social interaction promotes general cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Social interaction is a central feature of people's life and engages a variety of cognitive resources. Thus, social interaction should facilitate general cognitive functioning. Previous studies suggest such a link, but they used special populations (e.g., elderly with cognitive impairment), measured social interaction indirectly (e.g., via marital status), and only assessed effects of extended interaction in correlational designs. Here the relation between mental functioning and direct indicators of social interaction was examined in a younger and healthier population. Study 1 using survey methodology found a positive relationship between social interaction, assessed via amount of actual social contact, and cognitive functioning in people from three age groups including younger adults. Study 2 using an experimental design found that a small amount of social interaction (10 min) can facilitate cognitive performance. The findings are discussed in the context of the benefits social relationships have for so many aspects of people's lives. PMID:18212333

Ybarra, Oscar; Burnstein, Eugene; Winkielman, Piotr; Keller, Matthew C; Manis, Melvin; Chan, Emily; Rodriguez, Joel

2008-02-01

358

Cognitive Dysfunction in Early Multiple Sclerosis: Altered Centrality Derived from Resting-State Functional Connectivity Using Magneto-Encephalography  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS) is frequent. Insight into underlying mechanisms would help to develop therapeutic strategies. Objective To explore the relationship of cognitive performance to patterns of nodal centrality derived from magneto-encephalography (MEG). Methods 34 early relapsing-remitting MS patients (median EDSS 2.0) and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) had a MEG, a neuropsychological assessment and structural MRI. Resting-state functional connectivity was determined by the synchronization likelihood. Eigenvector Centrality (EC) was used to quantify for each sensor its connectivity and importance within the network. A cognition-score was calculated, and normalized grey and white matter volumes were determined. EC was compared per sensor and frequency band between groups using permutation testing, and related to cognition. Results Patients had lower grey and white matter volumes than HC, male patients lower cognitive performance than female patients. In HC, EC distribution showed highest nodal centrality over bi-parietal sensors (“hubs”). In patients, nodal centrality was even higher bi-parietally (theta-band) but markedly lower left temporally (upper alpha- and beta-band). Lower cognitive performance correlated to decreased nodal centrality over left temporal (lower alpha-band) and right temporal (beta-band) sensors, and to increased nodal centrality over right parieto-temporal sensors (beta-band). Network changes were most pronounced in male patients. Conclusions Partial functional disconnection of the temporal regions was associated with cognitive dysfunction in MS; increased centrality in parietal hubs may reflect a shift from temporal to possibly less efficient parietal processing. To better understand patterns and dynamics of these network changes, longitudinal studies are warranted, also addressing the influence of gender.

Hardmeier, Martin; Schoonheim, Menno M.; Geurts, Jeroen J. G.; Hillebrand, Arjan; Polman, Chris H.; Barkhof, Frederik; Stam, Cornelis J.

2012-01-01

359

Teacher cognitive functioning as a factor in observed variety and level of classroom teaching behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of the literature suggests a relationship between life-long development of formal reasoning schema and performance in professional education careers. The study investigated implications of cognitive development of preservice teachers as it relates to their classroom teaching performance. Ninety-one seniors involved in a field-oriented teacher education program were given classroom responsibilities which included teaching a science unit. Formal thinking abilities were assessed using two types of developmental level tasks, performance on traditional type Piagetian tasks and recognition of formal thought approaches in solving educational tasks. Professional behaviors were assessed using observational ratings of classroom instructional and planning activities. Subjects assessed as formal operational, 30% of sample, using Piagetian performance tasks, had significantly higher facility in performing model classroom teaching behaviors than transitional or concrete subjects. Higher recognition ability of formal thought approaches to teaching was not related to facility in performing classroom teaching when compared to performance on Piagetian tasks. The relationship held up in seven of eight broad teaching behavior categories observed in classroom instruction. The results supported a general portrait of teaching behavior specifically related to teachers of differing cognitive functional levels. Implications for professional training programs are discussed.

Sunal, Dennis W.; Sunal, Cynthia

360

NEUROIMMUNOENDOCRINE PATHOLOGY AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN TYPE 2 DIABETES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive impairment among older adults with type 2 diabetes may worsen health outcomes via negative impact on compliance with medical self-care recommendations. Results of several previous studies indicate that cognitive deficits are present in older European American adults with type 2 diabetes under some conditions, particularly related to glucose dysregulation (as evidenced by high glycated hemoglobin, i.e., HbA1c). Despite the

KRISTA WILD

361

Prefrontal cortical blood flow and cognitive function in Huntington's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the relationship between cortical physiology and dementia in Huntington's disease, rCBF during three different behavioural conditions, one of which emphasised prefrontal cognition, was determined by xenon-133 inhalation in 14 patients with Huntington's disease and in matched controls. Cortical rCBF was not reduced in Huntington's disease patients even while they manifested overt prefrontal-type cognitive deficits. Caudate atrophy on CT

D R Weinberger; K F Berman; M Iadarola; N Driesen; R F Zec

1988-01-01

362

A Review of Functional Brain Imaging Correlates of Successful Cognitive Aging  

PubMed Central

Preserved cognitive performance is a key feature of successful aging. Several theoretical models (compensation, hemispheric asymmetry reduction, and posterior-anterior shift) have been proposed to explain the putative underlying relationship between brain function and performance. We aimed to review imaging studies of the association between brain functional response and cognitive performance among healthy younger and older adults in order to understand the neural correlates of successful cognitive aging. MEDLINE-indexed articles published between January 1989 and May 2008, and bibliographies of these articles and related reviews were searched. Studies that measured brain function using fMRI or PET, evaluated cognitive performance, analyzed how cognitive performance related to brain response, and studied healthy older individuals were included. Forty-seven of 276 articles met these criteria. Eighty-one percent of the studies reported some brain regions in which greater activation related to better cognitive performance among older participants. This association was not universal, however, and was seen mainly in frontal cortex brain response and seemed to be more common among older compared to younger individuals. This review supports the notion of compensatory increases in brain activity in old age resulting in better cognitive performance, as suggested by hemispheric asymmetry reduction and posterior-anterior shift models of functional brain aging. However, a simple model of bigger structure ? greater brain response ? better cognitive performance may not be accurate. Suggestions for future research are discussed.

Eyler, Lisa T.; Sherzai, Abdullah; Jeste, Dilip V.

2013-01-01

363

Cerebrovascular function and cognition in childhood: a systematic review of transcranial doppler studies  

PubMed Central

Background The contribution of cerebrovascular function to cognitive performance is gaining increased attention. Transcranial doppler (TCD) is portable, reliable, inexpensive and extremely well tolerated by young and clinical samples. It enables measurement of blood flow velocity in major cerebral arteries at rest and during cognitive tasks. Methods We systematically reviewed evidence for associations between cognitive performance and cerebrovascular function in children (0-18 years), as measured using TCD. A total of 2778 articles were retrieved from PsychInfo, Pubmed, and EMBASE searches and 25 relevant articles were identified. Results Most studies investigated clinical groups, where decreased blood flow velocities in infants were associated with poor neurological functioning, and increased blood flow velocities in children with Sickle cell disease were typically associated with cognitive impairment and lower intelligence. Studies were also identified assessing autistic behaviour, mental retardation and sleep disordered breathing. In healthy children, the majority of studies reported cognitive processing produced lateralised changes in blood flow velocities however these physiological responses did not appear to correlate with behavioural cognitive performance. Conclusion Poor cognitive performance appears to be associated with decreased blood flow velocities in premature infants, and increased velocities in Sickle cell disease children using TCD methods. However knowledge in healthy samples is relatively limited. The technique is well tolerated by children, is portable and inexpensive. It therefore stands to make a valuable contribution to knowledge regarding the underlying functional biology of cognitive performance in childhood.

2014-01-01

364

A Mechanistic Account of Striatal Dopamine Function in Human Cognition: Psychopharmacological Studies With Cabergoline and Haloperidol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors test a neurocomputational model of dopamine function in cognition by administering to healthy participants low doses of D2 agents cabergoline and haloperidol. The model suggests that DA dynamically modulates the balance of Go and No-Go basal ganglia pathways during cognitive learning and performance. Cabergoline impaired, while haloperidol enhanced, Go learning from positive reinforcement, consistent with presynaptic drug effects.

Michael J. Frank; Randall C. OReilly

2006-01-01

365

Reliability and Validity of the Massachusetts General Hospital Cognitive and Physical Functioning Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We have recently developed the Massachusetts General Hospital Cognitive and Physical Functioning Questionnaire (CPFQ), a brief scale to measure cognitive and executive dysfunction in mood and anxiety disorders, and we here report on its reliability and validity. Methods: The internal consistency of the CPFQ was assessed by computing Cronbach’s coefficient ? based upon the average intercorrelation of the 7

Maurizio Fava; Dan V. Iosifescu; Paola Pedrelli; Lee Baer

2009-01-01

366

Psychiatric and Cognitive Functioning in Adolescent Inpatients with Histories of Dating Violence Victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of dating violence victimization as well as its relation to psychiatric diagnosis and cognitive processes was examined in a sample of 155 adolescents hospitalized in a psychiatric facility. Participants and their parents completed semistructured diagnostic interviews. Participants also completed self-report measures of dating violence victimization and cognitive functioning. Seventy-seven percent of adolescents who had initiated dating reported psychological,

Christie J. Rizzo; Christianne Esposito-Smythers; Anthony Spirito; Ariel Thompson

2010-01-01

367

Correlation between cognitive brain function and electrical brain activity in dementia of Alzheimer type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Psychometric tests which assess cognitive brain function in dementia disorders are partly prone to artifacts, e.g., the experience of the investigator and the cooperation of the patient influences the results. An objective way to assess the degree of cognitive disturbance could be to measure neuronal activity represented by the electrical brain activity. The aim of the present study was

T. Dierks; L. Frölich; R. Ihl; K. Maurer

1995-01-01

368

Differentiation of Cognitive Abilities as a Function of Neuroticism Level: A Measurement Equivalence/Invariance Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the differentiation of cognitive abilities as a function of neuroticism. Specifically, we examine Eysenck and White's [Eysenck, H. J., and White, P. O. (1964). Personality and the measurement of intelligence. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 24, 197-201.] hypothesis that cognitive abilities are less differentiated…

Bonaccio, Silvia; Reeve, Charlie L.

2006-01-01

369

The Inter-relationships among Personality, Audience, Purpose, and Cognitive Functioning in Composing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four twelfth-grade students of "distinct" personality types participated in a study of relationships between composing processes and use of cognitive strategies, of relationships between personality type and cognitive functioning, and of the effects of these interrelationships on composing. Personality profiles were drawn based on responses to the…

Brozick, James R.

370

Cognitive, behavioral, and adaptive functioning in fragile X and non-fragile X retarded men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cognitive, behavioral, and adaptive functioning of 12 men with fragile X syndrome (aged 23 to 62 years) was systematically assessed and compared to two matched groups of retarded men without fragile X syndrome residing at the same institution. The fragile X group was largely indistinguishable from the camparison groups on the cognitive, behavioral, and adaptive measures. Fragile X patients

Elisabeth Dykens; James Leckman; Rhea Paul; Michael Watson

1988-01-01

371

Corpus Callosum Morphology and Its Relationship to Cognitive Function in Neurofibromatosis Type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is associated with cognitive dysfunction and structural brain abnormalities such as an enlarged corpus callosum. This study aimed to determine the relationship between corpus callosum morphology and cognitive function in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 using quantitative neuroanatomic imaging techniques. Children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (n = 46) demonstrated a significantly larger total corpus callosum and

Natalie Pride; Jonathan M. Payne; Richard Webster; E. Arthur Shores; Caroline Rae; Kathryn N. North

2010-01-01

372

The Relationship between Sleep and Epilepsy: The Effect on Cognitive Functioning in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The purpose of this review was to examine the possible pathophysiological links between epilepsy, cognition, sleep macro- and microstructure, and sleep disorders to highlight the contributions and interactions of sleep and epilepsy on cognitive functioning in children with epilepsy. Method: PubMed was used as the medical database source. No…

Parisi, Pasquale; Bruni, Oliviero; Pia Villa, Maria; Verrotti, Alberto; Miano, Silvia; Luchetti, Anna; Curatolo, Paolo

2010-01-01

373

Association of Pulmonary Function with Cognitive Performance in Early, Middle and Late Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Pulmonary function has been associated with some measures of cognitive performance, mostly in late adulthood. This study investigated whether this association is present for a range of cognitive measures, at three stages of adulthood, and whether it remains after controlling for demographic, health and lifestyle factors. Method: The relationship between forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1), a measure

Kaarin J. Anstey; Timothy D. Windsor; Anthony F. Jorm; Helen Christensen; Bryan Rodgers

2004-01-01

374

Integrating Functional Brain Neuroimaging and Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience in Child Psychiatry Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of cognitive neuroscience and functional brain neuroimaging to understand brain dysfunction in pediatric psychiatric disorders is discussed. Results show that bipolar youths demonstrate impairment in affective and cognitive neural systems and in these two circuits' interface. Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric…

Pavuluri, Mani N.; Sweeney, John A.

2008-01-01

375

Children's Sleep and Cognitive Functioning: Race and Socioeconomic Status as Moderators of Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Race and socioeconomic status (SES) moderated the link between children's sleep and cognitive functioning. One hundred and sixty-six 8- to 9-year-old African and European American children varying in SES participated. Sleep measures were actigraphy, sleep diaries, and self-report; cognitive measures were from the Woodcock-Johnson III and reaction…

Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keller, Peggy

2007-01-01

376

Heart rate variability and cognitive function: effects of physical effort.  

PubMed

This study investigated alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) and cognitive performance before and after physical effort, for 30 high-level track and field athletes (23 males and 7 females). Interbeat intervals were assessed at the baseline and during each task of a CogState cognitive battery (simple reaction time, choice reaction time, working memory, short-term memory and sustained attention). Time and frequency domain measures of HRV were compared between conditions and between tasks. The results indicated differences in HRV between executive and non-executive tasks. There was a significant increase in sympathetic-modulation-related indices after physical effort. The differences between executive and non-executive tasks were the same in post-test. Correlations were found between HRV and cognitive performance, which differed by speed and accuracy. We conclude that HRV is related to cognitive demand and that the correlation between HRV and cognitive performance seems to be stronger after physical exercise. The results raise questions about the psychophysiological meaning of different HRV signals and this has implications for future research about the relationship between HRV and cognition. PMID:19632295

Luft, Caroline Di Bernardi; Takase, Emílio; Darby, David

2009-10-01

377

Physical activity and cognitive function in individuals over 60 years of age: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background It is unclear whether physical activity in later life is beneficial for maintenance of cognitive function. We performed a systematic review examining the effects of exercise on cognitive function in older individuals, and present possible mechanisms whereby physical activity may improve cognition. Methods Sources consisted of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and the University of Washington, School of Medicine Library Database, with a search conducted on August 15, 2012 for publications limited to the English language starting January 1, 2000. Randomized controlled trials including at least 30 participants and lasting at least 6 months, and all observational studies including a minimum of 100 participants for one year, were evaluated. All subjects included were at least 60 years of age. Results Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-six studies reported a positive correlation between physical activity and maintenance or enhancement of cognitive function. Five studies reported a dose-response relationship between physical activity and cognition. One study showed a nonsignificant correlation. Conclusion The preponderance of evidence suggests that physical activity is beneficial for cognitive function in the elderly. However, the majority of the evidence is of medium quality with a moderate risk of bias. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the association between exercise and cognitive function and to determine which types of exercise have the greatest benefit on specific cognitive domains. Despite these caveats, the current evidence suggests that physical activity may help to improve cognitive function and, consequently, delay the progression of cognitive impairment in the elderly.

Carvalho, Ashley; Rea, Irene Maeve; Parimon, Tanyalak; Cusack, Barry J

2014-01-01

378

Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I and Cognitive Function in Healthy Older Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GH\\/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH\\/IGF-I) axis is known to be involved in aging of physiological functions. Recent studies indicate that the GH\\/IGF-I axis may be associated with cognitive functioning. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the age- related decline in circulating levels of IGF-I, as an index of anabolic status, is associated with cognitive functions that

HARALD J. J. VERHAAR; EDWARD H. F. DE HAAN; WOUTER R. DE VRIES; MONIQUE M. SAMSON; MADELEINE L. DRENT

2010-01-01

379

Relationships among brain metabolites, cognitive function, and viral loads in antiretroviral-naïve HIV patients.  

PubMed

This study aims to determine the relationship among cerebral metabolite concentrations (on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy or (1)H MRS), cognitive function, and clinical variables (CD4, plasma and CSF viral loads, and lipids) in antiretroviral medication-nai;ve HIV patients. We hypothesized that the probable glial markers myo-inositol [MI] and choline compounds [CHO] would correlate with cognitive function, CD4 count, and viral loads, but not with serum lipids. Forty-five antiretroviral-drug-nai;ve HIV patients and 25 control subjects were evaluated. Frontal lobe [MI], [CHO], and total creatine [CR] were elevated, while basal ganglia [CR] were decreased, with increasing dementia severity. As a group, HIV patients showed slowing on fine motor (Grooved Pegboard) and psychomotor function (Trails A & B), and deficits on executive function (Stroop tasks). Lower CD4 counts and elevated plasma viral loads were associated with elevated frontal white matter [MI], which in turn correlated with the Stroop tasks. These findings suggest that systemic factors (resulting from suppressed immune function and higher plasma viral load) may lead to glial proliferation (elevated [MI], [CHO], and [CR]) in the frontal white matter, which in turn may contribute to deficits on executive function in HIV. Studying antiretroviral-nai;ve patients minimized the confounding effects of antiretroviral treatment on the clinical, MRS, and neuropsychological variables, and allowed for a more accurate assessment of the relationships among these measurements. Metabolite concentrations, rather than metabolite ratios, should be measured since [CR], a commonly used reference for metabolite ratios, varies with disease severity in both frontal lobe and basal ganglia. PMID:12414302

Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas; Witt, Mallory D; Ames, Nina; Gaiefsky, Megan; Miller, Eric

2002-11-01

380

Link Between Change in Cognition and Left Ventricular Function following Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE In patients with heart failure, reduced cardiac ejection fraction has been associated with impaired cognition. Improving cardiac function may have beneficial effects on cognition; however, no controlled intervention studies have examined this possibility. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is 1 intervention that has been shown to increase cardiac function. The goals of the current study were to: 1) evaluate neuropsychological performance before and 3-months after CRT and 2) examine follow-up neuropsychological performance of patients classified based on extent of improved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). METHODS Twenty-seven patients with moderate to severe heart failure completed a neuropsychological assessment, 6-minute walk test, and transthoracic echocardiogram prior to and 3-months post-CRT. Patients were classified based on improvement in LVEF. Results of a MANOVA revealed a significant effect of improvement in LVEF on change in cognition (Wilk’s lambda, P=.031). RESULTS Patients with improved LVEF demonstrated significant increases on measures of executive functioning (F=8.57, P=.007) and visuospatial function (F=7.52, P=.011) and less decline on global cognition (F=5.73, P=.024) than those without LVEF improvement. CONCLUSIONS Findings provide preliminary evidence that improved LVEF in response to CRT is associated with enhanced cognitive outcomes within 3 months of CRT. Patients with improved LVEF showed better outcomes on measures of executive functioning, global cognition, and visuospatial functioning. Future controlled large scale trials will be necessary to determine whether there is an underlying causal relationship linking increase in LVEF and cognition.

Hoth, Karin F.; Poppas, Athena; Ellison, Kristin E.; Paul, Robert H.; Sokobin, Andrew; Cho, Youngsoo; Cohen, Ronald A.

2010-01-01

381

Cognitive and symptom profiles in Asperger's syndrome and high-functioning autism.  

PubMed

Asperger syndrome (AS) and autistic disorder are two subtypes of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), but there has been considerable debate over whether AS and autistic disorder without mental retardation (IQ > or = 70), called high-functioning autism (HFA), are distinct conditions or not. The aim of the present paper was to clarify this issue through a comparison of cognitive function and autistic symptom profiles. Based on the DSM-IV and ICD-10 definitions of language acquisition, 36 age- and IQ-balanced subjects with AS (mean age, 12.8 years; mean full-scale IQ, 98.3) were compared with 37 subjects with HFA (mean age, 12.6 years; mean full-scale IQ, 94.6) on the Japanese version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale-Tokyo Version (CARS-TV). Compared with the HFA subjects, the AS subjects scored significantly higher on Verbal IQ, Vocabulary, and Comprehension, but scored significantly lower on Coding. Although the total CARS-TV score did not differ significantly between the two groups, AS subjects scored significantly lower (i.e. less abnormal) on Verbal communication and Non-verbal communication than did the HFA subjects. A history of normal language acquisition in early childhood could predict his/her better verbal ability in mid-childhood or later. Autistic cognitive characteristics shared by both AS and HFA subjects appear to support the validity of the current diagnostic classification of PDD. PMID:17239046

Koyama, Tomonori; Tachimori, Hisateru; Osada, Hirokazu; Takeda, Toshinobu; Kurita, Hiroshi

2007-02-01

382

Social Disinterest Attitudes and Group Cognitive-Behavioral Social Skills Training for Functional Disability in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

The majority of clinical trials of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for schizophrenia have used individual therapy to target positive symptoms. Promising results have been found, however, for group CBT interventions and other treatment targets like psychosocial