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1

Modeling Field Theory of Higher Cognitive Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chapter discusses a mathematical theory of higher cognitive functions, including concepts, emotions, instincts, understanding, imagination and intuition. Mechanisms of the knowledge instinct are proposed, driving our understanding of the world. Aesthetic emotions and perception of beauty are related to \\

Leonid Perlovsky

2007-01-01

2

The mix matters: Complex personal networks relate to higher cognitive functioning in old age.  

PubMed

Stronger engagement of older adults in social activities and greater embeddedness in networks is often argued to buffer cognitive decline and lower risks of dementia. One of the explanations is that interaction with other people trains the brain, thereby enhancing cognitive functioning. However, research on the relationship between personal networks and cognitive functioning is not yet conclusive. While previous studies have focused on the size of personal networks as a proxy of cognitive stimulation, little attention has been paid to the complexity of the personal network. Adults embedded in a broad range of network relationships (i.e., various relationship types) are likely to be exposed to a wider range of stimuli than adults embedded in a homogeneous network including similar relationship types. We expect that higher numbers of personal relationship types rather than a higher number of similar contacts relate to higher levels of cognitive functioning and slower cognitive decline. Data are from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) and include 2959 Dutch participants aged 54 to 85 at baseline in 1992 and six follow-ups covering a time span of twenty years. Cognitive functioning is assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and for network complexity we use the Social Network Index. We test our expectations using fixed-effects regression models. The results reveal that a reduction in network complexity is associated with a reduction in cognitive functioning, which is neither explained by size of the network nor by presence of specific relationship types. However, enhanced complexity has only a marginal buffering effect on decline in cognitive functioning. We conclude that network characteristics and cognitive functioning are intertwined and that their association is mostly cross-sectional in nature. PMID:24840784

Ellwardt, Lea; Van Tilburg, Theo G; Aartsen, Marja J

2015-01-01

3

Sex Differences in Cognitive Domains and Their Clinical Correlates in Higher-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the skewed sex ratio, few studies have addressed possible cognitive sex differences in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study compared visual attention to detail (ATTD) and selected executive functions (EF) in 35 males and 21 females with higher-functioning ASD and unaffected sibling controls. Females with ASD outperformed males on…

Bolte, Sven; Duketis, Eftichia; Poustka, Fritz; Holtmann, Martin

2011-01-01

4

Higher HDL Cholesterol Is Associated with Better Cognitive Function: the Maine-Syracuse Study.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined associations between different subcategories of cholesterol and cognitive function. We examined relationships between total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), triglyceride levels and cognitive performance in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study, a community-based study of cardiovascular risk factors. Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on data from 540 participants, aged 60 to 98 years, free of dementia and stroke. TC, HDL, LDL, and triglyceride levels were obtained. Cognitive function was assessed using a thorough neuropsychological test battery, including domains of cognitive function indexed by multiple cognitive tests. The cognitive outcomes studied were as follows: Visual-Spatial Memory and Organization, Verbal and Working Memory, Scanning and Tracking, Abstract Reasoning, a Global Composite score, and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Significant positive associations were observed between HDL-cholesterol and the Global Composite score, Working Memory, and the MMSE after adjustment for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Participants with desirable levels of HDL (?60 mg/dL) had the highest scores on all cognitive outcomes. There were no significant associations observed between TC, LDL, or triglyceride concentrations and cognition. In older individuals, HDL-cholesterol was related to a composite of Working Memory tests and for general measures of cognitive ability when adjusted for cardiovascular variables. We speculate that persons over 60 are survivors and thus less likely to show cognitive deficit in relation to TC, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine relations between specific cognitive abilities and the different subcategories of cholesterol. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1-10). PMID:25382185

Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Davey, Adam; Sullivan, Kevin J; Robbins, Michael A

2014-11-01

5

ST3GAL3 Mutations Impair the Development of Higher Cognitive Functions  

PubMed Central

The genetic variants leading to impairment of intellectual performance are highly diverse and are still poorly understood. ST3GAL3 encodes the Golgi enzyme ?-galactoside-?2,3-sialyltransferase-III that in humans predominantly forms the sialyl Lewis a epitope on proteins. ST3GAL3 resides on chromosome 1 within the MRT4 locus previously identified to associate with nonsyndromic autosomal recessive intellectual disability. We searched for the disease-causing mutations in the MRT4 family and a second independent consanguineous Iranian family by using a combination of chromosome sorting and next-generation sequencing. Two different missense changes in ST3GAL3 cosegregate with the disease but were absent in more than 1000 control chromosomes. In cellular and biochemical test systems, these mutations were shown to cause ER retention of the Golgi enzyme and drastically impair ST3Gal-III functionality. Our data provide conclusive evidence that glycotopes formed by ST3Gal-III are prerequisite for attaining and/or maintaining higher cognitive functions. PMID:21907012

Hu, Hao; Eggers, Katinka; Chen, Wei; Garshasbi, Masoud; Motazacker, M. Mahdi; Wrogemann, Klaus; Kahrizi, Kimia; Tzschach, Andreas; Hosseini, Masoumeh; Bahman, Ideh; Hucho, Tim; Mühlenhoff, Martina; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Najmabadi, Hossein; Ropers, H. Hilger; Kuss, Andreas W.

2011-01-01

6

What the CERAD Battery Can Tell Us about Executive Function as a Higher-Order Cognitive Faculty  

PubMed Central

Executive function (EF) is believed to control or influence the integration and application of cognitive functions such as attention and memory and is an important area of research in cognitive aging. Recent studies and reviews have concluded that there is no single test for EF. Results from first-order latent variable modeling have suggested that little, if any, variability in cognitive performance can be directly (and uniquely) attributed to EF; so instead, we modeled EF, as it is conceptualized, as a higher-order function, using elements of the CERAD neuropsychological battery. Responses to subtests from two large, independent cohorts of nondemented elderly persons were modeled with three theoretically plausible structural models using confirmatory factor analysis. Robust fit statistics, generated for the two cohorts separately, were consistent and support the conceptualization of EF as a higher-order cognitive faculty. Although not specifically designed to assess EF, subtests of the CERAD battery provide theoretically and empirically robust evidence about the nature of EF in elderly adults. PMID:20585350

Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Fillenbaum, Gerda; Aisen, Paul S.; Liebke, David E.; Yumoto, Futoshi; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha N.

2010-01-01

7

The Role of Higher-Level Cognitive Function in Gait: Executive Dysfunction Contributes to Fall Risk in Alzheimer’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is generally understood as primarily affecting cognition while sparing motor function, at least until the later stages of the disease. Studies reported over the past 10 years, however, have documented a prevalence of falls in AD patients significantly higher than in age-matched normal elders; also persons with AD have been observed to have different walking patterns with

Pamela L. Sheridan; Jeffrey M. Hausdorff

2007-01-01

8

Nogo-A-deficient Transgenic Rats Show Deficits in Higher Cognitive Functions, Decreased Anxiety, and Altered Circadian Activity Patterns  

PubMed Central

Decreased levels of Nogo-A-dependent signaling have been shown to affect behavior and cognitive functions. In Nogo-A knockout and knockdown laboratory rodents, behavioral alterations were observed, possibly corresponding with human neuropsychiatric diseases of neurodevelopmental origin, particularly schizophrenia. This study offers further insight into behavioral manifestations of Nogo-A knockdown in laboratory rats, focusing on spatial and non-spatial cognition, anxiety levels, circadian rhythmicity, and activity patterns. Demonstrated is an impairment of cognitive functions and behavioral flexibility in a spatial active avoidance task, while non-spatial memory in a step-through avoidance task was spared. No signs of anhedonia, typical for schizophrenic patients, were observed in the animals. Some measures indicated lower anxiety levels in the Nogo-A-deficient group. Circadian rhythmicity in locomotor activity was preserved in the Nogo-A knockout rats and their circadian period (tau) did not differ from controls. However, daily activity patterns were slightly altered in the knockdown animals. We conclude that a reduction of Nogo-A levels induces changes in CNS development, manifested as subtle alterations in cognitive functions, emotionality, and activity patterns. PMID:24672453

Petrasek, Tomas; Prokopova, Iva; Sladek, Martin; Weissova, Kamila; Vojtechova, Iveta; Bahnik, Stepan; Zemanova, Anna; Schönig, Kai; Berger, Stefan; Tews, Björn; Bartsch, Dusan; Schwab, Martin E.; Sumova, Alena; Stuchlik, Ales

2014-01-01

9

Higher Selberg Zeta Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper [KW2] we introduced a new type of Selberg zeta function for establishing a certain identity among the non-trivial zeroes of the Selberg zeta function and of the Riemann zeta function. We shall call this zeta function a higher Selberg zeta function. The purpose of this paper is to study the analytic properties of the higher Selberg zeta

Nobushige Kurokawa; Masato Wakayama

2004-01-01

10

Higher Selberg Zeta Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper [KW2] we introduced a new type of Selberg zeta function for establishing a certain identity among the non-trivial zeroes of the Selberg zeta function and of the Riemann zeta function. We shall call this zeta function a higher Selberg zeta function. The purpose of this paper is to study the analytic properties of the higher Selberg zeta function z?(s), especially to obtain the functional equation. We also describe the gamma factor of z?(s) in terms of the triple sine function explicitly and, further, determine the complete higher Selberg zeta function with having a discussion of a certain generalized zeta regularization.

Kurokawa, Nobushige; Wakayama, Masato

11

The hierarchical and functional connectivity of higher-order cognitive mechanisms: neurorobotic model to investigate the stability and flexibility of working memory  

PubMed Central

Higher-order cognitive mechanisms (HOCM), such as planning, cognitive branching, switching, etc., are known to be the outcomes of a unique neural organizations and dynamics between various regions of the frontal lobe. Although some recent anatomical and neuroimaging studies have shed light on the architecture underlying the formation of such mechanisms, the neural dynamics and the pathways in and between the frontal lobe to form and/or to tune the stability level of its working memory remain controversial. A model to clarify this aspect is therefore required. In this study, we propose a simple neurocomputational model that suggests the basic concept of how HOCM, including the cognitive branching and switching in particular, may mechanistically emerge from time-based neural interactions. The proposed model is constructed such that its functional and structural hierarchy mimics, to a certain degree, the biological hierarchy that is believed to exist between local regions in the frontal lobe. Thus, the hierarchy is attained not only by the force of the layout architecture of the neural connections but also through distinct types of neurons, each with different time properties. To validate the model, cognitive branching and switching tasks were simulated in a physical humanoid robot driven by the model. Results reveal that separation between the lower and the higher-level neurons in such a model is an essential factor to form an appropriate working memory to handle cognitive branching and switching. The analyses of the obtained result also illustrates that the breadth of this separation is important to determine the characteristics of the resulting memory, either static memory or dynamic memory. This work can be considered as a joint research between synthetic and empirical studies, which can open an alternative research area for better understanding of brain mechanisms. PMID:23423881

Alnajjar, Fady; Yamashita, Yuichi; Tani, Jun

2013-01-01

12

Meditation in Higher Education: Does It Enhance Cognition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We predicted that students in a sociology course that included contemplative practices (i.e., mindfulness meditation) would show an increase in performance on higher level cognitive abilities (executive functions) over the semester compared to a control group of students. Change in executive functions performance was not significantly different…

Helber, Casey; Zook, Nancy A.; Immergut, Matthew

2012-01-01

13

Relational processing in higher cognition: Implications for analogy, capacity and cognitive development.  

E-print Network

Relational processing in higher cognition: Implications for analogy, capacity and cognitive relations capture the structure sensitivity of higher cognitive processes while they can also be compared of higher cognitive processes in a way that enables them to be distinguished systematically from more basic

Wilson, Bill

14

Cortisol and cognitive function in midlife: The role of childhood cognition and educational attainment  

PubMed Central

Summary Adult cognition and age-related cognitive decline can be influenced by dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis with concomitant changes in cortisol levels. However, very little is known about the role of childhood cognition and educational attainment in this relationship. Using data from the British 1946 birth cohort, the present study investigated: (1) associations between cortisol levels and patterns and cognitive function in midlife; (2) direct and interactive effects of childhood cognition, educational attainment and cortisol on cognitive function in midlife. Verbal memory, letter search speed and reaction time were assessed at age 60–64 years. Salivary cortisol samples (wakening, 30 min after wakening and evening) were collected at the same age. Childhood cognitive ability was measured at ages 8, 11, and 15, and educational level was reported at age 26. Associations between cortisol, childhood cognition, educational attainment and cognitive function in midlife were tested using linear regression and structural equation modelling approaches. Higher evening cortisol level was associated with slower reaction time and lower verbal memory. These associations were independent of childhood cognition and education as well as a range of other potential confounders. Childhood cognition and education were not directly associated with evening cortisol. However, there was a significant interaction effect between childhood cognition and evening cortisol on reaction time (p = .002): higher evening cortisol was associated with slower reaction time only among those with low childhood cognitive ability. There was little evidence of associations between the other cortisol measures and cognitive function. PMID:25001968

Gaysina, Darya; Gardner, Michael P.; Richards, Marcus; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

2014-01-01

15

HOMOCYSTEINE AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prevention and treatment of age-related cognitive impairment and dementia is one of the greatest and most elusive challenges of our time. The prevalence of dementia increases exponentially with age, as does the prevalence of those with micronutrient deficiency. Several studies have shown that el...

16

[Insulin resistance and cognitive function].  

PubMed

Risk of Alzheimer disease is increased in patients with diabetes. Insulin resistance is identified as a pathogenic mechanism of impaired cognitive dysfunction. Amyloid beta oligomers cause impaired insulin signaling at IRS-1 via mechanisms of TNFalpha and JNK activation. Attenuation of PI-3 kinase pathway is also involved in the hyper-phosphorylation of Tau. Impairment of orexin function is connected to the age related insulin resistance and shortening of life expectancy. Synapse deterioration and loss via these mechanisms underlying defective brain insulin signaling result in cognitive dysfunction. Stimulation of insulin signaling is a developing therapeutic approach in Alzheimer disease. Nasal insulin administration, thiazolidinedione, and GLP-1 receptor agonist possess neuronal protective effects in the treatment of mild cognitive dysfunction. Further identification of the pathogenic mechanism connecting between Alzheimer disease and insulin resistance contributes to development of novel therapeutics in Alzheimer disease. PMID:24796090

Sasaoka, Toshiyasu; Wada, Tsutomu; Tsuneki, Hiroshi

2014-04-01

17

Placebo sleep affects cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether perceived sleep quality affects cognitive functioning, 164 participants reported their previous night's sleep quality. They were then randomly assigned to 1 of 2 sleep quality conditions or 2 control conditions. Those in the "above average" sleep quality condition were informed that they had spent 28.7% of their total sleep time in REM, whereas those in the "below average" sleep quality condition were informed that they had only spent 16.2% of their time in REM sleep. Assigned sleep quality but not self-reported sleep quality significantly predicted participants' scores on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test and Controlled Oral Word Association Task. Assigned sleep quality did not predict participants' scores on the Digit Span task, as expected, nor did it predict scores on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, which was unexpected. The control conditions showed that the findings were not due to demand characteristics from the experimental protocol. These findings supported the hypothesis that mindset can influence cognitive states in both positive and negative directions, suggesting a means of controlling one's health and cognition. PMID:24417326

Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

2014-05-01

18

Higher baseline serum uric acid is associated with poorer cognition but not rates of cognitive decline in women.  

PubMed

Serum uric acid is a powerful antioxidant that may have neuroprotective properties. While some studies have found that greater serum uric acid is associated with better cognition in older adults, it is also associated with numerous vascular risk factors that increase risk for dementia. Women may also be particularly vulnerable to the vascular effects of elevated uric acid. We previously found that mildly elevated serum uric acid is a biomarker of cognitive dysfunction in older adults, and that this likely is mediated by cerebral ischemic burden. Here we examine both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between serum uric acid and declines in cognition and functioning in 423 cognitively healthy community-dwelling older women in the Women's Health and Aging Study (WHAS II). We hypothesized that higher serum uric acid would be associated with poorer concurrent functioning and greater declines over 9 years. In linear regression analyses, higher baseline serum uric acid was associated with poorer working memory, with a trend toward slower manual speed and dexterity before and after adjusting for baseline serum uric acid, demographic and health/cardiovascular variables. However, there were no associations for global cognitive functioning, learning/memory, sequencing, verbal fluency, or visuoconstruction. Mixed effects models also revealed no association with subsequent cognitive declines. Future research should examine changes in serum uric acid at earlier periods in the lifespan and their relationships with later cognitive declines. PMID:25446978

Vannorsdall, Tracy D; Kueider, Alexandra M; Carlson, Michelle C; Schretlen, David J

2014-12-01

19

Brief report: cognitive functioning in children with Tourette's syndrome with and without comorbid ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine whether patients with Tourette's syndrome (TS) with and without comorbid atten- tion deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) differ in cognitive functioning and whether a higher level of cognitive functioning is associated with severity of TS symptoms and psychosocial functioning. Methods: Cognitive functioning, symptom severity, and psychosocial functioning were examined in 40 pa- tients (33 boys, 7 girls;

Nico Brand; Rinie Geenen; Milo Oudenhoven; Bastiaan Lindenborn; Annette van der Ree; Peggy Cohen-Kettenis

2002-01-01

20

Experimental case studies to engage higher cognitive skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Instructors often find it difficult to write questions that are open ended in nature (4) and that engage students at higher levels of cognitive complexity, for example, Bloom's taxonomic levels of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation (1). As a consequence, typical pedagogical settings seldom challenge students to engage in learning on those levels. As these higher levels of cognition are generally expected of graduate students, we sought to engage and evaluate graduate students by supplying raw, generally unpublished experimental data from a faculty member as "experimental case studies" requiring their analysis, their creation of tools, and their evaluation against each other and existing literature.

William H. Guilford (University of Virginia Biomedical Engineering)

2009-12-01

21

The Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience of Functional Connectivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental cognitive neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that examines the relationships between biological development and cognitive ability. In the past decade, there has been ongoing refinement of concepts and methodology related to the study of "functional connectivity" among distributed brain regions believed to underlie cognition and…

Stevens, Michael C.

2009-01-01

22

Inhibitory control gains from higher-order cognitive strategy training.  

PubMed

The present study examined the transfer of higher-order cognitive strategy training to inhibitory control. Middle school students enrolled in a comprehension- and reasoning-focused cognitive strategy training program and passive controls participated. The training program taught students a set of steps for inferring essential gist or themes from materials. Both before and after training or a comparable duration in the case of the passive controls, participants completed a semantically cued Go/No-Go task that was designed to assess the effects of depth of semantic processing on response inhibition and components of event-related potentials (ERP) related to response inhibition. Depth of semantic processing was manipulated by varying the level of semantic categorization required for response selection and inhibition. The SMART-trained group showed inhibitory control gains and changes in fronto-central P3 ERP amplitudes on inhibition trials; whereas, the control group did not. The results provide evidence of the transfer of higher-order cognitive strategy training to inhibitory control and modulation of ERPs associated with semantically cued inhibitory control. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for cognitive strategy training, models of cognitive abilities, and education. PMID:24286804

Motes, Michael A; Gamino, Jacquelyn F; Chapman, Sandra B; Rao, Neena K; Maguire, Mandy J; Brier, Matthew R; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

2014-02-01

23

Physical and cognitive function 1 Running title: Physical and cognitive function  

E-print Network

Physical and cognitive function 1 29.12.2008 Running title: Physical and cognitive function Physical and cognitive function in midlife: reciprocal effects? A 5-year follow-up of the Whitehall II of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. 3 National Research and Development Centre of Welfare and Health

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

24

The Russell Nutrition Nutrition & Cognitive Function  

E-print Network

The Russell Nutrition Symposium Nutrition & Cognitive Function Throughout the Life-Span October 24 and Biological Sciences, The Department of Nutritional Sciences, and The New Jersey Institute for Food, Nutrition Zielenkievicz at 732-932-9459 #12;The Russell Nutrition Symposium Nutrition & Cognitive Function Throughout

Jornsten, Rebecka

25

Cognitive and Academic Functioning in Maltreated Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines cognitive functioning and academic achievement in maltreated children. The data are from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a national probability study of children receiving child welfare services due to alleged child maltreatment. Assessments of the cognitive and academic functioning of school-age…

Crozier, Joseph C.; Barth, Richard P.

2005-01-01

26

Cognitive functioning of the prelingually deaf adults.  

PubMed

Deafness is a model of brain adaptation to sensory deprivation which entails psychomotor and cognitive domains. This study seeks to determine the level of emotional intelligence, assessed from the ability to discern emotions from facial expressions, visual and mental attention, and non-verbal fluency in the deaf people as compared with the hearing counterparts. Participants were 29 prelingually deaf, hearing loss of >70 dB, communicating only in sign language, and 30 hearing persons. The age range of all subjects was 40-50 years. Psychometric tools consisted of the Emotional Intelligence Scale-Faces, the d2 Test of Attention, and the Figural Fluency Test. Data elaboration took gender into account. The findings were that both deaf women and men defined significantly fewer emotions as known, compared with the hearing persons. However, the deaf men, but not women, were able to properly recognize a higher percentage of emotions associated with a definite face look, among the emotions they knew. There were no appreciable differences in attention indices between the deaf and hearing men, but deaf women's total performance on attention was worse. By contrast, deaf women, but not men, fared better in non-verbal fluency, compared with their hearing counterparts. We conclude that, on the whole, prelingual deafness does not impede cognitive functioning in adult age. The nature of detecting and executing of cognitive tasks, despite gender and task-specific variations, is preserved. Brain networks are able to compensate for the missing auditory input. PMID:25310953

Pokorski, Mieczys?aw; Klima?ska, Sandra

2015-01-01

27

Differences in Field Dependence-Independence Cognitive Style as a Function of Socioeconomic Status, Sex, and Cognitive Competence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed field dependence-independence (FDI) cognitive style as function of socioeconomic status, sex, and cognitive competence in seven year olds (n=117). Subjects of upper-middle socioeconomic status achieved significantly higher scores that did subjects of low socioeconomic status on five McCarthy Scales and on FDI variable. Boys scored higher

Forns-Santacana, Maria; And Others

1993-01-01

28

Mesocortical dopaminergic function and human cognition  

SciTech Connect

In summary, we have reviewed rCBF data in humans that suggest that mesoprefrontal dopaminergic activity is involved in human cognition. In patients with Parkinson's disease and possibly in patients with schizophrenia, prefrontal physiological activation during a cognitive task that appears to depend on prefrontal neural systems correlates positively with cognitive performance on the task and with clinical signs of dopaminergic function. It may be possible in the future to examine prefrontal dopamine metabolism directly during prefrontal cognition using positron emission tomography and tracers such as F-18 DOPA. 21 references.

Weinberger, D.R.; Berman, K.F.; Chase, T.N.

1988-01-01

29

MicroCog: Assessment of Cognitive Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

MicroCog: Assessment of Cognitive Functioning version 2.1 (Powell, D. H., Kaplan, E. F., Whitla, D., Catlin, R., and Funkenstein, H. H. (1993). The Psychological corporation, San Antonio, TX.) is one of the first computerized assessment batteries commercially developed to detect early signs of cognitive impairment. This paper reviews its psychometric characteristics and relates them to its clinical utility. It concludes

Richard W. Elwood

2001-01-01

30

Social engagement and cognitive function in old age.  

PubMed

We examined the association of diverse measures of social engagement with level of function in multiple cognitive domains in 838 persons without dementia who had a mean age of 80.2 (SD = 7.5). Social network size, frequency of social activity, and level of perceived social support were assessed in linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, and other covariates. Social activity and social support were related to better cognitive function, whereas social network size was not strongly related to global cognition. The results confirm that higher level of social engagement in old age is associated with better cognitive function but the association varies across domains of social engagement. PMID:19173101

Krueger, Kristin R; Wilson, Robert S; Kamenetsky, Julia M; Barnes, Lisa L; Bienias, Julia L; Bennett, David A

2009-01-01

31

SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN OLD AGE  

PubMed Central

We examined the association of diverse measures of social engagement with level of function in multiple cognitive domains in 838 persons without dementia who had a mean age of 80.2 (SD = 7.5). Social network size, frequency of social activity, and level of perceived social support were assessed in linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, and other covariates. Social activity and social support were related to better cognitive function, whereas social network size was not strongly related to global cognition. The results confirm that higher level of social engagement in old age is associated with better cognitive function but the association varies across domains of social engagement. PMID:19173101

Krueger, Kristin R.; Wilson, Robert S.; Kamenetsky, Julia M.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Bienias, Julia L.; Bennett, David A.

2009-01-01

32

Cognitive function in hypertensive children.  

PubMed

Young hypertensive adults demonstrate decreased performance on neurocognitive testing compared with that of normotensive controls. There is emerging, preliminary evidence that children with hypertension also manifest cognitive differences when compared to normotensive controls. These preliminary studies consist mostly of database and single-center studies that focus primarily on differences in neurocognitive test performance and differences in cerebrovascular reactivity between hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Lessons from the literature on cognition in adult hypertensives and experience from the preliminary studies in children informed the design of a current, multicenter, ongoing study of cognition in children with primary hypertension. PMID:25432900

Lande, Marc B; Kupferman, Juan C

2015-01-01

33

Functional brain networks and cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Graph-theoretical analyses of functional networks obtained with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have recently proven to be a useful approach for the study of the substrates underlying cognitive deficits in different diseases. We used this technique to investigate whether cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with changes in global and local network measures. Thirty-six healthy controls (HC) and 66 PD patients matched for age, sex, and education were classified as having mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or not based on performance in the three mainly affected cognitive domains in PD: attention/executive, visuospatial/visuoperceptual (VS/VP), and declarative memory. Resting-state fMRI and graph theory analyses were used to evaluate network measures. We have found that patients with MCI had connectivity reductions predominantly affecting long-range connections as well as increased local interconnectedness manifested as higher measures of clustering, small-worldness, and modularity. The latter measures also tended to correlate negatively with cognitive performance in VS/VP and memory functions. Hub structure was also reorganized: normal hubs displayed reduced centrality and degree in MCI PD patients. Our study indicates that the topological properties of brain networks are changed in PD patients with cognitive deficits. Our findings provide novel data regarding the functional substrate of cognitive impairment in PD, which may prove to have value as a prognostic marker. PMID:24639411

Baggio, Hugo-Cesar; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Segura, Bàrbara; Marti, Maria-José; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Compta, Yaroslau; Tolosa, Eduardo; Junqué, Carme

2014-09-01

34

Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Function in Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) is associated with cognitive functioning in older US women and whether this relationship is explained by associations between NSES and vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Methods. We assessed women aged 65 to 81 years (n = 7479) who were free of dementia and took part in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. Linear mixed models examined the cross-sectional association between an NSES index and cognitive functioning scores. A base model adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, marital status, and hysterectomy. Three groups of potential confounders were examined in separate models: vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Results. Living in a neighborhood with a 1-unit higher NSES value was associated with a level of cognitive functioning that was 0.022 standard deviations higher (P = .02). The association was attenuated but still marginally significant (P < .1) after adjustment for confounders and, according to interaction tests, stronger among younger and non-White women. Conclusions. The socioeconomic status of a woman's neighborhood may influence her cognitive functioning. This relationship is only partially explained by vascular, health behavior, or psychosocial factors. Future research is needed on the longitudinal relationships between NSES, cognitive impairment, and cognitive decline. PMID:21778482

Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Margolis, Karen L.; Slaughter, Mary E.; Jewell, Adria; Bird, Chloe E.; Eibner, Christine; Denburg, Natalie L.; Ockene, Judith; Messina, Catherine R.; Espeland, Mark A.

2011-01-01

35

Cognitive functioning and treatment outcome in alcoholics.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this study was to determine whether cognitive functioning at intake into treatment was associated with completion of a 30-day day hospital alcoholism rehabilitation program and 1- and 6-month posttreatment functioning. None of our measures of sociodemographic characteristics, cognitive functioning, and life functioning was found to be significantly correlated with program completion. The measures of cognitive functioning included four cognitive factors--language ability, auditory verbal learning, logical memory, and complex cognitive functioning--as well as an objective measure of within-treatment learning. Canonical correlation analyses were performed to estimate associations among 14 independent variables and seven measures of both 1- and 6-month follow-up outcomes. The independent variables included the five cognitive measures described above, race and age, and seven baseline Addiction Severity Index (ASI) interviewer ratings of severity of alcohol, drug, family/social, legal, medical, employment, and psychological/psychiatric problem levels. The dependent variables at each follow-up evaluation point consisted of the difference between the baseline and follow-up ASI composite (factor) scores in the seven areas of functioning described above. The findings revealed the relative independence of improvement in alcohol problem level at both followup periods, as contrasted with the relative interdependence of the other areas of functioning. Greater baseline alcohol problems and poorer complex cognitive functioning were most consistently associated with improved alcohol-related outcome. Other cognitive measures ere not significantly associated with treatment outcome in the other areas of functioning described above.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2380694

Alterman, A I; Kushner, H; Holahan, J M

1990-08-01

36

Statins and cognitive function: an updated review.  

PubMed

Ischemic heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the USA. Statins have substantially contributed to the decline in mortality due to heart disease. Historically, statins are hypothesized to be neuroprotective and beneficial in dementia, but recent reports have suggested an association with transient cognitive decline. We have critically appraised the relationship between statins and cognitive function in this review. Most of the data are observational and reported a protective effect of statins on dementia and Alzheimer's disease in patients with normal cognition at baseline. Few studies, including two randomized control trials, were unable to find a statistically significant decrease in the risk or improvement in patients with established dementia or decline in cognitive function with statin use. As more randomized control trials are required to definitively settle this, cardiovascular benefits of statins must be weighed against the risks of cognitive decline on an individual basis. PMID:25618304

Chatterjee, Saurav; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram; Ranjan, Pragya; Roy, Ahana; Chakraborty, Anasua; Sabharwal, Manpreet Singh; Ro, Richard; Agarwal, Vikram; Sardar, Partha; Danik, Jacqueline; Giri, Jay S; DeGoma, Emil M; Kumbhani, Dharam J

2015-02-01

37

Cardiovascular disease and cognitive function in maintenance hemodialysis patients  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment are common in dialysis patients. Given the proposed role of microvascular disease on cognitive function, particularly cognitive domains that incorporate executive functions, we hypothesized that prevalent systemic CVD would be associated with wor...

38

[Cognitive functions and extracranial circulation in patients with hypertonic crisis].  

PubMed

We studied effects of enalaprilate and infedipine therapy on the cognitive functions and extracranial circulation in 60 patients with chronic AH complicated by acute encephalopathy. 10% of them had predemential disorders on day 1 of hospitalization and 90% mild cognitive problems. Half of the patients suffered reduced circulation in the common carotid artery. The contribution of impaired extracranial circulation to cognitive dysfunction in the acute period of hypertonic crisis was higher than that of high SAD and DAD. Antihypertensive therapy improved bloodflow in extracranial vessels, decreased their systolic and diastolic indices but failed to eliminate mild cognitive disorders in 65% of the patients. Visual-spatial orientation was restored more frequently than verbal auditory memory. Enalaprilate and infedipine had similar angio- and cerebroprotective effects but the latter had more pronounced favourable effect on verbal auditory memory than the former. The degree of recovery of cognitive function 2 weeks after hypertonic crisis depended not only on the form of cognitive disorder and therapeutic modality but also on the patient's age. Hemodynamic parameters and age 2 weeks after antihypertensive therapy are predictors of residual cognitive dysfunction soon (2 weeks) after recovery. PMID:23659070

Baev, V M; Kozlov, D B; Berezan, M Iu

2013-01-01

39

Memory, executive cognitive function, and readiness to change drinking behavior.  

PubMed

The transtheoretical model of Prochaska and DiClemente [Psychother. Theory Res. Prac. 19 (1982) 276] postulates that cognitive skills are critical for drinking behavior change. Memory and executive cognitive function likely influence the execution of skills that are implicated for both motivating and sustaining drinking behavior change. Participants who met criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence (N=117) were administered a battery of standardized memory and executive cognitive function tests that included the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT), and Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST). Lower verbal and higher delayed recall memory score at baseline significantly predicted precontemplation, higher verbal memory scores predicted contemplation, and better attention-concentration at baseline significantly predicted reduced drinking at 3-month follow-up, after controlling for baseline alcohol consumption. The study findings indicate that explicit memory processes may have utility for predicting readiness to change drinking behavior. PMID:15621401

Blume, Arthur W; Schmaling, Karen B; Marlatt, G Alan

2005-02-01

40

Characterizing Executive Functioning in Older Special Populations: From Cognitively Elite to Cognitively Impaired  

PubMed Central

The authors examined the structure and invariance of executive functions (EF) across (a) a continuum of cognitive status in 3 groups of older adults (cognitively elite [CE], cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and (b) a 3-year longitudinal interval. Using latent variable analyses (LIS-REL 8.80), the authors tested 3-factor models (“Inhibition”: Hayling [Burgess & Shallice, 1997], Stroop [Regard, 1981]; “Shifting”: Brixton [Burgess & Shallice, 1997], Color Trails [D’Elia et al., 1996]; and “Updating”: Reading and Computational Span [Salthouse & Babcock, 1991]) and 1-factor models within each group. Participants (initial N = 570; 53–90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study (Sample 3, Waves 1 and 2). Cross-sectionally, the authors observed a 3-factor EF structure especially for the CE group and 1-factor solutions for all 3 groups. Longitudinally, temporal invariance was supported for the 3-factor model (CE and CN groups) and the 1-factor model (CI and CN groups). Subgroups with higher cognitive status and greater 3-year stability performed better on EF factors than corresponding groups with lower cognitive status and less stability. Studies of EF structure, performance, dedifferentiation, and dysfunction will benefit from considering initial cognitive status and longitudinal stability. PMID:19899836

de Frias, Cindy M.; Dixon, Roger A.; Strauss, Esther

2012-01-01

41

Higher Education Moderates the Effect of T2 Lesion Load and Third Ventricle Width on Cognition in Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Previous work suggested greater intellectual enrichment might moderate the negative impact of brain atrophy on cognition. This awaits confirmation in independent cohorts including investigation of the role of T2-lesion load (T2-LL), which is another important determinant of cognition in MS. We here thus aimed to test this cognitive reserve hypothesis by investigating whether educational attainment (EA) moderates the negative effects of both brain atrophy and T2-LL on cognitive function in a large sample of MS patients. Methods 137 patients participated in the study. Cognition was assessed by the “Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests.” T2-LL, normalized brain volume (global volume loss) and third ventricle width (regional volume loss) served as MRI markers. Results Both T2-LL and atrophy predicted worse cognition, with a stronger effect of T2-LL. Higher EA (as assessed by years of education) also predicted better cognition. Interactions showed that the negative effects of T2-LL and regional brain atrophy were moderated by EA. Conclusions In a cohort with different stages of MS, higher EA attenuated the negative effects of white matter lesion burden and third ventricle width (suggestive of thalamic atrophy) on cognitive performance. Actively enhancing cognitive reserve might thus be a means to reduce or prevent cognitive problems in MS in parallel to disease modifying drugs. PMID:24475309

Pinter, Daniela; Sumowski, James; DeLuca, John; Fazekas, Franz; Pichler, Alexander; Khalil, Michael; Langkammer, Christian; Fuchs, Siegrid; Enzinger, Christian

2014-01-01

42

Nutrition, brain function and cognitive performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military interest in the effects of nutritional factors on cognitive function has stimulated considerable research on a variety of food constituents. This paper will review the research on the amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine, caffeine and carbohydrate. It will focus on research that addresses the potential utility of these compounds in military applications, particularly the acute, as opposed to chronic,

Harris R Lieberman

2003-01-01

43

Cognitive function in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined 35 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) and 35 healthy volunteers. We used tests of cognitive performance (mini mental state examination, verbal and visual memory, visuospatial, frontal function, attention). In the JME group, we examined age, sex, family history, education level, age of seizure onset, seizure types, characteristics of EEG, duration of the therapy, drug

Fugen Sonmez; Dilek Atakli; Huseyin Sari; Turan Atay; Baki Arpaci

2004-01-01

44

Organizational Perspective on Cognitive Control Functioning and Cognitive-Affective Balance in Maltreated Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relation between a history of maltreatment and cognitive control functioning in two groups of preschool and early school-age maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Maltreated children showed developmentally impaired cognitive control functioning on a number of tasks. (RH)

Rieder, Carolyn; Cicchetti, Dante

1989-01-01

45

Chronic stress, cognitive functioning and mental health.  

PubMed

This review aims to discuss the evidence supporting the link between chronic stress, cognitive function and mental health. Over the years, the associations between these concepts have been investigated in different populations. This review summarizes the findings that have emerged from older populations as well as from populations suffering from pathological aging, namely Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease. Although older adults are an interesting population to study in terms of chronic stress, other stress-related diseases can occur throughout the lifespan. The second section covers some of these stress-related diseases that have recently received a great deal of attention, namely burnout, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Given that chronic stress contributes to the development of certain pathologies by accelerating and/or exacerbating pre-existing vulnerabilities that vary from one individual to the other, the final section summarizes data obtained on potential variables contributing to the association between chronic stress and cognition. PMID:21376129

Marin, Marie-France; Lord, Catherine; Andrews, Julie; Juster, Robert-Paul; Sindi, Shireen; Arsenault-Lapierre, Geneviève; Fiocco, Alexandra J; Lupien, Sonia J

2011-11-01

46

Vitamin B12 and Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

Background More than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in 2010 in Ontario at a cost of $40 million. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with a few neurocognitive disorders. Objective To determine the clinical utility of B12 testing in patients with suspected dementia or cognitive decline. Methods Three questions were addressed: Is there an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and the onset of dementia or cognitive decline? Does treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation improve cognitive function in patients with dementia or cognitive decline and vitamin B12 deficiency? What is the effectiveness of oral versus parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation in those with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency? A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, from January 2002 until August 2012. Results Eighteen studies (7 systematic reviews and 11 observational studies) were identified to address the question of the association between B12 and the onset of dementia. Four systematic reviews were identified to address the question of the treatment of B12 on cognitive function. Finally, 3 randomized controlled trials were identified that compared oral B12 to intramuscular B12. Conclusions Based on very low quality evidence, there does appear to be an association between elevated plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamins) and the onset of dementia. Based on moderate quality evidence, but with less than optimal duration of follow-up, treatment with B12 supplementation does not appreciably change cognitive function. Based on low to moderate quality of evidence, treatment with vitamin B12 and folate in patients with mild cognitive impairment seems to slow the rate of brain atrophy. Based on moderate quality evidence, oral vitamin B12 is as effective as parenteral vitamin B12 in patients with confirmed B12 deficiency. Plain Language Summary Low levels of vitamin B12 have been associated with neurocognitive disorders. This evidence-based analysis assessed the usefulness of serum vitamin B12 testing as it relates to brain function. This review found very low quality evidence that suggests a connection between high plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamin metabolism in the body) and the onset of dementia. Moderate quality of evidence indicates treatment with vitamin B12 does not improve brain function. Moderate quality of evidence also indicates treatment using oral vitamin B12 supplements is as effective as injections of vitamin B12. PMID:24379897

2013-01-01

47

A meta-analysis of cerebellar contributions to higher cognition from PET and fMRI studies.  

PubMed

A growing interest in cerebellar function and its involvement in higher cognition have prompted much research in recent years. Cerebellar presence in a wide range of cognitive functions examined within an increasing body of neuroimaging literature has been observed. We applied a meta-analytic approach, which employed the activation likelihood estimate method, to consolidate results of cerebellar involvement accumulated in different cognitive tasks of interest and systematically identified similarities among the studies. The current analysis included 88 neuroimaging studies demonstrating cerebellar activations in higher cognitive domains involving emotion, executive function, language, music, timing and working memory. While largely consistent with a prior meta-analysis by Stoodley and Schmahmann ([2009]: Neuroimage 44:489-501), our results extended their findings to include music and timing domains to provide further insights into cerebellar involvement and elucidate its role in higher cognition. In addition, we conducted inter- and intradomain comparisons for the cognitive domains of emotion, language, and working memory. We also considered task differences within the domain of verbal working memory by conducting a comparison of the Sternberg with the n-back task, as well as an analysis of the differential components within the Sternberg task. Results showed a consistent cerebellar presence in the timing domain, providing evidence for a role in time keeping. Unique clusters identified within the domain further refine the topographic organization of the cerebellum. PMID:23125108

E, Keren-Happuch; Chen, Shen-Hsing Annabel; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Desmond, John E

2014-02-01

48

A Meta-analysis of Cerebellar Contributions to Higher Cognition from PET and fMRI studies  

PubMed Central

A growing interest in cerebellar function and its involvement in higher cognition have prompted much research in recent years. Cerebellar presence in a wide range of cognitive functions examined within an increasing body of neuroimaging literature has been observed. We applied a meta-analytic approach, which employed the activation likelihood estimate method, to consolidate results of cerebellar involvement accumulated in different cognitive tasks of interest and systematically identified similarities among the studies. The current analysis included 88 neuroimaging studies demonstrating cerebellar activations in higher cognitive domains involving emotion, executive function, language, music, timing and working memory. While largely consistent with a prior meta-analysis by Stoodley and Schmahmann (2009), our results extended their findings to include music and timing domains to provide further insights into cerebellar involvement and elucidate its role in higher cognition. In addition, we conducted inter- and intra-domain comparisons for the cognitive domains of emotion, language and working memory. We also considered task differences within the domain of verbal working memory by conducting a comparison of the Sternberg with the n-back task, as well as an analysis of the differential components within the Sternberg task. Results showed a consistent cerebellar presence in the timing domain, providing evidence for a role in time keeping. Unique clusters identified within the domain further refine the topographic organization of the cerebellum. PMID:23125108

Keren-Happuch, E; Chen, Shen-Hsing Annabel; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Desmond, John E.

2013-01-01

49

Cognitive Function in Peripheral Autonomic Disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective aims of the current study were 1) to evaluate global cognitive function in patients with autonomic failure (AF) of peripheral origin and 2) to investigate the effect of a documented fall in blood pressure (BP) fulfilling the criteria for orthostatic hypotension (OH) on cognitive performances. Methods we assessed 12 consecutive patients (10 males, 68±7 years old) with pure AF (PAF) or autoimmune autonomic neuropathy (AAN) and 12 age- and gender-matched controls. All patients had no clinical signs of central nervous system involvement and normal brain CT/MRI scan. Cognitive function was assessed on two consecutive days in 3 conditions: on day 1, while sitting, by means of a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests; on day 2, while tilted (HUT) and during supine rest (supine) in a randomized manner. BP and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded non-invasively for the whole duration of the examination. Results patients with PAF or AAN displayed a preserved global cognitive function while sitting. However, compared to supine assessment, during HUT patients scored significantly worse during the Trail Making Test A and B, Barrage test, Analogies test, Immediate Visual Memory, Span Forward and Span Backward test. Pathological scores, with regard to Italian normative range values, were observed only during HUT in the Barrage test and in the Analogies test in 3 and 6 patients respectively. On the contrary, in healthy controls, results to neuropsychological tests were not significantly different, during HUT compared to supine rest. Conclusions these data demonstrate that patients with PAF and AAN present a normal sitting global cognitive evaluation. However, their executive functions worsen significantly during the orthostatic challenge, possibly because of transient frontal lobes hypoperfusion. PMID:24465471

Guaraldi, Pietro; Poda, Roberto; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Solieri, Laura; Sambati, Luisa; Gallassi, Roberto; Cortelli, Pietro

2014-01-01

50

Maturation of Widely Distributed Brain Function Subserves Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive and brain maturational changes continue throughout late childhood and adolescence. During this time, increasing cognitive control over behavior enhances the voluntary suppression of reflexive\\/impulsive response tendencies. Recently, with the advent of functional MRI, it has become possible to characterize changes in brain activity during cognitive development. In order to investigate the cognitive and brain maturation subserving the ability to

Beatriz Luna; Keith R. Thulborn; Douglas P. Munoz; Elisha P. Merriam; Krista E. Garver; Nancy J. Minshew; Matcheri S. Keshavan; Christopher R. Genovese; William F. Eddy; John A. Sweeney

2001-01-01

51

MEASURING COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN MDD: EMERGING ASSESSMENT TOOLS.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment is emerging as an important therapeutic target in patients with psychiatric illnesses, including major depressive disorder (MDD). The objective of this general overview is to briefly review the evidence for cognitive impairment in MDD and to summarize a representative sample of cognitive assessment tools currently available to assess cognitive function in depressed patients. Study results in MDD patients with cognitive dysfunction are somewhat inconsistent, likely due to the heterogeneity of the disorder as well as the use of diverse assessment tools. Measuring cognitive changes in this population is challenging. Cognitive symptoms are typically less severe than in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, requiring greater sensitivity than afforded by existing tools. Preliminary evidence suggests antidepressant treatments may improve cognitive functioning as a direct result of ameliorating depressive symptoms; however, any procognitive effects have not been elucidated. To evaluate antidepressant efficacy in MDD patients with cognitive dysfunction, a standardized cognitive battery for use in clinical trials is essential. PMID:25421437

Russo, Manuela; Mahon, Katie; Burdick, Katherine E

2014-11-24

52

Functional Relationships for Investigating Cognitive Processes  

PubMed Central

Functional relationships (from systematic manipulation of critical variables) are advocated for revealing fundamental processes of (comparative) cognition—through examples from my work in psychophysics, learning, and memory. Functional relationships for pigeon wavelength (hue) discrimination revealed best discrimination at the spectral points of hue transition for pigeons—a correspondence (i.e., functional relationship) similar to that for humans. Functional relationships for learning revealed: Item-specific or relational learning in matching to sample as a function of the pigeons’ sample-response requirement, and same/different abstract-concept learning as a function of the training set size for rhesus monkeys, capuchin monkeys, and pigeons. Functional relationships for visual memory revealed serial position functions (a 1st order functional relationship) that changed systematically with retention delay (a 2nd order relationship) for pigeons, capuchin monkeys, rhesus monkeys, and humans. Functional relationships for rhesus-monkey auditory memory also revealed systematic changes in serial position functions with delay, but these changes were opposite to those for visual memory. Functional relationships for proactive interference revealed interference that varied as a function of a ratio of delay times. Functional relationships for change detection memory revealed (qualitative) similarities and (quantitative) differences in human and monkey visual short term memory as a function of the number of memory items. It is concluded that these findings were made possible by varying critical variables over a substantial portion of the manipulable range to generate functions and derive relationships. PMID:23174335

Wright, Anthony A.

2013-01-01

53

TEA DRINKING AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN OLDEST-OLD CHINESE  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined the longitudinal association between tea drinking frequency and cognitive function in a large sample of oldest-old Chinese. Design population-based longitudinal cohort study. Setting The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Participants 7139 participants aged 80 to 115 (mean age 91.4 years) who provided complete data at baseline (year 1998). Measurements Current frequency of tea drinking and past frequency at age 60 were ascertained at baseline, and baseline and follow-up cognitive assessments were performed in the years 1998 (n=7139), 2000 (n=4081), 2002 (n=2288) and 2005 (n=913) respectively. Verbal fluency test was used as measure of cognitive function. Results Tea drinking was associated at baseline with higher mean (SD) verbal fluency scores: daily=10.7 (6.6), occasional=9.2 (5.8), non-drinker=9.0 (5.5). In linear mixed effects model that adjusted for age, gender, years of schooling, physical exercise and activities score, the regression coefficient for daily drinking (at age 60) and occasional drinking was 0.72 (P<0.0001) and 0.41(P=0.01) respectively. Tea drinkers had higher verbal fluency scores throughout the follow-up period but concurrently had a steeper slope of cognitive decline as compared with non-drinkers (coefficient for the interaction term Time*Daily drinking= ?0.12, P=0.02; ‘Time’ was defined as the time interval from baseline to follow-up assessments in years). Similar results were found for current tea drinking status at study baseline year (1998) as predictor variable. Conclusion Regular tea drinking is associated with better cognitive function in oldest-old Chinese. PMID:23131816

Feng, L.; Li, J.; Ng, T.-P.; Lee, T.-S.; Kua, E.-H.; Zeng, Y.

2013-01-01

54

Correlation between visual acuity and cognitive functions  

PubMed Central

A possible association between visual acuity (VA) and dementia was investigated in 2716 subjects who were aged between 53 and 102 at first visit and had varying degrees of dementia. Better VA was found to be significantly correlated with a lower dementia level (person coefficient range 0.146–0.261 over 10 years of follow-up, all correlations are significant, p<0.0001) as well as with a higher global cognitive score (person coefficient range ?0.254 to ?0.318 over 10 years of follow-up, all correlations are significant, p<0.0001), a grade encompassing 19 different cognitive tests. This correlation remained significant after adjustment for age, years of education, gender, use of ophthalmic drugs and years of follow-up. PMID:24169658

Elyashiv, Sivan M; Shabtai, Esther L; Belkin, Michael

2014-01-01

55

Hostility and Change in Cognitive Function Over Time in Older Blacks and Whites  

PubMed Central

Objective To test whether the level of hostility predicted the rate of cognitive decline in a community of older Blacks and Whites and whether the association varied as a function of race. Methods Over 4800 persons from a defined community in Chicago completed up to three structured interviews at approximately 3 year intervals over a period of up to 8.8 years (mean = 4.4 years). At the baseline interview, hostility was assessed with 8-items from the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale. Cognitive function was assessed at each interview with four cognitive function tests from which a composite measure of cognition was formed. Mixed effects models were used to assess change in cognition and its relation to hostility, controlling for age, sex, education, and race. Results The average score on the hostility scale at baseline was 3.0 (SD = 2.1). Higher levels of hostility were associated with lower cognitive scores (estimate = ?0.028, SE = 0.004, p < .001). Cognition declined at a rate of 0.051 U per year on average, but hostility was not related to the rate of decline. Results were unchanged after controlling for depressive symptoms, chronic health, neuroticism, and social and cognitive activity patterns, or when persons with cognitive impairment at baseline were excluded. The association was similar in Blacks and Whites. Conclusion The results suggest that hostility is associated with level of cognitive function in older persons but not related to cognitive decline. PMID:19483119

Barnes, Lisa L.; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes; Bienias, Julia L.; Wilson, Robert S.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Evans, Denis A.

2009-01-01

56

Heritability of cognitive functions in families of successful cognitive aging probands from the Central Valley of Costa Rica.  

PubMed

We sought to identify cognitive phenotypes for family/genetic studies of successful cognitive aging (SCA; maintaining intact cognitive functioning while living to late old age). We administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to nondemented nonagenarians (n = 65; mean age = 93.4 ± 3.0) and their offspring (n = 188; mean age = 66.4 ± 5.0) from the Central Valley of Costa Rica. After covarying for age, gender, and years of education, as necessary, heritability was calculated for cognitive functions at three pre-defined levels of complexity: specific neuropsychological functions (e.g., delayed recall, sequencing), three higher level cognitive domains (memory, executive functions, attention), and an overall neuropsychological summary. The highest heritability was for delayed recall (h² = 0.74, se = 0.14, p < 0.0001) but significant heritabilities involving memory were also observed for immediate recall (h² = 0.50), memory as a cognitive domain (h² = 0.53), and the overall neuropsychological summary (h² = 0.42). Heritabilities for sequencing (h² = 0.42), fluency (h² = 0.39), abstraction (h² = 0.36), and the executive functions cognitive domain (h² = 0.35) were also significant. In contrast, the attention domain and memory recognition were not significantly heritable in these families. Among the heritable specific cognitive functions, a strong pleiotropic effect (i.e., evidence that these may be influenced by the same gene or set of genes) for delayed and immediate recall was identified (bivariate statistic = 0.934, p < 0.0001) and more modest but significant effects were found for four additional bivariate relationships. The results support the heritability of good cognitive function in old age and the utilization of several levels of phenotypes, and they suggest that several measures involving memory may be especially useful for family/genetic studies of SCA. PMID:21908911

Greenwood, Tiffany A; Beeri, Michal S; Schmeidler, James; Valerio, Daniel; Raventós, Henriette; Mora-Villalobos, Lara; Camacho, Karla; Carrión-Baralt, José R; Angelo, Gary; Almasy, Laura; Sano, Mary; Silverman, Jeremy M

2011-01-01

57

[Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].  

PubMed

Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders. PMID:17471820

Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Ma?gorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

2006-01-01

58

Participation in cognitively-stimulating activities is associated with brain structure and cognitive function in preclinical Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypothesis that frequent participation in cognitively-stimulating activities, specifically those related to playing games and puzzles, is beneficial to brain health and cognition among middle-aged adults at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three hundred twenty-nine cognitively normal, middle-aged adults (age range, 43.2-73.8 years) enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP) participated in this study. They reported their current engagement in cognitive activities using a modified version of the Cognitive Activity Scale (CAS), underwent a structural MRI scan, and completed a comprehensive cognitive battery. FreeSurfer was used to derive gray matter (GM) volumes from AD-related regions of interest (ROIs), and composite measures of episodic memory and executive function were obtained from the cognitive tests. Covariate-adjusted least squares analyses were used to examine the association between the Games item on the CAS (CAS-Games) and both GM volumes and cognitive composites. Higher scores on CAS-Games were associated with greater GM volumes in several ROIs including the hippocampus, posterior cingulate, anterior cingulate, and middle frontal gyrus. Similarly, CAS-Games scores were positively associated with scores on the Immediate Memory, Verbal Learning & Memory, and Speed & Flexibility domains. These findings were not modified by known risk factors for AD. In addition, the Total score on the CAS was not as sensitive as CAS-Games to the examined brain and cognitive measures. For some individuals, participation in cognitive activities pertinent to game playing may help prevent AD by preserving brain structures and cognitive functions vulnerable to AD pathophysiology. PMID:25358750

Schultz, Stephanie A; Larson, Jordan; Oh, Jennifer; Koscik, Rebecca; Dowling, Maritza N; Gallagher, Catherine L; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Rowley, Howard A; Bendlin, Barbara B; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P; Johnson, Sterling C; Sager, Mark; LaRue, Asenath; Okonkwo, Ozioma C

2014-10-31

59

A cognitive neurobiological account of deception: evidence from functional neuroimaging.  

PubMed Central

An organism may use misinformation, knowingly (through deception) or unknowingly (as in the case of camouflage), to gain advantage in a competitive environment. From an evolutionary perspective, greater tactical deception occurs among primates closer to humans, with larger neocortices. In humans, the onset of deceptive behaviours in childhood exhibits a developmental trajectory, which may be regarded as 'normal' in the majority and deficient among a minority with certain neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). In the human adult, deception and lying exhibit features consistent with their use of 'higher' or 'executive' brain systems. Accurate detection of deception in humans may be of particular importance in forensic practice, while an understanding of its cognitive neurobiology may have implications for models of 'theory of mind' and social cognition, and societal notions of responsibility, guilt and mitigation. In recent years, functional neuroimaging techniques (especially functional magnetic resonance imaging) have been used to study deception. Though few in number, and using very different experimental protocols, studies published in the peer-reviewed literature exhibit certain consistencies. Attempted deception is associated with activation of executive brain regions (particularly prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices), while truthful responding has not been shown to be associated with any areas of increased activation (relative to deception). Hence, truthful responding may comprise a relative 'baseline' in human cognition and communication. The subject who lies may necessarily engage 'higher' brain centres, consistent with a purpose or intention (to deceive). While the principle of executive control during deception remains plausible, its precise anatomy awaits elucidation. PMID:15590616

Spence, Sean A; Hunter, Mike D; Farrow, Tom F D; Green, Russell D; Leung, David H; Hughes, Catherine J; Ganesan, Venkatasubramanian

2004-01-01

60

Cognition and functional outcome among deaf and hearing people with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Recent research has highlighted the relationships between impairments in cognitive functioning and poorer functional outcomes among people with schizophrenia (PWS). The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend this work by testing the relationships between cognition and functional outcome among deaf adults with schizophrenia. Empirical findings from deafness-oriented research reveals enhanced abilities in certain aspects of visual-spatial processing compared to hearing people. Sixty-five PWS (34 deaf, 31 hearing) were assessed using measures of verbal and visual memory, attention, and visual processing. The first hypothesis tested whether cognition predicted functional outcome in a similar fashion for both deaf and hearing subjects (n=63). For all subjects, higher levels of cognitive ability were associated with higher levels of functional outcome, and the strongest predictors of outcome were verbal memory and visual-spatial memory (recall condition) (VSM recall). However, the deaf and hearing groups did show different patterns of relationships between cognition and functioning when all cognitive variables were examined. The second hypothesis was that deaf subjects would display superior performance in early visual processing, visual-spatial memory (copy condition) (VSM copy), and VSM recall. Deaf subjects displayed superior performance on each task; however, no significant differences emerged. Deaf subjects outperformed hearing subjects in an unexpected domain (word memory/recognition). This study extends prior work in the area of cognition and schizophrenia and indicates that deaf and hearing subjects may benefit from interventions that address different domains of cognition. PMID:17560083

Horton, Heather K; Silverstein, Steven M

2007-08-01

61

From social-signal detection to higher social cognition: an fMRI approach.  

PubMed

Implicit or automatic detection of social signals, which discriminate animate, intentional objects in the environment, is essential for higher social cognition and its development. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we identified the neural substrate of detecting simple visual social signals and examined its functional link with the mechanism of inferring another's mental state. Healthy participants were presented with the eye-gaze shift (EG) and self-propelling motion (SP) under both implicit and explicit task conditions. They also performed a social role-playing game in which mental inference (MI) was implicitly prompted during the presentation of faces (implicit MI). Implicit detection of EG and SP activated the posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) bilaterally, whereas the right posterior superior temporal sulcus was activated during the explicit conditions. We revealed that the individual variation in neural response in the right pMTG during implicit eye-gaze detection explains the individual tendency to recruit the regions implicated in mental-state inference (medial prefrontal cortex, temporal pole and striatum) during the implicit MI task. Our results suggest that the implicit detection of visual social signals involves the pMTG and underlies the development of higher social cognition. PMID:23887806

Sugiura, Motoaki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Mano, Yoko; Sassa, Yuko; Kambara, Toshimune; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kawashima, Ryuta

2014-09-01

62

Novel Television-Based Cognitive Training Improves Working Memory and Executive Function  

PubMed Central

The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60–87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of “adequate” to “high” system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bureš, Vladimír

2014-01-01

63

Novel television-based cognitive training improves working memory and executive function.  

PubMed

The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60-87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of "adequate" to "high" system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bureš, Vladimír

2014-01-01

64

Longitudinal Changes in Cognitive Functioning in Adult Day Care Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines longitudinal changes in cognitive functioning over the course of 2 years in participants of adult day care programs. Cognitive measures included the Brief Cognitive Rating Scale (BCRS) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Longitudinal data were available for five measurement points over 2 years for 82 participants (22 males and 60 females). Overall, results from this study

Jiska Cohen-Mansfield; Ann L. Gruber-Baldini; William J. Culpepper; Perla Werner

1996-01-01

65

Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older age: results from the Women’s Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background Adherence to a Mediterranean diet may help prevent cognitive decline in older age, but studies are limited. We examined the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with cognitive function and decline. Methods We included 6,174 participants, aged 65+ years, from the cognitive sub-study of the Women’s Health Study. Women provided dietary information in 1998 and completed a cognitive battery 5 years later, followed by two assessments at 2-year intervals. The primary outcomes were composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. The alternate Mediterranean diet adherence 9-point-score was constructed based on intakes of: vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts, fish, red and processed meats, moderate alcohol, and the ratio of monounsaturated-to-saturated fats. Results After multivariable adjustment, the alternate Mediterranean diet score was not associated with trajectories of repeated cognitive scores (P-trend across quintiles=0.26 and 0.40 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively), nor with overall global cognition and verbal memory at older ages, assessed by averaging the three cognitive measures (P-trend=0.63 and 0.44, respectively). Among alternate Mediterranean diet components, higher monounsaturated-to-saturated fats ratio was associated with more favorable cognitive trajectories (P-trend=0.03 and 0.05 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively). Greater whole grain intake was not associated with cognitive trajectories, but was related to better average global cognition (P-trend=0.02). Conclusions In this large study of older women, we observed no association of the Mediterranean diet with cognitive decline. Relations between individual Mediterranean diet components, particularly whole grains, and cognitive function merit further study. PMID:23676264

Samieri, Cécilia; Grodstein, Francine; Rosner, Bernard A.; Kang, Jae H.; Cook, Nancy R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Willett, Walter C.; Okereke, Olivia I.

2013-01-01

66

Cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions affecting physical functioning: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitive function through behavioral interventions or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments that are similar to cognitive impairments seen in aging. The aim was to identify potentially promising methods that might be used in future intervention type studies for older adults. Methods A systematic search was conducted for the Medline/Premedline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. The search was focused on older adults over the age of 65. To increase the number of articles for review, we also included those discussing adult patients with neurological impairments due to trauma, as these cognitive impairments are similar to those seen in the aging population. The search was restricted to English, German and French language literature without any limitation of publication date or restriction by study design. Cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions were defined as dual-tasking, virtual reality exercise, cognitive exercise, or a combination of these. Results 28 articles met our inclusion criteria. Three articles used an isolated cognitive rehabilitation intervention, seven articles used a dual-task intervention and 19 applied a computerized intervention. There is evidence to suggest that cognitive or motor-cognitive methods positively affects physical functioning, such as postural control, walking abilities and general functions of the upper and lower extremities, respectively. The majority of the included studies resulted in improvements of the assessed functional outcome measures. Conclusions The current evidence on the effectiveness of cognitive or motor-cognitive interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments is limited. The heterogeneity of the studies published so far does not allow defining the training methodology with the greatest effectiveness. This review nevertheless provides important foundational information in order to encourage further development of novel cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions, preferably with a randomized control design. Future research that aims to examine the relation between improvements in cognitive skills and the translation to better performance on selected physical tasks should explicitly take the relation between the cognitive and physical skills into account. PMID:21651800

2011-01-01

67

Measuring Cognitive Function: An Empirical Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of a Cognitive Measure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Herzog and Wallace (A. Herzog and R. Wallace, 1997) discussed a measure designed to assess the cognitive functioning of older adults who participated in the study formerly known as the Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD). The measure derived from four well-known tests of cognitive functioning, but improves on them by combining…

Witta, E. Lea; Sivo, Stephen A.

68

Longitudinal study of symptoms and cognitive function in chronic schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is conflicting evidence of a relationship between changes in symptoms and cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. This study investigated longitudinal changes in psychopathology and cognitive functioning in chronic schizophrenia utilising three different dimensional models of symptomatology. Sixty-two patients diagnosed with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were examined on two occasions over a period of 6 months for symptom improvement, measured

Catherine Hughes; Veena Kumari; William Soni; Mrigendra Das; Brendon Binneman; Sonia Drozd; Shaun O'Neil; Vallakalil Mathew; Tonmoy Sharma

2003-01-01

69

Endogenous Glucocorticoids Are Essential for Maintaining Prefrontal Cortical Cognitive Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucocorticoid hormones are important in the maintenance of many brain functions. Although their receptors are distributed abun- dantly throughout the brain, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), it is not clear how glucocorticoid functions, particularly with regard to cognitive processing in the PFC. There is evidence of PFC cognitive deficits such as working memory impairment in several stress- related neuropsychiatric disorders,

Kazushige Mizoguchi; Atsushi Ishige; Shuichi Takeda; Masaki Aburada; Takeshi Tabira

2004-01-01

70

Higher risk of progression to dementia in mild cognitive impairment cases who revert to normal  

PubMed Central

Objective: To estimate rates of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia and of reversion from MCI to being cognitively normal (CN) in a population-based cohort. Methods: Participants (n = 534, aged 70 years and older) enrolled in the prospective Mayo Clinic Study of Aging were evaluated at baseline and every 15 months to identify incident MCI or dementia. Results: Over a median follow-up of 5.1 years, 153 of 534 participants (28.7%) with prevalent or incident MCI progressed to dementia (71.3 per 1,000 person-years). The cumulative incidence of dementia was 5.4% at 1 year, 16.1% at 2, 23.4% at 3, 31.1% at 4, and 42.5% at 5 years. The risk of dementia was elevated in MCI cases (hazard ratio [HR] 23.2, p < 0.001) compared with CN subjects. Thirty-eight percent (n = 201) of MCI participants reverted to CN (175.0/1,000 person-years), but 65% subsequently developed MCI or dementia; the HR was 6.6 (p < 0.001) compared with CN subjects. The risk of reversion was reduced in subjects with an APOE ?4 allele (HR 0.53, p < 0.001), higher Clinical Dementia Rating Scale–Sum of Boxes (HR 0.56, p < 0.001), and poorer cognitive function (HR 0.56, p < 0.001). The risk was also reduced in subjects with amnestic MCI (HR 0.70, p = 0.02) and multidomain MCI (HR 0.61, p = 0.003). Conclusions: MCI cases, including those who revert to CN, have a high risk of progressing to dementia. This suggests that diagnosis of MCI at any time has prognostic value. PMID:24353333

Roberts, Rosebud O.; Knopman, David S.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Cha, Ruth H.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Christianson, Teresa J.H.; Geda, Yonas E.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Tangalos, Eric G.; Rocca, Walter A.

2014-01-01

71

Assessment of Higher Order Thinking Skills. Current Perspectives on Cognition, Learning and Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume examines the assessment of higher order thinking skills from the perspectives of applied cognitive psychology and measurement theory. The volume considers a variety of higher order thinking skills, including problem solving, critical thinking, argumentation, decision making, creativity, metacognition, and self-regulation. Fourteen…

Schraw, Gregory, Ed.; Robinson, Daniel H., Ed.

2011-01-01

72

Prediction of Channel State for Cognitive Radio Using Higher-Order Hidden Markov Model  

E-print Network

Prediction of Channel State for Cognitive Radio Using Higher-Order Hidden Markov Model Zhe Chen implementation. Prediction can be utilized to diminish the negative effect of such latency. In this paper, this latency is illustrated, and an approach for prediction of channel state using higher-order hidden Markov

Qiu, Robert Caiming

73

Rosenthal, D. 2000. Metacognition and higher-order thoughts. Consciousness and Cognition 92: 23142.  

E-print Network

Rosenthal, D. 2000. Metacognition and higher-order thoughts. Consciousness and Cognition 92: 231­42. Rosenthal, D. 2002. Explaining consciousness. In Philosophy of Mind: Classical and Contemporary Readings, ed. D. Chalmers, 406­21. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Rosenthal, D. 2004. Varieties of higher order

Block, Ned

74

Cognitive Training Improves Sleep Quality and Cognitive Function among Older Adults with Insomnia  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia. Design Participants (n?=?51) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n?=?34) or to an active control group (n?=?17). The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated. Setting Community setting: residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65–85). Interventions Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia. Results Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency) and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming). Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved “avoiding distractions” is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep. Conclusions New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and maintenance of sleep in older adults with insomnia. Lasting and personalized cognitive training is particularly indicated to generate the type of learning necessary for combined cognitive and sleep enhancements in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00901641 PMID:23577218

Haimov, Iris; Shatil, Evelyn

2013-01-01

75

Motor system evolution and the emergence of high cognitive functions.  

PubMed

In human and nonhuman primates, the cortical motor system comprises a collection of brain areas primarily related to motor control. Existing evidence suggests that no other mammalian group has the number, extension, and complexity of motor-related areas observed in the frontal lobe of primates. Such diversity is probably related to the wide behavioral flexibility that primates display. Indeed, recent comparative anatomical, psychophysical, and neurophysiological studies suggest that the evolution of the motor cortical areas closely correlates with the emergence of high cognitive abilities. Advances in understanding the cortical motor system have shown that these areas are also related to functions previously linked to higher-order associative areas. In addition, experimental observations have shown that the classical distinction between perceptual and motor functions is not strictly followed across cortical areas. In this paper, we review evidence suggesting that evolution of the motor system had a role in the shaping of different cognitive functions in primates. We argue that the increase in the complexity of the motor system has contributed to the emergence of new abilities observed in human and nonhuman primates, including the recognition and imitation of the actions of others, speech perception and production, and the execution and appreciation of the rhythmic structure of music. PMID:25224031

Mendoza, Germán; Merchant, Hugo

2014-11-01

76

The kidney disease quality of life cognitive function subscale and cognitive performance maintenance hemodialysis patients  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Cognitive impairment is common but often undiagnosed in patients with end-stage renal disease, in part reflecting limited validated and easily administered tools to assess cognitive function in dialysis patients. Accordingly, we assessed the utility of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life ...

77

The Association between Daytime Napping and Cognitive Functioning in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objectives The precise relationship between sleep and physical and mental functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been examined directly, nor has the impact of daytime napping. This study aimed to examine self-reported sleep in patients with CFS and explore whether sleep quality and daytime napping, specific patient characteristics (gender, illness length) and levels of anxiety and depression, predicted daytime fatigue severity, levels of daytime sleepiness and cognitive functioning, all key dimensions of the illness experience. Methods 118 adults meeting the 1994 CDC case criteria for CFS completed a standardised sleep diary over 14 days. Momentary functional assessments of fatigue, sleepiness, cognition and mood were completed by patients as part of usual care. Levels of daytime functioning and disability were quantified using symptom assessment tools, measuring fatigue (Chalder Fatigue Scale), sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), cognitive functioning (Trail Making Test, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire), and mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Results Hierarchical Regressions demonstrated that a shorter time since diagnosis, higher depression and longer wake time after sleep onset predicted 23.4% of the variance in fatigue severity (p <.001). Being male, higher depression and more afternoon naps predicted 25.6% of the variance in objective cognitive dysfunction (p <.001). Higher anxiety and depression and morning napping predicted 32.2% of the variance in subjective cognitive dysfunction (p <.001). When patients were classified into groups of mild and moderate sleepiness, those with longer daytime naps, those who mainly napped in the afternoon, and those with higher levels of anxiety, were more likely to be in the moderately sleepy group. Conclusions Napping, particularly in the afternoon is associated with poorer cognitive functioning and more daytime sleepiness in CFS. These findings have clinical implications for symptom management strategies. PMID:25575044

Gotts, Zoe M.; Ellis, Jason G.; Deary, Vincent; Barclay, Nicola; Newton, Julia L.

2015-01-01

78

[Peculiarities of cognitive functions in patients with chronic back pain].  

PubMed

The authors have studied cognitive functions and influencing factors in 64 patients with chronic low back pain. All patients have been examined using neurologic, neuroorthopedic, pathopsychological and neuropsychological methods. Patients have been divided into 2 groups according to their age: group 1 (aged 30-50 years) and group 2 (aged 51-60 years). Healthy controls were matched to patients for age, sex and education. Significant differences in neuropsychological testing, i.e. mental flexibility, delayed memory, psychomotor speed, which referred to the subtle cognitive impairment with executive function disturbances, were found in both groups of patients with chronic low back pain as compared to pain-free adults. Sensory-discriminative (pain intensity) and affective-emotional (negative emotions, in particular, anxiety) characteristics had the effect on cognitive functions in younger patients without depressive symptoms. Affective-emotional (anxiety, psychological distress) and cognitive characteristics (i.e. catastrophising) contributed to the cognitive disturbances in older patients. PMID:20032949

Melkumova, K A; Podchufarova, E V; Iakhno, N N

2009-01-01

79

Research progress of cognitive function in schizophrenia in China  

PubMed Central

Summary Cognitive impairment – one of the core symptoms of schizophrenia – has become a focus of research about schizophrenia in China and elsewhere. The main reason for the interest in cognitive functioning is that the degree of cognitive impairment is associated both with the current severity of the illness and with the prognosis of the illness due to its effect on individuals' ability to live independently and on their occupational and social functioning. The first study on cognitive function in schizophrenia in China was conducted in the late 1970s; more recently there has been a resurgence of interest in the area because of new information that has emerged as neuroimaging technologies have improved. The current review summarizes studies on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia conducted in China and proposes directions for future research in this area. PMID:24991166

LIU, Dengtang; WANG, Yingchan; XU, Yifeng; JIANG, Kaida

2013-01-01

80

Non-pharmacological interventions on cognitive functions in older people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).  

PubMed

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can be a stage of pre-dementia. There is no consensus about pharmacological treatment for this population, so it is important to structure non-pharmacological interventions for increasing their cognitive reserve. We intended to analyze the effects of non-pharmacological interventions in the cognitive functions in older people with MC, in form of a systemic review. Data sources were the Web of Science, Biological Abstracts, Medline, Pub Med, EBSCHost, Scirus and Google Scholar. All studies were longitudinal trials, with MCI sample, aged>60 years, community-dwelling, and having cognitive functions as dependent variable. Seven studies, from 91 previously selected ones, were identified according to the inclusion criteria. Six studies used cognitive intervention, improving memory and one study used physical activity as intervention, improving executive functions. The results show evidence that physical activity and cognitive exercise may improve memory and executive functions in older people with MCI. But yet, more controlled studies are needed to establish a protocol of recommendations regarding the systemization of exercise, necessary to produce benefits in the cognitive functioning in older people with MCI. PMID:21397960

Teixeira, Camila Vieira Ligo; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken; Corazza, Danilla Icassatti; Stella, Florindo; Costa, José Luiz Riani; Gobbi, Sebastião

2012-01-01

81

Cognitive function in relation with bone mass and nutrition: cross-sectional association in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that bone loss and cognitive decline are co-occurring conditions, possibly due to their relationship with estrogen. Cognitive decline has been associated with various nutritional deficiencies as well. The purpose of this study was to determine if cognitive function is related to bone mineral density of various skeletal sites as well as to various dietary components. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 97 healthy, Caucasian, postmenopausal women (59.4-85.0 years) enrolled in a larger longitudinal study, investigating the effects of sodium on bone mass. The subjects were divided into two groups based on cognition scores. Group 1 represented lower and Group 2 higher scores on cognitive function. Bone mineral density from the whole body, lumbar spine, femur and forearm were measured with the Lunar DPX-MD instrument. Anthropometry was measured by standard methods. Cognition was assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination. Cumulative (over 2 years) dietary intake from 3-day records was analyzed by Food Processor(R) (ESHA Research, Salem, OR) and cumulative physical activity was assessed using Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey for older adults. RESULTS: Subjects' cognition scores ranged from 22-30 (normal, 27-30), indicating all subjects had either mild or no cognitive impairment. Multiple Analysis of Covariance adjusted for age, height, weight, physical activity, alcohol, calcium, sodium and energy intake, showed a statistically significant association between cognition and bone mineral density of all measurable sites (eta2 = 0.21, P < 0.01). However, after Analysis of Covariance follow-up tests and Bonferroni correction, the differences for individual bone sites diminished, though Group 2 had higher adjusted means for all sites except for the femoral neck, Ward's triangle and trochanter. There was a positive significant association between cognition score and carbohydrate and potassium intake (eta2 = 0.07, P = 0.050). Group 2 did have a significantly higher potassium intake (P = 0.023). In multiple regression, saturated fat had a significant negative relationship with cognitive function. CONCLUSIONS: It appears mild degree of cognitive impairment may be a marker for lower bone mineral density as well as for a diet lower in carbohydrate and potassium intake, and higher in saturated fat. Consequently, older women with cognitive impairment may benefit of being screened for potential bone loss and poor nutrition. PMID:15163349

Brownbill, Rhonda A; Ilich, Jasminka Z

2004-05-26

82

Do Economic Recessions During Early and Mid-Adulthood Influence Cognitive Function in Older Age?  

PubMed Central

Background Fluctuations in the national economy shape labour market opportunities and outcomes, which in turn may influence the accumulation of cognitive reserve. This study examines whether economic recessions experienced in early and mid-adulthood are associated with later-life cognitive function. Method Data came from 12,020 respondents in 11 countries participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Cognitive assessments in 2004/5 and 2006/7 were linked to complete work histories retrospectively collected in 2008/9, and to historical annual data on fluctuations in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita for each country. Controlling for confounders, we assessed whether recessions experienced at ages 25-34, 35-44 and 45-49 were associated with cognitive function at ages 50-74. Results Among men, each additional recession at ages 45-49 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b = -0.06, Confidence Interval [CI] -0.11, -0.01). Among women, each additional recession at ages 25-44 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b25-34 = -0.03, CI -0.04, -0.01; b35-44= -0.02, CI -0.04, -0.00). Among men, recessions at ages 45-49 influenced risk of being laid-off, whereas among women, recessions at ages 25-44 led to working part-time and higher likelihood of downward occupational mobility, which were all predictors of worse later-life cognitive function. Conclusions Recessions at ages 45-49 among men and 25-44 among women are associated with later-life cognitive function, possibly via more unfavourable labour market trajectories. If replicated in future studies, findings may indicate that policies that ameliorate the impact of recessions on labour market outcomes may promote later-life cognitive function. PMID:24258197

Leist, Anja K.; Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio

2014-01-01

83

Connections between Vision, Hearing, and Cognitive Function in Old Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses findings of studies that examined the relationship between vision, hearing, and cognitive function in normally aging adults. Indicates that most found at least modest significant relationships between sensory and cognitive measures based on diverse assessment and design methods. (Contains 42 references.) (JOW)

Wahl, Hans-Werner; Heyl, Vera

2003-01-01

84

Relationships between neuropathology and cognitive functioning in temporal lobectomy patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive functions were examined before operation and 4 weeks after operation with respect to pathology in 40 patients who underwent temporal lobectomy for epilepsy. Hippocampal sclerosis was associated with febrile convulsions, an earlier onset of regular seizures, poorer preoperative intelligence and with a tendency towards greater cognitive improvement across the operation than found in patients with tumour-like malformations or non-specific

T M McMillan; G E Powell; I Janota; C E Polkey

1987-01-01

85

High Risk of Cognitive and Functional Decline after Postoperative Delirium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate the association of postoperative delirium with the outcomes of cognitive impairment, functional disability and death. Methods: Hip surgery patients aged 60 years or over (n = 200) underwent preoperative and daily postoperative assessment of their cognitive status during hospital stay. Outcome variables were determined at an average of 8 and 38

Horst Bickel; Reiner Gradinger; Eberhard Kochs; Hans Förstl

2008-01-01

86

Changes in Cognitive Functioning in Recovering Alcoholic Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information about the neuropsychological consequences of alcoholism has been mostly limited to the cognitive functioning of recently detoxified alcoholic men. To expand this research, the long-term recovery of cognitive abilities in alcoholic women was examined in two studies. In the first study, neuropsychological performances were compared for…

Fabian, Marjorie S.; Parsons, Oscar A.

87

Walking and the Preservation of Cognitive Function in Older Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This cross-sectional study takes a unique look at the association between patterns of walking and cognitive functioning by examining whether older adults with mild cognitive impairment differ in terms of the community settings where they walk and the frequency, intensity, or duration of walking. Design and Methods: The sample was based on…

Prohaska, Thomas R.; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Satariano, William A.; Hunter, Rebecca; Bayles, Constance M.; Kurtovich, Elaine; Kealey, Melissa; Ivey, Susan L.

2009-01-01

88

Cognitive Functions in Carotid Artery Disease before Endarterectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restorative effects of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) on cognitive functioning in patients with severe atherosclerotic disease presuppose the existence of cognitive deficits prior to the intervention. Thorough examination of this premise received only minor attention. The present study assessed symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with severe unilateral or bilateral stenosis of the carotid arteries one day before CEA. Healthy volunteers with similar

Ercolie R. Bossema; Nico Brand; Frans L. Moll; Rob G. A. Ackerstaff; Edward H. F. de Haan; Lorenz J. P. van Doornen

2006-01-01

89

Enhancement of cognitive and neural functions through complex reasoning training: evidence from normal and clinical populations  

PubMed Central

Public awareness of cognitive health is fairly recent compared to physical health. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training offers promise in augmenting cognitive brain performance in normal and clinical populations. Targeting higher-order cognitive functions, such as reasoning in particular, may promote generalized cognitive changes necessary for supporting the complexities of daily life. This data-driven perspective highlights cognitive and brain changes measured in randomized clinical trials that trained gist reasoning strategies in populations ranging from teenagers to healthy older adults, individuals with brain injury to those at-risk for Alzheimer's disease. The evidence presented across studies support the potential for Gist reasoning training to strengthen cognitive performance in trained and untrained domains and to engage more efficient communication across widespread neural networks that support higher-order cognition. The meaningful benefits of Gist training provide compelling motivation to examine optimal dose for sustained benefits as well as to explore additive benefits of meditation, physical exercise, and/or improved sleep in future studies. PMID:24808834

Chapman, Sandra B.; Mudar, Raksha A.

2014-01-01

90

Age-related functional reorganization, structural changes, and preserved cognition.  

PubMed

Although healthy aging is associated with general cognitive decline, there is considerable variability in the extent to which cognitive functions decline or are preserved. Preserved cognitive function in the context of age-related neuroanatomical and functional changes, has been attributed to compensatory mechanisms. However, the existing sparse evidence is largely focused on functions associated with the frontal cortex, leaving open the question of how wider age-related brain changes relate to compensation. We evaluated relationships between age-related neural and functional changes in the context of preserved cognitive function by combining measures of structure, function, and cognitive performance during spoken language comprehension using a paradigm that does not involve an explicit task. We used a graph theoretical approach to derive cognitive activation-related functional magnetic resonance imaging networks. Correlating network properties with age, neuroanatomical variations, and behavioral data, we found that decreased gray matter integrity was associated with decreased connectivity within key language regions but increased overall functional connectivity. However, this network reorganization was less efficient, suggesting that engagement of a more distributed network in aging might be triggered by reduced connectivity within specialized networks. PMID:23942392

Meunier, David; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A; Tyler, Lorraine K

2014-01-01

91

Dance and cognitive functioning in Parkinson's disease   

E-print Network

Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is commonly accompanied by reduced health related quality of life (HRQoL) and cognitive decline which decreases participation in activities of daily living. Moreover, worsened motor ...

Michalska, Beata

2012-11-28

92

The value of assessing cognitive function in drug development  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the value and utility of measuring cognitive function in the development of new medicines by reference to the most widely used automated system in clinical research. Evidence is presented from phase 1 to 3 of the nature and quality of the information that can be obtained by applying the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment system to ongoing clinical trials. Valuable evidence can be obtained even in the first trial in which a novel compound is administered to man. One application of such testing is to ensure that novel compounds are relatively free from cognition-impairing properties, particularly in relation to competitor products. Another is to ensure that unwanted interactions with alcohol and other medications do not occur, or, if they do, to put them in context. In many patient populations, cognitive dysfunction occurs as a result of the disease process, and newer medicines which can treat the symptoms of the disease without further impairing function can often reveal benefits as the disease-induced cognitive dysfunction is reduced. Another major application is to identify benefits for compounds designed to enhance cognitive function. Such effects can be sought in typical phase 1 trials, or a scopolamine model of the core deficits of Alzheimer's disease can be used to screen potential antidernentia drugs. Ultimately, of course, such effects can be demonstrated using properly validated and highly sensitive automated procedures in the target populations. The data presented demonstrate that the concept of independently assessing a variety of cognitive functions is crucial in helping differentiate drugs, types of dementia, and different illnesses. Such information offers a unique insight into how the alterations to various cognitive functions will manifest themselves in everyday behavior. This reveals a major limitation of scales that yield a single score, because such limited information does not permit anything but a quantitative interpretation; and the concept of “more” cognitive function or “less” is manifestly inappropriate for something as complex and diverse as the interplay between cognitive function and human behavior. Finally, the next generations of cognitive testing are described. Testing via the telephone has just been introduced and will have dramatic effects on the logistics of conducting cognitive testing in large patient trials. Testing via the Internet is not far off either, and will come fully into play as the proportion of homes connected to the Internet increases in Europe and North America. There are no sound reasons for not wishing to include cognitive function testing in the development protocol of any novel medicine. PMID:22033754

Wesnes, Keith A.

2000-01-01

93

The Specialization of Function: Cognitive and Neural Perspectives  

PubMed Central

A unifying theme that cuts across all research areas and techniques in the cognitive and brain sciences is whether there is specialization of function at levels of processing that are ‘abstracted away’ from sensory inputs and motor outputs. Any theory that articulates claims about specialization of function in the mind/brain confronts the following types of interrelated questions, each of which carries with it certain theoretical commitments. What methods are appropriate for decomposing complex cognitive and neural processes into their constituent parts? How do cognitive processes map onto neural processes, and at what resolution are they related? What types of conclusions can be drawn about the structure of mind from dissociations observed at the neural level, and vice versa? The contributions that form this Special Issue of Cognitive Neuropsychology represent recent reflections on these and other issues from leading researchers in different areas of the cognitive and brain sciences. PMID:22185234

Mahon, Bradford Z.; Cantlon, Jessica F.

2014-01-01

94

Association between somatic growth trajectory and cognitive functioning in young children with sickle cell disease.  

PubMed

Children with sickle cell disease are at risk of cognitive deficits and somatic growth delays beginning in early childhood. We examined growth velocity from age 2?years (height and body mass index progression over time) and cognitive functioning in 46 children with sickle cell disease 4 to 8 years of age. Height-for-age velocity was not associated with cognitive outcomes. Higher body mass index velocity was associated with higher scores on global cognitive and visual-motor abilities but not processing resources or academic achievement. Body mass index progression over time may be a clinically useful indicator of neurocognitive risk in sickle cell disease, as it may reflect multiple sickle cell disease-related risk factors. PMID:25488939

Puffer, Eve S; Schatz, Jeffrey C; Roberts, Carla W

2014-12-01

95

Cardiac Modulation of Startle: Effects on Eye Blink and Higher Cognitive Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cardiac cycle time has been shown to affect pre-attentive brainstem startle processes, such as the magnitude of acoustically evoked reflexive startle eye blinks. These effects were attributed to baro-afferent feedback mechanisms. However, it remains unclear whether cardiac cycle time plays a role in higher startle-related cognitive processes, as…

Schulz, Andre; Reichert, Carolin F.; Richter, Steffen; Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Schachinger, Hartmut

2009-01-01

96

Functional neuroimaging of cognition: state-of-the-art.  

PubMed

This paper presents a brief overview of functional neuroimaging studies of cognitive processes. A "publication profile" is identified for PET and fMRI studies of cognitive functions. It is shown that the number of publications has increased exponentially over the last ten years, and that a set of ten journals accounts for the vast majority of publications. It is argued that the field has moved from a state of explorative character to a state of high theoretical sophistication. With special reference to the contributions in this issue of Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, methodological, topical, regional, and clinical implications of cognitive neuroscientific studies are discussed. PMID:11501731

Nyberg, L

2001-07-01

97

Nicotinic acetylcholine involvement in cognitive function in animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotinic cholinergic systems are involved with several important aspects of cognitive function including attention, learning\\u000a and memory. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors are located in many regions of the brain, including areas important for cognitive\\u000a function such as the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Nicotinic agonists have been found in rodent and non-human primate studies\\u000a to improve performance on a variety of memory

E. D. Levin; Barbara B. Simon

1998-01-01

98

Is Cognitive Functioning Impaired in Methamphetamine Users? A Critical Review  

PubMed Central

The prevailing view is that recreational methamphetamine use causes a broad range of severe cognitive deficits, despite the fact that concerns have been raised about interpretations drawn from the published literature. This article addresses an important gap in our knowledge by providing a critical review of findings from recent research investigating the impact of recreational methamphetamine use on human cognition. Included in the discussion are findings from studies that have assessed the acute and long-term effects of methamphetamine on several domains of cognition, including visuospatial perception, attention, inhibition, working memory, long-term memory, and learning. In addition, relevant neuroimaging data are reviewed in an effort to better understand neural mechanisms underlying methamphetamine-related effects on cognitive functioning. In general, the data on acute effects show that methamphetamine improves cognitive performance in selected domains, that is, visuospatial perception, attention, and inhibition. Regarding long-term effects on cognitive performance and brain-imaging measures, statistically significant differences between methamphetamine users and control participants have been observed on a minority of measures. More importantly, however, the clinical significance of these findings may be limited because cognitive functioning overwhelmingly falls within the normal range when compared against normative data. In spite of these observations, there seems to be a propensity to interpret any cognitive and/or brain difference(s) as a clinically significant abnormality. The implications of this situation are multiple, with consequences for scientific research, substance-abuse treatment, and public policy. PMID:22089317

Hart, Carl L; Marvin, Caroline B; Silver, Rae; Smith, Edward E

2012-01-01

99

Functional brain imaging of cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Multiple factors are involved in the development of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) and related disorders. Notably, several underlying factors, such as monoaminergic dysfunction, Lewy body pathology, Alzheimer disease-like pathology and cerebrovascular disease are implied in the PD pathophysiology of cognitive impairment. The mesocortical dopaminergic system is associated with executive functions which are frequently affected in PD and are influenced by local levodopa concentration, dopamine metabolism and baseline performance status. The ventral striatum and frontal cortex are associated with impulse control disorders reported in PD patients treated with dopamine replacement therapy. Cholinergic impairment in PD plays a cardinal role in the development of dementia. Acetylcholinesterase positron emission tomography demonstrates that posterior brain areas are related to cognitive decline in PD patients. Amyloid radiotracer illustrates that patients with PD with severe cognitive impairment were prone to accompanied cortical amyloid deposition. Metabolism/perfusion change associated with cognitive impairment in PD, so-called PD related cognitive pattern, is characterised by reduced frontoparietal activity and is an effective way to differentiate and monitor cognitive function of individual PD patients. Cognitive impairment in PD cannot be explained by a single mechanism and is entangled by multiple factors. Imaging studies can unravel each pathological domain, further shed light on the interrelation between different pathomechanisms, not only in PD but also in other dementia related disorders, and thereby integrate its interpretation to apply to therapeutics in individual patients. PMID:22807560

Hirano, Shigeki; Shinotoh, Hitoshi; Eidelberg, David

2012-10-01

100

Meta-analytic evidence for a superordinate cognitive control network subserving diverse executive functions  

PubMed Central

Classic cognitive theory conceptualizes executive functions as involving multiple specific domains, including initiation, inhibition, working memory, flexibility, planning, and vigilance. Lesion and neuroimaging experiments over the past two decades have suggested that both common and unique processes contribute to executive functions during higher cognition. It has been suggested that a superordinate fronto–cingulo–parietal network supporting cognitive control may also underlie a range of distinct executive functions. To test this hypothesis in the largest sample to date, we used quantitative meta-analytic methods to analyze 193 functional neuroimaging studies of 2,832 healthy individuals, ages 18–60, in which performance on executive function measures was contrasted with an active control condition. A common pattern of activation was observed in the prefrontal, dorsal anterior cingulate, and parietal cortices across executive function domains, supporting the idea that executive functions are supported by a superordinate cognitive control network. However, domain-specific analyses showed some variation in the recruitment of anterior prefrontal cortex, anterior and midcingulate regions, and unique subcortical regions such as the basal ganglia and cerebellum. These results are consistent with the existence of a superordinate cognitive control network in the brain, involving dorsolateral prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and parietal cortices, that supports a broad range of executive functions. PMID:22282036

Laird, Angela R.; Ray, Kimberly L.; Dean, Y. Monica; Glahn, David C.; Carter, Cameron S.

2013-01-01

101

Questions for Assessing Higher-Order Cognitive Skills: It's Not Just Bloom’s  

PubMed Central

We present an exploratory study of biologists’ ideas about higher-order cognition questions. We documented the conversations of biologists who were writing and reviewing a set of higher-order cognition questions. Using a qualitative approach, we identified the themes of these conversations. Biologists in our study used Bloom's Taxonomy to logically analyze questions. However, biologists were also concerned with question difficulty, the length of time required for students to address questions, and students’ experience with questions. Finally, some biologists demonstrated an assumption that questions should have one correct answer, not multiple reasonable solutions; this assumption undermined their comfort with some higher-order cognition questions. We generated a framework for further research that provides an interpretation of participants’ ideas about higher-order questions and a model of the relationships among these ideas. Two hypotheses emerge from this framework. First, we propose that biologists look for ways to measure difficulty when writing higher-order questions. Second, we propose that biologists’ assumptions about the role of questions in student learning strongly influence the types of higher-order questions they write. PMID:23463228

Lemons, Paula P.; Lemons, J. Derrick

2013-01-01

102

Perceived Stress and Change in Cognitive Function Among Adults Aged 65 and Older  

PubMed Central

Objective Exposure to acute and chronic stress can affect learning and memory but most evidence comes from animal studies or clinical observations. Almost no population-based studies have investigated the relation of stress to cognition or changes in cognition over time. We examined whether higher levels of perceived stress were associated with accelerated decline in cognitive function in older blacks and whites from a community-based population sample. Methods Participants included 6,207 black and white adults (65.7% black, 63.3% women) from the Chicago Health and Aging project. Two to five in-home assessments were completed over an average of 6.8 years of follow up, and included sociodemographics, health behaviors, psychosocial measures, cognitive function tests, and health history. Perceived stress was measured by a 6-item scale, and a composite measure of four tests of cognition was used to determine cognitive function at each assessment. Results Mixed effects regression models showed that increasing levels of perceived stress were related to lower initial cognitive scores (B=-0.0379, SE=0.0025, p<.001) and a faster rate of cognitive decline (stress × time interaction: B=-0.0015, SE=0.0004, p<.001). Results were similar after adjusting for demographic variables, smoking, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, chronic medical conditions, and psychosocial factors and did not vary by race, sex, age or education. Conclusion Increasing levels of stress are independently associated with accelerated declines in cognitive function in black and white adults aged 65 and above. PMID:24367123

Aggarwal, Neelum T.; Wilson, Robert S.; Beck, Todd L.; Rajan, Kumar B.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Evans, Denis A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.

2014-01-01

103

Chronobiology, cognitive function and depressive symptoms in surgical patients.  

PubMed

Biological rhythms are essential for the regulation of many life processes. Disturbances of the circadian rhythm are known to affect human health, performance and well-being and the negative consequences are numerous and widespread. Cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, pain, sleep disturbances and mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are common problems arising around the time of surgery or in the course of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment period. The importance of investigating prevention or treatment possibilities in these populations is significant due to the extent of the problems and the derived consequences on morbidity and mortality. Genetic predisposition to these problems is also an issue in focus. In this thesis we initially investigated whether the specific clock gene genotype PER(5/5) was associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction one week after non-cardiac surgery. We did not find any association, although this could have been due to the size of the study. Yet, if PER3(5/5) is associated with a higher incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, the risk seems to be only modestly increased and by less than 10%. Melatonin is a hormone with well-known chronobiotic and hypnotic effects. In addition, exogenous melatonin is also known to have anxiolytic, analgesic, antidepressant and positive cognitive effects. Based on the lack of studies investigating these effects of melatonin, we conducted the MELODY trial in which we investigated the effect of 6 mg oral melatonin on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, cognitive function and fatigue in patients with breast cancer in a three month time period after surgery. Melatonin had an effect on reducing the risk of developing depressive symptoms and also increased sleep efficiency perioperatively and total sleep time postoperatively. No effect was found on anxiety, sleep quality, sleepiness, general well-being or pain, however melatonin seemed to positively influence the ability to complete trial participation compared to placebo. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction was not a problem in this limited population. With regard to safety in our study, melatonin treatment for three months did not cause any serious adverse effects. Finally, we systematically reviewed the literature on the prophylactic or therapeutic effect of melatonin for depression or depressive symptoms in adult patients and assessed the safety of melatonin in these studies. The quantity, size and quality of trials investigating this question were not high and there was no clear evidence of an effect, although some studies were positive. In conclusion, further research is warranted with regard to the prophylactic effect and treatment effect of melatonin in depression, depressive symptoms, cognitive disturbances and symptom clusters of cancer patients in general. In addition, more hypothesis-generating studies with regard to the genetic heritability of POCD are needed. PMID:25186550

Hansen, Melissa Voigt

2014-09-01

104

The Relationship between Height and Cognitive Function among Community-dwelling Elderly: Hallym Aging Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Height is known as an index that reflects the environment of the fetal, childhood, and adolescent periods, which affect adult health. This study was conducted to elucidate whether height is associated with cognitive impairment in community-dwelling elders in Korea. METHODS The study subjects were recruited among community dwelling elderly individuals aged 65 or over who participated in the 2004 Hallym Aging Study. They were invited to a general hospital and were evaluated for socioeconomic status, smoking history, and various clinical measures. Cognitive function measurement was performed using the Korean-Mini Mental State Examination. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between height and cognitive function. RESULTS After adjusting for potential covariates such as age and education, the smallest group was associated with higher risk of cognitive impairment compared with the tallest group among elderly men (odds ratio [OR], 4.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-17.36), but not among elderly women (OR,1.65; 95% CI, 0.62-4.40). CONCLUSIONS The reason for this difference according to sex may be explained by the differential effects of education on cognitive function by sex. A larger population-based prospective cohort study is needed to examine the association between height and cognitive function according to sex. PMID:23682335

Quan, Shan Ai; Jeong, Jin-Young

2013-01-01

105

Cognitive Stimulation and Cognitive and Functional Decline in Alzheimer's Disease: The Cache County Dementia Progression Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To examine the association of engagement in cognitively stimulating activities with cognitive and functional decline in a population-based sample of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). Method. After diagnosis, 187 participants (65% females) were followed semiannually for a mean 2.7 (SD = 0.4) years. Mean age and education were 84.6 (SD = 5.8) and 13.2 (SD = 2.9) years. Caregivers enumerated cognitively stimulating leisure activities via the Lifestyle Activities Questionnaire. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and functional ability via the Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes. Linear mixed models tested the association between stimulating activities and change over time in each outcome. Covariates were demographic factors, estimated premorbid IQ, presence/absence of the APOE ?4 allele, duration of dementia, level of physical activity, and general health. Results. At initial assessment, 87% of participants were engaged in one or more stimulating activities, with mean (SD) activities = 4.0 (3.0). This number declined to 2.4 (2.0) at the final visit. There was a statistical interaction between dementia duration and number of activities in predicting rate of cognitive decline (p = .02) and overall functional ability (p = .006). Discussion. Active involvement in cognitively stimulating pursuits may be beneficial for persons with AD. PMID:21441386

Treiber, Katherine A.; Carlson, Michelle C.; Corcoran, Chris; Norton, Maria C.; Breitner, John C. S.; Piercy, Kathleen W.; DeBerard, Michael Scott; Stein, David; Foley, Beth; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.; Frye, Amber; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

2011-01-01

106

Complex Relationships of Nicotinic Receptor Actions and Cognitive Functions  

PubMed Central

Nicotine has been shown in a variety of studies to improve cognitive function including learning, memory and attention. Nicotine both stimulates and desensitizes nicotinic receptors, thus acting both as an agonist and a net antagonist. The relative roles of these two actions for nicotine-induced cognitive improvement have not yet been fully determined. We and others have found that acute nicotinic antagonist treatment can improve learning and attention. Nicotine acts on a variety of nicotinic receptor subtypes. The relative role and interactions of neuronal nicotinic receptor subtypes for cognition also needs to be better characterized. Nicotine acts on nicotinic receptors in a wide variety of brain areas. The role of some of these areas such as the hippocampus has been relatively well studied but other area like the thalamus, which has the densest nicotinic receptor concentration are still only partially characterized. In a series of studies we characterized nicotinic receptor actions, anatomic localization and circuit interactions, which are critical to nicotine effects on the cognitive functions of learning, memory and attention. The relative role of increases and decreases in nicotinic receptor activation by nicotine were determined in regionally specific studies of the hippocampus, the amygdala, the frontal cortex and the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus with local infusions of antagonists of nicotinic receptor subtypes (?7 and ?4?2). The understanding of the functional neural bases of cognitive function is fundamental to the more effective development of nicotinic drugs for treating cognitive dysfunction. PMID:23928190

Levin, Edward D.

2013-01-01

107

Cognitive functions in carotid artery disease before endarterectomy.  

PubMed

Restorative effects of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) on cognitive functioning in patients with severe atherosclerotic disease presuppose the existence of cognitive deficits prior to the intervention. Thorough examination of this premise received only minor attention. The present study assessed symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with severe unilateral or bilateral stenosis of the carotid arteries one day before CEA. Healthy volunteers with similar demographic characteristics served as control subjects. Patients overall showed decreased functioning on tests of attention, verbal and visual memory, verbal fluency, and psychomotor speed and executive functioning, even after correction for the effects of mood. Simple motor skills and visuospatial functioning were not affected. Patients grouped according to presence and type of previous clinical symptoms and severity of contralateral stenosis only slightly differed from each other. The findings leave open the potential of improving cognitive function after CEA. PMID:16618625

Bossema, Ercolie R; Brand, Nico; Moll, Frans L; Ackerstaff, Rob G A; de Haan, Edward H F; van Doornen, Lorenz J P

2006-04-01

108

Cognitive functions in abstinent alcohol-dependent patients.  

PubMed

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare cognitive functioning of abstaining alcohol-dependent (AD) male patients and healthy controls as well as to investigate whether their cognitive performance varied by abstinence length. Forty-two maintaining abstinent (AD) patients and 34 healthy controls were examined. Tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess cognitive functions. Differences in cognitive performance were found between AD patients and healthy controls. Nonverbal tasks in cognitive domains such as attention, visual memory and working memory were impaired in AD patients who presented deficits in visual episodic memory, had slower reaction time and reduced working memory span. Patients who were abstinent for less than one year made more errors in both attentional set shifting and working memory tests than healthy controls and patients with longer durations of abstinence. Impairments identified in multiple cognitive domains in abstinent alcohol-dependent subjects suggest functional deficits in extensive brain networks connecting interrelated brain structures. Attentional control and spatial working memory were less impaired in those AD patients who maintained abstinence for at least one year. PMID:22703992

Kopera, Maciej; Wojnar, Marcin; Brower, Kirk; Glass, Jennifer; Nowosad, Izabela; Gmaj, Bart?omiej; Szelenberger, Waldemar

2012-11-01

109

Early Bifrontal Brain Injury: Disturbances in Cognitive Function Development  

PubMed Central

We describe six psychomotor, language, and neuropsychological sequential developmental evaluations in a boy who sustained a severe bifrontal traumatic brain injury (TBI) at 19 months of age. Visuospatial, drawing, and writing skills failed to develop normally. Gradually increasing difficulties were noted in language leading to reading and spontaneous speech difficulties. The last two evaluations showed executive deficits in inhibition, flexibility, and working memory. Those executive abnormalities seemed to be involved in the other impairments. In conclusion, early frontal brain injury disorganizes the development of cognitive functions, and interactions exist between executive function and other cognitive functions during development. PMID:21188227

Bonnier, Christine; Costet, Aurélie; Hmaimess, Ghassan; Catale, Corinne; Maillart, Christelle; Marique, Patricia

2010-01-01

110

Cardiovascular Health and Cognitive Function: The Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking, physical inactivity, and poor diet, along with obesity, fasting glucose and blood pressure have been independently associated with poorer cognitive performance. Few studies have related scales representing a combination of these variables to multiple domains of cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between overall cardiovascular health, incorporating seven components, and cognitive function. Methods A cross-sectional analysis employing 972 participants, from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study was undertaken. Four health behaviors (body mass index, physical activity, diet, smoking) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were measured. Each was categorized according to the American Heart Association definitions for ideal cardiovascular health, except diet, for which two food scores were calculated. A Cardiovascular Health Score was determined by summing the number of cardiovascular metrics at ideal levels. Cognitive function was assessed using a thorough neuropsychological test battery. Results Cardiovascular Health Score was positively associated with seven out of eight measures of cognitive function, with adjustment for age, education, and gender. With further adjustment for cardiovascular and psychological variables, these associations remained significant for Visual-Spatial Memory, Working Memory, Scanning and Tracking, Executive Function and the Global Composite score (p<0.05 for all). Ideal levels of a number of health factors and behaviors were positively associated with global cognitive performance. Conclusion Increasing cardiovascular health, indexed by a higher number of metrics at ideal levels, is associated with greater cognitive performance. Smoking, physical activity, and diet are important components of cardiovascular health that impact upon cognition. PMID:24595096

Crichton, Georgina E.; Elias, Merrill F.; Davey, Adam; Alkerwi, Ala'a

2014-01-01

111

The Effects of Clozapine, Risperidone, and Olanzapine on Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive function is markedly impaired in most patients with schizophrenia. Antecedents of this impairment are evident in childhood. The cognitive disability is nearly fully developed at the first episode of psychosis in most patients. The contribution of cognitive impairment to outcome in schizophrenia, especially work function, has been established. Preliminary results indicate that cognitive function, along with disorganization symptoms, discriminate

Herbert Y. Meltzer; Susan R. McGurk

1999-01-01

112

Cognitive Function is Related to Anxiety and Adaptive  

E-print Network

/interacts with increased stress/anxiety to further modulate/challenge development stress/anxiety increase inattentionCognitive Function is Related to Anxiety and Adaptive Function in Children with 22q11.2DS Tony J younger children 9Monday, July 23, 12 Do These Problems Cause Stress? Some quotes from an adult posting

Nguyen, Danh

113

Cognitive-Pharmacologic Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Tourette Syndrome  

E-print Network

Cognitive-Pharmacologic Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Tourette Syndrome: A Pilot Study and vocalizations (tics) in Tourette syndrome (TS); however, dopamine-responsive abnormal function in specific brain dopamine antagonists and agonists alleviate tics. Key Words: Tourette syndrome, physiopathology, dopamine

114

The Cognitive Neuroscience Toolkit for the Neuroeconomist: A Functional Overview  

E-print Network

The Cognitive Neuroscience Toolkit for the Neuroeconomist: A Functional Overview Joseph W. Kable to the different methods used in human neuroscience. It describes basic strengths and weaknesses of each technique presents a framework that organizes human neuroscience methods functionally, according to whether

Kable, Joe

115

ZINC FORTIFICATION AND COGNITIVE AND PSYCHOSOCIAL FUNCTION IN YOUNG ADOLESCENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies have related zinc nutrition to motor, cognitive and psychosocial function in very young children and adults, but there have been no studies of older children. Therefore, we investigated the effects of zinc fortification on these functions in young adolescents. Seventh graders (65 gi...

116

The Relationship between Stress, Fatigue, and Cognitive Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a plethora of research suggesting that daily stressors and fatigue can have a significant effect on learning and various cognitive functions in young adults. Little is known, however, about how these effects impact learning and other neurocognitive functions in students with learning challenges when compared to their counterparts without…

Palmer, Laura K.; Economou, Peter; Cruz, Daniel; Abraham-Cook, Shannon; Huntington, Jodi S.; Maris, Marika; Makhija, Nita; Welsh, Toni; Maley, Larissa

2014-01-01

117

The Relationship between Stress, Fatigue, and Cognitive Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a plethora of research suggesting that daily stressors and fatigue can have a significant effect on learning and various cognitive functions in young adults. Little is known, however, about how these effects impact learning and other neurocognitive functions in students with learning challenges when compared to their counterparts without…

Palmer, Laura K.

2013-01-01

118

Tai Ji Quan and global cognitive function in older adults with cognitive impairment: a pilot study.  

PubMed

This study evaluated whether Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance (TJQMBB) could improve global cognitive function in older adults with cognitive impairment. Using a nonrandomized control group pretest-posttest design, participants aged ?65 years who scored between 20 and 25 on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were allocated into either a 14-week TJQMBB program (n=22) or a control group (n=24). The primary outcome was MMSE as a measure of global cognitive function with secondary outcomes of 50-ft speed walk, Timed Up&Go, and Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale. At 14 weeks, Tai Ji Quan participants showed significant improvement on MMSE (mean=2.26, p<0.001) compared to controls (mean=0.63, p=0.08). Similarly, Tai Ji Quan participants performed significantly better compared to the controls in both physical performance and balance efficacy measures (p<0.05). Improvement in cognition as measured by MMSE was related to improved physical performance and balance efficacy. These results provide preliminary evidence of the utility of the TJQMBB program to promote cognitive function in older adults in addition to physical benefits. PMID:24398166

Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Liu, Yu; Chou, Li-Shan

2014-01-01

119

Effects of topiramate on cognitive function  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To explore the impact of topiramate on tests of intellect and other cognitive processes.?METHODS—This was a retrospective study. The neuropsychological test scores of 18 patients obtained before and after the introduction of treatment with topiramate (median dose 300 mg) were compared with changes in test performance of 18 patients who had undergone repeat neuropsychological assessments at the same time intervals. Complaints of cognitive decline precipitated referral for reassessment in five cases in the topiramate treated group. The groups were matched for age and intellectual level at the time of the first assessment. Patients were assessed using the WAIS-R, tests of verbal and non-verbal memory, language, and perceptual processing. A subgroup of patients underwent a brief reassessment after the withdrawal or substantial reduction of topiramate.?RESULTS—Repeat assessments in those taking topiramate were associated with a significant deterioration in many domains, which were not seen in the comparison group. The greatest changes were for verbal IQ, verbal fluency, and verbal learning (p<0.001). Improvements in verbal fluency (p<0.05), verbal learning (p<0.01), and digit span (p<0.001) were recorded in those patients who had topiramate withdrawn or reduced.?CONCLUSIONS—In our patient group topiramate had a negative impact on cognition which was consistent with subjective complaints of patients. Tests requiring verbal processing seemed especially sensitive to the drug. A decline in verbal intellect (VIQ), a measure which has been considered by some to be insensitive to antiepileptic drug effects, was particularly striking. Caution is warranted in the interpretation of the findings due to methodological limitations of the study design. Further investigation of mediating factors such as serum concentrations, comedication, and other potential risk factors, however, is needed to enable appropriate targeting of treatment with this effective antiepileptic agent.?? PMID:11032616

Thompson, P; Baxendale, S; Duncan, J; Sander, J

2000-01-01

120

Is Executive Cognitive Function Associated with Youth Gambling?  

PubMed Central

Our objectives for this report were to identify trajectories of youth gambling behavior, and to examine their relation to executive cognitive function (ECF) and associated problem behaviors. Philadelphia school children, enrolled at ages 10–12 years (n = 387; 49% male), completed three annual assessments of risk behaviors, ECF, impulsivity, problem behaviors and demographics. Across ages 10–15 years, using methods from Nagin et al., two groups were identified: Early Gamblers (n = 111) initiated early and continued in later assessments, and Later Gamblers (n = 276) initiated at later ages and gambled less. Betting money on cards and sports were the most frequently reported gambling behaviors. Using gambling group as outcome, final backward selection logistic regression model showed Early Gamblers are more likely male (P = 0.001), report more active coping (P = 0.042), impulsive behaviors (P ? 0.008), and have friends who gamble (P = 0.001). Groups were similar in ECF, parental monitoring, marital status, SES, and race. Early Gamblers had higher incidence of problem behaviors and drug use (all P ? 0.006). Two gambling groups were identified in early adolescence with Early Gamblers showing higher levels of impulsivity and comorbid problems but similar levels of ECF compared to Late Gamblers. As more gambling groups are identified through later adolescence, ECF may emerge as a relevant precursor of problem gambling at this later time. PMID:21698342

Brodsky, Nancy L.; Brown, Caitlin A.; McKenna, Kathleen A.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Yang, Wei; Romer, Daniel; Hurt, Hallam

2011-01-01

121

Cognitive Variability in Adults with ADHD and AS: Disentangling the Roles of Executive Functions and Social Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Asperger's Syndrome (AS) share a heterogeneous cognitive profile. Studies assessing executive functions (EF) and social cognition in both groups have found preserved and impaired performances. These inconsistent findings would be partially explained by the cognitive variability reported in these…

Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Baez, Sandra; Torralva, Teresa; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Rattazzi, Alexia; Bein, Victoria; Rogg, Katharina; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

2013-01-01

122

Critical Periods of Brain Growth and Cognitive Function in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence that IQ tends to be higher in those who were heavier at birth or who grew taller in childhood and adolescence. Although these findings imply that growth in both foetal and postnatal life influences cognitive performance, little is known about the relative importance of brain growth during different periods of development. We…

Gale, Catharine R.; O'Callaghan, Finbar J.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Law, Catherine M.; Martyn, Christopher N.

2004-01-01

123

Improving functional disability and cognition in Parkinson disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To examine the efficacy of an integrative cognitive training program (REHACOP) to improve cognition, clinical symptoms, and functional disability of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: Forty-two patients diagnosed with PD in Hoehn & Yahr stages 1 to 3 were randomly assigned to either the cognitive training group (REHACOP) or the control group (occupational activities) for 3 months (3 sessions, 60 min/wk). Primary outcomes were change on processing speed, verbal memory, visual memory, executive functioning, and theory of mind. Secondary outcomes included changes on neuropsychiatric symptoms, depression, apathy, and functional disability. The trial was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02118480). Results: No baseline group differences were found. Bootstrapped analysis of variance results showed significant differences in the mean change scores between the REHACOP group and control group in processing speed (0.13 [SE = 0.07] vs ?0.15 [SE = 0.09], p = 0.025), visual memory (0.10 [SE = 0.10] vs ?0.24 [SE = 0.09], p = 0.011), theory of mind (1.00 [SE = 0.37] vs ?0.27 [SE = 0.29], p = 0.013), and functional disability (?5.15 [SE = 1.35] vs 0.53 [SE = 1.49], p = 0.012). Conclusions: Patients with PD receiving cognitive training with REHACOP demonstrated statistically significant and clinically meaningful changes in processing speed, visual memory, theory of mind, and functional disability. Future studies should consider the long-term effect of this type of intervention. These findings support the integration of cognitive training into the standard of care for patients with PD. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with PD, an integrative cognitive training program improves processing speed, visual memory, theory of mind, and functional disability. PMID:25361785

Peña, Javier; García-Gorostiaga, Inés; Gomez-Beldarrain, Maria Angeles; Díez-Cirarda, María; Ojeda, Natalia

2014-01-01

124

Improvement of cognitive function after carotid endarterectomy--a new strategy for the evaluation of cognitive function.  

PubMed

Significant carotid stenosis is known to cause ischemic stroke and cognitive impairment. However, it remains controversial whether carotid endarterectomy (CEA) can improve cognitive function in patients with carotid stenosis. We used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to compare cognitive function between before and after CEA. Patients were prospectively registered to evaluate cognitive function from October 2011 to December 2012 after we determined them to have significant carotid stenosis. Patients were examined by 3-dimensional computed tomographic angiography or digital subtraction angiography. Although symptomatic cases were included, their modified Rankin Scale was grade 0 or 1 before CEA. All CEA procedures were performed by the same neurosurgical team. Cognitive function was evaluated by MoCA and MMSE performed before and after surgery. Data were analyzed statistically using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Thirty-six patients were included in this study. The MoCA score after surgery, whereas the MMSE score was not. After surgery, the MoCA score improved in patients who were 73 years or younger, who underwent CEA in the left side of their carotid lesion, who had severe carotid stenosis of more than 80%, who had bilateral lesion, who did not have abnormal lesion on diffusion-weighted imaging after surgery, or who had cerebral blood flow of pre-CEA over 34.5 mL. In conclusion, MoCA was feasible in patients soon after undergoing CEA. Using MoCA not MMSE, CEA may improve cognitive function in patients with significant carotid stenosis. PMID:24462461

Watanabe, Junko; Ogata, Toshiyasu; Hamada, Omi; Nonaka, Masani; Abe, Hiroshi; Higashi, Toshio; Shiota, Etsuji; Inoue, Tooru

2014-07-01

125

Improved Serum Leptin and Ghrelin Following Bariatric Surgery Predict Better Postoperative Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Bariatric surgery is associated with improved cognitive function, but the mechanisms underlying these gains remain poorly understood. Disturbed leptin and ghrelin systems are common in obese individuals and are associated with impaired cognitive function in other samples. Bariatric surgery has been shown to improve serum leptin and ghrelin levels, and these changes may underlie postoperative cognitive improvements. Methods Eighty-four patients completed a computerized cognitive test battery prior to bariatric surgery and at 12 months postoperatively. Participants also submitted to an 8-hour fasting blood draw to quantify serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations at these same time points. Results Baseline cognitive impairments and disturbed leptin and ghrelin levels improved at the 12-month follow-up compared to presurgery. Higher leptin levels were associated with worse attention/executive function at baseline; no such findings emerged for ghrelin. Regression analyses controlling for baseline factors and demographic characteristics showed that both decreased leptin and increased ghrelin following surgery was associated with better attention/executive function at the 12-month follow-up. These effects diminished after controlling for the postoperative change in body mass index (BMI); however, BMI change did not predict 12-month cognitive function. Conclusions Improvements in leptin and ghrelin levels following bariatric surgery appear to contribute to postoperative cognitive benefits. These gains may involve multiple mechanisms, such as reduced inflammation and improved glycemic control. Future studies that employ neuroimaging are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms and determine whether the effects of bariatric surgery on leptin and ghrelin levels can attenuate adverse brain changes and/or risk of dementia in severely obese individuals.

Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, James E.

2015-01-01

126

The effect of cognitive functioning on treatment attendance and adherence in comorbid bipolar disorder and cocaine dependence.  

PubMed

Although bipolar disorder and substance dependence are both associated with treatment non-adherence and cognitive impairment, no studies have investigated relationships between treatment adherence and cognitive functioning in this population. As part of a clinical trial, baseline performance on two neuropsychological tests in 120 outpatients with bipolar disorder and cocaine dependence was used to examine whether cognitive functioning was associated with appointment attendance, medication adherence, and return of medication bottles. This study found that higher baseline cognitive functioning measured by the Stroop Color-Word condition predicted better treatment adherence. However, this study also reports measurement sensitivity of cognition as it relates to treatment adherence when applied to this dual diagnosis population. Poorer performance in simple visual attention tasks as assessed by the Stroop Word condition was inversely associated with some measures of adherence. Future studies are warranted that include a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and advanced medication adherence measures to confirm these findings. PMID:25108685

Fagan, Colleen S; Carmody, Thomas J; McClintock, Shawn M; Suris, Alina; Nakamura, Alyson; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Lo, Alexander; Brown, E Sherwood

2015-02-01

127

Omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive function in women  

PubMed Central

Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) could play an important role in maintaining cognitive function in aging individuals. The omega-3 FA docosahexaenoic acid is a major constituent of neuronal membranes and, along with the other long-chain omega-3 FAs from fish such as eicosapentaentoic acid, has been shown to have a wide variety of beneficial effects on neuronal functioning, inflammation, oxidation and cell death, as well as on the development of the characteristic pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. Omega-3 FAs may prevent vascular dementia via salutary effects on lipids, inflammation, thrombosis and vascular function. Epidemiologic studies have generally supported a protective association between fish and omega-3 FA levels and cognitive decline. Some of the small, short-term, randomized trials of docosahexaenoic acid and/or eicosapentaentoic acid supplementation have found positive effects on some aspects of cognition in older adults who were cognitively intact or had mild cognitive impairment, although little effect was found in participants with Alzheimer’s disease. Large, long-term trials in this area are needed. PMID:20088735

Robinson, Jennifer G; Ijioma, Nkechinyere; Harris, William

2010-01-01

128

Impact of common KIBRA allele on human cognitive functions.  

PubMed

The rs17070145 polymorphism (C ? T substitution, intron 9) of the KIBRA gene has recently been associated with episodic memory and cognitive flexibility. These findings were inconsistent across reports though, and largely lacked gene-gene or gene-environment interactions. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of the rs17070145 polymorphism on clinically relevant cognitive domains and its interaction with the modifiers 'lifestyle' and 'cardiovascular risk factors'. Five-hundred forty-five elderly volunteers (mean age 64 years, ±7 years, 56% women) accomplished a comprehensive cognitive testing. Principal component analysis was used to reveal the internal structure of the data, rendering four composite scores: verbal memory, word fluency, executive function/psychomotor speed, and working memory. Lifestyle was assessed with a detailed questionnaire, age-associated risk factors by clinical interview and examination. There was no main effect of the rs17070145 genotype on any cognitive composite scores. However, we found worse performance in executive functions for T-allele carriers in the presence of arterial hypertension (?=-0.365, p=0.0077 and 0.031 after Bonferroni correction). This association was further modified by gender, showing the strongest association in hypertensive females (?=-0.500, p=0.0072 and 0.029 after Bonferroni correction). The effect of KIBRA on cognitive function seems to be complex and modified by gender and arterial hypertension. PMID:21346737

Wersching, H; Guske, K; Hasenkamp, S; Hagedorn, C; Schiwek, S; Jansen, S; Witte, V; Wellmann, J; Lohmann, H; Duning, K; Kremerskothen, J; Knecht, S; Brand, E; Floel, A

2011-05-01

129

Cognitive Functioning in Long Duration Head-down Bed Rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Flight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a self-administered battery of tests used on the International Space Station for evaluating cognitive functioning. Here, WinSCAT was used to assess cognitive functioning during extended head-down bed rest. Thirteen subjects who participated in 60 or 90 days of 6 deg head-down bed rest took WinSCAT during the pre-bed rest phase, the in-bed rest phase, and the post-bed rest (reconditioning) phase of study participation. After adjusting for individual baseline performance, 12 off-nominal scores were observed out of 351 total observations during bed rest and 7 of 180 during reconditioning. No evidence was found for systematic changes in off-nominal incidence as time in bed rest progressed, or during the reconditioning period. Cognitive functioning does not appear to be adversely affected by long duration head-down bed rest. Individual differences in underlying cognitive ability and motivation level are likely explanations for the current findings.

Seaton, Kimberly A.; Slack, Kelley J.; Sipes, Walter A.; Bowie, Kendra

2008-01-01

130

Decreased Motor Function Is Associated with Poorer Cognitive Function in Elderly with Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Impaired motor function has been associated with cognitive impairment and dementia, but this relationship is poorly understood in elderly with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We thus investigated it in a large sample (n = 726) of cognitively normal elderly with T2D. Methods In this cross-sectional study, hierarchical linear regressions assessed correlations of 3 motor measures (timed walk, grip strength, and self-reported motor difficulties) with episodic memory, attention/working memory, semantic categorization, executive function, and overall cognition controlling for demographics. Results Longer timed walk and weaker grip strength were associated with poorer performance in all cognitive domains except episodic memory. Conclusions Associations of motor and cognitive functions in T2D and non-T2D samples are consistent. A lack of association of motor function with episodic memory may suggest non-Alzheimer's disease-related underlying mechanisms. PMID:24926308

Guerrero-Berroa, Elizabeth; Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Heymann, Anthony; Schmeidler, James; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sano, Mary; Koifmann, Keren; Preiss, Rachel; Hoffman, Hadas; Schnaider Beeri, Michal

2014-01-01

131

ANALYSIS OF PCB CONGENERS RELATED TO COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN ADOLESCENTS  

PubMed Central

To investigate the characteristics of PCBs that are linked to cognitive functioning, those congeners that were concurrently found in 271 Mohawk adolescents were grouped according to structure (dioxin-like or non-dioxin-like) and persistence (persistent or low-persistent). After the effects of the congener groups were orthogonalized, regression analyses (controlling for a number of variables found to be related to the cognitive outcomes) examined the relationship of each congener group to scores on three cognitive tests (the non-verbal Ravens Progressive Matrices, the Test of Memory and Learning, and the Woodcock Johnson – Revised). Five subtests from these cognitive tests were found to be associated with one or more PCB congener groups, most often at a moderate level. Two measures of long term memory (Delayed Recall and Long Term Retrieval) were associated with all four congener groups. Nevertheless, examination of the role of individual congeners in the significantly related congener groups revealed that almost all congeners associated with cognitive outcomes were non-dioxin-like and ortho-substituted. A notable exception was the Ravens test where scores were associated only with dioxin-like congeners. This finding adds to the limited evidence of neurotoxic effects of dioxin-like congeners. Auditory Processing was related only to the persistent congener group. The association of the non-persistent congener group with three cognitive test scores (Delayed Recall, Long Term Retrieval and Comprehension-knowledge) suggests that the Mohawk adolescents have experienced continuing or recent environmental exposure to PCBs that is sufficient to result in detectable cognitive decrements. Comparison of our findings with those of other human studies was limited by the relative lack of specificity of both PCB measures and cognitive outcome measures in much previous work. PMID:19465051

Newman, Joan; Gallo, Mia V.; Schell, Lawrence M.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Denham, Melinda; Deane, Glenn D.

2011-01-01

132

Cognitive functioning in young children with type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess cognitive functioning in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine whether glycemic history influences cognitive function. Neuropsychological evaluation of 216 children (healthy controls, n = 72; T1D, n = 144) ages 4-10 years across five DirecNet sites. Cognitive domains included IQ, Executive Functions, Learning and Memory, and Processing Speed. Behavioral, mood, parental IQ data, and T1D glycemic history since diagnosis were collected. The cohorts did not differ in age, gender or parent IQ. Median T1D duration was 2.5 years and average onset age was 4 years. After covarying age, gender, and parental IQ, the IQ and the Executive Functions domain scores trended lower (both p = .02, not statistically significant adjusting for multiple comparisons) with T1D relative to controls. Children with T1D were rated by parents as having more depressive and somatic symptoms (p < .001). Learning and memory (p = .46) and processing speed (p = .25) were similar. Trends in the data supported that the degree of hyperglycemia was associated with Executive Functions, and to a lesser extent, Child IQ and Learning and Memory. Differences in cognition are subtle in young children with T1D within 2 years of onset. Longitudinal evaluations will help determine whether these findings change or become more pronounced with time. PMID:24512675

Cato, M Allison; Mauras, Nelly; Ambrosino, Jodie; Bondurant, Aiden; Conrad, Amy L; Kollman, Craig; Cheng, Peiyao; Beck, Roy W; Ruedy, Katrina J; Aye, Tandy; Reiss, Allan L; White, Neil H; Hershey, Tamara

2014-02-01

133

NIH Toolbox Cognitive Function Battery (CFB): Composite Scores of Crystallized, Fluid, and Overall Cognition  

PubMed Central

The NIH Toolbox Cognitive Function Battery (CFB) includes 7 tests covering 8 cognitive abilities considered to be important in adaptive functioning across the lifespan (from early childhood to late adulthood). Here we present data on psychometric characteristics in children (N = 208; ages 3–15 years) of a total summary score and composite scores reflecting two major types of cognitive abilities: “crystallized” (more dependent upon past learning experiences) and “fluid” (capacity for new learning and information processing in novel situations). Both types of cognition are considered important in everyday functioning, but are thought to be differently affected by brain health status throughout life, from early childhood through older adulthood. All three Toolbox composite scores showed excellent test-retest reliability, robust developmental effects across the childhood age range considered here, and strong correlations with established, “gold standard” measures of similar abilities. Additional preliminary evidence of validity includes significant associations between all three Toolbox composite scores and maternal reports of children’s health status and school performance. PMID:23952206

Akshoomoff, Natacha; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Bauer, Patricia J.; Dikmen, Sureyya; Gershon, Richard; Mungas, Dan; Slotkin, Jerry; Tulsky, David; Weintraub, Sandra; Zelazzo, Philip; Heaton, Robert K.

2014-01-01

134

Common and specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: relationships to function  

E-print Network

Common and specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: relationships to function Julia M of the present study were to assess the interrelationships among tasks from the MATRICS and CNTRACS batteries variance shared by other tasks, we continued to observe group differences in performance among task

135

Cognitive Function in Individuals with Atypical Pubertal Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 55 growth-disturbed children, aged 8-17, was conducted to assess how rate of physical maturation and pubertal development influences cognitive and neuropsychological functioning. The sample included 27 boys with short stature and delayed pubertal development (SSB), 15 girls with delayed puberty (DPG), and 13 girls with precocious…

Rovet, Joanne F.; And Others

136

Functional Neuroimaging of Social and Nonsocial Cognitive Control in Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated cognitive control of social and nonsocial information in autism using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and a neurotypical control group completed an oddball target detection task where target stimuli were either faces or nonsocial objects previously shown to be related…

Sabatino, Antoinette; Rittenberg, Alison; Sasson, Noah J.; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Bodfish, James W.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

2013-01-01

137

Timp-3 deficiency impairs cognitive function in mice  

PubMed Central

Extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation is performed primarily by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs have recently been shown to regulate synaptic activity in the hippocampus and to affect memory and learning. The tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (Timp) is an endogenous factor that controls MMP activity by binding to the catalytic site of MMPs. At present, four Timp isotypes have been reported (Timp-1 through Timp-4) with 35–50% amino-acid sequence homology. Timp-3 is a unique member of Timp proteins in that it is bound to the ECM. In this study, we used the passive avoidance test, active avoidance test, and water maze test to examine the cognitive function in Timp-3 knockout (KO) mice. Habituation was evaluated using the open-field test. The water maze test showed that Timp-3 KO mice exhibit deterioration in cognitive function compared with wild-type (WT) mice. The open-field test showed decreased habituation of Timp-3 KO mice. Immunostaining of brain slices revealed the expression of Timp-3 in the hippocampus. In situ zymography of the hippocampus showed increased gelatinolytic activity in Timp-3 KO mice compared with WT mice. These results present the first evidence of Timp-3 involvement in cognitive function and hippocampal MMP activity in mice. Moreover, our findings suggest a novel therapeutic target to be explored for improvement of cognitive function in humans. PMID:19806081

Baba, Yoshichika; Yasuda, Osamu; Takemura, Yukihiro; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Iwanami, Jun; Mogi, Masaki; Doe, Nobutaka; Horiuchi, Masatsugu; Maeda, Nobuyo; Fukuo, Keisuke; Rakugi, Hiromi

2011-01-01

138

Emotion Responsivity, Social Cognition, and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia  

E-print Network

Emotion Responsivity, Social Cognition, and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia Jennifer R. Mathews been a defining feature in schizophrenia, but relatively little research has examined how emotion in schizophrenia. Participants were 40 outpatients with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 40

139

Cognitive functioning in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) patients, 12 psychiatric patients matched for severity of psychopathology, and 12 normal controls were assessed for cognitive functioning by means of a comprehensive test battery. Both patient groups felt subjectively more impaired than normals. Performance on measures of intelligence, organicity, verbal fluency, memory, and attention was significantly poorer in patients than in normals. The performance

Tzvi Gil; Avraham Calev; David Greenberg; Sol Kugelmass; Bernard Lerer I

1990-01-01

140

Gender Characteristics of Cerebral Hemodynamics during Complex Cognitive Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional Transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) has been applied to assess peak mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MFV) with a high temporal resolution during cognitive activation. Yet, little attention has been devoted to gender-related alterations of MFV, including spectral analysis. In healthy subjects, fTCD was used to investigate a series…

Misteli, Maria; Duschek, Stefan; Richter, Andre; Grimm, Simone; Rezk, Markus; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Boeker, Heinz; Seifritz, Erich; Schuepbach, Daniel

2011-01-01

141

Regional functional connectivity predicts distinct cognitive impairments in Alzheimer’s disease spectrum  

PubMed Central

Understanding neural network dysfunction in neurodegenerative disease is imperative to effectively develop network-modulating therapies. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), cognitive decline associates with deficits in resting-state functional connectivity of diffuse brain networks. The goal of the current study was to test whether specific cognitive impairments in AD spectrum correlate with reduced functional connectivity of distinct brain regions. We recorded resting-state functional connectivity of alpha-band activity in 27 patients with AD spectrum ? 22 patients with probable AD (5 logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia, 7 posterior cortical atrophy, and 10 early-onset amnestic/dysexecutive AD) and 5 patients with mild cognitive impairment due to AD. We used magnetoencephalographic imaging (MEGI) to perform an unbiased search for regions where patterns of functional connectivity correlated with disease severity and cognitive performance. Functional connectivity measured the strength of coherence between a given region and the rest of the brain. Decreased neural connectivity of multiple brain regions including the right posterior perisylvian region and left middle frontal cortex correlated with a higher degree of disease severity. Deficits in executive control and episodic memory correlated with reduced functional connectivity of the left frontal cortex, whereas visuospatial impairments correlated with reduced functional connectivity of the left inferior parietal cortex. Our findings indicate that reductions in region-specific alpha-band resting-state functional connectivity are strongly correlated with, and might contribute to, specific cognitive deficits in AD spectrum. In the future, MEGI functional connectivity could be an important biomarker to map and follow defective networks in the early stages of AD. PMID:25180158

Ranasinghe, Kamalini G.; Hinkley, Leighton B.; Beagle, Alexander J.; Mizuiri, Danielle; Dowling, Anne F.; Honma, Susanne M.; Finucane, Mariel M.; Scherling, Carole; Miller, Bruce L.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Vossel, Keith A.

2014-01-01

142

Hydration and cognitive function in children  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adequate fluid intake is critical for survival. While adults are at liberty to drink fluids, as they will, children and infants are dependent upon caregivers for food and fluid. Children are at greater risk for dehydration than adults due to higher surface-to-mass ratio. Additionally, children ha...

143

Cognitive function at 2443 ?mol/l creatinine  

PubMed Central

Background One hallmark of uremia is the impairment of neuro-cognitive function. Anecdotal clinical description from the early days of chronic dialysis therapy impressively illustrates the improvement of those functions by chronic hemodialysis treatment. Fortunately, today, uremia is only rarely observed in industrialized countries as many patients seek medical/nephrological attention prior to the occurrence of deadly complications of uremia. Case presentation We report a rare case of severe uremia and describe the day to day improvement in neuro-cognitive function by dialysis using state of the arte test battery – starting at a serum creatinine of 2443 ?mol/l. Conclusions Especially executive functions, which are assumed to be localized in the frontal cerebral regions, are impaired in severe uremia and improve remarkably with the correction of severe uremia, i.e. initiation of dialysis. PMID:22894168

2012-01-01

144

Long-Term Enhancement of Brain Function and Cognition Using Cognitive Training and Brain Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Summary Noninvasive brain stimulation has shown considerable promise for enhancing cognitive functions by the long-term manipulation of neuroplasticity [1–3]. However, the observation of such improvements has been focused at the behavioral level, and enhancements largely restricted to the performance of basic tasks. Here, we investigate whether transcranial random noise stimulation (TRNS) can improve learning and subsequent performance on complex arithmetic tasks. TRNS of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a key area in arithmetic [4, 5], was uniquely coupled with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure online hemodynamic responses within the prefrontal cortex. Five consecutive days of TRNS-accompanied cognitive training enhanced the speed of both calculation- and memory-recall-based arithmetic learning. These behavioral improvements were associated with defined hemodynamic responses consistent with more efficient neurovascular coupling within the left DLPFC. Testing 6 months after training revealed long-lasting behavioral and physiological modifications in the stimulated group relative to sham controls for trained and nontrained calculation material. These results demonstrate that, depending on the learning regime, TRNS can induce long-term enhancement of cognitive and brain functions. Such findings have significant implications for basic and translational neuroscience, highlighting TRNS as a viable approach to enhancing learning and high-level cognition by the long-term modulation of neuroplasticity. PMID:23684971

Snowball, Albert; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Popescu, Tudor; Thompson, Jacqueline; Delazer, Margarete; Zamarian, Laura; Zhu, Tingting; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

2013-01-01

145

Prefrontal cortical blood flow and cognitive function in Huntington's disease.  

PubMed Central

To examine the relationship between cortical physiology and dementia in Huntington's disease, rCBF during three different behavioural conditions, one of which emphasised prefrontal cognition, was determined by xenon-133 inhalation in 14 patients with Huntington's disease and in matched controls. Cortical rCBF was not reduced in Huntington's disease patients even while they manifested overt prefrontal-type cognitive deficits. Caudate atrophy on CT and rCBF were significantly correlated, but only during the prefrontal behaviour where the correlation was positive. These results suggest a qualification of the subcortical dementia concept as applied to Huntington's disease and implicate an interaction between pathology that is subcortical and cognitive function that is cortical. Images PMID:2965218

Weinberger, D R; Berman, K F; Iadarola, M; Driesen, N; Zec, R F

1988-01-01

146

From ear to uncertainty: vestibular contributions to cognitive function  

PubMed Central

In addition to the deficits in the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is substantial evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and neocortex play in spatial orientation. In this review we summarize the evidence that vestibular loss causes cognitive disorders, especially spatial memory deficits, in animals and humans and critically evaluate the evidence that these deficits are not due to hearing loss, problems with motor control, oscillopsia or anxiety and depression. We review the evidence that vestibular lesions affect head direction and place cells as well as the emerging evidence that artificial activation of the vestibular system, using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), can modulate cognitive function. PMID:24324413

Smith, Paul F.; Zheng, Yiwen

2013-01-01

147

Social cognition and functional capacity in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Social cognition is a functionally relevant predictor of capacity in schizophrenia (SZ), though research concerning its value for bipolar disorder (BD) is limited. The current investigation examined the relationship between two social cognitive factors and functional capacity in bipolar disorder. This study included 48 individuals with bipolar disorder (24 with psychotic features) and 30 patients with schizophrenia. Multiple regression controlling for estimated IQ scores was used to assess the predictive value of social cognitive factors on the UCSD Performance-Based Functional Skills Assessment (UPSA). Results found that for the bipolar with psychosis and schizophrenia groups, the social/emotion processing factor predicted the UPSA. The theory of mind factor only predicted the UPSA for the schizophrenia group.. Findings support the clinical utility of evaluating emotion processing in individuals with a history of psychosis. For BD, theory of mind may be better explained by a generalized cognitive deficit. In contrast, social/emotion processing may be linked to distinct neurobiological processes associated with psychosis. PMID:25200189

Thaler, Nicholas S; Sutton, Griffin P; Allen, Daniel N

2014-12-15

148

Gender differences in cognitive function of patients with chronic schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Schizophrenic patients have cognitive impairments, but gender differences in these cognitive deficits have had limited study. This study assessed cognitive functioning in 471 subjects including 122 male and 78 female schizophrenic patients and 141 male and 130 female healthy controls. We found that immediate memory, language, delayed memory and total RBANS scores were significantly decreased in schizophrenia compared with healthy controls for both genders. Male patients had significant lower immediate memory, delayed memory and total RBANS scores than female patients, and healthy controls showed a similar gender difference. The RBANS showed modest correlations with PANSS scores, duration of illness and antipsychotic dose (chlorpromazine equivalents). Almost all RBANS scores in the schizophrenics and healthy controls showed significant positive correlations with education. Thus, patients of both sexes with schizophrenia experienced more deteriorated performance than healthy controls on cognitive domains of immediate memory, language and delayed memory. Furthermore, male schizophrenic patients had more serious cognitive deficits than female patients in immediate and delayed memory, but not in language, visuospatial and attention indices. PMID:22820676

Han, Mei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Chen, Da Chun; Xiu, Mei Hong; Hui, Li; Liu, Haibo; Kosten, Thomas R; Zhang, Xiang Yang

2012-12-01

149

Evidence-based Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Pediatric Psychology  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the evidence base for measures of cognitive functioning frequently used within the field of pediatric psychology. Methods From a list of 47 measures identified by the Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Evidence-Based Assessment Task Force Workgroup, 27 measures were included in the review. Measures were organized, reviewed, and evaluated according to general domains of functioning (e.g., attention/executive functioning, memory). Results Twenty-two of 27 measures reviewed demonstrated psychometric properties that met “Well-established” criteria as set forth by the Assessment Task Force. Psychometric properties were strongest for measures of general cognitive ability and weakest for measures of visual-motor functioning and attention. Conclusions We report use of “Well-established” measures of overall cognitive functioning, nonverbal intelligence, academic achievement, language, and memory and learning. For several specific tests in the domains of visual-motor functioning and attention, additional psychometric data are needed for measures to meet criteria as “Well established.” PMID:18194973

Brown, Ronald T.; Cavanagh, Sarah E.; Vess, Sarah F.; Segall, Mathew J.

2008-01-01

150

J Alzheimers Dis . Author manuscript Caffeine, cognitive functioning, and white matter lesions in the elderly  

E-print Network

J Alzheimers Dis . Author manuscript Page /1 6 Caffeine, cognitive functioning, and white matter Objective The present study examines the epidemiological evidence for a causal relationship between caffeine examining cognitive functioning, caffeine consumption, magnetic resonance imaging volumetrics and other

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

151

Intrinsic Motivation in Schizophrenia: Relationships to Cognitive Function, Depression, Anxiety, and Personality  

E-print Network

Intrinsic Motivation in Schizophrenia: Relationships to Cognitive Function, Depression, Anxiety and their relationship to cognitive function, mood, and personality in schizophrenia. The authors used the Motivational were 66 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 44 healthy controls. Self

152

Neurocognitive performance of children with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders on the NEPSY-II.  

PubMed

This study examined patterns of strengths and weaknesses in the neurocognitive performance of children with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The participants were 30 children with higher functioning ASD ranging from 6 to 11 years, and 60 typically developing (TD) children, who were matched with the children with higher functioning ASD in terms of age, gender, and maternal education. The TD children were drawn from the Finnish standardization sample for the NEPSY-II. The cognitive abilities of the children with higher functioning ASD were assessed with the WISC-III, and the neurocognitive performance of the children with higher functioning ASD and TD children on the NEPSY-II was compared. The children with higher functioning ASD were found to have strengths in verbal reasoning skills with respect to the population mean and weaknesses in set-shifting, verbal fluency, and narrative memory in comparison with the TD children. Minor weaknesses were also observed in facial memory and fine and visuomotor skills. PMID:24397431

Barron-Linnankoski, Sarianna; Reinvall, Outi; Lahervuori, Anne; Voutilainen, Arja; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Korkman, Marit

2015-01-01

153

The impact of constructivist teaching strategies on the acquisition of higher order cognition and learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative mixed design study was to compare the effectiveness of brain-based teaching strategies versus a traditional lecture format in the acquisition of higher order cognition as determined by test scores. A second purpose was to elicit student feedback about the two teaching approaches. The design was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design study with repeated measures on the last factor. The independent variables were type of student, teaching method, and a within group change over time. Dependent variables were a between group comparison of pre-test, post-test gain scores and a within and between group comparison of course examination scores. A convenience sample of students enrolled in medical-surgical nursing was used. One group (n=36) was made up of traditional students and the other group (n=36) consisted of second-degree students. Four learning units were included in this study. Pre- and post-tests were given on the first two units. Course examinations scores from all four units were compared. In one cohort two of the units were taught via lecture format and two using constructivist activities. These methods were reversed for the other cohort. The conceptual basis for this study derives from neuroscience and cognitive psychology. Learning is defined as the growth of new dendrites. Cognitive psychologists view learning as a constructive activity in which new knowledge is built on an internal foundation of existing knowledge. Constructivist teaching strategies are designed to stimulate the brain's natural learning ability. There was a statistically significant difference based on type of teaching strategy (t = -2.078, df = 270, p = .039, d = .25)) with higher mean scores on the examinations covering brain-based learning units. There was no statistical significance based on type of student. Qualitative data collection was conducted in an on-line forum at the end of the semester. Students had overall positive responses about the constructivist activities. Major themes were described. Constructivist strategies help bridge the gap between neurological and cognitive sciences and classroom teaching and learning. A variety of implications for nursing educators are outlined as well as directions for future research.

Merrill, Alison Saricks

154

Impaired emotional state, quality of life and cognitive functions in young hypogonadal men.  

PubMed

The study aimed to analyse emotional state, quality of life and cognitive functions in young hypogonadal men. Thirty-four males with hypogonadism (age 29.1 ± 10.5 years) and 34 age-matched healthy males (age 30.5 ± 11.0 years) were recruited. Their emotional state was evaluated by Profile of Mood States, quality of life - by WHO Brief Quality of Life Questionnaire - and cognitive functioning - by Trail Making Test and Digit Span Test of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. It was found that young men with hypogonadism had higher depression-dejection (13.1 ± 8.8 versus 7.4 ± 5.9, P = 0.003), fatigue-inertia (10.0 ± 5.8 versus 7.0 ± 4.9, P = 0.030), confusion-bewilderment (5.1 ± 4.6 versus 2.3 ± 3.1, P = 0.004) and lower vigour-activity (14.3 ± 5.1 versus 17.7 ± 4.3, P = 0.008) levels than age- and sex-matched controls. Quality of life psychological (13.1 ± 2.8 versus 15.1 ± 1.9, P = 0.005) and social (13.6 ± 2.4 versus 15.7 ± 2.0, P < 0.001) domains were significantly worse in men with hypogonadism than in controls. Cognitive functions were significantly worse (P < 0.001) in men with hypogonadism than in controls, showing worse executive function, attention, visual scanning abilities and psychomotor speed. A significant correlation was found between testosterone concentration and quality of life psychological domain. Cognitive functioning scores were significantly related with FT4 concentration. It is concluded that young hypogonadal patients have impaired emotional state and quality of life, but the most severe impairment was found in cognitive functioning. PMID:24313565

Lašait?, L; Ceponis, J; Preikša, R T; Zilaitien?, B

2014-12-01

155

Sustaining multiple ecosystem functions in grassland communities requires higher biodiversity  

E-print Network

Sustaining multiple ecosystem functions in grassland communities requires higher biodiversity Erika (sent for review July 27, 2009) Society places value on the multiple functions of ecosystems from ecosystems to provide threshold levels of up to eight ecosystem functions simultaneously. Across years

Zavaleta, Erika

156

Computational Neuropsychiatry - Schizophrenia as a Cognitive Brain Network Disorder  

E-print Network

Computational modeling of functional brain networks in fMRI data has advanced the understanding of higher cognitive function. It is hypothesized that functional networks mediating higher cognitive processes are disrupted ...

Dauvermann, Maria R.

157

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: Involvement of neuroinflammation and neuronal functioning.  

PubMed

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) has been hypothesized to be mediated by surgery-induced inflammatory processes, which may influence neuronal functioning either directly or through modulation of intraneuronal pathways, such as the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mediated pathway. To study the time course of post-surgical (neuro)inflammation, changes in the BDNF-pathway and POCD, we subjected 3months old male Wistar rats to abdominal surgery and implanted a jugular vein catheter for timed blood sampling. Cognition, affective behavior and markers for (neuro)inflammation, BDNF and neurogenesis were assessed at 1, 2 and 3weeks following surgery. Rats displayed changes in exploratory activity shortly after surgery, associated with postoperatively elevated IL-6 plasma levels. Spatial learning and memory were temporarily impaired in the first 2weeks following surgery, whereas non-spatial cognitive functions seemed unaffected. Analysis of brain tissue revealed increased neuroinflammation (IL-1B and microgliosis) 7days following surgery, decreased BDNF levels on postoperative day 14 and 21, and decreased neurogenesis until at least 21days following surgery. These findings indicate that in young adult rats only spatial learning and memory is affected by surgery, suggesting hippocampal dependent cognition is especially vulnerable to surgery-induced impairment. The observed differences in time course following surgery and relation to plasma IL-6 suggest cognitive dysfunction and mood changes comprise distinct features of postoperative behavioral impairment. The postoperative changes in neuroinflammation, BDNF and neurogenesis may represent aspects of the underlying mechanism for POCD. Future research should be aimed to elucidate how these players interact. PMID:24517920

Hovens, Iris B; Schoemaker, Regien G; van der Zee, Eddy A; Absalom, Anthony R; Heineman, Erik; van Leeuwen, Barbara L

2014-05-01

158

The cognitive neuroscience toolkit for the neuroeconomist: A functional overview  

PubMed Central

This article provides the beginning neuroeconomist with an introductory overview to the different methods used in human neuroscience. It describes basic strengths and weaknesses of each technique, points to examples of how each technique has been used in neuroeconomic studies, and provides key tutorial references that contain more detailed information. In addition to this overview, the article presents a framework that organizes human neuroscience methods functionally, according to whether they provide tests of the association between brain activity and cognition or behavior, or whether they test the necessity or the sufficiency of brain activity for cognition and behavior. This framework demonstrates the utility of a multi-method research approach, since converging evidence from tests of association, necessity and sufficiency provides the strongest inference regarding brain-behavior relationships. Set against this goal of converging evidence, human neuroscience studies in neuroeconomics currently rely far too heavily on methods that test association, most notably functional MRI. PMID:21796272

Kable, Joseph W.

2011-01-01

159

Cognitive and Psychological Factors Associated with Early Posttreatment Functional Outcomes in Breast Cancer Survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer survivors experience cognitive difficulties following chemotherapy, yet the effects of these deficits on functional outcomes have not been systematically evaluated. This study assessed the relationships between postchemotherapy cognitive difficulties and functional outcomes. Forty-six women with breast cancer were seen at 1-month postchemotherapy; data were collected on cognitive functioning, psychological variables, and physical symptoms. Wilcoxon signed-rank analyses revealed cognitive

Stephanie A. Reid-Arndt; Albert Yee; Michael C. Perry; Catherine Hsieh

2009-01-01

160

Cognitive function and nigrostriatal markers in abstinent methamphetamine abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Preclinical investigations have established that methamphetamine (MA) produces long-term changes in dopamine (DA) neurons in the striatum. Human studies have suggested similar effects and correlated motor and cognitive deficits. The present study was designed to further our understanding of changes in brain function in humans that might result from chronic high dose use of MA after at least 3 months of

Chris-Ellyn Johanson; Kirk A. Frey; Leslie H. Lundahl; Pamela Keenan; Nancy Lockhart; John Roll; Gantt P. Galloway; Robert A. Koeppe; Michael R. Kilbourn; Trevor Robbins; Charles R. Schuster

2006-01-01

161

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves cognitive functioning after brain injury  

PubMed Central

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been widely applied and recognized in the treatment of brain injury; however, the correlation between the protective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and changes of metabolites in the brain remains unclear. To investigate the effect and potential mechanism of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cognitive functioning in rats, we established traumatic brain injury models using Feeney's free falling method. We treated rat models with hyperbaric oxygen therapy at 0.2 MPa for 60 minutes per day. The Morris water maze test for spatial navigation showed that the average escape latency was significantly prolonged and cognitive function decreased in rats with brain injury. After treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy for 1 and 2 weeks, the rats’ spatial learning and memory abilities were improved. Hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis showed that the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased at 1 week, and the N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio was significantly increased at 2 weeks after hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Nissl staining and immunohistochemical staining showed that the number of nerve cells and Nissl bodies in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased, and glial fibrillary acidic protein positive cells were decreased after a 2-week hyperbaric oxygen therapy treatment. Our findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen therapy significantly improves cognitive functioning in rats with traumatic brain injury, and the potential mechanism is mediated by metabolic changes and nerve cell restoration in the hippocampal CA3 region. PMID:25206655

Liu, Su; Shen, Guangyu; Deng, Shukun; Wang, Xiubin; Wu, Qinfeng; Guo, Aisong

2013-01-01

162

Conserved higher-order chromatin regulates NMDA receptor gene expression and cognition.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional chromosomal conformations regulate transcription by moving enhancers and regulatory elements into spatial proximity with target genes. Here we describe activity-regulated long-range loopings bypassing up to 0.5 Mb of linear genome to modulate NMDA glutamate receptor GRIN2B expression in human and mouse prefrontal cortex. Distal intronic and 3' intergenic loop formations competed with repressor elements to access promoter-proximal sequences, and facilitated expression via a "cargo" of AP-1 and NRF-1 transcription factors and TALE-based transcriptional activators. Neuronal deletion or overexpression of Kmt2a/Mll1 H3K4- and Kmt1e/Setdb1 H3K9-methyltransferase was associated with higher-order chromatin changes at distal regulatory Grin2b sequences and impairments in working memory. Genetic polymorphisms and isogenic deletions of loop-bound sequences conferred liability for cognitive performance and decreased GRIN2B expression. Dynamic regulation of chromosomal conformations emerges as a novel layer for transcriptional mechanisms impacting neuronal signaling and cognition. PMID:25467983

Bharadwaj, Rahul; Peter, Cyril J; Jiang, Yan; Roussos, Panos; Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Shen, Erica Y; Mitchell, Amanda C; Mao, Wenjie; Whittle, Catheryne; Dincer, Aslihan; Jakovcevski, Mira; Pothula, Venu; Rasmussen, Theodore P; Giakoumaki, Stella G; Bitsios, Panos; Sherif, Ajfar; Gardner, Paul D; Ernst, Patricia; Ghose, Subroto; Sklar, Pamela; Haroutunian, Vahram; Tamminga, Carol; Myers, Richard H; Futai, Kensuke; Wood, Marcelo A; Akbarian, Schahram

2014-12-01

163

Driving into the Sunset: Supporting Cognitive Functioning in Older Drivers  

PubMed Central

The rise in the aging driver population presents society with a significant challenge—how to maintain safety and mobility on the roads. On the one hand, older drivers pose a higher risk of an at-fault accident on a mile-for-mile basis; on the other hand, independent mobility is a significant marker of quality of life in aging. In this paper, we review the respective literatures on cognitive neuropsychology and ergonomics to suggest a previously unexplored synergy between these two fields. We argue that this conceptual overlap can form the basis for future solutions to what has been called “the older driver problem.” Such solutions could be found in a range of emerging driver assistance technologies offered by vehicle manufacturers, which have the potential to compensate for the specific cognitive decrements associated with aging that are related to driving. PMID:21748014

Young, Mark S.; Bunce, David

2011-01-01

164

Long-term association of food and nutrient intakes with cognitive and functional1 decline: a 13-year follow-up study of elderly French women2  

E-print Network

1 Long-term association of food and nutrient intakes with cognitive and functional1 decline: a 13, as well as higher intakes of dairy dessert and ice-cream. IADL impairment was45 associated with lower

Boyer, Edmond

165

Dietary Phytoestrogen Intakes and Cognitive Function During the Menopause Transition: Results from the SWAN Phytoestrogen Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Phytoestrogens, which consist mainly of isoflavones, lignans and coumestans have estrogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Prior research suggests that higher dietary or supplemental intakes of isoflavones and lignans are related to better cognitive performance in middle aged and older women. Methods We conducted longitudinal analysis of dietary phytoestrogens and cognitive performance in a cohort of African-American, white, Chinese and Japanese women undergoing the menopause transition (MT). Tests were: Symbol Digit Modalities, East Boston Memory and Digits Span Backward. Phytoestrogens were assessed by Food Frequency Questionnaire. We modeled each cognitive score as a function of concurrent value of the primary predictors (highest tertile of isoflavones, lignans or coumestrol) and covariates including MT stage. Results Coumestrol and isoflavone intakes were 10 and 25 times greater, respectively, in Asian versus non-Asian participants. During late perimenopause and postmenopause, Asian women with high isoflavone intakes did better on processing speed, but during early perimenopause and postmenopause, high isoflavone Asian consumers performed worse on verbal memory. The highest isoflavone consumers among non-Asians likewise posted lower verbal memory scores during early perimenopause. A verbal memory benefit of higher dietary lignan consumption was apparent only during late perimenopause, when women from all ethnic/racial groups who were in the highest tertile of intake demonstrated a small advantage. Coumestrol was unrelated to cognitive performance. Conclusions Cognitive effects of dietary phytoestrogens are small, appear to be class-specific, vary by menopause stage and cognitive domain and differ among ethic/racial groups (but whether this is related to dose or to host factors cannot be discerned). PMID:22415567

Greendale, Gail A.; Huang, Mei-Hua; Leung, Katherine; Crawford, Sybil L.; Gold, Ellen B.; Wight, Richard; Waetjen, Elaine; Karlamangla, Arun S.

2011-01-01

166

Cognitive function and gait speed under normal and dual-task walking among older adults with mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Gait ability and cognitive function are interrelated during both normal walking (NW) and dual-task walking (DTW), and gait ability is thus adversely affected by cognitive impairment in both situations. However, this association is insufficiently understood in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here, we conducted a study with MCI participants, to examine whether the association depends on walking conditions and MCI subtypes. Methods We classified 389 elderly adults into amnestic MCI (n?=?191) and non-amnestic MCI (n?=?198), assessed their cognitive functions, and administered gait experiments under NW and DTW conditions. Gait ability was defined as gait speed. Five aspects of cognitive function were assessed: processing speed, executive function, working memory, verbal memory, and visual memory. Results Regression analysis adjusted for covariates showed a significant association between cognitive functions and gait speed. Processing speed and executive function correlated with gait speed during both NW and DTW (p?cognitive function depends on walking condition and MCI subtypes. Additional studies are necessary to determine the neural basis for the disruption in gait control in older adults with MCI. PMID:24694100

2014-01-01

167

Does Domain Knowledge Moderate Involvement of Working Memory Capacity in Higher-Level Cognition? A Test of Three Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that both working memory capacity and domain knowledge contribute to individual differences in higher-level cognition. This study evaluated three hypotheses concerning the interplay between these factors. The compensation hypothesis predicts that domain knowledge attenuates the influence of working memory capacity on higher-level…

Hambrick, D.Z.; Oswald, F.L.

2005-01-01

168

Research and Teaching: Promoting the Use of Higher-Order Cognitive Skills in Qualitative Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A study was conducted to promote higher order cognitive skills (HOCS) in a chemistry class using the GOAL (Gather, Organize, Analyze, and Learn) method. Students were assigned four qualitative problems specifically designed to be solved with the method over the course of the semester outside of normal homework and testing. The problems served as a platform to encourage students to use HOCS in their Learn responses. The study focused on students' use of HOCS in these Learn responses regardless of whether HOCS were used in the actual solving of the problems or not. The results of this study suggest that consistent use of the Learn response in problem solving promotes reflection with an accompanied increase in use of HOCS by students during a semester.

Justice, Jason; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria

2008-05-01

169

Computerized Testing of Neurocognitive Function in Euthymic Bipolar Patients Compared to Those with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Cognitively Healthy Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: While neuropsychological impairment in bipolar disorder is well documented, the effect size of this impairment is rarely compared directly to that in other clinically familiar cognitive disorders. This study compares neuropsychological functioning of euthymic bipolar patients to those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as well as healthy controls. Methods: Following evaluation during regular follow-up in a mood disorders clinic,

Y. Osher; A. Dobron; R. H. Belmaker; Y. Bersudsky; T. Dwolatzky

2011-01-01

170

Large-Scale Application of a Telephone-Based Test of Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The study of cognitive functioning in large epidemiological settings is hampered by a lack of instruments for the remote assessment of cognitive performance, especially when targeting variability across the full range of adult functioning. The present study examined the practicability of such investigations using a recently developed telephone interview (Cognitive Telephone Screening Instrument, COGTEL). Methods: A subcohort of an

Lutz P. Breitling; Melanie Wolf; Heiko Müller; Elke Raum; Matthias Kliegel; Hermann Brenner

2010-01-01

171

[Changes in cognitive function in patients with diabetes mellitus].  

PubMed

Patients with diabetes are approximately 1.5 times more likely to experience cognitive decline than individuals without diabetes mellitus. Most of the data suggest that patients with diabetes have reduced performance in numerous domains of cognitive function. In patients with type 1 diabetes, specific and global deficits involving speed of psychomotor efficiency, information processing, mental flexibility, attention, and visual perception seem to be present, while in patients with type 2 diabetes an increase in memory deficits, a reduction in psychomotor speed, and reduced frontal lobe (executive) functions have been found. The complex pathophysiology of changes in the central nervous system in diabetes has not yet been fully elucidated. It is important to consider the patient's age at the onset of diabetes, the glycemic control status, and the presence of diabetic complications. Neurological consequences of diabetes appear parallel to those observed in the aging brain. Neuroimaging studies highlight several structural cerebral changes, cortical and subcortical atrophy, beside increased leukoaraiosis that occurs in association with diabetes. There is supporting evidence from many hypotheses to explain the pathophysiology of cognitive decline associated with diabetes. The main hypotheses pointing to the potential, implied mechanisms involve hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, microvascular disease, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinism, hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, and amyloid-? deposition. PMID:22348847

Szémán, Barbara; Nagy, Géza; Varga, Tímea; Veres-Székely, Anna; Sasvári, Mária; Fitala, Dávid; Szollosi, Adrienn; Katonai, Rózsa; Kotyuk, Eszter; Somogyi, Anikó

2012-03-01

172

Functional neuroimaging of Social and Nonsocial Cognitive Control in Autism  

PubMed Central

This study investigated cognitive control of social and nonsocial information in autism using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and a neurotypical control group completed an oddball target detection task where target stimuli were either faces or nonsocial objects previously shown to be related to circumscribed interests in autism. The ASD group demonstrated relatively increased activation to social targets in right insular cortex and in left superior frontal gyrus and relatively decreased activation to nonsocial targets related to circumscribed interests in multiple frontostriatal brain regions. Findings suggest that frontostriatal recruitment during cognitive control in ASD is contingent on stimulus type, with increased activation for social stimuli and decreased activation for nonsocial stimuli related to circumscribed interests. PMID:23636715

Sabatino, Antoinette; Rittenberg, Alison; Sasson, Noah J.; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Bodfish, James W.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

2013-01-01

173

Cognitive Function During Nicotine Withdrawal: Implications for Nicotine Dependence Treatment  

PubMed Central

Nicotine withdrawal is associated with deficits in neurocognitive function including sustained attention, working memory, and response inhibition. Several convergent lines of evidence suggest that these deficits may represent a core dependence phenotype and a target for treatment development efforts. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying withdrawal-related cognitive deficits may lead to improve nicotine dependence treatment. We begin with an overview of the neurocognitive effects of withdrawal in rodent and human models, followed by discussion of the neurobehavioral mechanisms that are thought to underlie these effects. We then review individual differences in withdrawal-related neurocognitive effects including genetics, gender, and psychiatric comorbidity. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of this research for developing improved therapies, both pharmacotherapy and behavioral treatments, that target cognitive symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. PMID:23639437

Ashare, Rebecca L.; Falcone, Mary; Lerman, Caryn

2013-01-01

174

Validating and Animating Higher-Order Recursive Functions in B  

Microsoft Academic Search

ProB is an animation and model checking tool for the B Method, which can deal with many interesting specications. Some spec- ications, however, contain complicated functions which cannot be repre- sented explicitly by a tool. We present a scheme with which higher-order recursive functions can be encoded in B, and establish soundness of this scheme. We then describe a symbolic

Michael Leuschel; Dominique Cansell; Michael J. Butler

2009-01-01

175

Cognitive Functioning in Space Exploration Missions: A Human Requirement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solving cognitive issues in the exploration missions will require implementing results from both Human Behavior and Performance, and Space Human Factors Engineering. Operational and research cognitive requirements need to reflect a coordinated management approach with appropriate oversight and guidance from NASA headquarters. First, this paper will discuss one proposed management method that would combine the resources of Space Medicine and Space Human Factors Engineering at JSC, other NASA agencies, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Wyle Labs, and other academic or industrial partners. The proposed management is based on a Human Centered Design that advocates full acceptance of the human as a system equal to other systems. Like other systems, the human is a system with many subsystems, each of which has strengths and limitations. Second, this paper will suggest ways to inform exploration policy about what is needed for optimal cognitive functioning of the astronaut crew, as well as requirements to ensure necessary assessment and intervention strategies for the human system if human limitations are reached. Assessment strategies will include clinical evaluation and fitness-to-perform evaluations. Clinical intervention tools and procedures will be available to the astronaut and space flight physician. Cognitive performance will be supported through systematic function allocation, task design, training, and scheduling. Human factors requirements and guidelines will lead to well-designed information displays and retrieval systems that reduce crew time and errors. Means of capturing process, design, and operational requirements to ensure crew performance will be discussed. Third, this paper will describe the current plan of action, and future challenges to be resolved before a lunar or Mars expedition. The presentation will include a proposed management plan for research, involvement of various organizations, and a timetable of deliverables.

Fiedler, Edan; Woolford, Barbara

2005-01-01

176

Higher anticholinergic drug scale (ADS) scores are associated with peripheral but not cognitive markers of cholinergic blockade. Cross sectional data from 21 Norwegian nursing homes  

PubMed Central

Aim This study evaluated a presumed gradual decline in cognitive function in nursing home residents when the anticholinergic drug scale (ADS) score increased above 3. Method The study population was recruited from 21 nursing homes in Norway. Criteria for inclusion were ADS score???3 and no severe dementia, defined as Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score < 3. Primary cognitive end points were CERAD 10?word lists for recall and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Secondary end points were activity of daily living (ADL), mouth dryness and serum anticholinergic activity (SAA). The patients were stratified into subgroups according to ADS score, i.e. a reference group with score 3 and test groups with scores 4, 5 or ?6. End points were compared by analyses of covariance (ancova). Results Overall, 230 of the 1101 screened nursing home residents (21%) had an ADS score ?3. After exclusion 101 residents were recruited and among these, 87 managed to participate in the study. No significant differences were detected in cognitive function or ADL when ADS increased above 3 (P > 0.10), but in vivo (mouth dryness) and in vitro (SAA) measures of peripheral anticholinergic activity were significantly higher in patients with an ADS score ?6 (P < 0.01). Conclusion The present study does not support a progressive decline in cognitive function with ADS score above 3. This might indicate that the ADS score model has limited potential to predict the clinical risk of central anticholinergic side effects in frail elderly patients receiving multiple anticholinergic drugs. PMID:22924454

Kersten, Hege; Molden, Espen; Willumsen, Tiril; Engedal, Knut; Wyller, Torgeir Bruun

2013-01-01

177

Utility of TICS-M for the assessment of cognitive function in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Background Routine screening of high-risk elderly people for early cognitive impairment is constrained by the limitations of currently available cognitive function tests. The Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status is a novel instrument for assess- ment of cognitive function that can be administered in person or by telephone. Objective To evaluate the determinants and utility of TICS-M (13-item modified version)

Celeste A. de Jager; Marc M. Budge; Robert Clarke

2003-01-01

178

Patterns and associates of cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health are important domains of function. Consistencies and inconsistencies in patterns of wellbeing across these domains may be informative about wellbeing in old age and the ways it is manifested amongst individuals. In this study we investigated whether there were groups of individuals with different profiles of scores across these domains. We also aimed to identify characteristics of any evident groups by comparing them on variables that were not used in identifying the groups. Methods The sample was the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, which included 1091 participants born in 1936. They are a community-dwelling, narrow-age-range sample of 70-year-olds. Most had taken part in the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 at an average age of 11, making available a measure of childhood intelligence. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to explore possible profiles using 9 variables indicating cognitive functioning, psychosocial wellbeing and health status. Demographic, personality, and lifestyle variables – none of which were used in the LCA – were used to characterize the resulting profile groups. Results We accepted a 3-group solution, which we labeled High Wellbeing (65.3%), Low Cognition (20.3%), and Low Bio-Psychosocial (14.5%). Notably, the High Wellbeing group had significantly higher childhood IQ, lower Neuroticism scores, and a lower percentage of current smokers than the other 2 groups. Conclusion The majority of individuals were functioning generally well; however, there was evidence of the presence of groups with different profiles, which may be explained in part in terms of cognitive ability differences. Results suggested that higher life-long intelligence, personality traits associated with less mental distress, and basic health practices such as avoiding smoking are important associates of wellbeing in old age. PMID:24754844

2014-01-01

179

Sweet Taste Receptor Signaling Network: Possible Implication for Cognitive Functioning  

PubMed Central

Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special “sweet” molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose) regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning. PMID:25653876

Welcome, Menizibeya O.; Mastorakis, Nikos E.; Pereverzev, Vladimir A.

2015-01-01

180

Sweet taste receptor signaling network: possible implication for cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special "sweet" molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose) regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning. PMID:25653876

Welcome, Menizibeya O; Mastorakis, Nikos E; Pereverzev, Vladimir A

2015-01-01

181

Psychotropic medication, psychiatric disorders, and higher brain functions  

PubMed Central

Conventional psychiatric diagnosis is founded on symptom description; this then governs the choice of psychotropic medication. This purely descriptive approach resembles a description of diphtheria from the premicrobiology era. Based on current advances in basic and clinical neuroscience, we propose inserting an intermediate level of analysis between psychiatric symptoms and pharmacologic modes of action. Paradigm 1 is to analyze psychiatric symptoms in terms of which higher brain function(s) is (are) abnormal, ie, symptoms should be analyzed as higher brain dysfunction: a case study in obsessive-compulsive disorder reveals pointers in four common symptoms to the higher functions of working memory, emotional overlay, absence of voluntary control, and the ability to evaluate personal mental phenomena. Paradigm 2 is to view psychotropic drugs as modifying normal higher brain functions, rather than merely treating symptoms, which they do only secondarily: thus depression may respond to agents that act on related aspects of mental life derived from higher brain functions, eg, the ability to enhance bonding. We advocate a strategy in which psychiatric illness is progressively reclassified through knowledge in clinical neuroscience and treatment targets are revised accordingly. PMID:22034249

Schulz, Pierre; Steimer, Thierry

2000-01-01

182

Cognitive Profile of Students Who Enter Higher Education with an Indication of Dyslexia  

PubMed Central

For languages other than English there is a lack of empirical evidence about the cognitive profile of students entering higher education with a diagnosis of dyslexia. To obtain such evidence, we compared a group of 100 Dutch-speaking students diagnosed with dyslexia with a control group of 100 students without learning disabilities. Our study showed selective deficits in reading and writing (effect sizes for accuracy between d?=?1 and d?=?2), arithmetic (d?1), and phonological processing (d>0.7). Except for spelling, these deficits were larger for speed related measures than for accuracy related measures. Students with dyslexia also performed slightly inferior on the KAIT tests of crystallized intelligence, due to the retrieval of verbal information from long-term memory. No significant differences were observed in the KAIT tests of fluid intelligence. The profile we obtained agrees with a recent meta-analysis of English findings suggesting that it generalizes to all alphabetic languages. Implications for special arrangements for students with dyslexia in higher education are outlined. PMID:22719864

Brysbaert, Marc

2012-01-01

183

Relationships between macular pigment optical density and cognitive function in unimpaired and mildly cognitively impaired older adults.  

PubMed

Low carotenoid status (especially of the xanthophylls, lutein [L], and zeaxanthin [Z]) is common in older adults and has been associated with a number of degenerative diseases of the central nervous system ranging from retina (e.g., macular degeneration) to brain (e.g., Alzheimer's disease). In this study, we tested whether retinal measures of L + Z (macular pigment optical density [MPOD]), used as a surrogate for brain L + Z levels, were related to cognitive function when comparing healthy older adults with mildly cognitively impaired older adults. Twenty-four subjects with mild cognitive impairment were compared with 24 matched controls. Subjects were matched with respect to age, body mass index, ethnicity, sex, and smoking status. Degree of cognitive impairment and cognitive ability was determined via structured clinical interview. MPOD was measured psychophysically. In healthy older adults, MPOD was only related to visual-spatial and constructional abilities (p = 0.04). For subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), however, MPOD was broadly related to cognition including the composite score on the mini-mental state examination (p = 0.02), visual-spatial and constructional abilities (p = 0.04), language ability (p = 0.05), attention (p = 0.03), and the total scale on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (p = 0.03). It is possible that L/Z status may be more strongly related to cognition when individuals are considered with established onset of cognitive decline. PMID:24508218

Renzi, Lisa M; Dengler, Melissa J; Puente, Antonio; Miller, L Stephen; Hammond, Billy R

2014-07-01

184

Microinfarcts, brain atrophy, and cognitive function: the HAAS autopsy study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study the association of microinfarcts (MBI) to ante-mortem global cognitive function (CF), and to investigate whether brain weight (BW), Alzheimer’s lesions (neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) or neuritic plaques (NP) mediate the association. Methods Subjects are 437 well-characterized male decedents from the Honolulu Asia Aging Autopsy Study. Brain pathology was ascertained with standardized methods, CF was measured by the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI)and data were analyzed using formal mediation analyses, adjusted for age at death, time between last CF measure and death, education, and head size. Based on ante-mortem diagnoses, demented and non-demented subjects were examined together and separately. Results In those with no dementia, MBI were strongly associated with the last ante-mortem CF score; this was significantly mediated by BW, and not NFT or NP. In contrast, among those with an ante-mortem diagnosis of dementia, NFT had the strongest associations with BW and with CF, and MIB were modestly associated with CF. Interpretation This suggests microinfarct pathology is a significant and independent factor contributing to brain atrophy and cognitive impairment, particularly before dementia is clinically evident. The role of vascular damage as initiator, stimulator, or additive contributor to neurodegeneration may differ depending on when in the trajectory towards dementia the lesions develop. PMID:22162060

Launer, Lenore J; Hughes, Timothy M; White, Lon R

2011-01-01

185

Relationship between lead exposure, cognitive function, and drug addiction: pilot study and research agenda.  

PubMed

Lead toxicity has been associated with behavioral handicaps, reading disability, antisocial and hyperactive behavior, juvenile delinquency, and impaired cognition. In addition, preclinical studies suggest an association with drug addiction; e.g., animals treated with lead either pre- or postnatally self-administer opiates at a much higher rate than untreated animals. Iron deficiency further increases the risk of lead toxicity through enhanced absorption of lead in the gastrointestinal tract. Female injection drug users have a high prevalence of iron deficiency, although the question remains as to whether this relationship is either a partial function of high lead exposure or heroin use. Specific aims were to preliminarily determine whether female injection heroin users have high tibial lead concentrations, a marker for cumulative lead exposure, compared with normal reference populations, and whether cognitive deficits potentiated the relationship between lead exposure and frequency of heroin use. Tibial lead concentrations were measured via 109 Cd-based K-shell X-ray fluorescence. In 26 female injection heroin users, mean (standard deviation (SD)) tibial lead concentration was 14.5 (6.8) microg/(g bone mineral), which was 1.8 times higher than the tibial lead concentration found among age-adjusted normal community-dwelling women. Interaction effects of tibial lead concentration and selected cognitive functions on frequency with which heroin was used were significant. Further research is warranted to determine whether a history of lead exposure is associated with increased proclivity to drug addiction. PMID:18755453

Fishbein, Diana H; Todd, Andrew C; Ricketts, Erin P; Semba, Richard D

2008-11-01

186

Comparison of gait and cognitive function among the elderly with Alzheimer’s Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Healthy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare gait pattern and cognitive function among elderly patients with Alzheimer’s Disease\\u000a (AD), elderly people with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and Healthy Controls (HC). Twenty three elderly patients participated:\\u000a 10 AD (77.2±6.84 yrs), 7 MC I(72.9±6.28 yrs), and 6 HC (71.6±5.78 yrs). Gait and Cognitive function were collected using an\\u000a accelerometer attached to

Jin-Seung Choi; Ho-Sang Oh; Dong-Won Kang; Kyung-Ryul Mun; Mi-Hyun Choi; Su-Jeong Lee; Jae-Woong Yang; Soon-Cheol Chung; Suk-Woo Mun; Gye-Rae Tack

2011-01-01

187

Cardiovascular Health through Young Adulthood and Cognitive Functioning in Midlife  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association between overall cardiovascular health as recently defined by the American Heart Association in young adulthood to middle-age and cognitive function in midlife. Overall ideal cardiovascular health incorporates 7 metrics, including the avoidance of overweight or obesity, a healthful diet, nonsmoking, and physical activity, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose at goal levels. Methods This analysis of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study, a multicenter community-based study with 25 years of follow-up, included 2,932 participants aged 18 to 30 years at baseline (Year 0) who attended follow-up exams at Years 7 and 25. Cardiovascular health metrics were measured at each examination. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), modified Stroop Test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) were completed at Year 25. Results A greater number of ideal cardiovascular metrics in young adulthood and middle-age was independently associated with better cognitive function in midlife (p-trend<0.01, for all). Specifically, each additional ideal metric was associated with 1.32 more symbols on the DSST (95% CI: 0.93 to 1.71), a 0.77-point lower interference score on the Stroop Test (?1.03 to ?0.45), and 0.12 more words on the RAVLT (0.04 to 0.20). Participants who had ?5 ideal metrics at a greater number of the 3 examinations over the 25-year period exhibited better performance on each cognitive test in middle-age (p-trend<0.01, for all). Interpretation Ideal cardiovascular health in young adulthood and its maintenance to middle-age is associated with better psychomotor speed, executive function, and verbal memory in midlife. PMID:23443990

Reis, Jared P.; Loria, Catherine M.; Launer, Lenore J.; Sidney, Stephen; Liu, Kiang; Jacobs, David R.; Zhu, Na; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.; He, Ka; Yaffe, Kristine

2012-01-01

188

Cognitive function and other non-motor features in non-demented Parkinson's disease motor subtypes.  

PubMed

Among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), a wide range of non-motor symptoms (NMS) are evident. We assessed markers of NMS and explored their behavioral correlates with the tremor-dominant (TD) and postural instability gait difficulty (PIGD) subtypes. 110 non-demented patients with PD were evaluated and stratified into the PIGD and TD subtypes and, using stricter criteria, into predominant subgroups: p-PIGD (n = 31) and p-TD (n = 32). Non-motor signs that were assessed included cognitive function (pen and paper and a computerized battery), autonomic function (NMSQest and SCOPA-AUT), mood, and sleep. Health-related quality of life was evaluated using the PDQ-39. The p-PIGD subgroup had a higher score on the NMSQest (p = 0.033) and a higher score (i.e., worse) on the PDQ-39 (p-PIGD: 26.28 ± 12.47; p-TD: 16.93 ± 12.22; p = 0.004), compared to the p-TD subgroup, while these measures did not differ in the larger PIGD and TD group. The p-PIGD subgroup used more sleep medications compared to the p-TD subgroup (1.0 ± 1.39 vs. 0.41 ± 0.94, p = 0.05, respectively). Most cognitive scores were similar in both subgroups; however, the visuospatial components of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the computerized catch game were significantly worse among the p-PIGD subgroup. Mild associations were found between certain non-motor symptoms, but not cognitive function, and the PIGD score. Non-demented patients from the PIGD subtype experience more non-motor symptoms and poorer quality of life compared to the TD subtype. These findings suggest that the clinical management of non-motor and motor symptoms in patients with PD may be enhanced by a personalized approach. PMID:25490941

Herman, Talia; Weiss, Aner; Brozgol, Marina; Wilf-Yarkoni, Adi; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

2014-12-10

189

Can performance of daily activities discriminate between older adults with normal cognitive function and those with Mild Cognitive Impairment?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Our primary aim was to examine whether preclinical disability in performance of cognitively-focused instrumental activities of daily living (C-IADL) tasks can discriminate between older adults with normal cognitive function and those with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The secondary purpose was to determine the two tasks with the strongest psychometric properties and assess their discriminative ability. Our goal was to generate diagnosis-relevant information about cognitive changes associated with MCI and DSM-5 Mild Neurocognitive Disorder. DESIGN Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from a cohort of individuals diagnosed with normal cognitive function or MCI. SETTING Private home locations in Pittsburgh, PA. PARTICIPANTS Older adults with remitted major depression (N=157). MEASUREMENTS Diagnosis of cognitive status was made by the Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at the University of Pittsburgh. Performance of 8 C-IADL was measured using the criterion-referenced, observation-based Performance Assessment of Self-Care Skills (PASS). RESULTS A total of 96 older adults with normal cognitive function (mean age=72.5, SD=5.9) and 61 older adults with MCI (mean age=75.5, SD=6.3) participated. The 8 C-IADL demonstrated 81% accuracy in discriminating cognitive status (area under curve 0.81, p<0.001). Two tasks (shopping and checkbook balancing) were the most discriminating (area under curve 0.80, p<0.001); they demonstrated similar ability, as the 8 C-IADL, to discriminate cognitive status. Assessing performance on these two C-IADL takes 10–15 minutes. CONCLUSION This is the first demonstration of the discriminative ability of preclinical disability in distinguishing MCI from cognitively normal older adults. These findings highlight potential tasks, when measured with the observation-based PASS, which demonstrate increased effort for individuals with MCI. These tasks may be considered when attempting to diagnose MCI or Mild Neurocognitive Disorder in clinical practice and research. PMID:24890517

Rodakowski, Juleen; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Butters, Meryl A.; Holm, Margo B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Rogers, Joan C.

2014-01-01

190

Protocol for Fit Bodies, Fine Minds: a randomized controlled trial on the affect of exercise and cognitive training on cognitive functioning in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Declines in cognitive functioning are a normal part of aging that can affect daily functioning and quality of life. This study will examine the impact of an exercise training program, and a combined exercise and cognitive training program, on the cognitive and physical functioning of older adults. METHODS\\/DESIGN: Fit Bodies, Fine Minds is a randomized, controlled trial. Community-dwelling adults,

Siobhan T O'Dwyer; Nicola W Burton; Nancy A Pachana; Wendy J Brown

2007-01-01

191

Functional topography of the cerebellum for motor and cognitive tasks: an fMRI study  

PubMed Central

Anatomical, clinical and imaging findings suggest that the cerebellum is engaged in cognitive and affective functions as well as motor control. Evidence from converging modalities also indicates that there is a functional topography in the human cerebellum for overt control of movement vs. higher functions, such that the cerebellum can be divided into zones depending on connectivity with sensorimotor vs. multimodal association cortices. Using functional MRI, we show that regions active during overt movement differ from those involved in higher-level language, spatial processing and working memory tasks. Nine healthy participants each completed five tasks in order to determine the relative activation patterns for the different paradigms. Right-handed finger-tapping activated right cerebellar lobules IV-V and VIII, consistent with descriptions of the cerebellar homunculi. Verb generation engaged right cerebellar lobules VI-Crus I and a second cluster in lobules VIIB-VIIIA. Mental rotation activation peaks were localized to medial left cerebellar lobule VII (Crus II). A 2-back working memory task activated bilateral regions of lobules VI-VII. Viewing arousing vs. neutral images did not reliably activate the cerebellum or cerebral limbic areas in this study. The cerebellar functional topography identified in this study reflects the involvement of different cerebro-cerebellar circuits depending on the demands of the task being performed: overt movement activated sensorimotor cortices along with contralateral cerebellar lobules IV-VI and VIII, whereas more cognitively demanding tasks engaged prefrontal and parietal cortices along with cerebellar lobules VI and VII. These findings provide further support for a cerebellar role in both motor and cognitive tasks, and better establish the existence of functional subregions in the cerebellum. Future studies are needed to determine the exact contribution of the cerebellum – and different cerebro-cerebellar circuits – to task performance. PMID:21907811

Stoodley, Catherine J.; Valera, Eve M.; Schmahmann, Jeremy D.

2011-01-01

192

Computational modeling\\/cognitive robotics complements functional modeling\\/experimental psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This position paper explores the possible contributions to the science of psychology from insights obtained by building and experimenting with cognitive robots. First, the functional modeling characteristic of experimental psychology is discussed. Second, the computational modeling required for cognitive robotics is described, and possible experiments with them are illustrated. Next, we argue that cognitive developmental robots, robots that “live” through

Sidney D'Mello; Stan Franklin

2011-01-01

193

On Abstract Intelligence and Brain Informatics: Mapping the Cognitive Functions onto the Neural Architectures  

E-print Network

and the abstract intelligence theory of the natural intelligence will enable the development of cognitive computers range of applications of the cognitive computers have been developing in ICIC and my laboratory such as1 On Abstract Intelligence and Brain Informatics: Mapping the Cognitive Functions onto the Neural

Wang, Yingxu

194

Intraoperative cerebral high intensity transient signals and postoperative cognitive function: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Summary Microemboli during surgery have been hypothesized to cause postoperative cognitive changes. The purpose of this article was to systematically review the available literature related to intraoperative microemboli, measured with transcranial Doppler ultrasound and postoperative cognitive function. The literature remains largely undecided on the role of microemboli and cognitive impairment after surgery, because most studies underpowered to show a relationship. PMID:18723157

Martin, Kristin K; Wigginton, Jeremy B.; Babikian, Viken L; Pochay, Val E.; Crittenden, Michael D.; Rudolph, James L.

2009-01-01

195

Characteristics of hormone therapy, cognitive function and dementia: the prospective Three city Study.  

E-print Network

Ryan. 1 Characteristics of hormone therapy, cognitive function and dementia: the prospective Three: 94 References: 40 Tables: 5 Figures: 0 Neurology Search Terms: All Cognitive Disorders/Dementia [25: To examine the association between hormone therapy (HT) and cognitive performance or dementia, focusing

196

Effect of trataka on cognitive functions in the elderly  

PubMed Central

Background: Trataka, a type of yoga practice is considered to improve cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to test the effect of trataka on cognitive functions of the elderly. Materials and Methods: Elderly subjects were recruited based on inclusion and exclusion criteria (n = 60) and randomly divided using randomized block design into two groups: Trataka and wait list control group. Trataka (a visual cleansing technique) was given for a period of 1 month (26 days). The subjects in both groups were assessed on day 1 (pre- and postintervention in trataka group and after quiet sitting in control group) and on day 30 on Digit Span Test, Six Letter Cancellation Test (SLCT), and Trail Making Test-B (TMT-B). Results: Friedman's test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that at the 2nd follow-up there was significant improvement in digit span scores (z = ?3.35, P < 0.01) in the trataka group. SLCT scores (t = 5.08, P < 0.01) and TMT-B scores (t = ?4.26, P < 0.01) improved immediately after the practice of trataka (when baseline compared to first follow-up). At 1 month follow-up, trataka group showed significantly better performance in the SLCT test compared to baseline (t = ?3.93, P < 0.01) and TMT-B scores (t = 7.09, P < 0.01). Repeated measure analysis of variance (RM ANOVA) results also reiterated that there was significant interaction effect at the end of 1 month of trataka intervention as compared to control group on TMT-B and SLCT scores. Conclusions: The results of this study establish that Trataka can be used as a technique to enhance cognition in the elderly. PMID:25035618

Talwadkar, Shubhada; Jagannathan, Aarti; Raghuram, Nagarathna

2014-01-01

197

Effect of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function: An event-related cortical desynchronization study.  

PubMed

This study aimed to clarify the effects of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function using the Stroop test and event-related desynchronization (ERD) in an aged population. Old adults (63.10?±?2.89 years) were first assigned to either a high-fitness or a low-fitness group, and they were then subjected to an acute exercise treatment and a reading control treatment in a counterbalanced order. Alpha ERD was recorded during the Stroop test, which was administered after both treatments. Acute exercise improved cognitive performance regardless of the level of cognition, and old adults with higher fitness levels received greater benefits from acute exercise. Additionally, acute exercise, rather than overall fitness, elicited greater lower and upper alpha ERDs relative to the control condition. These findings indirectly suggest that the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance may result from exercise-induced attentional control observed during frontal neural excitation. PMID:25308605

Chang, Yu-Kai; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Wei, Gao-Xia

2015-03-01

198

Cognitive Function as Measured by Trail Making Test in Patients With COPD.  

PubMed

People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit cognitive impairment in several subdomains, but little is known about factors associated with cognitive function and its relationship to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in people with COPD. A data set from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial was used for this study. Data were obtained through questionnaires and clinical testing. Cognitive function in people with COPD was measured with the Trail Making Test. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Participants with COPD had slightly impaired processing speed and executive function. Test results revealed that age, gender, education, and income were significantly associated with cognitive function. Test scores also showed that cognitive function was significantly associated with HRQOL in people with COPD. This finding suggests that cognitive function should be screened in people with COPD. PMID:24733234

Park, Soo Kyung; Larson, Janet L

2015-02-01

199

Philosophical and Socio-Cognitive Foundations for Teaching in Higher Education through Collaborative Approaches to Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the implications for higher education of recent work on narrative theory, distributed cognition and artificial intelligence. These perspectives are contrasted with the educational implications of Heidegger's ontological phenomenology [being-there and being-aware (Da-sein)] and with the classic and classical foundations of…

Jones, Adrian

2011-01-01

200

Development of Knowledge Frameworks and Higher Order Cognitive Operations among Secondary School Students Who Studied a Unit on Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews 9th and 10th grade students (n=13) who studied an ecology unit and analyzed tape-recorded data for changes in organization of knowledge, represented by ideational networks and the development of higher cognitive operations. Provides insights into how students developed knowledge schemata, ideational networks, and the capacity to express…

Bischoff, Paul J.; Anderson, O. Roger

2001-01-01

201

Cooperative Weblog Learning in Higher Education: Its Facilitating Effects on Social Interaction, Time Lag, and Cognitive Load  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the effects of using weblog technologies to support cooperative learning in higher education. The study focused on the effects of features embedded in weblogs on social interactions, time lags, and cognitive loads. A quasi-experimental control-group research design was adopted. The participants were 115 undergraduates who were…

Huang, Tien-Chi; Huang, Yueh-Min; Yu, Fu-Yun

2011-01-01

202

Nutritional and socio-economic determinants of cognitive function and educational achievement of Aboriginal schoolchildren in rural Malaysia  

E-print Network

's cognitive development(8,9) . Needless to say, poor socio-economic status is a strong inhibitor limitingNutritional and socio-economic determinants of cognitive function and educational achievement influencing the cognitive function and educational achievement of these children. Cognitive function

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

203

Higher Integrability for Minimizers of the Mumford-Shah Functional  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove higher integrability for the gradient of local minimizers of the Mumford-Shah energy functional, providing a positive answer to a conjecture of De Giorgi (Free discontinuity problems in calculus of variations. Frontiers in pure and applied mathematics, North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp 55-62, 1991).

De Philippis, Guido; Figalli, Alessio

2014-08-01

204

Sex Dependence of Cognitive Functions in Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to assess the performance of lithium treated euthymic bipolar patients in tests measuring spatial working memory (SWM), planning, and verbal fluency and to delineate the influence of gender on cognitive functioning. Fifty-nine euthymic bipolar patients, treated with lithium carbonate for at least 5?yr, were studied. Patients and controls underwent a neuropsychological assessment. Bipolar patients had significantly worse results than the healthy controls in the spatial memory and planning as well as verbal fluency tests. We detected a gender-related imbalance in the SWM results. Deficits in SWM were observed in male-only comparisons but not in female-only comparisons. The SWM scores were significantly poorer in male patients than in male controls. In female-only comparisons, female patients did not have significantly poorer SWM results in any category than their controls. Bipolar women scored worse in some other tests. The present study points to the different patterns of neuropsychological disturbances in female and male patients and suggests that sex-dependent differences should be taken into account in order to tailor the therapeutic intervention aimed at the improvement of cognitive functions. PMID:24616627

?ojko, Dorota

2014-01-01

205

Sex dependence of cognitive functions in bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to assess the performance of lithium treated euthymic bipolar patients in tests measuring spatial working memory (SWM), planning, and verbal fluency and to delineate the influence of gender on cognitive functioning. Fifty-nine euthymic bipolar patients, treated with lithium carbonate for at least 5 yr, were studied. Patients and controls underwent a neuropsychological assessment. Bipolar patients had significantly worse results than the healthy controls in the spatial memory and planning as well as verbal fluency tests. We detected a gender-related imbalance in the SWM results. Deficits in SWM were observed in male-only comparisons but not in female-only comparisons. The SWM scores were significantly poorer in male patients than in male controls. In female-only comparisons, female patients did not have significantly poorer SWM results in any category than their controls. Bipolar women scored worse in some other tests. The present study points to the different patterns of neuropsychological disturbances in female and male patients and suggests that sex-dependent differences should be taken into account in order to tailor the therapeutic intervention aimed at the improvement of cognitive functions. PMID:24616627

Suwalska, Aleksandra; ?ojko, Dorota

2014-01-01

206

Cognitive reserve is associated with the functional organization of the brain in healthy aging: a MEG study  

PubMed Central

The proportion of elderly people in the population has increased rapidly in the last century and consequently “healthy aging” is expected to become a critical area of research in neuroscience. Evidence reveals how healthy aging depends on three main behavioral factors: social lifestyle, cognitive activity, and physical activity. In this study, we focused on the role of cognitive activity, concentrating specifically on educational and occupational attainment factors, which were considered two of the main pillars of cognitive reserve (CR). Twenty-one subjects with similar rates of social lifestyle, physical and cognitive activity were selected from a sample of 55 healthy adults. These subjects were divided into two groups according to their level of CR; one group comprised subjects with high CR (9 members) and the other one contained those with low CR (12 members). To evaluate the cortical brain connectivity network, all participants were recorded by Magnetoencephalography (MEG) while they performed a memory task (modified version of the Sternberg's Task). We then applied two algorithms [Phase Locking Value (PLV) and Phase Lag Index (PLI)] to study the dynamics of functional connectivity. In response to the same task, the subjects with lower CR presented higher functional connectivity than those with higher CR. These results may indicate that participants with low CR needed a greater “effort” than those with high CR to achieve the same level of cognitive performance. Therefore, we conclude that CR contributes to the modulation of the functional connectivity patterns of the aging brain. PMID:24982632

López, María E.; Aurtenetxe, Sara; Pereda, Ernesto; Cuesta, Pablo; Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Bruña, Ricardo; Niso, Guiomar; Maestú, Fernando; Bajo, Ricardo

2014-01-01

207

Effect of dopamine transporter genotype on intrinsic functional connectivity depends on cognitive state.  

PubMed

Functional connectivity between brain regions can define large-scale neural networks and provide information about relationships between those networks. We examined how relationships within and across intrinsic connectivity networks were 1) sensitive to individual differences in dopaminergic function, 2) modulated by cognitive state, and 3) associated with executive behavioral traits. We found that regardless of cognitive state, connections between frontal, parietal, and striatal nodes of Task-Positive networks (TPNs) and Task-Negative networks (TNNs) showed higher functional connectivity in 10/10 homozygotes of the dopamine transporter gene, a polymorphism influencing synaptic dopamine, than in 9/10 heterozygotes. However, performance of a working memory task (a state requiring dopamine release) modulated genotype differences selectively, such that cross-network connectivity between TPNs and TNNs was higher in 10/10 than 9/10 subjects during working memory but not during rest. This increased cross-network connectivity was associated with increased self-reported measures of impulsivity and inattention traits. By linking a gene regulating synaptic dopamine to a phenotype characterized by inefficient executive function, these findings validate cross-network connectivity as an endophenotype of executive dysfunction. PMID:22047966

Gordon, Evan M; Stollstorff, Melanie; Devaney, Joseph M; Bean, Stephanie; Vaidya, Chandan J

2012-09-01

208

Thyroid Hormones Are Associated With Cognitive Function: Moderation by Sex, Race, and Depressive Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Context: Recent evidence indicates that thyroid hormones may be closely linked to cognition among adults. Objective: We investigated associations between thyroid hormones and cognitive performance, while testing effect modification by sex, race, and elevated depressive symptoms (EDS). Design: This cross-sectional study used extensive data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. Setting: The study was conducted in Baltimore, Maryland, from 2004 to 2009. Participants: Participants were U.S. adults aged 30 to 64 years. The sample size ranged from 1275 to 1346. Main Outcome Measures: Outcomes included 13 cognitive test scores spanning domains of learning/memory, language/verbal, attention, visuo-spatial/visuo-construction, psychomotor speed, executive function, and mental status. Results: Within reference ranges and after Bonferroni correction, elevated free thyroxine (fT4) was associated with better performance on tests of visuo-spatial/visuo-construction ability (overall, women, and African Americans) and learning/memory (women and African Americans), whereas a higher total thyroxine (tT4) level was associated with better performance in the domain of psychomotor speed (individuals without EDS) and higher levels of both fT4 and tT4 were linked to better language/verbal test performance among men. In contrast, higher T3(% uptake) was related to better performance on tests of visuo-spatial/visuo-construction ability and psychomotor speed among whites. When the above reference range was compared within the overall population and after Bonferroni correction, a within reference range fT4 was linked to better performance on visuo-spatial/visuo-constrution ability and psychomotor speed, whereas a below normal range TSH level (compared with the reference range) was linked to better performance in domains of psychomotor speed and attention. Conclusions: Thyroid hormones and cognition are closely linked differentially by sex, race, and EDS status. PMID:23690311

Beydoun, H. A.; Kitner-Triolo, M. H.; Kaufman, J. S.; Evans, M. K.; Zonderman, A. B.

2013-01-01

209

Cognitive function and psychological well-being: findings from a population-based cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: depression is associated with poor cognitive function, though little is known about the relationship between psychological well-being and cognitive function. Objective: to investigate whether psychological well-being is associated with levels of cognitive function. Design: nationally representative population-based cohort study. Setting and participants: 11,234 non-institutionalised adults aged 50 years and over of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing in 2002.

DAVID J. LLEWELLYN; I AIN A. LANG; K ENNETH M. LANGA; F ELICIA A. HUPPERT

2008-01-01

210

[Effect of aerospace weightlessness on cognitive functions and the relative dialectical analysis of Chinese medicine].  

PubMed

Aerospace medicine has paid more and more attention to abnormal changes of physiological functions induced by weightlessness and studies on their prevention during space flight. In this paper, the effect of space weightlessness on cognitive functions was introduced. We tried to analyze the correlation between the cognitive function changes and relevant Chinese medical syndromes, thus providing a potential available way to prevent and treat weightlessness induced cognitive deficit during space flight. PMID:24758090

Dong, Li; Liu, Xin-Min; Wu, Li-Sha; Yang, Si-Jin; Wang, Qiong

2014-03-01

211

Application of the Allen Cognitive Level Test in assessing cognitive level functioning of emotionally disturbed boys.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to ascertain the applicability of the Allen Cognitive Level Test (ACL) (Allen, 1982, 1985), developed for use with adult psychiatric patients, to emotionally disturbed children aged 8 to 15 years. The subjects' performance on the ACL was compared with their performance on two other instruments that measure features of cognition: the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) (Beery & Buktenica, 1982) and the Perceptual Memory Task (McCarron, 1984). Pearson product-moment correlations were computed to study the relationships of the ACL, the Perceptual Memory Task full-scale and subscale scores, and the VMI raw and age-equivalent scores. The Perceptual Memory Task scores showed little or no correlation with the ACL scores. Correlations of the ACL with the VMI scores revealed moderate but significant coefficients. A relationship between age and ACL score was found. Preliminary data would indicate that the ability of emotionally disturbed children to function in the school environment depends on their mastery of task demands and that occupational therapy intervention cannot be based solely on age or level of intelligence. PMID:1605296

Shapiro, M E

1992-06-01

212

Psychiatric and Cognitive Functioning in Adolescent Inpatients with Histories of Dating Violence Victimization  

PubMed Central

The presence of dating violence victimization as well as its relation to psychiatric diagnosis and cognitive processes was examined in a sample of 155 adolescents hospitalized in a psychiatric facility. Participants and their parents completed semi-structured diagnostic interviews. Participants also completed self-report measures of dating violence victimization and cognitive functioning. Seventy-seven percent of adolescents who had initiated dating reported psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse by a dating partner over the past year. Victims of psychological abuse alone as well as physical and/or sexual violence endorsed higher rates of major depressive disorder compared to non-victims. Physical/sexual dating violence victims also endorsed significantly higher rates of PTSD and alcohol use disorders, more frequent co-occurrence of externalizing and internalizing disorders, and more frequent negative cognitive biases, relative to non-victimized adolescents. Findings suggest that psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents with dating violence histories represent a subgroup of adolescent inpatients with a particularly serious clinical picture. PMID:20824193

Rizzo, Christie J.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Spirito, Anthony; Thompson, Ariel

2010-01-01

213

An Ontology for Comparative Cognition 36 An Ontology for Comparative Cognition: A Functional Approach  

E-print Network

and Psychology. Scientists are becoming seriously concerned about cognitive processes in non-human animals of intelligence in animals is the search for cognitive processes in the animal mind. Such an approach was initiated by the publication of the landmark volume, Cognitive Processes in Animal Behavior (Hulse, Fowler

Cook, Robert

214

Automated Semantic Indices Related to Cognitive Function and Rate of Cognitive Decline  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of our study is to introduce a fully automated, computational linguistic technique to quantify semantic relations between words generated on a standard semantic verbal fluency test and to determine its cognitive and clinical correlates. Cognitive differences between patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment are…

Pakhomov, Serguei V. S.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Lim, Kelvin O.

2012-01-01

215

Late-life depression, mild cognitive impairment and hippocampal functional network architecture?  

PubMed Central

Late-life depression (LLD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are associated with medial temporal lobe structural abnormalities. However, the hippocampal functional connectivity (HFC) similarities and differences related to these syndromes when they occur alone or coexist are unclear. Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (R-fMRI) technique was used to measure left and right HFC in 72 elderly participants (LLD [n = 18], aMCI [n = 17], LLD with comorbid aMCI [n = 12], and healthy controls [n = 25]). The main and interactive relationships of LLD and aMCI on the HFC networks were determined, after controlling for age, gender, education and gray matter volumes. The effects of depressive symptoms and episodic memory deficits on the hippocampal functional connections also were assessed. While increased and decreased left and right HFC with several cortical and subcortical structures involved in mood regulation were related to LLD, aMCI was associated with globally diminished connectivity. Significant LLD–aMCI interactions on the right HFC networks were seen in the brain regions critical for emotion processing and higher-order cognitive functions. In the interactive brain regions, LLD and aMCI were associated with diminished hippocampal functional connections, whereas the comorbid group demonstrated enhanced connectivity. Main and interactive effects of depressive symptoms and episodic memory performance were also associated with bilateral HFC network abnormalities. In conclusion, these findings indicate that discrete hippocampal functional network abnormalities are associated with LLD and aMCI when they occur alone. However, when these conditions coexist, more pronounced vulnerabilities of the hippocampal networks occur, which may be a marker of disease severity and impending cognitive decline. By utilizing R-fMRI technique, this study provides novel insights into the neural mechanisms underlying LLD and aMCI in the functional network level. PMID:24273715

Xie, Chunming; Li, Wenjun; Chen, Gang; Ward, B. Douglas; Franczak, Malgorzata B.; Jones, Jennifer L.; Antuono, Piero G.; Li, Shi-Jiang; Goveas, Joseph S.

2013-01-01

216

Mediterranean Diet, Healthy Eating Index-2005, and Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged and Older Puerto Rican Adults  

PubMed Central

Adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MeD) has recently been shown to protect against cognitive decline and dementia. It remains unclear, however, whether such protection extends to differing ethnic groups and middle-aged individuals, and how it may compare with adherence to the USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 (measured with Healthy Eating Index-2005, HEI-2005). This study examined associations between diet quality, as assessed by the MeD and HEI-2005, and cognitive performance in a sample of 1,269 Puerto Rican adults, aged 45–75 years, living in the Greater Boston area, Massachusetts. Dietary intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire specifically designed for and validated with this population. Adherence to the MeD was assessed with a 0 to 9 point scale, and the HEI-2005 score was calculated with a maximum score of 100. Cognitive performance was measured with a battery of seven tests; the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used for global cognitive function. Greater adherence to the MeD was associated with higher MMSE score (P trend = 0.012) and lower likelihood (OR = 0.87 for each additional point, 95% CI, 0.80–0.94, P <0.001) of cognitive impairment, after adjustment for confounders. Similarly, individuals with higher HEI-2005 score had higher MMSE score (P trend = 0.011) and lower odds of cognitive impairment (OR = 0.86 for each 10 points, 95% CI, 0.74–0.99, P = 0.033). In conclusion, high adherence to either the MeD or the diet recommended by the USDA dietary guidelines may protect cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:23351632

Ye, Xingwang; Scott, Tammy; Gao, Xiang; Maras, Janice E.; Bakun, Peter J.; Tucker, Katherine L.

2013-01-01

217

Mediterranean diet, healthy eating index 2005, and cognitive function in middle-aged and older Puerto Rican adults.  

PubMed

Adherence to a Mediterranean diet has recently been shown to protect against cognitive decline and dementia. It remains unclear, however, whether such protection extends to different ethnic groups and middle-aged individuals and how it might compare with adherence to the US Department of Agriculture's 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (measured with Healthy Eating Index 2005 [HEI 2005]). This study examined associations between diet quality, as assessed by the Mediterranean diet and HEI 2005, and cognitive performance in a sample of 1,269 Puerto Rican adults aged 45 to 75 years and living in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts. Dietary intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire specifically designed for and validated with this population. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed with a 0- to 9-point scale, and the HEI 2005 score was calculated with a maximum score of 100. Cognitive performance was measured with a battery of seven tests and the Mini Mental State Examination was used for global cognitive function. Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with higher Mini Mental State Examination score (P trend=0.012) and lower likelihood (odds ratio=0.87 for each additional point; 95% CI 0.80 to 0.94; P<0.001) of cognitive impairment, after adjustment for confounders. Similarly, individuals with higher HEI 2005 score had higher Mini Mental State Examination score (P trend=0.011) and lower odds of cognitive impairment (odds ratio=0.86 for each 10 points; 95% CI 0.74 to 0.99; P=0.033). In conclusion, high adherence to either the Mediterranean diet or the diet recommended by the US Department of Agriculture 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans can protect cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:23351632

Ye, Xingwang; Scott, Tammy; Gao, Xiang; Maras, Janice E; Bakun, Peter J; Tucker, Katherine L

2013-02-01

218

The Dynamic Relationship Between Cognitive Function and Positive Well-Being in Older People: A Prospective Study Using the English Longitudinal Study of Aging  

PubMed Central

There is evidence that having a stronger sense of positive well-being may be a potential resource for healthier aging as represented by slower physical decline, reduced risk of frailty and longer survival. However, it is unclear whether positive well-being is protective of another crucial component of healthy aging, cognitive function, or whether it has a bidirectional relationship with cognitive function. We use multilevel models with within-person centering to estimate the within- and between-person association between cognitive function and positive well-being in 4 waves of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), (N = 10985, aged 50–90 years at wave 1). Our findings show that, although most variation in cognitive function was explained by age, and most variation in well-being was explained by depression, small but significant associations between cognition and well-being remained after variation in age and depression were controlled. In models where cognition was the outcome, the association was mainly because of variation in mean levels of well-being between persons. In models where well-being was the outcome, the association was mainly because of within-person fluctuation in cognitive test performance. Exercise and depression were the most important moderating influences on the association between cognition and positive well-being. Depression had greater effect upon this association for those with higher well-being, but exercise protected cognitive performance against the adverse effects of lower well-being. PMID:24955999

2014-01-01

219

Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cognitive function: are smaller dosages more beneficial?  

PubMed Central

As longevity increases, so does the global prevalence of cognitive dysfunction. Numerous lifestyle and/or dietary interventions such as omega-3 fatty acids have been suggested to improve memory. Therefore, this study examined the consistency and strength of the impact of supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids on overall cognitive function using systematic reviews and meta-analytic methods. Of 905 studies retrieved from all searches, 12 randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. There were differences between studies reporting outcomes for single memory function parameters. Subgroup analysis of doses used (low versus high) indicated that subjects receiving low (<1.73 g/day) doses of omega-3 fatty acids had a significant reduction in cognitive decline rate (?0.07, 95% confidence interval ?0.01, ?0.02) but there was no evidence for beneficial effects at higher doses (+0.04, 95% confidence interval ?0.06, +0.14) compared with the placebo group. This study suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in preventing memory decline at lower doses. PMID:25278774

Abubakari, Abdul-Razak; Naderali, Mohammad-Mahdi; Naderali, Ebrahim K

2014-01-01

220

Evaluating Effects of Heat Stress on Cognitive Function among Workers in a Hot Industry  

PubMed Central

Background:Heat stress, as one of the most common occupational health problems, can impair operators' cognitive processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of thermal stress on cognitive function among workers in a hot industry. Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted in Malibel Saipa Company in 2013, workers were assigned into two groups: one group were exposed to heat stress (n=35), working in casting unit and the other group working in machining unit (n=35) with a normal air conditioning. Wet Bulb Globe Temperature was measured at three heights of ankle, abdomen, and head. In order to evaluate the effects of heat stress on attention and reaction time, Stroop tests 1, 2, and 3 were conducted before starting the work and during the work. Results: A significant positive correlation was observed between WBGT and test duration (P=0.01) and reaction time of Stroop test 3 (P=0.047), and between number of errors in Stroop tests 1, 2, and 3, during the work (P= 0.001). Moreover, Stroop test 3 showed a significant higher score for both test duration and reaction time of workers in case group. Conclusion: Results of the present study, conducted in a real work environment, confirmed the impairment of cognitive functions, including selective attention and reaction time, under heat stress conditions. PMID:25649311

Mazloumi, Adel; Golbabaei, Farideh; Mahmood Khani, Somayeh; Kazemi, Zeinab; Hosseini, Mostafa; Abbasinia, Marzieh; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh

2014-01-01

221

Multiple Objective Fitness Functions for Cognitive Radio Adaptation  

E-print Network

This thesis explores genetic algorithm and rule-based optimization techniques used by cognitive radios to make operating parameter decisions. Cognitive radios take advantage of intelligent control methods by using sensed information to determine...

Newman, Timothy Ray

2008-04-30

222

Psychosocial functioning in patients with treatment-resistant depression after group cognitive behavioral therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Although patients with Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD) often have impaired social functioning, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of psychosocial treatment for these patients. We examined whether adding group cognitive behavioral therapy (group-CBT) to medication would improve both the depressive symptoms and the social functioning of patient with mild TRD, and whether any improvements would be maintained over one year. Methods Forty-three patients with TRD were treated with 12 weekly sessions of group-CBT. Patients were assessed with the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF), the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS), and the Automatic Thought Questionnaire-Revised (ATQ-R) at baseline, at the termination of treatment, and at the 12-month follow-up. Results Thirty-eight patients completed treatment; five dropped out. For the patients who completed treatment, post-treatment scores on the GAF and SF-36 were significantly higher than baseline scores. Scores on the HRSD, DAS, and ATQ-R were significantly lower after the treatment. Thus patients improved on all measurements of psychosocial functioning and mood symptoms. Twenty patients participated in the 12-month follow-up. Their improvements for psychosocial functioning, depressive symptoms, and dysfunctional cognitions were sustained at 12 months following the completion of group-CBT. Conclusions These findings suggest a positive effect that the addition of cognitive behavioural group therapy to medication on depressive symptoms and social functioning of mildly depressed patients, showing treatment resistance. PMID:20230649

2010-01-01

223

Effects of allantoin on cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis.  

PubMed

Allantoin is contained in Nelumbo nucifera (lotus) and a well-known cosmetic ingredient reported to have anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we investigated whether allantoin affects cognitive function in mice. The subchronic administration of allantoin (1, 3 or 10 mg/kg, for 7 days) significantly increased the latency time measured during the passive avoidance task in scopolamine-induced cholinergic blockade and normal naïve mice. Allantoin treatment (3 or 10 mg/kg, for 7 days) also increased the expression levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?). Doublecortin and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine immunostaining revealed that allantoin significantly increased the neuronal cell proliferation of immature neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus region. In conclusion, allantoin has memory-enhancing effects, and these effects may be partly mediated by the PI3K-Akt-GSK-3? signal pathway. These findings suggest that allantoin has therapeutic potential for the cognitive dysfunctions observed in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24296131

Ahn, Young Je; Park, Se Jin; Woo, Hyun; Lee, Hyung Eun; Kim, Hyun Ji; Kwon, Guyoung; Gao, Qingtao; Jang, Dae Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

2014-02-01

224

Ultradian rhythms in performance on tests of specialized cognitive function.  

PubMed

Performance on cognitive tasks cycled at ultradian frequencies for 24 males over a test period of eight hours. The verbal task of written word production cycled at 80 minutes; the spatial task of locating points in space cycled at 96 minutes. Multiple cycles were seen for a perceptual speed task that factor loads on both the verbal and spatial task. Replication of the results for the first 12 and second 12 subjects demonstrated their robustness. The verbal and spatial tasks were chosen to reflect specialized functions of the left and right cerebral hemispheres, respectively. Accordingly, the results are interpreted as evidence that specialized task performances are associated with independent neurochemical systems. In addition, blood samples were taken at task performance to assess cyclicity of hormone levels. Luteinizing hormone had a period of 120 minutes, testosterone and cortisol were inconsistent and none seemed to be related to the cognitive tasks. However when subjects were divided according to a winter or summer testing schedule, the spatial periodicity was absent for the summer group and the verbal periodicity was absent for the winter peak. PMID:8869428

Gordon, H W; Stoffer, D S; Lee, P A

1995-12-01

225

Assessing cognitive function and capacity in older adults with cancer.  

PubMed

The number of older individuals with cancer is increasing exponentially, mandating that oncologists contemplate more comprehensive and multidisciplinary approaches to treatment of this cohort. Recruitment of assessment instruments validated in older patients can be invaluable for guiding treatment and decision-making by both patients and providers, and can arguably contribute to improving outcomes and health-related quality of life. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment is one such validated instrument that can be used by oncologists to assess patient readiness and appropriateness for prescribed cancer therapy. As a multidisciplinary diagnostic and treatment process, it comprises functional status, cognitive status, social support, and advance care preferences, and is an ideal instrument for evaluating complex older individuals. It is well established that many older individuals with cancer travel with multiple comorbid illnesses, including cognitive impairment, and when presented with a cancer diagnosis struggle to choose from multiple treatment options. In addition to the complete medical history, the ability of patients to decide on a course of therapy in concert with their oncologist is critically important. Alternatively, many oncologists are conflicted as to whether true informed consent for treatment can be obtained from many older patients. Having a roadmap to decision-making capacity is therefore an inescapable imperative in geriatric oncology, because careful attention must be directed at identifying older patients with cancer who might benefit from these assessments and the individualized treatment plans that emerge. PMID:24453297

McKoy, June M; Burhenn, Peggy S; Browner, Ilene S; Loeser, Kari L; Tulas, Katrina M; Oden, Megan R; Rupper, Randall W

2014-01-01

226

The Effect of Solifenacin on Cognitive Function following Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Our aim was to investigate the effect of solifenacin (an anticholinergic) on cognitive function after stroke. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 66 stroke cases who were prescribed solifenacin for more than 2 months. A control group was generated matching the patients both for sex and age. The interval changes in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB) score after solifenacin administration were compared to those of the control group. Results The baseline MMSE score of the control group was 15.9 ± 9.2 and that of the solifenacin group was 14.3 ± 7.8. After using solifenacin for an average of 76.9 days, there was a change in the MMSE score of 1.9 ± 5.2. During similar periods, there was a change in the MMSE score of 2.9 ± 3.7 in the control group (not using solifenacin). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the CDR-SB score between the two groups. Conclusion Solifenacin treatment did not affect the short-term cognitive performance in stroke patients. This information might be useful when prescribing anticholinergics to stroke patients. PMID:23687509

Park, Jin-Woo

2013-01-01

227

Relationship of cognitive function with B vitamin status, homocysteine, and tissue factor pathway inhibitor in cognitively impaired elderly: a cross-sectional survey.  

PubMed

Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) has recently emerged as a candidate marker of endothelial damage in AD. We investigated the relationship between plasma levels of folate, vitamin B12, Hcy, and TFPI, as well as cognitive function in 321 [100 each with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD, 121 normal subjects] Korean elderly (mean age 74.8 ± 7.2 years). Plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were analyzed by radioimmunoassay, Hcy by the HPLC-fluorescence method, and TFPI by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels were higher in patients with AD and MCI than those in normal subjects (p < 0.001). The AD group had higher proportions of hyperhomocysteinemic (>15 ?M) and folate deficient (<3.0 ng/mL) (p = 0.026) subjects. A multiple regression analysis after adjusting for covariates revealed positive relationships between plasma folate and the MMSE-KC and Boston Naming Test, and between plasma vitamin B12 and the Word List Memory Test in the AD group, but negative associations between plasma Hcy and the Word List Memory and Constructional Recall Tests and between plasma TFPI and the Boston Naming, Word List Recall, and Constructional Recall Tests. In contrast, only plasma folate level was positively associated with the MMSE-KC and Boston Naming Test in the MCI group. No associations were observed in the normal group. These results suggest that plasma folate, vitamin B12, Hcy, and TFPI are associated with cognitive function in cognitively impaired (AD and MCI) elderly and that the association was stronger in patients with AD. PMID:23042212

Kim, Ggotpin; Kim, Hyesook; Kim, Ki Nam; Son, Jung In; Kim, Seong Yoon; Tamura, Tsunenobu; Chang, Namsoo

2013-01-01

228

Influence of social cognition on daily functioning in schizophrenia: Study of incremental validity and mediational effects.  

PubMed

While the role of impaired neurocognition in accounting for functional outcome in schizophrenia is generally established, the influence of social cognition on this relationship is far from clear. This study aims to explore in depth the nature of the relationship between neurocognition, social cognition and daily functioning in people with schizophrenia. Twenty-one individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 15 controls completed the assessment of symptom severity, neuropsychological status, social cognition (Theory of Mind and affect processing) and other functional measures. A statistical mediation model based on hierarchical regression analyses was used to establish the mediation path with significant variables. Social cognition played a mediating role between neurocognition and functioning, accounting for significant trends in incremental variance in specific functional indexes (interpersonal behavior and employment/occupation). Consequently, this study adds to the evidence underlining the importance of targeting not only social cognitive or neurocognitive functions but to combine both interventions to reveal the best daily functioning results in schizophrenia patients. PMID:25563671

Martínez-Domínguez, Sara; Penadés, Rafael; Segura, Bàrbara; González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Catalán, Rosa

2015-02-28

229

A clinico-epidemiological study of cognitive function status of community-dwelling elderly  

PubMed Central

Background: Cognitive decline and dementia are an important problem affecting quality-of-life in elderly and their caregivers. There is regional variation in prevalence of cognitive decline as well as risk factors from region to region. Aim: The aim was to determine the prevalence of dementia and cognitive decline and its various risk factors in the elderly population of more than 60 years in Eastern Uttar Pradesh (India). Materials and Methods: A camp-based study was conducted on rural population of Chiraigaon block of Varanasi district from February 2007 to May 2007. Block has 80 villages, of which 11 villages were randomly selected. Eleven camps were organized for elderly people in 11 randomly selected villages on predetermined dates. A total of 728 elderly persons of age >60 years were examined, interviewed and data thus collected was analyzed. Elderly who got Hindi-mini-mental state examination (HMSE) score developed by Ganguli based on the Indo-US Cross-National Dementia Epidemiology Study) score ?23 were evaluated further and in those with confirmed cognitive and functional impairment, diagnosis of dementia was assigned according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorder fourth edition criteria after ruling out any psychiatric illness or delirium. Based on International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnostic criteria sub-categorization of dementia was done. Results: Mean, median and 10th percentile of HMSE of the study population were 23.4, 24 and 17, respectively. About 14.6% elderly had scored <17. 42.9% of rural elderly population had HMSE score <23, 70.6% <27 and 27.7% between 23 and 27. Literate people had statistically significant higher mean HMSE score (26.1 ± 3.9) than illiterate people (22.9 ± 4.9). Other risk factors were female gender, malnutrition, and obesity. Prevalence of dementia was 2.74%; in male 2.70% and in female 2.80%. Most common type of dementia was Alzheimer (male 1.5%, female 1.5%) followed by vascular (male 1.2%, female 0.6%) and others 0.6% (male 0%, female 0.6%). Conclusions: Study showed that a very high percentage of rural elderly attending health camps had poor cognitive function score; though the prevalence of dementia was relatively low. Alzheimer dementia was most common, followed by vascular dementia, which was predominant in males. Illiteracy, age, and under-nutrition were the most important risk factors for poor cognitive function. Our study suggest that cut-off of HMSE score should be 17 (10th percentile) for illiterate population.

Gambhir, Indarjeet Singh; Khurana, Vishal; Kishore, Dhiraj; Sinha, Ashutosh K.; Mohapatra, S. C.

2014-01-01

230

Brief Report: Feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Adults with High Functioning Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve\\u000a social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously\\u000a validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with HFA adults (SCIT-A). We then\\u000a conducted a pilot study to compare SCIT-A

Lauren M. Turner-Brown; Timothy D. Perry; Gabriel S. Dichter; James W. Bodfish; David L. Penn

2008-01-01

231

Moving to higher ground: The dynamic field theory and the dynamics of visual cognition  

PubMed Central

In the present report, we describe a new dynamic field theory that captures the dynamics of visuo-spatial cognition. This theory grew out of the dynamic systems approach to motor control and development, and is grounded in neural principles. The initial application of dynamic field theory to issues in visuo-spatial cognition extended concepts of the motor approach to decision making in a sensori-motor context, and, more recently, to the dynamics of spatial cognition. Here we extend these concepts still further to address topics in visual cognition, including visual working memory for non-spatial object properties, the processes that underlie change detection, and the ‘binding problem’ in vision. In each case, we demonstrate that the general principles of the dynamic field approach can unify findings in the literature and generate novel predictions. We contend that the application of these concepts to visual cognition avoids the pitfalls of reductionist approaches in cognitive science, and points toward a formal integration of brains, bodies, and behavior. PMID:19173013

Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Spencer, John P.; Schöner, Gregor

2009-01-01

232

Impact on cognitive function-are all statins the same?  

PubMed

Dementia is a major public health concern, affecting an estimated 7% of the population over 65 and 30% over 80 years of age. There is mounting evidence in the literature from meta-analyses of high-quality prospective cohort studies that statins may have a positive impact in reducing the incidence of dementia. Little is known, however, on whether certain types of statins are more impactful than others. This narrative review specifically explores the various properties of different statin types and whether these differences lead to a clinically significant differential impact on cognitive function. We critically evaluate the literature, emphasizing interesting and important new findings, and overall aim to bring the reader up-to-date on evidence-based recommendations. PMID:25398642

Shah, Nishant P; Swiger, Kristopher J; Martin, Seth S

2015-01-01

233

Improving influence of insulin on cognitive functions in humans.  

PubMed

Insulin receptors have been identified in limbic brain structures, but their functional relevance is still unclear. In order to characterize some of their effects, we evaluated auditory evoked brain potentials (AEP) in a vigilance task, behavioral measures of memory (recall of words) and selective attention (Stroop test) during infusion of insulin. The hormone was infused at two different rates (1.5 mU/kg x min, "low insulin", and 15 mU/kg x min, "high insulin"), inducing respectively serum levels of 543 +/- 34 and 24,029 +/- 1,595 pmol/l. This experimental design allowed to compare cognitive parameters under two conditions presenting markedly different insulin levels, but with minimal incidence on blood glucose concentrations since these were kept constant by glucose infusion. A "no insulin treatment" group was not included in order to avoid leaving patients infused with glucose without insulin treatment. Measures were taken during a baseline phase preceding insulin infusion and every 90 min during the 360 min of insulin infusion. Compared with "low insulin", "high insulin" induced a slow negative potential shift in the AEP over the frontal cortex (average amplitude, high insulin: 0.27 +/- 0.48 microV; low insulin: 1.87 +/- 0.48 microV, p < 0.005), which was paralleled by enhanced memory performance (words recalled, high insulin: 22.04 +/- 0.93; low insulin: 19.29 +/- 0.92, p < 0.05). Also, during "high insulin" subjects displayed enhanced performance on the Stroop test (p < 0.05) and expressed less difficulty in thinking than during "low insulin" (p < 0.03). Results indicate an improving effect of insulin on cognitive function, and may provide a frame for further investigations of neurobehavioral effects of insulin in patients with lowered or enhanced brain insulin, i.e., patients with Alzheimer's disease or diabetes mellitus. PMID:11598383

Kern, W; Peters, A; Fruehwald-Schultes, B; Deininger, E; Born, J; Fehm, H L

2001-10-01

234

The functional significance of delta oscillations in cognitive processing  

PubMed Central

Ample evidence suggests that electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillatory activity is linked to a broad variety of perceptual, sensorimotor, and cognitive operations. However, few studies have investigated the delta band (0.5–3.5 Hz) during different cognitive processes. The aim of this review is to present data and propose the hypothesis that sustained delta oscillations inhibit interferences that may affect the performance of mental tasks, possibly by modulating the activity of those networks that should be inactive to accomplish the task. It is clear that two functionally distinct and potentially competing brain networks can be broadly distinguished by their contrasting roles in attention to the external world vs. the internally directed mentation or concentration. During concentration, EEG delta (1–3.5 Hz) activity increases mainly in frontal leads in different tasks: mental calculation, semantic tasks, and the Sternberg paradigm. This last task is considered a working memory task, but in neural, as well as phenomenological, terms, working memory can be best understood as attention focused on an internal representation. In the Sternberg task, increases in power in the frequencies from 1 to 3.90 Hz in frontal regions are reported. In a Go/No-Go task, power increases at 1 Hz in both conditions were observed during 100–300 ms in central, parietal and temporal regions. However, in the No-Go condition, power increases were also observed in frontal regions, suggesting its participation in the inhibition of the motor response. Increases in delta power were also reported during semantic tasks in children. In conclusion, the results suggest that power increases of delta frequencies during mental tasks are associated with functional cortical deafferentation, or inhibition of the sensory afferences that interfere with internal concentration. These inhibitory oscillations would modulate the activity of those networks that should be inactive to accomplish the task. PMID:24367301

Harmony, Thalía

2013-01-01

235

The association between social cognition and executive functioning and symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

While high levels of anxiety and depression are now recognized as major co-occurring problems in children and young people with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research examining possible associations with individual differences in neurocognitive functioning has been limited. This study included 90 adolescents with an ASD aged 14-16 years with a full-scale IQ > 50. Using structural equation modeling, we examined the independent relationships between multiple measures of executive functioning and social cognition on severity of anxiety or depressive symptoms. Results indicated a significant association between poorer executive functioning and higher levels of anxiety, but not depression. In contrast, social cognition ability was not associated with either anxiety or depression. This study is the first to report significant associations between executive functions and anxiety in ASD. This may suggest that poor executive functioning is one factor associated with the high prevalence of anxiety disorder in children and adolescents with ASD. PMID:24737743

Hollocks, Matthew J; Jones, Catherine R G; Pickles, Andrew; Baird, Gillian; Happé, Francesca; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily

2014-04-01

236

Association between Physical and Cognitive Function in Healthy Elderly: The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance measures of physical function (gait speed, chair stands, standing balance) and cognitive function [Teng-modified Mini-Mental Status Exam (3MS) and digit symbol substitution test (DSST)] were assessed at baseline in 3,075 participants in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Each physical function measure was examined for the strength and magnitude of association with cognitive function. All physical function measures

Caterina Rosano; Eleanor M. Simonsick; Tamara B. Harris; Steven B. Kritchevsky; Jennifer Brach; Marjolein Visser; Kristine Yaffe; Anne B. Newman

2005-01-01

237

Health Literacy and Global Cognitive Function Predict E-Mail but Not Internet Use in Heart Failure Patients  

PubMed Central

Background. The internet offers a potential for improving patient knowledge, and e-mail may be used in patient communication with providers. However, barriers to internet and e-mail use, such as low health literacy and cognitive impairment, may prevent patients from using technological resources. Purpose. We investigated whether health literacy, heart failure knowledge, and cognitive function were related to internet and e-mail use in older adults with heart failure (HF). Methods. Older adults (N = 119) with heart failure (69.84 ± 9.09 years) completed measures of health literacy, heart failure knowledge, cognitive functioning, and internet use in a cross-sectional study. Results. Internet and e-mail use were reported in 78.2% and 71.4% of this sample of patients with HF, respectively. Controlling for age and education, logistic regression analyses indicated that higher health literacy predicted e-mail (P < .05) but not internet use. Global cognitive function predicted e-mail (P < .05) but not internet use. Only 45% used the Internet to obtain information on HF and internet use was not associated with greater HF knowledge. Conclusions. The majority of HF patients use the internet and e-mail, but poor health literacy and cognitive impairment may prevent some patients from accessing these resources. Future studies that examine specific internet and email interventions to increase HF knowledge are needed. PMID:24282634

Schprechman, Jared P.; Gathright, Emily C.; Goldstein, Carly M.; Guerini, Kate A.; Dolansky, Mary A.; Redle, Joseph; Hughes, Joel W.

2013-01-01

238

Toward a more embedded/extended perspective on the cognitive function of gestures  

PubMed Central

Gestures are often considered to be demonstrative of the embodied nature of the mind (Hostetter and Alibali, 2008). In this article, we review current theories and research targeted at the intra-cognitive role of gestures. We ask the question how can gestures support internal cognitive processes of the gesturer? We suggest that extant theories are in a sense disembodied, because they focus solely on embodiment in terms of the sensorimotor neural precursors of gestures. As a result, current theories on the intra-cognitive role of gestures are lacking in explanatory scope to address how gestures-as-bodily-acts fulfill a cognitive function. On the basis of recent theoretical appeals that focus on the possibly embedded/extended cognitive role of gestures (Clark, 2013), we suggest that gestures are external physical tools of the cognitive system that replace and support otherwise solely internal cognitive processes. That is gestures provide the cognitive system with a stable external physical and visual presence that can provide means to think with. We show that there is a considerable amount of overlap between the way the human cognitive system has been found to use its environment, and how gestures are used during cognitive processes. Lastly, we provide several suggestions of how to investigate the embedded/extended perspective of the cognitive function of gestures. PMID:24795687

Pouw, Wim T. J. L.; de Nooijer, Jacqueline A.; van Gog, Tamara; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Paas, Fred

2014-01-01

239

Exercise and Cognitive Function: Can Working Out Train the Brain, Too?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies exploring the relationship between physical activity, fitness, and cognitive function vary across the lifespan in terms of both their number and the apparent strength of the associations. Studies of children are relatively few in number but generally show a positive association between physical activity and cognitive function. Studies of younger adults are even more scarce; findings are equivocal and

Robert F. Zoeller

2010-01-01

240

Cognitive Ability as a Resource for Everyday Functioning among Older Adults Who Are Visually Impaired  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study that investigated the role of cognitive resources in the everyday functioning of 121 older adults who were visually impaired and 150 sighted older adults, with a mean age of 82 years. Cognitive performance and everyday functioning were most strongly related in the group who were visually impaired. The authors…

Heyl, Vera; Wahl, Hans-Werner

2010-01-01

241

Curvilinear relation between cognitive functioning and distance of child from parent of the same sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypothesized that the child's cognitive functioning is related curvilinearly to the distance of the child from the parent of the same sex. Such cognitive functioning is best exemplified by field independence and problem-solving skills. The hypotheses presented follow the basic hypothesis: (1) Males are better problem solvers and more field independent than females. (2) Boys with distant fathers tend to

David B. Lynn

1969-01-01

242

Gait and risk of falls associated with frontal cognitive functions at different stages of Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decline in frontal cognitive functions contributes to alterations of gait and increases the risk of falls in patients with dementia, a category which included Alzheimer's disease (AD). The objective of the present study was to compare the gait parameters and the risk of falls among patients at different stages of AD, and to relate these variables with cognitive functions.

Flávia Gomes de Melo Coelho; Florindo Stella; Larissa Pires de Andrade; Fabio Augusto Barbieri; Ruth Ferreira Santos-Galduróz; Sebastião Gobbi; José Luiz Riani Costa; Lilian Teresa Bucken Gobbi

2012-01-01

243

How Do Cognitive Function and Knowledge Affect Heart Failure Self-Care?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite extensive patient education, few heart failure (HF) patients master self-care. Impaired cognitive function may explain why patient education is ineffective. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was used to explore how knowledge and cognitive function influence HF self-care. A total of 41 adults with HF participated in interviews…

Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Lee, Christopher S.; Riegel, Barbara

2011-01-01

244

Smoking, drinking, and other life style factors and cognitive function in men in the Caerphilly cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine the cognitive function in a large, ongoing cohort study of older men, and to identify associations with social and lifestyle factors. DESIGN: A cross sectional study of cognitive function was conducted within the Caerphilly Prospective Study of Heart Disease and stroke. SETTING: The Caerphilly Study was originally set up in 1979-83 when the men were 45-59

P. C. Elwood; J. E. Gallacher; C. A. Hopkinson; J. Pickering; P. Rabbitt; B. Stollery; C. Brayne; F. A. Huppert; A. Bayer

1999-01-01

245

Cognition, Behavior, and Respiratory Function in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective. To examine the relationship between respiratory functioning and neuropsychological performance, mood, and frontal-lobe-mediated behaviors in ALS patients. Methods. Forty-four patients with probable or definite ALS (El Escorial criteria) completed comprehensive pulmonary and neuropsychological assessments as part of their baseline neurological evaluation. Based on their full vital respiratory capacity, 24 and 20 patients were classified as having impaired or intact respiration, respectively. Results. Comparable demographic characteristics, neuropsychological performance, and self-reported mood symptoms were found between ALS patients with intact versus impaired respiration. However, more respiratory-impaired patients were reported by their caregivers as having clinically significant impairments in frontal-lobe-mediated behaviors. Nevertheless, declines in behavior were evidenced from pre- to post-ALS symptom onset for both respiratory groups, and exploratory analyses revealed greater executive functioning deficits in patients with bulbar versus limb onset as well as respiratory-impaired patients not receiving pulmonary interventions versus those utilizing such interventions at the time of testing. Conclusions. Results suggest that the respiratory insufficiency of ALS patients may potentially produce irreversible deficits in executive functioning; yet once treated, impairments in more basic cognitive abilities may be less evident. PMID:22852095

Strutt, Adriana M.; Palcic, Jennette; Wager, John G.; Titus, Courtney; MacAdam, Claire; Brown, Jeffrey; Scott, Bonnie M.; Harati, Yadollah; Schulz, Paul E.; York, Michele K.

2012-01-01

246

Effects of Dexmedetomidine combined with Dezocine on cognition function and hippocampal microglia activation of rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of Dexmedetomidine combined with Dezocine on the cognition and hippocampal microglia activation of rats. Methods: Laparotomy was successfully performed in 48 rats which were then divided into Dexmedetomidine+Dezocine group and Dezocine group. Rats in Dexmedetomidine+dezocine group were infused with Dexmedetomidine and dezocine via the tail vein after anesthesia; rats in Dezocine group were infused with dezocine via the tail vein. After surgery, rats underwent detection of learning and memory functions at 1, 3, and 7 days after surgery, and the neuroglobin and norepinephrine expression was detected in the hippocampal microglia at the same time points. Results: 1, 3 and 7 days after surgery, the latency to escape in Dexmedetomidine+Dezocine group was significantly shorter than that in Dezocine group, and the number of cells positive for neuroglobin or norepinephrine in the CAL region of hippocampus of Dexmedetomidine+Dezocine group was also markedly higher than that of Dezocine group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Surgery and anesthesia have influence on the cognition of rats to a certain degree, and dexmedetomidine combined with dezocine can effectively improve the impaired cognition due to surgery and anesthesia, which may be attributed to the increase in the protective neuroglobin and norepinephrine in the hippocampus. PMID:25356140

Wan, Qiuxia; Xu, Lufeng; Bo, Yulong

2014-01-01

247

The Effects of Early Neglect on Cognitive, Language, and Behavioral Functioning in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Objectives Few studies have explored the impact of different types of neglect on children’s development. Measures of cognition, language, behavior, and parenting stress were used to explore differences between children experiencing various forms of neglect, as well as to compare children with and without a history of early neglect. Methods Children, ages 3 to 10 years with a history of familial neglect (USN), were compared to children with a history of institutional rearing (IA) and children without a history of neglect using the Differential Abilities Scale, Test of Early Language Development, Child Behavior Checklist, and Parenting Stress Index. Factors predicting child functioning were also explored. Results Compared with youth that were not neglected, children with a history of USN and IA demonstrated lower cognitive and language scores and more behavioral problems. Both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were most common in the USN group. Externalizing behavior problems predicted parenting stress. Higher IQ could be predicted by language scores and an absence of externalizing behavior problems. When comparing the two neglect groups, shorter time spent in a stable environment, lower scores on language skills, and the presence of externalizing behavior predicted lower IQ. Conclusion These findings emphasize the importance of early stable, permanent placement of children who have been in neglectful and pre-adoptive international settings. While an enriching environment may promote resilience, children who have experienced early neglect are vulnerable to cognitive, language and behavioral deficits and neurodevelopmental and behavioral evaluations are required to identify those in need of intervention. PMID:23678396

Spratt, Eve G.; Friedenberg, Samantha L.; Swenson, Cynthia C.; LaRosa, Angela; De Bellis, Michael D.; Macias, Michelle M.; Summer, Andrea P.; Hulsey, Thomas C.; Runyan, Des K.; Brady, Kathleen T.

2013-01-01

248

Arterial stiffness and cognitive function in the elderly  

PubMed Central

Cognitive decline and dementia are a major cause of disability and mortality among older adults. Cross-sectional evidence from observational studies suggests that greater arterial stiffness is associated with worse cognitive performance. These associations have been observed on measures of global cognition and across multiple domains of cognition. Epidemiologic evidence on the association between arterial stiffness and rate of cognitive decline has been less definitive, and very few studies have investigated the risk of developing dementia. This review summarizes the current research on arterial stiffness and cognition, issues around measurement and the effect that potential intervention might have on the course of cognitive aging. The evidence on pharmacological and non-pharmacological (exercise, nutrition, etc) interventions in older adults with arterial stiffness is promising. Yet there are no studies or trials that directly evaluate how interventions of arterial stiffness reduce or prevent cognitive impairment and risk of developing dementia. More research is needed to elucidate the causal link between arterial stiffness and cognitive decline and dementia, and to identify whether potential interventions to prevent or reduce arterial stiffness may benefit cognitive health of the elderly. PMID:25351110

Hazzouri, Adina Zeki Al; Yaffe, Kristine

2015-01-01

249

A Large, Cross-Sectional Observational Study of Serum BDNF, Cognitive Function, and Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Objective: The clinical relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cognitive function or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is not well-understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between serum BDNF and cognitive function and MCI, and determine whether serum BDNF level might be a useful biomarker for assessing risk for MCI in older people. Materials and Methods: A total of 4463 individuals aged 65?years or older (mean age 72?years) participating in the study. We measured performance in a battery of neuropsychological and cognitive function tests; serum BDNF concentration. Results: Eight hundred twenty-seven participants (18.8%) had MCI. After adjustment for sex, age, education level, diabetes, and current smoking, serum BDNF was associated with poorer performance in the story memory, and digit symbol substitution task scores. Serum BDNF was marginally associated with the presence of MCI (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.41, 1.00–1.99) when BDNF was 1.5 SD lower than the mean value standardized for sex and age, education level, diabetes, and current smoking. Conclusion: Low serum BDNF was associated with lower cognitive test scores and MCI. Future prospective studies should establish the discriminative value of serum BDNF for the risk of MCI. PMID:24782766

Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Anan, Yuya; Uemura, Kazuki; Lee, Sangyoon; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao

2014-01-01

250

Functional relationship between cognitive representations of movement directions and visuomotor adaptation performance.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to explore whether or not different types of learners in a sensorimotor task possess characteristically different cognitive representations. Participants' sensorimotor adaptation performance was measured with a pointing paradigm which used a distortion of the visual feedback in terms of a left-right reversal. The structure of cognitive representations was assessed using a newly established experimental method, the Cognitive Measurement of Represented Directions. A post hoc analysis revealed inter-individual differences in participants' adaptation performance, and three different skill levels (skilled, average, and poor adapters) have been defined. These differences in performance were correlated with the structure of participants' cognitive representations of movement directions. Analysis of these cognitive representations revealed performance advantages for participants possessing a global cognitive representation of movement directions (aligned to cardinal movement axes), rather than a local representation (aligned to each neighboring direction). Our findings are evidence that cognitive representation structures play a functional role in adaptation performance. PMID:23007723

Lex, Heiko; Weigelt, Matthias; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

2012-12-01

251

Substance use and mental health characteristics associated with cognitive functioning among adults who use methamphetamine.  

PubMed

This study describes cognitive functioning and its relation to psychiatric and substance use severity among adults with long duration methamphetamine use. Study participants (N = 405) completed a battery of tests from the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics that examined cognitive accuracy, processing speed, and efficiency. Multivariate analyses indicate that lower accuracy but faster speed on learning, spatial memory and delayed memory were correlated with more days of past-month methamphetamine use. Lifetime months of methamphetamine use was not related to cognitive functioning. Poorer cognitive efficiency was related to other problems, including crack/cocaine use, symptoms of depression, and poorer emotional state. PMID:23480244

Herbeck, Diane M; Brecht, Mary-Lynn

2013-01-01

252

A quantitative review of cognitive functioning in homeless adults.  

PubMed

Homeless people experience elevated rates of risk factors for cognitive impairment. We reviewed available peer-reviewed studies reporting data from objective measures of cognition in samples identified as homeless. Pooled sample-weighted estimates of global cognitive screening measures, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ), and premorbid IQ were calculated, in addition to pooled sample characteristics, to understand the representativeness of available studies. A total of 24 unique studies were identified, with 2969 subjects. The pooled estimate for the frequency of cognitive impairment was 25%, and the mean full-scale IQ score was 85, 1 standard deviation below the mean of the normal population. Cognitive impairment was found to be common among homeless adults and may be a transdiagnostic problem that impedes rehabilitative efforts in this population. Comparatively little data are available about cognition in homeless women and unsheltered persons. PMID:25594792

Depp, Colin A; Vella, Lea; Orff, Henry J; Twamley, Elizabeth W

2015-02-01

253

Learning an atlas of a cognitive process in its functional geometry  

E-print Network

In this paper we construct an atlas that captures functional characteristics of a cognitive process from a population of individuals. The functional connectivity is encoded in a low-dimensional embedding space derived from ...

Langs, Georg

254

Involuntary Cognitions in Everyday Life: Exploration of Type, Quality, Content, and Function  

PubMed Central

Psychological research into spontaneous or intrusive cognitions has typically focused on cognitions in one predefined domain, such as obsessional thoughts in OCD, intrusive memories in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, or involuntary autobiographical memories and daydreaming in everyday life. Such studies have resulted in a wealth of knowledge about these specific cognitions. However, by focusing on a predefined type of cognition, other subtypes of cognition that may co-occur can be missed. In this exploratory study, we aimed to assess involuntary cognitions in everyday life without a pre-determined focus on any specific subtype of cognition. Seventy unselected undergraduate student participants were administered a questionnaire that assessed the presence of any involuntary cognitions in the past month, their quality, type, content, and potential function. In addition, participants provided self-descriptions and completed measures of psychopathology. Content analyses showed that involuntary cognitions were common, predominantly visual in nature, emotional, often about social relationships, and often related to a hypothetical function of emotional processing. About two-thirds of the cognitions that participants reported were memories. Non-memories included daydreams, imaginary worst case scenarios, imaginary future events, hypothetical reconstructions, and ruminations. Memories and non-memories were strikingly similar in their subjective experience of content and emotionality. Negative (but not positive) self-descriptions were associated with negative involuntary cognitions and psychopathology, suggesting a link between involuntary cognitions and the self. Overall, the findings suggest that people experience a wide variety of subtypes of involuntary cognitions in everyday life. Moreover, the specific subtype of involuntary cognition appears to be less important than its valence or content, at least to the subjective experience of the individual.

Krans, Julie; de Bree, June; Moulds, Michelle L.

2015-01-01

255

Exploring the cognitive and motor functions of the basal ganglia: an integrative review of computational cognitive neuroscience models  

PubMed Central

Many computational models of the basal ganglia (BG) have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the BG, computational cognitive neuroscience (CCN) models have focused on how the BG can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on CCN models of the BG and how they use the neuroanatomy of the BG to account for cognitive and motor functions such as categorization, instrumental conditioning, probabilistic learning, working memory, sequence learning, automaticity, reaching, handwriting, and eye saccades. A total of 19 BG models accounting for one or more of these functions are reviewed and compared. The review concludes with a discussion of the limitations of existing CCN models of the BG and prescriptions for future modeling, including the need for computational models of the BG that can simultaneously account for cognitive and motor functions, and the need for a more complete specification of the role of the BG in behavioral functions. PMID:24367325

Helie, Sebastien; Chakravarthy, Srinivasa; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

2013-01-01

256

The Impact of Sleep Quality on Cognitive Functioning in Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

In healthy individuals and those with insomnia, poor sleep quality is associated with decrements in performance on tests of cognition, especially executive function. Sleep disturbances and cognitive deficits are both prevalent in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Sleep problems occur in over 75% of patients, with sleep fragmentation and decreased sleep efficiency being the most common sleep complaints, but their relation to cognition is unknown. We examined the association between sleep quality and cognition in PD. In 35 non-demented individuals with PD and 18 normal control adults (NC), sleep was measured using 24-hr wrist actigraphy over 7 days. Cognitive domains tested included attention and executive function, memory and psychomotor function. In both groups, poor sleep was associated with worse performance on tests of attention/executive function but not memory or psychomotor function. In the PD group, attention/executive function was predicted by sleep efficiency, whereas memory and psychomotor function were not predicted by sleep quality. Psychomotor and memory function were predicted by motor symptom severity. This study is the first to demonstrate that sleep quality in PD is significantly correlated with cognition and that it differentially impacts attention and executive function, thereby furthering our understanding of the link between sleep and cognition. PMID:22152279

Stavitsky, Karina; Neargarder, Sandy; Bogdanova, Yelena; McNamara, Patrick; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

2013-01-01

257

Studying in Higher Education: Students' Approaches to Learning, Self-Regulation, and Cognitive Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors looked at aspects of successful and problematic studying in terms of three different research traditions: students' approaches to learning, self-regulated learning and cognitive strategies. These frameworks have been widely applied when explaining university student learning. However, relations among different traditions have not been…

Heikkila, Annamari; Lonka, Kirsti

2006-01-01

258

Learning in Higher Education--How Cognitive and Learning Styles Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cognitive and learning styles research domain is a highly complex one which has recently been the focus of rigour-relevance debates (Coffield et al. 2004; Evans and Sadler-Smith 2006; Rayner 2006). There is considerable support for the existence and value of style as a construct (Sternberg 1996) even though further work is needed to evidence…

Evans, Carol; Cools, Eva; Charlesworth, Zarina M.

2010-01-01

259

Cognitive function after radiotherapy for supratentorial low-grade glioma: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group prospective study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of cranial radiotherapy (RT) on cognitive function in patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Twenty adult patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma were treated with 50.4 Gy (10 patients) or 64.8 Gy (10 patients) localized RT. The patients then were evaluated with an extensive battery of psychometric tests at baseline (before RT) and at approximately 18-month intervals for as long as 5 years after completing RT. To allow patients to serve as their own controls, cognitive performance was evaluated as change in scores over time. All patients underwent at least two evaluations. Results: Baseline test scores were below average compared with age-specific norms. At the second evaluation, the groups' mean test scores were higher than their initial performances on all psychometric measures, although the improvement was not statistically significant. No changes in cognitive performance were seen during the evaluation period when test scores were analyzed by age, treatment, tumor location, tumor type, or extent of resection. Conclusions: Cognitive function was stable after RT in these patients evaluated prospectively during 3 years of follow-up. Slight improvements in some cognitive areas are consistent with practice effects attributable to increased familiarity with test procedures and content.

Laack, Nadia N. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Brown, Paul D. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)]. E-mail: brown.paul@mayo.edu; Ivnik, Robert J. [Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Furth, Alfred F. M.S. [Cancer Center Statistics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Ballman, Karla V. [Division of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Hammack, Julie E. [Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Arusell, Robert M. [Roger Maris Cancer Center, Fargo, ND (United States); Shaw, Edward G. [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Buckner, Jan C. [Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

2005-11-15

260

Higher twist parton distributions from light-cone wave functions  

SciTech Connect

We explore the possibility to construct higher-twist parton distributions in a nucleon at some low reference scale from convolution integrals of the light-cone wave functions (WFs). To this end we introduce simple models for the four-particle nucleon WFs involving three valence quarks and a gluon with total orbital momentum zero, and estimate their normalization (WF at the origin) using QCD sum rules. We demonstrate that these WFs provide one with a reasonable description of both polarized and unpolarized parton densities at large values of the Bjorken variable x{>=}0.5. Twist-three parton distributions are then constructed as convolution integrals of qqqg and the usual three-quark WFs. The cases of the polarized structure function g{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}) and single transverse spin asymmetries are considered in detail. We find that the so-called gluon pole contribution to twist-three distributions relevant for single spin asymmetry vanishes in this model, but is generated perturbatively at higher scales by the evolution, in the spirit of Glueck-Reya-Vogt parton distributions.

Braun, V. M.; Lautenschlager, T.; Pirnay, B. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Manashov, A. N. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Department of Theoretical Physics, St. Petersburg State University 199034, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2011-05-01

261

Dysphagia after head trauma: the effect of cognitive-communicative impairments on functional outcomes.  

PubMed

This article discusses the impact of cognitive-communicative and behavior problems on oral intake. Data on the swallowing outcomes of a group of patients in an acute rehabilitation facility are presented. These data illustrate the relationships among severity of dysphagia, admission and discharge Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores, admission and discharge cognitive FIM scores and length of stay. Two case studies that describe the effect of cognitive-communicative disorders on dysphagia are provided. PMID:10653944

Halper, A S; Cherney, L R; Cichowski, K; Zhang, M

1999-10-01

262

Carotid stenosis and the cognitive function Laszlo K. Sztriha a,  

E-print Network

disease are related to a cognitive impairment. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, and dyslipidemia are also associated with an increased risk of carotid artery disease. Some studies have suggested that patients display a normal cognition despite severe carotid artery disease, highlighting the important role

Nemeth, Dezso

263

The Relationship between Nonverbal Cognitive Functions and Hearing Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and memory and attention when nonverbal, visually presented cognitive tests are used. Method: Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and IQ were measured in 30 participants with mild to severe hearing loss. Participants performed cognitive tests of pattern recognition memory,…

Zekveld, Adriana A.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Goverts, S. Theo; Kramer, Sophia E.

2007-01-01

264

Preserving cognitive function for patients with overactive bladder: evidence for a differential effect with darifenacin  

PubMed Central

Background: Antimuscarinic agents used in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) differ in their potential to impair cognitive function. It is hypothesised that low brain concentrations and relatively low selectivity for the M1 muscarinic receptor may reduce the potential for adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects with darifenacin, compared with other antimuscarinics, particularly oxybutynin. Methods: Cognitive function studies evaluating darifenacin, oxybutynin, tolterodine, solifenacin and/or trospium were identified from publications databases (Medline, Biosis and Embase) and congress abstracts. Preclinical studies and randomised controlled trials in adults were reviewed. Results: Five randomised, double-blind, multiple-dose studies of cognitive function were identified. Oxybutynin was consistently associated with cognitive deficit (four studies), whereas darifenacin did not impair cognition (three studies). These findings were supported by data from sleep/attention and EEG studies. Tolterodine data were limited to one small study with each formulation. For solifenacin and trospium, there were no human studies evaluating memory, the cognitive function most vulnerable to CNS anticholinergics. Conclusions: There is compelling evidence of cognitive impairment with oxybutynin, whereas darifenacin stands out by demonstrating no impairment of memory or other cognitive functions in three randomised, controlled trials. This may be attributed to the differences in physicochemical properties, efflux mechanisms and relative M1 muscarinic receptor sparing. The risk of CNS impairment is of particular concern for vulnerable populations such as the elderly (a substantial proportion of the OAB population), and CNS-compromised neurogenic bladder patients such as those with multiple sclerosis or Parkinson’s disease. PMID:18699842

Kay, G G; Ebinger, U

2008-01-01

265

Preattentive sensory processing as indexed by the MMN and P3a brain responses is associated with cognitive and psychosocial functioning in healthy adults.  

PubMed

Understanding the basic neural processes that underlie complex higher order cognitive operations and psychosocial functioning is a fundamental goal of cognitive neuroscience. Event-related potentials allow investigators to probe the earliest stages of information processing. Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a are auditory event-related potential components that reflect automatic sensory discrimination. The aim of the present study was to determine if MMN and P3a are associated with higher order cognitive operations and psychosocial functioning in clinically normal healthy subjects. Twenty adults were assessed using standardized clinical, cognitive, and psychosocial functional instruments. All individuals were within the normal range on cognitive tests and functional ratings. Participants were also tested on a duration-deviant MMN/P3a paradigm (50-msec standard tones, p = .90; 100-msec deviant tones, p = .10; stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] = 505 msec). Across fronto-central electrode regions, significant correlations were observed between psychosocial functioning and MMN (r = -.62, p < .01) and P3a (r = .63, p < .01) amplitudes. P3a amplitude was also highly associated with immediate and delayed recall of verbal information with robust correlations widely distributed across fronto-central recording areas (e.g., r = .72, p < .001). The latency of the P3a response was significantly associated with both working memory performance (r = -.53, p < .05) and functional ratings (r = -.48, p < .05). Neurophysiological measures of relatively automatic auditory sensory information processing are associated with higher order cognitive abilities and psychosocial functioning in normal subjects. Efficiency at elementary levels of information processing may underlie the successful encoding, retrieval, and discrimination of task-relevant information, which, in turn, facilitates the iterative and responsive processing necessary for adaptive cognitive and social functioning. PMID:18271737

Light, Gregory A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Braff, David L

2007-10-01

266

Mental exercising through simple socializing: social interaction promotes general cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Social interaction is a central feature of people's life and engages a variety of cognitive resources. Thus, social interaction should facilitate general cognitive functioning. Previous studies suggest such a link, but they used special populations (e.g., elderly with cognitive impairment), measured social interaction indirectly (e.g., via marital status), and only assessed effects of extended interaction in correlational designs. Here the relation between mental functioning and direct indicators of social interaction was examined in a younger and healthier population. Study 1 using survey methodology found a positive relationship between social interaction, assessed via amount of actual social contact, and cognitive functioning in people from three age groups including younger adults. Study 2 using an experimental design found that a small amount of social interaction (10 min) can facilitate cognitive performance. The findings are discussed in the context of the benefits social relationships have for so many aspects of people's lives. PMID:18212333

Ybarra, Oscar; Burnstein, Eugene; Winkielman, Piotr; Keller, Matthew C; Manis, Melvin; Chan, Emily; Rodriguez, Joel

2008-02-01

267

Effects of higher-order cognitive strategy training on gist-reasoning and fact-learning in adolescents.  

PubMed

Improving the reasoning skills of adolescents across the United States has become a major concern for educators and scientists who are dedicated to identifying evidence-based protocols to improve student outcome. This small sample randomized, control pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of higher-order cognitive training on gist-reasoning and fact-learning in an inner-city public middle school. The study compared gist-reasoning and fact-learning performances after training in a smaller sample when tested in Spanish, many of the students' native language, versus English. The 54 eighth grade students who participated in this pilot study were enroled in an urban middle school, predominantly from lower socio-economic status families, and were primarily of minority descent. The students were randomized into one of three groups, one that learned cognitive strategies promoting abstraction of meaning, a group that learned rote memory strategies, or a control group to ascertain the impact of each program on gist-reasoning and fact-learning from text-based information. We found that the students who had cognitive strategy instruction that entailed abstraction of meaning significantly improved their gist-reasoning and fact-learning ability. The students who learned rote memory strategies significantly improved their fact-learning scores from a text but not gist-reasoning ability. The control group showed no significant change in either gist-reasoning or fact-learning ability. A trend toward significant improvement in overall reading scores for the group that learned to abstract meaning as well as a significant correlation between gist-reasoning ability and the critical thinking on a state-mandated standardized reading test was also found. There were no significant differences between English and Spanish performance of gist-reasoning and fact-learning. Our findings suggest that teaching higher-order cognitive strategies facilitates gist-reasoning ability and student learning. PMID:21833248

Gamino, Jacquelyn F; Chapman, Sandra B; Hull, Elizabeth L; Lyon, G Reid

2010-01-01

268

Effects of Higher-Order Cognitive Strategy Training on Gist-Reasoning and Fact-Learning in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Improving the reasoning skills of adolescents across the United States has become a major concern for educators and scientists who are dedicated to identifying evidence-based protocols to improve student outcome. This small sample randomized, control pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of higher-order cognitive training on gist-reasoning and fact-learning in an inner-city public middle school. The study compared gist-reasoning and fact-learning performances after training in a smaller sample when tested in Spanish, many of the students’ native language, versus English. The 54 eighth grade students who participated in this pilot study were enroled in an urban middle school, predominantly from lower socio-economic status families, and were primarily of minority descent. The students were randomized into one of three groups, one that learned cognitive strategies promoting abstraction of meaning, a group that learned rote memory strategies, or a control group to ascertain the impact of each program on gist-reasoning and fact-learning from text-based information. We found that the students who had cognitive strategy instruction that entailed abstraction of meaning significantly improved their gist-reasoning and fact-learning ability. The students who learned rote memory strategies significantly improved their fact-learning scores from a text but not gist-reasoning ability. The control group showed no significant change in either gist-reasoning or fact-learning ability. A trend toward significant improvement in overall reading scores for the group that learned to abstract meaning as well as a significant correlation between gist-reasoning ability and the critical thinking on a state-mandated standardized reading test was also found. There were no significant differences between English and Spanish performance of gist-reasoning and fact-learning. Our findings suggest that teaching higher-order cognitive strategies facilitates gist-reasoning ability and student learning. PMID:21833248

Gamino, Jacquelyn F.; Chapman, Sandra B.; Hull, Elizabeth L.; Lyon, G. Reid

2010-01-01

269

Differentiation of Cognitive Abilities as a Function of Neuroticism Level: A Measurement Equivalence/Invariance Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the differentiation of cognitive abilities as a function of neuroticism. Specifically, we examine Eysenck and White's [Eysenck, H. J., and White, P. O. (1964). Personality and the measurement of intelligence. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 24, 197-201.] hypothesis that cognitive abilities are less differentiated…

Bonaccio, Silvia; Reeve, Charlie L.

2006-01-01

270

Cognitive functions in primary central nervous system lymphoma: Literature review and assessment guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Treatment-related neurotoxicity has been recognized as a significant problem in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) as effective treatment has increased survival rates. There is, however, a paucity of research on cognitive functions in this population. Design: In a review of the literature, a total of 17 articles that described cognitive outcome in adult PCNSL patients were

D. D. Correa; L. Maron; H. Harder; M. Klein; C. L. Armstrong; P. Calabrese; J. E. C. Bromberg; L. E. Abrey; T. T. Batchelor; D. Schiff

2007-01-01

271

CAFFEINE, COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING AND WHITE MATTER LESIONS IN THE ELDERLY: ESTABLISHING CAUSALITY FROM EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE  

E-print Network

Ritchie 1 CAFFEINE, COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING AND WHITE MATTER LESIONS IN THE ELDERLY: ESTABLISHING of interest. Running title : caffeine and white matter lesions inserm-00457699,version1-19Feb2010 Author for a causal relationship between caffeine consumption and cognitive deterioration in the elderly. Methods

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

272

Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older adults Catherine Fart, Ccilia Samieri, Pascale Barberger-Gateau  

E-print Network

- 1 - TITLE PAGE Title Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older adults Authors Catherine running head Mediterranean Diet, Cognitive Decline and Dementia Word count: 2690 (text) inserm-00418647: The effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular and chronic diseases has

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

273

The Relationship between Sleep and Epilepsy: The Effect on Cognitive Functioning in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The purpose of this review was to examine the possible pathophysiological links between epilepsy, cognition, sleep macro- and microstructure, and sleep disorders to highlight the contributions and interactions of sleep and epilepsy on cognitive functioning in children with epilepsy. Method: PubMed was used as the medical database source. No…

Parisi, Pasquale; Bruni, Oliviero; Pia Villa, Maria; Verrotti, Alberto; Miano, Silvia; Luchetti, Anna; Curatolo, Paolo

2010-01-01

274

Cognitive functioning of adults with Noonan syndrome: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Noonan syndrome (NS) is a genetic disorder characterised by short stature, facial dysmorphia, congenital heart defects and mildly lowered intellectual abilities. Research has mainly focused on genetic and somatic aspects, while intellectual and cognitive functioning has been documented scarcely. Also, to date studies have been primarily performed in children. This is the first study in which functioning within the major cognitive domains is systematically evaluated in a group of adults with NS and compared with a control group. Extensive neuropsychological assessment, including the domains intelligence, speed of information processing, memory (working memory, immediate recall and delayed recall), executive function and visuoconstruction, was performed in a sample of 42 patients with NS and 42 healthy controls, matched on age, sex and education level. In addition, subjective cognitive complaints were assessed with self-report questionnaires. On the domain speed of information processing patients performed worse than controls (P?cognitive domains showed between-group differences. On the questionnaires, patients reported substantially more complaints about their own cognitive abilities than controls (P?functioning in other cognitive domains characterises the cognitive profile of adult patients, in contrast to previous findings in children with NS, who seem to have more generalised cognitive deficits. PMID:22783933

Wingbermühle, E; Roelofs, R L; van der Burgt, I; Souren, P M; Verhoeven, W M A; Kessels, R P C; Egger, J I M

2012-10-01

275

Does Implicit Learning in Non-Demented Parkinson's Disease depend on the Level of Cognitive Functioning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the influence of the level of cognitive functioning on sequence-specific learning in Parkinson's disease (PD). This was done by examining the relationship between the scales for outcomes in Parkinson's disease-cognition [SCOPA-COG, Marinus, J., Visser, M., Verwey, N. A., Verhey, F. R. J., Middelkoop, H. A. M.,Stiggelbout, A., et…

Vandenbossche, Jochen; Deroost, Natacha; Soetens, Eric; Kerckhofs, Eric

2009-01-01

276

Cognitive Functioning in Children With Sickle Cell Disease: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To establish whether sickle cell disease (SCD) affects cognitive functioning in children with no evidence of cerebral infarction. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of studies of cognition in SCD to determine the size of any statis- tical difference between children with SCD and controls. Methodological factors were evaluated according to the size and frequency of group differences. Results: There

Jeffrey Schatz; Robert L. Finke; Julie M. Kellett; Joel H. Kramer

2002-01-01

277

Structural and functional brain development and its relation to cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant gains in the fields of pediatric neuroimaging and developmental neurobiology, surprisingly little is known about the developing human brain or the neural bases of cognitive development. This paper addresses MRI studies of structural and functional changes in the developing human brain and their relation to changes in cognitive processes over the first few decades of human life. Based

B. J. Casey; Jay N. Giedd; Kathleen M. Thomas

2000-01-01

278

Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…

Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

2013-01-01

279

Cognitive Domains and Trajectories of Functional Independence in Nondemented Elderly Persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Cognitive impairment in general is known to predict functional disability, but it is not clear whether performance on specific cognitive domains predicts future disability trends among nondemented elderly persons. Methods. In a representative elderly community-based cohort over up to 10 years of follow-up, we examined predictors of longitudinal trajectories in ability to perform Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL)

Hiroko H. Dodge; Yangchun Du; Judith A. Saxton; Mary Ganguli

2006-01-01

280

The Relationship between Diffusion Tensor Tractography and Cognitive Functioning in Parkinson's Disease  

E-print Network

Institute Introduction Cognitive impairment is a common non-motor manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PDPrimaryLeftAnteriorInternalCapsule W W W W W W W W W W W W · Parkinson's disease · Healthy Control -1.00 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 RAVLTThe Relationship between Diffusion Tensor Tractography and Cognitive Functioning in Parkinson

Lichtarge, Olivier

281

Urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

DNA oxidative stress has been suggested as an important pathogenic mechanism in cognitive impairment and dementia. We, therefore, examined whether urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of global DNA oxidation, was associated with cognitive function in a sample of Puerto Rican adul...

282

Cerebrovascular function and cognition in childhood: a systematic review of transcranial doppler studies  

PubMed Central

Background The contribution of cerebrovascular function to cognitive performance is gaining increased attention. Transcranial doppler (TCD) is portable, reliable, inexpensive and extremely well tolerated by young and clinical samples. It enables measurement of blood flow velocity in major cerebral arteries at rest and during cognitive tasks. Methods We systematically reviewed evidence for associations between cognitive performance and cerebrovascular function in children (0-18 years), as measured using TCD. A total of 2778 articles were retrieved from PsychInfo, Pubmed, and EMBASE searches and 25 relevant articles were identified. Results Most studies investigated clinical groups, where decreased blood flow velocities in infants were associated with poor neurological functioning, and increased blood flow velocities in children with Sickle cell disease were typically associated with cognitive impairment and lower intelligence. Studies were also identified assessing autistic behaviour, mental retardation and sleep disordered breathing. In healthy children, the majority of studies reported cognitive processing produced lateralised changes in blood flow velocities however these physiological responses did not appear to correlate with behavioural cognitive performance. Conclusion Poor cognitive performance appears to be associated with decreased blood flow velocities in premature infants, and increased velocities in Sickle cell disease children using TCD methods. However knowledge in healthy samples is relatively limited. The technique is well tolerated by children, is portable and inexpensive. It therefore stands to make a valuable contribution to knowledge regarding the underlying functional biology of cognitive performance in childhood. PMID:24602446

2014-01-01

283

Cognitive Functioning in Clinically Stable Patients with Bipolar Disorder I and II  

PubMed Central

Objectives Bipolar disorder is accompanied by cognitive impairments, which persists during euthymic phases. The purpose of the present study was to identify those neuropsychological tests that most reliably tell euthymic bipolar patients and controls apart, and to clarify the extent to which these cognitive impairments are clinically significant as judged from neuropsychological norms. Methods Patients with bipolar disorder (type I: n = 64; type II: n = 44) and controls (n = 86) were examined with a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery yielding 47 measures of executive functioning, speed, memory, and verbal skills. Multivariate analysis was used to build a model of cognitive performance with the ability to expose underlying trends in data and to reveal cognitive differences between patients and controls. Results Patients with bipolar disorder and controls were partially separated by one predictive component of cognitive performance. Additionally, the relative relevance of each cognitive measure for such separation was decided. Cognitive tests measuring set shifting, inhibition, fluency, and searching (e.g., Trail Making Test, Color-Word) had strongest discriminating ability and most reliably detected cognitive impairments in the patient group. Conclusions Both bipolar disorder type I and type II were associated with cognitive impairment that for a sizeable minority is significant in a clinical neuropsychological sense. We demonstrate a combination of neuropsychological tests that reliably detect cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder. PMID:25614986

Sparding, Timea; Silander, Katja; Pålsson, Erik; Östlind, Josefin; Sellgren, Carl; Ekman, Carl Johan; Joas, Erik; Hansen, Stefan; Landén, Mikael

2015-01-01

284

Life-time estrogen exposure and cognitive functioning in later life Running Title: Estrogen exposure and cognitive function  

E-print Network

women have the highest prevalence of both dementia and more specifically Alzheimer's disease (AD) (Gao-related cognitive decline and delay the onset of dementia, this has not been found consistently. Few studies have cognitive performance in later life. Results: Age at first menses was negatively associated with performance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

285

Is lower cognitive function in one spouse associated with depressive symptoms in the other spouse?  

PubMed

This study examines whether lower cognitive function in one spouse is associated with depressive symptoms in the other spouse. The subjects were 528 community-dwelling spouse pairs aged 65+ who participated in the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), an ongoing longitudinal, bi-racial, population-based study of risk factors for incident Alzheimer's disease and other age-related chronic conditions. CHAP participants were assessed at 3-year intervals over a period of nearly ten years. The results show a cross-sectional association of wives' lower cognitive function at baseline with depressive symptoms in husbands; however, husbands' cognitive function was not associated with wives' depressive symptoms. There was no longitudinal association of cognitive function at baseline with increased depressive symptoms over time. Furthermore, change in cognitive function over time had no effect on depressive symptoms in either spouse. The relationship between cognitive function and depressive symptoms in spouse pairs is complex. Our findings suggest that husbands may be particularly psychologically vulnerable to the negative effects of their wives' cognitive impairment. This vulnerability may have a range of long-term health and caregiving implications. PMID:17050091

Skarupski, Kimberly A; de Leon, Carlos F Mendes; McCann, Judith J; Bienias, Julia L; Wilson, Robert S; Evans, Denis A

2006-11-01

286

Meta-Analysis of the Association Between Cognitive Abilities and Everyday Functioning in Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objectives Neurocognitive deficits are common in bipolar disorder and contribute to functional disability. However, the degree to which general and specific cognitive deficits affect everyday functioning in bipolar disorder is unknown. The goal of this meta-analysis was to examine the magnitude of the effect of specific neurocognitive abilities on everyday functioning in bipolar disorder. Methods We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of studies that reported associations between performance on objective neuropsychological tasks and everyday functioning among individuals with bipolar disorder. From an initial pool of 486 papers, 22 studies met inclusion criteria, comprising a total of 1344 participants. Correlation coefficients were calculated for 11 cognitive domains and four measurement modalities for functioning. We also examined effect moderators, such as sample age, clinical state, and study design. Results The mean Pearson correlation between neurocognitive ability and functioning was 0.27, and was significant for all cognitive domains and varied little by cognitive domain. Correlations varied by methods of everyday functioning assessment, being lower for clinician and self-report than performance-based tasks and real-world milestones such as employment. None of the moderator analyses were significant. Conclusions Overall, the strength of association between cognitive ability and everyday functioning in bipolar disorder is strikingly similar to that seen in schizophrenia, with little evidence for differences across cognitive domains. The strength of association differed more so according to functional measurement approach. PMID:22548895

Depp, Colin A.; Mausbach, Brent T.; Harmell, Alexandrea L.; Savla, Gauri N.; Bowie, Christopher R.; Harvey, Philip D.; Patterson, Thomas L.

2012-01-01

287

Impairment of cognitive functioning during Sunitinib or Sorafenib treatment in cancer patients: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Impairment of cognitive functioning has been reported in several studies in patients treated with chemotherapy. So far, no studies have been published on the effects of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors on cognitive functioning. We investigated the objective and subjective cognitive function of patients during treatment with VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR TKI). Methods Three groups of participants, matched on age, sex and education, were enrolled; 1. metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) or GIST patients treated with sunitinib or sorafenib (VEGFR TKI patients n?=?30); 2. patients with mRCC not receiving systemic treatment (patient controls n?=?20); 3. healthy controls (n?=?30). Sixteen neuropsychological tests examining the main cognitive domains (intelligence, memory, attention and concentration, executive functions and abstract reasoning) were administered by a neuropsychologist. Four questionnaires were used to assess subjective cognitive complaints, mood, fatigue and psychological wellbeing. Results No significant differences in mean age, sex distribution, education level or IQ were found between the three groups. Both patient groups performed significantly worse on the cognitive domains Learning & Memory and Executive Functions (Response Generation and Problem Solving) compared to healthy controls. However only the VEGFR TKI patients showed impairments on the Executive subdomain Response Generation. Effect sizes of cognitive dysfunction in patients using VEGFR TKI were larger on the domains Learning & Memory and Executive Functions, compared to patient controls. Both patients groups performed on the domain Attention & Concentration the same as the healthy controls. Longer duration of treatment on VEGFR TKI was associated with a worse score on Working Memory tasks. Conclusions Our data suggest that treatment with VEGFR TKI has a negative impact on cognitive functioning, specifically on Learning & Memory, and Executive Functioning. We propose that patients who are treated with VEGFR TKI are monitored and informed for possible signs or symptoms associated with cognitive impairment. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01246843. PMID:24661373

2014-01-01

288

Association between cognition and function in patients with Parkinson disease with and without dementia.  

PubMed

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often have cognitive deficits from the time of diagnosis. Except in patients with dementia, the impact of cognitive symptoms on daily function is not well documented. This study had two objectives: (1) to determine the functional significance of cognitive deficits in nondemented patients with PD and (2) to assess the sensitivity of two measures of global cognitive abilities to identify individuals with impaired ADL function. One hundred eleven subjects with PD and a range of cognitive abilities were included. Of these, 20 were diagnosed with PDD. All subjects were assessed with the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale to two (DRS-2) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). ADL function was reported by an informant using the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Inventory (ADCS-ADL). The ability of the DRS-2 and MMSE to capture the impact of cognitive impairment on ADL function was assessed in the entire cohort and in subsets of nondemented individuals. After adjustment for covariates, cognition as measured by the DRS-2 was strongly related to ADL function in the entire cohort (partial correlation coefficient = 0.55, P < 0.001). The association remained strong when only nondemented subjects were included (r = 0.42, P < 0.001). The DRS-2 was significantly more accurate than the MMSE, particularly for detecting milder degrees of ADL impairment (ROC area = 0.87 vs. 0.75, P = 0.0008). Cognition is associated with impairment in ADL function, even in nondemented patients with PD. However, sensitive cognitive assessment measures may be needed to identify these functionally relevant impairments. PMID:20310053

Rosenthal, Emily; Brennan, Laura; Xie, Sharon; Hurtig, Howard; Milber, Joshua; Weintraub, Daniel; Karlawish, Jason; Siderowf, Andrew

2010-07-15

289

Passive heat exposure induced by hot water leg immersion increased oxyhemoglobin in pre-frontal cortex to preserve oxygenation and did not contribute to impaired cognitive functioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the effects of passive heat exposure on pre-frontal cortex oxygenation and cognitive functioning, specifically to examine whether the change in pre-frontal cortex oxygenation coincided with cognitive functioning during heat exposure. Eleven male students who participated in this study immersed their lower legs to the knees in three different water temperatures, 38 °C, 40 °C, and 42 °C water in an air temperature of 28 º C and 50 % relative humidity for 60 min. After 45 min of leg immersion they performed cognitive functioning tasks assessing their short-term memory while immersing their lower legs. There were higher rectal temperature ( P < 0.05) and higher increase of oxyhemoglobin in both left ( P < 0.05) and right ( P < 0.05) pre-frontal cortex at the final stage of 45-min leg immersion in the 42 °C condition with unaltered tissue oxygenation index among the three conditions ( P > 0.05). No statistical difference in cognitive functioning among the three conditions was observed with a higher increase of oxyhemoglobin during the cognitive functioning in the 42 °C condition for the left ( P = 0.05) and right ( P < 0.05) pre-frontal cortex. The findings of this study suggest, first, passive heat exposure increases oxygen delivery in the pre-frontal cortex to maintain pre-frontal cortex oxygenation; second, there is no evidence of passive heat exposure in cognitive functioning in this study; and third, the greater increases of oxyhemoglobin in the pre-frontal cortex during cognitive functioning at the hottest condition suggests a recruitment of available neural resources or greater effort to maintain the same performance at the same level as when they felt thermally comfortable.

Wijayanto, Titis; Toramoto, Sayo; Tochihara, Yutaka

2013-07-01

290

Wightman function and vacuum fluctuations in higher dimensional brane models  

E-print Network

Wightman function and vacuum expectation value of the field square are evaluated for a massive scalar field with general curvature coupling parameter subject to Robin boundary conditions on two codimension one parallel branes located on $(D+1)$-dimensional background spacetime $AdS_{D_1+1}\\times \\Sigma $ with a warped internal space $\\Sigma $. The general case of different Robin coefficients on separate branes is considered. The application of the generalized Abel-Plana formula for the series over zeros of combinations of cylinder functions allows us to extract manifestly the part due to the bulk without boundaries. Unlike to the purely AdS bulk, the vacuum expectation value of the field square induced by a single brane, in addition to the distance from the brane, depends also on the position of the brane in the bulk. The brane induced part in this expectation value vanishes when the brane position tends to the AdS horizon or AdS boundary. The asymptotic behavior of the vacuum densities near the branes and at large distances is investigated. The contribution of Kaluza-Klein modes along $\\Sigma $ is discussed in various limiting cases. As an example the case $\\Sigma =S^1$ is considered, corresponding to the $AdS_{D+1}$ bulk with one compactified dimension. An application to the higher dimensional generalization of the Randall-Sundrum brane model with arbitrary mass terms on the branes is discussed.

Aram A. Saharian

2005-08-05

291

An epigenetic blockade of cognitive functions in the neurodegenerating brain  

E-print Network

Cognitive decline is a debilitating feature of most neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system, including Alzheimer’s disease [superscript 1]. The causes leading to such impairment are only poorly understood ...

Rei, Damien

292

The functional role of cognitive frameworks on visuomotor adaptation performance.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the effects of cognitive representations of movement directions on sensorimotor adaptation performance. Adaptation performance was measured via a pointing experiment in which participants were provided with visual feedback that was distorted along the midsagittal plane (i.e., left-right reversal). Performance was analyzed relative to participants' individual adaptation gains and 3 groups were subsequently defined (i.e., skilled, average, and poor adapters). The group separation was kept for the Cognitive Measurement of Represented Directions, which was used to analyze participants' cognitive representation of movement directions. The results showed that skilled adapters, in contrast to poor adapters, possess a global representation of movement directions aligned to the cardinal axes. The cognitive representation structure hence supports the sensorimotor adaptation performance. PMID:25205332

Lex, Heiko; Weigelt, Matthias; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

2014-01-01

293

Race Differences in Intellectual Control Beliefs and Cognitive Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Study Context: The current study examined the relationship between intellectual control and cognition and related the results to everyday problem solving in a mixed ethnicity sample of 35% African American and 65% Caucasian elders.Methods: Participants completed the Personality in Intellectual Aging Contexts Inventory (PIC; Lachman et al., 1982, Journal of Research in Personality, 16, 485–501), Everyday Cognition Battery (ECB; Allaire

Sarah W. Kennedy; Jason C. Allaire; Alyssa A. Gamaldo; Keith E. Whitfield

2012-01-01

294

Impact of Common KIBRA Allele on Human Cognitive Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rs17070145 polymorphism (C ? T substitution, intron 9) of the KIBRA gene has recently been associated with episodic memory and cognitive flexibility. These findings were inconsistent across reports though, and largely lacked gene–gene or gene–environment interactions. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of the rs17070145 polymorphism on clinically relevant cognitive domains and its interaction

H Wersching; K Guske; S Hasenkamp; C Hagedorn; S Schiwek; S Jansen; V Witte; J Wellmann; H Lohmann; K Duning; J Kremerskothen; S Knecht; E Brand; A Floel

2011-01-01

295

Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women  

PubMed Central

The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800?mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women. PMID:22235230

Saenghong, Naritsara; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tongun, Terdthai; Piyavhatkul, Nawanant; Banchonglikitkul, Chuleratana; Kajsongkram, Tanwarat

2012-01-01

296

The Impact of Sustained Engagement on Cognitive Function in Older Adults: The Synapse Project  

PubMed Central

In the research reported here, we tested the hypothesis that sustained engagement in learning new skills that activated working memory, episodic memory, and reasoning over a period of 3 months would enhance cognitive function in older adults. In three conditions with high cognitive demands, participants learned to quilt, learned digital photography, or engaged in both activities for an average of 16.51 hr a week for 3 months. Results at posttest indicated that episodic memory was enhanced in these productive-engagement conditions relative to receptive-engagement conditions, in which participants either engaged in nonintellectual activities with a social group or performed low-demand cognitive tasks with no social contact. The findings suggest that sustained engagement in cognitively demanding, novel activities enhances memory function in older adulthood, but, somewhat surprisingly, we found limited cognitive benefits of sustained engagement in social activities. PMID:24214244

Park, Denise C.; Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Drew, Linda; Haber, Sara; Hebrank, Andrew; Bischof, Gérard N.; Aamodt, Whitley

2014-01-01

297

Effects of multicomponent exercise on cognitive function in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background To examine the effects of a multicomponent exercise program on the cognitive function of older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods Design: Twelve months, randomized controlled trial; Setting: Community center in Japan; Participants: Fifty older adults (27 men) with aMCI ranging in age from 65 to 93 years (mean age, 75 years); Intervention: Subjects were randomized into either a multicomponent exercise (n = 25) or an education control group (n = 25). Subjects in the multicomponent exercise group exercised under the supervision of physiotherapists for 90 min/d, 2 d/wk, for a total of 80 times over 12 months. The exercises included aerobic exercises, muscle strength training, and postural balance retraining, and were conducted using multiple conditions to stimulate cognitive functions. Subjects in the control group attended three education classes regarding health during the 12-month period. Measurements were administered before, after the 6-month, and after the 12-month intervention period; Measurements: The performance measures included the mini-mental state examination, logical memory subtest of the Wechsler memory scale-revised, digit symbol coding test, letter and categorical verbal fluency test, and the Stroop color word test. Results The mean adherence to the exercise program was 79.2%. Improvements of cognitive function following multicomponent exercise were superior at treatment end (group × time interactions for the mini-mental state examination (P = 0.04), logical memory of immediate recall (P = 0.03), and letter verbal fluency test (P = 0.02)). The logical memory of delayed recall, digit symbol coding, and Stroop color word test showed main effects of time, although there were no group × time interactions. Conclusions This study indicates that exercise improves or supports, at least partly, cognitive performance in older adults with aMCI. PMID:23113898

2012-01-01

298

A neurological model of sensory-motor problem solving with possible implications for higher-order cognition and instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grossberg's neural modeling principles of learning, perception, cognition, and motor control are presented as the basis for construction of a neurological model of sensory-motor problem solving. The pattern of problem solving is assumed to be universal, thus is sought in the higher-order shift from the child's use of an additive strategy to the adolescent's use of a proportions strategy to solve the Pouring Water Task (Suarez and Rhonheimer, 1974). Possible neurological principles involved in this shift and in the process of psychological equilibration are discussed as are possible educational implications.

Lawson, Anton E.

299

Early Post-Stroke Cognition in Stroke Rehabilitation Patients Predicts Functional Outcome at 13 Months  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify prognostic factors associated with functional outcome at 13 months in a sample of stroke rehabilitation patients. Specifically, we hypothesized that cognitive functioning early after stroke would predict long-term functional outcome independently of other factors. Methods: 163 stroke rehabilitation patients underwent a structured neuropsychological examination 2–3 weeks after hospital admittance, and their functional status was subsequently evaluated 13

Jørgen Wagle; Lasse Farner; Kjell Flekkøy; Torgeir Bruun Wyller; Leiv Sandvik; Brynjar Fure; Brynhild Stensrød; Knut Engedal

2011-01-01

300

Hippocampal function in the rat: cognitive mapping or vicarious trial and error?  

PubMed

The most prominent hypothesis of hippocampal function likens the hippocampus to a "cognitive map," a term used by a famous learning theorist, E. C. Tolman, to explain maze learning. The usual application of this concept of cognitive map, as it applies to the hippocampus, is to what is called spatial learning, mainly in the radial-arm maze of Olton and the Morris water maze. In a recent Hippocampus Forum, evidence for the cognitive map hypothesis was reviewed in a lead article by Nadel, followed by a series of commentaries by leading investigators of hippocampal function. This speculative commentary offers an alternative not represented in the forum--that the function of the hippocampus in spatial learning is not as a cognitive map, but that it subserves another function proposed by Tolman in his work on simple discrimination learning, vicarious trial and error, based on incipient, conflicting dispositions to approach and avoid. PMID:8353608

Amsel, A

1993-07-01

301

Working memory functioning in schizophrenia patients and their first-degree relatives: cognitive functioning shedding light on etiology.  

PubMed

There is accumulating evidence for involvement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. A primary function supported by the PFC is working memory (WM). Findings from WM studies in schizophrenia can provide insight into the nature of clinical symptoms and cognitive deficits associated with this disorder, as well as begin to suggest areas of underlying neuropathology. To date, studies have not adequately investigated different WM domains (e.g., verbal, spatial, or object) or processing requirements (e.g., maintenance, monitoring, or manipulation), shown to be associated with distinct patterns of neural activation, in schizophrenia patients and their well relatives. Accordingly, this study evaluated the performance of schizophrenia patients, their first-degree biological relatives, and nonpsychiatric controls on a comprehensive battery of WM tasks and investigated the association among WM deficits and schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology. The findings indicate that schizophrenia patients are consistently impaired on WM tasks, irrespective of WM domain or processing requirements. In contrast, their unaffected relatives are only impaired on WM tasks with higher central executive processing requirements. This pattern of WM performance may further implicate DLPFC dysfunction in the liability for schizophrenia and has implications for future cognitive, genetic, and neurodevelopmental research. PMID:15716163

Conklin, Heather M; Curtis, Clayton E; Calkins, Monica E; Iacono, William G

2005-01-01

302

Recovery of motor and cognitive function after cerebellar lesions in a songbird – role of estrogens  

PubMed Central

In addition to its key role in complex motor function, the cerebellum is increasingly recognized to have a role in cognition. Songbirds are particularly good models for the investigation of motor and cognitive processes but little is known about the role of the songbird cerebellum in these processes. To explore cerebellar function in a songbird, we lesioned the cerebellum of adult female zebra finches and examined the effects on a spatial working memory task and on motor function during this task. There is evidence for steroid synthesis in the songbird brain and neurosteroids may have an impact on some forms of neural plasticity in adult songbirds. We therefore hypothesized that neurosteroids would affect motor and cognitive function after a cerebellar injury. We found that cerebellar lesions produced deficits in motor and cognitive aspects of a spatial task. In line with our prediction, birds in which estrogen synthesis was blocked had impaired performance in our spatial task compared with those that had estrogen synthesis blocked but estrogen replaced. There was no clear effect of estrogen replacement on motor function. We also found that lesions induced expression of the estrogen synthetic enzyme aromatase in reactive astrocytes and Bergmann glia around a cerebellar lesion. These data suggest that the cerebellum of songbirds mediates both motor and cognitive function and that estrogens may improve the recovery of cognitive aspects of cerebellar function after injury. PMID:19302157

Spence, Rory D.; Zhen, Yin; White, Stephanie; Schlinger, Barney A.; Day, Lainy B.

2010-01-01

303

A Structural Analysis of Executive Functions and Socioeconomic Status in School-Age Children: Cognitive Factors as Effect Mediators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Socioeconomic status (SES) is a well-known predictor of cognitive achievement and executive functioning, although the underlying cognitive mediating processes remain unclear. The authors analyze the association between different socioeconomic indicators and the executive functions (EF) of schoolchildren and the possible cognitive mediating factors…

Aran-Filippetti, Vanessa; Richaud de Minzi, Maria Cristina

2012-01-01

304

Applying Distributed Cognition Theory to the Redesign of the "Copy and Paste" Function in Order to Promote Appropriate Learning Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the application of distributed cognition theory to educational contexts by examining a common learning interaction, the "Copy and Paste" function. After a discussion of distributed cognition and the role of mediating artefacts in real world cognitions, the "Copy and Paste" function is redesigned to embed an effective…

Morgan, Michael; Brickell, Gwyn; Harper, Barry

2008-01-01

305

Very old adults with better memory function have higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios: KOCOA project  

PubMed Central

We examined cross-sectionally which lipid profiles are associated with better cognitive function among those aged 80 and older-free of dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating ? 0.5), functionally independent and community-dwelling. Our cohort consisted of 193 participants from the “Keys to Optimal Cognitive Aging (KOCOA) Project”, a prospective cohort study in Okinawa, Japan. Higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratios were associated with higher scores in memory performance after controlling for confounders. Further research is required to clarify the associations among LDL-C levels, TG/HDL-C ratios, and healthy cognitive aging. PMID:23207484

Katsumata, Yuriko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Higashiuesato, Yasushi; Yasura, Shotoku; Ohya, Yusuke; Willcox, D. Craig; Dodge, Hiroko H.

2013-01-01

306

FUNCTIONAL NEUROANATOMY OF THE COGNITIVE PROCESS OF MAPPING DURING DISCOURSE COMPREHENSION  

PubMed Central

We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions involved in the process of mapping coherent discourse onto a developing mental representation. We manipulated discourse coherence by presenting sentences with definite articles (which lead to more coherent discourse) or indefinite articles (which lead to less coherent discourse). Comprehending connected discourse, compared with reading unrelated sentences, produced more neural activity in the right than left hemisphere of the frontal lobe. Thus, the right hemisphere of the frontal lobe is involved in some of the processes underlying mapping. In contrast, left-hemisphere structures were associated with lower-level processes in reading (such as word recognition and syntactic processing). Our results demonstrate the utility of using fMRI to investigate the neural substrates of higher-level cognitive processes such as discourse comprehension. PMID:11273413

Robertson, David A.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Guidotti, Seline J.; Robertson, Rachel R.W.; Irwin, William; Mock, Bryan J.; Campana, Mary E.

2015-01-01

307

The Association of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measures With Cognitive Function in a Biracial Population Sample  

PubMed Central

Background White matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV), cerebral infarcts, and total brain volume (TBV) are associated with cognitive function, but few studies have examined these associations in the general population or whether they differ by race. Objective To examine the association of WMHV, cerebral infarcts, and TBV with global cognition and cognition in 5 separate domains in a biracial population sample. Setting A biracial community population of Chicago, Illinois. Design Cross-sectional population study. Participants The study population comprised 575 participants from the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP). Main Outcome Measures Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of WMHV, TBV, and cerebral infarcts and detailed neuropsychological testing assessments of global cognition and 5 cognitive domains. Results Overall and among those without dementia, cognition was inversely associated with WMHV and number of infarcts but was positively associated with TBV. When all 3 measures were simultaneously added to the model, the association of global cognition with WMHV and TBV remained significant and unchanged but was no longer significant with infarcts. Among subjects without dementia, all 3 MRI measures were associated with performance in multiple cognitive domains, specifically perceptual speed. However, among subjects with dementia, only TBV was associated with cognition and performance in multiple cognitive systems. Race did not significantly modify any of these associations. Conclusions In this biracial general population sample, the associations of MRI measures with cognition differed according to clinical status of subjects (stronger among subjects without dementia) and were not modified by race. These associations did not affect all cognitive domains equally but were more consistent with impairments in perceptual speed. PMID:20385915

Aggarwal, Neelum T.; Wilson, Robert S.; Bienias, Julia L.; De Jager, Philip L.; Bennett, David A.; Evans, Denis A.; DeCarli, Charles

2010-01-01

308

Neurotrophins and cognitive functions in T1D compared with healthy controls: effects of a high-intensity exercise.  

PubMed

Exercise is known to have beneficial effects on cognitive function. This effect is greatly favored by an exercise-induced increase in neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), especially with high-intensity exercises (HIE). As a complication of type 1 diabetes (T1D), a cognitive decline may occur, mostly ascribed to hypoglycaemia and chronic hyperglycaemia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute HIE on cognitive function and neurotrophins in T1D and matched controls. Ten trained T1D (8 males, 2 females) participants and their matched (by age, sex, fitness level) controls were evaluated on 2 occasions after familiarization: a maximal test to exhaustion and an HIE bout (10 intervals of 60 s at 90% of their maximal wattage followed by 60 s at 50 W). Cognitive tests and analyses of serum BDNF, IGF-1, and free insulin were performed before and after HIE and following 30 min of recovery. At baseline, cognitive performance was better in the controls compared with the T1D participants (p < 0.05). After exercise, no significant differences in cognitive performance were detected. BDNF levels were significantly higher and IGF-1 levels were significantly lower in T1D compared with the control group (p < 0.05) at all time points. Exercise increased BDNF and IGF-1 levels in a comparable percentage in both groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, although resting levels of serum BDNF and IGF-1 were altered by T1D, comparable increasing effects on BDNF and IGF-1 in T1D and healthy participants were found. Therefore, regularly repeating acute HIE could be a promising strategy for brain health in T1D. PMID:25525862

Tonoli, Cajsa; Heyman, Elsa; Buyse, Luk; Roelands, Bart; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Bailey, Stephen; Pattyn, Nathalie; Berthoin, Serge; Meeusen, Romain

2015-01-01

309

Neurocognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia and during the Early Phases of Psychosis: Targeting Cognitive Remediation Interventions  

PubMed Central

Recent interest in the early course of schizophrenia accentuated altered cognition prior to the onset. Ultrahigh risk (UHR) individuals with attenuated positive symptoms and transient psychotic episodes demonstrate neurocognitive deficits across multiple domains such as memory, executive functioning, and processing speed which are consistent with similar disturbances identified in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation (CR) approaches representing a broad set of activities are aimed to restore or improve cognitive functioning. CR proved to be effective in modulating the cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia but is rarely used in ultrahigh risk individuals. From the clinical prospective, a better understanding of cognitive functioning in at-risk states is essential for the development of optimal early intervention models. In the review, we highlight the intervention targets, notably the specific cognitive deficits in at risk individuals which preceed the transition to psychosis and emphasize the need of the additional studies using CR approaches in UHR group aiming to enhance cognition and therefore mediate functional improvement. PMID:24089689

Korsakova, Natalya; Agius, Mark

2013-01-01

310

The effect of serotonin 1A receptor polymorphism on the cognitive function of premenstrual dysphoric disorder.  

PubMed

Estrogen and serotonin play vital roles in the mechanism of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Cognitive deficit in the premenstrual phase contributes to impaired life function among women with PMDD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties in cognitive control and working memory (WM) in PMDD and to explore the effects of gonadotropic hormone and polymorphism of serotonin 1A receptor (HTR1A; rs6295) on cognitive deficit in PMDD. Women with PMDD completed diagnostic interviewing, questionnaire assessment, the Go/Nogo task, 2-back and 3-back tasks, and gonadotropic hormone analysis in the premenstrual and follicular phases. Further, they were followed up for two menstrual cycles to confirm two consecutive symptomatic cycles. A total of 59 subjects with PMDD and 74 controls completed all evaluation, fulfilled the criteria, and entered into the final analysis. The results demonstrated cognitive control and WM decline in the premenstrual among women with PMDD. The G/G genotype of HTR1A (rs6295) was found to be associated with impaired WM in the premenstrual phase and premenstrual decline of cognitive function. It also contributed to the vulnerability of cognitive function to the menstrual cycle effect and PMDD effect. As the G/G genotype of HTR1A (rs6295) involves in reducing serotonin neurotransmission, our results provide insight into the serotonin mechanism of cognitive function among women with PMDD. PMID:24158751

Yen, Ju-Yu; Tu, Hung-Pin; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Long, Cheng-Yu; Ko, Chih-Hung

2014-12-01

311

Early Reproductive Experiences in Females Make Differences in Cognitive Function Later in Life  

PubMed Central

Women experience dramatic changes in hormones, mood and cognition through different periods of their reproductive lives, particularly during pregnancy and giving birth. While limited human studies of early pregnancy and motherhood showed alteration of cognitive function in later life, research conducted on rodents showed a persistent improvement of learning and memory performance in females with history of giving birth (primiparous or multiparous) compared to virgin controls (nulliparous). In this mini review, we will focus on the effect of early motherhood on cognitive function later in life, which would provide insight on how reproductive experiences influence women’s health during ageing. PMID:23271317

Li, Rena; Cui, Jie; Jothishankar, Balaji; Shen, Juliet; He, Ping; Shen, Yong

2012-01-01

312

Cognitive impairment and functional outcome after stroke associated with small vessel disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Although stroke associated with small vessel disease (SSVD) can induce both motor and cognitive impairment, the latter has received less attention. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of the varying severity levels of cognitive impairment, the determinants of severe cognitive impairment, and the association of cognitive impairment with functional outcome after SSVD. Methods: Consecutive patients admitted to hospital because of SSVD were assessed at 3 months after stroke. We performed a semi-structured clinical interview to screen for cognitive symptoms. Severity of cognitive symptoms was graded according to the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR). Performance on psychometric tests (Mini-Mental State Examination, Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (cognition subscale), Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (initiation/perseverence subscale; MDRS I/P)) of patients of different CDR gradings was compared with that of 42 healthy controls. Basic demographic data, vascular risk factors, stroke severity (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale; NIHSS), pre-stroke cognitive decline (Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly; IQCODE), functional outcome (Barthel index; BI), Instrumental Activities Of Daily Living; IADL), and neuroimaging features (site of recent small infarcts, number of silent small infarcts, white matter changes) were also compared among the groups. Regression analyses were performed to find predictors of severe cognitive impairment and poor functional outcome. Results: Among the 75 included patients, 39 (52%) complained of cognitive symptoms. The number of patients in each CDR grading was as follows: 39 (52%) had a CDR of 0, 26 (34.7%) had a CDR of 0.5, 10 (13.3%) had a CDR of ?1. Pre-stroke IQCODE and previous stroke predicted CDR?1. The NIHSS was associated with more impaired BI. The NIHSS and MDRS I/P contributed most to impaired IADL. Conclusions: Half of the patients with SSVD complained of varying severity of cognitive problems 3 months after stroke. Pre-stroke cognitive decline and previous stroke predict severe cognitive impairment post stroke. Stroke severity and executive dysfunction contribute most to a poor functional outcome. PMID:15026497

Mok, V; Wong, A; Lam, W; Fan, Y; Tang, W; Kwok, T; Hui, A; Wong, K

2004-01-01

313

The cumulative effects of Transcendental Meditation on cognitive function — a systematic review of randomised controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  It is claimed that regular practice of Transcendental Meditation (TM) improves cognitive function and increases intelligence.\\u000a This systematic review assesses the evidence from randomised controlled trials for cumulative effects of TM on cognitive function.\\u000a Searches were made of electronic databases and the collected papers and official websites of the TM organisation. Only randomised\\u000a controlled trials with objective outcome measures of

Peter H. Canter; Edzard Ernst

2003-01-01

314

Saitohin and APOE Polymorphisms Influence Cognition and Function in Persons with Advanced Alzheimer Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by variability in the onset and progression of cognitive, functional and behavioral symptoms. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic correlates of symptom variability in persons with moderate-to-advanced AD. Methods: Repeated measures of cognition, function and behavior were collected from institutionalized persons with AD over 12 months. Candidate genes were assayed. Results:

Debra L. Schutte; David Reed; Susan DeCrane; Anne L. Ersig

2011-01-01

315

The Role of Cognitive Functioning in Medication Adherence of Children and Adolescents with HIV Infection  

PubMed Central

Objective?To evaluate the relationship between cognitive functioning and medication adherence in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection.?Methods?Children and adolescents, ages 3–18 (N = 1,429), received a cognitive evaluation and adherence assessment. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify associations between adherence and cognitive status, adjusting for potential confounding factors.?Results?Children's average cognitive performance was within the low-average range; 16% of children were cognitively impaired (MDI/FSIQ <70). Cognitive status was not associated with adherence to full medication regimens; however, children with borderline/low average cognitive functioning (IQ 70–84) had increased odds of nonadherence to the protease inhibitor class of antiretroviral therapy. Recent stressful life events and child health characteristics, such as HIV RNA detectability, were significantly associated with nonadherence.?Conclusion?Cognitive status plays a limited role in medication adherence. Child and caregiver psychosocial and health characteristics should inform interventions to support adherence. PMID:18647794

Williams, Paige L.; Montepiedra, Grace; Nichols, Sharon; Sirois, Patricia A.; Storm, Deborah; Farley, John; Kammerer, Betsy

2009-01-01

316

Multitasking: multiple, domain-specific cognitive functions in a virtual environment.  

PubMed

Multitasking among three or more different tasks is a ubiquitous requirement of everyday cognition, yet rarely is it addressed in research on healthy adults who have had no specific training in multitasking skills. Participants completed a set of diverse subtasks within a simulated shopping mall and office environment, the Edinburgh Virtual Errands Test (EVET). The aim was to investigate how different cognitive functions, such as planning, retrospective and prospective memory, and visuospatial and verbal working memory, contribute to everyday multitasking. Subtasks were chosen to be diverse, and predictions were derived from a statistical model of everyday multitasking impairments associated with frontal-lobe lesions (Burgess, Veitch, de Lacy Costello, & Shallice, 2000b). Multiple regression indicated significant independent contributions from measures of retrospective memory, visuospatial working memory, and online planning, but not from independent measures of prospective memory or verbal working memory. Structural equation modelling showed that the best fit to the data arose from three underlying constructs, with Memory and Planning having a weak link, but with both having a strong directional pathway to an Intent construct that reflected implementation of intentions. Participants who followed their preprepared plan achieved higher scores than those who altered their plan during multitask performance. This was true regardless of whether the plan was efficient or poor. These results substantially develop and extend the Burgess et al. (2000b) model to healthy adults and yield new insight into the poorly understood area of everyday multitasking. The findings also point to the utility of using virtual environments for investigating this form of complex human cognition. PMID:21691876

Logie, Robert H; Trawley, Steven; Law, Anna

2011-11-01

317

Volumetric correlates of cognitive functioning in nondemented patients with Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

A challenge in Parkinson's disease (PD) is to identify biomarkers of early cognitive change because functioning in some domains may be more prognostic of dementia. Few studies have investigated whether structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates in a regionally specific manner with functioning in different cognitive domains. The aim of this study was to identify neuroanatomical correlates of executive functioning, memory, and visual cognition in PD without dementia. 3T MRI was conducted in 51 PD patients and 39 control participants. Brain volumes were measured in structures comprising the frontostriatal cognitive-control system, the medial temporal memory system, the ventral object-based system, and the dorsal spatial-based system. Measures of executive functioning (Stroop Test; Letter Fluency), memory (California Verbal Learning Test), visuospatial cognition (Judgment of Line Orientation), and visuoconstruction (Pentagon Copy) were correlated with volumes comprising each system. Poorer executive functioning largely correlated with decreased frontostriatal volumes. Poorer memory correlated with decreased volumes in all medial temporal regions, but also with frontostriatal volumes. Poorer visuospatial cognition correlated with decreased volumes in the object-based system, whereas poorer visuoconstruction correlated with decreased frontal and object-based system volumes. These relationships were nonsignificant in the control group. This is the first study to demonstrate that subtle changes in multiple cognitive domains in PD without dementia correlate with regional volumes in specific systems implicated in the development of cognitive impairment. The findings suggest that structural MRI holds promise as a marker of early changes in different brain systems, some of which may predict future cognitive deterioration. PMID:24038502

Filoteo, J Vincent; Reed, Jason D; Litvan, Irene; Harrington, Deborah L

2014-03-01

318

Causes and Consequences of Cognitive Functioning Across the Life Course  

PubMed Central

Research on variation in cognitive abilities has focused largely on their genetic or experiential sources and on their economic consequences. This article takes a broader look at the consequences of cognitive ability—IQ—across the life course. Contrary to received wisdom, the effects of IQ on economic success are almost entirely mediated by educational attainment. Among persons with equal levels of schooling, IQ has little influence on job performance, occupational standing, earnings, or wealth. But there are other, sometimes surprising consequences of IQ throughout adult life. The long-term correlates of adolescent cognition include drinking behavior, survey participation, Internet use, and the timing of menopause. These are surveyed primarily using findings from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. PMID:22383855

Hauser, Robert M.

2012-01-01

319

The Effects of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy Techniques for Enhancing the Cognitive\\/ Intellectual Functioning of Seventh and Eighth Grade Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both computer-assisted classroom education and computer-assisted cogni- tive rehabilitation are established in learning and rehabilitation methods. The use of rehabilitation techniques for the development of foundational cogni- tive skills in the general population of school children has gone untested. This experiment demonstrates the utility of computer-assisted cognitive skills training for improving the intellectual functioning of 12 to 14 year-old chil-

Odie L. Bracy; Andrea L. Oakes; Rebecca S. Cooper; Dan Watkins; M. S. Mary Watkins; Indiana Yorktown; Daniel E. Brown; Christine Jewell

320

Cognitive Functioning Predicts Driver Safety On Road-Tests 1 and 2 Years Later  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Our ability to predict aging related declines in driving performance from off-road assessments have clinical practice and social policy implications. OBJECTIVES 1) To describe longitudinal changes in mean-level and evaluate rank-order stability in potential predictors of driving safety (visual sensory, motor, visual attention, and cognitive functioning) and safety errors during an 18-mile on-road-drive-test among older adults. 2) To evaluate the relative predictive power of earlier visual sensory, motor, visual attention, and cognitive functioning on future safety errors controlling for earlier driving capacity. DESIGN A three-year longitudinal observational study; SETTING A large teaching hospital in the Mid-West; PARTICIPANTS 111 neurologically normal older adults (60 to 89 years at baseline); MEASUREMENTS Safety errors based on video review of a standard 18-mile on-road driving test served as the outcome measure. Comprehensive battery of tests on the predictor side included visual sensory functioning, motor functioning, cognitive functioning, and a measure of Useful Field of View. RESULTS Longitudinal changes in mean-levels of safety errors and cognitive functioning were small from year-to-year. Relative rank-order stability between consecutive assessments was moderate in overall safety errors, it was moderate to strong in visual attention and cognitive functioning. While prospective bivariate correlations ranged from fair to moderate between safety errors and predictors, only functioning in the cognitive domain predicted future driver performance one and two-years later in multivariate analyses. CONCLUSION Normative aging related declines in driver performance as assessed by on-road tests emerge slowly. The findings clearly demonstrated that even in the presence conservative controls, such as previous driving ability, age, visual sensory and motor functioning, cognitive functioning predicted future driving performance on-road one and two-years later. PMID:22091535

Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steven W.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Amy M.; Uc, Ergun Y.; Rizzo, Matthew

2011-01-01

321

The catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) and cognitive function from childhood through adolescence  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) can influence cognitive function, and this effect may depend on developmental stage. Using a large representative British birth cohort, we investigated the effect of COMT on cognitive function (verbal and non-verbal) at ages 8 and 15 years taking into account the possible modifying effect of pubertal stage. Five functional COMT polymorphisms, rs6269, rs4818, rs4680, rs737865 and rs165599 were analysed. Associations between COMT polymorphisms and cognition were tested using regression and latent variable structural equation modelling (SEM). Before correction for multiple testing, COMT rs737865 showed association with reading comprehension, verbal ability and global cognition at age 15 years in pubescent boys only. Although there was some evidence for age- and sex-specific effects of the COMT rs737865 none remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Further studies are necessary in order to make firmer conclusions. PMID:23178897

Gaysina, Darya; Xu, Man K.; Barnett, Jennifer H.; Croudace, Tim J.; Wong, Andrew; Richards, Marcus; Jones, Peter B.

2013-01-01

322

Software defined radio based multi-carrier multi-function waveform for cognitive radio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we demonstrate an adaptive multicarrier multi-function waveform generator for cognitive radio via software defined radio. Using a USRP (universal software radio peripheral) software defined radio boards and GNU radio software, we implement a multi-carrier waveform generator which can generate multi-function waveforms such as OFDM, NC-OFDM, MC-CDMA, NC-MC-CDMA, CI/MC-CDMA, NCCI/ MC-CDMA, TDCS for cognitive radio. Additionally, we demonstrate a portable overlay cognitive radio using this multicarrier multi-function waveform generator. This cognitive radio is capable of detecting primary users in real time and adaptively adjusting its transmission parameters to avoid interference to primary users. More importantly, this cognitive radio can take advantage of multiple spectrum holes by employing non-contiguous multi-carrier transmission technologies. Additionally, we demonstrate that when the primary user transmission changes, the cognitive radio dynamically adjusts its transmission accordingly. We also demonstrate seamless real time video transmission between two cognitive radio nodes, while avoiding interference from primary users and interference to primary users operating in the same spectrum.

Zhou, Ruolin; Li, Xue; Chakravarthy, Vasu; Wu, Zhiqiang

2010-04-01

323

Association between mental demands at work and cognitive functioning in the general population – results of the health study of the Leipzig research center for civilization diseases (LIFE)  

PubMed Central

Background The level of mental demands in the workplace is rising. The present study investigated whether and how mental demands at work are associated with cognitive functioning in the general population. Methods The analysis is based on data of the Health Study of the Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Disease (LIFE). 2,725 participants aged 40–80 years underwent cognitive testing (Trail-Making Test, Verbal Fluency Test) and provided information on their occupational situation. Participants over the age of 65 years additionally completed the Mini-Mental State Examination. Mental demands at work were rated by a standardized classification system (O*NET). The association between mental demands and cognitive functioning was analyzed using Generalized Linear Modeling (GENLIN) adjusted for age, gender, self-regulation, working hour status, education, and health-related factors. Results Univariate as well as multivariate analyses demonstrated significant and highly consistent effects of higher mental demands on better performance in cognitive testing. The results also indicated that the effects are independent of education and intelligence. Moreover, analyses of retired individuals implied a significant association between high mental demands at work of the job they once held and a better cognitive functioning in old age. Conclusions In sum, our findings suggest a significant association between high mental demands at work and better cognitive functioning. In this sense, higher levels of mental demands – as brought about by technological changes in the working environment – may also have beneficial effects for the society as they could increase cognitive capacity levels and might even delay cognitive decline in old age. PMID:24914403

2014-01-01

324

Mild depressive symptoms do not influence cognitive functioning in patients with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated both with cognitive decrements and depressive symptoms. Since depression in itself has been associated with cognitive decrements we aimed to investigate the influence of depressive symptoms on the relation between T2DM and cognitive functioning. Data were derived from three independent studies on cognitive functioning in patients with T2DM (n=366) and controls without diabetes (n=204), two with longitudinal and one with only cross-sectional assessments. Depressive symptoms were measured with self-report inventories (CES-D or BDI-II). The composite z-score of the domains memory, information-processing speed, and attention and executive function was the primary cognitive outcome measure. Mixed linear regression analyses were used in a stepped approach to compare cognitive functioning between (1) patients with T2DM and controls (cross-sectionally and longitudinally), (2) participants with and without depressive symptoms, separately for patients and controls, and (3) patients and controls after adjustment for depressive symptoms. In addition the mediating effect of depressive symptoms was assessed with a bootstrapping technique. Depressive symptoms were present in 11% of the patients with T2DM and in 7% of controls (p=0.15). Cognitive performance in patients with T2DM was worse than in controls (overall difference composite z-score -0.13). However, T2DM was not associated with accelerated cognitive decline over three years of follow-up relative to controls. Controls with depressive symptoms performed worse than those without depressive symptoms, although not statistically significant. Performance in patients with T2DM with and without depressive symptoms was similar. Adjustment for depressive symptoms and estimation of the mediating effect showed that the difference between patients and controls was not mediated by depressive symptoms. In conclusion, the modest cognitive decrements that are associated with T2DM are not due to the presence of mild depressive symptoms. PMID:22818834

Koekkoek, Paula S; Rutten, Guy E H M; Ruis, Carla; Reijmer, Yael D; van den Berg, Esther; Gorter, Kees J; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Nijpels, Giel; Kappelle, L Jaap; Biessels, Geert Jan

2013-03-01

325

Impact of bilateral subthalamic stimulation on motor/cognitive functions in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

It is still unclear whether deep brain stimulation targeted to the bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) affects cognitive function in Parkinson's disease (PD). This prospective study was aimed to systemically evaluate the impact of bilateral STN-DBS on motor and cognitive functions in patients with PD. This study included totally 11 Japanese patients with medically intolerant PD. Neurological and cognitive status was precisely evaluated before and 1 year after bilateral STN-DBS, using unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS), levodopa equivalent doses, mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Japanese adult reading test (JART), repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS), and Wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised (WAIS-R). Preoperative RBANS and WAIS-R identified cognitive dysfunction that could not be detected by MMSE and JART. Before surgery, PD patients had significantly impaired immediate memory and attention. Motor function significantly improved 1 year after bilateral STN-DBS. Bilateral STN-DBS did not affect any score on cognitive examinations. However, postoperative improvements of total score on RBANS and performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) scores on WAIS-R were closely related to those of UPDRS part III off (R(2) = 0.61, P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.39, P < 0.05, respectively). These findings strongly suggest that bilateral STN-DBS may significantly improve cognitive function in a certain subgroup of patients whose therapeutic effects on motor function are prominent. PMID:24872253

Asahi, Takashi; Nakamichi, Naomi; Takaiwa, Akiko; Kashiwazaki, Daina; Koh, Masaki; Dougu, Nobuhiro; Takashima, Shutaro; Tanaka, Kortaro; Kuroda, Satoshi

2014-01-01

326

Screening of Cognitive Function and Hearing Impairment in Older Adults: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Previous research has found that hearing loss is associated with poorer cognitive function. The question is that when a hearing impairment is being compensated for by appropriately fitted monaural hearing aids, special precautions are still needed when screening cognitive function in older adults. Objective. This research examined cognitive function in elderly hearing aid users who used monaural hearing aids and whether the presence of a hearing impairment should be accounted for when screening cognitive function in these individuals. Methods. Auditory thresholds, sentence reception thresholds, and self-reported outcomes with hearing aids were measured in 34 older hearing aid users to ensure hearing aids were appropriately fitted. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) results obtained in these participants were then compared to normative data obtained in a general older population exhibiting similar demographic characteristics. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to examine the effects of demographic and auditory variables on MMSE scores. Conclusions. Results showed that, even with appropriately fitted hearing aids, cognitive decline was significant. Besides the factors commonly measured in the literature, we believed that auditory deprivation was not being fully compensated for by hearing aids. Most importantly, screening of cognitive function should take into account the effects of hearing impairment, even when hearing devices have been appropriately fitted. PMID:25140321

Wong, Lena Lar Nar; Yu, Joannie Ka Yin; Chan, Shaina Shing; Tong, Michael Chi Fai

2014-01-01

327

Office management of elderly hypertensive patients. Focusing on cognition and function.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review office management of elderly hypertensive patients and to focus on cognition and function both as ways to stratify who gets treated and as end points for treatment. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Relevant papers were identified through a MEDLINE search from January 1994 to March 2000, using the MeSH terms hypertension, aged, aged 80 and over, cognition, activities of daily living, therapeutics, hypotension orthostatic, and dementia. Many well conducted randomized controlled trials were found and are included. MAIN MESSAGE: Treatment of combined and systolic hypertension up to age 80 is clearly worthwhile; beyond age 85, other factors (chiefly cognitive and functional impairment) mitigate most routine recommendations. Successful treatment is individualized, taking into account comorbid conditions and their effect on cognition and function. Age is useful for thinking about groups, not individuals: as people age, risk of cognitive and functional impairment increases, but even very elderly people (> 85 years) with no impairment should be treated as younger patients are. Elderly people with signs of having a "brain at risk" should be managed with special vigilance. CONCLUSION: Good evidence supports treating elderly people, who are otherwise well and are cognitively and functionally intact, when their blood pressure is > 160 mm Hg systolic or > 105 mm Hg diastolic. There is insufficient evidence for carrying out routine recommendations for frail elderly people. Treatment of comorbid illnesses dictates choice of therapeutic agent. PMID:11785283

Rockwood, K.; Freter, S. H.

2001-01-01

328

The Dynamic Relationship Between Physical Function and Cognition in Longitudinal Aging Cohorts  

PubMed Central

On average, older people remember less and walk more slowly than do younger persons. Some researchers argue that this is due in part to a common biologic process underlying age-related declines in both physical and cognitive functioning. Only recently have longitudinal data become available for analyzing this claim. We conducted a systematic review of English-language research published between 2000 and 2011 to evaluate the relations between rates of change in physical and cognitive functioning in older cohorts. Physical functioning was assessed using objective measures: walking speed, grip strength, chair rise time, flamingo stand time, and summary measures of physical functioning. Cognition was measured using mental state examinations, fluid cognition, and diagnosis of impairment. Results depended on measurement type: Change in grip strength was more strongly correlated with mental state, while change in walking speed was more strongly correlated with change in fluid cognition. Examining physical and cognitive functioning can help clinicians and researchers to better identify individuals and groups that are aging differently and at different rates. In future research, investigators should consider the importance of identifying different patterns and rates of decline, examine relations between more diverse types of measures, and analyze the order in which age-related declines occur. PMID:23349427

Clouston, Sean A. P.; Brewster, Paul; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus; Cooper, Rachel; Hardy, Rebecca; Rubin, Marcie S.; Hofer, Scott M.

2013-01-01

329

Reboxetine versus paroxetine versus placebo: effects on cognitive functioning in depressed patients.  

PubMed

Impaired cognitive functioning is often associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Moreover, a number of agents used to treat MDD are known to have negative effects on cognitive functioning. We report an assessment of the effects of the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor reboxetine, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine, and placebo on a variety of measures of cognitive functioning in patients with MDD. Cognitive functioning in 74 adult patients (aged 18-65 years) with a confirmed diagnosis of MDD (DSM-IV) was assessed as part of two identical, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-treatment-controlled, fixed/flexible dose comparisons of 8 weeks of treatment with reboxetine (8-10 mg/day), paroxetine (20-40 mg/day) and placebo. Cognitive function was assessed at baseline, day 14 and day 56 using a selection of tasks from the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment system, including Simple Reaction Time, Digit Vigilance, Choice Reaction Time, Numeric Working Memory, Word Recognition and Critical Flicker Frequency. The results in the 74 patients (reboxetine n = 25, paroxetine n = 23, placebo n = 26) showed that reboxetine significantly improved the ability to sustain attention at day 56 compared with baseline (P = 0.023). In addition, patients who received reboxetine experienced significant improvements in their speed of cognitive functioning when tested at day 56 compared to baseline (P = 0.024). No significant changes or trends in this direction were seen among patients who received either placebo or paroxetine. The results of the present study provide objective data to support the possibility that reboxetine favourably affects cognitive processes in depressed patients. PMID:12490769

Ferguson, James M; Wesnes, Keith A; Schwartz, Gerri E

2003-01-01

330

Cognitive Training for Improving Executive Function in Chemotherapy-Treated Breast Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Difficulties with thinking and problem solving are very common among breast cancer survivors. We tested a computerized cognitive training program for 41 breast cancer survivors. The training program was associated with significant improvements in thinking and problem-solving skills. Our findings demonstrate potential for our online, home-based cognitive training program to improve cognitive difficulties among breast cancer survivors. Background A majority of breast cancer (BC) survivors, particularly those treated with chemotherapy, experience long-term cognitive deficits that significantly reduce quality of life. Among the cognitive domains most commonly affected include executive functions (EF), such as working memory, cognitive flexibility, multitasking, planning, and attention. Previous studies in other populations have shown that cognitive training, a behavioral method for treating cognitive deficits, can result in significant improvements in a number of cognitive skills, including EF. Materials and Methods In this study, we conducted a randomized controlled trial to investigate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a novel, online EF training program in long-term BC survivors. A total of 41 BC survivors (21 active, 20 wait list) completed the 48 session training program over 12 weeks. The participants were, on average, 6 years after therapy. Results Cognitive training led to significant improvements in cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency and processing speed, with marginally significant downstream improvements in verbal memory as assessed via standardized measures. Self-ratings of EF skills, including planning, organizing, and task monitoring, also were improved in the active group compared with the wait list group. Conclusions Our findings suggest that EF skills may be improved even in long-term survivors by using a computerized, home-based intervention program. These improvements may potentially include subjective EF skills, which suggest a transfer of the training program to real-world behaviors. PMID:23647804

Kesler, Shelli; Hosseini, S. M. Hadi; Heckler, Charles; Janelsins, Michelle; Palesh, Oxana; Mustian, Karen; Morrow, Gary

2013-01-01

331

Ten-Year Effects of the ACTIVE Cognitive Training Trial on Cognition and Everyday Functioning in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the effects of cognitive training on cognitive abilities and everyday function over 10 years. Design, Setting, and Participants Ten-year follow-up of a randomized, controlled single-blind trial with 3 intervention groups and a no-contact control group. A volunteer sample of 2832 persons (mean baseline age, 73.6 years; 26% African American) living independently in 6 US cities. Interventions Ten-session training for memory, reasoning, or speed-of-processing.; 4-session booster training at 11 and at 35 months after training. Measurements Objectively measured cognitive abilities and self-reported and performance-based measures of everyday function. Results Participants in each intervention group reported less difficulty with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) (memory: effect size, 0.48 [99% CI, 0.12-0.84]; reasoning: effect size, 0.38 [99% CI, 0.02-0.74]; speed-of-processing: effect size, 0.36 [99% CI, 0.01-0.72]). At mean age of 82 years, about 60% of trained participants compared to 50% of controls (p<.05) were at or above their baseline level of self-reported IADL function at 10 years. The reasoning and speed-of-processing interventions maintained their effects on their targeted cognitive abilities at 10 years (reasoning: effect size, 0.23 [99% CI, 0.09-0.38]; speed-of-processing: effect size, 0.66 [99% CI, 0.43-0.88]). Memory training effects were no longer maintained for memory performance. Booster training produced additional and durable improvement for the reasoning intervention for reasoning performance (effect size, 0.21 [99% CI, 0.01-0.41]) and the speed-of-processing intervention for speed-of-processing performance (effect size, 0.62 [99% CI, 0.31-0.93]). Conclusions Each ACTIVE cognitive intervention resulted in less decline in self-reported IADL compared with the control group. Reasoning and speed, but not memory, training resulted in improved targeted cognitive abilities for 10 years. PMID:24417410

Rebok, George W.; Ball, Karlene; Guey, Lin T.; Jones, Richard N.; Kim, Hae-Young; King, Jonathan W.; Marsiske, Michael; Morris, John N.; Tennstedt, Sharon L.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Willis, Sherry L.

2013-01-01

332

COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING AND TOLERANCE FOR DELAY OF GRATIFICATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TWO EXPERIMENTS WERE CONDUCTED TO STUDY THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A CHILD'S TOLERANCE FOR DELAY OF GRATIFICATION AND HIS ABILITY TO CONSERVE NUMBER AND PICTURES. OTHER MEASURES OF COGNITION ALSO WERE USED. TOLERANCE FOR DELAY OF GRATIFICATION WAS MEASURED BY THE CHILD'S DECISION TO RECEIVE A PACK OF CANDY AND A TOY ON THE DAY OF TESTING OR TO…

ZIMILES, HERBERT

333

Neurobiology of Disease Cognitive Deterioration and Functional Compensation in  

E-print Network

's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized words: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; antisaccade; cognitive control; fMRI; prefrontal cortex; task set Introduction Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative dis- ease affecting motor neurons

Munoz, Douglas Perry

334

Cognitive function and quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Nearly half of all patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) will develop cognitive dysfunction. Studies highlighted from no/weak impact to a strong impact of cognitive impairment on quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of cognitive dysfunction on self-reported QoL in MS patients while considering key confounding factors. Methods Design: cross-sectional study. Inclusion criteria: MS patients of any disease subtype. Data collection: sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status, education level, and occupational activity) and clinical data (MS subtype, disease duration); MS disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale, EDSS); depression (Beck Depression Inventory); fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale); QoL (SF36 and MusiQoL); and neuropsychological performance (Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests, BRB-N). Statistical analysis: multiple linear regressions (forward-stepwise selection). Results One hundred and twenty-four patients were enrolled. Performance on BRB-N subtests varied widely (6% to 70% abnormal). The BRB-N classified 37-78% of the patients as cognitively impaired, depending on the definition of cognitive impairment. No links were found between the MusiQoL index and cognitive subtests, whereas marital status, EDSS, and depression were found to be independent predictive factors. Conclusions The present study demonstrated the weak and scarce association between cognitive impairment and QoL, when the key confounding factors were considered. These results need to be confirmed with larger samples and more accurate tests of cognitive function. PMID:21288343

2011-01-01

335

Effect of Dance Exercise on Cognitive Function in Elderly Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group). The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease (CERAD-K). Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of dance exercise on cognitive function and cardiometabolic risk factors. Compared with the control group, the exercise group significantly improved in verbal fluency (p = 0.048), word list delayed recall (p = 0.038), word list recognition (p = 0.007), and total CERAD-K score (p = 0.037). However, no significance difference was found in body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol between groups over the 6-month period. In the present study, six months of dance exercise improved cognitive function in older adults with metabolic syndrome. Thus, dance exercise may reduce the risk for cognitive disorders in elderly people with metabolic syndrome. Key points Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. Aerobic exercise improves cognitive function in elderly people and contributes to the prevention of degenerative neurological disease and brain damage. Dance sport is a form of aerobic exercise that has the additional benefits of stimulating the emotions, promoting social interaction, and exposing subjects to acoustic stimulation and music. In the present study, dance exercise for a 6-month period improved cognitive function in older adults with MS. In particular, positive effects were observed in verbal fluency, word list delayed recall, word list recognition, and the total CERAD-K score. Our data suggest that the implementation of dance exercise programs may be an effective means of prevention and treatment of cognitive disorders. PMID:24149557

Kim, Se-Hong; Kim, Minjeong; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Lim, Hyun-Kook; Kang, Sung-Goo; Cho, Jung-hyoun; Park, Seo-Jin; Song, Sang-Wook

2011-01-01

336

A new method to measure higher visual functions in an immersive environment  

PubMed Central

Background Higher visual functions can be defined as cognitive processes responsible for object recognition, color and shape perception, and motion detection. People with impaired higher visual functions after unilateral brain lesion are often tested with paper pencil tests, but such tests do not assess the degree of interaction between the healthy brain hemisphere and the impaired one. Hence, visual functions are not tested separately in the contralesional and ipsilesional visual hemifields. Methods A new measurement setup, that involves real-time comparisons of shape and size of objects, orientation of lines, speed and direction of moving patterns, in the right or left visual hemifield, has been developed. The setup was implemented in an immersive environment like a hemisphere to take into account the effects of peripheral and central vision, and eventual visual field losses. Due to the non-flat screen of the hemisphere, a distortion algorithm was needed to adapt the projected images to the surface. Several approaches were studied and, based on a comparison between projected images and original ones, the best one was used for the implementation of the test. Fifty-seven healthy volunteers were then tested in a pilot study. A Satisfaction Questionnaire was used to assess the usability of the new measurement setup. Results The results of the distortion algorithm showed a structural similarity between the warped images and the original ones higher than 97%. The results of the pilot study showed an accuracy in comparing images in the two visual hemifields of 0.18 visual degrees and 0.19 visual degrees for size and shape discrimination, respectively, 2.56° for line orientation, 0.33 visual degrees/s for speed perception and 7.41° for recognition of motion direction. The outcome of the Satisfaction Questionnaire showed a high acceptance of the battery by the participants. Conclusions A new method to measure higher visual functions in an immersive environment was presented. The study focused on the usability of the developed battery rather than the performance at the visual tasks. A battery of five subtasks to study the perception of size, shape, orientation, speed and motion direction was developed. The test setup is now ready to be tested in neurological patients. PMID:25069675

2014-01-01

337

Urinary function in elderly people with and without leukoaraiosis: relation to cognitive and gait function  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To investigate urinary function in the elderly with and without white matter lesion (leukoaraiosis) in relation to cognitive and gait function.?METHODS—Sixty three subjects were examined, with mean age 73 (range 62 to 86 years). Subjects with brainstem stroke or with large hemispheric lesions were excluded. Spin echo 1.5 T MRI images were graded from 0 to 4 for severity of white matter lesions. Urinary function was assessed by detailed questionnaire and urodynamic studies were performed in 33 of the subjects, including measurement of postmicturition residuals, water cystometry, and sphincter EMG. A mini mental state examination (MMSE) and examination of gait was also performed and compared with urinary function.?RESULTS—Urodynamic studies showed subjects with grade 1-4 white matter lesions to have detrusor hyperreflexia more commonly (82%) than those with grade 0 white matter lesions (9%) (p<0.05), indicating that leukoaraiosis was a factor associated with geriatric urinary dysfunction. Postmicturition residuals, low compliance, detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia, and uninhibited sphincter relaxation were also more common in grade 1-4 than in grade 0 white matter lesions, though the difference was not significant. In grade 1 white matter lesions urinary dysfunction (urge urinary incontinence) was more common than cognitive (MMSE<19) (p<0.05) and gait disorders (slowness, short step/festination, and loss of postural reflex) (p<0.05), which increased together with the grade of white matter lesions (p<0.05).?CONCLUSIONS—Urinary dysfunction is common and probably the early sign in elderly people with leukoaraiosis on MRI.?? PMID:10519875

Sakakibara, R.; Hattori, T.; Uchiyama, T.; Yamanishi, T.

1999-01-01

338

Can Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Improve Cognitive Functioning in Adults with Schizophrenia?  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment is nearly ubiquitous in schizophrenia. First-degree relatives of persons with schizophrenia often show similar but milder deficits. Current methods for the treatment of schizophrenia are often ineffective in cognitive remediation. Since transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance cognitive functioning in healthy adults, it might provide a viable option to enhance cognition in schizophrenia. We sought to explore whether tDCS can be tolerated by persons with schizophrenia and potentially improve their cognitive functioning. We examined the effects of anodal versus cathodal tDCS on working memory and other cognitive tasks in five outpatients with schizophrenia and six first-degree relatives of persons with schizophrenia. Each participant completed tasks thought to be mediated by the prefrontal cortex during two 30-minute sessions of tDCS to the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Anodal stimulation over the left DLPFC improved performance relative to cathodal stimulation on measures of working memory and aspects of verbal fluency relevant to word retrieval. The patient group showed differential changes in novel design production without alteration of overall productivity, suggesting that tDCS might be capable of altering selfmonitoring and executive control. All participants tolerated tDCS well. None withdrew from the study or experienced any adverse reaction. We conclude that adults with schizophrenia can tolerate tDCS while engaging in cognitive tasks and that tDCS can alter their performance. PMID:25367166

Schretlen, David J; van Steenburgh, Joseph J; Varvaris, Mark; Vannorsdall, Tracy D; Andrejczuk, Megan A; Gordon, Barry

2014-11-01

339

Managing the cognitive impairment of elderly patients using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionCognitive impairment is no longer considered a normal and inevitable change of ageing. Although older adults are at a higher risk than the rest of the population, changes in cognitive function often call for prompt and aggressive function. In older patients cognitive functioning is especially likely to decline during illness or injury. The nurses' assessment of an older adult's cognitive

E Cheah; S Rajaram; H C Chua; H L Ng; H M Tim; S Cinnappan; S T Lim

2011-01-01

340

Physical Fitness Measures as Potential Markers of Low Cognitive Function in Japanese Community-Dwelling Older Adults without Apparent Cognitive Problems.  

PubMed

Detecting signs of cognitive impairment as early as possible is one of the most urgent challenges in preventive care of dementia. It has still been unclear whether physical fitness measures can serve as markers of low cognitive function, a sign of cognitive impairment, in older people free from dementia. The aim of the present study was to examine an association between each of five physical fitness measures and global cognition in Japanese community-dwelling older adults without apparent cognitive problems. The baseline research of the Sasaguri Genkimon Study was conducted from May to August 2011 in Sasaguri town, Fukuoka, Japan. Of the 2,629 baseline subjects who were aged 65 years or older and not certified as individuals requiring nursing care by the town, 1,552 participants without apparent cognitive problems (Mini-Mental State Examination score ?24) were involved in the present study (59.0% of the baseline subjects, median age: 72 years, men: 40.1%). Global cognitive function was measured by the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Handgrip strength, leg strength, sit-to-stand rate, gait speed, and one-leg stand time were examined as physical fitness measures. In multiple linear regression analyses, each of the five physical fitness measures was positively associated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment score after adjusting for age and sex (p < 0.001). These associations were preserved after additional adjustment for years of formal education, body mass index, and other confounding factors (p < 0.001). The present study first demonstrated the associations between multiple aspects of physical fitness and global cognitive function in Japanese community-dwelling older people without apparent cognitive problems. These results suggest that each of the physical fitness measures has a potential as a single marker of low cognitive function in older populations free from dementia and thereby can be useful in community-based preventive care of dementia. Key pointsThere is a great need for identifying lifestyle-related markers which help detect subtle cognitive impairment in the preclinical or earlier phase of dementia.In the present study, each of the five physical fitness measures employed was linearly and positively associated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment score in the present older adults without apparent cognitive problems, after adjusting for age, sex, education, body mass index, and other confounding factors.The results suggest the potential of each physical fitness measure as a single lifestyle-related marker of low cognitive function in the population, which can be useful in community-based preventive care of dementia. PMID:25177186

Narazaki, Kenji; Matsuo, Eri; Honda, Takanori; Nofuji, Yu; Yonemoto, Koji; Kumagai, Shuzo

2014-09-01

341

Docosahexaenoic acid and cognitive function: Is the link mediated by the autonomic nervous system?  

PubMed Central

Docosahexaenoic acid is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid that is found in large quantity in the brain and which has repeatedly been observed to be related in positive ways to both cognitive function and cardiovascular health. The mechanisms through which docosahexaenoic acid affects cognition are not well understood, but in this article, we propose a hypothesis that integrates the positive effects of docosahexaenoic acid in the cognitive and cardiovascular realms through the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is known to regulate vital functions such as heart rate and respiration, and has also been linked to basic cognitive components related to arousal and attention. We review the literature from this perspective, and delineate the predictions generated by the hypothesis. In addition, we provide new data showing a link between docosahexaenoic acid and fetal heart rate that is consistent with the hypothesis. PMID:18930644

Gustafson, Kathleen M.; Colombo, John; Carlson, Susan E.

2013-01-01

342

Effect of abstinence challenge on brain function and cognition in smokers differs by COMT genotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

The val allele of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met polymorphism has been linked with nicotine dependence and with cognitive performance in healthy volunteers. We tested the hypothesis that the val allele is a risk factor for altered brain function and cognition during nicotine abstinence as compared with the normal smoking state. Chronic smokers (n=33) were genotyped prospectively for the COMT polymorphism

J Loughead; E P Wileyto; J N Valdez; P Sanborn; K Tang; A A Strasser; K Ruparel; R Ray; R C Gur; C Lerman

2009-01-01

343

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in High-Functioning Autism: Review and Recommendations for Treatment Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) who have acquired functional communication strategies – particularly more\\u000a cognitively able individuals at or beyond the elementary school age group – may be candidates for talk-based therapies similar\\u000a to those employed with children and adults with mental health disorders, such as anxiety (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy,\\u000a CBT). While talk-based therapies are widely used in

Jeffrey J. Wood; Cori Fujii; Patricia Renno

344

Cognitive functioning and quality of life of atherosclerotic patients following carotid endarterectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a surgical procedure to remove atherosclerotic plaque from one of the carotid arteries in patients with severe stenosis. The purpose is to prevent future cerebral ischemic attacks. Whether patients, in addition, improve in cognitive functions and quality of life (QoL) was investigated in this study.\\u000aMethods: Patients with severe carotid stenosis were assessed on cognitive

E. R. Bossema; A. N. Brand; F. L. Moll; R. G. A. Ackerstaff; L. J. P. van Doornen

2002-01-01

345

Cognitive Functioning in Patients with Bipolar Disorder: Association with Depressive Symptoms and Alcohol Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCognitive dysfunction is clearly recognized in bipolar patients, but the degree of impairment varies due to methodological factors as well as heterogeneity in patient populations. The goal of this study was to evaluate cognitive functioning in bipolar patients and to assess its association with depressive symptoms. Post hoc the relationship with lifetime alcohol use disorder was explored.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThe study included

Marieke J. van der Werf-Eldering; Huibert Burger; Esther A. E. Holthausen; André Aleman; Willem A. Nolen

2010-01-01

346

Effect of blonanserin on cognitive and social function in acute phase Japanese schizophrenia compared with risperidone  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to determine the effectiveness of blonanserin (BNS) on the cognitive and social functions of patients with schizophrenia compared with risperidone (RIS) during acute-phase (8-week) treatment. Methods A total of 39 schizophrenia inpatients were included in this study. The subjects received either BNS (N=20) or RIS (N=19), and the clinical responses were evaluated periodically. The concomitant use of mood stabilizers was not allowed. Efficacy was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for schizophrenia. Cognition was assessed using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese-language version. Social function was assessed using the Life Assessment Scale for the Mentally Ill. Results For both groups, each assessment exhibited a decrease in the mean change from baseline on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The depression subscale was significantly improved in the BNS group compared with the RIS group at 8 weeks after administration. BNS improved verbal fluency and executive function (cognitive function) and daily living and work skills (social function). Compared with the RIS group, BNS was observed to improve daily living. Conclusion BNS may improve psychotic symptoms, cognitive function, and daily living in patients with acute-phase schizophrenia. BNS may be superior to RIS in the improvement of daily living. PMID:24707178

Hori, Hikaru; Yamada, Kenji; Kamada, Dan; Shibata, Yuka; Katsuki, Asuka; Yoshimura, Reiji; Nakamura, Jun

2014-01-01

347

Cognitive functioning in idiopathic generalised epilepsies: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Cognitive function in idiopathic generalised epilepsies (IGE) is of increasing research attention. Current research seeks to understand phenotypic traits associated with this most common group of inherited epilepsies and evaluate educational and occupational trajectories. A specific deficit in executive function in a subgroup of IGE, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) has been a particular focus of recent research. This systematic review provides a quantitative synthesis of cognitive function outcomes in 26 peer-reviewed, case-control studies published since 1989. Univariate random-effects meta-analyses were conducted on seven cognitive factor-domains and separately on executive function. Patients with IGE demonstrated significantly lower scores on tests across all cognitive factor-domains except visual-spatial abilities. Effect sizes ranged from 0.42 to 0.88 pooled standard deviation units. The average reduction of scores on tests of executive function in IGE compared to controls was 0.72 standard deviation units. Contrary to current thinking, there was no specific deficit in executive function in JME samples, nor in other IGE syndromes. Of more concern, people with IGE are at risk of pervasive cognitive impairment. PMID:24631851

Loughman, A; Bowden, S C; D'Souza, W

2014-06-01

348

Cognitive and motor function in long duration PARKIN PD  

PubMed Central

Importance The long term cognitive outcome in PARKIN-PD patients is unknown. This data may be meaningful when counseling PARKIN-PD patients. Objective Among early-onset PD (EOPD) patients with long disease durations, we assessed cognitive and motor performances, comparing compound heterozygote/homozygote PARKIN carriers to non-carriers Design Cross sectional study Setting Seventeen movement disorders centers Participants Forty-four participants in the Consortium on Risk for Early-Onset PD (CORE-PD) with PD duration greater than median (>14 years), including PARKIN compound heterozygotes/homozygotes combined (n=21), and non-carriers (n=23). Main outcome measures Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and neuropsychological performance. Linear regression models were applied to assess the association between PARKIN mutation status and cognitive domain scores and UPDRS. Models were adjusted for age, education, disease duration, language, and levodopa equivalent daily dose. Results Compound heterozygote/homozygote PARKIN mutation carriers had earlier AAO of PD (p<0.001) and were younger (p=0.004) at time of examination than non-carriers. They performed better on the MMSE (p=0.010) and were more likely to receive lower scores on the CDR (p=0.003). In multivariate analyses, PARKIN compound heterozygotes/homozygotes performed better on the UPDRS Part III (p=0.017), and on tests of attention (p=0.022), memory (p=0.025) and visuospatial (p=0.024) domains. Conclusions and Relevance Cross-sectional analyses demonstrate better cognitive and motor performance in compound heterozygote/homozygote PARKIN EOPD carriers than non-carriers with long disease duration, suggesting slower disease progression. Longitudinal follow up is required to confirm these findings. PMID:24190026

Alcalay, RN; Caccappolo, E; Mejia-Santana, H; Tang, M–X; Rosado, L; Orbe Reilly, M; Ruiz, D; Louis, ED; Comella, C; Nance, M; Bressman, S; Scott, WK; Tanner, C; Mickel, S; Waters, C; Fahn, S; Cote, L; Frucht, S; Ford, B; Rezak, M; Novak, K; Friedman, JH; Pfeiffer, R; Marsh, L; Hiner, B; Payami, H; Molho, E; Factor, SA; Nutt, J; Serrano, C; Arroyo, M; Ottman, R; Pauciulo, M; Nichols, W; Clark, LN; Marder, K

2013-01-01

349

Funzionamento neurocognitivo ed intelligenza sociale in persone con disturbo schizofrenico Neurocognitive functioning and social cognition in patients with schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Objectives A wide range of studies indicate that schizophrenics are prone to avoid social interaction and show a decrement in functioning as the demand of such inter- actions increases. The 'social cognition' is the most recent construct that has been advocated to explain social dysfunction in schizophrenia. Social cognition is a domain of cognition that involves the perception, interpretation,

D. MIRABILIO; S. DI TOMMASO; M. MARINELLI; E. DANELUZZO; P. STRATTA; A. ROSSI

350

Effects of Tryptophan Depletion on Cognitive Functioning, Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms and Mood in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Preliminary Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies suggest that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with moderate cognitive deficits. There is also evidence for altered serotonergic transmission in OCD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of rapid plasma tryptophan depletion on cognitive functioning in OCD. Methods: A double-blind crossover study was conducted to explore the effects of tryptophan depletion on cognitive

Anne Katrin Külz; Sandra Meinzer; Marta Kopasz; Ulrich Voderholzer

2007-01-01

351

Applying cognitive training to target executive functions during early development  

PubMed Central

Developmental psychopathology is increasingly recognizing the importance of distinguishing causal processes (i.e., the mechanisms that cause a disease) from developmental outcomes (i.e., the symptoms of the disorder as it is eventually diagnosed). Targeting causal processes early in disordered development may be more effective than waiting until outcomes are established and then trying to reverse the pathogenic process. In this review, I evaluate evidence suggesting that neural and behavioral plasticity may be greatest at very early stages of development. I also describe correlational evidence suggesting that, across a number of conditions, early emerging individual differences in attentional control and working memory may play a role in mediating later-developing differences in academic and other forms of learning. I review the currently small number of studies that applied direct and indirect cognitive training targeted at young individuals and discuss methodological challenges associated with targeting this age group. I also discuss a number of ways in which early, targeted cognitive training may be used to help us understand the developmental mechanisms subserving typical and atypical cognitive development. PMID:24511910

Wass, Sam V.

2015-01-01

352

Applying cognitive training to target executive functions during early development.  

PubMed

Developmental psychopathology is increasingly recognizing the importance of distinguishing causal processes (i.e., the mechanisms that cause a disease) from developmental outcomes (i.e., the symptoms of the disorder as it is eventually diagnosed). Targeting causal processes early in disordered development may be more effective than waiting until outcomes are established and then trying to reverse the pathogenic process. In this review, I evaluate evidence suggesting that neural and behavioral plasticity may be greatest at very early stages of development. I also describe correlational evidence suggesting that, across a number of conditions, early emerging individual differences in attentional control and working memory may play a role in mediating later-developing differences in academic and other forms of learning. I review the currently small number of studies that applied direct and indirect cognitive training targeted at young individuals and discuss methodological challenges associated with targeting this age group. I also discuss a number of ways in which early, targeted cognitive training may be used to help us understand the developmental mechanisms subserving typical and atypical cognitive development. PMID:24511910

Wass, Sam V

2015-03-01

353

Relation between cognitive function and mortality in middle-aged adults: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.  

PubMed

An independent, inverse association between cognitive function and all-cause mortality has been reported in elderly cohorts. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the same association exists in middle-aged persons. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study is a cohort study initiated in 1987 to investigate the development of atherosclerosis in middle-aged persons. Three cognitive function measures were included in the second cohort examination conducted from 1990 to 1992 when the participants were aged 48-67 years: the Delayed Word Recall Test (DWRT), the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) (a subtest from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised), and the Word Fluency Test from the Multilingual Aphasia Examination. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine whether all-cause mortality ascertained through 1997 was associated with each measure after adjustment for sociodemographic, biologic, psychologic, and behavioral risk factors. Without adjustment, there was a significantly lower mortality hazard associated with higher scores on all three measures. After covariate adjustment, the hazard ratios for the DWRT and the DSST remained significant (hazard ratio1-point DWRT score increment = 0.90, 95% confidence interval: 0.84, 0.97; hazard ratio 7-point DSST score increment = 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.80, 0.93). Cognitive function measured in middle age appears to have prognostic importance for life expectancy similar to that reported in elderly adults. PMID:12578803

Pavlik, Valory N; de Moraes, Suzana Alves; Szklo, Moyses; Knopman, David S; Mosley, Thomas H; Hyman, David J

2003-02-15

354

Information Communication Technology in the Form of an Expert System Shell as a Cognitive Tool to Facilitate Higher-Order Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information communication technology is capable of contributing supplementary teaching and learning strategies that can be used to address various educational challenges faced by higher education. Students who enter South African higher education institutions are often academically under-prepared and have not developed the cognitive skills…

Collins, Gary W.; Knoetze, Johan G.

2014-01-01

355

Evolutionary and developmental changes in the lateral frontoparietal network: a little goes a long way for higher-level cognition.  

PubMed

Relational thinking, or the ability to represent the relations between items, is widespread in the animal kingdom. However, humans are unparalleled in their ability to engage in the higher-order relational thinking required for reasoning and other forms of abstract thought. Here we propose that the versatile reasoning skills observed in humans can be traced back to developmental and evolutionary changes in the lateral frontoparietal network (LFPN). We first identify the regions within the LFPN that are most strongly linked to relational thinking, and show that stronger communication between these regions over the course of development supports improvements in relational reasoning. We then explore differences in the LFPN between humans and other primate species that could explain species differences in the capacity for relational reasoning. We conclude that fairly small neuroanatomical changes in specific regions of the LFPN and their connections have led to big ontogenetic and phylogenetic changes in cognition. PMID:25475185

Vendetti, Michael S; Bunge, Silvia A

2014-12-01

356

Cognitive and academic functioning of juvenile detainees: Implications for correctional populations and public health  

PubMed Central

Cognitive functioning affects health. This study assessed cognitive functioning among participants in the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a stratified random sample of 1,829 newly detained juveniles (10-18 years old) from Cook County, Illinois. We examined receptive vocabulary, oral reading, arithmetic computation skills, and general intellectual abilities. Our sample exhibited impaired overall intellectual functioning and deficits in all areas. Males performed more poorly than females overall. More than three-quarters of males showed below average overall intellectual functioning, and nine in ten males had below average receptive vocabulary skills. Hispanic and African American males performed more poorly than non-Hispanic white males; The multiple systems that serve delinquent youth—correctional, health, legal, and rehabilitative—must collaborate to tailor needed services to the cognitive level of youth in the juvenile justice system. PMID:24352405

Lansing, Amy E.; Washburn, Jason J.; Abram, Karen M.; Thomas, Ursula C.; Welty, Leah J.; Teplin, Linda A.

2014-01-01

357

Higher-Order Functions Incarnate: Parameterization via Graduated Examples  

E-print Network

a restaurant and tells us whether it serves Thai food.1 ;; Thai?: rrant -> boolean (define Thai? (lambda (R) (equal? 'Thai (rrant-cuisine R)))) But this function only checks for Thai food. We'd need another function to check for Chinese food, and another for French. In computer science we try to build more

Kay, David G.

358

The effect of changes in cerebral blood flow on cognitive function during exercise  

PubMed Central

Abstract No studies have identified the direct effect of changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) on cognitive function at rest and during exercise. In this study, we manipulated CBF using hypercapnic gas to examine whether an increase in CBF improves cognitive function during prolonged exercise. The speed and the accuracy of cognitive function were assessed using the Stroop color?word test. After the Stroop test at rest, the subjects began exercising on a cycling ergometer in which the workload was increased by 0.5 kilopond every minute until a target heart rate of 140 beats/min was achieved. Then, the subjects continued to cycle at a constant rate for 50 min. At four time points during the exercise (0, 10, 20, 50 min), the subjects performed a Stroop test with and without hypercapnic respiratory gas (2.0% CO2), with a random order of the exposures in the two tests. Despite a decrease in the mean blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCA Vmean), the reaction time for the Stroop test gradually decreased during the prolonged exercise without any loss of performance accuracy. In addition, the hypercapnia?induced increase in MCA Vmean produced neither changes in the reaction time nor error in the Stroop test during exercise. These findings suggest that the changes in CBF are unlikely to affect cognitive function during prolonged exercise. Thus, we conclude that improved cognitive function may be due to cerebral neural activation associated with exercise rather than global cerebral circulatory condition. PMID:25263210

Ogoh, Shigehiko; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Hirasawa, Ai; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Hirose, Norikazu; Hashimoto, Takeshi

2014-01-01

359

The relationship between risk of hospitalization for schizophrenia, SES, and cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Although most studies find low socioeconomic status (SES) to be associated with prevalence of schizophrenia, incidence studies do not generally support this, and some even report an inverse association. The objective of the current historical prospective study was to examine the relationship between SES, cognitive functioning, and risk of hospitalization for schizophrenia in a population-based sample of Israeli adolescents. Subjects were 811 487 adolescents, assessed by the Israeli military draft board for socio-demographic factors and cognitive functioning. Data on later hospitalization for schizophrenia were obtained from a population-based hospitalization registry. Findings indicated that when simply examining SES and schizophrenia, lower SES was associated with greater risk of hospitalization for schizophrenia (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 1.193, 95% CI = 1.091-1.303). When dividing the cohort into low, average, and high cognitive functioning, SES did not influence the risk for schizophrenia among individuals with high and average cognitive functioning, whereas among individuals with low cognitive functioning, high SES was found to slightly increase the risk for schizophrenia (HR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.03-1.42). One possible explanation for this finding might be that among individuals from low socioeconomic backgrounds, low IQ may reflect decreased opportunities related to SES, whereas among individuals from high SES backgrounds, low IQ might reflect risk for later psychopathology. PMID:21602306

Goldberg, Shira; Fruchter, Eyal; Davidson, Michael; Reichenberg, Abraham; Yoffe, Rinat; Weiser, Mark

2011-07-01

360

Cognitive Function, Habitual Gait Speed, and Late-Life Disability in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Both cognitive function and gait speed are important correlates of disability. However, little is known about the combined effect of cognitive function and gait speed on multiple domains of disability as well as about the role of gait speed in the association between cognitive function and late-life disability. Objective: To investigate (1) how cognition and habitual gait speed are

Hsu-Ko Kuo; Suzanne G. Leveille; Yau-Hua Yu; William P. Milberg

2007-01-01

361

Computer-aided cognitive rehabilitation improves cognitive performances and induces brain functional connectivity changes in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis patients: an exploratory study.  

PubMed

To better understand the effects of short-term computer-based cognitive rehabilitation (cCR) on cognitive performances and default mode network (DMN) intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) in cognitively impaired relapsing remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Eighteen cognitively impaired RRMS patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation by the Rao's brief repeatable battery and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate FC of the DMN before and after a short-term (8 weeks, twice a week) cCR. A control group of 14 cognitively impaired RRMS patients was assigned to an aspecific cognitive training (aCT), and underwent the same study protocol. Correlations between DMN and cognitive performances were also tested. After cCR, there was a significant improvement of the following tests: SDMT (p < 0.01), PASAT 3? (p < 0.00), PASAT 2? (p < 0.03), SRT-D (p < 0.02), and 10/36 SPART-D (p < 0.04); as well as a significant increase of the FC of the DMN in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and bilateral inferior parietal cortex (IPC). After cCR, a significant negative correlation between Stroop Color-Word Interference Test and FC in the PCC emerged. After aCT, the control group did not show any significant effect either on FC or neuropsychological tests. No significant differences were found in brain volumes and lesion load in both groups when comparing data acquired at baseline and after cCR or aCT. In cognitively impaired RRMS patients, cCR improves cognitive performances (i.e., processing speed and visual and verbal sustained memory), and increases FC in the PCC and IPC of the DMN. This exploratory study suggests that cCR may induce adaptive cortical reorganization favoring better cognitive performances, thus strengthening the value of cognitive exercise in the general perspective of building either cognitive or brain reserve. PMID:25308631

Bonavita, S; Sacco, R; Della Corte, M; Esposito, S; Sparaco, M; d'Ambrosio, A; Docimo, R; Bisecco, A; Lavorgna, L; Corbo, D; Cirillo, S; Gallo, A; Esposito, F; Tedeschi, G

2015-01-01

362

Relationship between mastication and cognitive function in elderly in L’Aquila  

PubMed Central

Patients with cognitive deficit have poor oral health and fewer teeth than cognitive normal elderly. The aim of the study was to investigate potential differences in masticatory function between elderly with dementia and those with normal cognitive function. Fifty-five patients (age >61; 82.05 ± 3.53) were enrolled in the study. Twenty-five subjects cognitively normal (10 females/15 males; 81.04 ± 4.89 years), were randomly selected and were assigned to Control Group. Thirty subjects (15 females/15 males; 83.16 ± 6.017 with cognitive impairments were randomly selected from hospitalized patients (Medically Assisted Residences RSA) and were assigned to Test Group. MMSE test, B-ADL and number of teeth were evaluated for each subject. The number of teeth in relation to levels of schooling is not resulted significative. In the cognitively impaired group 26 subjects had fewer than 20 teeth (86.6%); in the cognitively normal group 9 subjects had fewer than 20 teeth (36%). The correlation between number of teeth and age in both groups is significative (p<0.05). There is also a significative correlation between subjects with renal diseases and type II diabetes and number of teeth (p<0.05). Finally a significative correlation is present between number of teeth and sex of the patients (p<0.05) (Table 1). The results of the Wilcoxon’s test revealed a significative correlation between MMSE in the two groups (p<0.01). There is also a significative correlation between the two groups and the educational background (p<0.01). The results of the study shows a clear correlation between tooth loss and cognitive function in elderly of L’Aquila. PMID:24955179

Mummolo, Stefano; Ortu, Eleonora; Necozione, Stefano; Monaco, Annalisa; Marzo, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

363

Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to improve cognitive dysfunction and functional ability in clinical depression--a systematic review.  

PubMed

Cognitive dysfunction is of clinical significance and exerts longstanding implication on patients? function. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of cognitive dysfunction are emerging. This review evaluates pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of cognitive impairment primarily in the domains of memory, attention, processing speed and executive function in clinical depression. A total of 35 studies were retrieved from Pubmed, PsycInfo and Scopus after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results show that various classes of antidepressants exert improving effects on cognitive function across several cognitive domains. Specifically, studies suggest that SSRIs, the SSRE tianeptine, the SNRI duloxetine, vortioxetine and other antidepressants such as bupropion and moclobemide may exert certain improving effects on cognitive function in depression, such as in learning and memory and executive function. Class-specific cognitive domains or specific dose-response relationships were not identified yet. The few non-pharmacological studies conducted employing cognitive orientated treatments and cognitive remediation therapy show promising results for the improvement of cognitive impairment in depression. However, several methodological constraints of studies limit generalizability of the results and caution the interpretation. Future direction should consider the development of a neuropsychological consensus cognitive battery to support the discovery, clinical assessment, comparison of studies and registration of new agents in clinical depression. PMID:24863864

Baune, Bernhard T; Renger, Lisa

2014-09-30

364

Physical exercise improves peripheral BDNF levels and cognitive functions in mild cognitive impairment elderly with different bdnf Val66Met genotypes.  

PubMed

The benefits of physical exercise on improvements in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and cognitive functioning have been reported in the literature. However, the variability of individual responses may be linked to genetic differences. BDNF is considered one of the most plausible factors involved in the cognitive benefits associated with physical activity practice. A single nucleotide polymorphism localized in the gene that codes BDNF results in a missense mutation that promotes an amino acid substitution (Val66Met) in the protein. This process has been associated with decreased levels of BDNF secretion, with corresponding impairments in specific cognitive functions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a multimodal physical exercise program on peripheral BDNF levels and cognitive functions in elderly individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The participants were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. Cognitive functions were assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) prior to and after the intervention. Forty-five participants were assigned to the control and trained groups. The trained group participated in a multimodal physical training for a 16-week period. The results showed a significant between-subjects interaction (p < 0.05), which indicates the beneficial contribution of training on cognitive functions independent of the BDNF genotype. However, only participants with BDNF-Met genotypes exhibited significant improvements in peripheral BDNF levels. The BDNF genotype appears to modulate the effects of physical exercise on BDNF secretion, but it does not influence cognition. This is the first study that evaluated the influence of a BDNF polymorphism on physical activity and cognition performance in elderly MCI individuals. PMID:25062900

Nascimento, Carla Manuela Crispim; Pereira, Jessica Rodrigues; Pires de Andrade, Larissa; Garuffi, Marcelo; Ayan, Carlos; Kerr, Daniel Shikanai; Talib, Leda Leme; Cominetti, Márcia Regina; Stella, Florindo

2015-01-01

365

Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome: Can We Differentiate Their Cognitive Profiles?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS) can be differentiated from each other and from typically developing children on their cognitive profiles. The present study included a total of 45 participants: children with autism (high-functioning autism or Asperger's…

Planche, Pascale; Lemonnier, Eric

2012-01-01

366

Intimacy Is a Transdiagnostic Problem for Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Functional Analytical Psychotherapy Is a Solution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problems with intimacy and interpersonal issues are exhibited across most psychiatric disorders. However, most of the targets in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy are primarily intrapersonal in nature, with few directly involved in interpersonal functioning and effective intimacy. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) provides a behavioral basis for…

Wetterneck, Chad T.; Hart, John M.

2012-01-01

367

Cognitive Deficits in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder on Tests of Frontal–Striatal Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have implicated the frontal cortex and subcortical structures in the pathophysiology of the disorder, few studies have examined cognitive function in patients with OCD on tasks validated in the assessment of frontal lobe and subcortical dysfunction.Methods: The accuracy and latency of executive and visual memory function was assessed in 23

Rosemary Purcell; Paul Maruff; Michael Kyrios; Christos Pantelis

1998-01-01

368

Optimizing Functional Accuracy of TMS in Cognitive Studies: A Comparison of Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a tool for inducing transient disruptions of neural activity noninvasively in conscious human volunteers. In recent years, the investigative domain of TMS has expanded and now encompasses causal structure–function relationships across the whole gamut of cognitive functions and associated cortical brain regions. Consequently, the importance of how to determine the target stimulation site has increased

Alexander T. Sack; Roi Cohen Kadosh; Teresa Schuhmann; Michelle Moerel; Vincent Walsh; Rainer Goebel

2008-01-01

369

Psychosocial functioning in patients with treatment-resistant depression after group cognitive behavioral therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although patients with Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD) often have impaired social functioning, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of psychosocial treatment for these patients. We examined whether adding group cognitive behavioral therapy (group-CBT) to medication would improve both the depressive symptoms and the social functioning of patient with mild TRD, and whether any improvements would be maintained over one

Miki Matsunaga; Yasumasa Okamoto; Shin-ichi Suzuki; Akiko Kinoshita; Shinpei Yoshimura; Atsuo Yoshino; Yoshihiko Kunisato; Shigeto Yamawaki

2010-01-01

370

Higher Education Is an Age-Independent Predictor of White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Control in Late Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is…

Noble, Kimberly G.; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S.; Grieve, Stuart M.; Brickman, Adam M.

2013-01-01

371

Functional Programming with Overloading and Higher-Order Polymorphism  

E-print Network

include swapping a pair of values, choosing the minimum of two values, sorting an array of values, etc with polymor- phic arguments that can be used at different instances in the body of the function. These notes

Jones, Mark P

372

Functional Programming with Overloading and HigherOrder Polymorphism  

E-print Network

include swapping a pair of values, choosing the minimum of two values, sorting an array of values, etc or definition of functions with polymor­ phic arguments that can be used at different instances in the body

Jones, Mark P

373

The Costs and Benefits of Self-monitoring for Higher Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism.  

PubMed

The ability to regulate behaviors and emotions depends in part on the ability to flexibly monitor one's own progress toward a goal. Atypical patterns of response monitoring have been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the current study we examined the error related negativity (ERN), an electrophysiological index of response monitoring, in relation to behavioral, social cognitive, and emotional presentation in higher functioning children (8-16 years) diagnosed with autism (HFA: N = 38) and an age- and IQ-matched sample of children without autism (COM: N = 36). Both HFA and COM participants displayed larger amplitude responses to error compared to correct response trials and these amplitudes did not differ by diagnostic group. For participants with HFA, larger ERN amplitudes were associated with more parent-reported autistic symptoms and more self-reported internalizing problems. However, across the full sample, larger ERN amplitudes were associated with better performance on theory of mind tasks. The results are discussed in terms of the utility of electrophysiological measures for understanding essential moderating processes that contribute to the spectrum of behavioral expression in the development of ASD. PMID:24682651

Henderson, Heather A; Ono, Kim E; McMahon, Camilla M; Schwartz, Caley B; Usher, Lauren V; Mundy, Peter C

2015-02-01

374

Preventing Depressive Relapse and Recurrence in Higher Risk Cognitive Therapy Responders: A Randomized Trial of Continuation Phase Cognitive Therapy, Fluoxetine, or Matched Pill Placebo  

PubMed Central

Context Strategies to improve the course of recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) have great public health relevance. To reduce the risk of relapse/recurrence after acute phase Cognitive Therapy (CT), a continuation phase model of therapy (C-CT) may improve outcomes. Objectives To test the efficacy of C-CT and fluoxetine (FLX) for relapse prevention in a placebo (PBO) controlled randomized trial and compare the durability of prophylaxis after discontinuation of treatments. Design A sequential, three stage design with: acute phase (all patients received 12 weeks of CT), 8 month experimental phase (responders at higher risk were randomized to C-CT, FLX, or PBO), and 24 months of longitudinal, post-treatment follow-up. Setting Two university-based specialty clinics. Patients 523 adults with recurrent MDD began acute phase CT, of which 241 “higher risk” responders were randomized and 181 subsequently entered the follow-up. Interventions CT responders at higher risk for relapse were randomized to receive 8 months of C-CT (n = 86), FLX (n = 86) or PBO (n = 69). Main Outcome Measures Survival analyses of relapse/recurrence rates, as determined by “blinded” evaluators using DSM-IV criteria and the LIFE interview. Results As predicted, the C-CT or FLX groups were significantly less likely to relapse than the PBO group across 8 months. Relapse/recurrence rates for C-CT and FLX were nearly identical during the 8 months of treatment, although C-CT patients were more likely to accept randomization, stayed in treatment longer, and attended more sessions than those in FLX/PBO. Contrary to prediction, relapse/recurrence rates following the discontinuation of C-CT and FLX did not differ. Conclusions Relapse risk was reduced by both C-CT and FLX in an “enriched” randomization sampling only CT responders. The preventive effects of C-CT were not significantly more ‘durable’ than those of FLX after treatment was stopped, suggesting that some higher risk patients may require alternate longer-term interventions. PMID:24005123

Jarrett, Robin B.; Minhajuddin, Abu; Gershenfeld, Howard; Friedman, Edward S.; Thase, Michael E.

2014-01-01

375

Theory of Mind and Emotional Functioning in Fibromyalgia Syndrome: An Investigation of the Relationship between Social Cognition and Executive Function  

PubMed Central

Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a syndrome primarily characterised by chronic, widespread musculoskeletal pain. In the aetiology of this syndrome a crucial role is played by complex interactions among biological, genetic, psychological, and socio-cultural factors. Recently, researchers have started to explore emotional functioning in FM, with their attention focused on alexithymia, a personality construct that affects the regulation of a person’s own emotions. On the other hand, the detection and experience of emotional signals from other people have only been sparsely investigated in FM syndrome and no studies have investigated the ability to represent other people’s mental states (i.e. Theory of Mind, ToM) in these patients. Here we present the first study investigating a large set of social-cognitive abilities, and the possible relationships between these abilities and the performance on executive-function tasks, in a homogenous sample of patients with FM. Methodology Forty women with FM and forty-one healthy women matched for education and age were involved in the study. Social cognition was assessed with a set of validated experimental tasks. Measures of executive function were used to test the correlations between this dimension and the social-cognitive profile of patients with FM. Relationships between social-cognitive abilities and demographic, clinical and psychological variables were also investigated. Principal Findings Patients with FM have impairments both in the regulation of their own affect and in the recognition of other’s emotions, as well as in representing other people’s mental states. No significant correlations were found between social cognition tasks and the subcomponents of the executive function that were analysed. Conclusions The results show the presence of several impairments in social cognition skills in patients with FM, which are largely independent of both executive function deficits and symptoms of psychological distress. The impairments reported highlight the importance of adequately assessing ToM and emotional functioning in clinical practice. PMID:25594169

Di Tella, Marialaura; Castelli, Lorys; Colonna, Fabrizio; Fusaro, Enrico; Torta, Riccardo; Ardito, Rita B.; Adenzato, Mauro

2015-01-01

376

A meta-analysis of cognitive functions in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder.  

PubMed

The cumulative prevalence rates of major depressive disorders (MDD) in children and adolescents averages 9.5 %. The majority of adults with MDD suffer from significant cognitive deficits, but the available neuropsychological data on the cognitive performance of children and adolescents with MDD yielded mixed results. Meta-analytic methods were used to assess the severity of cognitive deficits in children and adolescents with MDD as compared to healthy children and adolescents. We identified 17 studies comparing the intelligence, executive functions, verbal memory and attention of 447 patients with DSM-IV MDD and 1,347 healthy children and adolescents. Children and adolescents with MDD performed 0.194-0.772 (p < 0.001) standard mean differences worse than healthy control subjects in neuropsychological test procedures. The most pronounced deficits of children and adolescents with MDD were seen in inhibition capacity (STD = 0.772; p = 0.002), phonemic verbal fluency (STD = 0.756; p = 0.0001), sustained attention (STD = 0.522; p = 0.000), verbal memory (STD = 0.516; p = 0.0009) and planning (STD = 0.513; p = 0.014). We revealed cognitive deficits of children and adolescents with MDD in various cognitive domains. Long-term studies should investigate how the cognitive deficits of depressed youth affect their academic and social functioning, and whether age, comorbidity and depression severity play a role in this process. PMID:24869711

Wagner, Stefanie; Müller, Carmen; Helmreich, Isabella; Huss, Michael; Tadi?, André

2015-01-01

377

Young blood reverses age-related impairments in cognitive function and synaptic plasticity in mice.  

PubMed

As human lifespan increases, a greater fraction of the population is suffering from age-related cognitive impairments, making it important to elucidate a means to combat the effects of aging. Here we report that exposure of an aged animal to young blood can counteract and reverse pre-existing effects of brain aging at the molecular, structural, functional and cognitive level. Genome-wide microarray analysis of heterochronic parabionts--in which circulatory systems of young and aged animals are connected--identified synaptic plasticity-related transcriptional changes in the hippocampus of aged mice. Dendritic spine density of mature neurons increased and synaptic plasticity improved in the hippocampus of aged heterochronic parabionts. At the cognitive level, systemic administration of young blood plasma into aged mice improved age-related cognitive impairments in both contextual fear conditioning and spatial learning and memory. Structural and cognitive enhancements elicited by exposure to young blood are mediated, in part, by activation of the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (Creb) in the aged hippocampus. Our data indicate that exposure of aged mice to young blood late in life is capable of rejuvenating synaptic plasticity and improving cognitive function. PMID:24793238

Villeda, Saul A; Plambeck, Kristopher E; Middeldorp, Jinte; Castellano, Joseph M; Mosher, Kira I; Luo, Jian; Smith, Lucas K; Bieri, Gregor; Lin, Karin; Berdnik, Daniela; Wabl, Rafael; Udeochu, Joe; Wheatley, Elizabeth G; Zou, Bende; Simmons, Danielle A; Xie, Xinmin S; Longo, Frank M; Wyss-Coray, Tony

2014-06-01

378

Perceived Cognitive Impairment among African American elders: health and functional impairments in daily life  

PubMed Central

Objectives The Center for Disease Control began to assess Perceived Cognitive Impairment in 2009, yet there has been no in-depth study of how perceived decline in thinking or memory skills may be associated to the health and lifestyle of an independent community-dwelling older person. Among urban-dwelling older African Americans who are at elevated risk for cognitive impairment and dementia, we know even less regarding the interaction of these risk factors. Method Five hundred and one African American elders (n = 501) between the ages of 55 and 95 with an average age of 70.73 years (SD = 8.6 years) participated in telephone interviews. Results Approximately one-third of the elders reported that their memory, thinking skills, or ability to reason was worse than a year ago (n = 150; 29.9%) and 25% of this group (n = 38) reported that this Perceived Cognitive Impairment impacted their daily activities and/or warranted a consultation with their doctor. Bivariate analyses indicated that Perceived Cognitive Impairment was associated with increased health problems, mobility limitations, depressed mood, and lower social functioning. Conclusion Elders who reported that cognitive problems impacted their daily functioning reported the greatest health and mental health problems. Perceived Cognitive Impairment is an important health variable with implications for an older adult’s overall health, mobility, and mental health. PMID:24328435

Ficker, Lisa J.; Lysack, Cathy L.; Hanna, Mena; Lichtenberg, Peter A.

2014-01-01

379

Blood pressure and cognitive function: a prospective analysis among adolescents in the Seychelles  

PubMed Central

Objective An inverse relationship between blood pressure and cognitive function has been found in adults, but limited data are available in adolescents and young adults. We examined the prospective relation between blood pressure and cognitive function in adolescence. Methods We examined the association between BP measured at the ages of 12–15 years in school surveys and cognitive endpoints measured in the Seychelles Child Development Study at ages 17 (n=407) and 19 (n=429) years, respectively. We evaluated multiple domains of cognition based on subtests of the Cambridge Neurological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), the Woodcock Johnson Test of Scholastic Achievement (WJTA), the Finger Tapping test (FT) and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT). We used age-, sex- and height-specific z-scores of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Results Six out of the 21 cognitive endpoints tested were associated with BP. However, none of these associations were found to hold for both males and females or for different subtests within the same neurodevelopmental domain or for both SBP and DBP. Most of these associations disappeared when analyses were adjusted for selected potential confounding factors such as socio-economic status, birth weight, gestational age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, blood glucose, and total n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fats. Conclusions Our findings do not support a consistent association between BP and subsequent performance on tests assessing various cognitive domains in adolescents. PMID:23572201

Lyngdoh, Tanica; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Kobrosly, Roni; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Huber, Brittany; Davidson, Philip W.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Strain, JJ; Myers, Gary J.; Bovet, Pascal

2013-01-01

380

Functional Connectivity in Brain Networks Underlying Cognitive Control in Chronic Cannabis Users  

PubMed Central

The long-term effect of regular cannabis use on brain function underlying cognitive control remains equivocal. Cognitive control abilities are thought to have a major role in everyday functioning, and their dysfunction has been implicated in the maintenance of maladaptive drug-taking patterns. In this study, the Multi-Source Interference Task was employed alongside functional magnetic resonance imaging and psychophysiological interaction methods to investigate functional interactions between brain regions underlying cognitive control. Current cannabis users with a history of greater than 10 years of daily or near-daily cannabis smoking (n=21) were compared with age, gender, and IQ-matched non-using controls (n=21). No differences in behavioral performance or magnitude of task-related brain activations were evident between the groups. However, greater connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and the occipitoparietal cortex was evident in cannabis users, as compared with controls, as cognitive control demands increased. The magnitude of this connectivity was positively associated with age of onset and lifetime exposure to cannabis. These findings suggest that brain regions responsible for coordinating behavioral control have an increased influence on the direction and switching of attention in cannabis users, and that these changes may have a compensatory role in mitigating cannabis-related impairments in cognitive control or perceptual processes. PMID:22534625

Harding, Ian H; Solowij, Nadia; Harrison, Ben J; Takagi, Michael; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Lubman, Dan I; Seal, Marc L; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat

2012-01-01

381

Assessing cognition and function in Alzheimer's disease clinical trials: Do we have the right tools?  

PubMed

Several lines of evidence from Alzheimer's disease (AD) research continue to support the notion that the biological changes associated with AD are occurring possibly several decades before an individual will experience the cognitive and functional changes associated with the disease. The National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association revised criteria for AD provided a framework for this new thinking. As a result of this growing understanding, several research efforts have launched or will be launching large secondary prevention trials in AD. These and other efforts have clearly demonstrated a need for better measures of cognitive and functional change in people with the earliest changes associated with AD. Recent draft guidance from the US Food and Drug Administration further elevated the importance of cognitive and functional assessments in early stage clinical trials by proposing that even in the pre-symptomatic stages of the disease, approval will be contingent on demonstrating clinical meaningfulness. The Alzheimer's Association's Research Roundtable addressed these issues at its fall meeting October 28-29, 2013, in Washington, D.C. The focus of the discussion included the need for improved cognitive and functional outcome measures for clinical of participants with preclinical AD and those diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment due to AD. PMID:25458309

Snyder, Peter J; Kahle-Wrobleski, Kristin; Brannan, Stephen; Miller, David S; Schindler, Rachel J; DeSanti, Susan; Ryan, J Michael; Morrison, Glenn; Grundman, Michael; Chandler, Julie; Caselli, Richard J; Isaac, Maria; Bain, Lisa; Carrillo, Maria C

2014-11-01

382

Extension of MINOTAUR to higher-order spatial functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

MINOTAUR, a generalized multidimensional geometry discrete ordinates kernel that can be used to calculate the particle flow through a complicated geometrical arrangement of materials, has been extended to use higher-order within-node spatial flux expansions. MINOTAUR is an improved version of the CENTAUR code, which was developed at the Savannah River Site by DeHart, Pevey, and Parish for flat intranode flux

Pevey

1999-01-01

383

[Cognitive functions and treatment of their impairment in elderly patients with the vertebrobasilar issufficiensy].  

PubMed

Authors studied impairment of cognitive functions in 180 patients, aged 56-74 years, with chronic blood flow deficiency in the vertebrobasilar territory. Along with neurological examination, we used MRI of the brain and the cervical spine, MRI-angiography, ultrasound Doppler method, EEG, ECG, clinical and biochemical blood testing. Cognitive functions were assessed using standard neuropsychological tests (a word retrieval test, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Frontal Assessment battery, the Schulte test, the Landolt test, Wechsler tests, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and others). Neuropsychological performance was assessed before and after treatment with cavinton (25 mg intravenous during 10 days and then 10 mg 3 times daily during 3 months). The treatment improved cognitive function and the effect remained for more than 3 months. PMID:23739435

Skoromets, A A; Aliev, K T; Lalayan, T V; Pugachova, E L; Smolko, D G

2013-01-01

384

Longitudinal change in cognitive function and medication adherence in HIV-infected adults.  

PubMed

Neuropsychological (NP) dysfunction has been linked to poor medication adherence among HIV-infected adults. However, there is a dearth of research examining longitudinal changes in the relationship between NP status and adherence rates. We hypothesized that declines in NP functioning would be associated with a corresponding decline in medication adherence while stable NP functioning would be associated with stable or improving adherence rates. Participants included 215 HIV-infected adults who underwent cognitive testing at study entry and six months later. Compared to the NP stable group, the NP decline group showed a greater drop in adherence rates. Further analysis revealed that, beyond global NP, learning and memory was significantly associated with changes in adherence rates. These findings further support the link between cognitive functioning and medication adherence and illustrates the importance of documenting changes in cognitive abilities for identifying individuals at risk for poor adherence. PMID:21437726

Becker, Brian W; Thames, April D; Woo, Ellen; Castellon, Steven A; Hinkin, Charles H

2011-11-01

385

Study of cognitive functions in newly diagnosed cases of subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Hypothyroidism is associated with significant neurocognitive deficits because hypothyroidism prevents the brain from adequately sustaining the energy consuming processes needed for neurotransmission, memory, and other higher brain functions. Hence, the study was done to assess the cognitive functions of newly diagnosed subclinical and clinical hypothyroid patients by evoked response potential P300. Materials and Methods: 75 patients each of newly diagnosed subclinical and clinical hypothyroid patients attending endocrinology clinic and 75 healthy age and sex matched euthyroid controls were considered for the study. P300 was recorded with Record Medicare System Polyrite, Chandigarh using auditory “oddball paradigm”. The data was analyzed using ANOVA followed by post Tukey's test. Results: Newly diagnosed clinical hypothyroid patients showed a significant increase in P300 latency compared to control (P < 0.05) and subclinical cases (P < 0.01) while there was no significant difference between the P300 latency of subclinical cases and control group. Also, there was no significant difference in P300 amplitude among the three groups. Conclusion: P300 latency in case of newly diagnosed hypothyroid clinical cases is significantly increased compared to newly diagnosed subclinical cases and control. PMID:24678200

Sharma, Kirti; Behera, Joshil Kumar; Sood, Sushma; Rajput, Rajesh; Satpal; Praveen, Prashant

2014-01-01

386

Extension of MINOTAUR to higher-order spatial functions  

SciTech Connect

MINOTAUR, a generalized multidimensional geometry discrete ordinates kernel that can be used to calculate the particle flow through a complicated geometrical arrangement of materials, has been extended to use higher-order within-node spatial flux expansions. MINOTAUR is an improved version of the CENTAUR code, which was developed at the Savannah River Site by DeHart, Pevey, and Parish for flat intranode flux distributions. CENTAUR was later extended to linear spatial flux shapes by Grove and Pevey. Both of these codes were limited to two-dimensional generalized geometries, for which the regions are bounded by arbitrarily oriented line segments.

Pevey, R.E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1999-09-01

387

Effect of Integrated Cognitive Therapy on Hippocampal Functional Connectivity Patterns in Stroke Patients with Cognitive Dysfunction: A Resting-State fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. This study aimed to identify abnormal hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) following ischemic stroke using resting-state fMRI. We also explored whether abnormal hippocampal FC could be modulated by integrated cognitive therapy and tested whether these alterations were associated with cognitive performance. Methods. 18 right-handed cognitively impaired ischemic stroke patients and 18 healty control (HC) subjects were included in this study. Stroke subjects were scanned at baseline and after integrated cognitive therapy, while HCs were only scanned at baseline, to identify regions that show significant correlations with the seed region. Behavioral and cognitive assessments were obtained before each scan. Results. During the resting state, we found abnormal hippocampal FC associated with temporal regions, insular cortex, cerebellum, and prefrontal cortex in stroke patients compared to HCs. After integrated cognitive therapy, however, the stroke group showed increased hippocampal FC mainly located in the prefrontal gyrus and the default mode network (DMN). Altered hippocampal FC was associated with cognitive improvement. Conclusion. Resting-state fMRI may provide novel insight into the study of functional networks in the brain after stroke. Furthermore, altered hippocampal FC may be a compensatory mechanism for cognitive recovery after ischemic stroke. PMID:25548595

Yang, Shanli; Jiang, Cai; Ye, Haicheng; Tao, Jing; Huang, Jia; Gao, Yanling; Lin, Zhicheng; Chen, Lidian

2014-01-01

388

Detection of Impaired Cognitive Function in Rat with Hepatosteatosis Model and Improving Effect of GLP-1 Analogs (Exenatide) on Cognitive Function in Hepatosteatosis  

PubMed Central

The aims of the study were to evaluate (1) detection of cognitive function changing in rat with hepatosteatosis model and (2) evaluate the effect of GLP-1 analog (exenatide) on cognitive function in hepatosteatosis. In the study group, 30% fructose was given in nutrition water to perform hepatosteatosis for 8 weeks to 18 male rats. Six male rats were chosen as control group and had normal nutrition. Fructose nutrition group were stratified into 3 groups. In first group (n = 6), intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of exenatide (n = 6) was given. ICV infusion of NaCl (n = 6) was given to second group. And also, the third group had no treatment. And also, rats were evaluated for passive avoidance learning (PAL) and liver histopathology. Mean levels of latency time were statistically significantly decreased in rats with hepatosteatosis than those of normal rats (P < 0.00001). However, mean level of latency time in rats with hepatosteatosis treated with ICV exenatide was statistically significantly increased than that of rats treated with ICV NaCl (P < 0.001). Memory performance falls off in rats with hepatosteatosis feeding on fructose (decreased latency time). However, GLP-1 ameliorates cognitive functions (increased latency time) in rats with hepatosteatosis and releated metabolic syndrome. PMID:24741367

Erba?, Oytun; Sarac, Fulden; Aktu?, Hüseyin; Peker, Gönül

2014-01-01

389

Improvement in social-interpersonal functioning after cognitive therapy for recurrent depression  

PubMed Central

Background. Cognitive therapy reduces depressive symptoms of major depressive disorder, but little is known about concomitant reduction in social-interpersonal dysfunction. Method. We evaluated social-interpersonal functioning (self-reported social adjustment, interpersonal problems and dyadic adjustment) and depressive symptoms (two self-report and two clinician scales) in adult outpatients (n=156) with recurrent major depressive disorder at several points during a 20-session course of acute phase cognitive therapy. Consenting acute phase responders (n=84) entered a 2-year follow-up phase, which included an 8-month experimental trial comparing continuation phase cognitive therapy to assessment-only control. Results. Social-interpersonal functioning improved after acute phase cognitive therapy (dyadic adjustment d=0.47; interpersonal problems d=0.91; social adjustment d=1.19), but less so than depressive symptoms (d=1.55). Improvement in depressive symptoms and social-interpersonal functioning were moderately to highly correlated (r=0.39–0.72). Improvement in depressive symptoms was partly independent of social-interpersonal functioning (r=0.55–0.81), but improvement in social-interpersonal functioning independent of change in depressive symptoms was not significant (r=0.01–0.06). In acute phase responders, continuation phase therapy did not further enhance social-interpersonal functioning, but improvements in social-interpersonal functioning were maintained through the follow-up. Conclusions. Social-interpersonal functioning is improved after acute phase cognitive therapy and maintained in responders over 2 years. Improvement in social-interpersonal functioning is largely accounted for by decreases in depressive symptoms. PMID:15099419

VITTENGL, J. R.; CLARK, L. A.; JARRETT, R. B.

2005-01-01

390

Neuropsychology in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Influences from Cognitive Neuroscience and Functional Neuroimaging  

PubMed Central

Neuropsychologists assist in diagnosis (i.e., localization of dysfunction) and in prediction (i.e., how cognition may change following surgery) in individuals being considered for temporal lobe surgery. The current practice includes behavioural testing as well as mapping function via stimulation, inactivation, and (more recently) functional imaging. These methods have been providing valuable information in surgical planning for 60 years. Here, we discuss current assessment strategies and highlight how they are evolving, particularly with respect to integrating recent advances in cognitive neuroscience. PMID:22957249

McAndrews, Mary Pat; Cohn, Melanie

2012-01-01

391

Cognitive control network function in alcohol use disorder before and during treatment with Lorazepam.  

PubMed

Individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have deficits in cognitive control, but how they change with treatment is unclear. Seven patients with AUD and anxiety from an open-label trial of disulfiram plus lorazepam performed a multisensory Stroop task during fMRI (both pre and post initiation of treatment), and were compared to nine healthy controls (HCs) (n = 16; Albuquerque, NM; years 2009-2012). Evoked BOLD signal and resting state functional connectivity were compared (HC vs. AUD; Scan 1 vs. Scan 2). AUD demonstrated hyperactivity and altered connectivity in the cognitive control network compared to HC, but treatment did not normalize function. PMID:25290463

Wilcox, Claire E; Mayer, Andrew R; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Ling, Josef; Dekonenko, Charlene; Cumbo, Heather

2015-01-01

392

Acute alcohol effects on cognitive function in social drinkers: their relationship to drinking habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Rationale. Several studies suggest that cognitive deficits seen in late stages of alcoholism are related to executive function. However,\\u000a little is known about the acute effects of alcohol on cognitive executive functions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims. The present investigation examined the acute effects of a moderate alcohol dose on tests of planning and spatial working\\u000a memory as well as on tests of

Ruth Weissenborn; Theodora Duka

2003-01-01

393

The emotional fundamentals of personality and the higher affective polarities of mind. Comment on "Personality from a cognitive-biological perspective" by Y. Neuman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In brain-based personality theory, two things seem certain: i) the evolved functional organization of our subcortical affective mind, and ii) the diverse potentials for developmental programming of our high cognitive minds (i.e., our initially empty - tabula rasa like - neocortical spaces are largely developmentally programed to manifest higher mental abilities). In considering these two global aspects of brain-mind functions, we can be confident that primal subcortical functions (e.g., the capacity for raw emotions/affects, evident in all vertebrate species) evolved. Indeed, ancient creatures such as lamprey eels, with whom we shared ancestry 560 million years ago, still posses most neural systems that are homologous to those that constitute our own primal affective capacities [1]. Considering that primal emotional affects arise from such systems, there appears to be some remarkable continuity in our primal mental origins. The neural foundations of human emotional feelings, long neglected by academic psychology (for lack of empirical accessibility), may contain the rudimentary neuro-affective substrates of personality [2].

Panksepp, Jaak; Davis, Ken

2014-12-01

394

Long Term Effects of Conjugated Equine Estrogens Therapies on Domain-Specific Cognitive Function: Results from the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging (WHISCA) Extension  

PubMed Central

Objectives Conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) therapies when initiated among older women have been shown to produce small decrements in global cognitive function. We are interested whether these persist after cessation and extend to specific cognitive domains. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial Setting Fourteen clinical centers of the Women's Health Initiative Participants 2,304 women aged 65-80 years and free of probable dementia at enrollment Intervention 0.625 mg/day of CEE, with or without medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 10 mg/day), and matching placebos Measurements Annual administrations of a battery of cognitive tests during and following the trial Methods General linear models were used to compare on-trial and post-trial mean standardized test scores between treatment groups, with adjustment for baseline risk factors for cognitive impairment. Results Assignment to CEE-based therapies was associated with small mean relative decrements in global and several domain-specific cognitive functions on-trial, which largely persisted through up to 4 years post-trial. The strongest statistical evidence was for global cognitive function: 0.07 standard deviation decrements both on-trial (p=0.007) and post-trial (p=0.01). Among domain specific scores, the mean relative decrements were slightly smaller, were less significant, and tended to be larger for CEE-alone therapy. Conclusions CEE-based therapies, when initiated after age 65 years, produce a small broad-based decrement in cognitive function that persists after their use is stopped. The differences in cognitive function however are small and would not be detectable or have clinical significance for an individual woman. Differences in effects among cognitive domains suggest that more than one mechanism may be involved. PMID:20649689

Espeland, Mark A.; Brunner, Robert L.; Hogan, Patricia A.; Rapp, Stephen R.; Coker, Laura H.; Legault, Claudine; Granek, Iris; Resnick, Susan M.

2010-01-01

395

Relative contributions of the cerebellar vermis and prefrontal lobe volumes on cognitive function across the adult lifespan.  

PubMed

Recent research has revealed significant relationships between the vermian regions of the cerebellum and cognitive functions typically associated with prefrontal lobe function. These relationships are believed to be supported by anatomical connections between the distant brain regions. Recent evidence also suggests that age-related reductions in the posterior vermis are associated with age-related decline in frontal lobe cognitive functions, but these studies did not consider concomitant age-related atrophy of the prefrontal lobes. In the present study we addressed this issue by examining cognitive and structural MRI data obtained from 251 adults ranging in age from 18 to 79. Cognition was examined with a computerized cognitive battery and volumes of the cerebellar vermian regions and the prefrontal lobes were determined using quantitative morphometry. Results of the study revealed that both prefrontal and vermian volumes were smaller in older adults compared to younger adults, and both volumes correlated with cognitive performances in the older individuals. However, after controlling for prefrontal volume, the relationships between cognitive function and vermian volumes were eliminated, whereas prefrontal lobe volume remained significantly related to cognitive function after controlling for vermian volumes. These results suggest that while a reduction in cerebellar vermian volume does not significantly relate to normal age-related cognitive decline, prefrontal volume is significantly related to cognitive aging. Our results are consistent with the frontal aging hypothesis. PMID:17869383

Paul, Robert; Grieve, Stuart M; Chaudary, Bilal; Gordon, Norman; Lawrence, Jeffrey; Cooper, Nicholas; Clark, C Richard; Kukla, Matthew; Mulligan, Richard; Gordon, Evian

2009-03-01

396

Motor and cognitive functional deficits following diffuse traumatic brain injury in the immature rat.  

PubMed

To determine the motor and cognitive deficits following a diffuse severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in immature Sprague Dawley rats (17 days), four groups of animals were injured at different severity levels using a new closed head weight drop model: (sham, severe injury [SI: 100 g/2 m], SH [SI + hypoxemia (30 min of an FiO2 of 8% posttrauma)], and ultra severe injury [US: 150 g/2 m]). Latency on beam balance, grip test performance, and maintenance of body position on an inclined board were measured daily after injury to assess vestibulomotor function. Cognitive function was assessed on days 11-22 using the Morris water maze (MWM). Balance beam latency and inclined plane body position were reduced in both SI and SH rats (n = 20) (p < 0.05 vs. sham) (maximally at 24 h), and lasted 3-4 day postinjury; however, SH did not differ from SI. In the US group (n = 10), motor deficits were profound at 24 h (p < 0.05 vs. all other groups) and persisted for 10 days. The groups did not differ on grip test. In cognitive performance, there were no differences between sham, SI, and SH. US, however, produced significant cognitive dysfunction (vs. sham, SI, and SH), specifically, greater latencies to find the hidden platform through 22 days. Swim speeds were not significantly different between any of the injury groups and shams. These data indicate that (1) beam balance, inclined plane and MWM techniques are useful for assessing motor and cognitive function after TBI in immature rats; (2) SI produces motor but not cognitive deficits, which was not augmented by transient hypoxia; and (3) US created a marked but reversible motor deficit up to 10 days, and a sustained cognitive dysfunction for up to 22 days after TBI. PMID:9069441

Adelson, P D; Dixon, C E; Robichaud, P; Kochanek, P M

1997-02-01

397

Sleep Problems Associated with Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms as Well as Cognitive Functions in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose It has been shown that sleep problems in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with cognitive impairment and behavioral problems. In fact, most of studies have founded that daytime sleepiness is significantly correlated with cognitive decline in AD. However, a few studies have also shown that nighttime sleep problems are associated with cognitive function and behavioral symptoms in AD. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nighttime sleep on cognition and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in AD. Methods The study population comprised 117 subjects: 63 AD patients and 54 age- and sex-matched non-demented elderly subjects. Detailed cognitive functions and behavioral symptoms were measured using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB) and the Korean version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-K). Sleep characteristics were evaluated using the Korean version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-K). The correlations between PSQI-K and SNSB scores and between PSQI-K and NPI-K scores were analyzed. Results In AD patients, sleep latency was found to be negatively correlated with praxis (p=0.041), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT) immediate recall (p=0.041), and RCFT recognition (p=0.008) after controlling for age and education, while sleep duration and sleep efficiency were positively correlated with praxis (p=0.034 and p=0.025, respectively). Although no significant correlation was found between PSQI-K and NPI-K scores, sleep disturbance and total PSQI-K scores were found to be significantly associated with apathy/indifference in AD. Conclusions Sle