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1

Modeling Field Theory of Higher Cognitive Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chapter discusses a mathematical theory of higher cognitive functions, including concepts, emotions, instincts, understanding, imagination and intuition. Mechanisms of the knowledge instinct are proposed, driving our understanding of the world. Aesthetic emotions and perception of beauty are related to \\

Leonid Perlovsky

2007-01-01

2

Functional Brain Imaging of Nicotinic Effects on Higher Cognitive Processes  

PubMed Central

Significant advances in human functional brain imaging offer new opportunities for direct observation of the effects of nicotine, novel nicotinic agonists and nicotinic antagonists on human cognitive and behavioral performance. Careful research over the last decade has enabled investigators to explore the role of nicotinic systems on the functional neuroanatomy and neural circuitry of cognitive tasks in domains such as selective attention, working memory, episodic memory, cognitive control, and emotional processing. In addition, recent progress in understanding functional connectivity between brain regions utilized during cognitive and emotional processes offers new opportunities for examining drug effects on network-related activity. This review will critically summarize available nicotinic functional brain imaging studies focusing on the specific cognitive domains of attention, memory, behavioral control, and emotional processing. Generally speaking, nicotine appears to increase task-related activity in non-smokers and deprived smokers, but not active smokers. By contrast, nicotine or nicotinic stimulation decreases the activity of structures associated with the default mode network. These particular patterns of activation and/or deactivation may be useful for early drug development and may be an efficient and cost-effective method of screening potential nicotinic agents. Further studies will have to be done to clarify whether such activity changes correlate with cognitive or affective outcomes that are clinically relevant. The use of functional brain imaging will be a key tool for probing pathologic changes related to brain illness and for nicotinic drug development. PMID:21684262

Newhouse, Paul A.; Potter, Alexandra S.; Dumas, Julie A.; Thiel, Christiane M.

2011-01-01

3

Sex Differences in Cognitive Domains and Their Clinical Correlates in Higher-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the skewed sex ratio, few studies have addressed possible cognitive sex differences in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study compared visual attention to detail (ATTD) and selected executive functions (EF) in 35 males and 21 females with higher-functioning ASD and unaffected sibling controls. Females with ASD outperformed males on…

Bolte, Sven; Duketis, Eftichia; Poustka, Fritz; Holtmann, Martin

2011-01-01

4

Sex differences in cognitive domains and their clinical correlates in higher-functioning autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Despite the skewed sex ratio, few studies have addressed possible cognitive sex differences in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study compared visual attention to detail (ATTD) and selected executive functions (EF) in 35 males and 21 females with higher-functioning ASD and unaffected sibling controls. Females with ASD outperformed males on EF as assessed by the Trail Making Test B-A. Males with ASD showed superior performance for ATTD as measured by the Block Design Test (BD) when compared with females. EF difficulties in males were correlated with more stereotypic behaviours and interests on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised or the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. The results indicated clinically meaningful cognitive sex differences in ASD, particularly an association between EF and stereotypic behaviours and interests. ATTD as a potential basis for specific cognitive strengths (e.g. scientific/savant skills) might be more pronounced in males with ASD. PMID:21454389

Bölte, Sven; Duketis, Eftichia; Poustka, Fritz; Holtmann, Martin

2011-07-01

5

Investigating higher-order cognitive functions in temporal lobe epilepsy: cognitive estimation.  

PubMed

Cognitive estimation, an ability to attribute measurements to concrete things, is relevant to adaptive behavior. This study evaluated cognitive estimation in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with the goal of verifying its relationship to temporal lobe damage and age of seizure onset. One hundred and eight patients with drug-resistant TLE and 51 healthy controls were evaluated using the Cognitive Estimation Task (CET), which requires simple and complex estimations providing the Total and Bizarreness scores. Different tests assessed reasoning, attention, executive, visuospatial, and lexical-semantic abilities. Patients with right TLE had earlier age of seizure onset than patients with left TLE and lower education than controls. Compared with controls, both patient groups obtained worse CET Total and Bizarreness scores, but only patients with right TLE were significantly impaired. Patients with seizure onset before age 12 showed worse scores than patients with later seizure onset irrespective of the side of TLE. The CET Total and Bizarreness scores were predicted by age of seizure onset and semantic fluency; the Bizarreness score also related to education, chronological age, and visual attention. Results highlight the complexity of the cognitive pattern associated with TLE. Cognitive estimation deficit primarily reflects early age of seizure onset and semantic difficulties. An involvement of visual mental operations mediated by the right hemisphere may accentuate the deficit, while cognitive reserve may play a protective role. PMID:24012509

Parente, Annalisa; Manfredi, Valentina; Villani, Flavio; Franceschetti, Silvana; Giovagnoli, Anna Rita

2013-11-01

6

Executive Function and Higher-Order Cognition: Assessment in J D Schall, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA  

E-print Network

Executive Function and Higher-Order Cognition: Assessment in Animals J D Schall, Vanderbilt institu- tions with which researchers must be conversant and compliant. Studies of cognition of necessity of the animal to the conditioned stimulus can then be assessed by measur- ing the occurrence or magnitude

Schall, Jeffrey D.

7

Long term effects of recreational SCUBA diving on higher cognitive function.  

PubMed

We investigated long-term effects of SCUBA diving on cognitive function using a battery of neuropsychometric tests: the Simple Reaction Time (REA), Symbol Digit Substitution (SDS), Digit Span Backwards (DSB), and Hand-Eye Coordination tests (EYE). A group (n?=?44) of experienced SCUBA divers with no history of decompression sickness was compared to non-diving control subjects (n?=?37), as well as to professional boxers (n?=?24), who are considered at higher risk of long term neurological damage. The REA was significantly shorter in SCUBA divers compared to the control subjects, and also more stable over the time course of the test. In contrast, the number of digits correctly memorized and reordered (DSB) was significantly lower for SCUBA divers compared to the control group. The results also showed that boxers performed significantly worse than the control group in three out of four tests (REA, DSB, EYE). While it may be concluded that accident-free SCUBA diving may have some long-term adverse effects on short-term memory, there is however, no evidence of general higher cognitive function deficiency. PMID:23902533

Hemelryck, W; Germonpré, P; Papadopoulou, V; Rozloznik, M; Balestra, C

2014-12-01

8

Protective Effects of Higher Cognitive Reserve for Neuropsychological and Daily Functioning Among Individuals Infected with Hepatitis C  

PubMed Central

Higher levels of cognitive reserve (CR) can be protective against the neuropsychological manifestation of neural injury across a variety of clinical disorders. However, the role of CR in the expression of neurocognitive deficits among persons infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is not well understood. Thirty-nine HCV-infected participants were classified as having either high (n=19) or low (n=20) CR based on educational attainment, oral word reading, and IQ scores. A sample of 40 demographically comparable healthy adults (HA) was also included. All participants completed the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB), Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), and Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Adult Version (BRIEF-A). Linear regression analyses, controlling for gender, depression and lifetime substance use disorders, found significant effects of HCV/CR group on verbal fluency, executive functions, and daily functioning T-scores, but not in learning or the BRIEF-A. Pairwise comparisons revealed that the HCV group with low CR performed significantly below the HCV high CR and HA cohorts, who did not differ from one another. Findings indicate that higher levels of CR may be a protective factor in the neurocognitive and real-world manifestation of neural injury commonly associated with HCV infection. PMID:24018902

Sakamoto, Maiko; Woods, Steven Paul; Kolessar, Michael; Kriz, Daniel; Anderson, J. Renee; Olavarria, Hannah; Sasaki, Anna W.; Chang, Michael; Flora, Kenneth D.; Loftis, Jennifer M.; Huckans, Marilyn

2013-01-01

9

Relational Knowledge in Higher Cognitive Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explicit representation of relations plays some role in virtually all higher cognitive processes, but relational knowledge has seldom been investigated systematically. This paper considers how relational knowledge is involved in some tasks that have been important to cognitive development, including transitivity, the balance scale, classification…

Halford, Graeme S.

10

The hierarchical and functional connectivity of higher-order cognitive mechanisms: neurorobotic model to investigate the stability and flexibility of working memory  

PubMed Central

Higher-order cognitive mechanisms (HOCM), such as planning, cognitive branching, switching, etc., are known to be the outcomes of a unique neural organizations and dynamics between various regions of the frontal lobe. Although some recent anatomical and neuroimaging studies have shed light on the architecture underlying the formation of such mechanisms, the neural dynamics and the pathways in and between the frontal lobe to form and/or to tune the stability level of its working memory remain controversial. A model to clarify this aspect is therefore required. In this study, we propose a simple neurocomputational model that suggests the basic concept of how HOCM, including the cognitive branching and switching in particular, may mechanistically emerge from time-based neural interactions. The proposed model is constructed such that its functional and structural hierarchy mimics, to a certain degree, the biological hierarchy that is believed to exist between local regions in the frontal lobe. Thus, the hierarchy is attained not only by the force of the layout architecture of the neural connections but also through distinct types of neurons, each with different time properties. To validate the model, cognitive branching and switching tasks were simulated in a physical humanoid robot driven by the model. Results reveal that separation between the lower and the higher-level neurons in such a model is an essential factor to form an appropriate working memory to handle cognitive branching and switching. The analyses of the obtained result also illustrates that the breadth of this separation is important to determine the characteristics of the resulting memory, either static memory or dynamic memory. This work can be considered as a joint research between synthetic and empirical studies, which can open an alternative research area for better understanding of brain mechanisms. PMID:23423881

Alnajjar, Fady; Yamashita, Yuichi; Tani, Jun

2013-01-01

11

Meditation in Higher Education: Does It Enhance Cognition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We predicted that students in a sociology course that included contemplative practices (i.e., mindfulness meditation) would show an increase in performance on higher level cognitive abilities (executive functions) over the semester compared to a control group of students. Change in executive functions performance was not significantly different…

Helber, Casey; Zook, Nancy A.; Immergut, Matthew

2012-01-01

12

[Sex hormones and cognitive function].  

PubMed

Endogenous estrogen is considered to be protective against cognitive dysfunction. However, clinical trials examining the efficacy of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women showed rather deteriorating effects of HRT on cognitive function and dementia, resulting in the recommendation of no use of HRT for the prevention of dementia. By contrast, recent advances in androgen research have suggested the effects of androgen on cognitive function in older men with mild cognitive impairment, pending the mechanistic clarification and clinical trials. Also, the protective role of androgen in cognitive and physical function in older women has been highlighted. Recent topics on the relationship between sex hormones and cognitive function were overviewed in this paper. PMID:24796093

Akishita, Masahiro

2014-04-01

13

Cognitive function in subclinical hypothyroidism in elderly  

PubMed Central

Aim: To study the association of cognitive function with subclinical hypothyroidism in elderly. Materials and Methods: It's a cross-sectional, case-control study of 103 patients (?65 years) who met the criteria for subclinical hypothyroidism. Similarly 103 age, sex and education-matched healthy controls were taken. Serum TSH, free T3 and free T4 were measured. Cognitive functions were assessed by using Folstein Mini Mental Examination (MMSE) and clock drawing test. Results: Out of the 103 diagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism cases, cognitive impairment (by MMSE) was found in 33 (30.9%) while it was present in only 15 (14.54%) out of 103 controls (P = 0.003), cognitive impairment (by CDT) was present in 32 patients (31.06%) out of 103 cases while it was present in 26 patients (25.24%) out of 103 controls (P > 0.05, insignificant). Mean TSH of subclinical hypothyroidism with cognitive impairment was 7.67 ± 1.22 mIU/liter and without cognitive impairment was 6.47 ± 0.98 mIU/liter (P value = 0.0001, significant) Conclusions: Prevalence of cognitive impairment was significantly higher in subclinical hypothyroidism as compared to controls. Presence of cognitive impairment correlated with the level of TSH; as TSH increased cognitive function declined. PMID:25364675

Bajaj, Sarita; Sachan, Shivam; Misra, Vatsala; Varma, Anurag; Saxena, Piyush

2014-01-01

14

What Is Meant by "Higher-Order Cognitive Skills."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses higher-order cognitive skills, provides examples of appropriate test item content in various subject areas, and describes higher-level cognitive skills which might be tested by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Higher-order cognitive skills are said to be more difficult to measure than simpler skills;…

Chipman, Susan F.

15

Kidney Disease and Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

We provide a brief review of research on chronic kidney disease and cognitive performance, including dementia. We touch briefly on the literature relating end-stage-renal disease to cognitive function, but focus on studies of modest and moderate forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that precede dialysis and transplantation. We summarize previous reviews dealing with case control studies of patients but more fully examine community-based studies with large samples and necessary controls for demographic risk factors, cardiovascular variables, and other confounds such as depression. In addition we suggest potential biological and social-psychological mediators between CKD and cognition. Studies follow in two categories of design: (1) cross-sectional studies; (2) longitudinal studies. In each, CKD is related to a wide range of deficits in cognitive functioning including, verbal and visual-memory and organization, and components of executive functioning and fluid intellect. In general, prior to the need to treat with hemodialysis (HD) or kidney transplant (KT), magnitude of effect with relation to CKD and function are small or modest in persons free from acute stroke and dementia. However, HD and KT can result in major impairment. We discuss needed controls, the greater demand on controls after HD and KT begin, and suggest that mechanisms intervening relations between hypertension, or diabetes, and cognitive performance may be similar to those intervening between hypertension and cognitive performance and the hypertension and diabetes literature on cognition provides a good model for the study of early stage kidney disease and cognitive ability. We posit that the mechanisms linking CKD and cognition may be similar to those linking hypertension or diabetes to cognition. We identify the need for more studies with multiple cognitive test batteries, measures of every-day cognitive abilities relevant to patient understanding of the disease and treatments, and more studies with prevalent and incident dementia outcomes. PMID:23652448

Elias, Merrill F.; Dore, Gregory A.; Davey, Adam

2013-01-01

16

Cortisol and cognitive function in midlife: The role of childhood cognition and educational attainment  

PubMed Central

Summary Adult cognition and age-related cognitive decline can be influenced by dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis with concomitant changes in cortisol levels. However, very little is known about the role of childhood cognition and educational attainment in this relationship. Using data from the British 1946 birth cohort, the present study investigated: (1) associations between cortisol levels and patterns and cognitive function in midlife; (2) direct and interactive effects of childhood cognition, educational attainment and cortisol on cognitive function in midlife. Verbal memory, letter search speed and reaction time were assessed at age 60–64 years. Salivary cortisol samples (wakening, 30 min after wakening and evening) were collected at the same age. Childhood cognitive ability was measured at ages 8, 11, and 15, and educational level was reported at age 26. Associations between cortisol, childhood cognition, educational attainment and cognitive function in midlife were tested using linear regression and structural equation modelling approaches. Higher evening cortisol level was associated with slower reaction time and lower verbal memory. These associations were independent of childhood cognition and education as well as a range of other potential confounders. Childhood cognition and education were not directly associated with evening cortisol. However, there was a significant interaction effect between childhood cognition and evening cortisol on reaction time (p = .002): higher evening cortisol was associated with slower reaction time only among those with low childhood cognitive ability. There was little evidence of associations between the other cortisol measures and cognitive function. PMID:25001968

Gaysina, Darya; Gardner, Michael P.; Richards, Marcus; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

2014-01-01

17

Cognitive functioning in complicated grief.  

PubMed

Complicated grief (CG) is increasingly recognized as a debilitating outcome of bereavement. Given the intensity of the stressor, its chronicity, and its association with depression, it is important to know the impact CG may have on cognitive functioning. This exploratory and descriptive study examined global and domain-specific cognitive functioning in a help-seeking sample of individuals with CG (n = 335) compared to a separately ascertained control sample (n = 250). Cognitive functioning was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Controlling for age, sex and education effects, CG participants had lower total MoCA, visuospatial and attention scores relative to control participants. The two groups did not differ significantly in the domains of executive function, language, memory or orientation. Age, sex, and education accounted for much of the variance in MoCA scores, while CG severity and chronicity accounted for a very small percentage of MoCA score variance. Major depression was not a significant predictor of MoCA scores. This study is consistent with previous work demonstrating lower attention and global cognitive performance in individuals with CG compared to control participants. This study newly identifies the visuospatial domain as a target for future studies investigating cognitive functioning in CG. PMID:25088285

Hall, Charles A; Reynolds, Charles F; Butters, Meryl; Zisook, Sidney; Simon, Naomi; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Lebowitz, Barry D; Begley, Amy; Mauro, Christine; Shear, M Katherine

2014-11-01

18

HOMOCYSTEINE AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prevention and treatment of age-related cognitive impairment and dementia is one of the greatest and most elusive challenges of our time. The prevalence of dementia increases exponentially with age, as does the prevalence of those with micronutrient deficiency. Several studies have shown that el...

19

Cognitive Control and Attentional Functions  

PubMed Central

Cognitive control is essential to flexible, goal-directed behavior under uncertainty, yet its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Because attentional functions are known to allocate mental resources and prioritize the information to be processed by the brain, we propose that the attentional functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control and the interactions among them contribute to cognitive control in the service of uncertainty reduction. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between cognitive control and attentional functions. We used the Majority Function Task (MFT) to manipulate uncertainty in order to evoke cognitive control along with the Revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R) to measure the efficiency and the interactions of attentional functions. A backwards, stepwise regression model revealed that performance on the MFT could be significantly predicted by attentional functions and their interactions as measured by the ANT-R. These results provide preliminary support for our theory that the attentional functions may be involved in the implementation of cognitive control as required to reduce uncertainty, though further investigation is needed. PMID:23792472

Mackie, Melissa-Ann; Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Fan, Jin

2013-01-01

20

Higher maternal plasma folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy are associated with better cognitive function scores in 9-10 year old children in South-India1-3  

PubMed Central

Folate and vitamin B-12 (B-12) are essential for normal brain development. Few studies have examined the relationship of maternal folate and B-12 status during pregnancy to offspring cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that lower maternal plasma folate and B-12 concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy, are associated with poorer neurodevelopment, cognitive function was assessed during 2007-2008 among 536 children (aged 9-10 y) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort. Maternal folate, B-12 and homocysteine concentrations were measured in stored plasma samples taken at 30±2 wk gestation. The children’s cognitive function was measured using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery and additional tests measuring learning ability, long-term storage/retrieval, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. During pregnancy 4% of mothers had low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/L), 42.5% had low B-12 concentrations (<150 pmol/L) and 3% had hyperhomocysteinemia (>10 ?mol/L). There was a 0.1-0.2 SD increase in the children’s cognitive scores per SD increase in maternal folate concentration (p<0.001 for all tests). The associations with learning ability and long-term storage/retrieval, visuo-spatial ability, attention and concentration were independent of maternal age, BMI, parity, the parents’ education, socio-economic status, rural/urban residence, religion, the child’s gestational age, birth size, sex and the children’s size, educational level and folate and B-12 concentrations at 9.5 y. There were no consistent associations of maternal B-12 and homocysteine concentrations with childhood cognitive performance. Conclusions In this Indian population higher maternal folate, but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy, predicted better childhood cognitive ability. PMID:20335637

Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Muthayya, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Fall, Caroline HD

2012-01-01

21

Iron deficiency and cognitive functions  

PubMed Central

Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups. PMID:25419131

Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

2014-01-01

22

Does retirement affect cognitive functioning?  

PubMed

This paper analyses the effect of retirement on cognitive functioning using a longitudinal survey among older Americans, which allows controlling for individual heterogeneity and endogeneity of the retirement decision by using the eligibility age for social security as an instrument. The results highlight a significant negative effect of retirement on cognitive functioning. Our findings suggest that reforms aimed at promoting labour force participation at an older age may not only ensure the sustainability of social security systems but may also create positive health externalities for older individuals. PMID:22538324

Bonsang, Eric; Adam, Stéphane; Perelman, Sergio

2012-05-01

23

Higher maternal plasma folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy are associated with better cognitive function scores in 9- to 10- year-old children in South India.  

PubMed

Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential for normal brain development. Few studies have examined the relationship of maternal folate and vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy and offspring cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that lower maternal plasma folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy are associated with poorer neurodevelopment, 536 children (aged 9-10 y) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort underwent cognitive function assessment during 2007-2008 using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery, and additional tests measuring learning, long-term storage/retrieval, attention and concentration, and visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. Maternal folate, vitamin B-12, and homocysteine concentrations were measured at 30 +/- 2 wk gestation. During pregnancy, 4% of mothers had low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/L), 42.5% had low vitamin B-12 concentrations (<150 pmol/L), and 3% had hyperhomocysteinemia (>10 micromol/L). The children's cognitive test scores increased by 0.1-0.2 SD per SD increase across the entire range of maternal folate concentrations (P < 0.001 for all), with no apparent associations at the deficiency level. The associations with learning, long-term storage/retrieval, visuo-spatial ability, attention, and concentration were independent of the parents' education, socioeconomic status, religion, and the child's sex, age, current size, and folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations. There were no consistent associations of maternal vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations with childhood cognitive performance. In this Indian population, higher maternal folate, but not vitamin B-12, concentrations during pregnancy predicted better childhood cognitive ability. It also suggests that, in terms of neurodevelopment, the concentration used to define folate deficiency may be set too low. PMID:20335637

Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Muthayya, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Fall, Caroline H D

2010-05-01

24

Higher-Order Latent Trait Models for Cognitive Diagnosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher-order latent traits are proposed for specifying the joint distribution of binary attributes in models for cognitive diagnosis. This approach results in a parsimonious model for the joint distribution of a high-dimensional attribute vector that is natural in many situations when specific cognitive information is sought but a less informative…

de la Torre, Jimmy; Douglas, Jeffrey A.

2004-01-01

25

Physical and cognitive function 1 Running title: Physical and cognitive function  

E-print Network

Physical and cognitive function 1 29.12.2008 Running title: Physical and cognitive function Physical and cognitive function in midlife: reciprocal effects? A 5-year follow-up of the Whitehall II, cognitive function, memory, psychosocial factors, longitudinal, SF-36 inserm-00390640,version1-3Jun2009

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

26

Phytoestrogens and cognitive function: a review.  

PubMed

Neuroprotective effects of phytoestrogen compounds (found in soy) have been demonstrated in animal research and cell culture studies. In particular, phytoestrogens have been shown to reduce Alzheimer's Disease (AD) related pathology, potentially alleviating risk of AD progression. In addition to their antioxidant properties, soy products also have the ability to affect cognition via interaction with estrogen receptors. However, observational studies and randomised controlled trials in humans have resulted in inconclusive findings within this domain. There are several possible reasons for these discrepant data. Studies which report no effect of phytoestrogens on cognition have mainly been carried out in European cohorts, with an average low dietary consumption. In contrast, investigation of Asian populations, with a higher general intake of tofu (a non-fermented soy product) have shown negative associations with cognitive function in those over the age of 65. Consideration of type of soy product is important, as in the latter sample, protective effects of tempe (fermented soy) were also observed. Limited data provide evidence that effects of phytoestrogens on cognition may be modified by dosage, duration of consumption and cognitive test used. Additionally, characteristics of the study population including age, gender, ethnicity and menopausal status appear to be mediating variables. Phytoestrogen treatment interventions have also shown time-limited positive effects on cognition. These findings are consistent with estrogen treatment studies, where initial positive short-term cognitive effects may occur, which reverse with long-term continuous use in elderly women. Well controlled, large scale studies are needed to assess the effects of phytoestrogens on the aging brain and provide further understanding of this association. PMID:24486046

Soni, Mira; Rahardjo, Tri Budi W; Soekardi, Rodiyah; Sulistyowati, Yenny; Lestariningsih; Yesufu-Udechuku, Amina; Irsan, Atik; Hogervorst, Eef

2014-03-01

27

Functional Decline in Cognitive Impairment – The Relationship between Physical and Cognitive Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Physical function decline is associated with dementia, which might either be mediated by the coexisting sarcopenia or directly related to the impaired cognition. Our objectives are to examine the relationship between cognitive function and performance-based physical function and to test the hypothesis that cognitive function is related to poor physical function independent of muscle mass. Methods: We measured muscle

Tung Wai Auyeung; Timothy Kwok; Jenny Lee; Ping Chung Leung; Jason Leung; Jean Woo

2008-01-01

28

The Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience of Functional Connectivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental cognitive neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that examines the relationships between biological development and cognitive ability. In the past decade, there has been ongoing refinement of concepts and methodology related to the study of "functional connectivity" among distributed brain regions believed to underlie cognition and…

Stevens, Michael C.

2009-01-01

29

Strategic Learning in Youth with Traumatic Brain Injury: Evidence for Stall in Higher-Order Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about strategic learning ability in preteens and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Strategic learning is the ability to combine and synthesize details to form abstracted gist-based meanings, a higher-order cognitive skill associated with frontal lobe functions and higher classroom performance. Summarization tasks were…

Gamino, Jacquelyn F.; Chapman, Sandra B.; Cook, Lori G.

2009-01-01

30

On higher spin partition functions  

E-print Network

We observe that the partition function of the set of all free massless higher spins s=0,1,2,3,... in flat space is equal to one: the ghost determinants cancel against the "physical" ones or, equivalently, the (regularized) total number of degrees of freedom vanishes. This reflects large underlying gauge symmetry and suggests analogy with supersymmetric or topological theory. The Z=1 property extends also to the AdS background, i.e. the 1-loop vacuum partition function of Vasiliev theory is equal to 1 (assuming a particular regularization of the sum over spins); this was noticed earlier as a consistency requirement for the vectorial AdS/CFT duality. We find that Z=1 is also true in the conformal higher spin theory (with higher-derivative d^{2s} kinetic terms) expanded near flat or conformally flat S^4 background. We also consider the partition function of free conformal theory of symmetric traceless rank s tensor field which has 2-derivative kinetic term but only scalar gauge invariance in flat space. This non...

Beccaria, M

2015-01-01

31

Experimental case studies to engage higher cognitive skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Instructors often find it difficult to write questions that are open ended in nature (4) and that engage students at higher levels of cognitive complexity, for example, Bloom's taxonomic levels of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation (1). As a consequence, typical pedagogical settings seldom challenge students to engage in learning on those levels. As these higher levels of cognition are generally expected of graduate students, we sought to engage and evaluate graduate students by supplying raw, generally unpublished experimental data from a faculty member as "experimental case studies" requiring their analysis, their creation of tools, and their evaluation against each other and existing literature.

William H. Guilford (University of Virginia Biomedical Engineering)

2009-12-01

32

'COGNITIVE GENES 'R EVEAL HIGHER CODON COMPLEXITY THAN 'SOMATIC GENES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we want to apply the concept of complexity to the analysis and com- parison of genes. A multitude of genes has been identified coding somatic function. Recently the analysis of mental disorders yielded insights about genes coding cogni- tive functions. According to the theory of evolution they evolved from other genes through mutation. Therefore, 'cognitive genes' and

Christoph S. Herrmann; Wolfgang S. Herrmann

33

[Cognitive function in eating disorders].  

PubMed

Eating disorders are characterized by uncontrolled eating behaviors. The core psychopathology is expressed in a variety of ways: body image distortion, preoccupation with food and weight, fear of weight gain, and so on. Brain-imaging techniques provide many opportunities to study neural circuits related symptoms in eating disorder. The present article focuses studies about functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of eating disorders. Studies of anorexia nervosa suggest 1) relationship between amygdala activation and fear of weight gain, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive flexibility. Studies of bulimic eating disorder (bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and so on) suggest 1) relationship between brain reward system and overeating, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and impulse control. PMID:24796094

Okamoto, Yuri

2014-04-01

34

Personality Predicts Cognitive Function Over Seven Years in Older Persons  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether Neuroticism, as well as the less-studied dimensions the Five Factor Model of personality (Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) were associated with 7-year trajectories of cognitive functioning in older persons. Design Primary analysis of existing clinical trial data. Participants 602 persons of average age 79 at baseline. Measurements The NEO-Five Factor Inventory of personality, completed at baseline, and the modified Mini Mental Status Exam (3MSE) measured every 6 months for 7 years. Results Controlling for demographics, baseline morbidities including depression, health behaviors, Apolipoprotein E4 genotype, and self-rated health, higher Neuroticism was associated with worse average cognitive functioning and a steeper rate of decline over follow-up. Higher Extraversion and lower Openness were both associated with worse average cognitive functioning prospectively, while persons higher in Conscientiousness showed a slower rate of cognitive decline. Conclusions In addition to Neuroticism, other dispositional tendencies appear prognostically relevant for cognitive functioning in older persons. More work is needed to understand the mechanisms by which traits operate, as well as whether mitigation of certain dispositional tendencies can facilitate a better course of cognitive function. PMID:22735597

Chapman, Benjamin; Duberstein, Paul; Tindle, Hilary A; Sink, Kaycee M; Robbins, John; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Franks, Peter

2011-01-01

35

Cognitive functioning of the prelingually deaf adults.  

PubMed

Deafness is a model of brain adaptation to sensory deprivation which entails psychomotor and cognitive domains. This study seeks to determine the level of emotional intelligence, assessed from the ability to discern emotions from facial expressions, visual and mental attention, and non-verbal fluency in the deaf people as compared with the hearing counterparts. Participants were 29 prelingually deaf, hearing loss of >70 dB, communicating only in sign language, and 30 hearing persons. The age range of all subjects was 40-50 years. Psychometric tools consisted of the Emotional Intelligence Scale-Faces, the d2 Test of Attention, and the Figural Fluency Test. Data elaboration took gender into account. The findings were that both deaf women and men defined significantly fewer emotions as known, compared with the hearing persons. However, the deaf men, but not women, were able to properly recognize a higher percentage of emotions associated with a definite face look, among the emotions they knew. There were no appreciable differences in attention indices between the deaf and hearing men, but deaf women's total performance on attention was worse. By contrast, deaf women, but not men, fared better in non-verbal fluency, compared with their hearing counterparts. We conclude that, on the whole, prelingual deafness does not impede cognitive functioning in adult age. The nature of detecting and executing of cognitive tasks, despite gender and task-specific variations, is preserved. Brain networks are able to compensate for the missing auditory input. PMID:25310953

Pokorski, Mieczys?aw; Klima?ska, Sandra

2015-01-01

36

Differences in Field Dependence-Independence Cognitive Style as a Function of Socioeconomic Status, Sex, and Cognitive Competence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed field dependence-independence (FDI) cognitive style as function of socioeconomic status, sex, and cognitive competence in seven year olds (n=117). Subjects of upper-middle socioeconomic status achieved significantly higher scores that did subjects of low socioeconomic status on five McCarthy Scales and on FDI variable. Boys scored higher

Forns-Santacana, Maria; And Others

1993-01-01

37

Carotid Atherosclerosis and 10-year Changes in Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

Background Carotid atherosclerosis has been suggested to be involved in cognitive decline. Methods The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study is a longitudinal study of aging among Beaver Dam residents, WI. In 1998–2000, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque were measured by ultrasound; cognitive function was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Follow-up examinations were conducted in 2003–2005 and 2009–2010. Incidence of cognitive impairment was defined as a MMSE score <24 or reported physician-diagnosed dementia during the follow-up. In the last examination, five additional cognitive tests were added. The associations of carotid atherosclerosis with incident cognitive impairment and cognitive test performance ten years later were evaluated. Results A total of 1651 participants (mean age 66.8 years, 41% men) without cognitive impairment at baseline were included in the incidence analysis. IMT was associated with incidence of cognitive impairment after multiple adjustments (hazard ratio: 1.09, p=0.02 for each 0.1 mm increase in IMT). A total of 1311 participants with atherosclerosis data at baseline had the additional cognitive tests 10 years later. Larger IMT was associated with longer time to complete the Trail-Making Test-part B after multiple adjustments (0.1 mm IMT: 2.3 seconds longer, p=0.02). Plaque was not associated with incident cognitive impairment or cognitive test performance 10 years later. Conclusions In this population-based longitudinal study, carotid IMT was associated with a higher risk of developing cognitive impairment during the 10-year follow-up, and was associated with poorer performance in a test of executive function 10 years later. PMID:22854188

Zhong, Wenjun; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Acher, Charles W; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Klein, Barbara EK; Klein, Ronald; Chappell, Richard J

2012-01-01

38

Cognitive functioning predicts survival in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior studies of aging have identified a number of predictors of survival, including performances on some cognitive-functioning tests. However, few studies have used a multidomain test battery to identify which specific cognitive abilities predict death. The current study examined the 12 subtests of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) to see which subtests predicted death in

Kevin Duff; James W. Mold; Yori Gidron

2009-01-01

39

Mesocortical dopaminergic function and human cognition  

SciTech Connect

In summary, we have reviewed rCBF data in humans that suggest that mesoprefrontal dopaminergic activity is involved in human cognition. In patients with Parkinson's disease and possibly in patients with schizophrenia, prefrontal physiological activation during a cognitive task that appears to depend on prefrontal neural systems correlates positively with cognitive performance on the task and with clinical signs of dopaminergic function. It may be possible in the future to examine prefrontal dopamine metabolism directly during prefrontal cognition using positron emission tomography and tracers such as F-18 DOPA. 21 references.

Weinberger, D.R.; Berman, K.F.; Chase, T.N.

1988-01-01

40

Functional brain networks and cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Graph-theoretical analyses of functional networks obtained with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have recently proven to be a useful approach for the study of the substrates underlying cognitive deficits in different diseases. We used this technique to investigate whether cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with changes in global and local network measures. Thirty-six healthy controls (HC) and 66 PD patients matched for age, sex, and education were classified as having mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or not based on performance in the three mainly affected cognitive domains in PD: attention/executive, visuospatial/visuoperceptual (VS/VP), and declarative memory. Resting-state fMRI and graph theory analyses were used to evaluate network measures. We have found that patients with MCI had connectivity reductions predominantly affecting long-range connections as well as increased local interconnectedness manifested as higher measures of clustering, small-worldness, and modularity. The latter measures also tended to correlate negatively with cognitive performance in VS/VP and memory functions. Hub structure was also reorganized: normal hubs displayed reduced centrality and degree in MCI PD patients. Our study indicates that the topological properties of brain networks are changed in PD patients with cognitive deficits. Our findings provide novel data regarding the functional substrate of cognitive impairment in PD, which may prove to have value as a prognostic marker. PMID:24639411

Baggio, Hugo-Cesar; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Segura, Bàrbara; Marti, Maria-José; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Compta, Yaroslau; Tolosa, Eduardo; Junqué, Carme

2014-09-01

41

Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Function in Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) is associated with cognitive functioning in older US women and whether this relationship is explained by associations between NSES and vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Methods. We assessed women aged 65 to 81 years (n = 7479) who were free of dementia and took part in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. Linear mixed models examined the cross-sectional association between an NSES index and cognitive functioning scores. A base model adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, marital status, and hysterectomy. Three groups of potential confounders were examined in separate models: vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Results. Living in a neighborhood with a 1-unit higher NSES value was associated with a level of cognitive functioning that was 0.022 standard deviations higher (P = .02). The association was attenuated but still marginally significant (P < .1) after adjustment for confounders and, according to interaction tests, stronger among younger and non-White women. Conclusions. The socioeconomic status of a woman's neighborhood may influence her cognitive functioning. This relationship is only partially explained by vascular, health behavior, or psychosocial factors. Future research is needed on the longitudinal relationships between NSES, cognitive impairment, and cognitive decline. PMID:21778482

Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Margolis, Karen L.; Slaughter, Mary E.; Jewell, Adria; Bird, Chloe E.; Eibner, Christine; Denburg, Natalie L.; Ockene, Judith; Messina, Catherine R.; Espeland, Mark A.

2011-01-01

42

Cardiovascular disease and cognitive function in maintenance hemodialysis patients  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment are common in dialysis patients. Given the proposed role of microvascular disease on cognitive function, particularly cognitive domains that incorporate executive functions, we hypothesized that prevalent systemic CVD would be associated with wor...

43

How does cognitive reserve impact on the relationships between mood, rumination, and cognitive function in later life?  

PubMed

Objectives: Higher levels of cognitive reserve (CR) are associated with better cognitive function in later life. In contrast, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and rumination are associated with diminished cognitive function. There has been limited research to date examining the influence of CR on the relationship between mood and cognitive function, and results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the role CR plays in the relationships between mood, rumination, and cognitive function in later life. Method: Two hundred and thirty-six healthy people aged 60+ completed measures of CR, depression, anxiety, rumination, recall, and verbal fluency. Participants were dichotomised at the median into those with lower and higher levels of CR. Results: CR, mood, and rumination together accounted for between 13% and 15.6% of the variance in scores on the cognitive tasks in the sample as a whole. Mood and rumination explained a significant amount of variance in cognitive test scores in those with lower levels of CR, but not in those with higher levels of CR. Conclusion: The way in which mood and rumination are related to cognitive function differs depending on the individual's level of CR. These results support the view that it is important to continue to build on CR as people move into later life in order to maintain cognitive health. PMID:25262628

Opdebeeck, Carol; Nelis, Sharon M; Quinn, Catherine; Clare, Linda

2014-09-29

44

Common and specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: relationships to function  

PubMed Central

The goals of the present study were to assess the interrelationships among tasks from the MATRICS and CNTRACS batteries, to determine the degree to which tasks from each battery capture unique variance in cognitive dys-function in schizophrenia, and to determine the ability of tasks from each battery to predict functional outcome. Subjects were 104 schizophrenia patients and 132 healthy control subjects recruited as part of the CNTRACS initiative. All subjects completed four CNTRACS tasks and two tasks from the MATRICS battery: Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia Symbol Coding and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test. Functional outcome was also assessed in the schizophrenia subjects. In both the patient and control groups, we found significant intercorrelations between all higher order cognitive tasks (episodic memory, goal maintenance, processing speed, verbal learning) but minimal relationships with the visual task. For almost all tasks, scores were significantly related to measures of functional outcome, with higher associations between CNTRACS tasks and performance-based measures of function and between one of the MATRICS tasks and self-reported functioning, relative to the other functioning measures. After regressing out variance shared by other tasks, we continued to observe group differences in performance among task residuals, particularly for measures of episodic memory from both batteries, although these residuals did not correlate as robustly with functional outcome as raw test scores. These findings suggest that there exists both shared and specific variance across cognitive tasks related to cognitive and functional impairments in schizophrenia and that measures derived from cognitive neuroscience can predict functional capacity and status in schizophrenia. PMID:24037621

Sheffield, Julia M.; Gold, James M.; Strauss, Milton E.; Carter, Cameron S.; MacDonald, Angus W.; Ragland, J. Daniel; Silverstein, Steven M.; Barch, Deanna M.

2014-01-01

45

Continuous ASL perfusion fMRI investigation of higher cognition  

PubMed Central

Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion fMRI is an emerging method in clinical neuroimaging. Its non-invasiveness, absence of low frequency noise, and ability to quantify the absolute level of cerebral blood flow (CBF) make the method ideal for longitudinal designs or low frequency paradigms. Despite the usefulness in the study of cognitive dysfunctions in clinical populations, perfusion activation studies to date have been conducted for simple sensorimotor paradigms or with single-slice acquisition, mainly due to technical challenges. Using our recently developed amplitude-modulated continuous ASL (CASL) perfusion fMRI protocol, we assessed the feasibility of a higher level cognitive activation study in twelve healthy subjects. Taking advantage of the ASL noise properties, we were able to study tonic CBF changes during uninterrupted 6-min continuous performance of working memory and sustained attention tasks. For the visual sustained attention task, regional CBF increases (6-12 ml/100 g/min) were detected in the right middle frontal gyrus, the bilateral occipital gyri, and the anterior cingulate/medial frontal gyri. During the 2-back working memory task, significantly increased activations (7-11 ml/100 g/min) were found in the left inferior frontal/precentral gyri, the left inferior parietal lobule, the anterior cingulate/medial frontal gyri, and the left occipital gyrus. Locations of activated and deactivated areas largely concur with previous PET and BOLD fMRI studies utilizing similar paradigms. These results demonstrate that CASL perfusion fMRI can be successfully utilized for the investigation of the tonic CBF changes associated with high level cognitive operations. Increased applications of the method to the investigation of cognitively impaired populations are expected to follow. PMID:16427324

Kim, Junghoon; Whyte, John; Wang, Jiongjiong; Rao, Hengyi; Tang, Kathy Z.; Detre, John A.

2008-01-01

46

Education, Other Socioeconomic Indicators, and Cognitive Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the relation of educational attainment, husband's education, household income, and childhood socioeconomic status to cognitive function and decline among community-dwelling women aged 70- 79 years. Information on exposures was self-reported, except for income (which was derived from census tract data). Between 1995 and 2000, six cognitive tests were administered to 19,319 Nurses' Health Study participants. Second assessments

Sunmin Lee; Ichiro Kawachi; Lisa F. Berkman; Francine Grodstein

47

Does cognitive function improve with quetiapine in comparison to haloperidol?  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that schizophrenia patients taking atypical antipsychotic medications may perform better on some tests of cognitive function than those treated with older antipsychotics. The current study compared the effects of quetiapine and haloperidol on measures of executive function, memory and attention. Subjects were 58 stable outpatients with schizophrenia (DSM III-R) who received a battery of cognitive tests as part of a randomized, double-blind, multi-site clinical efficacy study conducted by AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals. Cognitive assessments were conducted prior to randomization when patients were receiving < or =30 mg haloperidol or equivalent (mean: 9.2mg/day haloperidol equivalents), and again after 24 weeks of fixed-dose treatment with either quetiapine 600 or 300 mg/day or haloperidol 12 mg/day. Analyses of covariance with planned comparisons were used to compare scores on cognitive measures at the end of 24 weeks by treatment group with baseline cognitive function scores used as covariates. Patients receiving quetiapine 600 mg/day improved to a greater extent than patients receiving haloperidol on overall cognitive function (p<0.02). Specific differences were found for executive function (Verbal Fluency Test, p<0.04), attention (Stroop Color Word Test, p<.03) and verbal memory (Paragraph Recall Test, p<0.02). Treatment group differences were not solely due to benztropine use, medication side effects, or changes in symptomatology. Treatment with quetiapine at higher doses (600 mg/day) relative to haloperidol appears to have a positive impact on important domains of cognitive performance that have been found to predict role function and community outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:11738537

Velligan, Dawn I; Newcomer, John; Pultz, Joseph; Csernansky, John; Hoff, Anne L; Mahurin, Roderick; Miller, Alexander L

2002-01-15

48

Fruits, vegetables, 100% juices, and cognitive function.  

PubMed

Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ. Seventeen of 19 epidemiological studies and 3 of 6 intervention studies reported significant benefits of fruit, vegetable, or juice consumption for cognitive performance. The data suggest that chronic consumption of fruits, vegetables, and juices is beneficial for cognition in healthy older adults. The limited data from acute interventions indicate that consumption of fruit juices can have immediate benefits for memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment; however, as of yet, acute benefits have not been observed in healthy adults. Conclusions regarding an optimum dietary intake for fruits, vegetables, and juices are difficult to quantify because of substantial heterogeneity in the categorization of consumption of these foods. PMID:25399992

Lamport, Daniel J; Saunders, Caroline; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy Pe

2014-12-01

49

Nutraceutical Intervention Improves Older Adults' Cognitive Functioning  

PubMed Central

Abstract Interventions to improve the cognitive health of older adults are of critical importance. In the current study, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a pill-based nutraceutical (NT-020) that contained a proprietary formulation of blueberry, carnosine, green tea, vitamin D3, and Biovin to evaluate the impact on changes in multiple domains of cognitive functioning. One hundred and five cognitively intact adults aged 65–85 years of age (M=73.6 years) were randomized to receive NT-020 (n=52) or a placebo (n=53). Participants were tested with a battery of cognitive performance tests that were classified into six broad domains—episodic memory, processing speed, verbal ability, working memory, executive functioning, and complex speed at baseline and 2 months later. The results indicated that persons taking NT-020 improved significantly on two measures of processing speed across the 2-month test period in contrast to persons on the placebo whose performance did not change. None of the other cognitive ability measures were related to intervention group. The results also indicated that the NT-020 was well tolerated by older adults, and the presence of adverse events or symptoms did not differ between the NT-020 and placebo groups. Overall, the results of the current study were promising and suggest the potential for interventions like these to improve the cognitive health of older adults. PMID:24134194

Rawson, Kerri S.; Martin, Christina; Eisel, Sarah L.; Sanberg, Cyndy D.; McEvoy, Cathy L.; Sanberg, Paul R.; Shytle, R. Douglas; Tan, Jun; Bickford, Paula C.

2014-01-01

50

Hemodynamic differences in the activation of the prefrontal cortex: attention vs. higher cognitive processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both simple attention tasks (e.g. letter cancellation) and most tasks of higher cognitive processing (e.g. word generation) are known to activate the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). While attention and higher cognitive processing differ phenomenologically, with attention tasks requiring great subjective effort despite their simplicity, possible physiological differences in the activation of the PFC between the two types of cognitive processing

Motomi Toichi; Robert L. Findling; Yasutaka Kubota; Joseph R. Calabrese; Max Wiznitzer; Nora K. McNamara; Kokichi Yamamoto

2004-01-01

51

An Ontology for Comparative Cognition 36 An Ontology for Comparative Cognition: A Functional Approach  

E-print Network

An Ontology for Comparative Cognition 36 An Ontology for Comparative Cognition: A Functional and animal cognition utilizing the ontology. The IDA (Intelligent Distribution Agent) model of cognition of the ontology. The model is built on functional needs of animals, relating it to the existing literature

Cook, Robert

52

Pulse Wave Velocity and Cognitive Function in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Arterial stiffness may be associated with cognitive function. In this study, pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured from the carotid to femoral (CF-PWV) and from the carotid to radial (CR-PWV) with the Complior SP System (Alam Medical, Vincennes, France). Cognitive function was measured by six tests of executive function, psychomotor speed, memory, and language fluency. A total of 1433 participants were included (mean age 75 years, 43% men). Adjusting for age, sex, education, pulse rate, hemoglobin A1C, HDL cholesterol, hypertension, CVD history, smoking ,drinking, and depression symptoms, a CF-PWV > 12 m/s was associated with a lower Mini-Mental State Examination score (coefficient: ?0.31, se: 0.11, p=0.005), fewer words recalled on Auditory Verbal Learning Test (coefficient: ?1.10, se: 0.43, p=0.01), and lower score on the composite cognition score (coefficient: ?0.10, se: 0.05, p=0.04) and marginally significantly associated with longer time to complete Trail Making Test-B (coefficient: 6.30, se: 3.41, p=0.06), CF-PWV was not associated with Trail Making Test-A, Digit Symbol Substation Test, or Verbal Fluency Test. No associations were found between CR-PWV and cognitive performance measures. Higher large artery stiffness was associated with worse cognitive function, and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations. PMID:23632267

Zhong, Wenjun; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Chappell, Richard J; Klein, Barbara EK; Klein, Ronald; Acher, Charles W

2013-01-01

53

Pulse wave velocity and cognitive function in older adults.  

PubMed

Arterial stiffness may be associated with cognitive function. In this study, pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured from the carotid to femoral (CF-PWV) and from the carotid to radial (CR-PWV) with the Complior SP System. Cognitive function was measured by 6 tests of executive function, psychomotor speed, memory, and language fluency. A total of 1433 participants were included (mean age 75 y, 43% men). Adjusting for age, sex, education, pulse rate, hemoglobin A1C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, cardiovascular disease history, smoking, drinking, and depression symptoms, a CF-PWV>12 m/s was associated with a lower Mini-Mental State Examination score (coefficient: -0.31, SE: 0.11, P=0.005), fewer words recalled on Auditory Verbal Learning Test (coefficient: -1.10, SE: 0.43, P=0.01), and lower score on the composite cognition score (coefficient: -0.10, SE: 0.05, P=0.04) and marginally significantly associated with longer time to complete Trail Making Test-part B (coefficient: 6.30, SE: 3.41, P=0.06), CF-PWV was not associated with Trail Making Test-part A, Digit Symbol Substation Test, or Verbal Fluency Test. No associations were found between CR-PWV and cognitive performance measures. Higher large artery stiffness was associated with worse cognitive function, and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations. PMID:23632267

Zhong, Wenjun; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Chappell, Richard J; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Acher, Charles W

2014-01-01

54

Prenatal maternal depression symptoms and nutrition, and child cognitive function  

PubMed Central

Background Little is currently known about how maternal depression symptoms and unhealthy nutrition during pregnancy may developmentally interrelate to negatively affect child cognitive function. Aims To test whether prenatal maternal depression symptoms predict poor prenatal nutrition, and whether this in turn prospectively associates with reduced postnatal child cognitive function. Method In 6979 mother-offspring pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in the UK, maternal depression symptoms were assessed five times between 18 weeks gestation and 33 months old. Maternal reports of the nutritional environment were assessed at 32 weeks gestation and 47 months old, and child cognitive function was assessed at age 8 years. Results During gestation, higher depressive symptoms were related to lower levels of healthy nutrition and higher levels of unhealthy nutrition, each of which in turn was prospectively associated with reduced cognitive function. These results were robust to postnatal depression symptoms and nutrition, as well as a range of potential prenatal and postnatal confounds (i.e. poverty, teenage mother, low maternal education, parity, birth complications, substance use, criminal lifestyle, partner cruelty towards mother). Conclusions Prenatal interventions aimed at the well-being of children of parents with depression should consider targeting the nutritional environment. PMID:24115347

Barker, Edward D.; Kirkham, Natasha; Ng, Jane; Jensen, Sarah K. G.

2013-01-01

55

Carotid stenosis and the cognitive function Laszlo K. Sztriha a,  

E-print Network

largely remain unidentified. It is unclear whether a cognitive assessment may facilitate decisions, and on the influence of carotid interventions on cognitive functioning. 2. Assessment of cognitive funCarotid stenosis and the cognitive function Laszlo K. Sztriha a, , Dezso Nemeth b , Tamas Sefcsik b

Nemeth, Dezso

56

Relational processing in higher cognition: Implications for analogy, capacity and cognitive development.  

E-print Network

and cognitive development. Paper presented to workshop on analogy, New Bulgarian University, Sofia, Bulgaria cognition: Implications for analogy, capacity and cognitive development. In this paper we will present levels of cognitive development, and accounts for processing loads in cognitive tasks, within a common

Wilson, Bill

57

The Russell Nutrition Nutrition & Cognitive Function  

E-print Network

The Russell Nutrition Symposium Nutrition & Cognitive Function Throughout the Life-Span October 24.D., Professor, Department of Neurobiology, Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences, Northwestern University Title and Biological Sciences, The Department of Nutritional Sciences, and The New Jersey Institute for Food, Nutrition

Jornsten, Rebecka

58

Model-checking higher-order functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel type-based model checking algorithm for higher-order recursion schemes. As shown by Kobayashi, verifi- cation problems of higher-order functional programs can easily be translated into model checking problems of recursion schemes. Thus, the model checking algorithm serves as a basis for verifica- tion of higher-order functional programs. To our knowledge, this is the first practical algorithm for

Naoki Kobayashi

2009-01-01

59

Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions.  

PubMed

Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34-87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

Sohrabi, Hamid R; Bates, Kristyn A; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Rodrigues, Mark A; Bird, Sabine M; Brown, Belinda M; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mehta, Pankaj D; Foster, Jonathan K; Martins, Ian J; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M; Martins, Ralph N

2015-01-01

60

Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions  

PubMed Central

Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34–87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

Sohrabi, Hamid R.; Bates, Kristyn A.; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S.; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R.; Rodrigues, Mark A.; Bird, Sabine M.; Brown, Belinda M.; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Foster, Jonathan K.; Martins, Ian J.; Lautenschlager, Nicola T.; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M.; Martins, Ralph N.

2015-01-01

61

Vitamin B12 and Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

Background More than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in 2010 in Ontario at a cost of $40 million. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with a few neurocognitive disorders. Objective To determine the clinical utility of B12 testing in patients with suspected dementia or cognitive decline. Methods Three questions were addressed: Is there an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and the onset of dementia or cognitive decline? Does treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation improve cognitive function in patients with dementia or cognitive decline and vitamin B12 deficiency? What is the effectiveness of oral versus parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation in those with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency? A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, from January 2002 until August 2012. Results Eighteen studies (7 systematic reviews and 11 observational studies) were identified to address the question of the association between B12 and the onset of dementia. Four systematic reviews were identified to address the question of the treatment of B12 on cognitive function. Finally, 3 randomized controlled trials were identified that compared oral B12 to intramuscular B12. Conclusions Based on very low quality evidence, there does appear to be an association between elevated plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamins) and the onset of dementia. Based on moderate quality evidence, but with less than optimal duration of follow-up, treatment with B12 supplementation does not appreciably change cognitive function. Based on low to moderate quality of evidence, treatment with vitamin B12 and folate in patients with mild cognitive impairment seems to slow the rate of brain atrophy. Based on moderate quality evidence, oral vitamin B12 is as effective as parenteral vitamin B12 in patients with confirmed B12 deficiency. Plain Language Summary Low levels of vitamin B12 have been associated with neurocognitive disorders. This evidence-based analysis assessed the usefulness of serum vitamin B12 testing as it relates to brain function. This review found very low quality evidence that suggests a connection between high plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamin metabolism in the body) and the onset of dementia. Moderate quality of evidence indicates treatment with vitamin B12 does not improve brain function. Moderate quality of evidence also indicates treatment using oral vitamin B12 supplements is as effective as injections of vitamin B12. PMID:24379897

2013-01-01

62

DHEA and cognitive function in the elderly.  

PubMed

The adrenal prohormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate conjugate (DHEAS) steadily decrease with age by 10% per decade reaching a nadir after the age of 80. Both DHEA and DHEAS (DHEA/S) exert many biological activities in different tissues and organs. In particular, DHEA and DHEAS are produced de novo in the brain, hence their classification as neurosteroids. In humans, the brain-to-plasma ratios for DHEA and DHEAS are 4-6.5 and 8.5, respectively, indicating a specific neuroendocrine role for these hormones. DHEA/S stimulates neurite growth, neurogenesis and neuronal survival, apoptosis, catecholamine synthesis and secretion. Together with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-glucocorticoid properties, it has been hypothesized a neuroprotective effect for DHEA/S. We conducted an accurate research of the literature using PubMed. In the period of time between 1994 and 2013, we selected the observational human studies testing the relationship between DHEA/S and cognitive function in both sexes. The studies are presented according to the cross-sectional and longitudinal design and to the positive or neutral effects on different domains of cognitive function. We also analysed the Clinical Trials, available in the literature, having cognitive domains as the main or secondary outcome. Although the cross-sectional evidence of a positive association between DHEA/S and cognitive function, longitudinal studies and RCTs using DHEA oral treatment (50mg/day) in normal or demented adult-older subjects, have produced conflicting and inconsistent results. In summary, the current data do not provide clear evidence for the usefulness of DHEA treatment to improve cognitive function in adult-older subjects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Essential role of DHEA'. PMID:24794824

Maggio, Marcello; De Vita, Francesca; Fisichella, Alberto; Colizzi, Elena; Provenzano, Sandra; Lauretani, Fulvio; Luci, Michele; Ceresini, Graziano; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Caffarra, Paolo; Valenti, Giorgio; Ceda, Gian Paolo

2015-01-01

63

Cognition and brain function in schizotypy: a selective review.  

PubMed

Schizotypy refers to a set of personality traits thought to reflect the subclinical expression of the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia. Here, we review the cognitive and brain functional profile associated with high questionnaire scores in schizotypy. We discuss empirical evidence from the domains of perception, attention, memory, imagery and representation, language, and motor control. Perceptual deficits occur early and across various modalities. While the neural mechanisms underlying visual impairments may be linked to magnocellular dysfunction, further effects may be seen downstream in higher cognitive functions. Cognitive deficits are observed in inhibitory control, selective and sustained attention, incidental learning, and memory. In concordance with the cognitive nature of many of the aberrations of schizotypy, higher levels of schizotypy are associated with enhanced vividness and better performance on tasks of mental rotation. Language deficits seem most pronounced in higher-level processes. Finally, higher levels of schizotypy are associated with reduced performance on oculomotor tasks, resembling the impairments seen in schizophrenia. Some of these deficits are accompanied by reduced brain activation, akin to the pattern of hypoactivations in schizophrenia spectrum individuals. We conclude that schizotypy is a construct with apparent phenomenological overlap with schizophrenia and stable interindividual differences that covary with performance on a wide range of perceptual, cognitive, and motor tasks known to be impaired in schizophrenia. The importance of these findings lies not only in providing a fine-grained neurocognitive characterization of a personality constellation known to be associated with real-life impairments, but also in generating hypotheses concerning the aetiology of schizophrenia. PMID:25810056

Ettinger, Ulrich; Mohr, Christine; Gooding, Diane C; Cohen, Alex S; Rapp, Alexander; Haenschel, Corinna; Park, Sohee

2015-03-01

64

A meta-analysis of cerebellar contributions to higher cognition from PET and fMRI studies.  

PubMed

A growing interest in cerebellar function and its involvement in higher cognition have prompted much research in recent years. Cerebellar presence in a wide range of cognitive functions examined within an increasing body of neuroimaging literature has been observed. We applied a meta-analytic approach, which employed the activation likelihood estimate method, to consolidate results of cerebellar involvement accumulated in different cognitive tasks of interest and systematically identified similarities among the studies. The current analysis included 88 neuroimaging studies demonstrating cerebellar activations in higher cognitive domains involving emotion, executive function, language, music, timing and working memory. While largely consistent with a prior meta-analysis by Stoodley and Schmahmann ([2009]: Neuroimage 44:489-501), our results extended their findings to include music and timing domains to provide further insights into cerebellar involvement and elucidate its role in higher cognition. In addition, we conducted inter- and intradomain comparisons for the cognitive domains of emotion, language, and working memory. We also considered task differences within the domain of verbal working memory by conducting a comparison of the Sternberg with the n-back task, as well as an analysis of the differential components within the Sternberg task. Results showed a consistent cerebellar presence in the timing domain, providing evidence for a role in time keeping. Unique clusters identified within the domain further refine the topographic organization of the cerebellum. PMID:23125108

E, Keren-Happuch; Chen, Shen-Hsing Annabel; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Desmond, John E

2014-02-01

65

Maturation of Widely Distributed Brain Function Subserves Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive and brain maturational changes continue throughout late childhood and adolescence. During this time, increasing cognitive control over behavior enhances the voluntary suppression of reflexive\\/impulsive response tendencies. Recently, with the advent of functional MRI, it has become possible to characterize changes in brain activity during cognitive development. In order to investigate the cognitive and brain maturation subserving the ability to

Beatriz Luna; Keith R. Thulborn; Douglas P. Munoz; Elisha P. Merriam; Krista E. Garver; Nancy J. Minshew; Matcheri S. Keshavan; Christopher R. Genovese; William F. Eddy; John A. Sweeney

2001-01-01

66

Chronic Ambient Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure and Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

Background Exposures to hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) have been inconclusively linked to a variety of negative cognitive outcomes. We investigated possible effects on cognitive function in an urban population with chronic, low-level exposure to H2S. Methods Participants were 1,637 adults, aged 18-65 years from Rotorua city, New Zealand, exposed to ambient H2S from geothermal sources. Exposures at homes and workplaces were estimated from data collected by summer and winter H2S monitoring networks across Rotorua in 2010/11. Metrics for H2S exposure at the time of participation and for exposure over the last 30 years were calculated. H2S exposure was modeled both as continuous variables and as quartiles of exposure covering the range of 0 – 64 ppb (0-88 ?g/m3). Outcomes were neuropsychological tests measuring visual and verbal episodic memory, attention, fine motor skills, psychomotor speed and mood. Associations between cognition and measures of H2S exposure were investigated with multiple regression, while covarying demographics and factors known to be associated with cognitive performance. Results The consistent finding was of no association between H2S exposure and cognition. Quartiles of H2S exposure had a small association with simple reaction time: higher exposures were associated with faster response times. Similarly, for digit symbol, higher H2S exposures tended to be marginally associated with better performance. Conclusion The results provide evidence that chronic H2S exposure, at the ambient levels found in and around Rotorua, is not associated with impairment of cognitive function. PMID:24548790

Reed, Bruce R.; Crane, Julian; Garrett, Nick; Woods, David L.; Bates, Michael N.

2014-01-01

67

On higher genus Weierstrass sigma-function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this paper is to propose a new way to generalize the Weierstrass sigma-function to higher genus Riemann surfaces. Our definition of the odd higher genus sigma-function is based on a generalization of the classical representation of the elliptic sigma-function via the Jacobi theta-function. Namely, the odd higher genus sigma-function ??(u) (for u?Cg) is defined as a product of the theta-function with odd half-integer characteristic ??, associated with a spin line bundle ?, an exponent of a certain bilinear form, the determinant of a period matrix and a power of the product of all even theta-constants which are non-vanishing on a given Riemann surface. We also define an even sigma-function corresponding to an arbitrary even spin structure. Even sigma-functions are constructed as a straightforward analog of a classical formula relating even and odd sigma-functions. In higher genus the even sigma-functions are well-defined on the moduli space of Riemann surfaces outside of a subspace defined by vanishing of the corresponding even theta-constant.

Korotkin, D.; Shramchenko, V.

2012-12-01

68

Measuring cognitive function in mdd: emerging assessment tools.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment is emerging as an important therapeutic target in patients with psychiatric illnesses, including major depressive disorder (MDD). The objective of this general overview is to briefly review the evidence for cognitive impairment in MDD and to summarize a representative sample of cognitive assessment tools currently available to assess cognitive function in depressed patients. Study results in MDD patients with cognitive dysfunction are somewhat inconsistent, likely due to the heterogeneity of the disorder as well as the use of diverse assessment tools. Measuring cognitive changes in this population is challenging. Cognitive symptoms are typically less severe than in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, requiring greater sensitivity than afforded by existing tools. Preliminary evidence suggests antidepressant treatments may improve cognitive functioning as a direct result of ameliorating depressive symptoms; however, any procognitive effects have not been elucidated. To evaluate antidepressant efficacy in MDD patients with cognitive dysfunction, a standardized cognitive battery for use in clinical trials is essential. PMID:25421437

Russo, Manuela; Mahon, Katie; Burdick, Katherine E

2015-04-01

69

[Improving functional outcome of schizophrenia with cognitive remediation].  

PubMed

The functional outcome of schizophrenia is partly conditioned by cognitive disorders associated with this disease. The functional outcome of schizophrenia depends not only on psychotropic medications, but also on non-pharmacological measures and in particular on cognitive remediation. All patients suffering from schizophrenia should benefit from a multidisciplinary functional evaluation including neuropsychological assessment. The restitution of the functional evaluation's results values preserved skills rather than deficits. Cognitive remediation should be considered when cognitive disorders have a functional impact. It reduces the impact of the patient's cognitive disorders and improves the success of his/her concrete projects. PMID:25544348

Franck, Nicolas; Demily, Caroline

2015-03-01

70

Hostility and Change in Cognitive Function Over Time in Older Blacks and Whites  

PubMed Central

Objective To test whether the level of hostility predicted the rate of cognitive decline in a community of older Blacks and Whites and whether the association varied as a function of race. Methods Over 4800 persons from a defined community in Chicago completed up to three structured interviews at approximately 3 year intervals over a period of up to 8.8 years (mean = 4.4 years). At the baseline interview, hostility was assessed with 8-items from the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale. Cognitive function was assessed at each interview with four cognitive function tests from which a composite measure of cognition was formed. Mixed effects models were used to assess change in cognition and its relation to hostility, controlling for age, sex, education, and race. Results The average score on the hostility scale at baseline was 3.0 (SD = 2.1). Higher levels of hostility were associated with lower cognitive scores (estimate = ?0.028, SE = 0.004, p < .001). Cognition declined at a rate of 0.051 U per year on average, but hostility was not related to the rate of decline. Results were unchanged after controlling for depressive symptoms, chronic health, neuroticism, and social and cognitive activity patterns, or when persons with cognitive impairment at baseline were excluded. The association was similar in Blacks and Whites. Conclusion The results suggest that hostility is associated with level of cognitive function in older persons but not related to cognitive decline. PMID:19483119

Barnes, Lisa L.; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes; Bienias, Julia L.; Wilson, Robert S.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Evans, Denis A.

2009-01-01

71

Ability, Breadth, and Parsimony in Computational Models of Higher-Order Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computational models will play an important role in our understanding of human higher-order cognition. How can a model's contribution to this goal be evaluated? This article argues that three important aspects of a model of higher-order cognition to evaluate are (a) its ability to reason, solve problems, converse, and learn as well as people do;…

Cassimatis, Nicholas L.; Bello, Paul; Langley, Pat

2008-01-01

72

[Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].  

PubMed

Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders. PMID:17471820

Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Ma?gorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

2006-01-01

73

Common and specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: relationships to function  

E-print Network

Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia Symbol Coding and the Hopkins Verbal Learn- ing Test. Functional of cognitive paradigms that assess Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10Common and specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: relationships to function Julia M

74

The relationship between alcoholic cerebellar degeneration and cognitive and emotional functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is now widely acknowledged that the cerebellum contributes to the modulation of higher-order cognitive and emotional functions, this relationship has not been extensively explored in perhaps the largest group of individuals with cerebellar damage, chronic alcoholics. Localised damage to the cerebellum has been associated with a specific constellation of deficits and has been termed the ‘cerebellar cognitive affective

L. E. Fitzpatrick; M. Jackson; S. F. Crowe

2008-01-01

75

A cognitive neurobiological account of deception: evidence from functional neuroimaging.  

PubMed Central

An organism may use misinformation, knowingly (through deception) or unknowingly (as in the case of camouflage), to gain advantage in a competitive environment. From an evolutionary perspective, greater tactical deception occurs among primates closer to humans, with larger neocortices. In humans, the onset of deceptive behaviours in childhood exhibits a developmental trajectory, which may be regarded as 'normal' in the majority and deficient among a minority with certain neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). In the human adult, deception and lying exhibit features consistent with their use of 'higher' or 'executive' brain systems. Accurate detection of deception in humans may be of particular importance in forensic practice, while an understanding of its cognitive neurobiology may have implications for models of 'theory of mind' and social cognition, and societal notions of responsibility, guilt and mitigation. In recent years, functional neuroimaging techniques (especially functional magnetic resonance imaging) have been used to study deception. Though few in number, and using very different experimental protocols, studies published in the peer-reviewed literature exhibit certain consistencies. Attempted deception is associated with activation of executive brain regions (particularly prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices), while truthful responding has not been shown to be associated with any areas of increased activation (relative to deception). Hence, truthful responding may comprise a relative 'baseline' in human cognition and communication. The subject who lies may necessarily engage 'higher' brain centres, consistent with a purpose or intention (to deceive). While the principle of executive control during deception remains plausible, its precise anatomy awaits elucidation. PMID:15590616

Spence, Sean A; Hunter, Mike D; Farrow, Tom F D; Green, Russell D; Leung, David H; Hughes, Catherine J; Ganesan, Venkatasubramanian

2004-01-01

76

Novel television-based cognitive training improves working memory and executive function.  

PubMed

The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60-87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of "adequate" to "high" system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bureš, Vladimír

2014-01-01

77

Novel Television-Based Cognitive Training Improves Working Memory and Executive Function  

PubMed Central

The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60–87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of “adequate” to “high” system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bureš, Vladimír

2014-01-01

78

Fusion and Fission of Cognitive Functions in the Human Parietal Cortex.  

PubMed

How is higher cognitive function organized in the human parietal cortex? A century of neuropsychology and 30 years of functional neuroimaging has implicated the parietal lobe in many different verbal and nonverbal cognitive domains. There is little clarity, however, on how these functions are organized, that is, where do these functions coalesce (implying a shared, underpinning neurocomputation) and where do they divide (indicating different underlying neural functions). Until now, there has been no multi-domain synthesis in order to reveal where there is fusion or fission of functions in the parietal cortex. This aim was achieved through a large-scale activation likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis of 386 studies (3952 activation peaks) covering 8 cognitive domains. A tripartite, domain-general neuroanatomical division and 5 principles of cognitive organization were established, and these are discussed with respect to a unified theory of parietal functional organization. PMID:25205661

Humphreys, Gina F; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

2014-09-01

79

Comparison of Cognitive Functions Between Male and Female Medical Students: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background: There are gender differences in cognitive abilities. The major enigma is whether males or females perform better in various cognitive tasks. The reports were found to be contradictory. Studies have shown that oestrogen and testosterone accentuate cognitive functions. But the effects of progesterone on cognitive functions are still contradictory. Objective: To assess and compare the cognitive functions between male and female students. Methods: This study was conducted on healthy male (n=21) and female (n=21) volunteers who were aged between 19-37 years. Cognitive functions which were assessed in males (one time) and females (two times: during preovulatory and postovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle) were attentional: visual reaction time (VRT) and Go/No-Go VRT; perceptual: fast counting (FC), executive: Erisken Flanker Test (EFT) and Stroop Test (ST), and working memory. Data were compared by using Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Cognitive functions in female preovulatory phase were comparable to male cognitive functions. In addition, the female postovulatory phase cognitive functions were also similar to those of males in all the tasks, except those seen in VRT and ST. Male performed better than females in VRT (M: 331.66 ms, IQR: 286.99-375.33 vs. M: 367.8 ms, IQR: 340.66-435.66; p=0.05). However, in ST, females showed higher accuracies in reading colour interferences than males (M: 100%, IQR: 95.12-100 vs. M: 95.24%, IQR: 86.36-100; p=0.04). In addition, males showed trend of a poorer performance than females in Go/No-Go VRT, ST colour reading normal time and interference time and in working-memory time. Conclusion: Male cognitive functions were comparable to female preovulatory phase cognitive functions. However, females, during postovulatory phase of their cycle, may have advantages in executive tasks (Stroop test) and disadvantages in attentional tasks (VRT), as compared to males. PMID:25120970

Guragain, Sanjeev

2014-01-01

80

Cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions affecting physical functioning: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitive function through behavioral interventions or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments that are similar to cognitive impairments seen in aging. The aim was to identify potentially promising methods that might be used in future intervention type studies for older adults. Methods A systematic search was conducted for the Medline/Premedline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. The search was focused on older adults over the age of 65. To increase the number of articles for review, we also included those discussing adult patients with neurological impairments due to trauma, as these cognitive impairments are similar to those seen in the aging population. The search was restricted to English, German and French language literature without any limitation of publication date or restriction by study design. Cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions were defined as dual-tasking, virtual reality exercise, cognitive exercise, or a combination of these. Results 28 articles met our inclusion criteria. Three articles used an isolated cognitive rehabilitation intervention, seven articles used a dual-task intervention and 19 applied a computerized intervention. There is evidence to suggest that cognitive or motor-cognitive methods positively affects physical functioning, such as postural control, walking abilities and general functions of the upper and lower extremities, respectively. The majority of the included studies resulted in improvements of the assessed functional outcome measures. Conclusions The current evidence on the effectiveness of cognitive or motor-cognitive interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments is limited. The heterogeneity of the studies published so far does not allow defining the training methodology with the greatest effectiveness. This review nevertheless provides important foundational information in order to encourage further development of novel cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions, preferably with a randomized control design. Future research that aims to examine the relation between improvements in cognitive skills and the translation to better performance on selected physical tasks should explicitly take the relation between the cognitive and physical skills into account. PMID:21651800

2011-01-01

81

Plasma vitamin D levels and cognitive function in aging women: the Nurses’ Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin D may play a role in preserving cognitive function. However, there is a paucity of prospective studies on the relationship between vitamin D and cognition with aging. The aim of this study was to examine the association between plasma levels of vitamin D and subsequent cognitive function. Methods This is a prospective study including 1,185 women aged 60–70 years from the Nurses’ Health Study, who had plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels measured in 1989–1990 and completed an initial Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status approximately 9 years later. Subsequently, three follow-up cognitive assessments were conducted at 1.5–2.0 years intervals. We used multivariable-adjusted linear regression to model initial cognitive function, and mixed linear regression to model change in cognitive function over time. Results Lower vitamin D levels were associated with significantly worse cognitive function 9 years later. For example, the mean global composite score averaging all the cognitive tests was 0.20 lower (95% Confidence Interval (CI):?0.33,?0.08; p-trend=0.009) in women in the lowest quintile (median=14.1 ng/mL) compared with women in the highest quintile of vitamin D (median=38.4 ng/mL). The observed differences were equivalent to the effect estimates we found for women who were approximately 4–6 years apart in age. However, vitamin D levels were not significantly associated with subsequent cognitive decline during 6 years of follow-up. Conclusions Higher levels of plasma vitamin D in women aged 60–70 years were associated with better cognitive function about a decade later but were not associated with cognitive decline during 6 years of follow-up. PMID:24676321

Bartali, Benedetta; Devore, Elizabeth; Grodstein, Francine; Kang, Jae H.

2014-01-01

82

Higher Twist Effects in Parton Fragmentation Functions  

E-print Network

We study twist expansions for parton fragmentation functions based on the definition of the twist as an invariant matrix element of a light-cone, bilocal operator. The results are then applied to a method which might be used to extract higher twist effects in the fragmentation sector using both $e^+ e^-$, and $e^- p$ collisions. We discuss how to apply the later measurements to experiments at the Jefferson National Acceleration Facility.

Guanghua Xu; Ed V. Hungerford; Larry Pinsky

2005-05-19

83

Cognitive and functional status in the extreme longevity.  

PubMed

Usually, the effects of cognitive decline are not noted before the age of 70 years, which involve the intellectual capacities, the attention, the processes of elaboration and the memory. The studies on the cognitive disturbances of the elderly are numerous, and document the progressive increase of cerebral deterioration with advancing age. However, only a few studies refer to the significance of the cognitive disturbances in the clinical conditions and autonomy of the long living subjects. For this reason, we studied the cerebral deterioration of an adequate number of centenarians in correlation with their clinical conditions and autonomy. Our centenarian sample derived from the Italian multi-center study on centenarians (IMUSCE), which was an epidemiological study which identified 1173 centenarians (202 males, 971 females) in the age range of 100-109 years. From this sample, we analyzed 346 subjects as far as the cognitive functions and the degree of autonomy by using the psychometric tests of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) for the functional evaluations. In addition, we evaluated the clinical conditions of the subjects dividing them in three groups: Group A (those in good clinical conditions), Group B (those in discrete clinical conditions), and Group C (those in deteriorated clinical conditions). These analyses revealed that 187 (54.1%) of the 346 examined centenarians have shown an MMSE score in the normal range (score ratio from 1.0 to 0.63). The cognitive disorders are present in the centenarians in a clearly higher frequency (13.1%), than found in the common elderly (5.1%). The severe cognitive disorders do not allow a total autonomy or even a slight dependency. Only six subjects (1.7%) of the total sample were totally independent. These subjects had no cognitive disorders, and were in good clinical conditions. The results show that having an MMSE score in the normal range, and being in good clinical conditions are necessary but not sufficient prerequisites for a total autonomy in the IADL scores. PMID:17583363

Motta, M; Ferlito, L; Magnolfi, S U; Petruzzi, E; Pinzani, P; Malentacchi, F; Petruzzi, I; Bennati, E; Malaguarnera, M

2008-01-01

84

Lifestyle Engagement Affects Cognitive Status Differences and Trajectories on Executive Functions in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

The authors first examined the concurrent moderating role of lifestyle engagement on the relation between cognitive status (cognitively elite, cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and executive functioning (EF) in older adults. Second, the authors examined whether baseline participation in lifestyle activities predicted differential 4.5-year stabilities and transitions in cognitive status. Participants (initial N = 501; 53–90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. EF was represented by a 1-factor structure. Lifestyle activities were measured in multiple domains of engagement (e.g., cognitive, physical, and social). Two-wave status stability groups included sustained normal aging, transitional early impairment, and chronic impairment. Hierarchical regressions showed that baseline participation in social activities moderated cognitive status differences in EF. CI adults with high (but not low) social engagement performed equivalently to CN adults on EF. Longitudinally, logistic regressions showed that engagement in physical activities was a significant predictor of stability of cognitive status. CI adults who were more engaged in physical activities were more likely to improve in their cognitive status over time than their more sedentary peers. Participation in cognitive activities was a significant predictor of maintenance in a higher cognitive status group. Given that lifestyle engagement plays a detectable role in healthy, normal, and impaired neuropsychological aging, further research in activity-related associations and interventions is recommended. PMID:24323561

de Frias, Cindy M.; Dixon, Roger A.

2014-01-01

85

Homocysteine and Cognitive Function in Geriatric Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives: Cognitive dysfunction is a common aspect of the spectrum of symptoms of geriatric depression. High homocysteine levels have been linked to cognitive decline in neuropsychiatric disorders. The present study investigated possible associations between cognitive impairment observed in geriatric depression and homocysteine levels. Methods: The performance of 25 mentally healthy individuals and 40 patients with geriatric depression in terms of

P. Alexopoulos; S. Topalidis; G. Irmisch; K. Prehn; S. U. Jung; K. Poppe; H. Sebb; R. Perneczky; A. Kurz; S. Bleich; S. C. Herpertz

2010-01-01

86

Measuring Cognitive Function: An Empirical Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of a Cognitive Measure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Herzog and Wallace (A. Herzog and R. Wallace, 1997) discussed a measure designed to assess the cognitive functioning of older adults who participated in the study formerly known as the Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD). The measure derived from four well-known tests of cognitive functioning, but improves on them by combining…

Witta, E. Lea; Sivo, Stephen A.

87

Neurologic, Functional and Cognitive Stroke Outcomes in Mexican Americans  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: Our objective was to compare neurologic, functional, and cognitive stroke outcomes in Mexican Americans (MAs) and non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) using data from a population-based study. Methods: Ischemic strokes (2008-2012) were identified from the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project. Data were collected from patient or proxy interviews (conducted at baseline and 90 days post-stroke) and medical records. Ethnic differences in neurologic (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), range 0-44, higher scores worse), functional (activities of daily living (ADL)/instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) score, range 1-4, higher scores worse), and cognitive (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MSE), range 0-100, lower scores worse) outcomes were assessed with Tobit or linear regression adjusted for demographics and clinical factors. Results: 513, 510, and 415 subjects had complete data for neurologic, functional and cognitive outcomes and covariates, respectively. Median age was 66 (IQR: 57-78); 64% were MA. In MAs, median NIHSS, ADL/IADL and 3MSE score were 3 (IQR: 1-6), 2.5 (IQR: 1.6-3.5) and 88 (IQR: 76-94), respectively. MAs scored 48% worse (95% CI: 23%-78%) on NIHSS, 0.36 points worse (95% CI: 0.16-0.57) on ADL/IADL score, and 3.39 points worse (95% CI: 0.35-6.43) on 3MSE than NHWs after multivariable adjustment. Conclusions: MAs scored worse than NHWs on all outcomes after adjustment for confounding factors; differences were only partially explained by ethnic differences in survival. These findings in combination with the increased stroke risk in MAs suggest that the public health burden of stroke in this growing population is substantial. PMID:24627112

Lisabeth, Lynda D; Sánchez, Brisa N; Baek, Jonggyu; Skolarus, Lesli E; Smith, Melinda A; Garcia, Nelda; Brown, Devin L; Morgenstern, Lewis B

2014-01-01

88

Family stress and adolescents' cognitive functioning: sleep as a protective factor.  

PubMed

We examined 2 sleep-wake parameters as moderators of the associations between exposure to family stressors and adolescent cognitive functioning. Participants were 252 school-recruited adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 66% European American, 34% African American). Youths reported on 3 dimensions of family stress: marital conflict, harsh parenting, and parental psychological control. Cognitive functioning was indexed through performance on the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Sleep minutes and efficiency were measured objectively using actigraphy. Toward identifying unique effects, path models controlled for 2 family stress variables while estimating the third. Analyses revealed that sleep efficiency moderated the associations between negative parenting (harsh parenting and parental psychological control) and adolescents' cognitive functioning. The highest level of cognitive performance was predicted for adolescents with higher levels of sleep efficiency in conjunction with lower levels of either harsh parenting or psychological control. The effects of sleep were more pronounced at lower levels of negative parenting, in which adolescents with higher sleep efficiency performed better than their counterparts with poorer sleep. At higher levels of either harsh parenting or psychological control, similar levels of cognitive performance were observed regardless of sleep. Results are discussed in comparison with other recent studies on interrelations among family stress, sleep, and cognitive performance in childhood and adolescence. PMID:25329625

El-Sheikh, Mona; Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; Buckhalt, Joseph A

2014-12-01

89

Computer Use and the Relation between Age and Cognitive Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates whether computer use for leisure could mediate or moderate the relations between age and cognitive functioning. Findings supported smaller age differences in measures of cognitive functioning for people who reported spending more hours using a computer. Because of the cross-sectional design of the study, two alternative…

Soubelet, Andrea

2012-01-01

90

Trait Routinization, Functional and Cognitive Status in Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the associations between trait routinization and functional and cognitive as well as demographic indicators. A sample of American older adults living independently in a retirement community (n = 80) were assessed regarding their functional status, cognitive status, and preference for routine. Robust associations between…

Zisberg, Anna; Zysberg, Leehu; Young, Heather M.; Schepp, Karen G.

2009-01-01

91

Degree of musical expertise modulates higher order brain functioning.  

PubMed

Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show for the first time that levels of musical expertise stepwise modulate higher order brain functioning. This suggests that degree of training intensity drives such cerebral plasticity. Participants (non-musicians, amateurs, and expert musicians) listened to a comprehensive set of specifically composed string quartets with hierarchically manipulated endings. In particular, we implemented 2 irregularities at musical closure that differed in salience but were both within the tonality of the piece (in-key). Behavioral sensitivity scores (d') of both transgressions perfectly separated participants according to their level of musical expertise. By contrasting brain responses to harmonic transgressions against regular endings, functional brain imaging data showed compelling evidence for stepwise modulation of brain responses by both violation strength and expertise level in a fronto-temporal network hosting universal functions of working memory and attention. Additional independent testing evidenced an advantage in visual working memory for the professionals, which could be predicted by musical training intensity. The here introduced findings of brain plasticity demonstrate the progressive impact of musical training on cognitive brain functions that may manifest well beyond the field of music processing. PMID:22832388

Oechslin, Mathias S; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Lazeyras, François; Hauert, Claude-Alain; James, Clara E

2013-09-01

92

Cerebrovascular markers in lowered cognitive function.  

PubMed

Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of age-related cognitive decline and dementia. The identification of cognitive-related cerebrovascular markers is crucial in the early detection of individuals at high risk of cognitive decline. In vivo markers of CVD can help to characterize the underlying pathology, stage the progression of the disease, as well as identify and monitor candidates who could benefit from preventive interventions. We review the most common cerebrovascular markers of cognitive decline in subclinical individuals. These include neuroimaging, sonographic, and blood markers. PMID:25190627

Mataró, Maria; Soriano-Raya, Juan José; López-Olóriz, Jorge; Miralbell, Júlia; Dacosta-Aguayo, Rosalia

2014-01-01

93

Higher risk of progression to dementia in mild cognitive impairment cases who revert to normal  

PubMed Central

Objective: To estimate rates of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia and of reversion from MCI to being cognitively normal (CN) in a population-based cohort. Methods: Participants (n = 534, aged 70 years and older) enrolled in the prospective Mayo Clinic Study of Aging were evaluated at baseline and every 15 months to identify incident MCI or dementia. Results: Over a median follow-up of 5.1 years, 153 of 534 participants (28.7%) with prevalent or incident MCI progressed to dementia (71.3 per 1,000 person-years). The cumulative incidence of dementia was 5.4% at 1 year, 16.1% at 2, 23.4% at 3, 31.1% at 4, and 42.5% at 5 years. The risk of dementia was elevated in MCI cases (hazard ratio [HR] 23.2, p < 0.001) compared with CN subjects. Thirty-eight percent (n = 201) of MCI participants reverted to CN (175.0/1,000 person-years), but 65% subsequently developed MCI or dementia; the HR was 6.6 (p < 0.001) compared with CN subjects. The risk of reversion was reduced in subjects with an APOE ?4 allele (HR 0.53, p < 0.001), higher Clinical Dementia Rating Scale–Sum of Boxes (HR 0.56, p < 0.001), and poorer cognitive function (HR 0.56, p < 0.001). The risk was also reduced in subjects with amnestic MCI (HR 0.70, p = 0.02) and multidomain MCI (HR 0.61, p = 0.003). Conclusions: MCI cases, including those who revert to CN, have a high risk of progressing to dementia. This suggests that diagnosis of MCI at any time has prognostic value. PMID:24353333

Roberts, Rosebud O.; Knopman, David S.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Cha, Ruth H.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Christianson, Teresa J.H.; Geda, Yonas E.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Tangalos, Eric G.; Rocca, Walter A.

2014-01-01

94

PERFORMANCE OF A COMPUTER-BASED ASSESSMENT OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION MEASURES IN TWO COHORTS OF SENIORS  

PubMed Central

Background Computer-administered assessment of cognitive function is being increasingly incorporated in clinical trials, however its performance in these settings has not been systematically evaluated. Design The Seniors Health and Activity Research Program (SHARP) pilot trial (N=73) developed a computer-based tool for assessing memory performance and executive functioning. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Seniors (LIFE) investigators incorporated this battery in a full scale multicenter clinical trial (N=1635). We describe relationships that test scores have with those from interviewer-administered cognitive function tests and risk factors for cognitive deficits and describe performance measures (completeness, intra-class correlations). Results Computer-based assessments of cognitive function had consistent relationships across the pilot and full scale trial cohorts with interviewer-administered assessments of cognitive function, age, and a measure of physical function. In the LIFE cohort, their external validity was further demonstrated by associations with other risk factors for cognitive dysfunction: education, hypertension, diabetes, and physical function. Acceptable levels of data completeness (>83%) were achieved on all computer-based measures, however rates of missing data were higher among older participants (odds ratio=1.06 for each additional year; p<0.001) and those who reported no current computer use (odds ratio=2.71; p<0.001). Intra-class correlations among clinics were at least as low (ICC?0.013) as for interviewer measures (ICC?0.023), reflecting good standardization. All cognitive measures loaded onto the first principal component (global cognitive function), which accounted for 40% of the overall variance. Conclusion Our results support the use of computer-based tools for assessing cognitive function in multicenter clinical trials of older individuals. PMID:23589390

Espeland, Mark A.; Katula, Jeffrey A.; Rushing, Julia; Kramer, Arthur F.; Jennings, Janine M.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Nadkarni, Neelesh K.; Reid, Kieran F.; Castro, Cynthia M.; Church, Timothy; Kerwin, Diana R.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Marottoli, Richard A.; Rushing, Scott; Marsiske, Michael; Rapp, Stephen R.

2013-01-01

95

Effects of vitamins E and C combined with ?-carotene on cognitive function in the elderly  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of vitamins E (VE) and C (VC), combined with ?-carotene (?-C), on cognitive function in the elderly. A total of 276 elderly subjects completed the prospective study following treatment with VE, VC and different doses of ?-C or with VE only. Cognitive function was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS) tests. The plasma levels of amyloid-? (A?) and estradiol (E2) were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results from the MMSE and HDS assessments indicated that the treatment strategy of VE and VC combined with ?-C significantly improved cognitive function in the elderly subjects, particularly with higher doses of ?-C. Furthermore, RIA suggested that treatment with these vitamins could markedly reduce plasma A? levels and elevate plasma E2 levels. The present findings suggest that treatment with VE, VC and ?-C results in promising improvements in cognitive function in the elderly. PMID:25780457

LI, YONGHUA; LIU, SHUMEI; MAN, YIGANG; LI, NING; ZHOU, YU

2015-01-01

96

The effects of exercise under hypoxia on cognitive function.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence suggests that cognitive function improves during a single bout of moderate exercise. In contrast, exercise under hypoxia may compromise the availability of oxygen. Given that brain function and tissue integrity are dependent on a continuous and sufficient oxygen supply, exercise under hypoxia may impair cognitive function. However, it remains unclear how exercise under hypoxia affects cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise under different levels of hypoxia on cognitive function. Twelve participants performed a cognitive task at rest and during exercise at various fractions of inspired oxygen (FIO2: 0.209, 0.18, and 0.15). Exercise intensity corresponded to 60% of peak oxygen uptake under normoxia. The participants performed a Go/No-Go task requiring executive control. Cognitive function was evaluated using the speed of response (reaction time) and response accuracy. We monitored pulse oximetric saturation (SpO2) and cerebral oxygenation to assess oxygen availability. SpO2 and cerebral oxygenation progressively decreased during exercise as the FIO2 level decreased. Nevertheless, the reaction time in the Go-trial significantly decreased during moderate exercise. Hypoxia did not affect reaction time. Neither exercise nor difference in FIO2 level affected response accuracy. An additional experiment indicated that cognitive function was not altered without exercise. These results suggest that the improvement in cognitive function is attributable to exercise, and that hypoxia has no effects on cognitive function at least under the present experimental condition. Exercise-cognition interaction should be further investigated under various environmental and exercise conditions. PMID:23675496

Ando, Soichi; Hatamoto, Yoichi; Sudo, Mizuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Higaki, Yasuki

2013-01-01

97

Cognitive Training Improves Sleep Quality and Cognitive Function among Older Adults with Insomnia  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia. Design Participants (n?=?51) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n?=?34) or to an active control group (n?=?17). The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated. Setting Community setting: residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65–85). Interventions Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia. Results Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency) and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming). Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved “avoiding distractions” is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep. Conclusions New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and maintenance of sleep in older adults with insomnia. Lasting and personalized cognitive training is particularly indicated to generate the type of learning necessary for combined cognitive and sleep enhancements in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00901641 PMID:23577218

Haimov, Iris; Shatil, Evelyn

2013-01-01

98

Optimal Blood Pressure for Cognitive Function: Findings from an Elderly African-American Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background/ Objectives The relationship between late-life blood pressure (BP) and cognitive function in the elderly is poorly understood. Inconsistent results have been reported from existing studies. We report the results from a prospective cohort study on the association between BP and cognitive function in elderly African Americans. Design Prospective cohort study conducted from 1997 to 2009. Setting Community-based study in Indianapolis. Participants 3145 African Americans aged 65 years or older. Measurements At each assessment, participants’ cognitive function was measured by the Community Screening Interview for Dementia score. Other measurements included BP, height, weight, education level, antihypertensive medication use, alcohol use, smoking and histories of chronic medical conditions. Results 5995 longitudinal assessments contributed by 2721 participants with complete independent variables were analyzed using a semiparametric mixed effects model. Systolic BP around 135 mmHg and diastolic BP around 80 mmHg were associated with optimal cognitive function after adjusting for other variables (P = 0.019). Weight loss with body mass index less than 30 kg/m2 was significantly related to poorer cognitive performance (P < 0.001). Older age at first assessment, lower education level, smoking, histories of depression, stroke and diabetes mellitus were related to worse cognitive function, while taking antihypertensive medication and drinking alcohol were associated with higher cognitive scores. Conclusion Both high and low BP levels were associated with poorer cognitive performance. A joint optimal region of systolic and diastolic BP for cognitive function has been identified, which may provide useful clinical information on optimal BP control in cognitive health and lead to improved quality of life for the elderly. PMID:23647314

Liu, Hai; Gao, Sujuan; Hall, Kathleen S.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Lane, Kathleen A.; Callahan, Christopher M.; Hendrie, Hugh C.

2013-01-01

99

Assessment of Higher Order Thinking Skills. Current Perspectives on Cognition, Learning and Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume examines the assessment of higher order thinking skills from the perspectives of applied cognitive psychology and measurement theory. The volume considers a variety of higher order thinking skills, including problem solving, critical thinking, argumentation, decision making, creativity, metacognition, and self-regulation. Fourteen…

Schraw, Gregory, Ed.; Robinson, Daniel H., Ed.

2011-01-01

100

The kidney disease quality of life cognitive function subscale and cognitive performance maintenance hemodialysis patients  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Cognitive impairment is common but often undiagnosed in patients with end-stage renal disease, in part reflecting limited validated and easily administered tools to assess cognitive function in dialysis patients. Accordingly, we assessed the utility of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life ...

101

Higher-order social cognition in first-episode major depression.  

PubMed

Patients suffering from major depression experience difficulties in multiple cognitive faculties. A growing body of research has linked affective disorders to abnormalities in social cognition and specifically the processing of discrete emotional stimuli. However, little inquiry has gone into possible impairment in higher-order social cognition including theory of mind, social perception and metacognition. Forty-four medication-naïve patients with first-episode unipolar major depressive disorder and an equal number of matched controls were assessed by the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated (MAS-A), The Frith-Happé animations (FHA) and The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT). Additionally, neurocognition was assessed utilyzing the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Depressed patients showed impairment in all domains of higher-order social cognitive ability. Importantly, social cognitive variables retained their inter-group significance after controlling for possible covariates including neurocognition. Results indicate that first-episode depressed patients experience difficulties in all domains of higher-order social cognition including theory of mind, social perception and metacognition. PMID:24524945

Ladegaard, Nicolai; Larsen, Erik Roj; Videbech, Poul; Lysaker, Paul H

2014-04-30

102

The Association between Daytime Napping and Cognitive Functioning in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objectives The precise relationship between sleep and physical and mental functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been examined directly, nor has the impact of daytime napping. This study aimed to examine self-reported sleep in patients with CFS and explore whether sleep quality and daytime napping, specific patient characteristics (gender, illness length) and levels of anxiety and depression, predicted daytime fatigue severity, levels of daytime sleepiness and cognitive functioning, all key dimensions of the illness experience. Methods 118 adults meeting the 1994 CDC case criteria for CFS completed a standardised sleep diary over 14 days. Momentary functional assessments of fatigue, sleepiness, cognition and mood were completed by patients as part of usual care. Levels of daytime functioning and disability were quantified using symptom assessment tools, measuring fatigue (Chalder Fatigue Scale), sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), cognitive functioning (Trail Making Test, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire), and mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Results Hierarchical Regressions demonstrated that a shorter time since diagnosis, higher depression and longer wake time after sleep onset predicted 23.4% of the variance in fatigue severity (p <.001). Being male, higher depression and more afternoon naps predicted 25.6% of the variance in objective cognitive dysfunction (p <.001). Higher anxiety and depression and morning napping predicted 32.2% of the variance in subjective cognitive dysfunction (p <.001). When patients were classified into groups of mild and moderate sleepiness, those with longer daytime naps, those who mainly napped in the afternoon, and those with higher levels of anxiety, were more likely to be in the moderately sleepy group. Conclusions Napping, particularly in the afternoon is associated with poorer cognitive functioning and more daytime sleepiness in CFS. These findings have clinical implications for symptom management strategies. PMID:25575044

Gotts, Zoe M.; Ellis, Jason G.; Deary, Vincent; Barclay, Nicola; Newton, Julia L.

2015-01-01

103

Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

1986-01-01

104

Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and physiological (heart…

Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

2010-01-01

105

Minimal effects of severe depression on cognitive functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe and psychotic depression which grossly disables the patient socially, could be expected to impair his cognitive-perceptual functioning significantly, and is generally considered to do so. To test this hypothesis, 55 depressives and 65 normals were matched for age, sex, education, vocabulary score, and nativity, and were tested on 33 cognitive, perceptual, and psychomotor tests, yielding 82 test scores. The

Alfred S. Friedman

1964-01-01

106

The relationship between blood pressure and cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between blood pressure (BP) and cognitive outcomes in elderly adults has implications for global health care. Both hypertension and hypotension affect brain perfusion and worsen cognitive outcomes. The presence of hypertension and other vascular risk factors has been associated with decreased performance in executive function and attention tests. Cerebrovascular reserve has emerged as a potential biomarker for monitoring

Ihab Hajjar; Vera Novak

2010-01-01

107

Cognitive functioning, weight change and therapy in anorexia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anorexia nervosa is associated with impairments in cognitive function which have been hypothesized to be fundamentally attentional in nature. The current study investigated whether therapy and weight gain affect these impairments. A group of anorexics (N = 12) completed a battery of cognitive performance tasks and self-report measures of psychopathology on three occasions, over the course of 12 weeks of

Michael W. Green; Nicola A. Elliman; Anthony Wakeling; Peter J. Rogers

1996-01-01

108

Effects of Donepezil on Cognitive Functioning in Down Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Donepezil, an acetycholinesterase inhibitor, or a placebo were given to 29 subjects with Down syndrome and no dementia. Measures of cognitive functioning and caregiver ratings indicated no improvement in any cognitive subtests (with the exception of language), behavioral scores, or caregiver ratings. Results suggest donepezil may improve language…

Johnson, N.; Fahey, C.; Chicoine, B.; Chong, G.; Gitelman, D.

2003-01-01

109

Social cognition in psychosis: multidimensional structure, clinical correlates, and relationship with functional outcome.  

PubMed

Social cognitive impairments are common, detectable across a wide range of tasks, and appear to play a key role in explaining poor outcome in schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. However, little is known about the underlying factor structure of social cognition in people with psychotic disorders due to a lack of exploratory factor analyses using a relatively comprehensive social cognitive assessment battery. In a sample of 85 outpatients with psychosis, we examined the factor structure and clinical/functional correlates of eight indexes derived from five social cognition tasks that span the domains of emotional processing, social perception, attributional style, and Theory of Mind. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors with relatively low inter-correlations that explained a total of 54% of the variance: (1) Hostile attributional style, (2) Lower-level social cue detection, and (3) Higher-level inferential and regulatory processes. None of the factors showed significant correlations with negative symptoms. Factor 1 significantly correlated with clinical symptoms (positive, depression-anxiety, agitation) but not functional outcome, whereas Factors 2 and 3 significantly correlated with functional outcome (functional capacity and real-world social and work functioning) but not clinical symptoms. Furthermore, Factor 2 accounted for unique incremental variance in functional capacity, above and beyond non-social neurocognition (measured with MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery) and negative symptoms. Results suggest that multiple separable dimensions of social cognition can be identified in psychosis, and these factors show distinct patterns of correlation with clinical features and functional outcome. PMID:21112743

Mancuso, Francesco; Horan, William P; Kern, Robert S; Green, Michael F

2011-02-01

110

Neuroanatomical correlates of cognitive functioning in prodromal Huntington disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction The brain mechanisms of cognitive impairment in prodromal Huntington disease (prHD) are not well understood. Although striatal atrophy correlates with some cognitive abilities, few studies of prHD have investigated whether cortical gray matter morphometry correlates in a regionally specific manner with functioning in different cognitive domains. This knowledge would inform the selection of cognitive measures for clinical trials that would be most sensitive to the target of a treatment intervention. Method In this study, random forest analysis was used to identify neuroanatomical correlates of functioning in five cognitive domains including attention and information processing speed, working memory, verbal learning and memory, negative emotion recognition, and temporal processing. Participants included 325 prHD individuals with varying levels of disease progression and 119 gene-negative controls with a family history of HD. In intermediate analyses, we identified brain regions that showed significant differences between the prHD and the control groups in cortical thickness and striatal volume. Brain morphometry in these regions was then correlated with cognitive functioning in each of the domains in the prHD group using random forest methods. We hypothesized that different regional patterns of brain morphometry would be associated with performances in distinct cognitive domains. Results The results showed that performances in different cognitive domains that are vulnerable to decline in prHD were correlated with regionally specific patterns of cortical and striatal morphometry. Putamen and/or caudate volumes were top-ranked correlates of performance across all cognitive domains, as was cortical thickness in regions related to the processing demands of each domain. Conclusions The results underscore the importance of identifying structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) markers of functioning in different cognitive domains, as their relative sensitivity depends on the extent to which processing is called upon by different brain networks. The findings have implications for identifying neuroimaging and cognitive outcome measures for use in clinical trials. PMID:24653952

Harrington, Deborah L; Liu, Dawei; Smith, Megan M; Mills, James A; Long, Jeffrey D; Aylward, Elizabeth H; Paulsen, Jane S

2014-01-01

111

Enhancement of cognitive and neural functions through complex reasoning training: evidence from normal and clinical populations  

PubMed Central

Public awareness of cognitive health is fairly recent compared to physical health. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training offers promise in augmenting cognitive brain performance in normal and clinical populations. Targeting higher-order cognitive functions, such as reasoning in particular, may promote generalized cognitive changes necessary for supporting the complexities of daily life. This data-driven perspective highlights cognitive and brain changes measured in randomized clinical trials that trained gist reasoning strategies in populations ranging from teenagers to healthy older adults, individuals with brain injury to those at-risk for Alzheimer's disease. The evidence presented across studies support the potential for Gist reasoning training to strengthen cognitive performance in trained and untrained domains and to engage more efficient communication across widespread neural networks that support higher-order cognition. The meaningful benefits of Gist training provide compelling motivation to examine optimal dose for sustained benefits as well as to explore additive benefits of meditation, physical exercise, and/or improved sleep in future studies. PMID:24808834

Chapman, Sandra B.; Mudar, Raksha A.

2014-01-01

112

Enhancement of cognitive and neural functions through complex reasoning training: evidence from normal and clinical populations.  

PubMed

Public awareness of cognitive health is fairly recent compared to physical health. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training offers promise in augmenting cognitive brain performance in normal and clinical populations. Targeting higher-order cognitive functions, such as reasoning in particular, may promote generalized cognitive changes necessary for supporting the complexities of daily life. This data-driven perspective highlights cognitive and brain changes measured in randomized clinical trials that trained gist reasoning strategies in populations ranging from teenagers to healthy older adults, individuals with brain injury to those at-risk for Alzheimer's disease. The evidence presented across studies support the potential for Gist reasoning training to strengthen cognitive performance in trained and untrained domains and to engage more efficient communication across widespread neural networks that support higher-order cognition. The meaningful benefits of Gist training provide compelling motivation to examine optimal dose for sustained benefits as well as to explore additive benefits of meditation, physical exercise, and/or improved sleep in future studies. PMID:24808834

Chapman, Sandra B; Mudar, Raksha A

2014-01-01

113

The association of healthful diets and cognitive function: a review.  

PubMed

The association of diet with mild cognitive impairment has not been extensively studied. Consumption of a healthful diet may help to attenuate age-related decline in older adults. Published studies have suggested that greater adherence to a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern is associated with a lower risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and with a slower rate of cognitive decline with age. However, published findings are inconsistent. The discrepancies most likely can be explained by the variations in both dietary and cognitive methodologies. It is not clear how diet contributes to the development of neurocognitive changes with age. This review will update available knowledge on the relationship between adherence to healthful diets and cognition and document the need for researchers to adopt more coherent and uniform methodology to allow for better quantification of the association of diet with cognitive function. There appears to be a relationship between diet and cognition. PMID:24827060

Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Allegro, Deanne; Stave, Emily

2014-01-01

114

Yizhi Xingnao prescription improves the cognitive function of patients after a transient ischemic attack?  

PubMed Central

Patients with mild cognitive impairment after a transient ischemic attack were included in this study. They were treated with Yizhi Xingnao prescription, ergoloid mesylates or aspirin for 60 days. Evaluation using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale showed that cognitive function was significantly improved in all patients, especially after the combined treatment of Yizhi Xingnao and aspirin. The scores from the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale were improved overall and the effective treatment rate was as high as 79%, which was higher than patients treated with a combination of ergoloid mesylates and aspirin, or aspirin alone. Our experimental findings indicate that Yizhi Xingnao prescription can improve mild cognitive impairment after a transient ischemic attack, and that it is more effective than ergoloid mesylates.

Jiang, Donglin; Chu, Xing; Hu, Lingling; Jiang, Shengyang; Hu, Feng; Sun, Junming; Li, Chengwan

2012-01-01

115

Dance and cognitive functioning in Parkinson's disease   

E-print Network

Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is commonly accompanied by reduced health related quality of life (HRQoL) and cognitive decline which decreases participation in activities of daily living. Moreover, worsened motor ...

Michalska, Beata

2012-11-28

116

Abnormal cortisol awakening response predicts worse cognitive function in patients with first-episode psychosis  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive impairment, particularly in memory and executive function, is a core feature of psychosis. Moreover, psychosis is characterized by a more prominent history of stress exposure, and by dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. In turn, stress exposure and abnormal levels of the main HPA axis hormone cortisol are associated with cognitive impairments in a variety of clinical and experimental samples; however, this association has never been examined in first-episode psychosis (FEP). Method In this study, 30 FEP patients and 26 controls completed assessment of the HPA axis (cortisol awakening response and cortisol levels during the day), perceived stress, recent life events, history of childhood trauma, and cognitive function. The neuropsychological battery comprised general cognitive function, verbal and non-verbal memory, executive function, perception, visuospatial abilities, processing speed, and general knowledge. Results Patients performed significantly worse on all cognitive domains compared to controls. In patients only, a more blunted cortisol awakening response (that is, more abnormal) was associated with a more severe deficit in verbal memory and processing speed. In controls only, higher levels of perceived stress and more recent life events were associated with a worse performance in executive function and perception and visuospatial abilities. Conclusions These data support a role for the HPA axis, as measured by cortisol awakening response, in modulating cognitive function in patients with psychosis; however, this association does not seem to be related to the increased exposure to psychosocial stressors described in these patients. PMID:20529412

Aas, M.; Dazzan, P.; Mondelli, V.; Toulopoulou, T.; Reichenberg, A.; Di Forti, M.; Fisher, H. L.; Handley, R.; Hepgul, N.; Marques, T.; Miorelli, A.; Taylor, H.; Russo, M.; Wiffen, B.; Papadopoulos, A.; Aitchison, K. J.; Morgan, C.; Murray, R. M.; Pariante, C. M.

2010-01-01

117

Lead exposure and rate of change in cognitive function in older women  

PubMed Central

Background Higher long-term cumulative lead exposure predicts faster cognitive decline in older men, but evidence of an association in women is lacking. Objective To determine if there is an association between lead exposure and cognitive decline in women. Methods This study considers a sample of 584 women from the Nurses’ Health Study who live in or near Boston, Massachusetts. We quantified lead exposure using biomarkers of lead exposure assessed in 1993–2004 and evaluated cognitive decline by repeated performance on a telephone battery of cognitive tests primarily assessing learning, memory, executive function, and attention completed in 1995–2008. All cognitive test scores were z-transformed for use in analyses. We used linear mixed models with random effects to quantify the association between each lead biomarker and change in cognition overall and on each individual test. Results Consideration of individual tests showed greater cognitive decline with increased tibia lead concentrations, a measure of long-term cumulative exposure, for story memory and category fluency. The estimated excess annual decline in overall cognitive test z-score per SD increase in tibia bone lead concentration was suggestive, although the confidence intervals included the null (0.024 standard units, 95% confidence interval: ?0.053 , 0.004 – an additional decline in function equivalent to being 0.33 years older). We found little support for associations between cognitive decline and patella or blood lead, which provide integrated measures of exposure over shorter timeframes. Conclusions Long-term cumulative lead exposure may be weakly associated with faster cognitive decline in community-dwelling women, at least in some cognitive domains. PMID:24529005

Power, Melinda C; Korrick, Susan; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Nie, Linda H; Grodstein, Francine; Hu, Howard; Weuve, Jennifer; Schwartz, Joel; Weisskopf, Marc G

2014-01-01

118

Impact of fMRI Environment on Cognitive Function   

E-print Network

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an increasingly important tool in psychological research, but its reliability is somewhat undermined by concerns about the fMRI environment’s impact on cognition. The unusual scanner environment...

Sim, Tony

2011-01-01

119

Monitoring cognitive functioning: psychometric properties of the brief test of adult cognition by telephone.  

PubMed

Assessment of cognitive functioning is an important component of telephone surveys of health. Previous cognitive telephone batteries have been limited in scope with a primary focus on dementia screening. The Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT) assesses multiple dimensions central for effective functioning across adulthood: episodic memory, working memory, reasoning, verbal fluency, and executive function. The BTACT is the first instrument that includes measures of processing speed, reaction time, and task-switching/inhibitory control for use over the telephone. We administered the battery to a national sample (N = 4,268), age 32 to 84 years, from the study of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) and examined age, education, and sex differences; reliability; and factor structure. We found good evidence for construct validity with a subsample tested in person. Implications of the findings are considered for efficient neuropsychological assessment and monitoring changes in cognitive aging, for clinical and research applications by telephone or in person. PMID:24322011

Lachman, Margie E; Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Tun, Patricia A; Weaver, Suzanne L

2014-08-01

120

Cognitive Longitudinal Predictors of Older Adults’ Self-Reported IADL Function  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine basic and everyday cognitive predictors of older adults’ self-reported instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Methods Basic and everyday cognitive predictors of self-reported IADL were examined in a sample of healthy, community-dwelling older adults (n = 698) assessed over five years of measurement. Results Multilevel longitudinal analyses revealed linear and quadratic change trends for self-reported IADL function, with steeper declines at higher ages. Within-person, when participants exhibited lower cognitive performance, they also reported more IADL impairment. Everyday cognition remained a significant unique predictor of self-reported IADL after controlling for attrition, re-sampling effects, temporal gradients, and baseline levels and changes in demographic, sensory, functional, and basic cognitive measures. Discussion By itself, everyday cognition appears to be an important predictor of self-reported IADL, and maintains a unique predictive contribution after many covariates are controlled. Future research should consider the inclusion of everyday cognitive measures in functional assessment batteries. PMID:24385635

Yam, Anna; Marsiske, Michael

2013-01-01

121

Cognitive and symptomatic predictors of functional disability in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Neurocognition and negative symptoms play a major role in predicting functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. Few studies have assessed the relationship between functional outcomes and the MATRICS consensus cognition battery (MCCB), which will be central to future clinical trials of cognitive enhancing agents. Aims To assess the role of individual MCCB domains on functional outcomes. Method 185 stable outpatients with schizophrenia were enrolled and assessed with the MCCB, Social Adjustment Scale-II (SAS-II) and Multidimensional Scale for Independent Functioning (MSIF), along with BPRS and SANS. Results We found significant relationships between MCCB neurocognitive domain scores, negative symptoms and aspects of functional outcome in schizophrenia. Specifically, we found that work/education functioning is predicted by working memory performance and negative symptoms; residential status (independent living) is predicted by verbal memory scores; and social functioning is predicted by social cognition, attention and negative symptoms. We also found that negative symptom severity was not related to residential status, even though it demonstrated the predicted associations to work and social functioning. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess cognition and functional outcomes using MCCB, SAS II and MSIF. Our results extend prior work and help provide more data on the relationships between cognition, symptoms and functional outcome using “real world” measures. PMID:20828991

Shamsi, Syed; Lau, Adam; Lencz, Todd; Burdick, Katherine E.; DeRosse, Pamela; Brenner, Ron; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Malhotra, Anil K.

2011-01-01

122

Dietary Phytoestrogen Intake and Cognitive Function in Older Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Aging is associated with a decline in cognitive function; we explored the possible influence of dietary phytoestrogens on this decline. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 301 Dutch women aged 60-75 years. Dietary isoflavone and lignan intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire covering habitual diet in the year preceding enrolment. The endpoints were cognitive function measured in

Sanne Kreijkamp-Kaspers; Linda Kok; Diederick E. Grobbee; Edward H. F. de Haan; Yvonne T. van der Schouw

2007-01-01

123

Identifying similarities in cognitive subtest functional requirements: An empirical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the cognitive test interpretation literature, a Rational\\/Intuitive, Indirect Empirical, or Combined approach is typically used to construct conceptual taxonomies of the functional (behavioral) similarities between subtests. To address shortcomings of these approaches, the functional requirements for 49 subtests from six individually administered scales of cognitive ability (WISC-IV, WPPSI-III, SB-V, WJ-III, CAS, and UNIT) were typed on index cards. Forty-eight

Craig L. Frisby; Jason R. Parkin

2007-01-01

124

The cerebellum and cognition: evidence from functional imaging studies.  

PubMed

Evidence for a role of the human cerebellum in cognitive functions comes from anatomical, clinical and neuroimaging data. Functional neuroimaging reveals cerebellar activation during a variety of cognitive tasks, including language, visual-spatial, executive, and working memory processes. It is important to note that overt movement is not a prerequisite for cerebellar activation: the cerebellum is engaged during conditions which either control for motor output or do not involve motor responses. Resting-state functional connectivity data reveal that, in addition to networks underlying motor control, the cerebellum is part of "cognitive" networks with prefrontal and parietal association cortices. Consistent with these findings, regional differences in activation patterns within the cerebellum are evident depending on the task demands, suggesting that the cerebellum can be broadly divided into functional regions based on the patterns of anatomical connectivity between different regions of the cerebellum and sensorimotor and association areas of the cerebral cortex. However, the distinct contribution of the cerebellum to cognitive tasks is not clear. Here, the functional neuroimaging evidence for cerebellar involvement in cognitive functions is reviewed and related to hypotheses as to why the cerebellum is active during such tasks. Identifying the precise role of the cerebellum in cognition-as well as the mechanism by which the cerebellum modulates performance during a wide range of tasks-remains a challenge for future investigations. PMID:21373864

Stoodley, Catherine J

2012-06-01

125

Meta-analytic evidence for a superordinate cognitive control network subserving diverse executive functions  

PubMed Central

Classic cognitive theory conceptualizes executive functions as involving multiple specific domains, including initiation, inhibition, working memory, flexibility, planning, and vigilance. Lesion and neuroimaging experiments over the past two decades have suggested that both common and unique processes contribute to executive functions during higher cognition. It has been suggested that a superordinate fronto–cingulo–parietal network supporting cognitive control may also underlie a range of distinct executive functions. To test this hypothesis in the largest sample to date, we used quantitative meta-analytic methods to analyze 193 functional neuroimaging studies of 2,832 healthy individuals, ages 18–60, in which performance on executive function measures was contrasted with an active control condition. A common pattern of activation was observed in the prefrontal, dorsal anterior cingulate, and parietal cortices across executive function domains, supporting the idea that executive functions are supported by a superordinate cognitive control network. However, domain-specific analyses showed some variation in the recruitment of anterior prefrontal cortex, anterior and midcingulate regions, and unique subcortical regions such as the basal ganglia and cerebellum. These results are consistent with the existence of a superordinate cognitive control network in the brain, involving dorsolateral prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and parietal cortices, that supports a broad range of executive functions. PMID:22282036

Laird, Angela R.; Ray, Kimberly L.; Dean, Y. Monica; Glahn, David C.; Carter, Cameron S.

2013-01-01

126

The impact of constructivist teaching strategies on the acquisition of higher order cognition and learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative mixed design study was to compare the effectiveness of brain-based teaching strategies versus a traditional lecture format in the acquisition of higher order cognition as determined by test scores. A second purpose was to elicit student feedback about the two teaching approaches. The design was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design study

Alison Saricks Merrill

2008-01-01

127

Cardiac Modulation of Startle: Effects on Eye Blink and Higher Cognitive Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cardiac cycle time has been shown to affect pre-attentive brainstem startle processes, such as the magnitude of acoustically evoked reflexive startle eye blinks. These effects were attributed to baro-afferent feedback mechanisms. However, it remains unclear whether cardiac cycle time plays a role in higher startle-related cognitive processes, as…

Schulz, Andre; Reichert, Carolin F.; Richter, Steffen; Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Schachinger, Hartmut

2009-01-01

128

Weight change and cognitive function: findings from the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging.  

PubMed

Although studies exploring relationships between obesity and cognitive impairment in the elderly are conflicting, literature suggests that overweight and obesity may be protective against cognitive impairment and dementia in older women. We examine the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference (WC) with global and domain-specific cognitive function in a large, well-defined cohort of 2,283 older, postmenopausal women (aged 65-79) prospectively followed through the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Study of Cognitive Aging (WHISCA). We assessed the associations between changes in weight and WC collected up to 5 years before WHISCA enrollment and mean levels of global and domain-specific cognitive performance across an average of 5.4 years of subsequent follow-up. There was a lack of associations between weight and cognition in women who remained stable or gained weight. The only significant relationships observed were in association with weight loss (P ? 0.05), most likely signaling incipient disease. Moreover, cognition was not related to changes in WC. Relationships were largely independent of initial BMI, self-reported caloric intake or dieting. The lack of associations between weight gain and cognition in women is consistent with the existing literature. PMID:21394095

Driscoll, Ira; Espeland, Mark A; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Ding, Jingzhong; Granek, Iris A; Ockene, Judith K; Phillips, Lawrence S; Yaffe, Kristine; Resnick, Susan M

2011-08-01

129

Weight Change and Cognitive Function: Findings from the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging  

PubMed Central

Although studies exploring relationships between obesity and cognitive impairment in the elderly are conflicting, literature suggests that overweight and obesity may be protective against cognitive impairment and dementia in older women. We examine the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference with global and domain-specific cognitive function in a large, well-defined cohort of 2283 older, post-menopausal women (age 65-79) prospectively followed through the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Study of Cognitive Aging (WHISCA). We assessed the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference collected up to 5 years prior to WHISCA enrollment and mean levels of global and domain-specific cognitive performance across an average of 5.4 years of subsequent follow-up. There was a lack of associations between weight and cognition in women who remained stable or gained weight. The only significant relationships observed were in association with weight loss (p?0.05), most likely signaling incipient disease. Moreover, cognition was not related to changes in waist circumference. Relationships were largely independent of initial BMI, self-reported caloric intake or dieting. The lack of associations between weight gain and cognition in women is consistent with the existent literature. PMID:21394095

Driscoll, Ira; Espeland, Mark A.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Ding, Jingzhong; Granek, Iris; Ockene, Judith K.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Yaffe, Kristine; Resnick, Susan M.

2011-01-01

130

AR, apoE, and cognitive function  

PubMed Central

Reduced androgen levels in aged men and women might be risk factors for age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Ongoing clinical trials are designed to evaluate the potential benefit of estrogen in women and of testosterone in men. In this review, we discuss the potential beneficial effects of androgens and androgen receptors (ARs) in males and females. In addition, we discuss the hypothesis that AR interacts with apolipoprotein (apoE)4, encoded by ?4 and a risk factor for age-related cognitive decline and AD, and the potential consequences of this interaction. PMID:18395206

Raber, Jacob

2008-01-01

131

Cognitive Function as an Emerging Treatment Target for Marijuana Addiction  

PubMed Central

Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance in the world and demand for effective treatment is increasing. However, abstinence rates following behavioral therapies have been modest, and there are no effective pharmacotherapies for the treatment of cannabis addiction. We propose a novel research agenda and a potential treatment strategy, based on observations that both acute and chronic exposure to cannabis are associated with dose-related cognitive impairments, most consistently in attention, working memory, verbal learning, and memory functions. These impairments are not completely reversible upon cessation of marijuana use and moreover may interfere with the treatment of marijuana addiction. Therefore, targeting cognitive impairment associated with chronic marijuana use may be a promising novel strategy for the treatment of marijuana addiction. Preclinical studies suggest that medications enhancing the cholinergic transmission may attenuate cannabis-induced cognitive impairments, but these cognitive enhancing medications have not been examined in controlled human studies. Preliminary evidence from individuals addicted to other drugs suggests that computerized cognitive rehabilitation may also have utility to improve cognitive function in marijuana users. Future clinical studies optimally designed to measure cognitive function as well as drug use behavior would be needed to test the efficacy of these treatments for marijuana addiction. PMID:20384422

Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Sugarman, Dawn E.; Carroll, Kathleen M.

2010-01-01

132

Perceived Stress and Change in Cognitive Function Among Adults Aged 65 and Older  

PubMed Central

Objective Exposure to acute and chronic stress can affect learning and memory but most evidence comes from animal studies or clinical observations. Almost no population-based studies have investigated the relation of stress to cognition or changes in cognition over time. We examined whether higher levels of perceived stress were associated with accelerated decline in cognitive function in older blacks and whites from a community-based population sample. Methods Participants included 6,207 black and white adults (65.7% black, 63.3% women) from the Chicago Health and Aging project. Two to five in-home assessments were completed over an average of 6.8 years of follow up, and included sociodemographics, health behaviors, psychosocial measures, cognitive function tests, and health history. Perceived stress was measured by a 6-item scale, and a composite measure of four tests of cognition was used to determine cognitive function at each assessment. Results Mixed effects regression models showed that increasing levels of perceived stress were related to lower initial cognitive scores (B=-0.0379, SE=0.0025, p<.001) and a faster rate of cognitive decline (stress × time interaction: B=-0.0015, SE=0.0004, p<.001). Results were similar after adjusting for demographic variables, smoking, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, chronic medical conditions, and psychosocial factors and did not vary by race, sex, age or education. Conclusion Increasing levels of stress are independently associated with accelerated declines in cognitive function in black and white adults aged 65 and above. PMID:24367123

Aggarwal, Neelum T.; Wilson, Robert S.; Beck, Todd L.; Rajan, Kumar B.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Evans, Denis A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.

2014-01-01

133

Chronobiology, cognitive function and depressive symptoms in surgical patients.  

PubMed

Biological rhythms are essential for the regulation of many life processes. Disturbances of the circadian rhythm are known to affect human health, performance and well-being and the negative consequences are numerous and widespread. Cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, pain, sleep disturbances and mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are common problems arising around the time of surgery or in the course of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment period. The importance of investigating prevention or treatment possibilities in these populations is significant due to the extent of the problems and the derived consequences on morbidity and mortality. Genetic predisposition to these problems is also an issue in focus. In this thesis we initially investigated whether the specific clock gene genotype PER(5/5) was associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction one week after non-cardiac surgery. We did not find any association, although this could have been due to the size of the study. Yet, if PER3(5/5) is associated with a higher incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, the risk seems to be only modestly increased and by less than 10%. Melatonin is a hormone with well-known chronobiotic and hypnotic effects. In addition, exogenous melatonin is also known to have anxiolytic, analgesic, antidepressant and positive cognitive effects. Based on the lack of studies investigating these effects of melatonin, we conducted the MELODY trial in which we investigated the effect of 6 mg oral melatonin on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, cognitive function and fatigue in patients with breast cancer in a three month time period after surgery. Melatonin had an effect on reducing the risk of developing depressive symptoms and also increased sleep efficiency perioperatively and total sleep time postoperatively. No effect was found on anxiety, sleep quality, sleepiness, general well-being or pain, however melatonin seemed to positively influence the ability to complete trial participation compared to placebo. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction was not a problem in this limited population. With regard to safety in our study, melatonin treatment for three months did not cause any serious adverse effects. Finally, we systematically reviewed the literature on the prophylactic or therapeutic effect of melatonin for depression or depressive symptoms in adult patients and assessed the safety of melatonin in these studies. The quantity, size and quality of trials investigating this question were not high and there was no clear evidence of an effect, although some studies were positive. In conclusion, further research is warranted with regard to the prophylactic effect and treatment effect of melatonin in depression, depressive symptoms, cognitive disturbances and symptom clusters of cancer patients in general. In addition, more hypothesis-generating studies with regard to the genetic heritability of POCD are needed. PMID:25186550

Hansen, Melissa Voigt

2014-09-01

134

Questions for Assessing Higher-Order Cognitive Skills: It's Not Just Bloom’s  

PubMed Central

We present an exploratory study of biologists’ ideas about higher-order cognition questions. We documented the conversations of biologists who were writing and reviewing a set of higher-order cognition questions. Using a qualitative approach, we identified the themes of these conversations. Biologists in our study used Bloom's Taxonomy to logically analyze questions. However, biologists were also concerned with question difficulty, the length of time required for students to address questions, and students’ experience with questions. Finally, some biologists demonstrated an assumption that questions should have one correct answer, not multiple reasonable solutions; this assumption undermined their comfort with some higher-order cognition questions. We generated a framework for further research that provides an interpretation of participants’ ideas about higher-order questions and a model of the relationships among these ideas. Two hypotheses emerge from this framework. First, we propose that biologists look for ways to measure difficulty when writing higher-order questions. Second, we propose that biologists’ assumptions about the role of questions in student learning strongly influence the types of higher-order questions they write. PMID:23463228

Lemons, Paula P.; Lemons, J. Derrick

2013-01-01

135

Arterial wall function is associated with cognitive performance primarily in elderly with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Regression analyses compared 41 type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 131 non-T2D cognitively normal elderly males on the associations of arterial wall function measures [large artery elasticity index (LAEI), small artery elasticity index (SAEI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and total vascular impedance (TVI)] with cognitive performance (memory, language, and executive functions), controlling for socio-demographic and cardiovascular factors. Higher LAEI and lower TVI were significantly associated with better executive functions performance in T2D but not in non-T2D subjects. Lower TVI was more associated with better language performance in T2D. Results suggest that arterial wall function is associated with cognition in T2D. PMID:25352451

Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Haratz, Salo; Tanne, David; Schmeidler, James; Efrati, Shai; Rosendorff, Clive; Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Silverman, Jeremy M

2015-01-01

136

Cognitive Stimulation and Cognitive and Functional Decline in Alzheimer's Disease: The Cache County Dementia Progression Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To examine the association of engagement in cognitively stimulating activities with cognitive and functional decline in a population-based sample of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). Method. After diagnosis, 187 participants (65% females) were followed semiannually for a mean 2.7 (SD = 0.4) years. Mean age and education were 84.6 (SD = 5.8) and 13.2 (SD = 2.9) years. Caregivers enumerated cognitively stimulating leisure activities via the Lifestyle Activities Questionnaire. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and functional ability via the Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes. Linear mixed models tested the association between stimulating activities and change over time in each outcome. Covariates were demographic factors, estimated premorbid IQ, presence/absence of the APOE ?4 allele, duration of dementia, level of physical activity, and general health. Results. At initial assessment, 87% of participants were engaged in one or more stimulating activities, with mean (SD) activities = 4.0 (3.0). This number declined to 2.4 (2.0) at the final visit. There was a statistical interaction between dementia duration and number of activities in predicting rate of cognitive decline (p = .02) and overall functional ability (p = .006). Discussion. Active involvement in cognitively stimulating pursuits may be beneficial for persons with AD. PMID:21441386

Treiber, Katherine A.; Carlson, Michelle C.; Corcoran, Chris; Norton, Maria C.; Breitner, John C. S.; Piercy, Kathleen W.; DeBerard, Michael Scott; Stein, David; Foley, Beth; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.; Frye, Amber; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

2011-01-01

137

Complex Relationships of Nicotinic Receptor Actions and Cognitive Functions  

PubMed Central

Nicotine has been shown in a variety of studies to improve cognitive function including learning, memory and attention. Nicotine both stimulates and desensitizes nicotinic receptors, thus acting both as an agonist and a net antagonist. The relative roles of these two actions for nicotine-induced cognitive improvement have not yet been fully determined. We and others have found that acute nicotinic antagonist treatment can improve learning and attention. Nicotine acts on a variety of nicotinic receptor subtypes. The relative role and interactions of neuronal nicotinic receptor subtypes for cognition also needs to be better characterized. Nicotine acts on nicotinic receptors in a wide variety of brain areas. The role of some of these areas such as the hippocampus has been relatively well studied but other area like the thalamus, which has the densest nicotinic receptor concentration are still only partially characterized. In a series of studies we characterized nicotinic receptor actions, anatomic localization and circuit interactions, which are critical to nicotine effects on the cognitive functions of learning, memory and attention. The relative role of increases and decreases in nicotinic receptor activation by nicotine were determined in regionally specific studies of the hippocampus, the amygdala, the frontal cortex and the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus with local infusions of antagonists of nicotinic receptor subtypes (?7 and ?4?2). The understanding of the functional neural bases of cognitive function is fundamental to the more effective development of nicotinic drugs for treating cognitive dysfunction. PMID:23928190

Levin, Edward D.

2013-01-01

138

Effects of hydrocortisone administration on cognitive function in the elderly.  

PubMed

Previous studies have found adverse effects of both acute and chronic elevations of corticosteroids on cognitive function in humans and that cortisol levels may predict cognitive decline in elderly subjects. However, no previous studies have directly investigated the effects of hydrocortisone on cognitive functioning in the healthy elderly. Sixteen healthy elderly subjects took part in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial. Hydrocortisone 20 mg or placebo was administered twice, 12 h and 1 h before cognitive testing. On each occasion, a battery of neuropsychological tests was performed which included tests of attention, working memory, declarative memory and executive function. Salivary cortisol levels at the time of testing were elevated approximately 10-fold following hydrocortisone compared with placebo. No significant effects were found on memory or a range of other cognitive functions. The lack of effect of this regime of hydrocortisone is in contrast to studies in younger subjects. The elderly may be less sensitive to cognitive effects of short-term increases in cortisol levels, possibly due to an age-related downregulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors. PMID:11949774

Porter, Richard J; Barnett, Nicola A; Idey, Ariane; McGuckin, Elizabeth A; O'Brien, John T

2002-03-01

139

Brief cognitive assessment and prediction of functional outcome in stroke.  

PubMed

To evaluate the ability to predict outcome with a brief measure of cognitive ability, we tested consecutive admissions who received inpatient rehabilitation for stroke with the Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neuropsychological Symptoms (RBANS). Six months later, 34 discharged patients were contacted by telephone and were interviewed using a battery of functional outcome and quality of life measures. Multiple regression analysis showed that inpatient RBANS indexes predicted cognitive disability 6 months later. The present findings support the use of cognitive evaluations of patients with acute stroke to assist with prediction of outcome to be used in treatment planning. PMID:14523696

Larson, Eric B; Kirschner, Kristi; Bode, Rita K; Heinemann, Allen W; Clorfene, Jeremy; Goodman, Rebecca

2003-01-01

140

Effects of Growth Hormone on Cognitive Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and\\/or treatment in childhood and adolescence influences cognitive outcome in children with GHD or girls with Turner syndrome (TS) is controversial. Previous studies also suggest that quality of life (QoL) is reduced in adults with GHD, particularly in the areas of social isolation and fatigue. Baseline QoL scores were significantly lower in patients with GHD

Judith L. Ross

2005-01-01

141

Structural and functional organization of a developing brain and formation of cognitive functions in child ontogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of multidisciplinary studies, including neuromorphological, neurophysiological, neuropsychological, and psychphysiological\\u000a studies, are reviewed. They allow the brain mechanisms of cognition formation and development during maturation to be identified.\\u000a The role of regulatory (modulatory) brain systems in forming the cognitive function in the child is demonstrated. Data on\\u000a considerable changes in the brain systems responsible for the development of cognitive functions

M. M. Bezrukikh; R. I. Machinskaya; D. A. Farber

2009-01-01

142

Electroencephalographic imaging of higher brain function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temporal resolution is necessary to resolve the rapidly changing patterns of brain activity that underlie mental function. Electroencephalography (EEG) provides temporal resolution in the millisecond range. However, traditional EEG technology and practice provide insufficient spatial detail to identify relationships between brain electrical events and structures and functions visualized by magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography. Recent advances help to overcome this problem by recording EEGs from more electrodes, by registering EEG data with anatomical images, and by correcting the distortion caused by volume conduction of EEG signals through the skull and scalp. In addition, statistical measurements of sub-second interdependences between EEG time-series recorded from different locations can help to generate hypotheses about the instantaneous functional networks that form between different cortical regions during perception, thought and action. Example applications are presented from studies of language, attention and working memory. Along with its unique ability to monitor brain function as people perform everyday activities in the real world, these advances make modern EEG an invaluable complement to other functional neuroimaging modalities.

Gevins, A.; Smith, M. E.; McEvoy, L. K.; Leong, H.; Le, J.

1999-01-01

143

Cognitive stimulation of executive functions in mild cognitive impairment: specific efficacy and impact in memory.  

PubMed

Executive functions play an important role in the maintenance of autonomy in day-to-day activities. Nevertheless, there is little research into specific cognitive training for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). We present the results of a program which aims to teach specific strategies and metacognitive abilities in order for patients to be able to carry out attentional and executive tasks. Two groups (A and B) were compared in a cross-over design. After the first evaluation, Group A (but not B) participated in a six month cognitive stimulation program. After a second assessment, only Group B received treatment and then a final evaluation was carried out on both groups. The results show that: i) both groups improved their performance as an effect of training; ii) improvements generalized to memory and general cognitive tasks; iii) in the interval without training, Group B's performance worsened and iv) Group A partially maintained their results over time. PMID:24963080

Moro, V; Condoleo, M T; Valbusa, V; Broggio, E; Moretto, G; Gambina, G

2015-03-01

144

DISTINCT FUNCTIONS OF SOCIAL SUPPORT AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION AMONG OLDER ADULTS  

PubMed Central

Background/Study Context Social support has been shown to buffer cognitive decline in older adults; however, few studies have examined the association of distinct functions of perceived social support and cognitive function. The current study examined the relations between distinct functions of social support and numerous cognitive domains in older adults. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional, correlational study of cardiovascular risk factors, cognitive function, and neuroimaging. The participants were 175 older adults with a mean age of 66.32. A number of neuropsychological tests and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List were administered. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to determine cross-sectional relations of social support to cognitive function after controlling for age, gender, education, depressive symptomatology, systolic blood pressure, body-mass index, total cholesterol, and fasting glucose. Results No significant positive relations were found between distinct functions of social support and cognitive function in any domain; however, inverse relations emerged such that greater social support across several functions was associated with poorer nonverbal memory and response inhibition. Conclusion Results suggest that the receipt of social support may be a burden for some older adults. Within the current study, fluid cognitive abilities reflected this phenomenon. The mechanism through which social support is associated with poorer cognitive function in some domains deserves further exploration. PMID:24467699

Sims, Regina C.; Hosey, Megan; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Whitfield, Keith E.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Waldstein, Shari R.

2014-01-01

145

Mediterranean diet habits in older individuals: associations with cognitive functioning and brain volumes.  

PubMed

To examine the association between dietary habits, cognitive functioning and brain volumes in older individuals, data from 194 cognitively healthy individuals who participated in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors cohort were used. At age 70, participants kept diaries of their food intake for 1week. These records were used to calculate a Mediterranean diet (MeDi) score (comprising dietary habits traditionally found in Mediterranean countries, e.g. high intake of fruits and low intake of meat), with higher scores indicating more pronounced MeDi-like dietary habits. Five years later, participants' cognitive capabilities were examined by the seven minute screening (7MS) (a cognitive test battery used by clinicians to screen for dementia), and their brain volumes were measured by volumetric magnetic resonance imaging. Multivariate linear regression analyses were constructed to examine the association between the total MeDi score and cognitive functioning and brain volumes. In addition, possible associations between MeDi's eight dietary features and cognitive functioning and brain volumes were investigated. From the eight dietary features included in the MeDi score, pertaining to a low consumption of meat and meat products was linked to a better performance on the 7MS test (P=0.001) and greater total brain volume (i.e. the sum of white and gray matter, P=0.03) when controlling for potential confounders (e.g. BMI) in the analysis. Integrating all dietary features into the total MeDi score explained less variance in cognitive functioning and brain volumes than its single dietary component meat intake. These observational findings suggest that keeping to a low meat intake could prove to be an impact-driven public health policy to support healthy cognitive aging, when confirmed by longitudinal studies. Further, they suggest that the MeDi score is a construct that may mask possible associations of single MeDi features with brain health domains in elderly populations. PMID:24126083

Titova, Olga E; Ax, Erika; Brooks, Samantha J; Sjögren, Per; Cederholm, Tommy; Kilander, Lena; Kullberg, Joel; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Johansson, Lars; Ahlström, Håkan; Lind, Lars; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

2013-12-01

146

Mild Cognitive Impairment Is Associated With Selected Functional Markers: Integrating Concurrent, Longitudinal, and Stability Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We examined functional performance on multiple indicators for two cognitive status groups: (a) not impaired controls (NIC) and (b) mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We identified functional markers associated with differences, changes, and stability in cognitive status. Method: In the Victoria Longitudinal Study (VLS) we examined cognitive status group effects in (a) cross-sectional functional performance, (b) longitudinal stability, (c) longitudinal

Sanda Dolcos; Stuart W. S. MacDonald; Anna Braslavsky; Richard Camicioli; Roger A. Dixon

2012-01-01

147

The Effects of Clozapine, Risperidone, and Olanzapine on Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive function is markedly impaired in most patients with schizophrenia. Antecedents of this impairment are evident in childhood. The cognitive disability is nearly fully developed at the first episode of psychosis in most patients. The contribution of cognitive impairment to outcome in schizophrenia, especially work function, has been established. Preliminary results indicate that cognitive function, along with disorganization symptoms, discriminate

Herbert Y. Meltzer; Susan R. McGurk

1999-01-01

148

The Relationship between Stress, Fatigue, and Cognitive Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a plethora of research suggesting that daily stressors and fatigue can have a significant effect on learning and various cognitive functions in young adults. Little is known, however, about how these effects impact learning and other neurocognitive functions in students with learning challenges when compared to their counterparts without…

Palmer, Laura K.; Economou, Peter; Cruz, Daniel; Abraham-Cook, Shannon; Huntington, Jodi S.; Maris, Marika; Makhija, Nita; Welsh, Toni; Maley, Larissa

2014-01-01

149

The Relationship between Stress, Fatigue, and Cognitive Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a plethora of research suggesting that daily stressors and fatigue can have a significant effect on learning and various cognitive functions in young adults. Little is known, however, about how these effects impact learning and other neurocognitive functions in students with learning challenges when compared to their counterparts without…

Palmer, Laura K.

2013-01-01

150

The Cognitive Neuroscience Toolkit for the Neuroeconomist: A Functional Overview  

E-print Network

The Cognitive Neuroscience Toolkit for the Neuroeconomist: A Functional Overview Joseph W. Kable to the different methods used in human neuroscience. It describes basic strengths and weaknesses of each technique presents a framework that organizes human neuroscience methods functionally, according to whether

Kable, Joe

151

Identifying Similarities in Cognitive Subtest Functional Requirements: An Empirical Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the cognitive test interpretation literature, a Rational/Intuitive, Indirect Empirical, or Combined approach is typically used to construct conceptual taxonomies of the functional (behavioral) similarities between subtests. To address shortcomings of these approaches, the functional requirements for 49 subtests from six individually…

Frisby, Craig L.; Parkin, Jason R.

2007-01-01

152

ZINC FORTIFICATION AND COGNITIVE AND PSYCHOSOCIAL FUNCTION IN YOUNG ADOLESCENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies have related zinc nutrition to motor, cognitive and psychosocial function in very young children and adults, but there have been no studies of older children. Therefore, we investigated the effects of zinc fortification on these functions in young adolescents. Seventh graders (65 gi...

153

A Feynman integral via higher normal functions  

E-print Network

We study the Feynman integral for the three-banana graph defined as the scalar two-point self-energy at three-loop order. The Feynman integral is evaluated for all identical internal masses in two space-time dimensions. Two calculations are given for the Feynman integral; one based on an interpretation of the integral as an inhomogeneous solution of a classical Picard-Fuchs differential equation, and the other using arithmetic algebraic geometry, motivic cohomology, and Eisenstein series. Both methods use the rather special fact that the Feynman integral is a family of regulator periods associated to a family of K3 surfaces. We show that the integral is given by a sum of elliptic trilogarithms evaluated at sixth roots of unity. This elliptic trilogarithm value is related to the regulator of a class in the motivic cohomology of the K3 family. We prove a conjecture by David Broadhurst that at a special kinematical point the Feynman integral is given by a critical value of the Hasse-Weil L-function of the K3 surface. This result is shown to be a particular case of Deligne's conjectures relating values of L-functions inside the critical strip to periods.

Spencer Bloch; Matt Kerr; Pierre Vanhove

2015-03-26

154

Handedness and Cognitive Functions in Pervasive Developmental Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance on a battery of cognitive measures was analyzed in terms of hand preference for 62 children (5-17 years old) with Pervasive Developmental Disorders including autism. There was a clear (though nonsignificant) trend on all tests for left-handers to have higher scores than right-handers. Mixed-hand preference Ss demonstrated the lowest…

Fein, Deborah; And Others

1985-01-01

155

Improved Serum Leptin and Ghrelin Following Bariatric Surgery Predict Better Postoperative Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Bariatric surgery is associated with improved cognitive function, but the mechanisms underlying these gains remain poorly understood. Disturbed leptin and ghrelin systems are common in obese individuals and are associated with impaired cognitive function in other samples. Bariatric surgery has been shown to improve serum leptin and ghrelin levels, and these changes may underlie postoperative cognitive improvements. Methods Eighty-four patients completed a computerized cognitive test battery prior to bariatric surgery and at 12 months postoperatively. Participants also submitted to an 8-hour fasting blood draw to quantify serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations at these same time points. Results Baseline cognitive impairments and disturbed leptin and ghrelin levels improved at the 12-month follow-up compared to presurgery. Higher leptin levels were associated with worse attention/executive function at baseline; no such findings emerged for ghrelin. Regression analyses controlling for baseline factors and demographic characteristics showed that both decreased leptin and increased ghrelin following surgery was associated with better attention/executive function at the 12-month follow-up. These effects diminished after controlling for the postoperative change in body mass index (BMI); however, BMI change did not predict 12-month cognitive function. Conclusions Improvements in leptin and ghrelin levels following bariatric surgery appear to contribute to postoperative cognitive benefits. These gains may involve multiple mechanisms, such as reduced inflammation and improved glycemic control. Future studies that employ neuroimaging are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms and determine whether the effects of bariatric surgery on leptin and ghrelin levels can attenuate adverse brain changes and/or risk of dementia in severely obese individuals. PMID:25628737

Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, James E.

2015-01-01

156

Educational attainment, MRI changes, and cognitive function in older postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.  

PubMed

The relationship between neuropathology and clinically manifested functional and cognitive deficits is complex. Clinical observations of individuals with greater neuropathology who function better than some individuals with less neuropathology are common and puzzling. Educational attainment, a proxy for "cognitive reserve," may help to explain this apparent contradiction. The objective of this study is to determine if educational attainment is correlated with cognitive decline, brain lesion volume, and total brain atrophy. One thousand three hundred ninety of the 7,479 community-dwelling women 65 years of age and older enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study, two parallel randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials comparing unopposed and opposed postmenopausal hormone therapy with placebo, were studied. Study participants received annual assessments of global cognitive function with the Modified Mini Mental State exam. One thousand sixty-three participants also received supplemental neurocognitive battery and neuroimaging studies. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to calculate total ischemic lesion and brain volumes. Incident cases of probable dementia and mild cognitive impairment were centrally adjudicated. After adjustment for total lesion and total brain volumes (atrophy), higher educational attainment predicted better cognitive performance (p < 0.001). Following conversion to dementia/MCI, higher education predicted steeper declines in cognitive function (p < 0.001). Thus, higher educational attainment was associated with a delay in diagnosis of dementia/MCI in the face of a growing neuropathological load. PMID:24552037

Rapp, Stephen R; Espeland, Mark A; Manson, Joann E; Resnick, Susan M; Bryan, Nick R; Smoller, Sylvia; Coker, Laura H; Phillips, Lawrence S; Stefanick, Marcia L; Sarto, Gloria E

2013-01-01

157

Cognitive Variability in Adults with ADHD and AS: Disentangling the Roles of Executive Functions and Social Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Asperger's Syndrome (AS) share a heterogeneous cognitive profile. Studies assessing executive functions (EF) and social cognition in both groups have found preserved and impaired performances. These inconsistent findings would be partially explained by the cognitive variability reported in these…

Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Baez, Sandra; Torralva, Teresa; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Rattazzi, Alexia; Bein, Victoria; Rogg, Katharina; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

2013-01-01

158

Effects of Early Life Stress on Cognitive and Affective Function: An Integrated Review of Human Literature  

PubMed Central

Rationale The investigation of putative effects of early life stress (ELS) in humans on later behavior and neurobiology is a fast developing field. While epidemiological and neurobiological studies paint a somber picture of negative outcomes, relatively little attention has been devoted to integrating the breadth of findings concerning possible cognitive and emotional deficits associated with ELS. Emerging findings from longitudinal studies examining developmental trajectories of the brain in healthy samples may provide a new framework to understand mechanisms underlying ELS sequelae. Objective The goal of this review was two-fold. The first was to summarize findings from longitudinal data on normative brain development. The second was to utilize this framework of normative brain development to interpret changes in developmental trajectories associated with deficits in cognitive and affective function following ELS. Results Five principles of normative brain development were identified and used to discuss behavioral and neural sequelae of ELS. Early adversity was found to be associated with deficits in a range of cognitive (cognitive performance, memory, and executive functioning) and affective (reward processing, processing of social and affective stimuli, and emotion regulation) functions. Conclusion Three general conclusions emerge: (1) higher-order, complex cognitive and affective functions associated with brain regions undergoing protracted postnatal development are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of ELS; (2) the amygdala is particularly sensitive to early ELS; and (3) several deficits, particularly those in the affective domain, appear to persist years after ELS has ceased and may increase risk for later psychopathology. PMID:20865251

Pechtel, Pia; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

2010-01-01

159

Cognitive Function and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the relationship between cognitive function and self-reported oral health-related quality of life (QoL) in community dwelling older adults. Design Cross-sectional Setting Community in West Virginia Participants Two hundred twenty six community-dwelling older adults Measurements Oral health-related QoL was measured by the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) (score range of 12 to 60) and cognitive function was assessed using comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Oral health examinations were performed by dental professionals. Results Participants with normal cognitive function had higher GOHAI total scores (mean: 55.1), indicating better oral health-related QoL, than participants with cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND) (mean: 52.3) and mild dementia (mean: 51.0). The difference remained significant after controlling for covariates including socio-demographics, health status, comorbidity, and clinical dental status. Conclusion Oral health-related QoL, as measured by the GOHAI, was better among those with normal cognitive function compared to those with CIND and those with mild dementia in the population we studied. PMID:24028360

Lee, Kyung Hee; Wu, Bei; Plassman, Brenda L.

2013-01-01

160

The effect of cognitive functioning on treatment attendance and adherence in comorbid bipolar disorder and cocaine dependence.  

PubMed

Although bipolar disorder and substance dependence are both associated with treatment non-adherence and cognitive impairment, no studies have investigated relationships between treatment adherence and cognitive functioning in this population. As part of a clinical trial, baseline performance on two neuropsychological tests in 120 outpatients with bipolar disorder and cocaine dependence was used to examine whether cognitive functioning was associated with appointment attendance, medication adherence, and return of medication bottles. This study found that higher baseline cognitive functioning measured by the Stroop Color-Word condition predicted better treatment adherence. However, this study also reports measurement sensitivity of cognition as it relates to treatment adherence when applied to this dual diagnosis population. Poorer performance in simple visual attention tasks as assessed by the Stroop Word condition was inversely associated with some measures of adherence. Future studies are warranted that include a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and advanced medication adherence measures to confirm these findings. PMID:25108685

Fagan, Colleen S; Carmody, Thomas J; McClintock, Shawn M; Suris, Alina; Nakamura, Alyson; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Lo, Alexander; Brown, E Sherwood

2015-02-01

161

Associations between dopamine D2-receptor binding and cognitive performance indicate functional compartmentalization of the human striatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on pharmacological, neuroanatomical, and lesion studies in animals, a functional compartmentalization of the striatal complex has been proposed. However, this has not been convincingly demonstrated in human subjects. Most functions ascribed to the striatum have been linked to its dense dopaminergic innervation, from motor control to higher-order brain functions (e.g., cognition), making the dopamine system a suitable probe for

Simon Cervenka; Lars Bäckman; Zsolt Cselényi; Christer Halldin; Lars Farde

2008-01-01

162

Personalized Cognitive Training in Unipolar and Bipolar Disorder: A Study of Cognitive Functioning  

PubMed Central

Patients with unipolar depressive disorder and in the depressive phase of bipolar disorder often manifest psychological distress and cognitive deficits, notably in executive control. We used computerized cognitive training in an attempt to reduce psychological affliction, improve everyday coping, and cognitive function. We asked one group of patients (intervention group) to engage in cognitive training three times a week, for 20?min each time, for eight consecutive weeks. A second group of patients (control group) received standard care only. Before the onset of training we administered to all patients self-report questionnaires of mood, mental and psychological health, and everyday coping. We also assessed executive control using a broad computerized neurocognitive battery of tests which yielded, among others, scores in Working Memory, Shifting, Inhibition, Visuomotor Vigilance, Divided Attention, Memory Span, and a Global Executive Function score. All questionnaires and tests were re-administered to the patients who adhered to the study at the end of training. When we compared the groups (between-group comparisons) on the amount of change that had taken place from baseline to post-training, we found significantly reduced depression level for the intervention group. This group also displayed significant improvements in Shifting, Divided Attention, and in the Global executive control score. Further exploration of the data showed that the cognitive improvement did not predict the improvements in mood. Single-group data (within-group comparisons) show that patients in the intervention group were reporting fewer cognitive failures, fewer dysexecutive incidents, and less difficulty in everyday coping. This group had also improved significantly on the six executive control tests and on the Global executive control score. By contrast, the control group improved only on the reports of cognitive failure and on working memory. PMID:23717272

Preiss, Marek; Shatil, Evelyn; ?ermáková, Radka; Cimermanová, Dominika; Ram, Ilana

2013-01-01

163

Cognitive Functioning in Long Duration Head-down Bed Rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Flight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a self-administered battery of tests used on the International Space Station for evaluating cognitive functioning. Here, WinSCAT was used to assess cognitive functioning during extended head-down bed rest. Thirteen subjects who participated in 60 or 90 days of 6 deg head-down bed rest took WinSCAT during the pre-bed rest phase, the in-bed rest phase, and the post-bed rest (reconditioning) phase of study participation. After adjusting for individual baseline performance, 12 off-nominal scores were observed out of 351 total observations during bed rest and 7 of 180 during reconditioning. No evidence was found for systematic changes in off-nominal incidence as time in bed rest progressed, or during the reconditioning period. Cognitive functioning does not appear to be adversely affected by long duration head-down bed rest. Individual differences in underlying cognitive ability and motivation level are likely explanations for the current findings.

Seaton, Kimberly A.; Slack, Kelley J.; Sipes, Walter A.; Bowie, Kendra

2008-01-01

164

Omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive function in women  

PubMed Central

Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) could play an important role in maintaining cognitive function in aging individuals. The omega-3 FA docosahexaenoic acid is a major constituent of neuronal membranes and, along with the other long-chain omega-3 FAs from fish such as eicosapentaentoic acid, has been shown to have a wide variety of beneficial effects on neuronal functioning, inflammation, oxidation and cell death, as well as on the development of the characteristic pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. Omega-3 FAs may prevent vascular dementia via salutary effects on lipids, inflammation, thrombosis and vascular function. Epidemiologic studies have generally supported a protective association between fish and omega-3 FA levels and cognitive decline. Some of the small, short-term, randomized trials of docosahexaenoic acid and/or eicosapentaentoic acid supplementation have found positive effects on some aspects of cognition in older adults who were cognitively intact or had mild cognitive impairment, although little effect was found in participants with Alzheimer’s disease. Large, long-term trials in this area are needed. PMID:20088735

Robinson, Jennifer G; Ijioma, Nkechinyere; Harris, William

2010-01-01

165

Traffic-related Air Pollution in Relation to Cognitive Function in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background: Few epidemiologic studies have investigated associations of air pollution with cognition in older adults, and none has specifically compared associations across particle sources. We investigated whether exposure to particulate air pollution, characterized by size and source, was associated with cognitive function and decline in cognitive function. Methods: We included participants of the Whitehall II cohort who were residents of greater London and who attended the medical examination in study wave 2007–2009 (n = 2867). Annual average concentrations of particulate matter (PM) (PM10 and PM2.5 from all sources and from traffic exhaust) were modeled at resolution of 20 × 20 m for 2003–2009. We investigated the relationship between exposure to particles and a cognitive battery composed of tests of reasoning, memory, and phonemic and semantic fluency. We also investigated exposure in relation to decline in these tests over 5 years. Results: Mean age of participants was 66 (standard deviation = 6) years. All particle metrics were associated with lower scores in reasoning and memory measured in the 2007–2009 wave but not with lower verbal fluency. Higher PM2.5 of 1.1 ?g/m3 (lag 4) was associated with a 0.03 (95% confidence interval = ?0.06 to 0.002) 5-year decline in standardized memory score and a 0.04 (?0.07 to ?0.01) decline when restricted to participants remaining in London between study waves. Conclusions: This study provides support for an association between particulate air pollution and some measures of cognitive function, as well as decline over time in cognition; however, it does not support the hypothesis that traffic-related particles are more strongly associated with cognitive function than particles from all sources. PMID:25036434

Elbaz, Alexis; Beevers, Sean; Singh-Manoux, Archana

2014-01-01

166

Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults123  

PubMed Central

Background: Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 Puerto Ricans aged 45–75 y living in Massachusetts in relation to cognitive function performances. Design: Food security was assessed with the US Household Food Security Scale. Cognitive function was measured to capture general cognition with a battery of 7 tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning (verbal memory), digit span (attention), clock drawing and figure copying (visual-spatial ability), and Stroop and verbal fluency tests (fluency executive functioning). Results: The overall prevalence of food insecurity during the past 12 mo was 12.1%; 6.1% of the subjects reported very low food security. Food insecurity was inversely associated with global cognitive performance, as assessed by the MMSE score. The adjusted difference in the MMSE score was ?0.90 (95% CI: ?1.6, ?0.19; P for trend = 0.003) for a comparison of participants with very low food security with those who were food secure, after adjustment for age, smoking, education, poverty status, income, acculturation, plasma homocysteine, alcohol, diabetes, and hypertension. Food insecurity was significantly associated with lower scores for word-list learning, percentage retention, letter fluency, and digit span backward tests. Conclusions: Very low food security was prevalent among the study subjects and was associated with lower cognitive performance. Further studies, both observational and experimental, are warranted to clarify the direction of causality in this association. PMID:19225117

Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Falcon, Luis M; Wilde, Parke E; Tucker, Katherine L

2009-01-01

167

Phenomenological and biological correlates of improved cognitive function in hospitalized elderly medical inpatients.  

PubMed

Deterioration of cognitive ability is a recognized outcome following acute illness in older patients. Levels of circulating cytokines and APOE genotype have both been linked with acute illness-related cognitive decline. In this observational longitudinal study, consecutive admissions to an elderly medical unit of patients aged ?70 years were assessed within 3 days and re-assessed twice weekly with a range of scales assessing cognitive function, functional status and illness severity. Cytokines and APOE genotype were measured in a subsample. Improvement was defined as either a 20% or three points increase in mini mental state examination (MMSE). From the 142 participants 55 (39%) experienced cognitive improvement, of which 30 (54.5%) had delirium while 25 had non-delirious acute cognitive disorder. Using bivariate statistics, subjects with more severe acute illness, lower insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels and more severe delirium were more likely to experience a ?20% improvement in MMSE scores. When the criterion of cognitive improvement was a 3 point improvement in MMSE, those with more severe delirium, females and older were more likely to be improved. Longitudinal analysis using any criterion of improvement indicated that improvement was significantly (p<.05) predicted by higher levels of IGF-I, lower levels of IL-1 (alpha and beta), lack of APOE epsilon 4 allele, and female gender. In conclusion, cognitive recovery during admission is not exclusively linked to delirium status, but reflects a range of factors. The character and relevance of non-delirious acute cognitive disorder warrants further study. PMID:25189345

Adamis, Dimitrios; Meagher, David; Treloar, Adrian; Dunne, Colum; Larvin, Michael; Martin, Finbarr C; Macdonald, Alastair J D

2014-01-01

168

Regional white matter hyperintensities: aging, Alzheimer's disease risk, and cognitive function.  

PubMed

White matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin, as seen on T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging, are known to increase with age and are elevated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cognitive implications of these common markers are not well understood. Previous research has primarily focused on global measures of WMH burden and broad localizations that contain multiple white matter tracts. The aims of this study were to determine the pattern of WMH accumulation with age, risk for AD, and the relationship with cognitive function utilizing a voxel-wise analysis capable of identifying specific white matter regions. A total of 349 participants underwent T1-weighted and high-resolution T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing. Increasing age and lower cognitive speed and flexibility (a component of executive function), were both significantly associated with regional WMH throughout the brain. When age was controlled, lower cognitive speed and flexibility was independently associated with WMH in the superior corona radiata. Apolipoprotein E ?4 and parental family history of AD were not associated with higher burden of WMH. The results contribute to a larger body of literature suggesting that white matter measures are linked with processing speed, and illustrate the utility of voxel-wise analysis in understanding the effect of lesion location on cognitive function. PMID:24199958

Birdsill, Alex C; Koscik, Rebecca L; Jonaitis, Erin M; Johnson, Sterling C; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Hermann, Bruce P; Larue, Asenath; Sager, Mark A; Bendlin, Barbara B

2014-04-01

169

NIH Toolbox Cognitive Function Battery (CFB): Composite Scores of Crystallized, Fluid, and Overall Cognition  

PubMed Central

The NIH Toolbox Cognitive Function Battery (CFB) includes 7 tests covering 8 cognitive abilities considered to be important in adaptive functioning across the lifespan (from early childhood to late adulthood). Here we present data on psychometric characteristics in children (N = 208; ages 3–15 years) of a total summary score and composite scores reflecting two major types of cognitive abilities: “crystallized” (more dependent upon past learning experiences) and “fluid” (capacity for new learning and information processing in novel situations). Both types of cognition are considered important in everyday functioning, but are thought to be differently affected by brain health status throughout life, from early childhood through older adulthood. All three Toolbox composite scores showed excellent test-retest reliability, robust developmental effects across the childhood age range considered here, and strong correlations with established, “gold standard” measures of similar abilities. Additional preliminary evidence of validity includes significant associations between all three Toolbox composite scores and maternal reports of children’s health status and school performance. PMID:23952206

Akshoomoff, Natacha; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Bauer, Patricia J.; Dikmen, Sureyya; Gershon, Richard; Mungas, Dan; Slotkin, Jerry; Tulsky, David; Weintraub, Sandra; Zelazzo, Philip; Heaton, Robert K.

2014-01-01

170

Functional Neuroimaging of Social and Nonsocial Cognitive Control in Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated cognitive control of social and nonsocial information in autism using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and a neurotypical control group completed an oddball target detection task where target stimuli were either faces or nonsocial objects previously shown to be related…

Sabatino, Antoinette; Rittenberg, Alison; Sasson, Noah J.; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Bodfish, James W.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

2013-01-01

171

Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 P...

172

Gender Characteristics of Cerebral Hemodynamics during Complex Cognitive Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional Transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) has been applied to assess peak mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MFV) with a high temporal resolution during cognitive activation. Yet, little attention has been devoted to gender-related alterations of MFV, including spectral analysis. In healthy subjects, fTCD was used to investigate a series…

Misteli, Maria; Duschek, Stefan; Richter, Andre; Grimm, Simone; Rezk, Markus; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Boeker, Heinz; Seifritz, Erich; Schuepbach, Daniel

2011-01-01

173

Prospective Assessment of Estrogen Replacement Therapy and Cognitive Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of humans have not confirmed the suggestion from animal studies that estrogen replacement therapy may have an inverse relation with cognitive function decline. Because many of these studies have been marred by design or methodological problems, such as a small sample size, failure to control for confounding variables, or the use of a cross-sectional design, the present study was

Suzana Alves de Moraes; Moyses Szklo; David Knopman

174

Cognitive function in association with sex hormones in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Several studies have suggested gender differences in cognitive function, but data on the association between sex hormones and cognitive function are contradictory. The aim of our randomized double-blind study was to explore the possible relations between cognitive function and serum levels of sex hormones, oxytocin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in postmenopausal women. Two-hundred healthy postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to receive estrogen, testosterone or placebo treatment for 1 month. The associations of spatial ability, verbal fluency and verbal memory with serum levels of estradiol, testosterone, estradiol/testosterone ratio, androstanediol, oxytocin and IGF-I were analyzed. Spatial ability showed a negative correlation with serum estradiol, estradiol/testosterone ratio, oxytocin levels and a positive association with androstanediol levels. Verbal fluency displayed a negative relationship with serum levels of testosterone, IGF-I and a positive with estradiol/testosterone ratio. Verbal memory displayed a positive correlation to androstanediol. Data suggest that not only absolute levels of sex hormones but also the balance between estrogen and testosterone and their metabolites may be important for cognitive function in women. PMID:22967437

Kocoska-Maras, Ljiljana; Rådestad, Angelique Flöter; Carlström, Kjell; Bäckström, Torbjörn; von Schoultz, Bo; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén

2013-01-01

175

Timp-3 deficiency impairs cognitive function in mice  

PubMed Central

Extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation is performed primarily by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs have recently been shown to regulate synaptic activity in the hippocampus and to affect memory and learning. The tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (Timp) is an endogenous factor that controls MMP activity by binding to the catalytic site of MMPs. At present, four Timp isotypes have been reported (Timp-1 through Timp-4) with 35–50% amino-acid sequence homology. Timp-3 is a unique member of Timp proteins in that it is bound to the ECM. In this study, we used the passive avoidance test, active avoidance test, and water maze test to examine the cognitive function in Timp-3 knockout (KO) mice. Habituation was evaluated using the open-field test. The water maze test showed that Timp-3 KO mice exhibit deterioration in cognitive function compared with wild-type (WT) mice. The open-field test showed decreased habituation of Timp-3 KO mice. Immunostaining of brain slices revealed the expression of Timp-3 in the hippocampus. In situ zymography of the hippocampus showed increased gelatinolytic activity in Timp-3 KO mice compared with WT mice. These results present the first evidence of Timp-3 involvement in cognitive function and hippocampal MMP activity in mice. Moreover, our findings suggest a novel therapeutic target to be explored for improvement of cognitive function in humans. PMID:19806081

Baba, Yoshichika; Yasuda, Osamu; Takemura, Yukihiro; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Iwanami, Jun; Mogi, Masaki; Doe, Nobutaka; Horiuchi, Masatsugu; Maeda, Nobuyo; Fukuo, Keisuke; Rakugi, Hiromi

2011-01-01

176

Hippocampal volume and cognitive function in anorexia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesised that hippocampal volume would be reduced in underweight anorexia nervosa (AN) and associated with impaired hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. Hippocampal and whole brain volumes were measured in 16 women with AN and 16 matched healthy women using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a manual tracing method. Participants also completed the Doors and People Test of hippocampus-dependent memory and an

Frances Connan; Fay Murphy; Steve E. J. Connor; Phil Rich; Tara Murphy; Nuria Bara-Carill; Sabine Landau; Sanya Krljes; Virginia Ng; Steve Williams; Robin G. Morris; Iain C. Campbell; Janet Treasure

2006-01-01

177

Emotion Responsivity, Social Cognition, and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia  

E-print Network

Emotion Responsivity, Social Cognition, and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia Jennifer R. Mathews been a defining feature in schizophrenia, but relatively little research has examined how emotion in schizophrenia. Participants were 40 outpatients with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 40

178

Cognitive Functioning and Work Success in Adults with Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dyslexic adults completed questionnaires designed to investigate relationships between cognitive functioning, especially executive aspects, and work success. The study was designed to determine whether quantitative support could be provided for the model of adult dyslexic success derived from the work of Gerber and his colleagues (Gerber,…

Leather, Carol; Hogh, Henriette; Seiss, Ellen; Everatt, John

2011-01-01

179

Functional Internet Literacy: Required Cognitive Skills with Implications for Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patterns of typical Internet use provide the basis for defining "functional Internet literacy." Internet use commonly includes communication, information, recreation, and commercial activities. Technical competence with connectivity, security, and downloads is a prerequisite for using the Internet for such activities. Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive

Johnson, Genevieve Marie

2007-01-01

180

Preschooler Sleep Patterns Related to Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Preschoolers' sleep patterns were examined related to cognitive and adaptive functioning. The sample consisted of 874 typically developing preschool children with a mean age of 40.01 months. Parent/caregiver reports of children's sleep pattern factors, Stanford-Binet 5 intelligence scale scores, and Behavior Assessment…

Keefe-Cooperman, Kathleen; Brady-Amoon, Peggy

2014-01-01

181

Sleep and Cognitive Functioning in Children with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sleep disorders and sleep of insufficient duration and quality have been associated with impaired cognitive functioning in typically developing children and in children with a wide array of disabilities and medical conditions. Among children with disabilities, those with intellectual disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism…

Buckhalt, Joseph A.

2013-01-01

182

Reviewing on physical exercise and the cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise and physical training are known as promoters of sev- eral alterations, and among them, cardiorespiratory benefits, in- crease in the mineral bone density and decrease in the risk for chronic-degenerative diseases. Recently, another aspect has be- come notorious: an improvement in the cognitive function. Al- though it is very controversial, several studies have shown that physical exercises improve and

Hanna K. M. Antunes; Ruth F. Santos; Ricardo Cassilhas; Ronaldo V. T. Santos; Orlando F. A. Bueno; Marco Túlio de Mello

2006-01-01

183

An automated system for assessing cognitive function in any environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized assessment system has been in use in worldwide clinical trials for over 20 years. It is a computer based system which assesses core aspects of human cognitive function including attention, information, working memory and long-term memory. It has been extensively validated and can be performed by a wide range of clinical populations including patients with various types of dementia. It is currently in worldwide use in clinical trials to evaluate new medicines, as well as a variety of programs involving the effects of age, stressors illnesses and trauma upon human cognitive function. Besides being highly sensitive to drugs which will impair or improve function, its utility has been maintained over the last two decades by constantly increasing the number of platforms upon which it can operate. Besides notebook versions, the system can be used on a wrist worn device, PDA, via tht telephone and over the internet. It is the most widely used automated cognitive function assessment system in worldwide clinical research. It has dozens of parallel forms and requires little training to use or administer. The basic development of the system wil be identified, and the huge databases (normative, patient population, drug effects) which have been built up from hundreds of clinical trials will be described. The system is available for use in virtually any environment or type of trial.

Wesnes, Keith A.

2005-05-01

184

The grounding of higher order concepts in action and language: a cognitive robotics model.  

PubMed

In this paper we present a neuro-robotic model that uses artificial neural networks for investigating the relations between the development of symbol manipulation capabilities and of sensorimotor knowledge in the humanoid robot iCub. We describe a cognitive robotics model in which the linguistic input provided by the experimenter guides the autonomous organization of the robot's knowledge. In this model, sequences of linguistic inputs lead to the development of higher-order concepts grounded on basic concepts and actions. In particular, we show that higher-order symbolic representations can be indirectly grounded in action primitives directly grounded in sensorimotor experiences. The use of recurrent neural network also permits the learning of higher-order concepts based on temporal sequences of action primitives. Hence, the meaning of a higher-order concept is obtained through the combination of basic sensorimotor knowledge. We argue that such a hierarchical organization of concepts can be a possible account for the acquisition of abstract words in cognitive robots. PMID:22386502

Stramandinoli, Francesca; Marocco, Davide; Cangelosi, Angelo

2012-08-01

185

Hydration and cognitive function in children  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adequate fluid intake is critical for survival. While adults are at liberty to drink fluids, as they will, children and infants are dependent upon caregivers for food and fluid. Children are at greater risk for dehydration than adults due to higher surface-to-mass ratio. Additionally, children ha...

186

Association between Tooth Loss and Cognitive Function among 3063 Chinese Older Adults: A Community-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background Oral health has been found to be associated with cognitive function in basic research and epidemiology studies. Most of these studies had no comprehensive clinical diagnosis on cognitive function. This study firstly reported the association between tooth loss and cognitive function among Chinese older population. Methods The study included 3,063 community dwelling older adults aged 60 or above from the Shanghai Aging Study. Number of teeth missing was obtained from self-reporting questionnaire and confirmed by trained interviewers. Participants were diagnosed as “dementia”, “mild cognitive impairment (MCI)”, or “cognitive normal” by neurologists using DSM-IV and Petersen criteria. Multivariate logistic regression model was applied to examine the association between number of teeth missing and cognitive function. Results The study participants had an average of 10.2 teeth lost. Individuals with dementia lost 18.7 teeth on average, much higher than those with MCI (11.8) and cognitive normal (9.3) (p<0.001). After adjusted for sex, age, education year, living alone, body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, anxiety, depression, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and APOE-?4, tooth loss of >16 were significantly associated with dementia with an OR of 1.56 (95%CI 1.12-2.18). Conclusion Having over 16 missing teeth was associated with severe cognitive impairment among Chinese older adults. Poor oral health might be considered as a related factor of neurodegenerative symptom among older Chinese population. PMID:25803052

Luo, Jianfeng; Wu, Bei; Zhao, Qianhua; Guo, Qihao; Meng, Haijiao; Yu, Lirong; Zheng, Li; Hong, Zhen; Ding, Ding

2015-01-01

187

Serum phospholipid docosahexaenonic acid is associated with cognitive functioning during middle adulthood.  

PubMed

Existing evidence links greater dietary intake of fish and (n-3) PUFA to better early brain development and lowered risk of cognitive disorders in late life. The mechanisms for these associations remain unclear and may be related to specific (n-3) fatty acids and may concern cognitive function generally rather than only early brain development and age-related cognitive dysfunction. In this investigation, we tested potential associations between (n-3) fatty acids in serum phospholipids and major dimensions of cognitive functioning in mid-life adults. Participants were 280 community volunteers between 35 and 54 y of age, free of major neuropsychiatric disorders, and not taking fish oil supplements. Dietary biomarkers were alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenonic acid (DHA) in serum phospholipids measured using GC. Five major dimensions of cognitive functioning were assessed with a 75-min battery of neuropsychological tests. In covariate adjusted regression models, higher DHA (mol %) was related to better performance on tests of nonverbal reasoning and mental flexibility, working memory, and vocabulary (P cognitive performance. Among the 3 key (n-3) PUFA, only DHA is associated with major aspects of cognitive performance in nonpatient adults <55 y old. These findings suggest that DHA is related to brain health throughout the lifespan and may have implications for clinical trials of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:20181791

Muldoon, Matthew F; Ryan, Christopher M; Sheu, Lei; Yao, Jeffrey K; Conklin, Sarah M; Manuck, Stephen B

2010-04-01

188

Serum Phospholipid Docosahexaenonic Acid Is Associated with Cognitive Functioning during Middle Adulthood12  

PubMed Central

Existing evidence links greater dietary intake of fish and (n-3) PUFA to better early brain development and lowered risk of cognitive disorders in late life. The mechanisms for these associations remain unclear and may be related to specific (n-3) fatty acids and may concern cognitive function generally rather than only early brain development and age-related cognitive dysfunction. In this investigation, we tested potential associations between (n-3) fatty acids in serum phospholipids and major dimensions of cognitive functioning in mid-life adults. Participants were 280 community volunteers between 35 and 54 y of age, free of major neuropsychiatric disorders, and not taking fish oil supplements. Dietary biomarkers were ?-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenonic acid (DHA) in serum phospholipids measured using GC. Five major dimensions of cognitive functioning were assessed with a 75-min battery of neuropsychological tests. In covariate adjusted regression models, higher DHA (mol %) was related to better performance on tests of nonverbal reasoning and mental flexibility, working memory, and vocabulary (P ? 0.05). These associations were generally linear. Associations between DHA and nonverbal reasoning and working memory persisted with additional adjustment for participant education and vocabulary scores (P ? 0.05). Neither EPA nor ALA was notably related to any of the 5 tested dimensions of cognitive performance. Among the 3 key (n-3) PUFA, only DHA is associated with major aspects of cognitive performance in nonpatient adults <55 y old. These findings suggest that DHA is related to brain health throughout the lifespan and may have implications for clinical trials of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:20181791

Muldoon, Matthew F.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Sheu, Lei; Yao, Jeffrey K.; Conklin, Sarah M.; Manuck, Stephen B.

2010-01-01

189

Functional disconnection and social cognition in schizophrenia   

E-print Network

Introduction Social and emotional functions play a key role in schizophrenia. Both positive symptoms, such as hallucinations and persecutory delusions, as well as negative symptoms such as social withdrawal, and flattened ...

Mukherjee, Prerona

2011-11-25

190

Enhancing cognitive functioning in the elderly: multicomponent vs resistance training  

PubMed Central

Purpose The primary purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different exercise training programs on executive cognitive functions and functional mobility in older adults. A secondary purpose was to explore the potential mediators of training effects on executive function and functional mobility with particular reference to physical fitness gains. Methods A sample of 42 healthy community dwelling adults aged 65 to 75 years participated twice weekly for 3 months in either: (1) multicomponent training, prioritizing neuromuscular coordination, balance, agility, and cognitive executive control; or (2) progressive resistance training for strength conditioning. Participants were tested at baseline (T1), following a 4-week control period (T2), and finally at postintervention (T3) for executive function (inhibition and cognitive flexibility) and functional mobility (maximal walking speed with and without additional task requirements). Cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness were also assessed as potential mediators. Results Indices of inhibition, the functions involved in the deliberate withholding of prepotent or automatic responses, and measures of functional mobility improved after the intervention, independent of training type. Mediation analysis suggested that different mechanisms underlie the effects of multicomponent and progressive resistance training. While multicomponent training seemed to directly affect inhibitory capacity, resistance training seemed to affect it indirectly through gains in muscular strength. Physical fitness and executive function variables did not mediate functional mobility changes. Conclusion These results confirm that physical training benefits executive function and suggest that different training types might lead to such benefits through different pathways. Both types of training also promoted functional mobility in older adulthood; however, neither inhibitory capacity, nor muscular strength gains seemed to explain functional mobility outcomes. PMID:23341738

Forte, Roberta; Boreham, Colin AG; Leite, Joao Costa; De Vito, Giuseppe; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R; Pesce, Caterina

2013-01-01

191

Social cognition and functional capacity in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Social cognition is a functionally relevant predictor of capacity in schizophrenia (SZ), though research concerning its value for bipolar disorder (BD) is limited. The current investigation examined the relationship between two social cognitive factors and functional capacity in bipolar disorder. This study included 48 individuals with bipolar disorder (24 with psychotic features) and 30 patients with schizophrenia. Multiple regression controlling for estimated IQ scores was used to assess the predictive value of social cognitive factors on the UCSD Performance-Based Functional Skills Assessment (UPSA). Results found that for the bipolar with psychosis and schizophrenia groups, the social/emotion processing factor predicted the UPSA. The theory of mind factor only predicted the UPSA for the schizophrenia group.. Findings support the clinical utility of evaluating emotion processing in individuals with a history of psychosis. For BD, theory of mind may be better explained by a generalized cognitive deficit. In contrast, social/emotion processing may be linked to distinct neurobiological processes associated with psychosis. PMID:25200189

Thaler, Nicholas S; Sutton, Griffin P; Allen, Daniel N

2014-12-15

192

From ear to uncertainty: vestibular contributions to cognitive function  

PubMed Central

In addition to the deficits in the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is substantial evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and neocortex play in spatial orientation. In this review we summarize the evidence that vestibular loss causes cognitive disorders, especially spatial memory deficits, in animals and humans and critically evaluate the evidence that these deficits are not due to hearing loss, problems with motor control, oscillopsia or anxiety and depression. We review the evidence that vestibular lesions affect head direction and place cells as well as the emerging evidence that artificial activation of the vestibular system, using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), can modulate cognitive function. PMID:24324413

Smith, Paul F.; Zheng, Yiwen

2013-01-01

193

Alterations in cognitive and psychological functioning after organic solvent exposure  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to organic solvents has been linked repeatedly to alterations in both personality and cognitive functioning. To assess the nature and extent of these changes more thoroughly, 32 workers with a history of exposure to mixtures of organic solvents and 32 age- and education-matched blue-collar workers with no history of exposure were assessed with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Although both groups were comparable on measures of general intelligence, significant differences were found in virtually all other cognitive domains tested (Learning and Memory, Visuospatial, Attention and Mental Flexibility, Psychomotor Speed). In addition, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories of exposed workers indicated clinically significant levels of depression, anxiety, somatic concerns and disturbances in thinking. The reported psychological distress was unrelated to degree of cognitive deficit. Finally, several exposure-related variables were associated with poorer performance on tests of memory and visuospatial ability.

Morrow, L.A.; Ryan, C.M.; Hodgson, M.J.; Robin, N. (Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (USA))

1990-05-01

194

J Alzheimers Dis . Author manuscript Caffeine, cognitive functioning, and white matter lesions in the elderly  

E-print Network

J Alzheimers Dis . Author manuscript Page /1 6 Caffeine, cognitive functioning, and white matter Objective The present study examines the epidemiological evidence for a causal relationship between caffeine examining cognitive functioning, caffeine consumption, magnetic resonance imaging volumetrics and other

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

195

Intrinsic Motivation in Schizophrenia: Relationships to Cognitive Function, Depression, Anxiety, and Personality  

E-print Network

Intrinsic Motivation in Schizophrenia: Relationships to Cognitive Function, Depression, Anxiety and their relationship to cognitive function, mood, and personality in schizophrenia. The authors used the Motivational were 66 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 44 healthy controls. Self

196

The effects of exercise, heat, cooling and rehydration strategies on cognitive function in football players.  

PubMed

We investigated the cognitive effects of exercising in the heat on the field players of two football teams in a series of three matches. Different rehydration and cooling strategies were used for one of the teams during the last two games. Cognitive functions were measured before, during and immediately after each football match, as well as core temperature, body mass, plasma osmolality and glucose levels, allowing an estimate of their differential impacts on cognition. The pattern of results suggests that mild-moderate dehydration during exercise in the heat (up to 2.5%) has no clear effect on cognitive function. Instead, plasma glucose and core temperature changes appear to be the main determinants: higher glucose was related to faster and less accurate performance, whereas core temperature rises had the opposite effect. The 50% correlation between plasma glucose and core temperatures observed during exercise in the heat may help to stabilize cognitive performance via their opposing effects. The glucose-like effects of sports drinks appear to be mediated by increased plasma glucose levels, because drinks effects became non-significant when plasma glucose levels were added to the models. The cooling intervention had only a beneficial effect on complex visuo-motor speed. PMID:21029202

Bandelow, S; Maughan, R; Shirreffs, S; Ozgünen, K; Kurdak, S; Ersöz, G; Binnet, M; Dvorak, J

2010-10-01

197

Neurocognitive performance of children with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders on the NEPSY-II.  

PubMed

This study examined patterns of strengths and weaknesses in the neurocognitive performance of children with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The participants were 30 children with higher functioning ASD ranging from 6 to 11 years, and 60 typically developing (TD) children, who were matched with the children with higher functioning ASD in terms of age, gender, and maternal education. The TD children were drawn from the Finnish standardization sample for the NEPSY-II. The cognitive abilities of the children with higher functioning ASD were assessed with the WISC-III, and the neurocognitive performance of the children with higher functioning ASD and TD children on the NEPSY-II was compared. The children with higher functioning ASD were found to have strengths in verbal reasoning skills with respect to the population mean and weaknesses in set-shifting, verbal fluency, and narrative memory in comparison with the TD children. Minor weaknesses were also observed in facial memory and fine and visuomotor skills. PMID:24397431

Barron-Linnankoski, Sarianna; Reinvall, Outi; Lahervuori, Anne; Voutilainen, Arja; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Korkman, Marit

2015-01-01

198

The effect of l -deprenyl on behavior, cognitive function, and biogenic amines in the dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral and pharmacological effects of oral administration ofl-deprenyl in the dog are described. Spontaneous behavior is unaffected at doses below 3 mg\\/kg while at higher doses there was stereotypical responding. There was evidence of improved cognitive function in animals chronically treated with a 1 mg\\/kg dose but the effectiveness varied considerably between subjects. Chronic administration produced a dose dependent inhibition

N. W. Milgram; G. O. Ivy; E. Head; M. P. Murphy; P. H. Wu; W. W. Ruehl; P. H. Yu; D. A. Durden; B. A. Davis; I. A. Paterson; A. A. Boulton

1993-01-01

199

Selenium Level and Cognitive Function in Rural Elderly Chinese  

PubMed Central

Selenium is a trace element associated with antioxidant activity and is considered to be a protective agent against free radicals through enhanced enzyme activity. Studies on selenium and cognitive function or Alzheimer’s disease have yielded inconsistent results. A cross-sectional survey of 2,000 rural Chinese aged 65 years or older from two provinces in the People’s Republic of China was conducted from December 2003 to May 2005 by use of the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia, the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD) Word List Learning Test, the Indiana University Story Recall Test, the Animal Fluency Test, and the Indiana University Token Test. Over 70% of the study participants have lived in the same village since birth. Nail samples were collected and analyzed for selenium contents. Analysis-of-covariance models were used to estimate the association between quintile selenium levels measured in nail samples and cognitive test scores, with adjustment for other covariates. Lower selenium levels measured in nail samples were significantly associated with lower cognitive scores (p < 0.0087 for all tests) except the Animal Fluency Test (p = 0.4378). A dose-response effect of selenium quintiles was also seen for those significant associations. Results in this geographically stable cohort support the hypothesis that a lifelong low selenium level is associated with lower cognitive function. PMID:17272290

Gao, Sujuan; Jin, Yinlong; Hall, Kathleen S.; Liang, Chaoke; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Ji, Rongdi; Murrell, Jill R.; Cao, Jingxiang; Shen, Jianzhao; Ma, Feng; Matesan, Janetta; Ying, Bo; Cheng, Yibin; Bian, Jianchao; Li, Ping; Hendrie, Hugh C.

2009-01-01

200

Beneficial effect of renal transplantation on cognitive brain function.  

PubMed

Cognitive brain dysfunction is a common complication of end-stage renal disease. To investigate the cerebral effect of renal transplantation, we studied P300 event-related potentials--an objective marker of cognitive brain function--trailmaking test and Mini-mental state in 15 chronic hemodialysis patients and 45 matched healthy subjects. Before transplantation, patients showed prolonged P300 latency (364 vs. 337 ms, P < 0.01), smaller amplitude (15.2 vs. 19.1 microV) and scored lower (P < 0.05) in trailmaking test and Mini-mental state as compared to healthy subjects. Following renal transplantation (14 months), P300 latency decreased (337 ms, P < 0.01 vs. before) and amplitude increased (17.4 microV, P < 0.05 vs. before), indicating improved cognitive brain function. The trailmaking test and Mini-mental state tended to improve. Following transplantation, P300 findings, trailmaking test and Mini-mental state were not different from healthy subjects. Additional studies following erythropoietin treatment in 6 of the 15 hemodialysis patients revealed decreased (improved) P300 latency (351 vs. 379 ms before, P < 0.05) with further decrease following transplantation (341 ms, P = 0.06). Our findings indicate that cognitive brain dysfunction in hemodialysis patients may be fully reversed by successful renal transplantation. PMID:8648927

Kramer, L; Madl, C; Stockenhuber, F; Yeganehfar, W; Eisenhuber, E; Derfler, K; Lenz, K; Schneider, B; Grimm, G

1996-03-01

201

Sustaining multiple ecosystem functions in grassland communities requires higher biodiversity  

E-print Network

Sustaining multiple ecosystem functions in grassland communities requires higher biodiversity Erika (sent for review July 27, 2009) Society places value on the multiple functions of ecosystems from ecosystems to provide threshold levels of up to eight ecosystem functions simultaneously. Across years

Zavaleta, Erika

202

Impaired emotional state, quality of life and cognitive functions in young hypogonadal men.  

PubMed

The study aimed to analyse emotional state, quality of life and cognitive functions in young hypogonadal men. Thirty-four males with hypogonadism (age 29.1 ± 10.5 years) and 34 age-matched healthy males (age 30.5 ± 11.0 years) were recruited. Their emotional state was evaluated by Profile of Mood States, quality of life - by WHO Brief Quality of Life Questionnaire - and cognitive functioning - by Trail Making Test and Digit Span Test of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. It was found that young men with hypogonadism had higher depression-dejection (13.1 ± 8.8 versus 7.4 ± 5.9, P = 0.003), fatigue-inertia (10.0 ± 5.8 versus 7.0 ± 4.9, P = 0.030), confusion-bewilderment (5.1 ± 4.6 versus 2.3 ± 3.1, P = 0.004) and lower vigour-activity (14.3 ± 5.1 versus 17.7 ± 4.3, P = 0.008) levels than age- and sex-matched controls. Quality of life psychological (13.1 ± 2.8 versus 15.1 ± 1.9, P = 0.005) and social (13.6 ± 2.4 versus 15.7 ± 2.0, P < 0.001) domains were significantly worse in men with hypogonadism than in controls. Cognitive functions were significantly worse (P < 0.001) in men with hypogonadism than in controls, showing worse executive function, attention, visual scanning abilities and psychomotor speed. A significant correlation was found between testosterone concentration and quality of life psychological domain. Cognitive functioning scores were significantly related with FT4 concentration. It is concluded that young hypogonadal patients have impaired emotional state and quality of life, but the most severe impairment was found in cognitive functioning. PMID:24313565

Lašait?, L; Ceponis, J; Preikša, R T; Zilaitien?, B

2014-12-01

203

A Cognitive Engineering Analysis of the Vertical Navigation (VNAV) Function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cognitive engineering analysis of the Flight Management System (FMS) Vertical Navigation (VNAV) function has identified overloading of the VNAV button and overloading of the Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA) used by the VNAV function. These two types of overloading, resulting in modal input devices and ambiguous feedback, are well known sources of operator confusion, and explain, in part, the operational issues experienced by airline pilots using VNAV in descent and approach. A proposal to modify the existing VNAV design to eliminate the overloading is discussed. The proposed design improves pilot's situational awareness of the VNAV function, and potentially reduces the cost of software development and improves safety.

Sherry, Lance; Feary, Michael; Polson, Peter; Mumaw, Randall; Palmer, Everett

2001-01-01

204

Computational Neuropsychiatry - Schizophrenia as a Cognitive Brain Network Disorder  

E-print Network

Computational modeling of functional brain networks in fMRI data has advanced the understanding of higher cognitive function. It is hypothesized that functional networks mediating higher cognitive processes are disrupted ...

Dauvermann, Maria R.

205

The cognitive neuroscience toolkit for the neuroeconomist: A functional overview  

PubMed Central

This article provides the beginning neuroeconomist with an introductory overview to the different methods used in human neuroscience. It describes basic strengths and weaknesses of each technique, points to examples of how each technique has been used in neuroeconomic studies, and provides key tutorial references that contain more detailed information. In addition to this overview, the article presents a framework that organizes human neuroscience methods functionally, according to whether they provide tests of the association between brain activity and cognition or behavior, or whether they test the necessity or the sufficiency of brain activity for cognition and behavior. This framework demonstrates the utility of a multi-method research approach, since converging evidence from tests of association, necessity and sufficiency provides the strongest inference regarding brain-behavior relationships. Set against this goal of converging evidence, human neuroscience studies in neuroeconomics currently rely far too heavily on methods that test association, most notably functional MRI. PMID:21796272

Kable, Joseph W.

2011-01-01

206

Cognitive function and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.  

PubMed

Among patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), impairment of cognitive function, i.e. deficits in memory, attention, and visuconstructive abilities are common. We applied different forms of treatment for patients with newly diagnosed OSAS in a randomized study with a one-year follow-up. Patients with BMI > 40 kg/m2 were excluded. After the initial diagnostic work-up, male patients were considered to be candidates for either nasal continuous airway pressure (nCPAP) (27 patients) or surgical treatment (uvulopalatopharyngoplasty with or without mandibular osteotomy) (23 patients). Within the groups, the patients were then randomized to active treatment (nCPAP/surgery) or to conservative management. Cognitive function and severity of OSAS were assessed prior to treatment and 3 and 12 months later. At 12 months, all patients on nCPAP had a normal ODI4 index (< 10), and were significantly less somnolent than their controls; 3/11 of the surgically treated patients had a normal ODI4 index. Daytime somnolence was significantly less severe in the surgically treated patients than in their controls. Cognitive function did not correlate importantly with daytime sleepiness or severity of OSAS; the best Pearson pairwise correlation coefficient was between ODI4 and the Bourdon-Wiersma (r = 0.36). Success in treatment of OSAS did not affect neuropsychological outcome. We concluded that the standard cognitive test battery is insufficiently sensitive to identify positive changes in patients with OSAS, especially among those with a high level of overall mental functioning. PMID:10188139

Lojander, J; Kajaste, S; Maasilta, P; Partinen, M

1999-03-01

207

The impact of constructivist teaching strategies on the acquisition of higher order cognition and learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative mixed design study was to compare the effectiveness of brain-based teaching strategies versus a traditional lecture format in the acquisition of higher order cognition as determined by test scores. A second purpose was to elicit student feedback about the two teaching approaches. The design was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design study with repeated measures on the last factor. The independent variables were type of student, teaching method, and a within group change over time. Dependent variables were a between group comparison of pre-test, post-test gain scores and a within and between group comparison of course examination scores. A convenience sample of students enrolled in medical-surgical nursing was used. One group (n=36) was made up of traditional students and the other group (n=36) consisted of second-degree students. Four learning units were included in this study. Pre- and post-tests were given on the first two units. Course examinations scores from all four units were compared. In one cohort two of the units were taught via lecture format and two using constructivist activities. These methods were reversed for the other cohort. The conceptual basis for this study derives from neuroscience and cognitive psychology. Learning is defined as the growth of new dendrites. Cognitive psychologists view learning as a constructive activity in which new knowledge is built on an internal foundation of existing knowledge. Constructivist teaching strategies are designed to stimulate the brain's natural learning ability. There was a statistically significant difference based on type of teaching strategy (t = -2.078, df = 270, p = .039, d = .25)) with higher mean scores on the examinations covering brain-based learning units. There was no statistical significance based on type of student. Qualitative data collection was conducted in an on-line forum at the end of the semester. Students had overall positive responses about the constructivist activities. Major themes were described. Constructivist strategies help bridge the gap between neurological and cognitive sciences and classroom teaching and learning. A variety of implications for nursing educators are outlined as well as directions for future research.

Merrill, Alison Saricks

208

[The cerebellum: from motor coordination to cognitive function].  

PubMed

Clinical data in man, as well as experimental results in animals, classically involve the cerebellum in the coordination of ballistic movements and in their accompanying postural adjustment. The cerebellum intervenes in the coding of the order and duration of contraction of the different protagonist muscular groups contributing to the same movement. In normal life, this is an automatic, non conscious procedure. Recent studies seem to indicate that the human neocerebellum (lateral hemispheres and dentate nuclei) plays a role in the regulation of some neocortical cognitive functions. This new functional aspect of cerebellar activity has been inferred from the results obtained by three quite different domains: neuroanatomical data showing the existence of, sometimes reciprocal, pathways between the neocerebellum and associative and limbic areas in primates, neuropsychological data assessing the presence, in some cerebellar patients, of purely cognitive impairments, and data from functional imagery pointing out cerebellar activation in healthy subjects during non motor tasks. II would ensue that, thanks to new cortical targets. The cerebellum could regulate sensorial, procedural, linguistic and emotional activities, so that a cerebellar lesion could be followed by a cognitive and affective syndrome, depending on the importance and on the location of the lesion. PMID:11924445

Habas, C

2001-12-01

209

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves cognitive functioning after brain injury  

PubMed Central

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been widely applied and recognized in the treatment of brain injury; however, the correlation between the protective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and changes of metabolites in the brain remains unclear. To investigate the effect and potential mechanism of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cognitive functioning in rats, we established traumatic brain injury models using Feeney's free falling method. We treated rat models with hyperbaric oxygen therapy at 0.2 MPa for 60 minutes per day. The Morris water maze test for spatial navigation showed that the average escape latency was significantly prolonged and cognitive function decreased in rats with brain injury. After treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy for 1 and 2 weeks, the rats’ spatial learning and memory abilities were improved. Hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis showed that the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased at 1 week, and the N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio was significantly increased at 2 weeks after hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Nissl staining and immunohistochemical staining showed that the number of nerve cells and Nissl bodies in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased, and glial fibrillary acidic protein positive cells were decreased after a 2-week hyperbaric oxygen therapy treatment. Our findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen therapy significantly improves cognitive functioning in rats with traumatic brain injury, and the potential mechanism is mediated by metabolic changes and nerve cell restoration in the hippocampal CA3 region. PMID:25206655

Liu, Su; Shen, Guangyu; Deng, Shukun; Wang, Xiubin; Wu, Qinfeng; Guo, Aisong

2013-01-01

210

Higher-order theory for functionally graded materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the full generalization of the Cartesian coordinate-based higher-order theory for functionally graded materials developed by the authors during the past several years. This theory circumvents the problematic use of the standard micromechanical approach, based on the concept of a representative volume element, commonly employed in the analysis of functionally graded composites by explicitly coupling the local (microstructural)

J. Aboudi; M.-J. Pindera; S. M. Arnold

1999-01-01

211

Brief Report: Feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Adults with High Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with…

Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Perry, Timothy D.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.; Penn, David L.

2008-01-01

212

The association between depressive symptoms, cognitive function, and inflammation in major depression.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the association between IL-6 and CRP with depressive items and cognitive function. We included 112 outpatients with major depression from an exercise trial and 57 healthy controls. IL-6, high sensitive CRP (hsCRP), and cognitive function were assessed in all subjects. After baseline assessment, patients were randomised to either a 3months exercise intervention or an exercise control group. Post-intervention IL-6, hsCRP, depressive symptoms, and cognitive function were reassessed in the patient group. IL-6 and hsCRP were significantly increased in depressed patients compared to healthy controls (p=0.02 and 0.04). These differences were no longer significant after adjustment for lifestyle associated variables. We found no association between immune markers and specific depressive symptoms at baseline or as change over time. Regarding the cognitive tests, IL-6 was positively associated with Serial sevens (p=0.008) and hsCRP was inversely associated with Trail making A (p=0.02) and design fluency (p=0.001) at baseline. At 3months follow-up IL-6 and hsCRP levels did not significantly change from baseline and did not differ between the two patient groups. Depression scores was lower compared to baseline but did not differ between groups. Combining the two groups, a decrease in IL-6 was associated to decreased verbal fluency (p=0.02), and a decrease in hsCRP was associated with improvement in Trail making A (p=0.005). In conclusion, the level of IL-6 and hsCRP was increased in depressed outpatients but was not associated to specific depressive symptoms. In terms of cognitive function, we found that higher hsCRP levels were associated to lower psychomotor speed both at baseline and at follow-up. PMID:24016864

Krogh, Jesper; Benros, Michael E; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Vesterager, Lone; Elfving, Betina; Nordentoft, Merete

2014-01-01

213

Lateralization of Cognitive Functions in Aphasia after Right Brain Damage  

PubMed Central

Purpose The lateralization of cognitive functions in crossed aphasia in dextrals (CAD) has been explored and compared mainly with cases of aphasia with left hemisphere damage. However, comparing the neuropsychological aspects of CAD and aphasia after right brain damage in left-handers (ARL) could potentially provide more insights into the effect of a shift in the laterality of handedness or language on other cognitive organization. Thus, this case study compared two cases of CAD and one case of ARL. Materials and Methods The following neuropsychological measures were obtained from three aphasic patients with right brain damage (two cases of CAD and one case of ARL); language, oral and limb praxis, and nonverbal cognitive functions (visuospatial neglect and visuospatial construction). Results All three patients showed impaired visuoconstructional abilities, whereas each patient showed a different level of performances for oral and limb praxis, and visuospatial neglect. Conclusion Based on the analysis of these three aphasic patients' performances, we highlighted the lateralization of language, handedness, oral and limb praxis, visuospatial neglect and visuospatial constructive ability in aphasic patients with right brain damage. PMID:22476990

Ha, Ji-Wan; Hwang, Yu Mi; Sim, Hyunsub

2012-01-01

214

Does Domain Knowledge Moderate Involvement of Working Memory Capacity in Higher-Level Cognition? A Test of Three Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that both working memory capacity and domain knowledge contribute to individual differences in higher-level cognition. This study evaluated three hypotheses concerning the interplay between these factors. The compensation hypothesis predicts that domain knowledge attenuates the influence of working memory capacity on higher-level…

Hambrick, D.Z.; Oswald, F.L.

2005-01-01

215

Social Cognitive Impairments and Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Are There Subtypes With Distinct Functional Correlates?  

PubMed Central

Social cognitive impairments and negative symptoms are core features of schizophrenia closely associated with impaired community functioning. However, little is known about whether these are independent dimensions of illness and if so, whether individuals with schizophrenia can be meaningfully classified based on these dimensions (SANS) and potentially differentially treated. Five social cognitive measures plus Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores in a sample of 77 outpatients produced 2 distinct factors—a social cognitive factor and a negative symptom factor. Factor scores were used in a cluster analysis, which yielded 3 well-defined groupings—a high negative symptom group (HN) and 2 low negative symptom groups, 1 with higher social cognition (HSC) and 1 with low social cognition (LSC). To make these findings more practicable for research and clinical settings, a rule of thumb for categorizing using only the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test and PANSS negative component was created and produced 84.4% agreement with the original cluster groups. An additional 63 subjects were added to cross validate the rule of thumb. When samples were combined (N = 140), the HSC group had significantly better quality of life and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores, higher rates of marriage and more hospitalizations. The LSC group had worse criminal and substance abuse histories. With 2 common assessment instruments, people with schizophrenia can be classified into 3 subgroups that have different barriers to community integration and could potentially benefit from different treatments. PMID:21976710

Bell, Morris D.; Corbera, Silvia; Johannesen, Jason K.; Fiszdon, Joanna M.; Wexler, Bruce E.

2013-01-01

216

Who would have thought that 'Jaws' also has brains? Cognitive functions in elasmobranchs.  

PubMed

Adaptation of brain structures, function and higher cognitive abilities most likely have contributed significantly to the evolutionary success of elasmobranchs, but these traits remain poorly studied when compared to other vertebrates, specifically mammals. While the pallium of non-mammalian vertebrates lacks the mammalian neocortical organization responsible for all cognitive abilities of mammals, several behavioural and neuroanatomical studies in recent years have clearly demonstrated that elasmobranchs, just like teleosts and other non-mammalian vertebrates, can nonetheless solve a multitude of cognitive tasks. Sharks and rays can learn and habituate, possess spatial memory; can orient according to different orientation strategies, remember spatial and discrimination tasks for extended periods of time, use tools; can imitate and learn from others, distinguish between conspecifics and heterospecifics, discriminate between either visual objects or electrical fields; can categorize visual objects and perceive illusory contours as well as bilateral symmetry. At least some neural correlates seem to be located in the telencephalon, with some pallial regions matching potentially homologous areas in other vertebrates where similar functions are being processed. Results of these studies indicate that the assessed cognitive abilities in elasmobranchs are as well developed as in teleosts or other vertebrates, aiding them in fundamental activities such as food retrieval, predator avoidance, mate choice and habitat selection. PMID:24889655

Schluessel, V

2015-01-01

217

Does Vitamin C Deficiency Affect Cognitive Development and Function?  

PubMed Central

Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(?/?) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies. PMID:25244370

Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

2014-01-01

218

Functional neuroimaging of Social and Nonsocial Cognitive Control in Autism  

PubMed Central

This study investigated cognitive control of social and nonsocial information in autism using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and a neurotypical control group completed an oddball target detection task where target stimuli were either faces or nonsocial objects previously shown to be related to circumscribed interests in autism. The ASD group demonstrated relatively increased activation to social targets in right insular cortex and in left superior frontal gyrus and relatively decreased activation to nonsocial targets related to circumscribed interests in multiple frontostriatal brain regions. Findings suggest that frontostriatal recruitment during cognitive control in ASD is contingent on stimulus type, with increased activation for social stimuli and decreased activation for nonsocial stimuli related to circumscribed interests. PMID:23636715

Sabatino, Antoinette; Rittenberg, Alison; Sasson, Noah J.; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Bodfish, James W.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

2013-01-01

219

Cognitive Function During Nicotine Withdrawal: Implications for Nicotine Dependence Treatment  

PubMed Central

Nicotine withdrawal is associated with deficits in neurocognitive function including sustained attention, working memory, and response inhibition. Several convergent lines of evidence suggest that these deficits may represent a core dependence phenotype and a target for treatment development efforts. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying withdrawal-related cognitive deficits may lead to improve nicotine dependence treatment. We begin with an overview of the neurocognitive effects of withdrawal in rodent and human models, followed by discussion of the neurobehavioral mechanisms that are thought to underlie these effects. We then review individual differences in withdrawal-related neurocognitive effects including genetics, gender, and psychiatric comorbidity. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of this research for developing improved therapies, both pharmacotherapy and behavioral treatments, that target cognitive symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. PMID:23639437

Ashare, Rebecca L.; Falcone, Mary; Lerman, Caryn

2013-01-01

220

Cognitive Functioning in Space Exploration Missions: A Human Requirement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solving cognitive issues in the exploration missions will require implementing results from both Human Behavior and Performance, and Space Human Factors Engineering. Operational and research cognitive requirements need to reflect a coordinated management approach with appropriate oversight and guidance from NASA headquarters. First, this paper will discuss one proposed management method that would combine the resources of Space Medicine and Space Human Factors Engineering at JSC, other NASA agencies, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Wyle Labs, and other academic or industrial partners. The proposed management is based on a Human Centered Design that advocates full acceptance of the human as a system equal to other systems. Like other systems, the human is a system with many subsystems, each of which has strengths and limitations. Second, this paper will suggest ways to inform exploration policy about what is needed for optimal cognitive functioning of the astronaut crew, as well as requirements to ensure necessary assessment and intervention strategies for the human system if human limitations are reached. Assessment strategies will include clinical evaluation and fitness-to-perform evaluations. Clinical intervention tools and procedures will be available to the astronaut and space flight physician. Cognitive performance will be supported through systematic function allocation, task design, training, and scheduling. Human factors requirements and guidelines will lead to well-designed information displays and retrieval systems that reduce crew time and errors. Means of capturing process, design, and operational requirements to ensure crew performance will be discussed. Third, this paper will describe the current plan of action, and future challenges to be resolved before a lunar or Mars expedition. The presentation will include a proposed management plan for research, involvement of various organizations, and a timetable of deliverables.

Fiedler, Edan; Woolford, Barbara

2005-01-01

221

Patterns and associates of cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health are important domains of function. Consistencies and inconsistencies in patterns of wellbeing across these domains may be informative about wellbeing in old age and the ways it is manifested amongst individuals. In this study we investigated whether there were groups of individuals with different profiles of scores across these domains. We also aimed to identify characteristics of any evident groups by comparing them on variables that were not used in identifying the groups. Methods The sample was the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, which included 1091 participants born in 1936. They are a community-dwelling, narrow-age-range sample of 70-year-olds. Most had taken part in the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 at an average age of 11, making available a measure of childhood intelligence. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to explore possible profiles using 9 variables indicating cognitive functioning, psychosocial wellbeing and health status. Demographic, personality, and lifestyle variables – none of which were used in the LCA – were used to characterize the resulting profile groups. Results We accepted a 3-group solution, which we labeled High Wellbeing (65.3%), Low Cognition (20.3%), and Low Bio-Psychosocial (14.5%). Notably, the High Wellbeing group had significantly higher childhood IQ, lower Neuroticism scores, and a lower percentage of current smokers than the other 2 groups. Conclusion The majority of individuals were functioning generally well; however, there was evidence of the presence of groups with different profiles, which may be explained in part in terms of cognitive ability differences. Results suggested that higher life-long intelligence, personality traits associated with less mental distress, and basic health practices such as avoiding smoking are important associates of wellbeing in old age. PMID:24754844

2014-01-01

222

Cognitive Functioning, Retirement Status, and Age: Results from the Cognitive Changes and Retirement among Senior Surgeons Study  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate assessment of cognitive functioning is an important step in understanding how to better evaluate both clinical and cognitive competence in practicing surgeons. As part of the Cognitive Changes and Retirement among Senior Surgeons study, we examined the objective cognitive functioning of senior surgeons in relation to retirement status and age. Study Design Computerized cognitive tasks measuring visual sustained attention, reaction time, and visual learning and memory were administered to both practicing and retired surgeons at annual meetings of the American College of Surgeons. Data from 168 senior surgeons aged 60 and older were compared with data from 126 younger surgeons aged 45 to 59, with performance below 1.5 standard deviations or more indicating a significant difference between the groups. Results Sixty-one percent of practicing senior surgeons performed within the range of the younger surgeons on all cognitive tasks. Seventy-eight percent of practicing senior surgeons aged 60 to 64 performed within the range of the younger surgeons on all tasks compared with 38% of practicing senior surgeons aged 70 and older. Forty-five percent of retired senior surgeons performed within the range of the younger surgeons on all tasks. No senior surgeon performed below the younger surgeons on all 3 tasks. Conclusions The majority of practicing senior surgeons performed at or near the level of their younger peers on all cognitive tasks, as did almost half of the retired senior surgeons. This suggests that older age does not inevitably preclude cognitive proficiency. The variability in cognitive performance across age groups and retirement status suggests the need for formal measures of objective cognitive functioning to help surgeons detect changes in cognitive performance and aid in their decisions to retire. PMID:20800185

Drag, Lauren L; Bieliauskas, Linas A; Langenecker, Scott A; Greenfield, Lazar J

2014-01-01

223

Effect of a human-type communication robot on cognitive function in elderly women living alone  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Considering the high prevalence of dementia, it would be of great value to develop effective tools to improve cognitive function. We examined the effects of a human-type communication robot on cognitive function in elderly women living alone. Material/Methods In this study, 34 healthy elderly female volunteers living alone were randomized to living with either a communication robot or a control robot at home for 8 weeks. The shape, voice, and motion features of the communication robot resemble those of a 3-year-old boy, while the control robot was not designed to talk or nod. Before living with the robot and 4 and 8 weeks after living with the robot, experiments were conducted to evaluate a variety of cognitive functions as well as saliva cortisol, sleep, and subjective fatigue, motivation, and healing. Results The Mini-Mental State Examination score, judgement, and verbal memory function were improved after living with the communication robot; those functions were not altered with the control robot. In addition, the saliva cortisol level was decreased, nocturnal sleeping hours tended to increase, and difficulty in maintaining sleep tended to decrease with the communication robot, although alterations were not shown with the control. The proportions of the participants in whom effects on attenuation of fatigue, enhancement of motivation, and healing could be recognized were higher in the communication robot group relative to the control group. Conclusions This study demonstrates that living with a human-type communication robot may be effective for improving cognitive functions in elderly women living alone. PMID:22936190

Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Yamano, Emi; Ogikubo, Hiroki; Okazaki, Masatsugu; Kamimura, Kazuro; Konishi, Yasuharu; Emoto, Shigeru; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

2012-01-01

224

Sweet taste receptor signaling network: possible implication for cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special "sweet" molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose) regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning. PMID:25653876

Welcome, Menizibeya O; Mastorakis, Nikos E; Pereverzev, Vladimir A

2015-01-01

225

Cognitive Functions in Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia Type 2  

PubMed Central

Background: Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2) is characterized by cerebellar atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, oculomotor apraxia, and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. The disease is caused by a recessive mutation in the senataxin gene. Since it is a very rare cerebellar disorder, no detailed examination of cognitive functions in AOA2 has been published to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile of a 54-year-old patient with AOA2. Methods: A broad range of neuropsychological examination protocol was administered including the following domains: short-term, working- and episodic-memories, executive functions, implicit sequence learning, and the temporal parameters of speech. Results: The performance on the Listening Span, Letter Fluency, Serial Reaction Time Task, and pause ratio in speech was 2 or more standard deviations (SD) lower compared to controls, and 1 SD lower on Backward Digit Span, Semantic Fluency, articulation rate, and speech tempo. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the pathogenesis of the cerebrocerebellar circuit in AOA2 is responsible for the weaker coordination of complex cognitive functions such as working memory, executive functions, speech, and sequence learning. PMID:23015802

Klivényi, Peter; Nemeth, Dezso; Sefcsik, Tamas; Janacsek, Karolina; Hoffmann, Ildiko; Haden, Gabor Peter; Londe, Zsuzsa; Vecsei, Laszlo

2012-01-01

226

Detecting residual cognitive function in disorders of consciousness.  

PubMed

Clinical audits have suggested up to 40% of patients with disorders of consciousness may be misdiagnosed, in part, due to the highly subjective process of determining, from a patient's behaviour, whether they retain awareness of self or environment. To address this problem, objective neuroimaging methods, such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging have been explored. Using these techniques, paradigms, which do not require the patient to move or speak, can be used to determine a patient's level of residual cognitive function. Indeed, visual discrimination, speech comprehension and even the ability to respond to command have been demonstrated in some patients who are assumed to be vegetative on the basis of standard behavioural assessments. Functional neuroimaging is now increasingly considered to be a very useful and necessary addition to the clinical assessment process, where there is concern about the accuracy of the diagnosis and the possibility that residual cognitive function has remained undetected. In this essay, the latest neuroimaging findings are reviewed, the limitations and caveats pertaining to interpretation are outlined and the necessary developments, before neuroimaging becomes a standard component of the clinical assessment are discussed. PMID:21197605

Coleman, M R; Pickard, J D

2011-01-01

227

Higher anticholinergic drug scale (ADS) scores are associated with peripheral but not cognitive markers of cholinergic blockade. Cross sectional data from 21 Norwegian nursing homes  

PubMed Central

Aim This study evaluated a presumed gradual decline in cognitive function in nursing home residents when the anticholinergic drug scale (ADS) score increased above 3. Method The study population was recruited from 21 nursing homes in Norway. Criteria for inclusion were ADS score???3 and no severe dementia, defined as Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score < 3. Primary cognitive end points were CERAD 10?word lists for recall and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Secondary end points were activity of daily living (ADL), mouth dryness and serum anticholinergic activity (SAA). The patients were stratified into subgroups according to ADS score, i.e. a reference group with score 3 and test groups with scores 4, 5 or ?6. End points were compared by analyses of covariance (ancova). Results Overall, 230 of the 1101 screened nursing home residents (21%) had an ADS score ?3. After exclusion 101 residents were recruited and among these, 87 managed to participate in the study. No significant differences were detected in cognitive function or ADL when ADS increased above 3 (P > 0.10), but in vivo (mouth dryness) and in vitro (SAA) measures of peripheral anticholinergic activity were significantly higher in patients with an ADS score ?6 (P < 0.01). Conclusion The present study does not support a progressive decline in cognitive function with ADS score above 3. This might indicate that the ADS score model has limited potential to predict the clinical risk of central anticholinergic side effects in frail elderly patients receiving multiple anticholinergic drugs. PMID:22924454

Kersten, Hege; Molden, Espen; Willumsen, Tiril; Engedal, Knut; Wyller, Torgeir Bruun

2013-01-01

228

The effect of in-home cognitive training on functional performance of individuals with mild cognitive impairment and early-stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

This intervention study compared an in-home cognitive training program to life story interview in 68 individuals with mild cognitive impairment or early-stage Alzheimer's disease. Family caregivers participated in sessions and reinforced learning between sessions. Analyses of covariance controlling for baseline levels were conducted. In comparison with the life story group, participants in the cognitive training group demonstrated significant improvement in all face-name association measures, several of the money-related tasks, and one of two event-related memory tasks. There were no differences in language outcomes or caregiver ratings of functional tasks except shopping. Caregivers in the life story group reported higher perceived satisfaction from being a caregiver. Comparison with earlier studies suggests in-home training is modestly more effective than office-based intervention. Results suggest that improvements are related to specific training and do not generalize to other tasks. Focusing on tasks of critical significance to participant and caregiver is recommended. PMID:24131045

Tappen, Ruth M; Hain, Debra

2014-01-01

229

[Cognitive Function and Calcium. Vitamin D and calcium for the prevention of falls and fractures in patients with dementia].  

PubMed

The prevalence of dementia and fractures has been increasing with age. There is strong evidence that dementia or cognitive impairment in older people has an established fall risk factor. Subjects with dementia have a doubled to threefold risk of falls. In addition to motor impairments (impaired gait, reduced muscular strength and impaired balance) , executive functional impairment is also associated with an increased risk of falls. Falls are more likely found in subjects with dementia with Lewy bodies and vascular dementia and those who had advanced dementia. Patients with AD are at higher risk for fractures and have a lower bone mineral density than healthy controls. Vitamin D decreases vertebral fractures, and moreover, appears to reduce the risk of falls in older subjects. A recent meta-analysis showed that vitamin D concentrations are associated with poor cognitive function and a higher risk of AD. However, treatment with vitamin D alone shows no significant effect on cognition in patients with AD. PMID:25634053

Hanyu, Haruo

2015-01-01

230

Cognitive function and other non-motor features in non-demented Parkinson's disease motor subtypes.  

PubMed

Among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), a wide range of non-motor symptoms (NMS) are evident. We assessed markers of NMS and explored their behavioral correlates with the tremor-dominant (TD) and postural instability gait difficulty (PIGD) subtypes. 110 non-demented patients with PD were evaluated and stratified into the PIGD and TD subtypes and, using stricter criteria, into predominant subgroups: p-PIGD (n = 31) and p-TD (n = 32). Non-motor signs that were assessed included cognitive function (pen and paper and a computerized battery), autonomic function (NMSQest and SCOPA-AUT), mood, and sleep. Health-related quality of life was evaluated using the PDQ-39. The p-PIGD subgroup had a higher score on the NMSQest (p = 0.033) and a higher score (i.e., worse) on the PDQ-39 (p-PIGD: 26.28 ± 12.47; p-TD: 16.93 ± 12.22; p = 0.004), compared to the p-TD subgroup, while these measures did not differ in the larger PIGD and TD group. The p-PIGD subgroup used more sleep medications compared to the p-TD subgroup (1.0 ± 1.39 vs. 0.41 ± 0.94, p = 0.05, respectively). Most cognitive scores were similar in both subgroups; however, the visuospatial components of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the computerized catch game were significantly worse among the p-PIGD subgroup. Mild associations were found between certain non-motor symptoms, but not cognitive function, and the PIGD score. Non-demented patients from the PIGD subtype experience more non-motor symptoms and poorer quality of life compared to the TD subtype. These findings suggest that the clinical management of non-motor and motor symptoms in patients with PD may be enhanced by a personalized approach. PMID:25490941

Herman, Talia; Weiss, Aner; Brozgol, Marina; Wilf-Yarkoni, Adi; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

2014-12-10

231

From higher order thinking to higher order behavior: exploring the relationship between early cognitive skills and social competence in black boys.  

PubMed

This study examines the relations of higher order (i.e., abstract) thinking (HOT) skills to specific domains of social competence in Black boys (n = 108) attending publicly sponsored prekindergarten (pre-K) programs. Data for the study were collected as part of the National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL) Multi-State Study, a national, longitudinal study examining the quality and outcomes in a representative sample of publicly sponsored pre-K programs in six states (N = 240). Pre-K and kindergarten teachers rated randomly selected children on measures of abstract thinking, self-regulation, and social functioning at the beginning and end of each school year. Applying structural equation modeling, compared with earlier time points, HOT measured in the fall of kindergarten significantly predicted each of the domains of social competence in the spring of kindergarten, with the exception of peer social skills, while controlling for general cognitive ability. Results suggest that early intervention to improve HOT may be an effective and more focused approach to address concerns about Black boys' early social competencies in specific domains and potentially reduce the risk of later social difficulties. PMID:23889011

Scott, Kristin M; Barbarin, Oscar A; Brown, Jeffrey M

2013-01-01

232

Higher Serum Vitamin D3 Levels Are Associated with Better Cognitive Test Performance in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Recent studies suggest that vitamin D metabolites may be important for preserving cognitive function via specific neuroprotective effects. No large studies have examined the association between vitamin D status and cognition. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) test scores of 225 older outpatients who were diagnosed as having

C. Oudshoorn; N. van der Velde; E. M. Colin; T. J. M. van der Cammen

2008-01-01

233

Everyday functioning in relation to cognitive functioning and neuroimaging in community-dwelling Hispanic and Non-Hispanic older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine how a specific informant-based measure of everyday functioning, the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE; Jorm & Korten, 1988) relates to cognition and structural neuroimaging in a large multicultural, multilingual sample of Caucasians and Hispanics. Cognitive variables included selected subtests from the Spanish and English Neuropsychological Assessment Scales (SENAS;

SARAH TOMASZEWSKI FARIAS; DAN MUNGAS; BRUCE REED; MARY N. HAAN; WILLIAM J. JAGUST

2004-01-01

234

Cognitive function in the locked-in syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective\\u000a   The lockedin syndrome (LIS) originates from a ventro-pontine lesion resulting in a complete quadraplegia and anarthria. Classically,\\u000a communication remains possible by means of spared vertical eye movements and\\/or blinking. To allow assessing cognitive functions\\u000a in LIS patients, we propose here a neuropsychological testing based on eye-coded communication.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods\\u000a   Ten chronic LIS survivors were assessed 1 to 6 years after

Steve Majerus; Serge Goldman; Philippe Van Eeckhout; Stephane Gay; Frederic Pellas; Valerie Bartsch; Philippe Peigneux; Gustave Moonen

2008-01-01

235

The Impact of Cognitive Function on Medication Management: Three Studies  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Medication non-adherence has been a persistent problem over the past 3 decades; forgetting and being distracted from regular routines are the barriers most frequently cited by patients. Prior research on cognitive function and medication adherence has yielded mixed results. This report compares findings of 3 studies. DESIGN: All were longitudinal; two were randomized controlled intervention trials, one was descriptive. Samples of adult patients taking once daily lipid-lowering medication, diabetic patients with co-morbid conditions on complex regimens, and early-stage breast cancer patients on hormonal therapy completed similar batteries of standardized, valid neuropsychological tests at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adherence to medication regimens, over time, was tracked with electronic event monitors. RESULTS: Medication non-adherence was prevalent in all studies. Deficits in attention/mental flexibility and/or working memory predicted non-adherence in all studies; impaired executive function was related to poor adherence in 1 study. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that better mental efficiency may be the key to better medication adherence with any regimen and that targeted cognitive functions, which can be easily and quickly assessed, may identify patients at risk of poor adherence regardless of diagnosis or regimen. PMID:20063935

Stilley, Carol S.; Bender, Catherine M.; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Sereika, Susan; Ryan, Christopher M.

2009-01-01

236

A mode coupling theory of higher order time correlation functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kawasaki's mode coupling theory [Ann. Phys. 61 (1970) 1] is used to compute time correlation functions of the form , where Ak(t) represents some slowly varying quantity. The Gaussian and Bare Vertex approximations are made, thus yielding extremely simple expressions for these higher order correlation functions. These do not contain any bare transport coefficients and suggest relatively simple

David Ronis

1981-01-01

237

Cognitive Profile of Students Who Enter Higher Education with an Indication of Dyslexia  

PubMed Central

For languages other than English there is a lack of empirical evidence about the cognitive profile of students entering higher education with a diagnosis of dyslexia. To obtain such evidence, we compared a group of 100 Dutch-speaking students diagnosed with dyslexia with a control group of 100 students without learning disabilities. Our study showed selective deficits in reading and writing (effect sizes for accuracy between d?=?1 and d?=?2), arithmetic (d?1), and phonological processing (d>0.7). Except for spelling, these deficits were larger for speed related measures than for accuracy related measures. Students with dyslexia also performed slightly inferior on the KAIT tests of crystallized intelligence, due to the retrieval of verbal information from long-term memory. No significant differences were observed in the KAIT tests of fluid intelligence. The profile we obtained agrees with a recent meta-analysis of English findings suggesting that it generalizes to all alphabetic languages. Implications for special arrangements for students with dyslexia in higher education are outlined. PMID:22719864

Brysbaert, Marc

2012-01-01

238

Trajectories of age-related cognitive decline and potential associated factors of cognitive function in senior citizens of Beijing.  

PubMed

With a longer life expectancy and an increased prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases, investigations on trajectories of cognitive aging have become exciting and promising. This study aimed to estimate the patterns of age-related cognitive decline and the potential associated factors of cognitive function in community-dwelling residents of Beijing, China. In this study, 1248 older adults aged 52-88 years [including 175 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects] completed a battery of neuropsychological scales. The personal information, including demographic information, medical history, eating habits, lifestyle regularity and leisure activities, was also collected. All cognitive function exhibited an agerelated decline in normal volunteers. Piece-wise linear fitting results suggested that performance on the Auditory Verbal Learning Test remained stable until 58 years of age and continued to decline thereafter. The decline in processing speed and executive function began during the early 50's. Scores on visual-spatial and language tests declined after 66 years of age. The decline stage of the general mental status ranged from 63 to 70 years of age. However, the MCI group did not exhibit an obvious age-related decline in most cognitive tests. Multivariate linear regression analyses indicated that education, gender, leisure activities, diabetes and eating habits were associated with cognitive abilities. These results indicated various trajectories of age-related decline across multiple cognitive domains. We also found different patterns of agerelated cognitive decline between MCI and normal elderly. These findings could help improve the guidance of cognitive intervention program and have implications for public policy issues. PMID:25212920

Li, He; Lv, Chenlong; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Kewei; Chen, Chuansheng; Gai, Guozhong; Hu, Liangping; Wang, Yongyan; Zhang, Zhanjun

2014-01-01

239

Aerobic Fitness and Cognitive Function in Midlife: An Association Mediated by Plasma Insulin  

PubMed Central

Insulin resistance in midlife increases the risk of dementia in late-life. In contrast, habitual aerobic exercise is an established strategy to ameliorate insulin resistance which may translate into better cognitive outcome. Purpose To determine the role of plasma insulin in mediating the relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function. Methods Fifty-eight adults completed assessments of plasma insulin levels, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), and neuropsychological test performance. Results Endurance-trained subjects demonstrated better cognitive outcome (total composite z-score: 0.21±0.08 versus -0.26±0.10, P=0.001) and lower concentrations of plasma insulin (12.6±0.6 versus 21.3±1.5 ulU/mL, P<0.001) than sedentary subjects. Greater VO2max was significantly associated with higher memory performance (?=0.37, P=0.01) and lower plasma insulin levels (?=-0.68, P<0.001). The significant association between VO2max and memory performance was abolished when the indirect effect of plasma insulin was statistically removed (?=0.24, P=0.19). Conclusion Fitness-related cognitive enhancement may be mediated, at least in part, by plasma insulin levels. PMID:24000071

Tarumi, Takashi; Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Fallow, Bennett; Nualnim, Nantinee; Lee, Jeongseok; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P.

2015-01-01

240

Association between adjuvant regional radiotherapy and cognitive function in breast cancer patients treated with conservation therapy  

PubMed Central

Although protracted cognitive impairment has been reported to occur after radiotherapy even when such therapy is not directed to brain areas, the mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated whether breast cancer patients exposed to local radiotherapy showed lower cognitive function mediated by higher plasma interleukin (IL)-6 levels than those unexposed. We performed the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) and measured plasma IL-6 levels for 105 breast cancer surgical patients within 1 year after the initial therapy. The group differences in each of the indices of WMS-R were investigated between cancer patients exposed to adjuvant regional radiotherapy (n = 51) and those unexposed (n = 54) using analysis of covariance. We further investigated a mediation effect by plasma IL-6 levels on the relationship between radiotherapy and the indices of WMS-R using the bootstrapping method. The radiotherapy group showed significantly lower Immediate Verbal Memory Index and Delayed Recall Index (P = 0.001, P = 0.008, respectively). Radiotherapy exerted an indirect effect on the lower Delayed Recall Index of WMS-R through elevation of plasma IL-6 levels (bootstrap 95% confidence interval = ?2.6626 to ?0.0402). This study showed that breast cancer patients exposed to adjuvant regional radiotherapy in conservation therapy might have cognitive impairment even several months after their treatment. The relationship between the therapy and the cognitive impairment could be partially mediated by elevation of plasma IL-6 levels. PMID:24756915

Shibayama, Osamu; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Eisho; Sugawara, Yuriko; Akechi, Tatsuo; Wada, Noriaki; Imoto, Shigeru; Murakami, Koji; Ogawa, Asao; Akabayashi, Akira; Uchitomi, Yosuke

2014-01-01

241

Aerobic fitness and cognitive function in midlife: an association mediated by plasma insulin.  

PubMed

Insulin resistance in midlife increases the risk of dementia in late-life. In contrast, habitual aerobic exercise is an established strategy to ameliorate insulin resistance which may translate into better cognitive outcome. To determine the role of plasma insulin in mediating the relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function, fifty-eight adults completed assessments of plasma insulin levels, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), and neuropsychological test performance. Endurance-trained subjects demonstrated better cognitive outcome (total composite z-score: 0.21?±?0.08 versus -0.26?±?0.10, P?=?0.001) and lower concentrations of plasma insulin (12.6?±?0.6 versus 21.3?±?1.5 ulU/mL, P?higher memory performance (??=?0.37, P?=?0.01) and lower plasma insulin levels (??=?-0.68, P?cognitive enhancement may be mediated, at least in part, by plasma insulin levels. PMID:24000071

Tarumi, Takashi; Gonzales, Mitzi M; Fallow, Bennett; Nualnim, Nantinee; Lee, Jeongseok; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P

2013-12-01

242

Functional Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy: A Brief, Individual Treatment for Functional Impairments Resulting From Psychotic Symptoms in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel cognitive-behavioural approach to treating psychotic symptoms—functional cognitive-behavioural therapy (FCBT)—which was developed with the primary aim of remediating social functioning deficits in patients with residual psychotic symptoms. In FCBT, symptom-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions are delivered in the context of working on functional goals: a premise of FCBT is that the therapeutic alliance and patient motivation

Corinne Cather

2005-01-01

243

Changes in Socioeconomic Inequality in Indonesian Children’s Cognitive Function from 2000 to 2007: A Decomposition Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Measuring social inequalities in health is common; however, research examining inequalities in child cognitive function is more limited. We investigated household expenditure-related inequality in children’s cognitive function in Indonesia in 2000 and 2007, the contributors to inequality in both time periods, and changes in the contributors to cognitive function inequalities between the periods. Methods Data from the 2000 and 2007 round of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) were used. Study participants were children aged 7–14 years (n?=?6179 and n?=?6680 in 2000 and 2007, respectively). The relative concentration index (RCI) was used to measure the magnitude of inequality. Contribution of various contributors to inequality was estimated by decomposing the concentration index in 2000 and 2007. Oaxaca-type decomposition was used to estimate changes in contributors to inequality between 2000 and 2007. Results Expenditure inequality decreased by 45% from an RCI?=?0.29 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.36) in 2000 to 0.16 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.20) in 2007 but the burden of poorer cognitive function was higher among the disadvantaged in both years. The largest contributors to inequality in child cognitive function were inequalities in per capita expenditure, use of improved sanitation and maternal high school attendance. Changes in maternal high school participation (27%), use of improved sanitation (25%) and per capita expenditures (18%) were largely responsible for the decreasing inequality in children’s cognitive function between 2000 and 2007. Conclusions Government policy to increase basic education coverage for women along with economic growth may have influenced gains in children’s cognitive function and reductions in inequalities in Indonesia. PMID:24205322

Maika, Amelia; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Brinkman, Sally; Harper, Sam; Satriawan, Elan; Lynch, John W.

2013-01-01

244

A Cognitive Approach To The Psychoeducational Development Of Low-Functioning Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate whether or not specific cognitive skills can be taught in a school setting to low-functioning adolescents. It also compared the transfer effects of different cognitive training programs to the areas of mathematics learning and abstract thinking and reasoning abilities.The 2 independent variables of interest were: nonverbal vs. verbal cognitive skill training and comprehensive unitary

Lani Wallens Kaskel

1982-01-01

245

Childhood trauma and cognitive function in first-episode affective and non-affective psychosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA history of childhood trauma is reportedly more prevalent in people suffering from psychosis than in the general population. Childhood trauma has also been linked to cognitive abnormalities in adulthood, and cognitive abnormalities, in turn, are one of the key clinical features of psychosis. Therefore, this study investigated whether there was a relationship between childhood trauma and cognitive function in

Monica Aas; Paola Dazzan; Helen L. Fisher; Craig Morgan; Kevin Morgan; Abraham Reichenberg; Jolanta Zanelli; Paul Fearon; Peter B. Jones; Robin M. Murray; Carmine M. Pariante

2011-01-01

246

The effect of pain on cognitive function: A review of clinical and preclinical research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive impairment is commonly associated with the pain experience. This impairment represents a major obstacle to daily activities and rehabilitation, especially in the chronic pain population. Here we review clinical and preclinical studies that have investigated pain-related alterations in cognition. These include impaired attentional, executive and general cognitive functioning. We describe the anatomical, neurochemical and molecular substrates common to both

Orla Moriarty; Brian E. McGuire; David P. Finn

2011-01-01

247

Longitudinal Influences of Partner Depression on Cognitive Functioning in Latino Spousal Pairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: While social factors may influence the trajectories of cognitive aging, the influence of spousal characteristics (i.e. health or mental health) on cognitive decline has received little attention. This study examined the influence of baseline depressive symptoms in one spouse on cognitive functioning in the other. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study of 279 Latino spousal pairs (558 people) taken

Ladson Hinton; Yolanda Hagar; Nancy West; Hector M. González; Dan Mungas; Laurel Beckett; Mary N. Haan

2009-01-01

248

Cognitive Function in Late Life Depression: Relationships to Depression Severity, Cerebrovascular  

E-print Network

Cognitive Function in Late Life Depression: Relationships to Depression Severity, Cerebrovascular depression (LLD). To understand the influence of LLD on cognition, it is important to determine if deficits in a number of cognitive domains are relatively independent, or mediated by depression- related deficits

249

The Relationship between Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Type 2 Diabetes, and Cognitive Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review integrates findings of published studies that have evaluated the cognitive function of treated and untreated type 2 diabetic patients and provides a detailed overview of the neuropsychological assessments conducted. Cognitive deficits are observed in older people with glucose intolerance or untreated diabetes but these deficits appear to be attenuated by treatments that improve glycemic control. Cognitive decrements

Nesrine Awad; Michèle Gagnon; Claude Messier

2004-01-01

250

On Abstract Intelligence and Brain Informatics: Mapping the Cognitive Functions onto the Neural Architectures  

E-print Network

and the abstract intelligence theory of the natural intelligence will enable the development of cognitive computers range of applications of the cognitive computers have been developing in ICIC and my laboratory such as1 On Abstract Intelligence and Brain Informatics: Mapping the Cognitive Functions onto the Neural

Wang, Yingxu

251

Characteristics of hormone therapy, cognitive function and dementia: the prospective Three city Study.  

E-print Network

Ryan. 1 Characteristics of hormone therapy, cognitive function and dementia: the prospective Three: 94 References: 40 Tables: 5 Figures: 0 Neurology Search Terms: All Cognitive Disorders/Dementia [25: To examine the association between hormone therapy (HT) and cognitive performance or dementia, focusing

252

Effect of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function: an event-related cortical desynchronization study.  

PubMed

This study aimed to clarify the effects of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function using the Stroop test and event-related desynchronization (ERD) in an aged population. Old adults (63.10?±?2.89 years) were first assigned to either a high-fitness or a low-fitness group, and they were then subjected to an acute exercise treatment and a reading control treatment in a counterbalanced order. Alpha ERD was recorded during the Stroop test, which was administered after both treatments. Acute exercise improved cognitive performance regardless of the level of cognition, and old adults with higher fitness levels received greater benefits from acute exercise. Additionally, acute exercise, rather than overall fitness, elicited greater lower and upper alpha ERDs relative to the control condition. These findings indirectly suggest that the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance may result from exercise-induced attentional control observed during frontal neural excitation. PMID:25308605

Chang, Yu-Kai; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Wei, Gao-Xia

2015-03-01

253

Cognitive function as measured by trail making test in patients with COPD.  

PubMed

People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit cognitive impairment in several subdomains, but little is known about factors associated with cognitive function and its relationship to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in people with COPD. A data set from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial was used for this study. Data were obtained through questionnaires and clinical testing. Cognitive function in people with COPD was measured with the Trail Making Test. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Participants with COPD had slightly impaired processing speed and executive function. Test results revealed that age, gender, education, and income were significantly associated with cognitive function. Test scores also showed that cognitive function was significantly associated with HRQOL in people with COPD. This finding suggests that cognitive function should be screened in people with COPD. PMID:24733234

Park, Soo Kyung; Larson, Janet L

2015-02-01

254

Effect of dopamine transporter genotype on intrinsic functional connectivity depends on cognitive state.  

PubMed

Functional connectivity between brain regions can define large-scale neural networks and provide information about relationships between those networks. We examined how relationships within and across intrinsic connectivity networks were 1) sensitive to individual differences in dopaminergic function, 2) modulated by cognitive state, and 3) associated with executive behavioral traits. We found that regardless of cognitive state, connections between frontal, parietal, and striatal nodes of Task-Positive networks (TPNs) and Task-Negative networks (TNNs) showed higher functional connectivity in 10/10 homozygotes of the dopamine transporter gene, a polymorphism influencing synaptic dopamine, than in 9/10 heterozygotes. However, performance of a working memory task (a state requiring dopamine release) modulated genotype differences selectively, such that cross-network connectivity between TPNs and TNNs was higher in 10/10 than 9/10 subjects during working memory but not during rest. This increased cross-network connectivity was associated with increased self-reported measures of impulsivity and inattention traits. By linking a gene regulating synaptic dopamine to a phenotype characterized by inefficient executive function, these findings validate cross-network connectivity as an endophenotype of executive dysfunction. PMID:22047966

Gordon, Evan M; Stollstorff, Melanie; Devaney, Joseph M; Bean, Stephanie; Vaidya, Chandan J

2012-09-01

255

Effect of Dopamine Transporter Genotype on Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Depends on Cognitive State  

PubMed Central

Functional connectivity between brain regions can define large-scale neural networks and provide information about relationships between those networks. We examined how relationships within and across intrinsic connectivity networks were 1) sensitive to individual differences in dopaminergic function, 2) modulated by cognitive state, and 3) associated with executive behavioral traits. We found that regardless of cognitive state, connections between frontal, parietal, and striatal nodes of Task-Positive networks (TPNs) and Task-Negative networks (TNNs) showed higher functional connectivity in 10/10 homozygotes of the dopamine transporter gene, a polymorphism influencing synaptic dopamine, than in 9/10 heterozygotes. However, performance of a working memory task (a state requiring dopamine release) modulated genotype differences selectively, such that cross-network connectivity between TPNs and TNNs was higher in 10/10 than 9/10 subjects during working memory but not during rest. This increased cross-network connectivity was associated with increased self-reported measures of impulsivity and inattention traits. By linking a gene regulating synaptic dopamine to a phenotype characterized by inefficient executive function, these findings validate cross-network connectivity as an endophenotype of executive dysfunction. PMID:22047966

Stollstorff, Melanie; Devaney, Joseph M.; Bean, Stephanie; Vaidya, Chandan J.

2012-01-01

256

SELECTIVITY OF EXECUTIVE FUNCTION DEFICITS IN MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT  

PubMed Central

Impairment in executive cognition (EC) is now recognized as relatively common among older persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and may be predictive of the development of dementia. However, both MCI and executive functioning are broad and heterogeneous constructs. The present study sought to determine whether impairments in specific domains of EC are associated with specific subtypes of MCI. 124 MCI patients were divided into four subgroups (amnestic versus nonamnestic, and single- versus multiple-domain) based on their performance of widely-used neuropsychological screening tests. These patients and 68 normal elderly were administered 18 clinical and experimental tests of executive function. Principal components analysis suggested two highly reliable EC components, planning/problem-solving and working memory, and a less reliable third component, judgment. Planning/problem-solving and working memory, but not judgment, were impaired among the MCI patients. This was true even among those with Apure amnestic@ MCI, the least impaired group overall. Multiple-domain MCI patients had more severe impairments in planning/problem-solving and working memory than single-domain patients, leading to the supposition that they, not pure amnestic MCIs, are at highest risk of imminent dementia. PMID:19702414

Brandt, Jason; Aretouli, Eleni; Neijstrom, Eleanor; Samek, Jaclyn; Manning, Kevin; Albert, Marilyn S.; Bandeen-Roche, Karen

2009-01-01

257

Hippocampal-neocortical functional reorganization underlies children's cognitive development.  

PubMed

The importance of the hippocampal system for rapid learning and memory is well recognized, but its contributions to a cardinal feature of children's cognitive development-the transition from procedure-based to memory-based problem-solving strategies-are unknown. Here we show that the hippocampal system is pivotal to this strategic transition. Longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 7-9-year-old children revealed that the transition from use of counting to memory-based retrieval parallels increased hippocampal and decreased prefrontal-parietal engagement during arithmetic problem solving. Longitudinal improvements in retrieval-strategy use were predicted by increased hippocampal-neocortical functional connectivity. Beyond childhood, retrieval-strategy use continued to improve through adolescence into adulthood and was associated with decreased activation but more stable interproblem representations in the hippocampus. Our findings provide insights into the dynamic role of the hippocampus in the maturation of memory-based problem solving and establish a critical link between hippocampal-neocortical reorganization and children's cognitive development. PMID:25129076

Qin, Shaozheng; Cho, Soohyun; Chen, Tianwen; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Geary, David C; Menon, Vinod

2014-09-01

258

Cognitive reserve is associated with the functional organization of the brain in healthy aging: a MEG study  

PubMed Central

The proportion of elderly people in the population has increased rapidly in the last century and consequently “healthy aging” is expected to become a critical area of research in neuroscience. Evidence reveals how healthy aging depends on three main behavioral factors: social lifestyle, cognitive activity, and physical activity. In this study, we focused on the role of cognitive activity, concentrating specifically on educational and occupational attainment factors, which were considered two of the main pillars of cognitive reserve (CR). Twenty-one subjects with similar rates of social lifestyle, physical and cognitive activity were selected from a sample of 55 healthy adults. These subjects were divided into two groups according to their level of CR; one group comprised subjects with high CR (9 members) and the other one contained those with low CR (12 members). To evaluate the cortical brain connectivity network, all participants were recorded by Magnetoencephalography (MEG) while they performed a memory task (modified version of the Sternberg's Task). We then applied two algorithms [Phase Locking Value (PLV) and Phase Lag Index (PLI)] to study the dynamics of functional connectivity. In response to the same task, the subjects with lower CR presented higher functional connectivity than those with higher CR. These results may indicate that participants with low CR needed a greater “effort” than those with high CR to achieve the same level of cognitive performance. Therefore, we conclude that CR contributes to the modulation of the functional connectivity patterns of the aging brain. PMID:24982632

López, María E.; Aurtenetxe, Sara; Pereda, Ernesto; Cuesta, Pablo; Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Bruña, Ricardo; Niso, Guiomar; Maestú, Fernando; Bajo, Ricardo

2014-01-01

259

Nutritional and socio-economic determinants of cognitive function and educational achievement of Aboriginal schoolchildren in rural Malaysia  

E-print Network

's cognitive development(8,9) . Needless to say, poor socio-economic status is a strong inhibitor limitingNutritional and socio-economic determinants of cognitive function and educational achievement influencing the cognitive function and educational achievement of these children. Cognitive function

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

260

Cognitive function and psychological well-being: findings from a population-based cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: depression is associated with poor cognitive function, though little is known about the relationship between psychological well-being and cognitive function. Objective: to investigate whether psychological well-being is associated with levels of cognitive function. Design: nationally representative population-based cohort study. Setting and participants: 11,234 non-institutionalised adults aged 50 years and over of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing in 2002.

DAVID J. LLEWELLYN; I AIN A. LANG; K ENNETH M. LANGA; F ELICIA A. HUPPERT

2008-01-01

261

Late-life depression, mild cognitive impairment and hippocampal functional network architecture?  

PubMed Central

Late-life depression (LLD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are associated with medial temporal lobe structural abnormalities. However, the hippocampal functional connectivity (HFC) similarities and differences related to these syndromes when they occur alone or coexist are unclear. Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (R-fMRI) technique was used to measure left and right HFC in 72 elderly participants (LLD [n = 18], aMCI [n = 17], LLD with comorbid aMCI [n = 12], and healthy controls [n = 25]). The main and interactive relationships of LLD and aMCI on the HFC networks were determined, after controlling for age, gender, education and gray matter volumes. The effects of depressive symptoms and episodic memory deficits on the hippocampal functional connections also were assessed. While increased and decreased left and right HFC with several cortical and subcortical structures involved in mood regulation were related to LLD, aMCI was associated with globally diminished connectivity. Significant LLD–aMCI interactions on the right HFC networks were seen in the brain regions critical for emotion processing and higher-order cognitive functions. In the interactive brain regions, LLD and aMCI were associated with diminished hippocampal functional connections, whereas the comorbid group demonstrated enhanced connectivity. Main and interactive effects of depressive symptoms and episodic memory performance were also associated with bilateral HFC network abnormalities. In conclusion, these findings indicate that discrete hippocampal functional network abnormalities are associated with LLD and aMCI when they occur alone. However, when these conditions coexist, more pronounced vulnerabilities of the hippocampal networks occur, which may be a marker of disease severity and impending cognitive decline. By utilizing R-fMRI technique, this study provides novel insights into the neural mechanisms underlying LLD and aMCI in the functional network level. PMID:24273715

Xie, Chunming; Li, Wenjun; Chen, Gang; Ward, B. Douglas; Franczak, Malgorzata B.; Jones, Jennifer L.; Antuono, Piero G.; Li, Shi-Jiang; Goveas, Joseph S.

2013-01-01

262

Acute Cold Exposure and Cognitive Function: Evidence for Sustained Impairment  

PubMed Central

Several industries experience periods of cold exposure and rewarming throughout the workday but mental performance under these conditions is unknown. A better understanding of cognition during the rewarming phase after cold exposure may help reduce accidents and improve performance. Ten young men (wearing~0.1 clo) underwent 3 consecutive mornings trials where they were exposed to cold air (10°C) and then subsequently re-warmed (25°C air). A computerized test battery was administered during each stage of the protocol to determine working memory, choice reaction time, executive function, and maze navigation. Rectal and skin temperature, oxygen consumption, and thermal sensation were also measured throughout and showed a typical response. Relative to baseline performance, working memory, choice reaction time, and executive function declined during exposure to 10°C, and these impairments persisted 60 minutes into the recovery period (i.e. once physiological parameters had returned to baseline). Further work is needed to develop countermeasures to this predicament. PMID:22506538

Muller, Matthew D.; Gunstad, John; Alosco, Michael L.; Miller, Lindsay A.; Updegraff, John; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Glickman, Ellen

2012-01-01

263

Psychiatric and Cognitive Functioning in Adolescent Inpatients with Histories of Dating Violence Victimization  

PubMed Central

The presence of dating violence victimization as well as its relation to psychiatric diagnosis and cognitive processes was examined in a sample of 155 adolescents hospitalized in a psychiatric facility. Participants and their parents completed semi-structured diagnostic interviews. Participants also completed self-report measures of dating violence victimization and cognitive functioning. Seventy-seven percent of adolescents who had initiated dating reported psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse by a dating partner over the past year. Victims of psychological abuse alone as well as physical and/or sexual violence endorsed higher rates of major depressive disorder compared to non-victims. Physical/sexual dating violence victims also endorsed significantly higher rates of PTSD and alcohol use disorders, more frequent co-occurrence of externalizing and internalizing disorders, and more frequent negative cognitive biases, relative to non-victimized adolescents. Findings suggest that psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents with dating violence histories represent a subgroup of adolescent inpatients with a particularly serious clinical picture. PMID:20824193

Rizzo, Christie J.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Spirito, Anthony; Thompson, Ariel

2010-01-01

264

Philosophical and Socio-Cognitive Foundations for Teaching in Higher Education through Collaborative Approaches to Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the implications for higher education of recent work on narrative theory, distributed cognition and artificial intelligence. These perspectives are contrasted with the educational implications of Heidegger's ontological phenomenology [being-there and being-aware (Da-sein)] and with the classic and classical foundations of…

Jones, Adrian

2011-01-01

265

Differences in General Cognitive Abilities and Domain-Specific Skills of Higher-and Lower-Achieving Students in Stoichiometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports a comparison of a group of higher-and lower-achieving undergraduate chemistry students, 17 in total, as separated on their ability in stoichiometry. This exploratory study of 17 students investigated parallels and differences in the students' general and domain-specific cognitive abilities. Performance, strategies, and…

Gulacar, Ozcan; Eilks, Ingo; Bowman, Charles R.

2014-01-01

266

Cooperative Weblog Learning in Higher Education: Its Facilitating Effects on Social Interaction, Time Lag, and Cognitive Load  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the effects of using weblog technologies to support cooperative learning in higher education. The study focused on the effects of features embedded in weblogs on social interactions, time lags, and cognitive loads. A quasi-experimental control-group research design was adopted. The participants were 115 undergraduates who were…

Huang, Tien-Chi; Huang, Yueh-Min; Yu, Fu-Yun

2011-01-01

267

Development of Knowledge Frameworks and Higher Order Cognitive Operations among Secondary School Students Who Studied a Unit on Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews 9th and 10th grade students (n=13) who studied an ecology unit and analyzed tape-recorded data for changes in organization of knowledge, represented by ideational networks and the development of higher cognitive operations. Provides insights into how students developed knowledge schemata, ideational networks, and the capacity to express…

Bischoff, Paul J.; Anderson, O. Roger

2001-01-01

268

Higher-twist analysis of moments of spin structure function  

E-print Network

Available analyses on moments of the spin structure function g_1 use different methods and are barely consistent with each other. We present a higher twist analysis of Gamma_1^p using a method consistent with the studies of Gamma_1^n and Gamma_1^(p-n) already published. The twist-4 coefficient f_2 is extracted. One result is that the higher twist coefficients seem to alternate signs: the relatively larger twist-6 contribution is partly suppressed by the twist-4 and twist-8 contributions. The size of twist-6 can be due to the elastic contribution to the moments.

A. Deur

2005-08-18

269

Memory . Author manuscript Distinct and shared cognitive functions mediate event-and time-based  

E-print Network

# , Laetitia Bon 1 , Fausto Viader 1 3 , Francis Eustache 1 , B atrice Desgrangesé 1 * Neuropsychologie and over ; Aging ; psychology ; Cognition ; Executive Function ; Female ; Humans ; Inhibition (Psychology

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

270

Factors influencing self-assessment of cognition and functioning in schizophrenia: Implications for treatment studies.  

PubMed

Awareness of illness is a major factor in schizophrenia and extends into unawareness of cognitive and functional deficits. This unawareness of functional limitations has been shown to be influenced by several different predictive factors, including greater impairment and less severe depression. As treatment efforts are aimed at reducing cognitive deficits, discovery of the most efficient assessment strategies for detection of cognitive and functional changes is critical. In this study, we collected systematic assessments from high contact clinicians focusing on their impressions of the cognitive deficits and everyday functioning in a sample of 169 community dwelling patients with schizophrenia. The patients provided self-report on those same rating scales, as well as self-reporting their depression and performing an assessment of cognitive performance and functional skills. There was essentially no correlation between patients? self-reports of their cognitive performance and functional skills and either clinician ratings of these skills or the results of the performance-based assessments. In contrast, clinician reports of cognitive impairments and everyday functioning were correlated with objective performance data. Depression on the part of patients was associated with ratings of functioning that were both more impaired and more congruent with clinician impressions, while overall patients reported less impairment than clinicians. These results underscore the limitations of self-reported cognitive functioning even with structured rating scales. Concurrently, clinicians provided ratings of cognitive performance that were related to scores on objective tests, even though they were unaware of the results of those assessments. PMID:25104226

Durand, Dante; Strassnig, Martin; Sabbag, Samir; Gould, Felicia; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Patterson, Thomas L; Harvey, Philip D

2015-02-01

271

Mediterranean Diet, Healthy Eating Index-2005, and Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged and Older Puerto Rican Adults  

PubMed Central

Adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MeD) has recently been shown to protect against cognitive decline and dementia. It remains unclear, however, whether such protection extends to differing ethnic groups and middle-aged individuals, and how it may compare with adherence to the USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 (measured with Healthy Eating Index-2005, HEI-2005). This study examined associations between diet quality, as assessed by the MeD and HEI-2005, and cognitive performance in a sample of 1,269 Puerto Rican adults, aged 45–75 years, living in the Greater Boston area, Massachusetts. Dietary intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire specifically designed for and validated with this population. Adherence to the MeD was assessed with a 0 to 9 point scale, and the HEI-2005 score was calculated with a maximum score of 100. Cognitive performance was measured with a battery of seven tests; the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used for global cognitive function. Greater adherence to the MeD was associated with higher MMSE score (P trend = 0.012) and lower likelihood (OR = 0.87 for each additional point, 95% CI, 0.80–0.94, P <0.001) of cognitive impairment, after adjustment for confounders. Similarly, individuals with higher HEI-2005 score had higher MMSE score (P trend = 0.011) and lower odds of cognitive impairment (OR = 0.86 for each 10 points, 95% CI, 0.74–0.99, P = 0.033). In conclusion, high adherence to either the MeD or the diet recommended by the USDA dietary guidelines may protect cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:23351632

Ye, Xingwang; Scott, Tammy; Gao, Xiang; Maras, Janice E.; Bakun, Peter J.; Tucker, Katherine L.

2013-01-01

272

Automated Semantic Indices Related to Cognitive Function and Rate of Cognitive Decline  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of our study is to introduce a fully automated, computational linguistic technique to quantify semantic relations between words generated on a standard semantic verbal fluency test and to determine its cognitive and clinical correlates. Cognitive differences between patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment are…

Pakhomov, Serguei V. S.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Lim, Kelvin O.

2012-01-01

273

Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Cognitive Function and Dementia: The Cardiovascular Health Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the association of cognitive function and dementia with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in older individuals. Methods A population-based study of 2,088 persons (1769 whites and 319 blacks) aged 69 to 97 years participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs based on a modified Wisconsin AMD grading system. Cognitive function was assessed using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) and the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MSE). Participants were also evaluated for dementia with detailed neuropsychological testing. Results After controlling for age, gender, race, and center, persons with low DSST scores (lowest quartile of scores, ?30) were more likely to have early AMD (odds ratio [OR] 1.38; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.03, 1.85) than persons with higher DSST scores. In analyses further controlling for education, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, diabetes, smoking status and APOE genotype, this association was stronger (OR 2.00; 95% CI, 1.29, 3.10). There was no association with low 3MSE scores, dementia or Alzheimer’s disease with early AMD. Conclusions In this older population, cognitive impairment may share common age-related pathophysiology and risk factors with early AMD. PMID:19433718

Baker, Michelle L; Wang, Jie Jin; Mepi, Sophie Rogers; Klein, Ronald; Kuller, Lewis H; Larsen, Emily K; Wong, Tien Yin

2010-01-01

274

Evaluating Effects of Heat Stress on Cognitive Function among Workers in a Hot Industry  

PubMed Central

Background:Heat stress, as one of the most common occupational health problems, can impair operators' cognitive processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of thermal stress on cognitive function among workers in a hot industry. Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted in Malibel Saipa Company in 2013, workers were assigned into two groups: one group were exposed to heat stress (n=35), working in casting unit and the other group working in machining unit (n=35) with a normal air conditioning. Wet Bulb Globe Temperature was measured at three heights of ankle, abdomen, and head. In order to evaluate the effects of heat stress on attention and reaction time, Stroop tests 1, 2, and 3 were conducted before starting the work and during the work. Results: A significant positive correlation was observed between WBGT and test duration (P=0.01) and reaction time of Stroop test 3 (P=0.047), and between number of errors in Stroop tests 1, 2, and 3, during the work (P= 0.001). Moreover, Stroop test 3 showed a significant higher score for both test duration and reaction time of workers in case group. Conclusion: Results of the present study, conducted in a real work environment, confirmed the impairment of cognitive functions, including selective attention and reaction time, under heat stress conditions. PMID:25649311

Mazloumi, Adel; Golbabaei, Farideh; Mahmood Khani, Somayeh; Kazemi, Zeinab; Hosseini, Mostafa; Abbasinia, Marzieh; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh

2014-01-01

275

Psy 803: Higher Order Cognitive Processes Lecture Tu 1:50 -4:40 PM,  

E-print Network

or a set of goals. · Increase your understanding of cognitive science. · Learn basic principles to upload your lab reports and final projects. 3 Course Description & Goals This course focuses on how, such as neuroscience, animal behavior and cognition, artificial intelligence, linguistics, philosophy of mind, cultural

Liu, Taosheng

276

Understanding the Complexities of Cognition and Creativity to Reform Higher Education Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the connections between the cognitive dimension of human meaning-making and creativity, using a metaphor from the artistic process of additive sculpture as a framework. The author weaves together various theoretical perspectives about cognition and creativity and shares the promise of recognizing the nexus of these notions…

Welkener, Michelle M.

2013-01-01

277

Confronting Social Injustice: Cognitive Dissonance and Civic Development in Higher Education Service-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative, insider account of student civic development in a university service-learning course has two primary goals. One is to propose frameworks for describing the process of civic development of service-learning students that are situated in theories of civic identity, cognitive development, and cognitive dissonance. The other is to…

Rogers, Leslie Cohen

2012-01-01

278

“Biological rhythms, higher brain function, and behavior: gaps, opportunities and challenges”  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence suggests that disrupted temporal organization impairs behavior, cognition, and affect; further, disruption of circadian clock genes impairs sleep/wake cycle and social rhythms which may be implicated in mental disorders. Despite this strong evidence, a gap in understanding the neural mechanisms of this interaction obscures whether biological rhythms disturbances are the underlying causes or merely symptoms of these diseases. Here, we review current understanding, emerging concepts, gaps and opportunities pertinent to: (1) the neurobiology of the interactions between circadian oscillators and the neural circuits subserving higher brain function and behaviors of relevance to mental health, (2) the most promising approaches to determine how biological rhythms regulate brain function and behavior under normal and pathological conditions, (3) gaps and challenges to advancing knowledge on the link between disrupted circadian rhythms/sleep and psychiatric disorders, and (4) novel strategies for translation of basic science discoveries in circadian biology to clinical settings to define risk, prevent or delay onset of mental illnesses, design diagnostic tools and propose new therapeutic strategies. The review is organized around five themes pertinent to: (1) the impact of molecular clocks on physiology and behavior, (2) interactions between circadian signals and cognitive functions, (3) the interface of circadian rhythms with sleep (4) a clinical perspective on the relationship between circadian rhythm abnormalities and affective disorders, and (5) pre-clinical models of circadian rhythm abnormalities and mood disorders. PMID:19766673

Benca, Ruth; Duncan, Marilyn J.; Frank, Ellen; McClung, Colleen; Nelson, Randy J.; Vicentic, Aleksandra

2009-01-01

279

Cognitive function in adults aging with fabry disease: a case-control feasibility study using telephone-based assessments.  

PubMed

We examined the feasibility of recruiting US adults ?45 years old with Fabry disease (FD) for telephone assessments of cognitive functioning. A case-control design matched each FD participant on age, sex, race, and education to four participants from a population-based study. Fifty-four participants with FD age 46-72 years were matched to 216 controls. Standardized cognitive assessments, quality of life (QOL), and medical histories were obtained by phone, supplemented by objective indices of comorbidities. Normalized scores on six cognitive tasks were calculated. On the individual tasks, scores on list recall and semantic fluency were significantly lower among FD participants (p-values?cognitive composite, we examined group differences in composite scores, before and after adjusting for multiple covariates using generalized estimating equations. The composite scores of FD cases were marginally lower than controls before covariate adjustments (p?=?0.08). QOL and mental health variables substantially attenuated this finding (p?=?0.75), highlighting the influence of these factors on cognition in FD. Additional adjustment for cardiovascular comorbidities, kidney function, and stroke had negligible impact, despite higher prevalence in the FD sample. Telephone-based cognitive assessment methods are feasible among adults with FD, affording access to a geographically dispersed sample. Although decrements in discrete cognitive domains were observed, the overall cognitive function of older adults with FD was equivalent to that of well-matched controls before and after accounting for multiple confounding variables. PMID:25567791

Wadley, Virginia G; McClure, Leslie A; Warnock, David G; Lassen-Greene, Caroline L; Hopkin, Robert J; Laney, Dawn A; Clarke, Virginia M; Kurella Tamura, Manjula; Howard, George; Sims, Katherine

2015-01-01

280

Efficiency of weak brain connections support general cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Brain network topology provides valuable information on healthy and pathological brain functioning. Novel approaches for brain network analysis have shown an association between topological properties and cognitive functioning. Under the assumption that "stronger is better", the exploration of brain properties has generally focused on the connectivity patterns of the most strongly correlated regions, whereas the role of weaker brain connections has remained obscure for years. Here, we assessed whether the different strength of connections between brain regions may explain individual differences in intelligence. We analyzed-functional connectivity at rest in ninety-eight healthy individuals of different age, and correlated several connectivity measures with full scale, verbal, and performance Intelligent Quotients (IQs). Our results showed that the variance in IQ levels was mostly explained by the distributed communication efficiency of brain networks built using moderately weak, long-distance connections, with only a smaller contribution of stronger connections. The variability in individual IQs was associated with the global efficiency of a pool of regions in the prefrontal lobes, hippocampus, temporal pole, and postcentral gyrus. These findings challenge the traditional view of a prominent role of strong functional brain connections in brain topology, and highlight the importance of both strong and weak connections in determining the functional architecture responsible for human intelligence variability. PMID:24585433

Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Galli, Giulia; Polizzotto, Nicola Riccardo; Rossi, Alessandro; Rossi, Simone

2014-09-01

281

Psychosocial functioning in patients with treatment-resistant depression after group cognitive behavioral therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Although patients with Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD) often have impaired social functioning, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of psychosocial treatment for these patients. We examined whether adding group cognitive behavioral therapy (group-CBT) to medication would improve both the depressive symptoms and the social functioning of patient with mild TRD, and whether any improvements would be maintained over one year. Methods Forty-three patients with TRD were treated with 12 weekly sessions of group-CBT. Patients were assessed with the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF), the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS), and the Automatic Thought Questionnaire-Revised (ATQ-R) at baseline, at the termination of treatment, and at the 12-month follow-up. Results Thirty-eight patients completed treatment; five dropped out. For the patients who completed treatment, post-treatment scores on the GAF and SF-36 were significantly higher than baseline scores. Scores on the HRSD, DAS, and ATQ-R were significantly lower after the treatment. Thus patients improved on all measurements of psychosocial functioning and mood symptoms. Twenty patients participated in the 12-month follow-up. Their improvements for psychosocial functioning, depressive symptoms, and dysfunctional cognitions were sustained at 12 months following the completion of group-CBT. Conclusions These findings suggest a positive effect that the addition of cognitive behavioural group therapy to medication on depressive symptoms and social functioning of mildly depressed patients, showing treatment resistance. PMID:20230649

2010-01-01

282

Thyroid hormones and cognitive functioning in healthy, euthyroid women: a correlational study.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormones (THs) play a critical role in differentiation, growth, and metabolism of animal and human organ systems, including the brain. Although associations between normal levels of THs and cognitive functions in healthy elderly individuals have been reported, the findings are inconsistent, possibly due to differences in study designs. Because thyroid disease occurs more frequently in women, the goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between levels of THs and performance on neuropsychological tests in 122 healthy, euthyroid women whose mean age was 51 years. Higher levels of free T3 were positively associated with longer completion times (slower performance) on Trail Making Test - Part A (p = 0.006) and Part B (p = 0.032) and on the Tower of London test (p = 0.002). Higher levels of thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) were positively correlated with more errors on the Trail Making Test Part B (p = 0.000), on the Word Fluency test (p = 0.023), and on the Design Fluency test (p = 0.045). No significant correlations between TH levels and scores on mood, verbal memory, or working memory measures were observed. The findings point to a possible link between THs and cognitive processes that are mediated primarily by frontal cortex, areas associated with executive function tasks, and suggest that elevations in levels of free T3 and TgAB within the normal range may negatively influence executive functions. PMID:22373496

Grigorova, Miglena; Sherwin, Barbara B

2012-04-01

283

Multiple Objective Fitness Functions for Cognitive Radio Adaptation  

E-print Network

This thesis explores genetic algorithm and rule-based optimization techniques used by cognitive radios to make operating parameter decisions. Cognitive radios take advantage of intelligent control methods by using sensed ...

Newman, Timothy Ray

2008-04-30

284

Higher twist analysis of the nucleon g 1 structure function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different methods to extract the polarized parton densities from the world polarized DIS data are considered. The higher twist corrections h N (x)/ Q 2 to the spin dependent proton and neutron g 1 structure functions are taken into account and found to be nonnegligible and important in the QCD analysis of the present experimental data. Their role in determining the polarized parton densities in the framework of the different approaches is discussed.

Leader, E.; Sidorev, A. V.; Stamenov, D. B.

2005-01-01

285

Effects of allantoin on cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis.  

PubMed

Allantoin is contained in Nelumbo nucifera (lotus) and a well-known cosmetic ingredient reported to have anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we investigated whether allantoin affects cognitive function in mice. The subchronic administration of allantoin (1, 3 or 10 mg/kg, for 7 days) significantly increased the latency time measured during the passive avoidance task in scopolamine-induced cholinergic blockade and normal naïve mice. Allantoin treatment (3 or 10 mg/kg, for 7 days) also increased the expression levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?). Doublecortin and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine immunostaining revealed that allantoin significantly increased the neuronal cell proliferation of immature neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus region. In conclusion, allantoin has memory-enhancing effects, and these effects may be partly mediated by the PI3K-Akt-GSK-3? signal pathway. These findings suggest that allantoin has therapeutic potential for the cognitive dysfunctions observed in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24296131

Ahn, Young Je; Park, Se Jin; Woo, Hyun; Lee, Hyung Eun; Kim, Hyun Ji; Kwon, Guyoung; Gao, Qingtao; Jang, Dae Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

2014-02-01

286

Obovatol improves cognitive functions in animal models for Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is obscure, but neuroinflammation and accumulation of ?-amyloid (A?) are implicated in pathogenesis of AD. We have shown anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic properties of obovatol, a biphenolic compound isolated from Magnolia obovata. In this study, we examined the effect of obovatol on cognitive deficits in two separate AD models: (i) mice that received intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of A?(1-42) (2.0 ?g/mouse) and (ii) Tg2576 mice-expressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein (K670N, M671L). Injection of A?(1-42) into lateral ventricle caused memory impairments in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tasks, being associated with neuroinflammation. A?(1-42) -induced abnormality was significantly attenuated by administration of obovatol. When we analyzed with Tg2576 mice, long-term treatment of obovatol (1 mg/kg/day for 3 months) significantly improved cognitive function. In parallel with the improvement, treatment suppressed astroglial activation, BACE1 expression and NF-?B activity in the transgenic mice. Furthermore, obovatol potently inhibited fibrillation of A?in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by Thioflavin T fluorescence and electron microscopic analysis. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that obovatol prevented memory impairments in experimental AD models, which could be attributable to amelioration of neuroinflammation and amyloidogenesis by inhibition of NF-?B signaling pathway and anti-fibrillogenic activity of obovatol. PMID:22212065

Choi, Dong-Young; Lee, Jae Woong; Peng, Jin; Lee, Young Jung; Han, Jin-Yi; Lee, Yeon Hee; Choi, Im Seop; Han, Sang Bae; Jung, Jae Kyung; Lee, Woong Soo; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kwon, Byoung-Mog; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hong, Jin Tae

2012-03-01

287

Assessing cognitive function and capacity in older adults with cancer.  

PubMed

The number of older individuals with cancer is increasing exponentially, mandating that oncologists contemplate more comprehensive and multidisciplinary approaches to treatment of this cohort. Recruitment of assessment instruments validated in older patients can be invaluable for guiding treatment and decision-making by both patients and providers, and can arguably contribute to improving outcomes and health-related quality of life. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment is one such validated instrument that can be used by oncologists to assess patient readiness and appropriateness for prescribed cancer therapy. As a multidisciplinary diagnostic and treatment process, it comprises functional status, cognitive status, social support, and advance care preferences, and is an ideal instrument for evaluating complex older individuals. It is well established that many older individuals with cancer travel with multiple comorbid illnesses, including cognitive impairment, and when presented with a cancer diagnosis struggle to choose from multiple treatment options. In addition to the complete medical history, the ability of patients to decide on a course of therapy in concert with their oncologist is critically important. Alternatively, many oncologists are conflicted as to whether true informed consent for treatment can be obtained from many older patients. Having a roadmap to decision-making capacity is therefore an inescapable imperative in geriatric oncology, because careful attention must be directed at identifying older patients with cancer who might benefit from these assessments and the individualized treatment plans that emerge. PMID:24453297

McKoy, June M; Burhenn, Peggy S; Browner, Ilene S; Loeser, Kari L; Tulas, Katrina M; Oden, Megan R; Rupper, Randall W

2014-01-01

288

Hippocampal-neocortical functional reorganization underlies children's cognitive development  

PubMed Central

The importance of the hippocampal system for rapid learning and memory is well recognized, but its contributions to a cardinal feature of children's cognitive development – the transition from procedure-based to memory-based problem solving strategies – are unknown. Here we show that the hippocampal system is pivotal to this strategic transition. Longitudinal fMRI in children, ages 7 to 9, revealed that the transition from use of counting to memory-based retrieval parallels increased hippocampal and decreased prefrontal-parietal engagement during arithmetic problem solving. Critically, longitudinal improvements in retrieval strategy use were predicted by increased hippocampal-neocortical functional connectivity. Beyond childhood, retrieval strategy use continued to improve through adolescence into adulthood, and was associated with decreased activation but more stable inter-problem representations in the hippocampus. Our findings provide novel insights into the dynamic role of the hippocampus in the maturation of memory-based problem solving, and establish a critical link between hippocampal-neocortical reorganization and children's cognitive development. PMID:25129076

Qin, Shaozheng; Cho, Soohyun; Chen, Tianwen; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Geary, David C.; Menon, Vinod

2014-01-01

289

Is cognitive functioning 1 year poststroke related to quality of life domain?  

PubMed

Previous studies on the association between poststroke cognitive impairment and quality of life (QoL) have shown divergent results. In this study, we investigated the relationships between cognitive functioning and various QoL domains at 1 year poststroke. This was a cross-sectional study, examining 92 patients at 1 year poststroke. Cognitive functioning was measured with a neuropsychological test battery covering language, attention and psychomotor function, memory, visuoperception, and neglect. QoL domains were functional independence (Barthel Index), social participation (Frenchay Activities Index), depressive mood (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), and life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire). Bivariate and multivariate relationships between cognitive and QoL variables were analyzed, the latter both with and without controlling for demographic variables and motor impairment. The prevalence of cognitive impairments varied between 19.3% (neglect) and 72% (attention and psychomotor function). Correlations between cognitive functioning and QoL were strongest for social participation (0.41-0.60, P < .01) and functional independence (0.13-0.58, P < .05). The percentages of variance explained by the total cognition score were 19% for functional independence, 40% for participation, 8% for life satisfaction, and 5% for depression. Controlling for demographic factors and motor impairments resulted in negligible percentages of variance additionally explained by cognitive functioning. The percentages of explained variance were somewhat lower in the analyses with the separate cognitive domains and not significant for depression. Poor cognitive functioning was associated with reduced functional independence, social participation, depressive mood, and life satisfaction 1 year post; however, motor impairment was a stronger determinant of long-term QoL than cognitive functioning. PMID:20813551

Verhoeven, Clara L M; Post, Marcel W M; Schiemanck, Sven K; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Vrancken, Peter H; van Heugten, Caroline M

2011-01-01

290

Influence of social cognition on daily functioning in schizophrenia: study of incremental validity and mediational effects.  

PubMed

While the role of impaired neurocognition in accounting for functional outcome in schizophrenia is generally established, the influence of social cognition on this relationship is far from clear. This study aims to explore in depth the nature of the relationship between neurocognition, social cognition and daily functioning in people with schizophrenia. Twenty-one individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 15 controls completed the assessment of symptom severity, neuropsychological status, social cognition (Theory of Mind and affect processing) and other functional measures. A statistical mediation model based on hierarchical regression analyses was used to establish the mediation path with significant variables. Social cognition played a mediating role between neurocognition and functioning, accounting for significant trends in incremental variance in specific functional indexes (interpersonal behavior and employment/occupation). Consequently, this study adds to the evidence underlining the importance of targeting not only social cognitive or neurocognitive functions but to combine both interventions to reveal the best daily functioning results in schizophrenia patients. PMID:25563671

Martínez-Domínguez, Sara; Penadés, Rafael; Segura, Bàrbara; González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Catalán, Rosa

2015-02-28

291

Monitoring and optimising cognitive function in cancer patients: Present knowledge and future directions  

PubMed Central

The potentially detrimental effects of cancer and related treatments on cognitive functioning are emerging as a key focus of cancer survivorship research. Many patients with central nervous system (CNS) or non-CNS tumours develop cognitive problems during the course of their disease that can result in diminished functional independence. We review the state of knowledge on the cognitive functioning of patients with primary and secondary brain tumours at diagnosis, during and after therapy, and discuss current initiatives to diminish cognitive decline in these patients. Similarly, attention is paid to the cognitive sequelae of cancer and cancer therapies in patients without CNS disease. Disease and treatment effects on cognition are discussed, as well as current insights into the neural substrates and the mechanisms underlying cognitive dysfunction in these patients. In addition, rehabilitation strategies for patients with non-CNS disease confronted with cognitive dysfunction are described. Special attention is given to knowledge gaps in the area of cancer and cognition, in CNS and non-CNS diseases. Finally, we point to the important role for cooperative groups to include cognitive endpoints in clinical trials in order to accelerate our understanding and treatment of cognitive dysfunction related to cancer and cancer therapies.

Schagen, S.B.; Klein, M.; Reijneveld, J.C.; Brain, E.; Deprez, S.; Joly, F.; Scherwath, A.; Schrauwen, W.; Wefel, J.S.

2014-01-01

292

Brief Report: Feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Adults with High Functioning Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve\\u000a social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously\\u000a validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with HFA adults (SCIT-A). We then\\u000a conducted a pilot study to compare SCIT-A

Lauren M. Turner-Brown; Timothy D. Perry; Gabriel S. Dichter; James W. Bodfish; David L. Penn

2008-01-01

293

Is Cognitive Functioning 1 Year Poststroke Related to Quality of Life Domain?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies on the association between poststroke cognitive impairment and quality of life (QoL) have shown divergent results. In this study, we investigated the relationships between cognitive functioning and various QoL domains at 1 year poststroke. This was a cross-sectional study, examining 92 patients at 1 year poststroke. Cognitive functioning was measured with a neuropsychological test battery covering language, attention

Clara L. M. Verhoeven; Marcel W. M. Post; Sven K. Schiemanck; Martine J. E. van Zandvoort; Peter H. Vrancken; Caroline M. van Heugten

2011-01-01

294

Adolescent social isolation influences cognitive function in adult rats?  

PubMed Central

Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment. Evidence from animal studies suggests that isolated rearing can exert negative effects on behavioral and brain development. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social isolation on latent inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the forebrain of adult rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into adolescent isolation (isolated housing, 38–51 days of age) and social groups. Latent inhibition was tested at adulthood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adolescent social isolation impaired latent inhibition and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of young adult rats. These data suggest that adolescent social isolation has a profound effect on cognitive function and neurotrophin levels in adult rats and may be used as an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:25206396

Shao, Feng; Han, Xiao; Shao, Shuang; Wang, Weiwen

2013-01-01

295

The functional significance of delta oscillations in cognitive processing  

PubMed Central

Ample evidence suggests that electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillatory activity is linked to a broad variety of perceptual, sensorimotor, and cognitive operations. However, few studies have investigated the delta band (0.5–3.5 Hz) during different cognitive processes. The aim of this review is to present data and propose the hypothesis that sustained delta oscillations inhibit interferences that may affect the performance of mental tasks, possibly by modulating the activity of those networks that should be inactive to accomplish the task. It is clear that two functionally distinct and potentially competing brain networks can be broadly distinguished by their contrasting roles in attention to the external world vs. the internally directed mentation or concentration. During concentration, EEG delta (1–3.5 Hz) activity increases mainly in frontal leads in different tasks: mental calculation, semantic tasks, and the Sternberg paradigm. This last task is considered a working memory task, but in neural, as well as phenomenological, terms, working memory can be best understood as attention focused on an internal representation. In the Sternberg task, increases in power in the frequencies from 1 to 3.90 Hz in frontal regions are reported. In a Go/No-Go task, power increases at 1 Hz in both conditions were observed during 100–300 ms in central, parietal and temporal regions. However, in the No-Go condition, power increases were also observed in frontal regions, suggesting its participation in the inhibition of the motor response. Increases in delta power were also reported during semantic tasks in children. In conclusion, the results suggest that power increases of delta frequencies during mental tasks are associated with functional cortical deafferentation, or inhibition of the sensory afferences that interfere with internal concentration. These inhibitory oscillations would modulate the activity of those networks that should be inactive to accomplish the task. PMID:24367301

Harmony, Thalía

2013-01-01

296

Brief Report: Social and Communication Abilities and Disabilities in Higher Functioning Individuals with Autism and Asperger Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with higher functioning autism (HFA) fail to translate their cognitive potential into real-life adaptation, and\\u000a the severity of their symptoms is considerable despite their intellectual ability. This paper reports on a subsample from\\u000a a larger study (A. Klin et al., in press) analyzed here by autism spectrum subtypes. It focuses on the nature of ability and\\u000a disability in HFA

Celine A. Saulnier; Ami Klin

2007-01-01

297

Sex differences in TGFB-? signaling with respect to age of onset and cognitive functioning in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

There are studies showing that gene polymorphisms within the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) signaling constitute schizophrenia risk variants. However, the association between TGFB1 gene polymorphisms (+869T/C and +915G/C), TGF-? level with schizophrenia course, and its symptomatology together with cognitive functioning has not been investigated so far. We included 151 patients with schizophrenia and 279 healthy controls. Cognitive functioning was assessed using Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Trail Making Test (TMT)-A and TMT-B, Verbal Fluency task, Stroop test, as well as selected subtests from the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale – Revised, Polish adaptation (WAIS-R-Pl): Digit Symbol Coding, Digit Span Forward and Backward, and Similarities. Additionally, serum TGF-? levels were measured in 88 schizophrenia patients and 88 healthy controls. Serum TGF-? level was significantly higher among patients with schizophrenia in comparison with healthy controls; however, the studied polymorphisms were not associated with TGF-? level in schizophrenia patients. Subjects carrying the +869T allele performed significantly worse in comparison with +869CC homozygotes on Stroop task, Verbal Fluency task and Digit Symbol Coding task. There was a significant difference in age of psychosis onset in female schizophrenia patients with respect to the TGFB1 +869T/C polymorphism. Additionally, adjustment for possible confounders revealed that there was a significant difference in cognitive performance on Digit Symbol Coding task with respect to the TGFB1 +869T/C polymorphism among female schizophrenia patients. Our results suggest that TGF-? signaling might be a valid link contributing to observed differences in age of onset and the level of cognitive decline between male and female schizophrenia patients. PMID:25784812

Frydecka, Dorota; Misiak, B?a?ej; Pawlak-Adamska, Edyta; Karabon, Lidia; Tomkiewicz, Anna; Sedlaczek, Pawe?; Kiejna, Andrzej; Besz?ej, Jan Aleksander

2015-01-01

298

Sex differences in TGFB-? signaling with respect to age of onset and cognitive functioning in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

There are studies showing that gene polymorphisms within the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) signaling constitute schizophrenia risk variants. However, the association between TGFB1 gene polymorphisms (+869T/C and +915G/C), TGF-? level with schizophrenia course, and its symptomatology together with cognitive functioning has not been investigated so far. We included 151 patients with schizophrenia and 279 healthy controls. Cognitive functioning was assessed using Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Trail Making Test (TMT)-A and TMT-B, Verbal Fluency task, Stroop test, as well as selected subtests from the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale - Revised, Polish adaptation (WAIS-R-Pl): Digit Symbol Coding, Digit Span Forward and Backward, and Similarities. Additionally, serum TGF-? levels were measured in 88 schizophrenia patients and 88 healthy controls. Serum TGF-? level was significantly higher among patients with schizophrenia in comparison with healthy controls; however, the studied polymorphisms were not associated with TGF-? level in schizophrenia patients. Subjects carrying the +869T allele performed significantly worse in comparison with +869CC homozygotes on Stroop task, Verbal Fluency task and Digit Symbol Coding task. There was a significant difference in age of psychosis onset in female schizophrenia patients with respect to the TGFB1 +869T/C polymorphism. Additionally, adjustment for possible confounders revealed that there was a significant difference in cognitive performance on Digit Symbol Coding task with respect to the TGFB1 +869T/C polymorphism among female schizophrenia patients. Our results suggest that TGF-? signaling might be a valid link contributing to observed differences in age of onset and the level of cognitive decline between male and female schizophrenia patients. PMID:25784812

Frydecka, Dorota; Misiak, B?a?ej; Pawlak-Adamska, Edyta; Karabon, Lidia; Tomkiewicz, Anna; Sedlaczek, Pawe?; Kiejna, Andrzej; Besz?ej, Jan Aleksander

2015-01-01

299

Cerebral and blood correlates of reduced functional connectivity in mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Growing evidence suggests that decreased functional connectivity in cortical networks precedes clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), although our knowledge about cerebral and biological correlates of this phenomenon is limited. To shed light on this issue, we have investigated whether resting-state oscillatory connectivity patterns in healthy older (HO) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) subjects are related to anatomical grey matter (GM) and functional (2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-PET) changes of neuroelectric sources of alpha rhythms, and/or to changes in plasma amyloid-beta (A?) and serum lipid levels, blood markers tied to AD pathogenesis and aging-related cognitive decline. We found that aMCI subjects showed decreased levels of cortical connectivity, reduced FDG-PET intake of the precuneus, and GM atrophy of the thalamus, together with higher levels of A? and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) compared to HO. Interestingly, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were positively correlated with the strength of neural-phase coupling in aMCI subjects, and increased triglycerides accompanied bilateral GM loss in the precuneus of aMCI subjects. Together, these findings provide peripheral blood correlates of reduced resting-state cortical connectivity in aMCI, supported by anatomo-functional changes in cerebral sources of alpha rhythms. This framework constitutes an integrated approach to assess functional changes in cortical networks through neuroimaging and peripheral blood markers during early stages of neurodegeneration. PMID:25366971

Gonzalez-Escamilla, Gabriel; Atienza, Mercedes; Garcia-Solis, David; Cantero, Jose L

2014-11-01

300

Use of cognitive behavior therapy for functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.  

PubMed

Behaviors that chronically activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and/or suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroidal (HPT) axis disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in women and men. Individuals with functional hypothalamic hypogonadism typically engage in a combination of behaviors that concomitantly heighten psychogenic stress and increase energy demand. Although it is not widely recognized clinically, functional forms of hypothalamic hypogonadism are more than an isolated disruption of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) drive and reproductive compromise. Indeed, women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea display a constellation of neuroendocrine aberrations that reflect allostatic adjustments to chronic stress. Given these considerations, we have suggested that complete neuroendocrine recovery would involve more than reproductive recovery. Hormone replacement strategies have limited benefit because they do not ameliorate allostatic endocrine adjustments, particularly the activation of the adrenal and the suppression of the thyroidal axes. Indeed, the rationale for the use of sex steroid replacement is based on the erroneous assumption that functional forms of hypothalamic hypogonadism represent only or primarily an alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Potential health consequences of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, often termed stress-induced anovulation, may include an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, depression, other psychiatric conditions, and dementia. Although fertility can be restored with exogenous administration of gonadotropins or pulsatile GnRH, fertility management alone will not permit recovery of the adrenal and thyroidal axes. Initiating pregnancy with exogenous means without reversing the hormonal milieu induced by chronic stress may increase the likelihood of poor obstetrical, fetal, or neonatal outcomes. In contrast, behavioral and psychological interventions that address problematic behaviors and attitudes, such as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), have the potential to permit resumption of full ovarian function along with recovery of the adrenal, thyroidal, and other neuroendocrine aberrations. Full endocrine recovery potentially offers better individual, maternal, and child health. PMID:17308138

Berga, Sarah L; Loucks, Tammy L

2006-12-01

301

Brain and Cognitive Evolution: Forms of Modularity and Functions of Mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic and neurobiological research is reviewed as related to controversy over the extent to which neocortical organization and associated cognitive functions are genetically constrained or emerge through patterns of developmental experience. An evolutionary framework that accommodates genetic constraint and experiential modification of brain organization and cognitive function is then proposed. The authors argue that 4 forms of modularity and 3

David C. Geary; Kelly J. Huffman

2002-01-01

302

Psychological and cognitive functioning in children and adolescents with congenital heart disease: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Findings in the literature are inconsistent on the impact of congenital heart disease (CHD) on the psychological and cognitive functioning of children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to systematically review this empirical body of literature. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis to review studies on behavior problems and cognitive functioning in CHD. Results Only older children

Petra A. Karsdorp; Walter Everaerd; Merel Kindt; Barbara J. M. Mulder

2007-01-01

303

Insights from Cognitive Neuroscience: The Importance of Executive Function for Early Reading Development and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Executive function begins to develop in infancy and involves an array of processes, such as attention, inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, which provide the means by which individuals control their own behavior, work toward goals, and manage complex cognitive processes. Thus, executive function plays a…

Cartwright, Kelly B.

2012-01-01

304

How Do Cognitive Function and Knowledge Affect Heart Failure Self-Care?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite extensive patient education, few heart failure (HF) patients master self-care. Impaired cognitive function may explain why patient education is ineffective. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was used to explore how knowledge and cognitive function influence HF self-care. A total of 41 adults with HF participated in interviews…

Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Lee, Christopher S.; Riegel, Barbara

2011-01-01

305

Cognitive function with glucose tolerance status and obesity in Chinese middle-aged and aged adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate the relationship of cognitive function with glucose tolerance status and obesity in Chinese middle-aged or aged adults.Methods: A sample of 1722 subjects aged 40 years or order was investigated from four communities in Shijingshan District, Beijing, China. People with any emotional disorder, substance abuse, known diabetes or stroke were excluded. Global cognitive function was measured by the

Yanhui Lu; Juming Lu; Shuyu Wang; Chunlin Li; Lisheng Liu; Runping Zheng; Hui Tian; Xianling Wang; Lijuan Yang; Yuqing Zhang; Changyu Pan

2012-01-01

306

Alcohol Drinking and Cognitive Functions: Findings from the Cardiovascular Risk Factors Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Moderate alcohol drinking is suggested to be beneficial for cognitive functions, but the results of previous studies have varied greatly. Little is known about the effects of midlife alcohol drinking on the cognitive functions later in life. Methods: Participants were derived from random, population-based samples studied in Eastern Finland in 1972, 1977, 1982, or 1987. A total of 1,341

Tiia Ngandu; Eeva-Liisa Helkala; Hilkka Soininen; Bengt Winblad; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Aulikki Nissinen; Miia Kivipelto

2007-01-01

307

Framingham Stroke Risk Profile and poor cognitive function: a population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The relationship between stroke risk and cognitive function has not previously been examined in a large community living sample other than the Framingham cohort. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between 10-year risk for incident stroke and cognitive function in a large population-based sample. METHODS: Participants were 7377 adults aged 50 years and over of

David J Llewellyn; Iain A Lang; Jing Xie; Felicia A Huppert; David Melzer; Kenneth M Langa

2008-01-01

308

Church Attendance Mediates the Association Between Depressive Symptoms and Cognitive Functioning Among Older Mexican Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The objective of this study was to examine how the effect of depressive symptoms on cognitive function is modified by church attendance. Methods. We used a sample of 2759 older Mexican Americans. Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini- Mental State Examination (MMSE) at baseline, 2, 5, 7, and 11 years of follow-up. Church attendance was dichotomized as frequent

Carlos A. Reyes-Ortiz; Ivonne M. Berges; Mukaila A. Raji; Harold G. Koenig; Yong-Fang Kuo; Kyriakos S. Markides

2008-01-01

309

Review of Normative Data For Common Screening Measures Used to Evaluate Cognitive Functioning in Elderly Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

When conducting neuropsychological evaluations of the elderly, it is important to compare patients' test scores to appropriate normative data to maximize diagnostic and descriptive accuracy. Many sets of normative data are now available for screening measures that assess cognitive functioning in the elderly. This article systematically reviewed available norms for 6 widely used screening measures of cognitive functioning in elderly

Robyn M. Busch; Jessica Smerz Chapin

2008-01-01

310

Exercise and Cognitive Function: Can Working Out Train the Brain, Too?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies exploring the relationship between physical activity, fitness, and cognitive function vary across the lifespan in terms of both their number and the apparent strength of the associations. Studies of children are relatively few in number but generally show a positive association between physical activity and cognitive function. Studies of younger adults are even more scarce; findings are equivocal and

Robert F. Zoeller

2010-01-01

311

Childhood Cognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia Patients and Their Unaffected Siblings: A Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

While it is known that children of schizophrenia parents perform more poorly on tests of cognitive functioning than children of normal parents, less certain is the degree to which such deficits predict schizophrenia outcome, whether cognitive functioning deteriorates during childhood in preschizophrenia individuals, and whether nongenetic etiologic factors (such as obstetric complications) contribute to these deficits. In the present study,

Tyrone D. Cannon; Carrie E. Bearden; J. Megginson Hollister; Isabelle M. Rosso; Laura E. Sanchez; Trevor Hadley

2000-01-01

312

Cognitive and functional assessments of stroke patients: An analysis of their relation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To improve the assessment of stroke patients for the purpose of designing rehabilitation treatments and predicting rehabilitation outcomes. Specific objectives included the evaluation of the power of functional scales to properly assess both physical and cognitive disabilities, and the evaluation of the relations between functional, neurological, physical, and cognitive assessments. The hypothesis was that the relations between different assessment

Vlasta E. Hajek; Sylvain Gagnon; James E. Ruderman

1997-01-01

313

Vitamin D is associated with cognitive function in elders receiving home health services  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vitamin D status has recently been associated with neurological disorders, but little research has evaluated vitamin D and cognitive function. We conducted a cross-sectional investigation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and cognitive function in 377 black and 703 non-black (Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian...

314

Toward a more embedded/extended perspective on the cognitive function of gestures  

PubMed Central

Gestures are often considered to be demonstrative of the embodied nature of the mind (Hostetter and Alibali, 2008). In this article, we review current theories and research targeted at the intra-cognitive role of gestures. We ask the question how can gestures support internal cognitive processes of the gesturer? We suggest that extant theories are in a sense disembodied, because they focus solely on embodiment in terms of the sensorimotor neural precursors of gestures. As a result, current theories on the intra-cognitive role of gestures are lacking in explanatory scope to address how gestures-as-bodily-acts fulfill a cognitive function. On the basis of recent theoretical appeals that focus on the possibly embedded/extended cognitive role of gestures (Clark, 2013), we suggest that gestures are external physical tools of the cognitive system that replace and support otherwise solely internal cognitive processes. That is gestures provide the cognitive system with a stable external physical and visual presence that can provide means to think with. We show that there is a considerable amount of overlap between the way the human cognitive system has been found to use its environment, and how gestures are used during cognitive processes. Lastly, we provide several suggestions of how to investigate the embedded/extended perspective of the cognitive function of gestures. PMID:24795687

Pouw, Wim T. J. L.; de Nooijer, Jacqueline A.; van Gog, Tamara; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Paas, Fred

2014-01-01

315

Patients with hepatitis C infection and normal liver function: an evaluation of cognitive function  

PubMed Central

Purpose of the study Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with neuropsychiatric complaints. Previous studies have associated cognitive alterations with HCV infection but have often included confounding factors in their samples. This study compares the cognitive performance between patients with HCV infection (HCV patients) and a control group while excluding other factors that may cause cognitive impairment. Study design This cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2010 through June 2011. HCV infected patients and healthy individuals between the ages of 18 and 80?years were considered eligible. The exclusion criteria included well established causes of cognitive impairment such as depression and cirrhosis. Study participants underwent neuropsychological testing involving measures of attention, memory, abstraction, visuoconstructive abilities, and executive function. Results Of 138 initial patients, 47 were excluded because of their medical records, three refused to participate, 23 did not attend the consultation, and 32 were excluded because of having Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores >11. In all, 33 patients underwent neuropsychological testing; however, three were excluded because of having hypothyroidism, and one was excluded because of having a cobalamin deficiency. For the control group, of the 33 healthy individuals that were selected, four were excluded because of having BDI scores >11. Thus, the final analysis included 29 HCV patients and 29 control participants. The groups did not differ in education, age, or gender. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups regarding cognitive performance. Conclusions In this study using strict selection criteria, there was no evidence of an association between HCV infection and cognitive impairment. PMID:23625064

Abrantes, Jefferson; Torres, Daniel Simplício; de Mello, Carlos Eduardo Brandão

2013-01-01

316

Effects of Dexmedetomidine combined with Dezocine on cognition function and hippocampal microglia activation of rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of Dexmedetomidine combined with Dezocine on the cognition and hippocampal microglia activation of rats. Methods: Laparotomy was successfully performed in 48 rats which were then divided into Dexmedetomidine+Dezocine group and Dezocine group. Rats in Dexmedetomidine+dezocine group were infused with Dexmedetomidine and dezocine via the tail vein after anesthesia; rats in Dezocine group were infused with dezocine via the tail vein. After surgery, rats underwent detection of learning and memory functions at 1, 3, and 7 days after surgery, and the neuroglobin and norepinephrine expression was detected in the hippocampal microglia at the same time points. Results: 1, 3 and 7 days after surgery, the latency to escape in Dexmedetomidine+Dezocine group was significantly shorter than that in Dezocine group, and the number of cells positive for neuroglobin or norepinephrine in the CAL region of hippocampus of Dexmedetomidine+Dezocine group was also markedly higher than that of Dezocine group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Surgery and anesthesia have influence on the cognition of rats to a certain degree, and dexmedetomidine combined with dezocine can effectively improve the impaired cognition due to surgery and anesthesia, which may be attributed to the increase in the protective neuroglobin and norepinephrine in the hippocampus. PMID:25356140

Wan, Qiuxia; Xu, Lufeng; Bo, Yulong

2014-01-01

317

The Effects of Early Neglect on Cognitive, Language, and Behavioral Functioning in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Objectives Few studies have explored the impact of different types of neglect on children’s development. Measures of cognition, language, behavior, and parenting stress were used to explore differences between children experiencing various forms of neglect, as well as to compare children with and without a history of early neglect. Methods Children, ages 3 to 10 years with a history of familial neglect (USN), were compared to children with a history of institutional rearing (IA) and children without a history of neglect using the Differential Abilities Scale, Test of Early Language Development, Child Behavior Checklist, and Parenting Stress Index. Factors predicting child functioning were also explored. Results Compared with youth that were not neglected, children with a history of USN and IA demonstrated lower cognitive and language scores and more behavioral problems. Both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were most common in the USN group. Externalizing behavior problems predicted parenting stress. Higher IQ could be predicted by language scores and an absence of externalizing behavior problems. When comparing the two neglect groups, shorter time spent in a stable environment, lower scores on language skills, and the presence of externalizing behavior predicted lower IQ. Conclusion These findings emphasize the importance of early stable, permanent placement of children who have been in neglectful and pre-adoptive international settings. While an enriching environment may promote resilience, children who have experienced early neglect are vulnerable to cognitive, language and behavioral deficits and neurodevelopmental and behavioral evaluations are required to identify those in need of intervention. PMID:23678396

Spratt, Eve G.; Friedenberg, Samantha L.; Swenson, Cynthia C.; LaRosa, Angela; De Bellis, Michael D.; Macias, Michelle M.; Summer, Andrea P.; Hulsey, Thomas C.; Runyan, Des K.; Brady, Kathleen T.

2013-01-01

318

Children's Perception of Death in Humans and Animals as a Function of Age, Anxiety and Cognitive Ability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings indicate a main effect of age, anxiety, and cognition on the conception of animal and human death. Human death scores were higher than animal death scores. Anxiety had a stranger impact on cognitively high subjects than on cognitively low subjects. Cognition affected the animal death concept more than the human death concept. (Author/RH)

Orbach, Israel; And Others

1985-01-01

319

Relationships of exercise with frailty, depression, and cognitive function in older women  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to provide basic data to identify which types of exercise promote health of older adults. To this end, this study investigated how exercise affects frailty, depression, and cognitive functions in older adults. Frailty, depression, and cognitive function assessed in the exercise participants, 164 older adult women. Results revealed that participants’ frailty and depression varied according to exercise participation time and frequency. In particular, dancing was more effective than other types of exercise in reducing frailty and depression. Exercise duration and frequency did not influence cognitive function, but results indicated that table tennis exerted a greater influence on cognitive function than other types of exercise did. In addition, cognitive function differed according to the degree of frailty participants displayed. PMID:25426466

Jeoung, Bog Ja

2014-01-01

320

Relationships of exercise with frailty, depression, and cognitive function in older women.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to provide basic data to identify which types of exercise promote health of older adults. To this end, this study investigated how exercise affects frailty, depression, and cognitive functions in older adults. Frailty, depression, and cognitive function assessed in the exercise participants, 164 older adult women. Results revealed that participants' frailty and depression varied according to exercise participation time and frequency. In particular, dancing was more effective than other types of exercise in reducing frailty and depression. Exercise duration and frequency did not influence cognitive function, but results indicated that table tennis exerted a greater influence on cognitive function than other types of exercise did. In addition, cognitive function differed according to the degree of frailty participants displayed. PMID:25426466

Jeoung, Bog Ja

2014-10-01

321

The relationship between cholesterol and cognitive function is homocysteine-dependent  

PubMed Central

Introduction Previous studies have identified hyperlipidemia as a potential risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. However, studies on cholesterol measured in late-life and cognitive function have been inconsistent. Few studies have explored nonlinear relationships or considered interactions with other biomarker measures. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 1,889 participants from four rural counties in the People’s Republic of China was included in this analysis. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and homocysteine levels were measured in fasting blood samples. A composite cognitive score was derived based on nine standardized cognitive test scores. Analysis of covariance models were used to investigate the association between biomarker measures and the composite cognitive scores. Results There was a significant interaction between the homocysteine quartile group and the cholesterol quartile group on cognitive scores (P=0.0478). In participants with normal homocysteine levels, an inverse U-shaped relationship between total cholesterol level and cognitive score was found, indicating that both low and high cholesterol levels were associated with lower cognitive scores. In participants with high homocysteine levels, no significant association between cholesterol and cognition was found. Conclusion The relationship between cholesterol levels and cognitive function depends upon homocysteine levels, suggesting an interactive role between cholesterol and homocysteine on cognitive function in the elderly population. Additional research is required to confirm our findings in other populations, and to explore potential mechanisms underlying the lipid–homocysteine interaction. PMID:25364240

Cheng, Yibin; Jin, Yinlong; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Su, Liqin; Yang, Lili; Ma, Feng; Hake, Ann M; Kettler, Carla; Chen, Chen; Liu, Jingyi; Bian, Jianchao; Li, Ping; Murrell, Jill R; Hendrie, Hugh C; Gao, Sujuan

2014-01-01

322

A quantitative review of cognitive functioning in homeless adults.  

PubMed

Homeless people experience elevated rates of risk factors for cognitive impairment. We reviewed available peer-reviewed studies reporting data from objective measures of cognition in samples identified as homeless. Pooled sample-weighted estimates of global cognitive screening measures, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ), and premorbid IQ were calculated, in addition to pooled sample characteristics, to understand the representativeness of available studies. A total of 24 unique studies were identified, with 2969 subjects. The pooled estimate for the frequency of cognitive impairment was 25%, and the mean full-scale IQ score was 85, 1 standard deviation below the mean of the normal population. Cognitive impairment was found to be common among homeless adults and may be a transdiagnostic problem that impedes rehabilitative efforts in this population. Comparatively little data are available about cognition in homeless women and unsheltered persons. PMID:25594792

Depp, Colin A; Vella, Lea; Orff, Henry J; Twamley, Elizabeth W

2015-02-01

323

Learning an atlas of a cognitive process in its functional geometry  

E-print Network

In this paper we construct an atlas that captures functional characteristics of a cognitive process from a population of individuals. The functional connectivity is encoded in a low-dimensional embedding space derived from ...

Langs, Georg

324

Multimodal MRI and cognitive function in patients with breast cancer prior to adjuvant treatment — The role of fatigue  

PubMed Central

An increasing body of literature indicates that chemotherapy (ChT) for breast cancer (BC) is associated with adverse effects on the brain. Recent research suggests that cognitive and brain function in patients with BC may already be compromised before the start of chemotherapy. This is the first study combining neuropsychological testing, patient-reported outcomes, and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine pretreatment cognition and various aspects of brain function and structure in a large sample. Thirty-two patients with BC scheduled to receive ChT (pre-ChT+), 33 patients with BC not indicated to undergo ChT (pre-ChT?), and 38 no-cancer controls (NCs) were included. The examination consisted of a neuropsychological test battery, self-reported aspects of psychosocial functioning, and multimodal MRI. Patients with BC reported worse scores on several aspects of quality of life, such as higher levels of fatigue and stress. However, cortisol levels were not elevated in the patient groups compared to the control group. Overall cognitive performance was lower in the pre-ChT+ and the pre-ChT? groups compared to NC. Further, patients demonstrated prefrontal hyperactivation with increasing task difficulty on a planning task compared to NC, but not during a memory task. White matter integrity was lower in both patient groups. No differences in regional brain volume and brain metabolites were found. The cognitive and imaging data converged to show that symptoms of fatigue were associated with the observed abnormalities; the observed differences were no longer significant when fatigue was accounted for. This study suggests that cancer-related psychological or biological processes may adversely impact cognitive functioning and associated aspects of brain structure and function before the start of adjuvant treatment. Our findings stress the importance to further explore the processes underlying the expression of fatigue and to study whether it has a contributory role in subsequent treatment-related cognitive decline. PMID:25844311

Menning, Sanne; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Veltman, Dick J.; Koppelmans, V.; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Boogerd, Willem; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schagen, Sanne B.

2015-01-01

325

Beauty and Art. Cognitive Function, Evolution, and Mathematical Models of the Mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses relationships between aesthetics theory and mathematical models of mind. Mathematical theory describes abilities for concepts, emotions, instincts, imagination, adaptation, learning, cognition, language, approximate hierarchy of the mind and evolution of these abilities. The knowledge instinct is the foundation of higher mental abilities and aesthetic emotions. Aesthetic emotions are present in every act of perception and cognition, and

Leonid Perlovsky

2010-01-01

326

Effects of Cognitive, Motor, and Karate Training on Cognitive Functioning and Emotional Well-Being of Elderly People  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the influence of cognitive, motor, and Karate (accordingly the guidelines of the German-Karate-Federation, DKV) training on the cognitive functioning and mental state of older people between 67 and 93?years of age. The three training groups each consisted of 12 elderly participants; the waiting control group included 9 participants. Before the training, participants were evaluated with cognitive measurements (cognitive speed: number-connection test, number–symbol test; memory performance: digit-span test, blocking-tapping test, figure test) and a measurement of emotional well-being. After this pre-testing they participated the specific training in on average sixteen 1-h training sessions. The cognitive training exercised inductive thinking ability, the motor training worked on easy stretching and mobilization techniques, and the Karate training taught tasks of self-defense, partner training, and Katas. After completion of the training sessions, all tests were applied again. The results show no significant difference in cognitive improvement dependent on group between the three training conditions. However a significant improvement was found in the emotional mental state measurement for the Karate group compared to the waiting control group. This result suggests that the integrated involvement in Karate leads to a feeling of self-worth and that, even in elderly people, integration of new sports helps to improve quality of life. PMID:22363311

Jansen, Petra; Dahmen-Zimmer, Katharina

2012-01-01

327

Involuntary Cognitions in Everyday Life: Exploration of Type, Quality, Content, and Function  

PubMed Central

Psychological research into spontaneous or intrusive cognitions has typically focused on cognitions in one predefined domain, such as obsessional thoughts in OCD, intrusive memories in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, or involuntary autobiographical memories and daydreaming in everyday life. Such studies have resulted in a wealth of knowledge about these specific cognitions. However, by focusing on a predefined type of cognition, other subtypes of cognition that may co-occur can be missed. In this exploratory study, we aimed to assess involuntary cognitions in everyday life without a pre-determined focus on any specific subtype of cognition. Seventy unselected undergraduate student participants were administered a questionnaire that assessed the presence of any involuntary cognitions in the past month, their quality, type, content, and potential function. In addition, participants provided self-descriptions and completed measures of psychopathology. Content analyses showed that involuntary cognitions were common, predominantly visual in nature, emotional, often about social relationships, and often related to a hypothetical function of emotional processing. About two-thirds of the cognitions that participants reported were memories. Non-memories included daydreams, imaginary worst case scenarios, imaginary future events, hypothetical reconstructions, and ruminations. Memories and non-memories were strikingly similar in their subjective experience of content and emotionality. Negative (but not positive) self-descriptions were associated with negative involuntary cognitions and psychopathology, suggesting a link between involuntary cognitions and the self. Overall, the findings suggest that people experience a wide variety of subtypes of involuntary cognitions in everyday life. Moreover, the specific subtype of involuntary cognition appears to be less important than its valence or content, at least to the subjective experience of the individual. PMID:25698979

Krans, Julie; de Bree, June; Moulds, Michelle L.

2015-01-01

328

Involuntary cognitions in everyday life: exploration of type, quality, content, and function.  

PubMed

Psychological research into spontaneous or intrusive cognitions has typically focused on cognitions in one predefined domain, such as obsessional thoughts in OCD, intrusive memories in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, or involuntary autobiographical memories and daydreaming in everyday life. Such studies have resulted in a wealth of knowledge about these specific cognitions. However, by focusing on a predefined type of cognition, other subtypes of cognition that may co-occur can be missed. In this exploratory study, we aimed to assess involuntary cognitions in everyday life without a pre-determined focus on any specific subtype of cognition. Seventy unselected undergraduate student participants were administered a questionnaire that assessed the presence of any involuntary cognitions in the past month, their quality, type, content, and potential function. In addition, participants provided self-descriptions and completed measures of psychopathology. Content analyses showed that involuntary cognitions were common, predominantly visual in nature, emotional, often about social relationships, and often related to a hypothetical function of emotional processing. About two-thirds of the cognitions that participants reported were memories. Non-memories included daydreams, imaginary worst case scenarios, imaginary future events, hypothetical reconstructions, and ruminations. Memories and non-memories were strikingly similar in their subjective experience of content and emotionality. Negative (but not positive) self-descriptions were associated with negative involuntary cognitions and psychopathology, suggesting a link between involuntary cognitions and the self. Overall, the findings suggest that people experience a wide variety of subtypes of involuntary cognitions in everyday life. Moreover, the specific subtype of involuntary cognition appears to be less important than its valence or content, at least to the subjective experience of the individual. PMID:25698979

Krans, Julie; de Bree, June; Moulds, Michelle L

2015-01-01

329

BDNF and synaptic plasticity, cognitive function, and dysfunction.  

PubMed

Among all neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) stands out for its high level of expression in the brain and its potent effects on synapses. It is now widely accepted that the main function of BDNF in the adult brain is to regulate synapses, with structural and functional effects ranging from short-term to long-lasting, on excitatory or inhibitory synapses, in many brain regions. The diverse effects of BDNF on brain synapses stem from its complex downstream signaling cascades, as well as the diametrically opposing effects of the pro- and mature form through distinct receptors, TrkB and p75(NTR). Many aspects of BDNF cell biology are regulated by neuronal activity. The synergistic interactions between neuronal activity and synaptic plasticity by BDNF make it an ideal and essential regulator of cellular processes that underlie cognition and other complex behaviors. Indeed, numerous studies firmly established that BDNF plays a critical role in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-term enhancement of synaptic efficacy thought to underlie learning and memory. Converging evidence now strongly suggest that deficits in BDNF signaling contribute to the pathogenesis of several major diseases and disorders such as Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and depression. Thus, manipulating BDNF pathways represents a viable treatment approach to a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:24668475

Lu, B; Nagappan, G; Lu, Y

2014-01-01

330

Functional significance of complex fluctuations in brain activity: from resting state to cognitive neuroscience  

PubMed Central

Behavioral studies have shown that human cognition is characterized by properties such as temporal scale invariance, heavy-tailed non-Gaussian distributions, and long-range correlations at long time scales, suggesting models of how (non observable) components of cognition interact. On the other hand, results from functional neuroimaging studies show that complex scaling and intermittency may be generic spatio-temporal properties of the brain at rest. Somehow surprisingly, though, hardly ever have the neural correlates of cognition been studied at time scales comparable to those at which cognition shows scaling properties. Here, we analyze the meanings of scaling properties and the significance of their task-related modulations for cognitive neuroscience. It is proposed that cognitive processes can be framed in terms of complex generic properties of brain activity at rest and, ultimately, of functional equations, limiting distributions, symmetries, and possibly universality classes characterizing them. PMID:24966818

Papo, David

2014-01-01

331

The impact of cognitive functioning on mortality and the development of functional disability in older adults with diabetes: the second longitudinal study on aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: For older adults without diabetes, cognitive functioning has been implicated as a predictor of death and functional disability for older adults and those with mild to severe cognitive impairment. However, little is known about the relationship between cognition functioning on mortality and the development of functional disability in late life for persons with diabetes. We examined the relative contribution

Lisa C McGuire; Earl S Ford; Umed A Ajani

2006-01-01

332

Cognitive function after radiotherapy for supratentorial low-grade glioma: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group prospective study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of cranial radiotherapy (RT) on cognitive function in patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Twenty adult patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma were treated with 50.4 Gy (10 patients) or 64.8 Gy (10 patients) localized RT. The patients then were evaluated with an extensive battery of psychometric tests at baseline (before RT) and at approximately 18-month intervals for as long as 5 years after completing RT. To allow patients to serve as their own controls, cognitive performance was evaluated as change in scores over time. All patients underwent at least two evaluations. Results: Baseline test scores were below average compared with age-specific norms. At the second evaluation, the groups' mean test scores were higher than their initial performances on all psychometric measures, although the improvement was not statistically significant. No changes in cognitive performance were seen during the evaluation period when test scores were analyzed by age, treatment, tumor location, tumor type, or extent of resection. Conclusions: Cognitive function was stable after RT in these patients evaluated prospectively during 3 years of follow-up. Slight improvements in some cognitive areas are consistent with practice effects attributable to increased familiarity with test procedures and content.

Laack, Nadia N. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Brown, Paul D. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)]. E-mail: brown.paul@mayo.edu; Ivnik, Robert J. [Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Furth, Alfred F. M.S. [Cancer Center Statistics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Ballman, Karla V. [Division of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Hammack, Julie E. [Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Arusell, Robert M. [Roger Maris Cancer Center, Fargo, ND (United States); Shaw, Edward G. [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Buckner, Jan C. [Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

2005-11-15

333

Effects of Tai Chi on cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults: a review.  

PubMed

As the population of the United States ages, activities to maintain or improve cognitive function will become increasingly important to preserve functional ability, independence and health-related quality of life. This article is a review of recent research on Tai Chi and cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults. Of the 12 studies reviewed, 10 reported improvement in measures of executive function, language, learning, and/or memory. Several design features make comparisons across studies challenging. As a moderate-intensity, low-impact form of exercise, Tai Chi is appropriate for older adults and seems to offer positive cognitive benefits. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:24252560

Miller, Sally M; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E

2014-01-01

334

Poor Sleep Is Associated With Impaired Cognitive Function in Older Women: The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The association between objectively measured sleep and cognition among community-dwelling elderly persons remains understudied. This observational, cross-sectional analysis examined this association. Methods. Results are from 2932 women (mean age 83.5 years) in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures between 2002 and 2004. Cognitive function was measured by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Trail Making B Test (Trails B). Cognitive impairment

Terri Blackwell; Kristine Yaffe; Sonia Ancoli-Israel; Jennifer L. Schneider; Jane A. Cauley; Teresa A. Hillier; Howard A. Fink; Katie L. Stone

2006-01-01

335

Design of cognitive engine for cognitive radio based on the rough sets and radial basis function neural network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cognitive radio (CR) is an intelligent wireless communication system which can dynamically adjust the parameters to improve system performance depending on the environmental change and quality of service. The core technology for CR is the design of cognitive engine, which introduces reasoning and learning methods in the field of artificial intelligence, to achieve the perception, adaptation and learning capability. Considering the dynamical wireless environment and demands, this paper proposes a design of cognitive engine based on the rough sets (RS) and radial basis function neural network (RBF_NN). The method uses experienced knowledge and environment information processed by RS module to train the RBF_NN, and then the learning model is used to reconfigure communication parameters to allocate resources rationally and improve system performance. After training learning model, the performance is evaluated according to two benchmark functions. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the model and the proposed cognitive engine can effectively achieve the goal of learning and reconfiguration in cognitive radio.

Yang, Yanchao; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Congbin; Lan, Zhongli

2013-03-01

336

Decreased Functional Connectivity by Aging Is Associated with Cognitive Decline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging is related to cognitive decline, and it has been reported that aging disrupts some resting state brain networks. However, most studies have focused on the default mode network and ignored other resting state networks. In this study, we measured resting state activity using fMRI and explored whether cognitive decline with aging is related to disrupted resting state networks. Independent

Keiichi Onoda; Masaki Ishihara; Shuhei Yamaguchi

2012-01-01

337

The Relationship between Nonverbal Cognitive Functions and Hearing Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and memory and attention when nonverbal, visually presented cognitive tests are used. Method: Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and IQ were measured in 30 participants with mild to severe hearing loss. Participants performed cognitive tests of pattern recognition memory,…

Zekveld, Adriana A.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Goverts, S. Theo; Kramer, Sophia E.

2007-01-01

338

Is Cognitive Functioning Impaired in Methamphetamine Users? A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevailing view is that recreational methamphetamine use causes a broad range of severe cognitive deficits, despite the fact that concerns have been raised about interpretations drawn from the published literature. This article addresses an important gap in our knowledge by providing a critical review of findings from recent research investigating the impact of recreational methamphetamine use on human cognition.

Carl L Hart; Caroline B Marvin; Rae Silver; Edward E Smith

2012-01-01

339

The NIH Stroke Scale Can Establish Cognitive Function after Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cognitive impairment is an important but underrecognised consequence of stroke. We investigated whether a subset of items from the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) could yield valid information on cognitive status in a group of stroke patients. Methods: 149 stroke patients from the Göteborg 70+ Stroke Study were investigated after 18 months. We extracted 4 items corresponding to the NIHSS

Toby B. Cumming; Christian Blomstrand; Julie Bernhardt; Thomas Linden

2010-01-01

340

Effects of hydration on cognitive function of pilots.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of fluid intake and possible dehydration on cognitive flight performance of pilots. A repeated-measures, counterbalanced, mixed study design was used to examine differences in working memory, spatial orientation, and cognitive flight performance of 40 randomly selected healthy pilots after having high and low fluid intakes. Serial weights were also analyzed to determine differences in cognitive flight performance of the dehydrated (1-3% weight loss) and hydrated study participants. Results showed flight performance and spatial cognition test scores were significantly (p < 0.05) poorer for pilots who had low fluid intakes and experienced dehydration in comparison to the hydrated pilots. These findings indicate fluid intake differences resulting in dehydration may have safety implications because peak cognitive performance among pilots is critical for flight safety. PMID:23820354

Lindseth, Paul D; Lindseth, Glenda N; Petros, Thomas V; Jensen, Warren C; Caspers, Julie

2013-07-01

341

Can We Understand Why Cognitive Function Predicts Mortality? Results from the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The association between cognitive function and mortality is of increasing interest. We followed 1870 men aged 55-69 years at cognitive assessment for 16 years to establish associations with all case and cause specific mortality. Cognitive assessment included AH4, 4 choice reaction time (used as estimates of mid-life cognition) and the National…

Gallacher, John; Bayer, Anthony; Dunstan, Frank; Yarnell, John; Elwood, Peter; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

2009-01-01

342

Technology Readiness as a Predictor of Cognitive Presence in Online Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online education depends on a variety of technology tools for cognitive-related activities; however it is unclear whether the current proliferation of tools is an indicator of a learner's readiness to use them effectively to meet learning objectives is unclear. Because the effectiveness of the online experience is a measure of a…

Abraham, David Rajan

2013-01-01

343

Higher Education and Cognitive Developmental Changes in Adulthood: An Integration of Logic and Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the issues facing educators is the increasing number of nontraditional students appearing in the college classroom. Recent conceptualizations of adult reasoning have suggested that there are qualitative differences in reasoning from young to late adulthood. The objective of this study was to examine cognitive differences rather than…

Papini, Dennis R.; And Others

344

A Unitary Model of Cognition and Instruction in Higher Order Thinking Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an instructional model for thinking skills and discusses implementing the model. Based on a unitary theory of human cognition and some basic assumptions about the conditions for successfully intervening in public education, the model can be implemented at any grade level within any instructional framework. Currently used models…

Marzano, Robert J.

345

Children's Cognitions, Behavioral Intent, and Affect toward Girls and Boys of Lower or Higher Learning Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research is clear about children's negative biases toward the opposite gender, toward peers of lower learning ability, and toward out-group members in general, especially among younger children. In adulthood, the magnitude and valence of attitudes may be dependent on cognitive, behavioral, or affective response classes, but little is known of how…

Nowicki, Elizabeth A.

2006-01-01

346

Components of late-life exercise and cognitive function: an 8-year longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The preventive effect of late-life physical exercise on cognitive deterioration has been reported in many cohort studies. However, the effect of exercise, independent of other cognitively demanding and social activities, is equivocal and little is known about the relative contributions of frequency, intensity, and duration of exercise. This study aimed to examine the relationships of exercise and its underlying components with cognitive function and rate of cognitive change over an 8-year period in a nationally representative sample of older Taiwanese. Data from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 phases of the nationwide longitudinal survey were used. Data from a fixed cohort of 1,268 participants aged 70 years or older in 1999 with 8 years of follow-up were analyzed. Cognitive function was assessed using the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire. Self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of exercise were collected. A generalized estimating equation with multivariate adjustment for sociodemographic variables, cognitive and social leisure activities, lifestyle behaviors, and health status was calculated. Participants who were physically active during leisure time had better subsequent cognitive function (incident rate ratios [IRR]?=?0.63; 95 % CI, 0.54-0.75) and a slower rate of cognitive decline (p?=?0.01). Among the components of exercise, only duration emerged as a predictor of cognitive function (p?=?0.01). Older adults engaging in exercise for at least 30 min or more per session are likely to reduce the risk of subsequent cognitive decline. This research supports the case for physical exercise programs for older adults in order to help prevent loss of cognitive function. PMID:25297968

Chu, Da-Chen; Fox, Kenneth R; Chen, Li-Jung; Ku, Po-Wen

2015-05-01

347

Distinct Functional Networks Associated with Improvement of Affective Symptoms and Cognitive Function During Citalopram Treatment in Geriatric Depression  

PubMed Central

Variability in the affective and cognitive symptom response to antidepressant treatment has been observed in geriatric depression. The underlying neural circuitry is poorly understood. The current study evaluated the cerebral glucose metabolic effects of citalopram treatment and applied multivariate, functional connectivity analyses to identify brain networks associated with improvements in affective symptoms and cognitive function. Sixteen geriatric depressed patients underwent resting Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies of cerebral glucose metabolism and assessment of affective symptoms and cognitive function before and after eight weeks of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment (citalopram). Voxel-wise analyses of the normalized glucose metabolic data showed decreased cerebral metabolism during citalopram treatment in the anterior cingulate gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, precuneus, amygdala, and parahippocampal gyrus. Increased metabolism was observed in the putamen, occipital cortex and cerebellum. Functional connectivity analyses revealed two networks which were uniquely associated with improvement of affective symptoms and cognitive function during treatment. A subcortical-limbic-frontal network was associated with improvement in affect (depression and anxiety), while a medial temporal-parietal-frontal network was associated with improvement in cognition (immediate verbal learning/memory and verbal fluency). The regions that comprise the cognitive network overlap with the regions that are affected in Alzheimer’s dementia. Thus, alterations in specific brain networks associated with improvement of affective symptoms and cognitive function are observed during citalopram treatment in geriatric depression. PMID:20886575

Diaconescu, Andreea Oliviana; Kramer, Elisse; Hermann, Carol; Ma, Yilong; Dhawan, Vijay; Chaly, Thomas; Eidelberg, David; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Smith, Gwenn S.

2010-01-01

348

Alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, and cognitive function in older Eastern European adults  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate associations of frequency, quantity, binge, and problem drinking with cognitive function in older Eastern European adults. Methods: The investigation included 14,575 participants, aged 47 to 78 years at cognitive assessment in 2006–2008 from Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), and 6 Czech towns participating in the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe) prospective cohort study. Average response rates were 59% at baseline (2002–2005) and 63% in 2006–2008. Alcohol consumption was assessed at baseline and in 2006–2008. Cognitive tests included immediate and delayed word recall, semantic fluency (animal naming), and letter cancellation. Associations between alcohol indices and cognitive scores were analyzed cross-sectionally (all measures from 2006 to 2008) and prospectively (alcohol and covariates from 2002 to 2005 and cognition from 2006 to 2008). Results: In cross-sectional analyses, nondrinkers had lower cognitive scores and female moderate drinkers had better cognitive performance than light drinkers. Heavy, binge, and problem drinking were not consistently associated with cognitive function. Few associations were replicated in prospective analyses. Participants who stopped drinking during follow-up had worse cognition than stable drinkers; in men, regression coefficients (95% confidence interval) ranged from ?0.26 (?0.36, ?0.16) for immediate recall to ?0.14 (?0.24, ?0.04) for fluency. Conclusion: Regular and episodic heavy drinking were not consistently associated with cognitive function. Worse cognition in participants who stopped drinking during follow-up suggests that inclusion of less healthy ex-drinkers may partly explain poorer cognition in nondrinkers. PMID:25503981

Richards, Marcus; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Shishkin, Sergey; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Marmot, M.G.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Bobak, Martin

2015-01-01

349

Assessment of cognitive functioning in men who batter.  

PubMed

The present investigation examined neuropsychological functioning in 50 male batterers court-ordered into treatment and 23 nonpatient controls. Subjects were administered a neuropsychological screening battery consisting of the Screening Test for the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery, the Stroop Color and Word Test, two memory subtests from the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-III (Figural Memory and Delayed Figural Memory), and two subtests from the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery (Trails A & B). Subjects were categorized as having neuropsychological dysfunction if their scores exceeded the statistical cut offs on two or more subtests. Results indicated that 24 (48%) of the male batterers exhibited cognitive dysfunction, as compared to only 1 (4.3%) of the nonpatient controls. Inspection of individual neuropsychological measures indicated poorer performance across all subtests for impaired male batterers as compared to both nonimpaired batterers and normal controls. In contrast, no significant differences on any of these measures emerged between nonimpaired male batterers and normal controls. Implications for the appropriate screening and treatment of male batterers are discussed. PMID:11912679

Teichner, G; Golden, C J; Van Hasselt, V B; Peterson, A

2001-01-01

350

Cognitive extension: the parity argument, functionalism, and the mark of the cognitive  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade, the so-called “hypothesis of cognitive extension,” according to which the material vehicles of some\\u000a cognitive processes are spatially distributed over the brain and the extracranial parts of the body and the world, has received\\u000a lots of attention, both favourable and unfavourable. The debate has largely focussed on three related issues: (1) the role\\u000a of parity considerations,

Sven Walter

2010-01-01

351

Cerebrovascular function and cognition in childhood: a systematic review of transcranial doppler studies  

PubMed Central

Background The contribution of cerebrovascular function to cognitive performance is gaining increased attention. Transcranial doppler (TCD) is portable, reliable, inexpensive and extremely well tolerated by young and clinical samples. It enables measurement of blood flow velocity in major cerebral arteries at rest and during cognitive tasks. Methods We systematically reviewed evidence for associations between cognitive performance and cerebrovascular function in children (0-18 years), as measured using TCD. A total of 2778 articles were retrieved from PsychInfo, Pubmed, and EMBASE searches and 25 relevant articles were identified. Results Most studies investigated clinical groups, where decreased blood flow velocities in infants were associated with poor neurological functioning, and increased blood flow velocities in children with Sickle cell disease were typically associated with cognitive impairment and lower intelligence. Studies were also identified assessing autistic behaviour, mental retardation and sleep disordered breathing. In healthy children, the majority of studies reported cognitive processing produced lateralised changes in blood flow velocities however these physiological responses did not appear to correlate with behavioural cognitive performance. Conclusion Poor cognitive performance appears to be associated with decreased blood flow velocities in premature infants, and increased velocities in Sickle cell disease children using TCD methods. However knowledge in healthy samples is relatively limited. The technique is well tolerated by children, is portable and inexpensive. It therefore stands to make a valuable contribution to knowledge regarding the underlying functional biology of cognitive performance in childhood. PMID:24602446

2014-01-01

352

Cognitive and academic functions are impaired in children with all severities of sleep-disordered breathing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objectiveThe impact of the broad spectrum of SDB severity on cognition in childhood has not been well studied. This study investigated cognitive function in children with varying severities of SDB and control children with no history of SDB.

Robert Bourke; Vicki Anderson; Joel S. C. Yang; Angela R. Jackman; Asawari Killedar; Gillian M. Nixon; Margot J. Davey; Adrian M. Walker; John Trinder; Rosemary S. C. Horne

2011-01-01

353

CAFFEINE, COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING AND WHITE MATTER LESIONS IN THE ELDERLY: ESTABLISHING CAUSALITY FROM EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE  

E-print Network

Ritchie 1 CAFFEINE, COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING AND WHITE MATTER LESIONS IN THE ELDERLY: ESTABLISHING of interest. Running title : caffeine and white matter lesions inserm-00457699,version1-19Feb2010 Author for a causal relationship between caffeine consumption and cognitive deterioration in the elderly. Methods

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

354

Children's Sleep and Cognitive Functioning: Race and Socioeconomic Status as Moderators of Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Race and socioeconomic status (SES) moderated the link between children's sleep and cognitive functioning. One hundred and sixty-six 8- to 9-year-old African and European American children varying in SES participated. Sleep measures were actigraphy, sleep diaries, and self-report; cognitive measures were from the Woodcock-Johnson III and reaction…

Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keller, Peggy

2007-01-01

355

Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…

Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

2013-01-01

356

The Cumulative Effect of Neglect and Failure to Thrive on Cognitive Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 177 low-income children (ages 3-30 months) investigated the relationship among neglect, failure to thrive (FTT), and cognitive functioning. The cognitive performance of children who had been neglected and were FTT was significantly below that of children who had only one of the variables and typical children. (Author/CR)

Mackner, Laura M.; And Others

1997-01-01

357

ADVERSE CHILDHOOD ENVIRONMENT AND LATE-LIFE COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING Karen Ritchie1*  

E-print Network

a significant detrimental effect on cognitive functioning. Clinical studies show that children subject to abuse abuse, cognition, ApoE, gene-environment interaction inserm-00584172,version1-7Apr2011 Author manuscript, for women, loss of a parent, were associated with poorer verbal retrieval whereas being sent to a foster

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

358

Cognitive Function and Oral Health Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Both oral health problems and cognitive impairment are relatively common among older adults. Poorer oral health appears to contribute to a decline in quality of life and to be related to various medical conditions. Little is known about the relationship of cognitive function to oral health among community-dwelling older adults. Methods. The sample included 1984 dentate community-dwelling older adults

Bei Wu; Brenda L. Plassman; Richard J. Crout; Jersey Liang

359

There are substantial declines in behavioral measures of cognitive function with age, including decreased func-  

E-print Network

both behavioral and neu- roscience perspectives on cognitive aging, and then connect the findings for future research. here is considerable folk wisdom about cogni- tive aging in our culture. One familiarThere are substantial declines in behavioral measures of cognitive function with age, including

360

Social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and their relationship to clinical and functional status.  

PubMed

While research on social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia is quickly growing, relatively little is still known about the severity and correlates of these impairments. The few studies that have examined this issue suggest that social cognitive impairments may be positively related to psychiatric symptoms and negatively related to functioning. In the current analyses of 119 stable outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses, we sought to further characterize the nature of social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. Specifically, we examined (1) social cognitive impairments on four different social cognitive tasks including measures of emotional processing and Theory of Mind and (2) the demographic, symptom and functional correlates of these impairments. For three of the four social cognitive tasks examined, the majority of participants performed 1 or more S.D. worse than healthy controls, with variability in the degree of impairment across tasks. Contrary to expectation, correlations between social cognitive performance on each of the four tasks and clinical and functional features were few and weak, and for the most part did not replicate the previously reported relationship of social cognition to severity of symptoms or current functional status. PMID:23017655

Fiszdon, Joanna M; Fanning, Jennifer R; Johannesen, Jason K; Bell, Morris D

2013-01-30

361

Does Implicit Learning in Non-Demented Parkinson's Disease depend on the Level of Cognitive Functioning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the influence of the level of cognitive functioning on sequence-specific learning in Parkinson's disease (PD). This was done by examining the relationship between the scales for outcomes in Parkinson's disease-cognition [SCOPA-COG, Marinus, J., Visser, M., Verwey, N. A., Verhey, F. R. J., Middelkoop, H. A. M.,Stiggelbout, A., et…

Vandenbossche, Jochen; Deroost, Natacha; Soetens, Eric; Kerckhofs, Eric

2009-01-01

362

The Relationship between Diffusion Tensor Tractography and Cognitive Functioning in Parkinson's Disease  

E-print Network

Institute Introduction Cognitive impairment is a common non-motor manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PDPrimaryLeftAnteriorInternalCapsule W W W W W W W W W W W W · Parkinson's disease · Healthy Control -1.00 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 RAVLTThe Relationship between Diffusion Tensor Tractography and Cognitive Functioning in Parkinson

Lichtarge, Olivier

363

Integrating Functional Brain Neuroimaging and Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience in Child Psychiatry Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of cognitive neuroscience and functional brain neuroimaging to understand brain dysfunction in pediatric psychiatric disorders is discussed. Results show that bipolar youths demonstrate impairment in affective and cognitive neural systems and in these two circuits' interface. Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric…

Pavuluri, Mani N.; Sweeney, John A.

2008-01-01

364

Cognitive apprenticeship in a CAL-environment for functionally illiterate adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

When cognitive apprenticeship principles are compared with adult learning theories and in particular with learning theories concerning functionally illiterate adults, they have several aspects in common. In order to check these resemblances in practice and to explore at the same time the way in which the cognitive apprenticeship methods can be operationalized in a computer aided learning environment for adult

H. F. M. Bruijn

1995-01-01

365

Urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

DNA oxidative stress has been suggested as an important pathogenic mechanism in cognitive impairment and dementia. We, therefore, examined whether urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of global DNA oxidation, was associated with cognitive function in a sample of Puerto Rican adul...

366

Influence of Peripheral and Motivational Cues on Rigid-Flexible Functioning: Perceptual, Behavioral, and Cognitive Aspects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has shown that performing approach versus avoidance behaviors (arm flexion vs. extension) effectively influences cognitive functioning. In another area, lateralized peripheral activations (left vs. right side) of the motivational systems of approach versus avoidance were linked to various performances in cognitive tasks. By…

Cretenet, Joel; Dru, Vincent

2009-01-01

367

The Effects of Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure on Hispanic Children's Cognitive and Behavioral Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective This study investigates the effects of Organophosphate (OP) pesticides exposure on the cognitive and behavioral functioning of Hispanic children living in an agricultural community. Methods Forty-eight children were administered a battery of cognitive measures, and their parents and teachers completed behavior rating scales. Children provided a urine sample for analysis of OP pesticides metabolites. Results All children had a

Patricia Sanchez Lizardi; Mary Kay O'Rourke; Richard J. Morris

2008-01-01

368

Cognitive Functioning in Children With Sickle Cell Disease: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To establish whether sickle cell disease (SCD) affects cognitive functioning in children with no evidence of cerebral infarction. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of studies of cognition in SCD to determine the size of any statis- tical difference between children with SCD and controls. Methodological factors were evaluated according to the size and frequency of group differences. Results: There

Jeffrey Schatz; Robert L. Finke; Julie M. Kellett; Joel H. Kramer

2002-01-01

369

The Relationship between Sleep and Epilepsy: The Effect on Cognitive Functioning in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The purpose of this review was to examine the possible pathophysiological links between epilepsy, cognition, sleep macro- and microstructure, and sleep disorders to highlight the contributions and interactions of sleep and epilepsy on cognitive functioning in children with epilepsy. Method: PubMed was used as the medical database source. No…

Parisi, Pasquale; Bruni, Oliviero; Pia Villa, Maria; Verrotti, Alberto; Miano, Silvia; Luchetti, Anna; Curatolo, Paolo

2010-01-01

370

Structural and functional brain development and its relation to cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant gains in the fields of pediatric neuroimaging and developmental neurobiology, surprisingly little is known about the developing human brain or the neural bases of cognitive development. This paper addresses MRI studies of structural and functional changes in the developing human brain and their relation to changes in cognitive processes over the first few decades of human life. Based

B. J. Casey; Jay N. Giedd; Kathleen M. Thomas

2000-01-01

371

Lower CSF Amyloid Beta Peptides and Higher F2-Isoprostanes in Cognitively Intact Elderly Individuals With Major Depressive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective Major depressive disorder is common in the elderly, and symptoms are often not responsive to conventional antidepressant treatment, especially in the long term. Soluble oligomeric and aggregated forms of amyloid beta peptides, especially amyloid beta 42, impair neuronal and synaptic function. Amyloid beta 42 is the main component of plaques and is implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid beta peptides also induce a depressive state in rodents and disrupt major neurotransmitter systems linked to depression. The authors assessed whether major depression was associated with CSF levels of amyloid beta, tau protein, and F2-isoprostanes in elderly individuals with major depressive disorder and age-matched nondepressed comparison subjects. Method CSF was obtained from 47 cognitively intact volunteers (major depression group, N=28; comparison group, N=19) and analyzed for levels of soluble amyloid beta, total and phosphorylated tau proteins, and isoprostanes. Results Amyloid beta 42 levels were significantly lower in the major depression group relative to the comparison group, and amyloid beta 40 levels were lower but only approaching statistical significance. In contrast, isoprostane levels were higher in the major depression group. No differences were observed in total and phosphorylated tau proteins across conditions. Antidepressant use was not associated with differences in amyloid beta 42 levels. Conclusions Reduction in CSF levels of amyloid beta 42 may be related to increased brain amyloid beta plaques or decreased soluble amyloid beta production in elderly individuals with major depression relative to nondepressed comparison subjects. These results may have implications for our understanding of the patho-physiology of major depression and for the development of treatment strategies. PMID:22764362

Pomara, Nunzio; Bruno, Davide; Sarreal, Antero S.; Hernando, Raymundo T.; Nierenberg, Jay; Petkova, Eva; Sidtis, John J.; Wisniewski, Thomas M.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Pratico, Domenico; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj

2013-01-01

372

Higher Dimensional Coulomb Gases and Renormalized Energy Functionals  

E-print Network

We consider a classical system of n charged particles in an external confining potential, in any dimension d larger than 2. The particles interact via pairwise repulsive Coulomb forces and the coupling parameter scales like the inverse of n (mean-field scaling). By a suitable splitting of the Hamiltonian, we extract the next to leading order term in the ground state energy, beyond the mean-field limit. We show that this next order term, which characterizes the fluctuations of the system, is governed by a new "renormalized energy" functional providing a way to compute the total Coulomb energy of a jellium (i.e. an infinite set of point charges screened by a uniform neutralizing background), in any dimension. The renormalization that cuts out the infinite part of the energy is achieved by smearing out the point charges at a small scale, as in Onsager's lemma. We obtain consequences for the statistical mechanics of the Coulomb gas: next to leading order asymptotic expansion of the free energy or partition function, characterizations of the Gibbs measures, estimates on the local charge fluctuations and factorization estimates for reduced densities. This extends results of Sandier and Serfaty to dimension higher than two by an alternative approach.

N. Rougerie; S. Serfaty

2015-01-23

373

Physical activity and cognitive function in individuals over 60 years of age: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background It is unclear whether physical activity in later life is beneficial for maintenance of cognitive function. We performed a systematic review examining the effects of exercise on cognitive function in older individuals, and present possible mechanisms whereby physical activity may improve cognition. Methods Sources consisted of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and the University of Washington, School of Medicine Library Database, with a search conducted on August 15, 2012 for publications limited to the English language starting January 1, 2000. Randomized controlled trials including at least 30 participants and lasting at least 6 months, and all observational studies including a minimum of 100 participants for one year, were evaluated. All subjects included were at least 60 years of age. Results Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-six studies reported a positive correlation between physical activity and maintenance or enhancement of cognitive function. Five studies reported a dose-response relationship between physical activity and cognition. One study showed a nonsignificant correlation. Conclusion The preponderance of evidence suggests that physical activity is beneficial for cognitive function in the elderly. However, the majority of the evidence is of medium quality with a moderate risk of bias. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the association between exercise and cognitive function and to determine which types of exercise have the greatest benefit on specific cognitive domains. Despite these caveats, the current evidence suggests that physical activity may help to improve cognitive function and, consequently, delay the progression of cognitive impairment in the elderly. PMID:24748784

Carvalho, Ashley; Rea, Irene Maeve; Parimon, Tanyalak; Cusack, Barry J

2014-01-01

374

Passive heat exposure induced by hot water leg immersion increased oxyhemoglobin in pre-frontal cortex to preserve oxygenation and did not contribute to impaired cognitive functioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the effects of passive heat exposure on pre-frontal cortex oxygenation and cognitive functioning, specifically to examine whether the change in pre-frontal cortex oxygenation coincided with cognitive functioning during heat exposure. Eleven male students who participated in this study immersed their lower legs to the knees in three different water temperatures, 38 °C, 40 °C, and 42 °C water in an air temperature of 28 º C and 50 % relative humidity for 60 min. After 45 min of leg immersion they performed cognitive functioning tasks assessing their short-term memory while immersing their lower legs. There were higher rectal temperature ( P < 0.05) and higher increase of oxyhemoglobin in both left ( P < 0.05) and right ( P < 0.05) pre-frontal cortex at the final stage of 45-min leg immersion in the 42 °C condition with unaltered tissue oxygenation index among the three conditions ( P > 0.05). No statistical difference in cognitive functioning among the three conditions was observed with a higher increase of oxyhemoglobin during the cognitive functioning in the 42 °C condition for the left ( P = 0.05) and right ( P < 0.05) pre-frontal cortex. The findings of this study suggest, first, passive heat exposure increases oxygen delivery in the pre-frontal cortex to maintain pre-frontal cortex oxygenation; second, there is no evidence of passive heat exposure in cognitive functioning in this study; and third, the greater increases of oxyhemoglobin in the pre-frontal cortex during cognitive functioning at the hottest condition suggests a recruitment of available neural resources or greater effort to maintain the same performance at the same level as when they felt thermally comfortable.

Wijayanto, Titis; Toramoto, Sayo; Tochihara, Yutaka

2013-07-01

375

Effects of Higher-Order Cognitive Strategy Training on Gist-Reasoning and Fact-Learning in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Improving the reasoning skills of adolescents across the United States has become a major concern for educators and scientists who are dedicated to identifying evidence-based protocols to improve student outcome. This small sample randomized, control pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of higher-order cognitive training on gist-reasoning and fact-learning in an inner-city public middle school. The study compared gist-reasoning and fact-learning performances after training in a smaller sample when tested in Spanish, many of the students’ native language, versus English. The 54 eighth grade students who participated in this pilot study were enroled in an urban middle school, predominantly from lower socio-economic status families, and were primarily of minority descent. The students were randomized into one of three groups, one that learned cognitive strategies promoting abstraction of meaning, a group that learned rote memory strategies, or a control group to ascertain the impact of each program on gist-reasoning and fact-learning from text-based information. We found that the students who had cognitive strategy instruction that entailed abstraction of meaning significantly improved their gist-reasoning and fact-learning ability. The students who learned rote memory strategies significantly improved their fact-learning scores from a text but not gist-reasoning ability. The control group showed no significant change in either gist-reasoning or fact-learning ability. A trend toward significant improvement in overall reading scores for the group that learned to abstract meaning as well as a significant correlation between gist-reasoning ability and the critical thinking on a state-mandated standardized reading test was also found. There were no significant differences between English and Spanish performance of gist-reasoning and fact-learning. Our findings suggest that teaching higher-order cognitive strategies facilitates gist-reasoning ability and student learning. PMID:21833248

Gamino, Jacquelyn F.; Chapman, Sandra B.; Hull, Elizabeth L.; Lyon, G. Reid

2010-01-01

376

Cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive function in middle aged and elderly Lithuanian urban population: results from the HAPIEE study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to examine associations between cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive ability in middle aged and elderly Lithuanian urban population. Methods Data from the survey performed in the framework of the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe) study were presented. A random sample of 7,087 individuals aged 45–72 years was screened in 2006–2008. Results The scores of immediate recall and delayed verbal recall, cognitive speed and attention were significantly lower in men than in women; yet numerical ability scores were higher in men. Significant associations between lowered cognitive functions and previous stroke (in male OR?=?2.52; 95% CI?=?1.75-3.64; in female OR?=?2.45; 95% CI?=?1.75, 3.64) as well as ischemic heart disease history (among male OR?=?1.28; 95% CI?=?1.03-1.60) have been determined. Higher level of physical activity in leisure time (among female OR?=?1.32; 95% CI?=?1.03-1.69), poor self-rated health (among male OR?=?1.57; 95% CI?=?1.15-2.14) and poor quality of life (in male OR?=?1.67; 95% CI?=?1.07-2.61; in female OR?=?2.81; 95% CI?=?1.92-4.11) were related to lowered cognitive function. Conclusions The findings of the study suggest that associations between cardiovascular risk factors and lowered cognitive function among healthy middle-aged and elderly adults strongly depend on gender. PMID:23199035

2012-01-01

377

An epigenetic blockade of cognitive functions in the neurodegenerating brain  

E-print Network

Cognitive decline is a debilitating feature of most neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system, including Alzheimer’s disease [superscript 1]. The causes leading to such impairment are only poorly understood ...

Rei, Damien

378

Combined Cognitive-Psychological-Physical Intervention Induces Reorganization of Intrinsic Functional Brain Architecture in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults. The intervention was composed of a 6-week program of combined activities including cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling. The results showed improved cognitive performance and reorganized regional homogeneity of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, in the participants who attended the intervention. Intriguingly, the intervention-induced changes in the coherence of local spontaneous activity correlated with the improvements in individual cognitive performance. Taken together with our previous findings of enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe regions following a combined intervention program in older adults, we conclude that the functional plasticity of the aging brain is a rather complex process, and an effective cognitive-psychological-physical intervention is helpful for maintaining a healthy brain and comprehensive cognition during old age.

Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Wang, Baoxi; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Xin; Li, Rui; Li, Juan

2015-01-01

379

Combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention induces reorganization of intrinsic functional brain architecture in older adults.  

PubMed

Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults. The intervention was composed of a 6-week program of combined activities including cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling. The results showed improved cognitive performance and reorganized regional homogeneity of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, in the participants who attended the intervention. Intriguingly, the intervention-induced changes in the coherence of local spontaneous activity correlated with the improvements in individual cognitive performance. Taken together with our previous findings of enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe regions following a combined intervention program in older adults, we conclude that the functional plasticity of the aging brain is a rather complex process, and an effective cognitive-psychological-physical intervention is helpful for maintaining a healthy brain and comprehensive cognition during old age. PMID:25810927

Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Wang, Baoxi; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Xin; Li, Rui; Li, Juan

2015-01-01

380

Cognitive Performance in a Subclinical Obsessive-Compulsive Sample 1: Cognitive Functions  

PubMed Central

Individuals who are not clinically diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but still display obsessive-compulsive (OC) tendencies may show cognitive impairments. The present study investigated whether there are subgroups within a healthy group showing characteristic cognitive and emotional performance levels similar to those found in OCD patients and whether they differ from OCD subgroups regarding performance levels. Of interest are those cases showing subclinical symptomatology. The results revealed no impairments in the subclinical OC participants on the neuropsychological tasks, while evidence suggests that there exist high and low scores on two standardised clinical instruments (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Cognitive Assessment Instrument of Obsessions and Compulsions) in a healthy sample. OC symptoms may diminish the quality of life and prolong sustainable return to work. It may be that occupational rehabilitation programmes are more effective in rectifying subclinical OC tendencies compared to the often complex symptoms of diagnosed OCD patients. The relationship between cognitive style and subclinical OC symptoms is discussed in terms of how materials and information might be processed. Although subclinical OC tendencies would not seem to constitute a diagnosis of OCD, the quality of treatment programmes such as cognitive behavioural therapy can be improved based on the current investigation. PMID:24236282

Johansen, Thomas; Dittrich, Winand H.

2013-01-01

381

Cognitive performance in a subclinical obsessive-compulsive sample 1: cognitive functions.  

PubMed

Individuals who are not clinically diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but still display obsessive-compulsive (OC) tendencies may show cognitive impairments. The present study investigated whether there are subgroups within a healthy group showing characteristic cognitive and emotional performance levels similar to those found in OCD patients and whether they differ from OCD subgroups regarding performance levels. Of interest are those cases showing subclinical symptomatology. The results revealed no impairments in the subclinical OC participants on the neuropsychological tasks, while evidence suggests that there exist high and low scores on two standardised clinical instruments (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Cognitive Assessment Instrument of Obsessions and Compulsions) in a healthy sample. OC symptoms may diminish the quality of life and prolong sustainable return to work. It may be that occupational rehabilitation programmes are more effective in rectifying subclinical OC tendencies compared to the often complex symptoms of diagnosed OCD patients. The relationship between cognitive style and subclinical OC symptoms is discussed in terms of how materials and information might be processed. Although subclinical OC tendencies would not seem to constitute a diagnosis of OCD, the quality of treatment programmes such as cognitive behavioural therapy can be improved based on the current investigation. PMID:24236282

Johansen, Thomas; Dittrich, Winand H

2013-01-01

382

Mini-Mental State Examination, cognitive FIM instrument, and the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment: Relation to functional outcome of stroke patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zwecker M, Levenkrohn S, Fleisig Y, Zeilig G, Ohry A, Adunsky A. Mini-Mental State Examination, cognitive FIM instrument, and the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment: relation to functional outcome of stroke patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:342-5. Objectives: To compare 3 cognitive tests, used on admission, for predicting discharge functional outcome and to assess the efficacy of these tests in

Manuel Zwecker; Shalom Levenkrohn; Yudit Fleisig; Gabi Zeilig; Avi Ohry; Abraham Adunsky

2002-01-01

383

The Impact of Sustained Engagement on Cognitive Function in Older Adults: The Synapse Project  

PubMed Central

In the research reported here, we tested the hypothesis that sustained engagement in learning new skills that activated working memory, episodic memory, and reasoning over a period of 3 months would enhance cognitive function in older adults. In three conditions with high cognitive demands, participants learned to quilt, learned digital photography, or engaged in both activities for an average of 16.51 hr a week for 3 months. Results at posttest indicated that episodic memory was enhanced in these productive-engagement conditions relative to receptive-engagement conditions, in which participants either engaged in nonintellectual activities with a social group or performed low-demand cognitive tasks with no social contact. The findings suggest that sustained engagement in cognitively demanding, novel activities enhances memory function in older adulthood, but, somewhat surprisingly, we found limited cognitive benefits of sustained engagement in social activities. PMID:24214244

Park, Denise C.; Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Drew, Linda; Haber, Sara; Hebrank, Andrew; Bischof, Gérard N.; Aamodt, Whitley

2014-01-01

384

Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women  

PubMed Central

The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800?mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women. PMID:22235230

Saenghong, Naritsara; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tongun, Terdthai; Piyavhatkul, Nawanant; Banchonglikitkul, Chuleratana; Kajsongkram, Tanwarat

2012-01-01

385

[Cognitive Function and Calcium. Intake of calcium and dementia].  

PubMed

Calcium are related to several function in nervous system. Dysfunction of calcium metabolism has been suggested as a pathogenetic participation of the degenerative process. On the other hand, Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been considered a primary neurodegenerative disorder caused by amyloid deposition, although recent epidemiological studies have suggested the partial involvement of cardiovascular risk factors in AD development. Higher self-reported dietary intakes of calcium reduced the risk of all-cause dementia and vascular dementia but not of AD in the general Japanese population, the Hisayama study. A diet rich in calcium and so on may be recommended to lessen the future risk of dementia. PMID:25634044

Otsuka, Mieko

2015-01-01

386

Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy, Their Cognitive Functioning, and Social Participation: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

White matter lesions are often seen in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Evidence points to specific impairment of attentional, visuospatial, and executive functions; although both attention and executive functions are relatively unexplored in spastic CP. The few recent studies on language functions in mild or moderate CP point to well-functioning language. The presence of specific cognitive impairments may, in

Louise Bottcher

2010-01-01

387

Can Neuromotor Functioning Predict Stanford-Binet IQ Scores and Piagetian Cognitive Task Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies comparing neuromotor and mental functioning of normal and disabled populations have shown that lower cognitive functioning is significantly related to lower motor functioning for retarded or disabled children but not for normal children. In an effort to further examine the relationship between these two functions, a study was conducted of…

Tomes, Ruth; Heilbuth, Lynne

388

Early Post-Stroke Cognition in Stroke Rehabilitation Patients Predicts Functional Outcome at 13 Months  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify prognostic factors associated with functional outcome at 13 months in a sample of stroke rehabilitation patients. Specifically, we hypothesized that cognitive functioning early after stroke would predict long-term functional outcome independently of other factors. Methods: 163 stroke rehabilitation patients underwent a structured neuropsychological examination 2–3 weeks after hospital admittance, and their functional status was subsequently evaluated 13

Jørgen Wagle; Lasse Farner; Kjell Flekkøy; Torgeir Bruun Wyller; Leiv Sandvik; Brynjar Fure; Brynhild Stensrød; Knut Engedal

2011-01-01

389

Does Duloxetine Improve Cognitive Function Independently of Its Antidepressant Effect in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder and Subjective Reports of Cognitive Dysfunction?  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Cognitive deficits are commonly reported by patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Duloxetine, a dual serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, may improve cognitive deficits in MDD. It is unclear if cognitive improvements occur independently of antidepressant effects with standard antidepressant medications. Methods. Thirty participants with MDD who endorsed cognitive deficits at screening received 12-week duloxetine treatment. Twenty-one participants completed treatment and baseline and posttreatment cognitive testing. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery was used to assess the following cognitive domains: attention, visual memory, executive function/set shifting and working memory, executive function/spatial planning, decision making and response control, and verbal learning and memory. Results. Completers showed significant cognitive improvements across several domains on tasks assessing psychomotor function and mental processing speed, with additional improvements in visual and verbal learning and memory, and affective decision making and response control. Overall significance tests for executive function tasks were also significant, although individual tasks were not, perhaps due to the small sample size. Most notably, cognitive improvements were observed independently of symptom reduction on all domains except verbal learning and memory. Conclusions. Patients reporting baseline cognitive deficits achieved cognitive improvements with duloxetine treatment, most of which were independent of symptomatic improvement. This trial is registered with NCT00933439. PMID:24563781

Greer, Tracy L.; Sunderajan, Prabha; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Kurian, Benji T.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

2014-01-01

390

Association between binge eating disorder and changes in cognitive functioning following bariatric surgery.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that both obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) may be associated with deficits in cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine whether a lifetime history of BED would be associated with changes in several domains of cognitive functioning (attention, executive function, language, and memory) following bariatric surgery. Participants were 68 bariatric surgery patients who completed a computerized battery of cognitive tests within 30 days prior to undergoing surgery and again at a 12-Month postoperative follow-up. Results revealed that on the whole, participants displayed improvements from baseline to follow-up in attention, executive function, and memory, even after controlling for diagnostic history of depression; no changes were observed for language. However, individuals with and without a history of BED did not differ in changes in body mass index or in the degree of improvement in cognitive functioning from baseline to follow-up. Such results suggest that a history of BED does not influence changes in cognitive functioning following bariatric surgery. Future research will be needed to further clarify the role of BED in predicting cognitive function over time. PMID:25201638

Lavender, Jason M; Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Paul, Robert; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Gunstad, John

2014-12-01

391

ZINC AND OTHER MINERAL NUTRIENTS REQUIRED FOR COGNITIVE FUNCTION AND BEHAVIOR IN MILITARY PERSONNEL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This review examines the possible role of zinc, magnesium, selenium, copper and phosphorus in sustaining cognitive function and behavior of military personnel operating under multiple metabolic, physical, psychological and environmental stressors. There are no studies relating zinc intake or status ...

392

Blood DHEAS concentrations correlate with cognitive function in chronic schizophrenia patients: a pilot study.  

PubMed

There is evidence that neurosteroids such as DHEA and its sulfated form DHEAS can modulate cognitive function. We hypothesize that DHEA/S concentrations may be linked to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. The aim of this pilot study was to test this hypothesis by examining the relationship between blood levels of DHEAS and cognitive function. The performance of 26 stable medicated chronic schizophrenia patients in a range of neuropsychological domains including verbal memory (Wechsler Memory Scale), executive function (AIM), memory of faces (PFMT), memory for objects (VOLT) and identification of facial emotional expressions (PEAT) was assessed. Single morning blood samples were assayed for levels of DHEAS and cortisol. Significant associations were found between DHEAS levels and DHEAS/Cortisol ratio and verbal memory, executive function and memory for faces. The relationship was independent of the age related reduction in DHEAS levels. These preliminary results suggest that DHEAS may be associated with cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. PMID:16157159

Silver, Henry; Knoll, Gabriella; Isakov, Victoria; Goodman, Craig; Finkelstein, Yiftah

2005-11-01

393

Cognitive Functions, Personality Traits, and Social Values in Heavy Marihuana Smokers and Nonsmoker Controls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine the effect of chronic marihuana smoking on cognitive functions, personality traits, and social values, a group of heavy marihuana smokers was compared with a matched control group. (Author)

Weckowicz, Thaddeus E.; Janssen, Doug V.

1973-01-01

394

Association of cerebral white matter lesions with cognitive function and mood in Japanese elderly people: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background To determine the relationships between regional white matter lesions (WMLs), lifestyle factors, and cognitive, motor function and mood. Methods A comprehensive evaluation, including brain MRI, blood tests, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, the Mini Mental State Examination, and the Geriatric Depression Scale, was performed for people aged 65 years or older living in Ama-cho on October 1, 2009. Participants were classified by severity of periventricular hyperintensities (PVH) and deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMH) using the Fazekas score. Results Of 900 eligible participants, 688 (76.4%) were enrolled, including 303 men. Significant predictors of severe PVH were older age, lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, elevated blood pressure (BP), cerebral infarction, and no current alcohol use. Significant predictors of severe DWMH were older age, lower 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) levels, elevated BP, cerebral infarction, and no current alcohol use. Higher cognitive function was associated with younger age, female sex, mild DWMH, more years of education, and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Depressive symptoms were associated with lower 1,5-AG levels, lower LDL-C levels, moderate to severe PVH, and no current alcohol use. Conclusions White matter lesions in elderly people were related to hypertension and impaired glucose tolerance. The severity of WMLs was associated with cognitive function and mood. PMID:25798332

Yamawaki, Mika; Wada-Isoe, Kenji; Yamamoto, Mikie; Nakashita, Satoko; Uemura, Yusuke; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Nakayama, Takeo; Nakashima, Kenji

2015-01-01

395

Plastid Genomes of Higher Plants and Algae: Structure and Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data on the structure and gene composition in completely sequenced plastid (predominantly chloroplast) genomes of higher plants and algae are reviewed. In higher plants, genome structure and gene composition are highly conserved. Plastid genomes of algae are less conserved and contain several unique genes, which are not found in chloroplast DNAs of higher plants. Plastid genomes encode proteins involved

M. S. Odintsova; N. P. Yurina

2003-01-01

396

CRCC Technical Report #67 Scale-Degree Function: Cognition Research and Its Application to Aural-Skills Pedagogy  

E-print Network

CRCC Technical Report #67 Scale-Degree Function: Cognition Research and Its Application to Aural-Skills Pedagogy [CRCC Technical Report 1#67, revised Tuesday, November 3, 1992) Scale-Degree Function: Cognition in "creative microdomains". Developing an analogous model of music cognition suggests viewing "scale

Indiana University

397

Cognitive determinants of social functioning after a first-ever mild to moderate stroke at vocational age  

E-print Network

1 Cognitive determinants of social functioning after a first-ever mild to moderate stroke 31 E-Mail : Marc.Hommel@ujf-grenoble.fr Cover title: cognition and social functioning after stroke and depression and the Mini Mental State Evaluation, suggesting that cognitive deficits contribute to post-stroke

Boyer, Edmond

398

A Structural Analysis of Executive Functions and Socioeconomic Status in School-Age Children: Cognitive Factors as Effect Mediators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Socioeconomic status (SES) is a well-known predictor of cognitive achievement and executive functioning, although the underlying cognitive mediating processes remain unclear. The authors analyze the association between different socioeconomic indicators and the executive functions (EF) of schoolchildren and the possible cognitive mediating factors…

Aran-Filippetti, Vanessa; Richaud de Minzi, Maria Cristina

2012-01-01

399

Neurotrophins and cognitive functions in T1D compared with healthy controls: effects of a high-intensity exercise.  

PubMed

Exercise is known to have beneficial effects on cognitive function. This effect is greatly favored by an exercise-induced increase in neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), especially with high-intensity exercises (HIE). As a complication of type 1 diabetes (T1D), a cognitive decline may occur, mostly ascribed to hypoglycaemia and chronic hyperglycaemia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute HIE on cognitive function and neurotrophins in T1D and matched controls. Ten trained T1D (8 males, 2 females) participants and their matched (by age, sex, fitness level) controls were evaluated on 2 occasions after familiarization: a maximal test to exhaustion and an HIE bout (10 intervals of 60 s at 90% of their maximal wattage followed by 60 s at 50 W). Cognitive tests and analyses of serum BDNF, IGF-1, and free insulin were performed before and after HIE and following 30 min of recovery. At baseline, cognitive performance was better in the controls compared with the T1D participants (p < 0.05). After exercise, no significant differences in cognitive performance were detected. BDNF levels were significantly higher and IGF-1 levels were significantly lower in T1D compared with the control group (p < 0.05) at all time points. Exercise increased BDNF and IGF-1 levels in a comparable percentage in both groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, although resting levels of serum BDNF and IGF-1 were altered by T1D, comparable increasing effects on BDNF and IGF-1 in T1D and healthy participants were found. Therefore, regularly repeating acute HIE could be a promising strategy for brain health in T1D. PMID:25525862

Tonoli, Cajsa; Heyman, Elsa; Buyse, Luk; Roelands, Bart; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Bailey, Stephen; Pattyn, Nathalie; Berthoin, Serge; Meeusen, Romain

2015-01-01

400

The effect of serotonin 1A receptor polymorphism on the cognitive function of premenstrual dysphoric disorder.  

PubMed

Estrogen and serotonin play vital roles in the mechanism of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Cognitive deficit in the premenstrual phase contributes to impaired life function among women with PMDD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties in cognitive control and working memory (WM) in PMDD and to explore the effects of gonadotropic hormone and polymorphism of serotonin 1A receptor (HTR1A; rs6295) on cognitive deficit in PMDD. Women with PMDD completed diagnostic interviewing, questionnaire assessment, the Go/Nogo task, 2-back and 3-back tasks, and gonadotropic hormone analysis in the premenstrual and follicular phases. Further, they were followed up for two menstrual cycles to confirm two consecutive symptomatic cycles. A total of 59 subjects with PMDD and 74 controls completed all evaluation, fulfilled the criteria, and entered into the final analysis. The results demonstrated cognitive control and WM decline in the premenstrual among women with PMDD. The G/G genotype of HTR1A (rs6295) was found to be associated with impaired WM in the premenstrual phase and premenstrual decline of cognitive function. It also contributed to the vulnerability of cognitive function to the menstrual cycle effect and PMDD effect. As the G/G genotype of HTR1A (rs6295) involves in reducing serotonin neurotransmission, our results provide insight into the serotonin mechanism of cognitive function among women with PMDD. PMID:24158751

Yen, Ju-Yu; Tu, Hung-Pin; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Long, Cheng-Yu; Ko, Chih-Hung

2014-12-01

401

Neurocognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia and during the Early Phases of Psychosis: Targeting Cognitive Remediation Interventions  

PubMed Central

Recent interest in the early course of schizophrenia accentuated altered cognition prior to the onset. Ultrahigh risk (UHR) individuals with attenuated positive symptoms and transient psychotic episodes demonstrate neurocognitive deficits across multiple domains such as memory, executive functioning, and processing speed which are consistent with similar disturbances identified in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation (CR) approaches representing a broad set of activities are aimed to restore or improve cognitive functioning. CR proved to be effective in modulating the cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia but is rarely used in ultrahigh risk individuals. From the clinical prospective, a better understanding of cognitive functioning in at-risk states is essential for the development of optimal early intervention models. In the review, we highlight the intervention targets, notably the specific cognitive deficits in at risk individuals which preceed the transition to psychosis and emphasize the need of the additional studies using CR approaches in UHR group aiming to enhance cognition and therefore mediate functional improvement. PMID:24089689

Korsakova, Natalya; Agius, Mark

2013-01-01

402

Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Central Auditory Function in Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Central auditory function can be studied to monitor the progression of mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Our aim was to address this issue in a prospective longitudinal setting. Methods Tests of central hearing function were performed on 70 subjects with either Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment, and in controls with subjective memory complaints but normal cognition. The time span until follow-up was 1.5 years. Results The dichotic digit free recall test showed a significant decline in the AD group compared with the controls (left ear). Conclusion The short time span was long enough to disclose a central auditory processing decline in AD. PMID:24516414

Idrizbegovic, Esma; Hederstierna, Christina; Dahlquist, Martin; Rosenhall, Ulf

2013-01-01

403

Sleep-related cognitive function and the K-complex in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Sleep parameters have been reported to be related to cognitive function in a variety of ways. Problem solving and procedural learning were found to be improved after sleep but training also affected subsequent sleep and some parameters were related to cognitive trait variables, e.g. IQ. Additional to rapid-eye-movement (REM) and slow wave sleep (SWS), micro-architectural features such as spindle activity and K-complexes have recently been the focus of interest. The study aimed at investigating the relationship of neuropsychological variables, problem solving and procedural learning with sleep parameters in stably medicated schizophrenia patients. Twenty schizophrenia out-patients participated in the study. Learning and testing occurred over a randomly balanced waking and sleep interval. The tasks were the Tower of London (ToL) and mirror tracing. Sleep EEG was analysed together with spindle activity and K-complexes. Performance improved with regard to both tasks from learning to testing irrespective of type of interval. Increasing density of K-complexes was related to a higher number of solved ToL tasks pre and post night whereas longer SWS was related to faster completion of the ToL. A higher age was related to less overnight improvement in regard to number of solved ToL tasks. K-complexes are thought to indicate intra-cortical activity paving the way for the uptake of new information. As ToL is considered a test of executive function, K-complexes appear to be linked to this domain, deficits of which are thought to be a core feature of schizophrenia. PMID:22743003

Ramakrishnan, Muniarajan; Sartory, Gudrun; van Beekum, Anna; Lohrmann, Thomas; Pietrowsky, Reinhard

2012-10-01

404

An association between Helicobacter pylori infection and cognitive function in children at early school age: a community-based study  

PubMed Central

Background H. pylori infection has been linked to iron deficiency anemia, a risk factor of diminished cognitive development. The hypothesis on an association between H. pylori infection and cognitive function was examined in healthy children, independently of socioeconomic and nutritional factors. Methods A community-based study was conducted among 200 children aged 6-9 years, from different socioeconomic background. H. pylori infection was examined by an ELISA kit for detection of H. pylori antigen in stool samples. Cognitive function of the children was blindly assessed using Stanford-Benit test 5th edition, yielding IQ scores. Data on socioeconomic factors and nutritional covariates were collected through maternal interviews and from medical records. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to obtain adjusted beta coefficients. Results H. pylori infection was associated with lower IQ scores only in children from a relatively higher socioeconomic community; adjusted beta coefficient -6.1 (95% CI -11.4, -0.8) (P = 0.02) for full-scale IQ score, -6.0 (95% CI -11.1, -0.2) (P = 0.04) for non-verbal IQ score and -5.7 (95% CI -10.8, -0.6) (P = 0.02) for verbal IQ score, after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusions H. pylori infection might be negatively involved in cognitive development at early school age. Further studies in other populations with larger samples are needed to confirm this novel finding. PMID:21612616

2011-01-01

405

Predicting recovery of cognitive function soon after stroke: differential modeling of logarithmic and linear regression.  

PubMed

Cognitive disorders in the acute stage of stroke are common and are important independent predictors of adverse outcome in the long term. Despite the impact of cognitive disorders on both patients and their families, it is still difficult to predict the extent or duration of cognitive impairments. The objective of the present study was, therefore, to provide data on predicting the recovery of cognitive function soon after stroke by differential modeling with logarithmic and linear regression. This study included two rounds of data collection comprising 57 stroke patients enrolled in the first round for the purpose of identifying the time course of cognitive recovery in the early-phase group data, and 43 stroke patients in the second round for the purpose of ensuring that the correlation of the early-phase group data applied to the prediction of each individual's degree of cognitive recovery. In the first round, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were assessed 3 times during hospitalization, and the scores were regressed on the logarithm and linear of time. In the second round, calculations of MMSE scores were made for the first two scoring times after admission to tailor the structures of logarithmic and linear regression formulae to fit an individual's degree of functional recovery. The time course of early-phase recovery for cognitive functions resembled both logarithmic and linear functions. However, MMSE scores sampled at two baseline points based on logarithmic regression modeling could estimate prediction of cognitive recovery more accurately than could linear regression modeling (logarithmic modeling, R(2)?=?0.676, P<0.0001; linear regression modeling, R(2)?=?0.598, P<0.0001). Logarithmic modeling based on MMSE scores could accurately predict the recovery of cognitive function soon after the occurrence of stroke. This logarithmic modeling with mathematical procedures is simple enough to be adopted in daily clinical practice. PMID:23326439

Suzuki, Makoto; Sugimura, Yuko; Yamada, Sumio; Omori, Yoshitsugu; Miyamoto, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Jun-ichi

2013-01-01

406

Causes and Consequences of Cognitive Functioning Across the Life Course  

PubMed Central

Research on variation in cognitive abilities has focused largely on their genetic or experiential sources and on their economic consequences. This article takes a broader look at the consequences of cognitive ability—IQ—across the life course. Contrary to received wisdom, the effects of IQ on economic success are almost entirely mediated by educational attainment. Among persons with equal levels of schooling, IQ has little influence on job performance, occupational standing, earnings, or wealth. But there are other, sometimes surprising consequences of IQ throughout adult life. The long-term correlates of adolescent cognition include drinking behavior, survey participation, Internet use, and the timing of menopause. These are surveyed primarily using findings from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. PMID:22383855

Hauser, Robert M.

2012-01-01

407

Longitudinal changes in cognitive function and regional cerebral function in Alzheimer's disease: a SPECT blood flow study.  

PubMed

In Alzheimer's disease (AD), SPECT imagining of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) has emphasized deficits in the posterior association cortex. Previous studies have shown an association between these deficits and cognitive performance, both on overall cognitive tests and more specific tests such as praxis and language. Frontal deficits have been reported in more severe patients. This has led to the conclusion that the deficit in AD, at least with functional neuroimaging, starts in the posterior association cortex, and later in the disease process "spreads" to involve the frontal cortex. This study set out to measure, in a group of AD patients, the change over time of cognitive performance and the pattern of functional deficit measured by neuroimaging. Change in function was measured using 99TCm-HMPAO and SPECT and change in cognitive function using the CAMCOG. Two time points were used, 0 and 2 years. Twenty-four patients satisfying the DSM-III R criteria for probable AD were studied, nine of whom were subsequently diagnosed as having AD at post-mortem. The most striking finding was the effect that decreases in frontal lobe function had on cognitive function. A similar study by the same group, using the same techniques and many of the same patients but at only one time point, showed a correlation between cognitive function and rCBF in the parietal and posterior temporal lobes. This suggests that as AD patients deteriorate from unaffected to mild or moderately affected, the posterior association cortex exerts the greatest effect on cognitive deficit. In this longitudinal study, we found, using a MANOVA, that there were significant decreases over time for all the cortical regions studied, but that no region decreased significantly more than any other. In addition we found a correlation between change in frontal rCBF and change in cognitive function (both overall cognitive function and the CAMCOG sub tests of language and praxis). These data suggest, in contrast to the previous study, that as the disease progresses from mild or moderate to moderate or severe, the frontal cortex exerts the greatest effect on cognitive decline. These data support the concept of the deficit in functional imaging spreading from posterior to anterior as the disease progresses. However, both the initial pattern of deficit and the change over time were very heterogeneous when examined qualitatively. A posterior to anterior spread is the predominant pattern for the group as a whole, but individual patients, and possibly groups of patients, may well show alternative patterns. PMID:8816305

Brown, D R; Hunter, R; Wyper, D J; Patterson, J; Kelly, R C; Montaldi, D; McCullouch, J

1996-01-01

408

The catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) and cognitive function from childhood through adolescence  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) can influence cognitive function, and this effect may depend on developmental stage. Using a large representative British birth cohort, we investigated the effect of COMT on cognitive function (verbal and non-verbal) at ages 8 and 15 years taking into account the possible modifying effect of pubertal stage. Five functional COMT polymorphisms, rs6269, rs4818, rs4680, rs737865 and rs165599 were analysed. Associations between COMT polymorphisms and cognition were tested using regression and latent variable structural equation modelling (SEM). Before correction for multiple testing, COMT rs737865 showed association with reading comprehension, verbal ability and global cognition at age 15 years in pubescent boys only. Although there was some evidence for age- and sex-specific effects of the COMT rs737865 none remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Further studies are necessary in order to make firmer conclusions. PMID:23178897

Gaysina, Darya; Xu, Man K.; Barnett, Jennifer H.; Croudace, Tim J.; Wong, Andrew; Richards, Marcus; Jones, Peter B.

2013-01-01

409

Association between mental demands at work and cognitive functioning in the general population – results of the health study of the Leipzig research center for civilization diseases (LIFE)  

PubMed Central

Background The level of mental demands in the workplace is rising. The present study investigated whether and how mental demands at work are associated with cognitive functioning in the general population. Methods The analysis is based on data of the Health Study of the Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Disease (LIFE). 2,725 participants aged 40–80 years underwent cognitive testing (Trail-Making Test, Verbal Fluency Test) and provided information on their occupational situation. Participants over the age of 65 years additionally completed the Mini-Mental State Examination. Mental demands at work were rated by a standardized classification system (O*NET). The association between mental demands and cognitive functioning was analyzed using Generalized Linear Modeling (GENLIN) adjusted for age, gender, self-regulation, working hour status, education, and health-related factors. Results Univariate as well as multivariate analyses demonstrated significant and highly consistent effects of higher mental demands on better performance in cognitive testing. The results also indicated that the effects are independent of education and intelligence. Moreover, analyses of retired individuals implied a significant association between high mental demands at work of the job they once held and a better cognitive functioning in old age. Conclusions In sum, our findings suggest a significant association between high mental demands at work and better cognitive functioning. In this sense, higher levels of mental demands – as brought about by technological changes in the working environment – may also have beneficial effects for the society as they could increase cognitive capacity levels and might even delay cognitive decline in old age. PMID:24914403

2014-01-01

410

Evaluation of neuropsychological functions in patients with Friedreich ataxia before and after cognitive therapy.  

PubMed

Friedreich ataxia (FA) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive nervous system damage resulting in severe disability. Cognitive functions and mood disorders in FA have been studied little and with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive functions and mood disorders in FA subjects and the role of cognitive rehabilitation therapy (sequential treatments) performed during a scheduled study period. The executive functions of 24 subjects with FA were evaluated over one year during three separate periods of in-hos