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Sample records for higher cognitive functions

  1. Sex Differences in Cognitive Domains and Their Clinical Correlates in Higher-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Sven; Duketis, Eftichia; Poustka, Fritz; Holtmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Despite the skewed sex ratio, few studies have addressed possible cognitive sex differences in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study compared visual attention to detail (ATTD) and selected executive functions (EF) in 35 males and 21 females with higher-functioning ASD and unaffected sibling controls. Females with ASD outperformed males on…

  2. Long term effects of recreational SCUBA diving on higher cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Hemelryck, W; Germonpré, P; Papadopoulou, V; Rozloznik, M; Balestra, C

    2014-12-01

    We investigated long-term effects of SCUBA diving on cognitive function using a battery of neuropsychometric tests: the Simple Reaction Time (REA), Symbol Digit Substitution (SDS), Digit Span Backwards (DSB), and Hand-Eye Coordination tests (EYE). A group (n?=?44) of experienced SCUBA divers with no history of decompression sickness was compared to non-diving control subjects (n?=?37), as well as to professional boxers (n?=?24), who are considered at higher risk of long term neurological damage. The REA was significantly shorter in SCUBA divers compared to the control subjects, and also more stable over the time course of the test. In contrast, the number of digits correctly memorized and reordered (DSB) was significantly lower for SCUBA divers compared to the control group. The results also showed that boxers performed significantly worse than the control group in three out of four tests (REA, DSB, EYE). While it may be concluded that accident-free SCUBA diving may have some long-term adverse effects on short-term memory, there is however, no evidence of general higher cognitive function deficiency. PMID:23902533

  3. Higher HDL cholesterol is associated with better cognitive function: the Maine-Syracuse study.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Davey, Adam; Sullivan, Kevin J; Robbins, Michael A

    2014-11-01

    Few studies have examined associations between different subcategories of cholesterol and cognitive function. We examined relationships between total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), triglyceride levels and cognitive performance in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study, a community-based study of cardiovascular risk factors. Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on data from 540 participants, aged 60 to 98 years, free of dementia and stroke. TC, HDL, LDL, and triglyceride levels were obtained. Cognitive function was assessed using a thorough neuropsychological test battery, including domains of cognitive function indexed by multiple cognitive tests. The cognitive outcomes studied were as follows: Visual-Spatial Memory and Organization, Verbal and Working Memory, Scanning and Tracking, Abstract Reasoning, a Global Composite score, and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Significant positive associations were observed between HDL-cholesterol and the Global Composite score, Working Memory, and the MMSE after adjustment for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Participants with desirable levels of HDL (?60 mg/dL) had the highest scores on all cognitive outcomes. There were no significant associations observed between TC, LDL, or triglyceride concentrations and cognition. In older individuals, HDL-cholesterol was related to a composite of Working Memory tests and for general measures of cognitive ability when adjusted for cardiovascular variables. We speculate that persons over 60 are survivors and thus less likely to show cognitive deficit in relation to TC, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine relations between specific cognitive abilities and the different subcategories of cholesterol. PMID:25382185

  4. ST3GAL3 Mutations Impair the Development of Higher Cognitive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hao; Eggers, Katinka; Chen, Wei; Garshasbi, Masoud; Motazacker, M. Mahdi; Wrogemann, Klaus; Kahrizi, Kimia; Tzschach, Andreas; Hosseini, Masoumeh; Bahman, Ideh; Hucho, Tim; Mühlenhoff, Martina; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Najmabadi, Hossein; Ropers, H. Hilger; Kuss, Andreas W.

    2011-01-01

    The genetic variants leading to impairment of intellectual performance are highly diverse and are still poorly understood. ST3GAL3 encodes the Golgi enzyme ?-galactoside-?2,3-sialyltransferase-III that in humans predominantly forms the sialyl Lewis a epitope on proteins. ST3GAL3 resides on chromosome 1 within the MRT4 locus previously identified to associate with nonsyndromic autosomal recessive intellectual disability. We searched for the disease-causing mutations in the MRT4 family and a second independent consanguineous Iranian family by using a combination of chromosome sorting and next-generation sequencing. Two different missense changes in ST3GAL3 cosegregate with the disease but were absent in more than 1000 control chromosomes. In cellular and biochemical test systems, these mutations were shown to cause ER retention of the Golgi enzyme and drastically impair ST3Gal-III functionality. Our data provide conclusive evidence that glycotopes formed by ST3Gal-III are prerequisite for attaining and/or maintaining higher cognitive functions. PMID:21907012

  5. ST3GAL3 mutations impair the development of higher cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hao; Eggers, Katinka; Chen, Wei; Garshasbi, Masoud; Motazacker, M Mahdi; Wrogemann, Klaus; Kahrizi, Kimia; Tzschach, Andreas; Hosseini, Masoumeh; Bahman, Ideh; Hucho, Tim; Mühlenhoff, Martina; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Najmabadi, Hossein; Ropers, H Hilger; Kuss, Andreas W

    2011-09-01

    The genetic variants leading to impairment of intellectual performance are highly diverse and are still poorly understood. ST3GAL3 encodes the Golgi enzyme ?-galactoside-?2,3-sialyltransferase-III that in humans predominantly forms the sialyl Lewis a epitope on proteins. ST3GAL3 resides on chromosome 1 within the MRT4 locus previously identified to associate with nonsyndromic autosomal recessive intellectual disability. We searched for the disease-causing mutations in the MRT4 family and a second independent consanguineous Iranian family by using a combination of chromosome sorting and next-generation sequencing. Two different missense changes in ST3GAL3 cosegregate with the disease but were absent in more than 1000 control chromosomes. In cellular and biochemical test systems, these mutations were shown to cause ER retention of the Golgi enzyme and drastically impair ST3Gal-III functionality. Our data provide conclusive evidence that glycotopes formed by ST3Gal-III are prerequisite for attaining and/or maintaining higher cognitive functions. PMID:21907012

  6. Cognitive control forms a foundation for higher cog-nitive functions such as attention, memory retrieval, and

    E-print Network

    affected both behavioral performance and neural activity during the emotional task. Relative to low-anxiety and neural mechanisms of cognitive control are well characterized, a growing body of literature regarding anxiety MARIE K. KRUG AND CAMERON S. CARTER University of California, Davis, California Studies

  7. Cancer and Cognitive Functioning

    E-print Network

    Brent, Roger

    Outcome in Cancer Focus on Survival time Time to disease progress Remission Cure Side effectsCancer and Cognitive Functioning Myron Goldberg, PhD, ABPP-CN Clinical Neuropsychologist Department of Rehabilitation Medicine University of Washington Medical Center #12;Cognitive Functioning after Cancer Location

  8. [Cognitive impairment and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Project CASCADE Kraków. V. Disorders of higher cerebral functions in elderly people (65-78 years old)].

    PubMed

    Szczudlik, A; S?owik, A; Turaj, W; Or?owiejska-Gillert, M; Motyl, R; Topór-Madry, R; Pajak, A

    1998-01-01

    Higher cortical dysfunctions, like dysphasia, dysgnosia and dyspraxia, relatively frequent in the elderly, are related to progressive neurodegenerative or vascular disorders with dementia. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and the intensity of higher cerebral dysfunctions in the population over 65 years and to investigate the association between these disorders and the presence of other neurological abnormalities, i.e. extrapyramidal signs, primitive reflexes as well as cognitive impairment assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). There were 92 women and 90 men, aged from 65-78 years included in the study. All patients were interviewed for the presence of vascular risk factors. The battery of 21 detailed test of higher cerebral functions testing speech, calculation, reading, writing, praxia and gnosia were performed in each person. Extra-pyramidal signs and primitive reflexes were also examined. Among the disorders of higher cortical functions, slight dyspraxia was the most frequent (33.7%). Finger dysgnosia, dyscalculia and dysgraphia were found less frequently. 25.4% of studied group abnormally performed at least two tests assessing higher cortical functions and when compared with normal persons, they presented significantly more frequent the extrapyramidal signs (63.9% vs. 46.9%, respectively) and had significantly frequent impaired cognitive functions (p < 0.05). Patients with higher cortical dysfunction, when compared with other persons, had more frequent primitive reflexes (p < 0.05). The results of the study showed that slight disorders of higher cortical functions were found in about 25% of studied population; they were more frequent in people with cognitive impairment, primitive reflexes and extrapyramidal signs. PMID:10354725

  9. The hierarchical and functional connectivity of higher-order cognitive mechanisms: neurorobotic model to investigate the stability and flexibility of working memory

    PubMed Central

    Alnajjar, Fady; Yamashita, Yuichi; Tani, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Higher-order cognitive mechanisms (HOCM), such as planning, cognitive branching, switching, etc., are known to be the outcomes of a unique neural organizations and dynamics between various regions of the frontal lobe. Although some recent anatomical and neuroimaging studies have shed light on the architecture underlying the formation of such mechanisms, the neural dynamics and the pathways in and between the frontal lobe to form and/or to tune the stability level of its working memory remain controversial. A model to clarify this aspect is therefore required. In this study, we propose a simple neurocomputational model that suggests the basic concept of how HOCM, including the cognitive branching and switching in particular, may mechanistically emerge from time-based neural interactions. The proposed model is constructed such that its functional and structural hierarchy mimics, to a certain degree, the biological hierarchy that is believed to exist between local regions in the frontal lobe. Thus, the hierarchy is attained not only by the force of the layout architecture of the neural connections but also through distinct types of neurons, each with different time properties. To validate the model, cognitive branching and switching tasks were simulated in a physical humanoid robot driven by the model. Results reveal that separation between the lower and the higher-level neurons in such a model is an essential factor to form an appropriate working memory to handle cognitive branching and switching. The analyses of the obtained result also illustrates that the breadth of this separation is important to determine the characteristics of the resulting memory, either static memory or dynamic memory. This work can be considered as a joint research between synthetic and empirical studies, which can open an alternative research area for better understanding of brain mechanisms. PMID:23423881

  10. Meditation in Higher Education: Does It Enhance Cognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helber, Casey; Zook, Nancy A.; Immergut, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We predicted that students in a sociology course that included contemplative practices (i.e., mindfulness meditation) would show an increase in performance on higher level cognitive abilities (executive functions) over the semester compared to a control group of students. Change in executive functions performance was not significantly different…

  11. Improving cognitive function.

    PubMed

    2015-12-16

    Essential facts Age-related decline in mental ability varies from person to person. Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have subtle but detectable problems with memory, but are able to function normally in everyday life. MCI affects between 5% and 20% of the UK population aged over 65 - or between half a million and two million people - according to research commissioned by Age UK. Although MCI increases the risk of dementia, with one in six people going on to develop it, many people remain stable and others improve, especially if it is caused by a treatable condition. PMID:26669382

  12. Cognitive function in subclinical hypothyroidism in elderly

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Sarita; Sachan, Shivam; Misra, Vatsala; Varma, Anurag; Saxena, Piyush

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To study the association of cognitive function with subclinical hypothyroidism in elderly. Materials and Methods: It's a cross-sectional, case-control study of 103 patients (?65 years) who met the criteria for subclinical hypothyroidism. Similarly 103 age, sex and education-matched healthy controls were taken. Serum TSH, free T3 and free T4 were measured. Cognitive functions were assessed by using Folstein Mini Mental Examination (MMSE) and clock drawing test. Results: Out of the 103 diagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism cases, cognitive impairment (by MMSE) was found in 33 (30.9%) while it was present in only 15 (14.54%) out of 103 controls (P = 0.003), cognitive impairment (by CDT) was present in 32 patients (31.06%) out of 103 cases while it was present in 26 patients (25.24%) out of 103 controls (P > 0.05, insignificant). Mean TSH of subclinical hypothyroidism with cognitive impairment was 7.67 ± 1.22 mIU/liter and without cognitive impairment was 6.47 ± 0.98 mIU/liter (P value = 0.0001, significant) Conclusions: Prevalence of cognitive impairment was significantly higher in subclinical hypothyroidism as compared to controls. Presence of cognitive impairment correlated with the level of TSH; as TSH increased cognitive function declined. PMID:25364675

  13. Cognitive function and overweight in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Guxens, Mònica; Mendez, Michelle A; Julvez, Jordi; Plana, Estel; Forns, Joan; Basagaña, Xavier; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi

    2009-08-15

    The authors assessed the association between cognitive function and incidence and maintenance of overweight in preschool children. A population-based birth cohort was established in Menorca, Spain, between 1997 and 1999 (n = 482). Body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) was measured at ages 4 years and 6 years (n = 421). At age 4 years, children were assessed for cognitive function (McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities) (n = 395). After multivariable adjustment for a wide range of factors, including maternal education and body mass index, children with higher general cognition at age 4 years had a lower likelihood of being overweight (odds ratio = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25, 0.88) at age 6 years. Children with higher general cognition at age 4 years had a lower likelihood of maintaining an unhealthy weight status (being at risk of overweight or overweight) between ages 4 years and 6 years, as well as worsening weight status over time, than children who maintained a healthy weight (odds ratios were 0.78 (95% CI: 0.54, 1.14) and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.51, 1.14), respectively). When specific dimensions of cognitive function were assessed, associations were mainly found for verbal and executive function areas. Children with higher cognitive function in early life might be at decreased risk of overweight later in childhood. PMID:19546150

  14. What Is Meant by "Higher-Order Cognitive Skills."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipman, Susan F.

    This paper discusses higher-order cognitive skills, provides examples of appropriate test item content in various subject areas, and describes higher-level cognitive skills which might be tested by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Higher-order cognitive skills are said to be more difficult to measure than simpler skills;…

  15. HOMOCYSTEINE AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevention and treatment of age-related cognitive impairment and dementia is one of the greatest and most elusive challenges of our time. The prevalence of dementia increases exponentially with age, as does the prevalence of those with micronutrient deficiency. Several studies have shown that el...

  16. Cognitive Control and Attentional Functions

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, Melissa-Ann; Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Fan, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control is essential to flexible, goal-directed behavior under uncertainty, yet its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Because attentional functions are known to allocate mental resources and prioritize the information to be processed by the brain, we propose that the attentional functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control and the interactions among them contribute to cognitive control in the service of uncertainty reduction. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between cognitive control and attentional functions. We used the Majority Function Task (MFT) to manipulate uncertainty in order to evoke cognitive control along with the Revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R) to measure the efficiency and the interactions of attentional functions. A backwards, stepwise regression model revealed that performance on the MFT could be significantly predicted by attentional functions and their interactions as measured by the ANT-R. These results provide preliminary support for our theory that the attentional functions may be involved in the implementation of cognitive control as required to reduce uncertainty, though further investigation is needed. PMID:23792472

  17. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups. PMID:25419131

  18. Higher maternal plasma folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy are associated with better cognitive function scores in 9-10 year old children in South-India1-3

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Muthayya, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Fall, Caroline HD

    2012-01-01

    Folate and vitamin B-12 (B-12) are essential for normal brain development. Few studies have examined the relationship of maternal folate and B-12 status during pregnancy to offspring cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that lower maternal plasma folate and B-12 concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy, are associated with poorer neurodevelopment, cognitive function was assessed during 2007-2008 among 536 children (aged 9-10 y) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort. Maternal folate, B-12 and homocysteine concentrations were measured in stored plasma samples taken at 30±2 wk gestation. The children’s cognitive function was measured using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery and additional tests measuring learning ability, long-term storage/retrieval, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. During pregnancy 4% of mothers had low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/L), 42.5% had low B-12 concentrations (<150 pmol/L) and 3% had hyperhomocysteinemia (>10 ?mol/L). There was a 0.1-0.2 SD increase in the children’s cognitive scores per SD increase in maternal folate concentration (p<0.001 for all tests). The associations with learning ability and long-term storage/retrieval, visuo-spatial ability, attention and concentration were independent of maternal age, BMI, parity, the parents’ education, socio-economic status, rural/urban residence, religion, the child’s gestational age, birth size, sex and the children’s size, educational level and folate and B-12 concentrations at 9.5 y. There were no consistent associations of maternal B-12 and homocysteine concentrations with childhood cognitive performance. Conclusions In this Indian population higher maternal folate, but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy, predicted better childhood cognitive ability. PMID:20335637

  19. Infectious burden and cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Yeseon Park; Paik, Myunghee Cho; Sacco, Ralph L.; Wright, Clinton B.; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that infectious burden (IB), a composite serologic measure of exposure to common pathogens (i.e., Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus 1 and 2) associated with vascular risk in the prospective Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS), would also be associated with cognition. Methods: Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at enrollment and the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) at annual follow-up visits. Adjusted linear and logistic regressions were used to measure the association between IB index and MMSE. Generalized estimating equation models were used to evaluate associations with TICS-m and its change over time. Results: Serologies and cognitive assessments were available in 1,625 participants of the NOMAS cohort. In unadjusted analyses, higher IB index was associated with worse cognition (change per standard deviation [SD] of IB for MMSE was ?0.77, p < 0.0001, and for first measurements of TICS-m was ?1.89, p < 0.0001). These effects were attenuated after adjusting for risk factors (for MMSE adjusted change per SD of IB = ?0.17, p = 0.06, for TICS-m adjusted change per SD IB = ?0.68, p < 0.0001). IB was associated with MMSE ?24 (compared to MMSE >24, adjusted odds ratio 1.26 per SD of IB, 95% confidence interval 1.06–1.51). IB was not associated with cognitive decline over time. The results were similar when IB was limited to viral serologies only. Conclusion: A measure of IB associated with stroke risk and atherosclerosis was independently associated with cognitive performance in this multiethnic cohort. Past infections may contribute to cognitive impairment. PMID:23530151

  20. Placebo Sleep Affects Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether…

  1. Exercise, Cognitive Function, and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jill N.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the lifespan of a population is often a marker of a country's success. With the percentage of the population over 65 yr of age expanding, managing the health and independence of this population is an ongoing concern. Advancing age is associated with a decrease in cognitive function that ultimately affects quality of life. Understanding…

  2. Higher maternal plasma folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy are associated with better cognitive function scores in 9- to 10- year-old children in South India.

    PubMed

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Muthayya, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Fall, Caroline H D

    2010-05-01

    Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential for normal brain development. Few studies have examined the relationship of maternal folate and vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy and offspring cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that lower maternal plasma folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy are associated with poorer neurodevelopment, 536 children (aged 9-10 y) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort underwent cognitive function assessment during 2007-2008 using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery, and additional tests measuring learning, long-term storage/retrieval, attention and concentration, and visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. Maternal folate, vitamin B-12, and homocysteine concentrations were measured at 30 +/- 2 wk gestation. During pregnancy, 4% of mothers had low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/L), 42.5% had low vitamin B-12 concentrations (<150 pmol/L), and 3% had hyperhomocysteinemia (>10 micromol/L). The children's cognitive test scores increased by 0.1-0.2 SD per SD increase across the entire range of maternal folate concentrations (P < 0.001 for all), with no apparent associations at the deficiency level. The associations with learning, long-term storage/retrieval, visuo-spatial ability, attention, and concentration were independent of the parents' education, socioeconomic status, religion, and the child's sex, age, current size, and folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations. There were no consistent associations of maternal vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations with childhood cognitive performance. In this Indian population, higher maternal folate, but not vitamin B-12, concentrations during pregnancy predicted better childhood cognitive ability. It also suggests that, in terms of neurodevelopment, the concentration used to define folate deficiency may be set too low. PMID:20335637

  3. Functional Status of Thyroid and Cognitive Functions after Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Bojar, Iwona; Owoc, Alfred; Gujski, Mariusz; Witczak, Mariusz; Gnatowski, Maciej; Walecka, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Background Thyroid activity plays a role in cognition. However, the relation between the functional state of thyroid and neuropsychiatric changes proceeding with age among people without clinical symptoms of thyroid dysfunction is still unknown. The aim of this study was analysis of cognitive function levels in reference to thyroid examination: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxin (TT4), triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPO-AB), and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-AB), TSH receptor antibodies (AB-TSHR) in women after menopause. Material/Methods A group of 383 women was recruited for the study. The inclusion criteria were: minimum two years after the last menstruation and no dementia signs on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Computerized battery of Central Nervous System Vital Signs (CNS VS) test was used to diagnostic cognitive functions. The blood plasma values were determined: TSH, FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, TPO-AB, Tg-AB, and AB-TSHR. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and analysis of variance in STATISTICA software. Results In women after menopause, TSH was negatively correlated with NCI results, executive functions, complex attention, and cognitive flexibility. FT4 was positively correlated with results of psychomotor speed. TT3 and TT4 were negatively correlated with results of memory and verbal memory. Furthermore, TT4 was negatively correlated with NCI, executive functions, and cognitive flexibility. TPO-AB was negatively correlated with results of memory, verbal memory, and psychomotor speed. Tg-AB was positively correlated with results of reaction time. AB-TSHR was negatively correlated with NCI results, memory, executive functions, psychomotor speed, complex attention, and cognitive flexibility. Conclusions Our study supports the importance of thyroid functionality in cognitive functioning in a group of women after menopause. The values of TSH, TT3, TT4, TPO-AB, and AB-TSHR were higher and FT4 was lower in examined women. The results were poorer in examination of cognitive functions measured with a battery of CNS-VS tests. PMID:26042394

  4. On higher spin partition functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccaria, Matteo; Tseytlin, Arkady A.

    2015-07-01

    We observe that the partition function of the set of all free massless higher spins s = 0, 1, 2, 3,... in flat space is equal to one: the ghost determinants cancel against the ‘physical’ ones or, equivalently, the (regularized) total number of degrees of freedom vanishes. This reflects large underlying gauge symmetry and suggests analogy with supersymmetric or topological theory. The Z = 1 property extends also to the AdS background, i.e. the 1-loop vacuum partition function of Vasiliev theory is equal to 1 (assuming a particular regularization of the sum over spins); this was noticed earlier as a consistency requirement for the vectorial AdS/CFT duality. We find that Z = 1 is true also in the conformal higher spin theory (with higher-derivative {\\partial }2s kinetic terms) expanded near flat or conformally flat S4 background. We also consider the partition function of free conformal theory of symmetric traceless rank s tensor field which has 2-derivative kinetic term but only scalar gauge invariance in flat 4d space. This non-unitary theory has Weyl-invariant action in curved background and it corresponds to ‘partially massless’ field in AdS5. We discuss in detail the special case of s = 2 (or ‘conformal graviton’), compute the corresponding conformal anomaly coefficients and compare them with previously found expressions for generic representations of conformal group in 4 dimensions.

  5. On higher spin partition functions

    E-print Network

    M. Beccaria; A. A. Tseytlin

    2015-06-05

    We observe that the partition function of the set of all free massless higher spins s=0,1,2,3,... in flat space is equal to one: the ghost determinants cancel against the "physical" ones or, equivalently, the (regularized) total number of degrees of freedom vanishes. This reflects large underlying gauge symmetry and suggests analogy with supersymmetric or topological theory. The Z=1 property extends also to the AdS background, i.e. the 1-loop vacuum partition function of Vasiliev theory is equal to 1 (assuming a particular regularization of the sum over spins); this was noticed earlier as a consistency requirement for the vectorial AdS/CFT duality. We find that Z=1 is also true in the conformal higher spin theory (with higher-derivative d^{2s} kinetic terms) expanded near flat or conformally flat S^4 background. We also consider the partition function of free conformal theory of symmetric traceless rank s tensor field which has 2-derivative kinetic term but only scalar gauge invariance in flat 4d space. This non-unitary theory has a Weyl-invariant action in curved background and corresponds to "partially massless" field in AdS_5. We discuss in detail the special case of s=2 (or "conformal graviton"), compute the corresponding conformal anomaly coefficients and compare them with previously found expressions for generic representations of conformal group in 4 dimensions.

  6. The Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience of Functional Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental cognitive neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that examines the relationships between biological development and cognitive ability. In the past decade, there has been ongoing refinement of concepts and methodology related to the study of "functional connectivity" among distributed brain regions believed to underlie cognition and…

  7. Mental Work Demands, Retirement, and Longitudinal Trajectories of Cognitive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Gwenith G.; Stachowski, Alicia; Infurna, Frank J.; Faul, Jessica D.; Grosch, James; Tetrick, Lois E.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes in cognitive abilities are well-documented, and a very important indicator of health, functioning, and decline in later life. However, less is known about the course of cognitive functioning before and after retirement and specifically whether job characteristics during one's time of employment (i.e., higher vs. lower levels of mental work demands) moderate how cognition changes both before and after the transition to retirement. We used data from n = 4,182 (50% women) individuals in the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative panel study in the United States, across an 18 year time span (1992–2010). Data were linked to the O'NET occupation codes to gather information about mental job demands to examine whether job characteristics during one's time of employment moderates level and rate of change in cognitive functioning (episodic memory and mental status) both before and after retirement. Results indicated that working in an occupation characterized by higher levels of mental demands was associated with higher levels of cognitive functioning before retirement, and a slower rate of cognitive decline after retirement. We controlled for a number of important covariates, including socioeconomic (education and income), demographic, and health variables. Our discussion focuses on pathways through which job characteristics may be associated with the course of cognitive functioning in relation to the important transition of retirement. Implications for job design as well as retirement are offered. PMID:24635733

  8. Computer-assisted cognitive remediation in patients with schizophrenia : effects on symptoms, cognition and psychosocial functioning 

    E-print Network

    MacLeod, Joanne Louise

    2013-07-02

    Background: Cognitive remediation is a behavioural intervention that aims to improve cognitive functioning with the goal of durability and generalisation. Although evidence suggests that computer-assisted cognitive ...

  9. Strategic Learning in Youth with Traumatic Brain Injury: Evidence for Stall in Higher-Order Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamino, Jacquelyn F.; Chapman, Sandra B.; Cook, Lori G.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about strategic learning ability in preteens and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Strategic learning is the ability to combine and synthesize details to form abstracted gist-based meanings, a higher-order cognitive skill associated with frontal lobe functions and higher classroom performance. Summarization tasks were…

  10. A single dose of oxytocin nasal spray improves higher-order social cognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Guastella, Adam J; Ward, Philip B; Hickie, Ian B; Shahrestani, Sara; Hodge, Marie Antoinette Redoblado; Scott, Elizabeth M; Langdon, Robyn

    2015-11-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in both higher and lower order social cognitive performance and these impairments contribute to poor social functioning. People with schizophrenia report poor social functioning to be one of their greatest unmet treatment needs. Recent studies have suggested the potential of oxytocin as such a treatment, but mixed results render it uncertain what aspects of social cognition are improved by oxytocin and, subsequently, how oxytocin might best be applied as a therapeutic. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single dose of oxytocin improved higher-order and lower-order social cognition performance for patients with schizophrenia across a well-established battery of social cognition tests. Twenty-one male patients received both a single dose of oxytocin nasal spray (24IU) and a placebo, two weeks apart in a randomized within-subjects placebo controlled design. Following each administration, participants completed the social cognition tasks, as well as a test of general neurocognition. Results revealed that oxytocin particularly enhanced performance on higher order social cognition tasks, with no effects on general neurocognition. Results for individual tasks showed most improvement on tests measuring appreciation of indirect hints and recognition of social faux pas. These results suggest that oxytocin, if combined to enhance social cognition learning, may be beneficial when targeted at higher order social cognition domains. This study also suggests that these higher order tasks, which assess social cognitive processing in a social communication context, may provide useful markers of response to oxytocin in schizophrenia. PMID:26150070

  11. Personality Predicts Cognitive Function Over Seven Years in Older Persons

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Benjamin; Duberstein, Paul; Tindle, Hilary A; Sink, Kaycee M; Robbins, John; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Franks, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether Neuroticism, as well as the less-studied dimensions the Five Factor Model of personality (Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) were associated with 7-year trajectories of cognitive functioning in older persons. Design Primary analysis of existing clinical trial data. Participants 602 persons of average age 79 at baseline. Measurements The NEO-Five Factor Inventory of personality, completed at baseline, and the modified Mini Mental Status Exam (3MSE) measured every 6 months for 7 years. Results Controlling for demographics, baseline morbidities including depression, health behaviors, Apolipoprotein E4 genotype, and self-rated health, higher Neuroticism was associated with worse average cognitive functioning and a steeper rate of decline over follow-up. Higher Extraversion and lower Openness were both associated with worse average cognitive functioning prospectively, while persons higher in Conscientiousness showed a slower rate of cognitive decline. Conclusions In addition to Neuroticism, other dispositional tendencies appear prognostically relevant for cognitive functioning in older persons. More work is needed to understand the mechanisms by which traits operate, as well as whether mitigation of certain dispositional tendencies can facilitate a better course of cognitive function. PMID:22735597

  12. [Assessment of cognitive functions in internal medicine].

    PubMed

    Capron, J

    2015-12-01

    The evaluation of cognitive functions can be performed using two approaches: a quantitative one, based on screening tools; a qualitative one, based on the examination of specific cognitive functions. The quantitative approach offers a pragmatic process: to screen rapidly for a cognitive dysfunction that may require assistance or treatments. We will present three screening tools and their diagnostic value: the clock test, the Mini Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. They help select patients who require a more detailed examination to precisely diagnose their cognitive dysfunction. We propose a way to perform a detailed cognitive examination at the bedside, including the examination of alertness, attention, memory, language, frontal functions, praxis and hemi-neglect. This simple examination indicates the location of the cerebral lesion and sometimes suggests the underlying disease. PMID:26346265

  13. Cognitive Functions and Depression in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Farup, Per G.; Hestad, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Background. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with depression and depression with impaired cognitive functions. The primary aim was to study associations between depression and cognitive functions in patients with IBS. Methods. IBS (according to the Rome III criteria), cognitive functions (evaluated with a set of neuropsychological tests), and depression (measured with Beck Depression Inventory II and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Scale) were analysed in patients with idiopathic depression and in patients with unspecified neurological symptoms. Results. 18 and 48 patients with a mean age of 47 and 45 years were included in the “Depression” and “Neurological” group, respectively. In the “Depression” group, the degree of depression was significantly higher in patients with IBS than in those without. Depression was associated with impaired cognitive function in 6 out of 17 neuropsychological tests indicating reduced set shifting, verbal fluency, attention, and psychomotor speed. IBS was statistically significantly associated with depression but not with any of the tests for cognitive functions. Conclusions. IBS was associated with depression but not with impaired cognitive functions. Since the idiopathic depression was associated with cognitive deficits, the findings could indicate that the depression in patients with IBS differs from an idiopathic depression. PMID:26089869

  14. Carotid Atherosclerosis and 10-year Changes in Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wenjun; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Acher, Charles W; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Klein, Barbara EK; Klein, Ronald; Chappell, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Background Carotid atherosclerosis has been suggested to be involved in cognitive decline. Methods The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study is a longitudinal study of aging among Beaver Dam residents, WI. In 1998–2000, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque were measured by ultrasound; cognitive function was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Follow-up examinations were conducted in 2003–2005 and 2009–2010. Incidence of cognitive impairment was defined as a MMSE score <24 or reported physician-diagnosed dementia during the follow-up. In the last examination, five additional cognitive tests were added. The associations of carotid atherosclerosis with incident cognitive impairment and cognitive test performance ten years later were evaluated. Results A total of 1651 participants (mean age 66.8 years, 41% men) without cognitive impairment at baseline were included in the incidence analysis. IMT was associated with incidence of cognitive impairment after multiple adjustments (hazard ratio: 1.09, p=0.02 for each 0.1 mm increase in IMT). A total of 1311 participants with atherosclerosis data at baseline had the additional cognitive tests 10 years later. Larger IMT was associated with longer time to complete the Trail-Making Test-part B after multiple adjustments (0.1 mm IMT: 2.3 seconds longer, p=0.02). Plaque was not associated with incident cognitive impairment or cognitive test performance 10 years later. Conclusions In this population-based longitudinal study, carotid IMT was associated with a higher risk of developing cognitive impairment during the 10-year follow-up, and was associated with poorer performance in a test of executive function 10 years later. PMID:22854188

  15. Mesocortical dopaminergic function and human cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, D.R.; Berman, K.F.; Chase, T.N.

    1988-01-01

    In summary, we have reviewed rCBF data in humans that suggest that mesoprefrontal dopaminergic activity is involved in human cognition. In patients with Parkinson's disease and possibly in patients with schizophrenia, prefrontal physiological activation during a cognitive task that appears to depend on prefrontal neural systems correlates positively with cognitive performance on the task and with clinical signs of dopaminergic function. It may be possible in the future to examine prefrontal dopamine metabolism directly during prefrontal cognition using positron emission tomography and tracers such as F-18 DOPA. 21 references.

  16. [Sex hormones and cognitive functioning of women].

    PubMed

    Simi?, Natasa; Gregov, Ljiljana

    2009-09-01

    This paper discusses the organisational and activational effects of sex hormones, and their influence on cognitive functioning. Previous studies have shown gender differences in specific cognitive abilities. Women generally show an advantage in verbal fluency, perceptual speed and accuracy, as well as in fine motor skills, while men generally show an advantage in spatial and mathematical abilities. These differences in cognitive functioning are thought to occur as a result of foetal brain exposure to different levels of sex hormones during prenatal life. Additional evidence of organisational effects of sex hormones on cognitive functioning also comes from studies of subjects with genetic disorders, such as androgen insensitivity syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and Tyrner syndrome.Furthermore, former investigations have shown that increase in female sex hormone in the late follicular and/or luteal phase of the menstrual cycle intensifies the typical female cognitive pattern of functioning with improved efficiency in tasks which are usually better performed by women. At the same time, low levels of such hormones that characterise the menstrual phase of the cycle intensify the typical male cognitive pattern of functioning with better efficiency in tasks which usually better performed by men.This paper also points to methodological differences between investigations of organizational and activational effects of sex hormones on cognitive functioning, as well a to the direction of future investigations. PMID:19789167

  17. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Function in Women

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Margolis, Karen L.; Slaughter, Mary E.; Jewell, Adria; Bird, Chloe E.; Eibner, Christine; Denburg, Natalie L.; Ockene, Judith; Messina, Catherine R.; Espeland, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) is associated with cognitive functioning in older US women and whether this relationship is explained by associations between NSES and vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Methods. We assessed women aged 65 to 81 years (n = 7479) who were free of dementia and took part in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. Linear mixed models examined the cross-sectional association between an NSES index and cognitive functioning scores. A base model adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, marital status, and hysterectomy. Three groups of potential confounders were examined in separate models: vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Results. Living in a neighborhood with a 1-unit higher NSES value was associated with a level of cognitive functioning that was 0.022 standard deviations higher (P = .02). The association was attenuated but still marginally significant (P < .1) after adjustment for confounders and, according to interaction tests, stronger among younger and non-White women. Conclusions. The socioeconomic status of a woman's neighborhood may influence her cognitive functioning. This relationship is only partially explained by vascular, health behavior, or psychosocial factors. Future research is needed on the longitudinal relationships between NSES, cognitive impairment, and cognitive decline. PMID:21778482

  18. Validity of the Functional Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (FLOTCA).

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Yifat; Averbuch, Sara; Katz, Noomi; Sagiv, Aliza

    2016-01-01

    The Functional Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (FLOTCA) was developed to assess integrative higher cognitive abilities in people with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The FLOTCA measures performance on three tasks: navigating on a map, organizing a toolbox, and planning a daily schedule. This study assessed the psychometric properties of the FLOTCA with a sample of 25 participants with TBI ages 18-49 and 25 matched healthy participants. The FLOTCA showed high interrater reliability (intraclass correlation = .996) and internal consistency reliability for the total score (? = .82). Construct validity was supported for the total score, t?(48) = -5.48, d = 1.52, and the separate tasks. Moderate ecological validity was obtained with the combined FIM™ and Functional Assessment Measure, r?(19) = .44, p < .05. The results indicate that the FLOTCA can be used to assess higher cognitive abilities in functioning and can serve as the basis for intervention planning. PMID:26709431

  19. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive function in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment are common in dialysis patients. Given the proposed role of microvascular disease on cognitive function, particularly cognitive domains that incorporate executive functions, we hypothesized that prevalent systemic CVD would be associated with wor...

  20. Enhancing Cognitive Function Using Perceptual-Cognitive Training.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Brendan; Magill, Tara; Boucher, Alexandra; Zhang, Monica; Zogbo, Katrine; Bérubé, Sarah; Scheffer, Olivier; Beauregard, Mario; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional multiple object tracking (3D-MOT) is a perceptual-cognitive training system based on a 3D virtual environment. This is the first study to examine the effects of 3D-MOT training on attention, working memory, and visual information processing speed as well as using functional brain imaging on a normative population. Twenty university-aged students were recruited and divided into a training (NT) and nonactive control (CON) group. Cognitive functions were assessed using neuropsychological tests, and correlates of brain functions were assessed using quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG). Results indicate that 10 sessions of 3D-MOT training can enhance attention, visual information processing speed, and working memory, and also leads to quantifiable changes in resting-state neuroelectric brain function. PMID:25550444

  1. Higher-Order Mentalising and Executive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Higher-order mentalising is the ability to represent the beliefs and desires of other people at multiple, iterated levels – a capacity that sets humans apart from other species. However, there has not yet been a systematic attempt to determine what cognitive processes underlie this ability. Here we present three correlational studies assessing the extent to which performance on higher-order mentalising tasks relates to emotion recognition, self-reported empathy and self-inhibition. In Study 1a and 1b, examining emotion recognition and empathy, a relationship was identified between individual differences in the ability to mentalise and an emotion recognition task (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task), but no correlation was found with the Empathy Quotient, a self-report scale of empathy. Study 2 investigated whether a relationship exists between individual mentalising abilities and four different forms of self-inhibition: motor inhibition, executive inhibition, automatic imitation and temporal discounting. Results demonstrate that only temporal discounting performance relates to mentalising ability; suggesting that cognitive skills relevant to representation of the minds of others’ are not influenced by the ability to perform more basic inhibition. Higher-order mentalising appears to rely on the cognitive architecture that serves both low-level social cognition (emotion recognition), and complex forms of inhibition. PMID:26543298

  2. Characterizing executive functioning in older special populations: from cognitively elite to cognitively impaired.

    PubMed

    de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A; Strauss, Esther

    2009-11-01

    The authors examined the structure and invariance of executive functions (EF) across (a) a continuum of cognitive status in 3 groups of older adults (cognitively elite [CE], cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and (b) a 3-year longitudinal interval. Using latent variable analyses (LISREL 8.80), the authors tested 3-factor models ("Inhibition": Hayling [Burgess & Shallice, 1997], Stroop [Regard, 1981]; "Shifting": Brixton [Burgess & Shallice, 1997], Color Trails [D'Elia et al., 1996]; and "Updating": Reading and Computational Span [Salthouse & Babcock, 1991]) and 1-factor models within each group. Participants (initial N = 570; 53-90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study (Sample 3, Waves 1 and 2). Cross-sectionally, the authors observed a 3-factor EF structure especially for the CE group and 1-factor solutions for all 3 groups. Longitudinally, temporal invariance was supported for the 3-factor model (CE and CN groups) and the 1-factor model (CI and CN groups). Subgroups with higher cognitive status and greater 3-year stability performed better on EF factors than corresponding groups with lower cognitive status and less stability. Studies of EF structure, performance, dedifferentiation, and dysfunction will benefit from considering initial cognitive status and longitudinal stability. PMID:19899836

  3. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research. PMID:26078711

  4. Acupuncture improves cognitive function: A systematic review?

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Mason Chin Pang; Yip, Ka Keung; Lam, Chung Tsung; Lam, Ka Shun; Lau, Wai; Yu, Wing Lam; Leung, Amethyst King Man; So, Kwok-fai

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acupuncture has been used as a treatment for cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: This review assesses clinical evidence for or against acupuncture as a treatment for cognitive impairment. This review also discusses the proposed mechanism(s) that could link acupuncture to improved cognitive function. METHODS: We searched the literature using PolyUone search from its inception to January 2013, with full text available and language limited to English. Levels of evidence were examined using Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine–Levels of Evidence (March, 2009). RESULTS: Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria: 3 human studies and 9 animal studies. Levels of evidence ranged from level 1b to level 5. CONCLUSION: Most animal studies demonstrated a positive effect of acupuncture on cognitive impairment. However, the results of human studies were inconsistent. Further high-quality human studies with greater statistical power are needed to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture and an optimal protocol. PMID:25206464

  5. Pulse Wave Velocity and Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wenjun; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Chappell, Richard J; Klein, Barbara EK; Klein, Ronald; Acher, Charles W

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness may be associated with cognitive function. In this study, pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured from the carotid to femoral (CF-PWV) and from the carotid to radial (CR-PWV) with the Complior SP System (Alam Medical, Vincennes, France). Cognitive function was measured by six tests of executive function, psychomotor speed, memory, and language fluency. A total of 1433 participants were included (mean age 75 years, 43% men). Adjusting for age, sex, education, pulse rate, hemoglobin A1C, HDL cholesterol, hypertension, CVD history, smoking ,drinking, and depression symptoms, a CF-PWV > 12 m/s was associated with a lower Mini-Mental State Examination score (coefficient: ?0.31, se: 0.11, p=0.005), fewer words recalled on Auditory Verbal Learning Test (coefficient: ?1.10, se: 0.43, p=0.01), and lower score on the composite cognition score (coefficient: ?0.10, se: 0.05, p=0.04) and marginally significantly associated with longer time to complete Trail Making Test-B (coefficient: 6.30, se: 3.41, p=0.06), CF-PWV was not associated with Trail Making Test-A, Digit Symbol Substation Test, or Verbal Fluency Test. No associations were found between CR-PWV and cognitive performance measures. Higher large artery stiffness was associated with worse cognitive function, and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations. PMID:23632267

  6. A Functional Cartography of Cognitive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mattar, Marcelo G.; Cole, Michael W.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most remarkable features of the human brain is its ability to adapt rapidly and efficiently to external task demands. Novel and non-routine tasks, for example, are implemented faster than structural connections can be formed. The neural underpinnings of these dynamics are far from understood. Here we develop and apply novel methods in network science to quantify how patterns of functional connectivity between brain regions reconfigure as human subjects perform 64 different tasks. By applying dynamic community detection algorithms, we identify groups of brain regions that form putative functional communities, and we uncover changes in these groups across the 64-task battery. We summarize these reconfiguration patterns by quantifying the probability that two brain regions engage in the same network community (or putative functional module) across tasks. These tools enable us to demonstrate that classically defined cognitive systems—including visual, sensorimotor, auditory, default mode, fronto-parietal, cingulo-opercular and salience systems—engage dynamically in cohesive network communities across tasks. We define the network role that a cognitive system plays in these dynamics along the following two dimensions: (i) stability vs. flexibility and (ii) connected vs. isolated. The role of each system is therefore summarized by how stably that system is recruited over the 64 tasks, and how consistently that system interacts with other systems. Using this cartography, classically defined cognitive systems can be categorized as ephemeral integrators, stable loners, and anything in between. Our results provide a new conceptual framework for understanding the dynamic integration and recruitment of cognitive systems in enabling behavioral adaptability across both task and rest conditions. This work has important implications for understanding cognitive network reconfiguration during different task sets and its relationship to cognitive effort, individual variation in cognitive performance, and fatigue. PMID:26629847

  7. A Functional Cartography of Cognitive Systems.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Marcelo G; Cole, Michael W; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L; Bassett, Danielle S

    2015-12-01

    One of the most remarkable features of the human brain is its ability to adapt rapidly and efficiently to external task demands. Novel and non-routine tasks, for example, are implemented faster than structural connections can be formed. The neural underpinnings of these dynamics are far from understood. Here we develop and apply novel methods in network science to quantify how patterns of functional connectivity between brain regions reconfigure as human subjects perform 64 different tasks. By applying dynamic community detection algorithms, we identify groups of brain regions that form putative functional communities, and we uncover changes in these groups across the 64-task battery. We summarize these reconfiguration patterns by quantifying the probability that two brain regions engage in the same network community (or putative functional module) across tasks. These tools enable us to demonstrate that classically defined cognitive systems-including visual, sensorimotor, auditory, default mode, fronto-parietal, cingulo-opercular and salience systems-engage dynamically in cohesive network communities across tasks. We define the network role that a cognitive system plays in these dynamics along the following two dimensions: (i) stability vs. flexibility and (ii) connected vs. isolated. The role of each system is therefore summarized by how stably that system is recruited over the 64 tasks, and how consistently that system interacts with other systems. Using this cartography, classically defined cognitive systems can be categorized as ephemeral integrators, stable loners, and anything in between. Our results provide a new conceptual framework for understanding the dynamic integration and recruitment of cognitive systems in enabling behavioral adaptability across both task and rest conditions. This work has important implications for understanding cognitive network reconfiguration during different task sets and its relationship to cognitive effort, individual variation in cognitive performance, and fatigue. PMID:26629847

  8. Early Adult to Midlife Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Yaffe, Kristine; Vittinghoff, Eric; Pletcher, Mark J.; Hoang, Tina D.; Launer, Lenore J.; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Coker, Laura H.; Sidney, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies have linked midlife and late-life cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) to cognitive function, yet little is known about CVRF exposure in early adulthood and subsequent cognitive function. In addition, most studies rely on single assessments of CVRFs, which may not accurately reflect long-term exposure. We sought to determine the association between cumulative exposure to CVRFs from early to middle adulthood and cognitive function at midlife. Methods and Results In a prospective study of 3381 adults (age, 18–30 years at baseline) with 25 years of follow-up, we assessed cognitive function at year 25 (2010–2011) with the Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Stroop Test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test analyzed with standardized z scores. The primary predictor was 25-year cumulative exposure estimated by areas under the curve for resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol. Higher cumulative systolic and diastolic blood pressures and fasting blood glucose were consistently associated with worse cognition on all 3 tests. These associations were significant primarily for exposures above recommended guidelines; cognitive test z scores were between 0.06 and 0.30 points less, on average, for each 1-SD increase in risk factor area under the curve after adjustment for age, race, sex, and education (P<0.05 for all). Fewer significant associations were observed for cholesterol. Conclusions Cumulative exposure to CVRFs from early to middle adulthood, especially above recommended guidelines, was associated with worse cognition in midlife. The meaning of this association and whether it warrants more aggressive treatment of CVRFs earlier in life require further investigation. PMID:24687777

  9. Long Working Hours and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Singh-Manoux, Archana; Ferrie, Jane E.; Gimeno, David; Marmot, Michael G.; Elovainio, Marko; Jokela, Markus; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between long working hours and cognitive function in middle age. Data were collected in 1997–1999 (baseline) and 2002–2004 (follow-up) from a prospective study of 2,214 British civil servants who were in full-time employment at baseline and had data on cognitive tests and covariates. A battery of cognitive tests (short-term memory, Alice Heim 4-I, Mill Hill vocabulary, phonemic fluency, and semantic fluency) were measured at baseline and at follow-up. Compared with working 40 hours per week at most, working more than 55 hours per week was associated with lower scores in the vocabulary test at both baseline and follow-up. Long working hours also predicted decline in performance on the reasoning test (Alice Heim 4-I). Similar results were obtained by using working hours as a continuous variable; the associations between working hours and cognitive function were robust to adjustments for several potential confounding factors including age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, income, physical diseases, psychosocial factors, sleep disturbances, and health risk behaviors. This study shows that long working hours may have a negative effect on cognitive performance in middle age. PMID:19126590

  10. Cognitive Functions in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijland, Lian; Terband, Hayo; Maassen, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is diagnosed on the basis of specific speech characteristics, in the absence of problems in hearing, intelligence, and language comprehension. This does not preclude the possibility that children with this speech disorder might demonstrate additional problems. Method: Cognitive functions were investigated…

  11. Functional Hubs in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navas, Adrián; Papo, David; Boccaletti, Stefano; Del-Pozo, F.; Bajo, Ricardo; Maestú, Fernando; Martínez, J. H.; Gil, Pablo; Sendiña-Nadal, Irene; Buldú, Javier M.

    We investigate how hubs of functional brain networks are modified as a result of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a condition causing a slight but noticeable decline in cognitive abilities, which sometimes precedes the onset of Alzheimer's disease. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate the functional brain networks of a group of patients suffering from MCI and a control group of healthy subjects, during the execution of a short-term memory task. Couplings between brain sites were evaluated using synchronization likelihood, from which a network of functional interdependencies was constructed and the centrality, i.e. importance, of their nodes was quantified. The results showed that, with respect to healthy controls, MCI patients were associated with decreases and increases in hub centrality respectively in occipital and central scalp regions, supporting the hypothesis that MCI modifies functional brain network topology, leading to more random structures.

  12. Survivorship: cognitive function, version 1.2014.

    PubMed

    Denlinger, Crystal S; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Friedman, Debra L; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J; O'Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L; Urba, Susan G; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A

    2014-07-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common complaint among cancer survivors and may be a consequence of the tumors themselves or direct effects of cancer-related treatment (eg, chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, radiation). For some survivors, symptoms persist over the long term and, when more severe, can impact quality of life and function. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides assessment, evaluation, and management recommendations for cognitive dysfunction in survivors. Nonpharmacologic interventions (eg, instruction in coping strategies; management of distress, pain, sleep disturbances, and fatigue; occupational therapy) are recommended, with pharmacologic interventions as a last line of therapy in survivors for whom other interventions have been insufficient. PMID:24994918

  13. Survivorship: Cognitive Function, Version 1.2014

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J.; O’Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D.; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R.; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common complaint among cancer survivors and may be a consequence of the tumors themselves or direct effects of cancer-related treatment (eg, chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, radiation). For some survivors, symptoms persist over the long term and, when more severe, can impact quality of life and function. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides assessment, evaluation, and management recommendations for cognitive dysfunction in survivors. Nonpharmacologic interventions (eg, instruction in coping strategies; management of distress, pain, sleep disturbances, and fatigue; occupational therapy) are recommended, with pharmacologic interventions as a last line of therapy in survivors for whom other interventions have been insufficient. PMID:24994918

  14. Stress weakens prefrontal networks: molecular insults to higher cognition.

    PubMed

    Arnsten, Amy F T

    2015-10-01

    A variety of cognitive disorders are worsened by stress exposure and involve dysfunction of the newly evolved prefrontal cortex (PFC). Exposure to acute, uncontrollable stress increases catecholamine release in PFC, reducing neuronal firing and impairing cognitive abilities. High levels of noradrenergic ?1-adrenoceptor and dopaminergic D1 receptor stimulation activate feedforward calcium-protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-protein kinase A signaling, which open potassium channels to weaken synaptic efficacy in spines. In contrast, high levels of catecholamines strengthen the primary sensory cortices, amygdala and striatum, rapidly flipping the brain from reflective to reflexive control of behavior. These mechanisms are exaggerated by chronic stress exposure, where architectural changes lead to persistent loss of PFC function. Understanding these mechanisms has led to the successful translation of prazosin and guanfacine for treating stress-related disorders. Dysregulation of stress signaling pathways by genetic insults likely contributes to PFC deficits in schizophrenia, while age-related insults initiate interacting vicious cycles that increase vulnerability to Alzheimer's degeneration. PMID:26404712

  15. Effect of autoimmune diseases on cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Lim, Lily; Lippe, Sarah; Silverman, Earl

    2013-01-01

    The location of both autoimmune processes and other causes of brain inflammation is important in determining the impact of inflammation on brain function. This chapter focuses on autoimmune and infectious diseases leading to inflammatory brain disease resulting in cognitive defects with a special focus on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Collectively called neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE), NPSLE occurs in 20-95% of pediatric patients with SLE (pSLE). The incidence of cognitive dysfunction is difficult to ascertain in pediatric patients as few studies have been performed. Using formal neurocognitive testing of unselected pediatric SLE patients, the rate of cognitive abnormalities was approximately 50% and impairment was associated with longer disease duration in one study. A second small study showed global depression on performance and academic scores while a larger study using a neuropsychiatric inventory showed a 55% rate of dysfunction. These diverging findings may result from the lack of a standardized cognitive assessment battery. The Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) group of pediatric rheumatologists proposed a 2 hour 40 minutes battery for assessment of cognitive testing of SLE patients from age 9 to 18 years. Further assessments using this battery should provide a better neurocognitive profile of pSLE. PMID:23622338

  16. Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Hamid R.; Bates, Kristyn A.; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S.; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R.; Rodrigues, Mark A.; Bird, Sabine M.; Brown, Belinda M.; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Foster, Jonathan K.; Martins, Ian J.; Lautenschlager, Nicola T.; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M.; Martins, Ralph N.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34–87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

  17. Cognitive Function in Peripheral Autonomic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Guaraldi, Pietro; Poda, Roberto; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Solieri, Laura; Sambati, Luisa; Gallassi, Roberto; Cortelli, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Objective aims of the current study were 1) to evaluate global cognitive function in patients with autonomic failure (AF) of peripheral origin and 2) to investigate the effect of a documented fall in blood pressure (BP) fulfilling the criteria for orthostatic hypotension (OH) on cognitive performances. Methods we assessed 12 consecutive patients (10 males, 68±7 years old) with pure AF (PAF) or autoimmune autonomic neuropathy (AAN) and 12 age- and gender-matched controls. All patients had no clinical signs of central nervous system involvement and normal brain CT/MRI scan. Cognitive function was assessed on two consecutive days in 3 conditions: on day 1, while sitting, by means of a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests; on day 2, while tilted (HUT) and during supine rest (supine) in a randomized manner. BP and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded non-invasively for the whole duration of the examination. Results patients with PAF or AAN displayed a preserved global cognitive function while sitting. However, compared to supine assessment, during HUT patients scored significantly worse during the Trail Making Test A and B, Barrage test, Analogies test, Immediate Visual Memory, Span Forward and Span Backward test. Pathological scores, with regard to Italian normative range values, were observed only during HUT in the Barrage test and in the Analogies test in 3 and 6 patients respectively. On the contrary, in healthy controls, results to neuropsychological tests were not significantly different, during HUT compared to supine rest. Conclusions these data demonstrate that patients with PAF and AAN present a normal sitting global cognitive evaluation. However, their executive functions worsen significantly during the orthostatic challenge, possibly because of transient frontal lobes hypoperfusion. PMID:24465471

  18. Physiological approaches to understanding molecular actions on dorsolateral prefrontal cortical neurons underlying higher cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Arnsten, Amy F T

    2015-11-18

    Revealing how molecular mechanisms influence higher brain circuits in primates will be essential for understanding how genetic insults lead to increased risk of cognitive disorders. Traditionally, modulatory influences on higher cortical circuits have been examined using lesion techniques, where a brain region is depleted of a particular transmitter to determine how its loss impacts cognitive function. For example, depletion of catecholamines or acetylcholine from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex produces striking deficits in working memory abilities. More directed techniques have utilized direct infusions of drug into a specific cortical site to try to circumvent compensatory changes that are common following transmitter depletion. The effects of drug on neuronal firing patterns are often studied using iontophoresis, where a minute amount of drug is moved into the brain using a tiny electrical current, thus minimizing the fluid flow that generally disrupts neuronal recordings. All of these approaches can be compared to systemic drug administration, which remains a key arena for the development of effective therapeutics for human cognitive disorders. Most recently, viral techniques are being developed to be able to manipulate proteins for which there is no developed pharmacology, and to allow optogenetic manipulations in primate cortex. As the association cortices greatly expand in brain evolution, research in nonhuman primates is particularly important for understanding the modulatory regulation of our highest order cognitive operations. PMID:26646567

  19. Neonatal Thyroxine, Maternal Thyroid Function, and Child Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Oken, Emily; Braverman, Lewis E.; Platek, Deborah; Mitchell, Marvin L.; Lee, Stephanie L.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Thyroid hormone is essential for normal brain development. Limited data are available regarding whether thyroid function in neonates influences later cognitive development. Objective: Our objective was to study associations of newborn T4 levels with maternal thyroid function and childhood cognition. Design and Setting: We studied participants in Project Viva, a cohort study in Massachusetts. Participants: We studied a total of 500 children born 1999–2003 at 34 wk or more. Main Outcome Measures: We determined cognitive test scores at ages 6 months and 3 yr. Results: Mean newborn T4 at a mean age of 1.94 d was 17.6 (sd 4.0) ?g/dl, and levels were higher in girls [1.07 ?g/dl; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38, 1.76] and infants born after longer gestation (0.42 ?g/dl; 95% CI 0.17, 0.67 per wk). Newborn T4 levels were not associated with maternal T4, TSH, or thyroid peroxidase antibody levels. On multivariable linear regression analysis, adjusting for maternal and child characteristics, higher newborn T4 was unexpectedly associated with poorer scores on the visual recognition memory test among infants at age 6 months (?0.5; 95% CI ?0.9, ?0.2), but not with scores at age 3 yr on either the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (0.2; 95% CI ?0.1, 0.5) or the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (0.1; 95% CI ?0.2, 0.3). Maternal thyroid function test results were not associated with child cognitive test scores. Conclusions: Newborn T4 concentrations within a normal physiological reference range are not associated with maternal thyroid function and do not predict cognitive outcome in a population living in an iodine-sufficient area. PMID:19033373

  20. Parathyroid Hormone, Cognitive Function and Dementia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lourida, Ilianna; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Dickens, Chris M.; Soni, Maya; Ku?ma, El?bieta; Kos, Katarina; Llewellyn, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic factors are increasingly recognized to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. Abnormal parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels play a role in neuronal calcium dysregulation, hypoperfusion and disrupted neuronal signaling. Some studies support a significant link between PTH levels and dementia whereas others do not. Methods We conducted a systematic review through January 2014 to evaluate the association between PTH and parathyroid conditions, cognitive function and dementia. Eleven electronic databases and citation indexes were searched including Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Hand searches of selected journals, reference lists of primary studies and reviews were also conducted along with websites of key organizations. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts of identified studies. Data extraction and study quality were performed by one and checked by a second reviewer using predefined criteria. A narrative synthesis was performed due to the heterogeneity of included studies. Results The twenty-seven studies identified were of low and moderate quality, and challenging to synthesize due to inadequate reporting. Findings from six observational studies were mixed but suggest a link between higher serum PTH levels and increased odds of poor cognition or dementia. Two case-control studies of hypoparathyroidism provide limited evidence for a link with poorer cognitive function. Thirteen pre-post surgery studies for primary hyperparathyroidism show mixed evidence for improvements in memory though limited agreement in other cognitive domains. There was some degree of cognitive impairment and improvement postoperatively in observational studies of secondary hyperparathyroidism but no evident pattern of associations with specific cognitive domains. Conclusions Mixed evidence offers weak support for a link between PTH, cognition and dementia due to the paucity of high quality research in this area. PMID:26010883

  1. Chronic Ambient Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Bruce R.; Crane, Julian; Garrett, Nick; Woods, David L.; Bates, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposures to hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) have been inconclusively linked to a variety of negative cognitive outcomes. We investigated possible effects on cognitive function in an urban population with chronic, low-level exposure to H2S. Methods Participants were 1,637 adults, aged 18-65 years from Rotorua city, New Zealand, exposed to ambient H2S from geothermal sources. Exposures at homes and workplaces were estimated from data collected by summer and winter H2S monitoring networks across Rotorua in 2010/11. Metrics for H2S exposure at the time of participation and for exposure over the last 30 years were calculated. H2S exposure was modeled both as continuous variables and as quartiles of exposure covering the range of 0 – 64 ppb (0-88 ?g/m3). Outcomes were neuropsychological tests measuring visual and verbal episodic memory, attention, fine motor skills, psychomotor speed and mood. Associations between cognition and measures of H2S exposure were investigated with multiple regression, while covarying demographics and factors known to be associated with cognitive performance. Results The consistent finding was of no association between H2S exposure and cognition. Quartiles of H2S exposure had a small association with simple reaction time: higher exposures were associated with faster response times. Similarly, for digit symbol, higher H2S exposures tended to be marginally associated with better performance. Conclusion The results provide evidence that chronic H2S exposure, at the ambient levels found in and around Rotorua, is not associated with impairment of cognitive function. PMID:24548790

  2. Aerobic and Cognitive Exercise (ACE) Pilot Study for Older Adults: Executive Function Improves with Cognitive Challenge While Exergaming.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Nicole; Shah, Nikita; Cohen, Katherine; Hogan, Michael J; Mulkerrin, Eamon; Arciero, Paul J; Cohen, Brian D; Kramer, Arthur F; Anderson-Hanley, Cay

    2015-11-01

    Dementia cases are increasing worldwide; thus, investigators seek to identify interventions that might prevent or ameliorate cognitive decline in later life. Extensive research confirms the benefits of physical exercise for brain health, yet only a fraction of older adults exercise regularly. Interactive mental and physical exercise, as in aerobic exergaming, not only motivates, but has also been found to yield cognitive benefit above and beyond traditional exercise. This pilot study sought to investigate whether greater cognitive challenge while exergaming would yield differential outcomes in executive function and generalize to everyday functioning. Sixty-four community based older adults (mean age=82) were randomly assigned to pedal a stationary bike, while interactively engaging on-screen with: (1) a low cognitive demand task (bike tour), or (2) a high cognitive demand task (video game). Executive function (indices from Trails, Stroop and Digit Span) was assessed before and after a single-bout and 3-month exercise intervention. Significant group × time interactions were found after a single-bout (Color Trails) and after 3 months of exergaming (Stroop; among 20 adherents). Those in the high cognitive demand group performed better than those in the low cognitive dose condition. Everyday function improved across both exercise conditions. Pilot data indicate that for older adults, cognitive benefit while exergaming increased concomitantly with higher doses of interactive mental challenge. (JINS, 2015, 21, 768-779). PMID:26581789

  3. Cognitive and psychological functioning in Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Sigmundsdottir, Linda; Tchan, Michel C; Knopman, Alex A; Menzies, Graham C; Batchelor, Jennifer; Sillence, David O

    2014-11-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder which can result in renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular disease. Patients are at increased risk of stroke and neuroimaging studies note cerebrovascular pathology. This study provides a cognitive profile of a cohort of individuals with Fabry disease and investigates the impact of pain, age, renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular functioning on cognition and psychological functioning. Seventeen Fabry patients (12 males) with ages ranging 25 to 60 years (M = 46.6+11.8), and 15 age-matched healthy controls (M = 46.2+12.7) were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Fabry males demonstrated slower speed of information processing, reduced performance on measures of executive functions (verbal generation, reasoning, problem solving, perseveration), were more likely to show clinically significant reductions, and were more likely to report symptoms of anxiety and depression. Conversely, Fabry females performed at a similar level to controls. Correlational analyses indicated a link between cognitive and clinical measures of disease severity. PMID:25319043

  4. Cognitive and Psychological Functioning in Fabry Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sigmundsdottir, Linda; Tchan, Michel C.; Knopman, Alex A.; Menzies, Graham C.; Batchelor, Jennifer; Sillence, David O.

    2014-01-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder which can result in renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular disease. Patients are at increased risk of stroke and neuroimaging studies note cerebrovascular pathology. This study provides a cognitive profile of a cohort of individuals with Fabry disease and investigates the impact of pain, age, renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular functioning on cognition and psychological functioning. Seventeen Fabry patients (12 males) with ages ranging 25 to 60 years (M = 46.6+11.8), and 15 age-matched healthy controls (M = 46.2+12.7) were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Fabry males demonstrated slower speed of information processing, reduced performance on measures of executive functions (verbal generation, reasoning, problem solving, perseveration), were more likely to show clinically significant reductions, and were more likely to report symptoms of anxiety and depression. Conversely, Fabry females performed at a similar level to controls. Correlational analyses indicated a link between cognitive and clinical measures of disease severity. PMID:25319043

  5. [Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].

    PubMed

    Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Ma?gorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders. PMID:17471820

  6. The interactive effects of age, education, and BMI on cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Kirton, Joshua W; Dotson, Vonetta M

    2016-03-01

    We examined the moderating effects of age and cognitive reserve on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and processing speed, executive function, and working memory based on the literature suggesting that obese individuals perform more poorly on measures of these abilities. Fifty-six healthy, dementia-free community-dwelling older (mean age 65.72 ± 7.40) and younger (mean age 21.10 ± 2.33) adults completed a neuropsychological battery and reported height and weight. Mixed effects models were used to evaluate the interactive effects of age, education (a proxy for cognitive reserve), and BMI on cognitive scores. Higher education was protective for executive deficits in younger, but not older adults. Age differences in executive functions were reduced at higher education levels but increased in individuals with higher BMI. Results suggest the inter-relationships between cognitive reserve - as measured by education - and BMI differ across age, and that obesity may accelerate the cognitive aging process. PMID:26667889

  7. Ability, Breadth, and Parsimony in Computational Models of Higher-Order Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassimatis, Nicholas L.; Bello, Paul; Langley, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Computational models will play an important role in our understanding of human higher-order cognition. How can a model's contribution to this goal be evaluated? This article argues that three important aspects of a model of higher-order cognition to evaluate are (a) its ability to reason, solve problems, converse, and learn as well as people do;…

  8. A cognitive neurobiological account of deception: evidence from functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Sean A; Hunter, Mike D; Farrow, Tom F D; Green, Russell D; Leung, David H; Hughes, Catherine J; Ganesan, Venkatasubramanian

    2004-01-01

    An organism may use misinformation, knowingly (through deception) or unknowingly (as in the case of camouflage), to gain advantage in a competitive environment. From an evolutionary perspective, greater tactical deception occurs among primates closer to humans, with larger neocortices. In humans, the onset of deceptive behaviours in childhood exhibits a developmental trajectory, which may be regarded as 'normal' in the majority and deficient among a minority with certain neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). In the human adult, deception and lying exhibit features consistent with their use of 'higher' or 'executive' brain systems. Accurate detection of deception in humans may be of particular importance in forensic practice, while an understanding of its cognitive neurobiology may have implications for models of 'theory of mind' and social cognition, and societal notions of responsibility, guilt and mitigation. In recent years, functional neuroimaging techniques (especially functional magnetic resonance imaging) have been used to study deception. Though few in number, and using very different experimental protocols, studies published in the peer-reviewed literature exhibit certain consistencies. Attempted deception is associated with activation of executive brain regions (particularly prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices), while truthful responding has not been shown to be associated with any areas of increased activation (relative to deception). Hence, truthful responding may comprise a relative 'baseline' in human cognition and communication. The subject who lies may necessarily engage 'higher' brain centres, consistent with a purpose or intention (to deceive). While the principle of executive control during deception remains plausible, its precise anatomy awaits elucidation. PMID:15590616

  9. Critical periods of brain growth and cognitive function in children.

    PubMed

    Gale, Catharine R; O'Callaghan, Finbar J; Godfrey, Keith M; Law, Catherine M; Martyn, Christopher N

    2004-02-01

    There is evidence that IQ tends to be higher in those who were heavier at birth or who grew taller in childhood and adolescence. Although these findings imply that growth in both foetal and postnatal life influences cognitive performance, little is known about the relative importance of brain growth during different periods of development. We investigated the relationship between brain growth in different periods of pre- and postnatal life and cognitive function in 221 9-year-old children whose mothers had taken part in a study of nutrition in pregnancy and whose head circumference had been measured at 18 weeks gestation, birth and 9 months of age. Cognitive function of the children and their mothers was assessed with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Full-scale IQ at age 9 years rose by 1.98 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34 to 3.62] for each SD increase in head circumference at 9 months and by 2.87 points (95% CI 1.05 to 4.69) for each SD increase in head circumference at 9 years of age, after adjustment for sex, number of older siblings, maternal IQ, age, education, social class, duration of breastfeeding and history of low mood in the post-partum period. Postnatal head growth was significantly greater in children whose mothers were educated to degree level or of higher socio-economic status. There was no relation between IQ and measurements of head size at 18 weeks gestation or at birth. These results suggest that brain growth during infancy and early childhood is more important than growth during foetal life in determining cognitive function. PMID:14645144

  10. Participation in cognitively-stimulating activities is associated with brain structure and cognitive function in preclinical Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Stephanie A; Larson, Jordan; Oh, Jennifer; Koscik, Rebecca; Dowling, Maritza N; Gallagher, Catherine L; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Rowley, Howard A; Bendlin, Barbara B; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P; Johnson, Sterling C; Sager, Mark; LaRue, Asenath; Okonkwo, Ozioma C

    2015-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that frequent participation in cognitively-stimulating activities, specifically those related to playing games and puzzles, is beneficial to brain health and cognition among middle-aged adults at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three hundred twenty-nine cognitively normal, middle-aged adults (age range, 43.2-73.8 years) enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP) participated in this study. They reported their current engagement in cognitive activities using a modified version of the Cognitive Activity Scale (CAS), underwent a structural MRI scan, and completed a comprehensive cognitive battery. FreeSurfer was used to derive gray matter (GM) volumes from AD-related regions of interest (ROIs), and composite measures of episodic memory and executive function were obtained from the cognitive tests. Covariate-adjusted least squares analyses were used to examine the association between the Games item on the CAS (CAS-Games) and both GM volumes and cognitive composites. Higher scores on CAS-Games were associated with greater GM volumes in several ROIs including the hippocampus, posterior cingulate, anterior cingulate, and middle frontal gyrus. Similarly, CAS-Games scores were positively associated with scores on the Immediate Memory, Verbal Learning & Memory, and Speed & Flexibility domains. These findings were not modified by known risk factors for AD. In addition, the Total score on the CAS was not as sensitive as CAS-Games to the examined brain and cognitive measures. For some individuals, participation in cognitive activities pertinent to game playing may help prevent AD by preserving brain structures and cognitive functions vulnerable to AD pathophysiology. PMID:25358750

  11. Cognitive reserve and cognitive function in healthy older people: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Opdebeeck, Carol; Martyr, Anthony; Clare, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The associations between proxy measures of cognitive reserve (CR) and cognition vary across studies and cognitive domains. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the relationship between CR and cognition in multiple domains (memory, executive function, visuospatial ability, and language). CR was considered in terms of three key proxy measures - educational level, occupational status, and engagement in cognitively stimulating activities - individually and in combination. One-hundred and thirty-five studies representing 128,328 participants were included. Of these, 109 used a measure of education, 19 used a measure of occupation, 31 used a measure of participation in cognitively stimulating activities, and 6 used a combination of these. All three proxy measures had a modest positive association with cognition; occupational status and cognitive activities showed the most variation across cognitive domains. This supports the view that the commonly used proxy measures of CR share an underlying process but that each additionally provides a unique contribution to CR. PMID:25929288

  12. Fusion and Fission of Cognitive Functions in the Human Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Gina F.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    How is higher cognitive function organized in the human parietal cortex? A century of neuropsychology and 30 years of functional neuroimaging has implicated the parietal lobe in many different verbal and nonverbal cognitive domains. There is little clarity, however, on how these functions are organized, that is, where do these functions coalesce (implying a shared, underpinning neurocomputation) and where do they divide (indicating different underlying neural functions). Until now, there has been no multi-domain synthesis in order to reveal where there is fusion or fission of functions in the parietal cortex. This aim was achieved through a large-scale activation likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis of 386 studies (3952 activation peaks) covering 8 cognitive domains. A tripartite, domain-general neuroanatomical division and 5 principles of cognitive organization were established, and these are discussed with respect to a unified theory of parietal functional organization. PMID:25205661

  13. Novel Television-Based Cognitive Training Improves Working Memory and Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bureš, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60–87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of “adequate” to “high” system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

  14. From social-signal detection to higher social cognition: an fMRI approach.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Mano, Yoko; Sassa, Yuko; Kambara, Toshimune; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-09-01

    Implicit or automatic detection of social signals, which discriminate animate, intentional objects in the environment, is essential for higher social cognition and its development. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we identified the neural substrate of detecting simple visual social signals and examined its functional link with the mechanism of inferring another's mental state. Healthy participants were presented with the eye-gaze shift (EG) and self-propelling motion (SP) under both implicit and explicit task conditions. They also performed a social role-playing game in which mental inference (MI) was implicitly prompted during the presentation of faces (implicit MI). Implicit detection of EG and SP activated the posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) bilaterally, whereas the right posterior superior temporal sulcus was activated during the explicit conditions. We revealed that the individual variation in neural response in the right pMTG during implicit eye-gaze detection explains the individual tendency to recruit the regions implicated in mental-state inference (medial prefrontal cortex, temporal pole and striatum) during the implicit MI task. Our results suggest that the implicit detection of visual social signals involves the pMTG and underlies the development of higher social cognition. PMID:23887806

  15. Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older age: results from the Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Samieri, Cécilia; Grodstein, Francine; Rosner, Bernard A.; Kang, Jae H.; Cook, Nancy R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Willett, Walter C.; Okereke, Olivia I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adherence to a Mediterranean diet may help prevent cognitive decline in older age, but studies are limited. We examined the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with cognitive function and decline. Methods We included 6,174 participants, aged 65+ years, from the cognitive sub-study of the Women’s Health Study. Women provided dietary information in 1998 and completed a cognitive battery 5 years later, followed by two assessments at 2-year intervals. The primary outcomes were composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. The alternate Mediterranean diet adherence 9-point-score was constructed based on intakes of: vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts, fish, red and processed meats, moderate alcohol, and the ratio of monounsaturated-to-saturated fats. Results After multivariable adjustment, the alternate Mediterranean diet score was not associated with trajectories of repeated cognitive scores (P-trend across quintiles=0.26 and 0.40 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively), nor with overall global cognition and verbal memory at older ages, assessed by averaging the three cognitive measures (P-trend=0.63 and 0.44, respectively). Among alternate Mediterranean diet components, higher monounsaturated-to-saturated fats ratio was associated with more favorable cognitive trajectories (P-trend=0.03 and 0.05 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively). Greater whole grain intake was not associated with cognitive trajectories, but was related to better average global cognition (P-trend=0.02). Conclusions In this large study of older women, we observed no association of the Mediterranean diet with cognitive decline. Relations between individual Mediterranean diet components, particularly whole grains, and cognitive function merit further study. PMID:23676264

  16. Cognitive Function and Self-Care in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Shil; Shim, Jae Lan; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives This study examined the association of cognitive function with self-care and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) among heart failure (HF) patients. Subjects and Methods In this prospective study, 86 outpatients with HF completed face-to-face interviews including neuropsychological testing to evaluate cognitive function and the use of the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index to measure self-care. Functional status was assessed with the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification. Follow-up data on MACE were obtained at 24 months after enrollment. Results Compared with the Korean norm values, more than half of the HF patients had cognitive deficits in global function (33.0%), immediate recall (65.1%), delayed recall memory (65.1%), and executive function (60.5%). Patients with symptomatic HF (?NYHA class II) had the higher risk for substantially poor cognitive function in all areas of cognitive function than asymptomatic HF patients (NYHA class I, p<0.05). Most patients demonstrated poor self-care adequacy in maintenance (84.9%), management of symptoms (100%), and confidence (86.0%). After adjustment for age and gender, memory function was significantly associated with self-care confidence (odds ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.92, p=0.033). No relationship was found between cognition and self-care maintenance. There were 19 MACE's during the 24-month follow-up. Patients without MACE had a significantly higher global cognitive function (p=0.024), while no cognitive domains were significant predictors of MACE when adjusted for age and gender. Conclusion HF patients with memory loss have poorer self-care confidence. Studies are warranted to examine the functional implication of cognitive deficits and adverse outcomes in a larger sample. PMID:26240585

  17. Cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions affecting physical functioning: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitive function through behavioral interventions or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments that are similar to cognitive impairments seen in aging. The aim was to identify potentially promising methods that might be used in future intervention type studies for older adults. Methods A systematic search was conducted for the Medline/Premedline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. The search was focused on older adults over the age of 65. To increase the number of articles for review, we also included those discussing adult patients with neurological impairments due to trauma, as these cognitive impairments are similar to those seen in the aging population. The search was restricted to English, German and French language literature without any limitation of publication date or restriction by study design. Cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions were defined as dual-tasking, virtual reality exercise, cognitive exercise, or a combination of these. Results 28 articles met our inclusion criteria. Three articles used an isolated cognitive rehabilitation intervention, seven articles used a dual-task intervention and 19 applied a computerized intervention. There is evidence to suggest that cognitive or motor-cognitive methods positively affects physical functioning, such as postural control, walking abilities and general functions of the upper and lower extremities, respectively. The majority of the included studies resulted in improvements of the assessed functional outcome measures. Conclusions The current evidence on the effectiveness of cognitive or motor-cognitive interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments is limited. The heterogeneity of the studies published so far does not allow defining the training methodology with the greatest effectiveness. This review nevertheless provides important foundational information in order to encourage further development of novel cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions, preferably with a randomized control design. Future research that aims to examine the relation between improvements in cognitive skills and the translation to better performance on selected physical tasks should explicitly take the relation between the cognitive and physical skills into account. PMID:21651800

  18. Cognitive Function, Mental Health, and Health-related Quality of Life after Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, David G.; Christie, Jason D.; Anderson, Brian J.; Diamond, Joshua M.; Judy, Ryan P.; Shah, Rupal J.; Cantu, Edward; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Blumenthal, Nancy P.; Demissie, Ejigayehu; Hopkins, Ramona O.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Cognitive and psychiatric impairments are threats to functional independence, general health, and quality of life. Evidence regarding these outcomes after lung transplantation is limited. Objectives: Determine the frequency of cognitive and psychiatric impairment after lung transplantation and identify potential factors associated with cognitive impairment after lung transplantation. Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, we assessed cognitive function, mental health, and health-related quality of life using a validated battery of standardized tests in 42 subjects post-transplantation. The battery assessed cognition, depression, anxiety, resilience, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cognitive function was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, a validated screening test with a range of 0 to 30. We hypothesized that cognitive function post-transplantation would be associated with type of transplant, cardiopulmonary bypass, primary graft dysfunction, allograft ischemic time, and physical therapy post-transplantation. We used multivariable linear regression to examine the relationship between candidate risk factors and cognitive function post-transplantation. Measurements and Main Results: Mild cognitive impairment (score, 18–25) was observed in 67% of post-transplant subjects (95% confidence interval [CI]: 50–80%) and moderate cognitive impairment (score, 10–17) was observed in 5% (95% CI, 1–16%) of post-transplant subjects. Symptoms of moderate to severe anxiety and depression were observed in 21 and 3% of post-transplant subjects, respectively. No transplant recipients reported symptoms of PTSD. Higher resilience correlated with less psychological distress in the domains of depression (P < 0.001) and PTSD (P = 0.02). Prolonged graft ischemic time was independently associated with worse cognitive performance after lung transplantation (P = 0.001). The functional gain in 6-minute-walk distance achieved at the end of post-transplant physical rehabilitation (P = 0.04) was independently associated with improved cognitive performance post-transplantation. Conclusions: Mild cognitive impairment was present in the majority of patients after lung transplantation. Prolonged allograft ischemic time may be associated with cognitive impairment. Poor physical performance and cognitive impairment are linked, and physical rehabilitation post-transplant and psychological resilience may be protective against the development of long-term impairment. Further study is warranted to confirm these potential associations and to examine the trajectory of cognitive function after lung transplantation. PMID:24605992

  19. Functional (Psychogenic) Cognitive Disorders: A Perspective from the Neurology Clinic.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jon; Pal, Suvankar; Blackburn, Daniel; Reuber, Markus; Thekkumpurath, Parvez; Carson, Alan

    2015-09-24

    Cognitive symptoms such as poor memory and concentration represent a common cause of morbidity among patients presenting to general practitioners and may result in referral for a neurological opinion. In many cases, these symptoms do not relate to an underlying neurological disease or dementia. In this article we present a personal perspective on the differential diagnosis of cognitive symptoms in the neurology clinic, especially as this applies to patients who seek advice about memory problems but have no neurological disease process. These overlapping categories include the following 'functional' categories: 1) cognitive symptoms as part of anxiety or depression; 2) "normal" cognitive symptoms that become the focus of attention; 3) isolated functional cognitive disorder in which symptoms are outwith 'normal' but not explained by anxiety; 4) health anxiety about dementia; 5) cognitive symptoms as part of another functional disorder; and 6) retrograde dissociative (psychogenic) amnesia. Other 'non-dementia' diagnoses to consider in addition are 1) cognitive symptoms secondary to prescribed medication or substance misuse; 2) diseases other than dementia causing cognitive disorders; 3) patients who appear to have functional cognitive symptoms but then go on to develop dementia/another neurological disease; and finally 4) exaggeration/malingering. We discuss previous attempts to classify the problem of functional cognitive symptoms, the importance of making a positive diagnosis for the patient, and the need for large cohort studies to better define and manage this large group of patients. PMID:26445274

  20. Measuring Cognitive Function: An Empirical Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of a Cognitive Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witta, E. Lea; Sivo, Stephen A.

    Herzog and Wallace (A. Herzog and R. Wallace, 1997) discussed a measure designed to assess the cognitive functioning of older adults who participated in the study formerly known as the Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD). The measure derived from four well-known tests of cognitive functioning, but improves on them by combining…

  1. The association between aerobic fitness and cognitive function in older men mediated by frontal lateralization.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Kazuki; Dan, Ippeita; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Suwabe, Kazuya; Byun, Kyeongho; Ochi, Genta; Kato, Morimasa; Soya, Hideaki

    2016-01-15

    Previous studies have shown that higher aerobic fitness is related to higher cognitive function and higher task-related prefrontal activation in older adults. However, a holistic picture of these factors has yet to be presented. As a typical age-related change of brain activation, less lateralized activity in the prefrontal cortex during cognitive tasks has been observed in various neuroimaging studies. Thus, this study aimed to reveal the relationship between aerobic fitness, cognitive function, and frontal lateralization. Sixty male older adults each performed a submaximal incremental exercise test to determine their oxygen intake (V·O2) at ventilatory threshold (VT) in order to index their aerobic fitness. They performed a color-word Stroop task while prefrontal activation was monitored using functional near infrared spectroscopy. As an index of cognitive function, Stroop interference time was analyzed. Partial correlation analyses revealed significant correlations among higher VT, shorter Stroop interference time and greater left-lateralized dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation when adjusting for education. Moreover, mediation analyses showed that left-lateralized DLPFC activation significantly mediated the association between VT and Stroop interference time. These results suggest that higher aerobic fitness is associated with cognitive function via lateralized frontal activation in older adults. PMID:26439424

  2. Family Stress and Adolescents’ Cognitive Functioning: Sleep as a Protective Factor

    PubMed Central

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined two sleep-wake parameters as moderators of the associations between exposure to family stressors and adolescent cognitive functioning. Participants were 252 school-recruited adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 66% European American, 34% African American). Youths reported on three dimensions of family stress: marital conflict, harsh parenting, and parental psychological control. Cognitive functioning was indexed through performance on the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Sleep minutes and efficiency were measured objectively using actigraphy. Towards identifying unique effects, path models controlled for two family stress variables while estimating the third. Analyses revealed that sleep efficiency moderated the associations between negative parenting (harsh parenting and parental psychological control) and adolescents’ cognitive functioning. The highest level of cognitive performance was predicted for adolescents with higher levels of sleep efficiency in conjunction with lower levels of either harsh parenting or psychological control. The effects of sleep were more pronounced at lower levels of negative parenting where adolescents with higher sleep efficiency performed better than their counterparts with poorer sleep. At higher levels of either harsh parenting or psychological control, similar levels of cognitive performance were observed regardless of sleep. Results are discussed in comparison to other recent studies on interrelations among family stress, sleep, and cognitive performance in childhood and adolescence. PMID:25329625

  3. Computer Use and the Relation between Age and Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soubelet, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates whether computer use for leisure could mediate or moderate the relations between age and cognitive functioning. Findings supported smaller age differences in measures of cognitive functioning for people who reported spending more hours using a computer. Because of the cross-sectional design of the study, two alternative…

  4. Cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function in middle age

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Na; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Yaffe, Kristine; Bryan, Nick; Launer, Lenore J.; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Sidney, Stephen; Demerath, Ellen; Thomas, William; Bouchard, Claude; He, Ka; Reis, Jared; Sternfeld, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether greater cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with better cognitive function 25 years later. Methods: We studied 2,747 participants in the community-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study of black and white men and women aged 18 to 30 years at recruitment in 1985–1986 (baseline year 0). Symptom-limited maximal treadmill test durations at years 0 and 20 provided measures of CRF. Cognitive tests at year 25 measured verbal memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test [RAVLT]), psychomotor speed (Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST]), and executive function (Stroop Test). Results: Per minute of baseline CRF, the RAVLT was 0.12 words recalled higher (standard error [SE] = 0.03, p < 0.0001), the DSST was 0.92 digits higher (SE = 0.13, p < 0.0001), and the Stroop Test score was 0.52 lower (better performance, SE = 0.11, p < 0.0001), after accounting for race, sex, age, education, and clinical center. Compared with the lowest quartile of CRF, each cognitive test was 21% to 34% of an SD better in the highest CRF quartile. Further adjustment for lifestyle and clinical measures attenuated coefficients for RAVLT and DSST slightly, while the coefficient predicting the Stroop Test lost more than half its value (p = 0.07). Analysis in the subset of 1,957 participants who also completed the year-20 treadmill test showed that 20-year change in CRF was positively associated only with DSST (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Better verbal memory and faster psychomotor speed at ages 43 to 55 years were clearly associated with better CRF 25 years earlier. PMID:24696506

  5. Cognitive function in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bors, Melinda; Tomic, Rade; Perlman, David M; Kim, Hyun J; Whelan, Timothy Pm

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is evidence that individuals with severe idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have cognitive deficits when compared to individuals with healthy lungs. Participants completed five neuropsychological tests: Trail Making Test (TMT) A and B, Stroop Color Word Test (1, 2, 3), Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Boston Naming Test, and Grooved Pegboard Test, additionally, the short form-36 and Beck Depression Index. Twelve participants (7 male, mean age 69.3, 9.4 years) comprised the severe IPF group defined by a diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) <30%. Thirty-four patients (22 male, mean age 63.2, 9.6 years) comprised the mild-to-moderate group with a DLCO >30%. Participating spouses (n = 15, 4 male) served as the control group and had a mean age of 66.0, 10.8 years. Controlling for gender and age, the severe group had a significantly longer mean TMT B time (69.4, 135.9 seconds) than the mild group and the control group (86.7 seconds vs 83.2 seconds; p = 0.004 and 0.008 respectively), suggesting inferior performance on tasks requiring speed divided attention. In addition, the severe group had a significantly lower number of correctly identified colors in the Stroop 3 test (22.4 vs 30.6 vs 38.6; p < 0.001), suggesting slower processing speeds when requiring suppression of a familiar response. Participants with severe IPF had worse cognitive function than mild IPF or control subjects. Further research is needed to explain these findings and to develop interventions tailored to address these deficits. PMID:26374298

  6. Life Experience and Demographic Influences on Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, Paul W. H.; Melrose, Rebecca J.; Marquine, María J.; Johnson, Julene K.; Napoles, Anna; MacKay-Brandt, Anna; Farias, Sarah; Reed, Bruce; Mungas, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the influence of a broad spectrum of life experiences on longitudinal cognitive trajectories in a demographically diverse sample of older adults. Method Participants were 333 educationally, ethnically, and cognitively diverse older adults enrolled in a longitudinal aging study. Mixed-effects regression was used to measure baseline status in episodic memory, executive functioning, and semantic memory and change in a global cognition factor defined by change in these three domain-specific measures. We examined effects of life experience variables (literacy, childhood socioeconomic status, morphometric measures of physical development, life course physical and recreational activity) on longitudinal cognitive trajectories, covarying for age, APOE genotype and demographics (education, ethnicity, language). Results Non-Latino whites had higher baseline cognition, but life experience variables attenuated ethnic differences in cognitive scores. Age, literacy, childhood socioeconomic status and physical activity significantly influenced baseline cognition. Age, APOE ?4 and decline in intellectually and socially stimulating recreational activity from mid to late life were independently associated with increased late life cognitive decline. Higher literacy and late life recreational activity were associated with less decline. Literacy had similar effects for English and Spanish readers/speakers. Bilingual English and Spanish speakers did not differ from English Speakers in cognitive performance. Conclusions Life experience variables, especially literacy level, were strongly related to baseline cognition and substantially attenuated effects of race/ethnicity and education. Cognitive change was best explained by age, APOE ?4, literacy, and current recreational activities. Literacy had robust associations with baseline cognition and cognitive change in both English and Spanish speakers. PMID:24933483

  7. Dynamic reorganization of brain functional networks during cognition.

    PubMed

    Bola, Micha?; Sabel, Bernhard A

    2015-07-01

    How does cognition emerge from neural dynamics? The dominant hypothesis states that interactions among distributed brain regions through phase synchronization give basis for cognitive processing. Such phase-synchronized networks are transient and dynamic, established on the timescale of milliseconds in order to perform specific cognitive operations. But unlike resting-state networks, the complex organization of transient cognitive networks is typically not characterized within the graph theory framework. Thus, it is not known whether cognitive processing merely changes the strength of functional connections or, conversely, requires qualitatively new topological arrangements of functional networks. To address this question, we recorded high-density EEG while subjects performed a visual discrimination task. We conducted an event-related network analysis (ERNA) where source-space weighted functional networks were characterized with graph measures. ERNA revealed rapid, transient, and frequency-specific reorganization of the network's topology during cognition. Specifically, cognitive networks were characterized by strong clustering, low modularity, and strong interactions between hub-nodes. Our findings suggest that dense and clustered connectivity between the hub nodes belonging to different modules is the "network fingerprint" of cognition. Such reorganization patterns might facilitate global integration of information and provide a substrate for a "global workspace" necessary for cognition and consciousness to occur. Thus, characterizing topology of the event-related networks opens new vistas to interpret cognitive dynamics in the broader conceptual framework of graph theory. PMID:25828884

  8. Motor system evolution and the emergence of high cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Germán; Merchant, Hugo

    2014-11-01

    In human and nonhuman primates, the cortical motor system comprises a collection of brain areas primarily related to motor control. Existing evidence suggests that no other mammalian group has the number, extension, and complexity of motor-related areas observed in the frontal lobe of primates. Such diversity is probably related to the wide behavioral flexibility that primates display. Indeed, recent comparative anatomical, psychophysical, and neurophysiological studies suggest that the evolution of the motor cortical areas closely correlates with the emergence of high cognitive abilities. Advances in understanding the cortical motor system have shown that these areas are also related to functions previously linked to higher-order associative areas. In addition, experimental observations have shown that the classical distinction between perceptual and motor functions is not strictly followed across cortical areas. In this paper, we review evidence suggesting that evolution of the motor system had a role in the shaping of different cognitive functions in primates. We argue that the increase in the complexity of the motor system has contributed to the emergence of new abilities observed in human and nonhuman primates, including the recognition and imitation of the actions of others, speech perception and production, and the execution and appreciation of the rhythmic structure of music. PMID:25224031

  9. Cognitive enhancements and the values of higher education.

    PubMed

    Lamkin, Matt

    2012-12-01

    Drugs developed to treat cognitive impairments are proving popular with healthy college students seeking to boost their focus and productivity. Concerned observers have called these practices a form of cheating akin to athletes' use of steroids, with some proposing testing students' urine to deter "academic doping." The ease with which critics analogize the academic enterprise to competitive sport, and the impulse to crack down on students using study drugs, reflect the same social influences and trends that spur demand for these interventions-our hyper-competitive culture, the commodification of education, and our attraction to technological quick-fixes. Rather than focusing on the technologies that are being put to troubling uses, we would be better served reforming the culture that makes these practices attractive. PMID:23007891

  10. The effect of cancer treatment on cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Asher, Arash; Myers, Jamie S

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is an increasingly recognized complication of cancer and its treatment. Most research in this arena has found that a subset of patients appear to be vulnerable to this complication even after treatment has ended, and often have difficulties with multitasking, short-term memory, word-finding, attention, or concentration. The mechanisms underlying these cognitive changes are not fully elucidated but may include direct neurotoxic effects of therapy, oxidative damage, and genetic predisposition. Compelling evidence has accumulated for the role of immune dysregulation and neurotoxicity from inflammatory cytokines. A gold standard for subjective or objective assessment of cancer treatment-related cognitive changes has yet to be established. Current options to assess cognitive function include neuropsychological testing, functional neuroimaging, and subjective assessments. Pharmacologic treatment options for this clinical problem are modest and limited. Nonpharmacologic treatments, including cognitive rehabilitation programs, are an emerging area of research for the management of cancer treatment-related cognitive changes. PMID:26353040

  11. Neuropsychological Characteristics and Their Association with Higher-Level Functional Capacity in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Kayoko; Matsui, Mie; Takashima, Shutaro; Tanaka, Kortaro

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Little is known about the relationship between cognitive functions and higher-level functional capacity (e.g. intellectual activity, social role, and social participation) in Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to clarify neuropsychological characteristics and their association with higher-level functional capacity in PD patients. Methods Participants were 31 PD patients and 23 demographically matched healthy controls. Neuropsychological tests were conducted. One year later, a questionnaire survey evaluated higher-level functional capacity in daily living. Results The PD group scored significantly lower than the control group in all cognitive domains, particularly executive function and processing. Executive function, processing speed, language, and memory were significantly correlated with higher-level functional capacity in PD patients. Stepwise regression showed that only executive function (Trail Making Test-B), together with disease severity (HY stage), predicted the higher-level functional capacity. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence of a relationship between executive function and higher-level functional capacity in patients with PD. PMID:26273243

  12. Computational modeling of high-level cognition and brain function.

    PubMed

    Just, M A; Carpenter, P A; Varma, S

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a computational modeling architecture, 4CAPS, which is consistent with key properties of cortical function and makes good contact with functional neuroimaging results. Like earlier cognitive models such as SOAR, ACT-R, 3CAPS, and EPIC, the proposed cognitive model is implemented in a computer simulation that predicts observable variables such as human response times and error patterns. In addition, the proposed 4CAPS model accounts for the functional decomposition of the cognitive system and predicts fMRI activation levels and their localization within specific cortical regions, by incorporating key properties of cortical function into the design of the modeling system. PMID:10524604

  13. Community environment, cognitive impairment and dementia in later life: results from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A. Matthew; Jones, Andrew P.; Barnes, Linda E.; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background: few studies have investigated the impact of the community environment, as distinct from area deprivation, on cognition in later life. This study explores cross-sectional associations between cognitive impairment and dementia and environmental features at the community level in older people. Method: the postcodes of the 2,424 participants in the year-10 interview of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study in England were mapped into small area level geographical units (Lower-layer Super Output Areas) and linked to environmental data in government statistics. Multilevel logistic regression was conducted to investigate associations between cognitive impairment (defined as MMSE ? 25), dementia (organicity level ?3 in GMS-AGECAT) and community level measurements including area deprivation, natural environment, land use mix and crime. Sensitivity analyses tested the impact of people moving residence within the last two years. Results: higher levels of area deprivation and crime were not significantly associated with cognitive impairment and dementia after accounting for individual level factors. Living in areas with high land use mix was significantly associated with a nearly 60% reduced odds of dementia (OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) after adjusting for individual level factors and area deprivation, but there was no linear trend for cognitive impairment. Increased odds of dementia (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2, 4.2) and cognitive impairment (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.0) were found in the highest quartile of natural environment availability. Findings were robust to exclusion of the recently relocated. Conclusion: features of land use have complex associations with cognitive impairment and dementia. Further investigations should focus on environmental influences on cognition to inform health and social policies. PMID:26464419

  14. Examining the association between late-life depressive symptoms, cognitive function, and brain volumes in the context of cognitive reserve

    PubMed Central

    O’Shea, Deirdre M.; Fieo, Robert A.; Hamilton, Jamie L.; Zahodne, Laura B.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Stern, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to investigate whether cognitive reserve moderated the association between depressive symptoms and cognition, as well as brain volumes in a sample of older adults. Methods Non-demented participants (n = 3484) were selected from the Washington Heights/Hamilton Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project (Northern Manhattan). A subsample of these participants without dementia (n = 703), who had brain imaging data, was also selected for a separate analysis. Depressive symptomatology was assessed with the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Reading level and years of education were used as measures of cognitive reserve. Four distinct cognitive composite scores were calculated: executive function, memory, visual–spatial, and language. Results Multiple regression analysis revealed interaction effects between both measures of cognitive reserve and depressive symptoms on all the cognitive outcome measures except for visual–spatial ability. Those with greater reserve showed greater cognitive decrements than those with lower levels of reserve as depressive symptoms increased. A borderline interaction effect was revealed between reading level and depressive symptoms on total brain volumes. Those with lower reading scores showed greater volume loss as depressive symptoms increased than those with higher reading scores. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the association between late-life depressive symptoms and core aspects of cognition varies depending on one’s level of cognitive reserve. Those that had greater levels of education and/or reading ability showed a greater decrease in memory, executive, and language performances as depressive symptoms increased than those with lower years of education and reading ability. PMID:25145832

  15. Hormone levels and cognitive function in postmenopausal midlife women.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joanne; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Dennerstein, Lorraine; Mack, Wendy J; Clark, Margaret S; Szoeke, Cassandra; Kildea, Daniel; Henderson, Victor W

    2012-07-01

    Gonadal hormones may influence cognitive function. Postmenopausal midlife women in the population-based Melbourne Women's Midlife Health Project cohort were administered a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests on two occasions 2 years apart. Participants (n = 148, mean age 60 years) had undergone natural menopause and were not using hormone therapy. Estrone, total and free estradiol, and total and free testosterone levels were measured at time of the first testing. Principal-component analysis identified four cognitive factors. In multiple linear regression analyses, better semantic memory performance was associated with higher total (p = 0.02) and free (p = 0.03) estradiol levels and a lower ratio of testosterone to estradiol (p = 0.007). There were trends for associations between better verbal episodic memory and lower total testosterone (p = 0.08) and lower testosterone/estradiol ratio (p = 0.06). Lower free testosterone levels were associated with greater 2-year improvement on verbal episodic memory (p = 0.04); higher testosterone/estradiol predicted greater semantic memory improvement (p = 0.03). In postmenopausal midlife women, endogenous estradiol and testosterone levels and the testosterone/estradiol ratio are associated with semantic memory and verbal episodic memory abilities. PMID:22607736

  16. Selective role of the catalytic PI3K subunit p110? in impaired higher order cognition in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gross, Christina; Raj, Nisha; Molinaro, Gemma; Allen, Amanda G; Whyte, Alonzo J; Gibson, Jay R; Huber, Kimberly M; Gourley, Shannon L; Bassell, Gary J

    2015-05-01

    Distinct isoforms of the PI3K catalytic subunit have specialized functions in the brain, but their role in cognition is unknown. Here, we show that the catalytic subunit p110? plays an important role in prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent cognitive defects in mouse models of Fragile X syndrome (FXS), an inherited intellectual disability. FXS is caused by loss of function of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which binds and translationally represses mRNAs. PFC-selective knockdown of p110?, an FMRP target that is translationally upregulated in FXS, reverses deficits in higher cognition in Fmr1 knockout mice. Genetic full-body reduction of p110? in Fmr1 knockout mice normalizes excessive PI3K activity, restores stimulus-induced protein synthesis, and corrects increased dendritic spine density and behavior. Notably, adult-onset PFC-selective Fmr1 knockdown mice show impaired cognition, which is rescued by simultaneous p110? knockdown. Our results suggest that FMRP-mediated control of p110? is crucial for neuronal protein synthesis and cognition. PMID:25921527

  17. Time away from work predicts later cognitive function: Differences by activity during leave

    PubMed Central

    Leist, Anja K.; Glymour, M Maria; Mackenbach, Johan P; van Lenthe, Frank J; Avendano, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine how different activities performed during employment gaps are associated with later cognitive function and change. Method Five cognitive measures were used to indicate cognitive impairment of 18,259 respondents to the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (age 50-73) in 2004/5 or 2006/7. Using complete employment histories, employment gaps of six months or more between ages 25 and 65 were identified. Results Controlling for early-life socioeconomic status, school performance, and education, higher risk of cognitive impairment was associated with employment gaps described as unemployment (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.18, 95 % Confidence Interval [CI] 1.04, 1.35) and sickness (OR = 1.78, 95 % CI 1.52, 2.09). In contrast, lower risk of cognitive impairment was associated with employment gaps described as training (OR = 0.73, 95 % CI 0.52, 1.01) or maternity (OR = 0.65, 95 % CI 0.57, 0.79). In longitudinal mixed effects models, training and maternity spells were associated with lower two-year aging-related cognitive decline. Discussion Periods away from work described as unemployment or sickness are associated with lower cognitive function, whereas maternity and training spells are associated with better late-life cognitive function. Both causation and selection mechanisms may explain these findings. PMID:23889855

  18. The kidney disease quality of life cognitive function subscale and cognitive performance maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cognitive impairment is common but often undiagnosed in patients with end-stage renal disease, in part reflecting limited validated and easily administered tools to assess cognitive function in dialysis patients. Accordingly, we assessed the utility of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life ...

  19. An Approach to Measuring Cognitive Outcomes across Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.; Kuh, George; Chun, Marc; Hamilton, Laura; Shavelson, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, state legislatures have experienced increasing pressure to hold higher education accountable for student learning. This pressure stems from several sources, such as increasing costs and decreasing graduation rates. To explore the feasibility of one approach to measuring student learning that emphasizes program improvement, we…

  20. Inner Speech: Development, Cognitive Functions, Phenomenology, and Neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles

    2015-09-01

    Inner speech-also known as covert speech or verbal thinking-has been implicated in theories of cognitive development, speech monitoring, executive function, and psychopathology. Despite a growing body of knowledge on its phenomenology, development, and function, approaches to the scientific study of inner speech have remained diffuse and largely unintegrated. This review examines prominent theoretical approaches to inner speech and methodological challenges in its study, before reviewing current evidence on inner speech in children and adults from both typical and atypical populations. We conclude by considering prospects for an integrated cognitive science of inner speech, and present a multicomponent model of the phenomenon informed by developmental, cognitive, and psycholinguistic considerations. Despite its variability among individuals and across the life span, inner speech appears to perform significant functions in human cognition, which in some cases reflect its developmental origins and its sharing of resources with other cognitive processes. PMID:26011789

  1. Inner Speech: Development, Cognitive Functions, Phenomenology, and Neurobiology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inner speech—also known as covert speech or verbal thinking—has been implicated in theories of cognitive development, speech monitoring, executive function, and psychopathology. Despite a growing body of knowledge on its phenomenology, development, and function, approaches to the scientific study of inner speech have remained diffuse and largely unintegrated. This review examines prominent theoretical approaches to inner speech and methodological challenges in its study, before reviewing current evidence on inner speech in children and adults from both typical and atypical populations. We conclude by considering prospects for an integrated cognitive science of inner speech, and present a multicomponent model of the phenomenon informed by developmental, cognitive, and psycholinguistic considerations. Despite its variability among individuals and across the life span, inner speech appears to perform significant functions in human cognition, which in some cases reflect its developmental origins and its sharing of resources with other cognitive processes. PMID:26011789

  2. Height and cognitive function at older ages: is height a useful summary measure of early childhood experiences?

    PubMed

    Guven, Cahit; Lee, Wang Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Previous research using US data suggests that height, as a marker for early investments in health, is associated with better cognitive functioning in later life, but this association disappears once education is controlled for. Using an English cohort of men and women older than 50?years, we find that the association between height and cognitive outcomes remains significant after controlling for education suggesting that height affects cognitive functioning not simply via higher educational attainment. Furthermore, the significant association between height and cognitive function remains even after controls for early life indicators have been included. PMID:22231981

  3. Assessment of Higher Order Thinking Skills. Current Perspectives on Cognition, Learning and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraw, Gregory, Ed.; Robinson, Daniel H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This volume examines the assessment of higher order thinking skills from the perspectives of applied cognitive psychology and measurement theory. The volume considers a variety of higher order thinking skills, including problem solving, critical thinking, argumentation, decision making, creativity, metacognition, and self-regulation. Fourteen…

  4. Do Economic Recessions During Early and Mid-Adulthood Influence Cognitive Function in Older Age?

    PubMed Central

    Leist, Anja K.; Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluctuations in the national economy shape labour market opportunities and outcomes, which in turn may influence the accumulation of cognitive reserve. This study examines whether economic recessions experienced in early and mid-adulthood are associated with later-life cognitive function. Method Data came from 12,020 respondents in 11 countries participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Cognitive assessments in 2004/5 and 2006/7 were linked to complete work histories retrospectively collected in 2008/9, and to historical annual data on fluctuations in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita for each country. Controlling for confounders, we assessed whether recessions experienced at ages 25-34, 35-44 and 45-49 were associated with cognitive function at ages 50-74. Results Among men, each additional recession at ages 45-49 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b = -0.06, Confidence Interval [CI] -0.11, -0.01). Among women, each additional recession at ages 25-44 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b25-34 = -0.03, CI -0.04, -0.01; b35-44= -0.02, CI -0.04, -0.00). Among men, recessions at ages 45-49 influenced risk of being laid-off, whereas among women, recessions at ages 25-44 led to working part-time and higher likelihood of downward occupational mobility, which were all predictors of worse later-life cognitive function. Conclusions Recessions at ages 45-49 among men and 25-44 among women are associated with later-life cognitive function, possibly via more unfavourable labour market trajectories. If replicated in future studies, findings may indicate that policies that ameliorate the impact of recessions on labour market outcomes may promote later-life cognitive function. PMID:24258197

  5. Walking and the Preservation of Cognitive Function in Older Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prohaska, Thomas R.; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Satariano, William A.; Hunter, Rebecca; Bayles, Constance M.; Kurtovich, Elaine; Kealey, Melissa; Ivey, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This cross-sectional study takes a unique look at the association between patterns of walking and cognitive functioning by examining whether older adults with mild cognitive impairment differ in terms of the community settings where they walk and the frequency, intensity, or duration of walking. Design and Methods: The sample was based on…

  6. Effects of Donepezil on Cognitive Functioning in Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, N.; Fahey, C.; Chicoine, B.; Chong, G.; Gitelman, D.

    2003-01-01

    Donepezil, an acetycholinesterase inhibitor, or a placebo were given to 29 subjects with Down syndrome and no dementia. Measures of cognitive functioning and caregiver ratings indicated no improvement in any cognitive subtests (with the exception of language), behavioral scores, or caregiver ratings. Results suggest donepezil may improve language…

  7. Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

  8. Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and physiological (heart…

  9. Sleep Onset/Maintenance Difficulties and Cognitive Function in Nondemented Older Adults: the Role of Cognitive Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Molly E.; Bigal, Marcelo E.; Katz, Mindy J.; Brickman, Adam M.; Lipton, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined the relationship between cognitive function and sleep onset/maintenance difficulties (SO/MD) in nondemented older adults. We hypothesized that SO/MD negatively impacts cognition and that older adults with lower education would be especially vulnerable to its effects. Methods The sample comprised 549 older adults from the Einstein Aging Study (EAS), a community-based sample. Participants completed neuropsychological assessment and a sleep questionnaire. Univariate ANCOVAs were performed with cognitive performance as a dependent variable, SO/MD (present or absent) and education (lower:?12 years; higher:>12 years) as between-subjects factors, and age, ethnicity, gender, depression, and cardiovascular comorbidies as covariates. Results Participants were an average age of 79.7±5.0 years (range=71–97). Fifty-seven percent (n=314) of the sample met criteria for SO/MD. Among participants with SO/MD, those with lower education performed more poorly on a test of category fluency than participants with higher education (means: 35.2 vs. 41.0, p<0.001); among older adults without SO/MD, educational attainment had no measurable effect on cognition (SO/MD × education interaction (F(1,536)=14.5, p=0.00)). Conclusions Consistent with the cognitive reserve hypothesis, older adults with lower education appear selectively vulnerable to the negative effects of sleep onset/maintenance difficulties on tests of verbal fluency. PMID:22317892

  10. Enhancement of cognitive and neural functions through complex reasoning training: evidence from normal and clinical populations

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Sandra B.; Mudar, Raksha A.

    2014-01-01

    Public awareness of cognitive health is fairly recent compared to physical health. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training offers promise in augmenting cognitive brain performance in normal and clinical populations. Targeting higher-order cognitive functions, such as reasoning in particular, may promote generalized cognitive changes necessary for supporting the complexities of daily life. This data-driven perspective highlights cognitive and brain changes measured in randomized clinical trials that trained gist reasoning strategies in populations ranging from teenagers to healthy older adults, individuals with brain injury to those at-risk for Alzheimer's disease. The evidence presented across studies support the potential for Gist reasoning training to strengthen cognitive performance in trained and untrained domains and to engage more efficient communication across widespread neural networks that support higher-order cognition. The meaningful benefits of Gist training provide compelling motivation to examine optimal dose for sustained benefits as well as to explore additive benefits of meditation, physical exercise, and/or improved sleep in future studies. PMID:24808834

  11. Dance and cognitive functioning in Parkinson's disease 

    E-print Network

    Michalska, Beata

    2012-11-28

    Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is commonly accompanied by reduced health related quality of life (HRQoL) and cognitive decline which decreases participation in activities of daily living. Moreover, worsened motor ...

  12. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M.; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13–17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for “higher-level” cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). “Lower-level” cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA’s showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the “higher-level” cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p < .05). Using stepwise discriminant analysis, 62.5% of subjects was correctly assigned to one of the groups based on their metacognition, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility performance. Controlling for training hours and academic level, MANCOVA’s showed differences in favor of the elite youth soccer players on inhibitory control (p = .001), and cognitive flexibility (p = .042), but not on metacognition (p = .27). No differences were found concerning working memory nor the “lower-level” cognitive processes (p > .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further investigate the importance of “higher-level” cognitive functions for talent identification, talent development and performance in soccer. PMID:26657073

  13. Assessing cognitive function following medial prefrontal stroke in the rat.

    PubMed

    Livingston-Thomas, Jessica M; Jeffers, Matthew S; Nguemeni, Carine; Shoichet, Molly S; Morshead, Cindi M; Corbett, Dale

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive impairments are prevalent following clinical stroke; however, preclinical research has focused almost exclusively on motor deficits. In order to conduct systematic evaluations into the nature of post-stroke cognitive dysfunction and recovery, it is crucial to develop focal stroke models that predominantly affect cognition while leaving motor function intact. Herein, we evaluated a range of cognitive functions 1-4 months following focal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) stroke using a battery of tests. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent focal ischemia induced in the mPFC using bilateral intracerebral injections of endothelin-1, or sham surgery. Cognitive function was assessed using an open field, several object recognition tests, attentional set-shifting, light-dark box, spontaneous alternation, Barnes maze, and win-shift/win-stay tests. Prefrontal cortex damage resulted in significant changes in object recognition function, behavioural flexibility, and anxiety-like behaviour, while spontaneous alternation and locomotor function remained intact. These deficits are similar to the cognitive deficits following stroke in humans. Our results suggest that this model may be useful for identifying and developing potential therapies for improving post-stroke cognitive dysfunction. PMID:26254877

  14. Role of Dietary Protein and Thiamine Intakes on Cognitive Function in Healthy Older People: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Freda; Charlton, Karen; Walton, Karen; McMahon, Anne-Therese

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of nutritional interventions to prevent and maintain cognitive functioning in older adults has been gaining interest due to global population ageing. A systematic literature review was conducted to obtain and appraise relevant studies on the effects of dietary protein or thiamine on cognitive function in healthy older adults. Studies that reported on the use of nutritional supplementations and/or populations with significant cognitive impairment were excluded. Seventeen eligible studies were included. Evidence supporting an association between higher protein and/or thiamine intakes and better cognitive function is weak. There was no evidence to support the role of specific protein food sources, such as types of meat, on cognitive function. Some cross-sectional and case-control studies reported better cognition in those with higher dietary thiamine intakes, but the data remains inconclusive. Adequate protein and thiamine intake is more likely associated with achieving a good overall nutritional status which affects cognitive function rather than single nutrients. A lack of experimental studies in this area prevents the translation of these dietary messages for optimal cognitive functioning and delaying the decline in cognition with advancing age. PMID:25849949

  15. Fluctuating asymmetry and its relation to cognitive function 

    E-print Network

    Elliott, David A

    2008-06-27

    Individual variation in cognitive function may be the outcome of developmental instability (DI) as indexed by Fluctuating Asymmetry (FA: departure from bilateral symmetry in traits which are symmetric at population level, ...

  16. Impact of fMRI Environment on Cognitive Function 

    E-print Network

    Sim, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an increasingly important tool in psychological research, but its reliability is somewhat undermined by concerns about the fMRI environment’s impact on cognition. The unusual ...

  17. Multiple Objective Fitness Functions for Cognitive Radio Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Newman, Timothy Ray

    2008-04-30

    define a common set of eight transmission parameters and six environment parameters used by cognitive radios, and develop a set of preliminary fitness functions that encompass the relationships between a small set of these input and output parameters...

  18. Effects of Acute Exposures to Carbon Dioxide Upon Cognitive Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, R. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Ryder, V. E.; Lam, C. W.; Statish, U.; Basner, M.

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) originate from human metabolism and typically, within spacecraft, remain about 10-fold higher in concentration than at the earth's surface. There have been recurring complaints by crew members of episodes of "mental viscosity" adversely affecting their performance, and there is evidence from the International Space Station (ISS) that associates CO2 levels with reports of headaches by crewmembers. Additionally, there is concern that CO2 may contribute to vision impairment and intracranial pressure that has been observed in some crewmembers. Consequently, flight rules have been employed to control the level of CO2 below 4 mm Hg, which is well below the existing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) of 10 mm Hg for 24-hour exposures, and 5.3 mm Hg for exposures of 7 to 180 days. However, the flight rule imposed limit, which places additional demands upon resources and current technology, still exceeds the lower bound of the threshold range for reportable headaches (2 - 5 mm Hg). Headaches, while sometime debilitating themselves, are also symptoms that can provide evidence that physiological defense mechanisms have been breached. The causes of the headaches may elicit other subtle adverse effects that occur at CO2 levels well below that for headaches. The concern that CO2 may have effects at levels below the threshold for headaches appears to be substantiated in unexpected findings that CO2 at concentrations below 2 mm Hg substantially reduced some cognitive functions that are associated with the ability to make complex decisions in conditions that are characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, ambiguity, and delayed feedback. These are conditions that could be encountered by crews in off-nominal situations or during the first missions beyond low earth orbit. If findings of the earlier study are confirmed in crew-like subjects, our findings would provide additional evidence that CO2 may need to be controlled at levels that are well below current spacecraft limits. Our study will extend the earlier study to determine if crew-like subjects are similarly effected by CO2. In addition to employing the Strategic Management Simulation tool, we will use the Cognition battery of psychometric measures that are being utilized aboard the ISS. It will be important to learn, by using Cognition, if additional cognitive domains are sensitive to concentrations of CO2 at or below limits currently controlled by flight rules. While spaceflight Cognition data will greatly enhance the knowledge base related to inflight behavioral health and performance, some of the measures may be influenced by fatigue (related to sleep deprivation and or workload) and changes in circadian rhythms. Therefore our use of this battery of tests in a well-controlled, ground-based study that is free of these potential confounding influences will establish a baseline terrestrial data set against which Cognition data collected in flight may be assessed. The findings from this study will be useful to the NASA Toxicology Office and the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology, which assists NASA in setting environmental standards, for revision of the SMAC for CO2, and for designing further studies on effects of CO2 upon cognitive functions.

  19. Cognitive function in older adults according to current socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Michael; Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Woody, Parker; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive function may be influenced by education, socioeconomic status, sex, and health status. Furthermore, aging interacts with these factors to influence cognition and dementia risk in late life. Factors that may increase or decrease successful cognitive aging are of critical importance, particularly if they are modifiable. The purpose of this study was to determine if economic status in late life is associated with cognition independent of socioeconomic status in early life. Cross-sectional demographic, socioeconomic, and cognitive function data were obtained in 2592 older adults (average age 71.6 years) from the Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed with linear regression modeling. Cognitive function, as measured with a test of processing speed, was significantly associated with poverty index scores after adjusting for educational attainment as an estimate of childhood socioeconomic status, ethnic background, age, health status, and sex (P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that current economic status is independently associated with cognitive function in adults over age 60 years. PMID:25565407

  20. Monitoring Cognitive Functioning: Psychometric Properties of the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT)

    PubMed Central

    Lachman, Margie E.; Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Tun, Patricia A.; Weaver, Suzanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of cognitive functioning is an important component of telephone surveys of health. Previous cognitive telephone batteries have been limited in scope with a primary focus on dementia screening. The Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT) assesses multiple dimensions central for effective functioning across adulthood: episodic memory, working memory, reasoning, verbal fluency, and executive function. The BTACT is the first instrument which includes measures of processing speed, reaction time, and task switching/inhibitory control for use over the telephone. We administered the battery to a national sample (N = 4,268), aged 32 to 84, from the study of Midlife in the United States and examined age, education and sex differences, reliability, and factor structure. We found good evidence for construct validity with a subsample tested in person. Implications of the findings are considered for efficient neuropsychological assessment and monitoring changes in cognitive aging, for clinical and research applications by telephone or in person. PMID:24322011

  1. Susceptibility to everyday cognitive failure is reflected in functional network interactions in the resting brain.

    PubMed

    Bey, Katharina; Montag, Christian; Reuter, Martin; Weber, Bernd; Markett, Sebastian

    2015-11-01

    The proneness to minor errors and slips in everyday life as assessed by the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) constitutes a trait characteristic and is reflected in stable features of brain structure and function. It is unclear, however, how dynamic interactions of large-scale brain networks contribute to this disposition. To address this question, we performed a high model order independent component analysis (ICA) with subsequent dual regression on resting-state fMRI data from 71 subjects to extract temporal time courses describing the dynamics of 17 resting-state networks (RSN). Dynamic network interactions between all 17 RSN were assessed by linear correlations between networks' time courses. On this basis, we investigated the relationship between subject-level RSN interactions and the susceptibility to everyday cognitive failure. We found that CFQ scores were significantly correlated with the interplay of the cingulo-opercular network (CON) and a posterior parietal network which unifies clusters in the posterior cingulate, precuneus, intraparietal lobules and middle temporal regions. Specifically, a higher positive functional connectivity between these two RSN was indicative of higher proneness to cognitive failure. Both the CON and posterior parietal network are implicated in cognitive functions, such as tonic alertness and executive control. Results indicate that proper checks and balances between the two networks are needed to protect against cognitive failure. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the study of temporal network dynamics in the resting state is a feasible tool to investigate individual differences in cognitive ability and performance. PMID:26210814

  2. Social-cognitive functioning and schizotypal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joseph; Shean, Glenn

    2006-05-01

    The authors examined the relationship between social cognition and a feature of schizotypal personality referred to as magical ideation, defined broadly as the presence and intensity of illogical beliefs about causality and the nature of reality. The measures of social cognition used in this study were the Character Intention Task (CIT) and the adult version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Regression analyses indicated that understanding of character intentions, as measured by CIT scores, and ability to identify emotions on the Eyes test were related to non-realistic beliefs. Principal components analysis of the Magical Ideation Scale generated 3 factors: Occult Beliefs, Non-Realism, and New Age Ideas. Results indicated that impaired understanding of character intentions and ability to identify emotions on the Eyes test were related to non-realistic beliefs. Understanding the cognitive impairments associated with schizotypal characteristics can facilitate development of more targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:16916074

  3. Human Cognitive Function and the Obesogenic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Ashley A.; Davidson, Terry L.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating which suggests that, in addition to leading to unprecedented rates of obesity, the current food environment is contributing to the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. Recent experimental research indicates that many of the cognitive deficits associated with obesity involve fundamental inhibitory processes that have important roles in the control of food intake, implicating these cognitive impairments as a risk factor for weight gain. Here, we review experiments that link obesity with deficits in memory, attentional, and behavioral control and contemplate how these deficits may predispose individuals to overeat. Specifically, we discuss how deficits in inhibitory control may reduce one’s ability to resist eating when confronted with the variety of foods and food cues that are ubiquitous in today’s environment. Special attention is given to the importance of memory inhibition to the control of eating and appetitive behavior, and the role of the hippocampus in this process. We also discuss the potential etiology of both obesity and obesity-related cognitive impairment, highlighting non-human animal research which links both of these effects to the consumption of the modern “Western” diet that is high in saturated fats and simple carbohydrates. We conclude that part of what makes the current food environment “obesogenic” is the increased presence of food cues and the increased consumption of a diet which compromises our ability to resist those cues. A multi-dimensional intervention which focuses on improving control over food-related cognitive processing may be useful not only for combating the obesity epidemic but also for minimizing the risk of serious cognitive disorder later in life. PMID:24631299

  4. Cognitive function, numeracy and retirement saving trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Banks, James; O’Dea, Cormac; Oldfield, Zoë

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which cognitive abilities relate to differences in trajectories for key economic outcomes as individuals move towards and through their retirement. We look at whether differences in baseline numeracy (measured in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing in 2002) and broader cognitive ability predict the subsequent trajectories of outcomes such as wealth, retirement income and key dimensions of retirement expectations. Those with lower numeracy are shown to have different wealth trajectories both pre- and post-retirement than their more numerate counterparts, but the distributions of retirement expectations and net replacement rates are similar across numeracy groups. PMID:22228911

  5. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Bipolar Disorder: Effects on Cognitive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Eisner, Lori R.; Hölzel, Britta K.; Peckham, Andrew D.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Rauch, Scott L.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Lazar, Sara; Deckersbach, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is associated with impairments in cognition, including difficulties in executive functioning, even when patients are euthymic (neither depressed nor manic). The purpose of this study was to assess changes in self-reported cognitive functioning in patients with bipolar disorder who participated in an open pilot trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Following MBCT, patients reported significant improvements in executive functioning, memory, and ability to initiate and complete tasks, as measured by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe). Changes in cognitive functioning were correlated with increases in mindful, nonjudgmental observance and awareness of thoughts, feelings, and sensations, and were not associated with decreases in depression. Improvements tended to diminish after termination of treatment, but some improvements, particularly those in executive functioning, persisted after 3 months. These results provide preliminary evidence that MBCT may be a treatment option that can be used as an adjunct to medication to improve cognitive functioning in bipolar disorder. PMID:22108398

  6. Cognitive Functioning in Children with Learning Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwenck, Christina; Dummert, Friederike; Endlich, Darius; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Several cognitive deficits associated with reading and mathematics problems have been identified. However, only few studies assessed the impact of these variables in children with combined problems in reading and arithmetics, and none of these studies included children with low IQ. This longitudinal study was designed to assess the impact of…

  7. Chronobiology, cognitive function and depressive symptoms in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Melissa Voigt

    2014-09-01

    Biological rhythms are essential for the regulation of many life processes. Disturbances of the circadian rhythm are known to affect human health, performance and well-being and the negative consequences are numerous and widespread. Cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, pain, sleep disturbances and mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are common problems arising around the time of surgery or in the course of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment period. The importance of investigating prevention or treatment possibilities in these populations is significant due to the extent of the problems and the derived consequences on morbidity and mortality. Genetic predisposition to these problems is also an issue in focus. In this thesis we initially investigated whether the specific clock gene genotype PER(5/5) was associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction one week after non-cardiac surgery. We did not find any association, although this could have been due to the size of the study. Yet, if PER3(5/5) is associated with a higher incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, the risk seems to be only modestly increased and by less than 10%. Melatonin is a hormone with well-known chronobiotic and hypnotic effects. In addition, exogenous melatonin is also known to have anxiolytic, analgesic, antidepressant and positive cognitive effects. Based on the lack of studies investigating these effects of melatonin, we conducted the MELODY trial in which we investigated the effect of 6 mg oral melatonin on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, cognitive function and fatigue in patients with breast cancer in a three month time period after surgery. Melatonin had an effect on reducing the risk of developing depressive symptoms and also increased sleep efficiency perioperatively and total sleep time postoperatively. No effect was found on anxiety, sleep quality, sleepiness, general well-being or pain, however melatonin seemed to positively influence the ability to complete trial participation compared to placebo. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction was not a problem in this limited population. With regard to safety in our study, melatonin treatment for three months did not cause any serious adverse effects. Finally, we systematically reviewed the literature on the prophylactic or therapeutic effect of melatonin for depression or depressive symptoms in adult patients and assessed the safety of melatonin in these studies. The quantity, size and quality of trials investigating this question were not high and there was no clear evidence of an effect, although some studies were positive. In conclusion, further research is warranted with regard to the prophylactic effect and treatment effect of melatonin in depression, depressive symptoms, cognitive disturbances and symptom clusters of cancer patients in general. In addition, more hypothesis-generating studies with regard to the genetic heritability of POCD are needed. PMID:25186550

  8. Perceived Stress and Change in Cognitive Function Among Adults Aged 65 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Neelum T.; Wilson, Robert S.; Beck, Todd L.; Rajan, Kumar B.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Evans, Denis A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Exposure to acute and chronic stress can affect learning and memory but most evidence comes from animal studies or clinical observations. Almost no population-based studies have investigated the relation of stress to cognition or changes in cognition over time. We examined whether higher levels of perceived stress were associated with accelerated decline in cognitive function in older blacks and whites from a community-based population sample. Methods Participants included 6,207 black and white adults (65.7% black, 63.3% women) from the Chicago Health and Aging project. Two to five in-home assessments were completed over an average of 6.8 years of follow up, and included sociodemographics, health behaviors, psychosocial measures, cognitive function tests, and health history. Perceived stress was measured by a 6-item scale, and a composite measure of four tests of cognition was used to determine cognitive function at each assessment. Results Mixed effects regression models showed that increasing levels of perceived stress were related to lower initial cognitive scores (B=-0.0379, SE=0.0025, p<.001) and a faster rate of cognitive decline (stress × time interaction: B=-0.0015, SE=0.0004, p<.001). Results were similar after adjusting for demographic variables, smoking, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, chronic medical conditions, and psychosocial factors and did not vary by race, sex, age or education. Conclusion Increasing levels of stress are independently associated with accelerated declines in cognitive function in black and white adults aged 65 and above. PMID:24367123

  9. Methadone maintenance treatment and cognitive function: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Grace Y; Wouldes, Trecia A; Russell, Bruce R

    2013-09-01

    Methadone has been used as a pharmacotherapy for the treatment of opiate dependence since the mid-1960s. Many studies examining the benefits of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opiate dependence have documented a significant reduction in both criminal behavior and the use of other opiates. Nevertheless, emerging evidence suggests that MMT may impair cognitive function. However, it is unclear as to the part methadone dose, duration of MMT or plasma level may play in any observed deficits. Given the large number of people enrolled in MMT world-wide and the potential for deficits in cognitive function, a systematic review of the research investigating the association between MMT and cognitive function seemed warranted. The following databases were searched with a combination of free-text and thesaurus terms (methadone AND cognition): MEDLINE In-Process, EMBASE, PsycINFO and EBM Reviews-Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Seventy-eight articles were retrieved of which 35 met the inclusion criteria. The majority of research suggests that MMT is associated with impaired cognitive function and that deficits extended across a range of domains. However, caution is required when interpreting these results due to the methodological limitations associated with many studies. Further research that includes a combination of psychological and physiological measures within well-controlled group comparison studies is required to more accurately assess which cognitive domains are affected. PMID:23773088

  10. Clinical assessment of social cognitive function in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Henry, Julie D; von Hippel, William; Molenberghs, Pascal; Lee, Teresa; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2016-01-01

    Social cognition broadly refers to the processing of social information in the brain that underlies abilities such as the detection of others' emotions and responding appropriately to these emotions. Social cognitive skills are critical for successful communication and, consequently, mental health and wellbeing. Disturbances of social cognition are early and salient features of many neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders, and often occur after acute brain injury. Its assessment in the clinic is, therefore, of paramount importance. Indeed, the most recent edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) introduced social cognition as one of six core components of neurocognitive function, alongside memory and executive control. Failures of social cognition most often present as poor theory of mind, reduced affective empathy, impaired social perception or abnormal social behaviour. Standard neuropsychological assessments lack the precision and sensitivity needed to adequately inform treatment of these failures. In this Review, we present appropriate methods of assessment for each of the four domains, using an example disorder to illustrate the value of these approaches. We discuss the clinical applications of testing for social cognitive function, and finally suggest a five-step algorithm for the evaluation and treatment of impairments, providing quantitative evidence to guide the selection of social cognitive measures in clinical practice. PMID:26670297

  11. Associations of Inflammation to Cognitive Function in African Americans and European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Windham, B. Gwen; Simpson, Brittany N.; Lirette, Seth; Bridges, John; Bielak, Lawrence; Peyser, Patricia A.; Kullo, Iftikhar; Turner, Stephen; Griswold, Michael E.; Mosley, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Elucidating associations of specific inflammatory biomarkers with cognitive function in African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA) with prevalent vascular risk factors could identify vascular-mediated effects on cognitive impairment. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis using Generalized Estimating Equations to account for familial clustering; standardized ?-coefficients, adjusted for age, sex, and education are reported. SETTING A community cohort study in Jackson, MS and Rochester, MN. PARTICIPANTS Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA)-Genetics of Microangiopathic Brain Injury (GMBI) Study. MEASUREMENTS We examined associations between inflammation [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 (sTNFR1, sTNFR2)] and cognitive function measures [global (G), processing speed (PS), language (L), memory (M), and executive function (EF)] in AA and EA (N=1965; age 26–95y, 64% women, 52% AA, 75% hypertensive). RESULTS In AA, higher sTNFR2 was associated with poorer cognition across all domains (G: ?0.11, p=.009; PS: ?0.11, p<.001; L: ?0.08, p=.002; M: ?0.09, p=.008; EF: ?0.07, p=.032); sTNFR1 was associated with poorer PS (?0.08, p<.001) and with EF (?0.08, p=.008); higher CRP was associated with lower PS (?0.04, p=.024), and higher IL6 was associated with poorer EF (?0.07, p=.019). In EA, only higher sTNFR1 was associated with poorer PS (?0.05, p=.007). We did not find support for associations between cognition and sTNFR2, CRP or IL6 in EA. CONCLUSION In a population with heightened vascular risk, adverse associations between inflammation and cognitive function were especially apparent in AA, primarily involving markers of TNF? activity. PMID:25516026

  12. Questions for Assessing Higher-Order Cognitive Skills: It's Not Just Bloom’s

    PubMed Central

    Lemons, Paula P.; Lemons, J. Derrick

    2013-01-01

    We present an exploratory study of biologists’ ideas about higher-order cognition questions. We documented the conversations of biologists who were writing and reviewing a set of higher-order cognition questions. Using a qualitative approach, we identified the themes of these conversations. Biologists in our study used Bloom's Taxonomy to logically analyze questions. However, biologists were also concerned with question difficulty, the length of time required for students to address questions, and students’ experience with questions. Finally, some biologists demonstrated an assumption that questions should have one correct answer, not multiple reasonable solutions; this assumption undermined their comfort with some higher-order cognition questions. We generated a framework for further research that provides an interpretation of participants’ ideas about higher-order questions and a model of the relationships among these ideas. Two hypotheses emerge from this framework. First, we propose that biologists look for ways to measure difficulty when writing higher-order questions. Second, we propose that biologists’ assumptions about the role of questions in student learning strongly influence the types of higher-order questions they write. PMID:23463228

  13. Electroencephalographic imaging of higher brain function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevins, A.; Smith, M. E.; McEvoy, L. K.; Leong, H.; Le, J.

    1999-01-01

    High temporal resolution is necessary to resolve the rapidly changing patterns of brain activity that underlie mental function. Electroencephalography (EEG) provides temporal resolution in the millisecond range. However, traditional EEG technology and practice provide insufficient spatial detail to identify relationships between brain electrical events and structures and functions visualized by magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography. Recent advances help to overcome this problem by recording EEGs from more electrodes, by registering EEG data with anatomical images, and by correcting the distortion caused by volume conduction of EEG signals through the skull and scalp. In addition, statistical measurements of sub-second interdependences between EEG time-series recorded from different locations can help to generate hypotheses about the instantaneous functional networks that form between different cortical regions during perception, thought and action. Example applications are presented from studies of language, attention and working memory. Along with its unique ability to monitor brain function as people perform everyday activities in the real world, these advances make modern EEG an invaluable complement to other functional neuroimaging modalities.

  14. EEG-based research on brain functional networks in cognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Niannian; Zhang, Li; Liu, Guozhong

    2015-01-01

    Recently, exploring the cognitive functions of the brain by establishing a network model to understand the working mechanism of the brain has become a popular research topic in the field of neuroscience. In this study, electroencephalography (EEG) was used to collect data from subjects given four different mathematical cognitive tasks: recite numbers clockwise and counter-clockwise, and letters clockwise and counter-clockwise to build a complex brain function network (BFN). By studying the connectivity features and parameters of those brain functional networks, it was found that the average clustering coefficient is much larger than its corresponding random network and the average shortest path length is similar to the corresponding random networks, which clearly shows the characteristics of the small-world network. The brain regions stimulated during the experiment are consistent with traditional cognitive science regarding learning, memory, comprehension, and other rational judgment results. The new method of complex networking involves studying the mathematical cognitive process of reciting, providing an effective research foundation for exploring the relationship between brain cognition and human learning skills and memory. This could help detect memory deficits early in young and mentally handicapped children, and help scientists understand the causes of cognitive brain disorders. PMID:26405867

  15. DISTINCT FUNCTIONS OF SOCIAL SUPPORT AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION AMONG OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Regina C.; Hosey, Megan; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Whitfield, Keith E.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Waldstein, Shari R.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Study Context Social support has been shown to buffer cognitive decline in older adults; however, few studies have examined the association of distinct functions of perceived social support and cognitive function. The current study examined the relations between distinct functions of social support and numerous cognitive domains in older adults. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional, correlational study of cardiovascular risk factors, cognitive function, and neuroimaging. The participants were 175 older adults with a mean age of 66.32. A number of neuropsychological tests and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List were administered. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to determine cross-sectional relations of social support to cognitive function after controlling for age, gender, education, depressive symptomatology, systolic blood pressure, body-mass index, total cholesterol, and fasting glucose. Results No significant positive relations were found between distinct functions of social support and cognitive function in any domain; however, inverse relations emerged such that greater social support across several functions was associated with poorer nonverbal memory and response inhibition. Conclusion Results suggest that the receipt of social support may be a burden for some older adults. Within the current study, fluid cognitive abilities reflected this phenomenon. The mechanism through which social support is associated with poorer cognitive function in some domains deserves further exploration. PMID:24467699

  16. Motor and cognitive functions of the ventral premotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Fogassi, Leonardo; Gallese, Vittorio

    2002-04-01

    Recent data show that the ventral premotor cortex in both humans and monkeys has motor and cognitive functions. The cognitive functions include space perception, action understanding and imitation. The data also show a clear functional homology between monkey area F5 and human area 44. Preliminary evidence suggests that the ventral part of the lateral premotor cortex in humans may correspond to monkey area F4. A tentative map of the human lateral premotor areas founded on the reviewed evidence is presented. PMID:12015230

  17. Geographic Elevation and Cognitive Function among Elderly Residents in Rural Mountainous Areas: Shimane CoHRE Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Onoda, Keiichi; Takeda, Miwako; Sundquist, Kristina; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Nabika, Toru

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether there is an association between elevation and cognitive function among elderly residents in rural mountainous areas. Data were collected in 2012 from a cross-sectional study conducted in Ohnan Town, which is located in a rural mountainous area in the southern part of Shimane Prefecture, Japan. Cognitive function was evaluated using CADi (Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version) and elevation was estimated by using Geographic Information Systems according to the participant’s address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 866 participants were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, higher elevation was significantly associated with decreased cognitive function. This finding suggests that it is important to consider the physical environment, i.e., elevation, that would affect accessibility to health-promoting goods, services, and resources when seeking to maintain cognitive function in elderly people living in rural mountainous areas. PMID:26512683

  18. Geographic Elevation and Cognitive Function among Elderly Residents in Rural Mountainous Areas: Shimane CoHRE Study.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Onoda, Keiichi; Takeda, Miwako; Sundquist, Kristina; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Nabika, Toru

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether there is an association between elevation and cognitive function among elderly residents in rural mountainous areas. Data were collected in 2012 from a cross-sectional study conducted in Ohnan Town, which is located in a rural mountainous area in the southern part of Shimane Prefecture, Japan. Cognitive function was evaluated using CADi (Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version) and elevation was estimated by using Geographic Information Systems according to the participant's address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 866 participants were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, higher elevation was significantly associated with decreased cognitive function. This finding suggests that it is important to consider the physical environment, i.e., elevation, that would affect accessibility to health-promoting goods, services, and resources when seeking to maintain cognitive function in elderly people living in rural mountainous areas. PMID:26512683

  19. Identifying Similarities in Cognitive Subtest Functional Requirements: An Empirical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby, Craig L.; Parkin, Jason R.

    2007-01-01

    In the cognitive test interpretation literature, a Rational/Intuitive, Indirect Empirical, or Combined approach is typically used to construct conceptual taxonomies of the functional (behavioral) similarities between subtests. To address shortcomings of these approaches, the functional requirements for 49 subtests from six individually…

  20. The Relationship between Stress, Fatigue, and Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Laura K.; Economou, Peter; Cruz, Daniel; Abraham-Cook, Shannon; Huntington, Jodi S.; Maris, Marika; Makhija, Nita; Welsh, Toni; Maley, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    There is a plethora of research suggesting that daily stressors and fatigue can have a significant effect on learning and various cognitive functions in young adults. Little is known, however, about how these effects impact learning and other neurocognitive functions in students with learning challenges when compared to their counterparts without…

  1. ZINC FORTIFICATION AND COGNITIVE AND PSYCHOSOCIAL FUNCTION IN YOUNG ADOLESCENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have related zinc nutrition to motor, cognitive and psychosocial function in very young children and adults, but there have been no studies of older children. Therefore, we investigated the effects of zinc fortification on these functions in young adolescents. Seventh graders (65 gi...

  2. The Relationship between Stress, Fatigue, and Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Laura K.

    2013-01-01

    There is a plethora of research suggesting that daily stressors and fatigue can have a significant effect on learning and various cognitive functions in young adults. Little is known, however, about how these effects impact learning and other neurocognitive functions in students with learning challenges when compared to their counterparts without…

  3. Improved cognitive function in schizophrenia after one year of cognitive training and vocational services.

    PubMed

    Greig, Tamasine C; Zito, Wayne; Wexler, Bruce E; Fiszdon, Joanna; Bell, Morris D

    2007-11-01

    A year-long program of Neurocognitive Enhancement Therapy (NET) was used to remediate cognitive deficits in people with schizophrenia who were participating in a vocational program. Seventy-two stable outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, recruited from an urban community mental health center were randomly assigned to a twelve-month vocational program (VOC) or NET+VOC. The vocational program had characteristics of individual placement and support (IPS) programs but also included transitional funding. NET included computer-based cognitive training exercises, a social information processing group and a work feedback group. Sixty-two participants completed a neuropsychological test battery before and after treatment. After one year of treatment, participants receiving NET+VOC had significantly greater improvements on measures of executive function and working memory than did participants in the VOC only condition. Augmenting vocational services with a multifaceted cognitive remediation program may improve cognition in participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. PMID:17669629

  4. Improved Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia After One Year of Cognitive Training and Vocational Services

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Tamasine C.; Zito, Wayne; Wexler, Bruce E.; Fiszdon, Joanna; Bell, Morris D.

    2007-01-01

    A year- long program of Neurocognitive Enhancement Therapy (NET) was used to remediate cognitive deficits in people with schizophrenia who were participating in a vocational program Seventy-two stable outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, recruited from an urban community mental health center were randomly assigned to a 12 month vocational program (VOC) or NET + VOC. The vocational program had characteristics of individual placement and support (IPS) programs but also included transitional funding. NET included computer-based cognitive training exercises, a social information processing group and a work feedback group. Sixty-two participants completed a neuropsychological test battery before and after treatment. After one year of treatment, participants receiving NET+VOC had significantly greater improvements on measures of executive function and working memory than did participants in the VOC only condition. Augmenting vocational services with a multifaceted cognitive remediation program may improve cognition in participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. PMID:17669629

  5. The Contribution of Generative Leisure Activities to Cognitive Function among Sri Lankan Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Maselko, Joanna; Sebranek, Matthew; Mun, Mirna Hodzic; Perera, Bilesha; Ahs, Jill; Østbye, Truls

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Although a substantive body of research has shown a protective association between leisure activities and cognitive function, consistent evidence is lacking about which specific types of activities should be promoted. The objective of this analysis was to examine the unique contribution of generative leisure activities, defined as activities motivated by “a concern for others and a need to contribute something to the next generation” (Erikson). DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SETTING Peri-urban and rural area in southern Sri Lanka. PARTICIPANTS Community dwelling adults aged 60+ (n=252). MEASUREMENTS Main predictors were leisure activities grouped into generative, social, or solitary. Main outcome was cognitive function assessed with Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). RESULTS We found that more frequent engagement in generative leisure activities was associated with higher levels of cognitive function, independent of the impact of other social and solitary leisure activities. In a fully adjusted model combining all three leisure activities, generative activities independently predicted cognitive function as measured with the MoCA (? =0.47 (0.11 to 0.83) and the IQCODE (? = -0.81 (-1.54 to -0.09)). In this combined model, solitary activities were also independently associated with slower cognitive decline with the MoCA (? =0.40 (0.16, 0.64), but not with IQCODE (? =-0.38 (-0.88, 0.12)); the association with social activities did not reach statistical significance with either measure. These associations did not differ meaningfully by gender. CONCLUSION Generative leisure activities are a promising area for the development of interventions aimed at reducing cognitive decline among the elderly. PMID:25139145

  6. Standards for thyroid laboratory testing, and cognitive functions after menopause

    PubMed Central

    Bejga, Przemys?aw; Witczak, Mariusz; ?yszcz, Robert; Makara-Studzinska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study is to analyze the relationship between normative and non-normative thyroid tests (TSH, TT4, TT3, FT3, FT4, anti-TPO, anti-Tg, AB-TSHR) and the level of cognitive functions in postmenopausal women. Material and methods The study group consisted of 383 women from south-eastern Poland, aged 50-65 years. The cognitive functions were evaluated using a diagnostic instrument – Central Nervous System – Vital Signs (CNS-VS). Blood was collected for determination of the following parameters: TSH, TT4, TT3, FT3, FT4, anti-TPO, anti-Tg, AB-TSHR. Results There were significant differences in NCI, executive functions, psychomotor speed, reaction time, complex attention and cognitive flexibility, depending on the normative and non-normative level of TSH. Women whose level of FT3 was at the lower limit of the normal range obtained poorer results in psychomotor speed, while subjects with levels of FT4 below the standard achieved significantly lower scores for this function. The relationship between NCI and cognitive functions, and the normative and non-normative anti-TPO results, showed significant differences in verbal memory, visual memory, processing speed and reaction time. The level of AB-TSHR reported as normal or above the norm significantly differentiated from the results of NCI, processing speed, executive functions, psychomotor speed, complex attention and cognitive flexibility. Conclusions Concentrations of laboratory parameters assessing the thyroid function located within the upper limits of the normal range showed a different relationship with the cognitive performance than concentrations located within the lower limits of the standard. PMID:26327860

  7. Cognitive and Physical Function in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Daniel E; Seliger, Stephen L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Both cognitive and physical function are commonly impaired in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), resulting in important impacts on quality of life and overall health. This review summarizes the burden of cognitive and physical impairment in CKD, focusing on recent research that highlights a possible unifying microvascular etiology among these shared comorbid conditions Recent findings Multiple small studies have been published recently evaluating cognitive and physical functioning in people with CKD. These studies overall demonstrate a high burden of comorbid conditions in people with CKD, including microvascular disease, that may result in cognitive impairment. Additionally, studies demonstrate that physical function is substantially worse than expected in individuals with CKD, that decreased physical activity is associated with worse outcomes, that frailty is very common and associated with an increased risk of death, and that structured exercise programs have small but tangible short term effects of markers of physical performance. Summary Impaired cognitive function and physical performance are important factors impacting the lives of people with CKD. Further research is necessary to better treat this important comorbid conditions in people with CKD. PMID:24638060

  8. Brain structure and function correlates of cognitive subtypes in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Daniel; Walton, Esther; Naylor, Melissa; Roessner, Veit; Lim, Kelvin O; Charles Schulz, S; Gollub, Randy L; Calhoun, Vince D; Sponheim, Scott R; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2015-10-30

    Stable neuropsychological deficits may provide a reliable basis for identifying etiological subtypes of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to identify clusters of individuals with schizophrenia based on dimensions of neuropsychological performance, and to characterize their neural correlates. We acquired neuropsychological data as well as structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging from 129 patients with schizophrenia and 165 healthy controls. We derived eight cognitive dimensions and subsequently applied a cluster analysis to identify possible schizophrenia subtypes. Analyses suggested the following four cognitive clusters of schizophrenia: (1) Diminished Verbal Fluency, (2) Diminished Verbal Memory and Poor Motor Control, (3) Diminished Face Memory and Slowed Processing, and (4) Diminished Intellectual Function. The clusters were characterized by a specific pattern of structural brain changes in areas such as Wernicke's area, lingual gyrus and occipital face area, and hippocampus as well as differences in working memory-elicited neural activity in several fronto-parietal brain regions. Separable measures of cognitive function appear to provide a method for deriving cognitive subtypes meaningfully related to brain structure and function. Because the present study identified brain-based neural correlates of the cognitive clusters, the proposed groups of individuals with schizophrenia have some external validity. PMID:26341950

  9. Factors Predicting Reversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Normal Cognitive Functioning: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Perminder S.; Lipnicki, Darren M.; Crawford, John; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A.; Trollor, Julian N.; Wen, Wei; Draper, Brian; Slavin, Melissa J.; Kang, Kristan; Lux, Ora; Mather, Karen A.; Brodaty, Henry; Team, Ageing Study

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. However, many individuals diagnosed with MCI are found to have reverted to normal cognition on follow-up. This study investigated factors predicting or associated with reversion from MCI to normal cognition. Methods Our analyses considered 223 participants (48.9% male) aged 71–89 years, drawn from the prospective, population-based Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. All were diagnosed with MCI at baseline and subsequently classified with either normal cognition or repeat diagnosis of MCI after two years (a further 11 participants who progressed from MCI to dementia were excluded). Associations with reversion were investigated for (1) baseline factors that included diagnostic features, personality, neuroimaging, sociodemographics, lifestyle, and physical and mental health; (2) longitudinal change in potentially modifiable factors. Results There were 66 reverters to normal cognition and 157 non-reverters (stable MCI). Regression analyses identified diagnostic features as most predictive of prognosis, with reversion less likely in participants with multiple-domain MCI (p?=?0.011), a moderately or severely impaired cognitive domain (p?=?0.002 and p?=?0.006), or an informant-based memory complaint (p?=?0.031). Reversion was also less likely for participants with arthritis (p?=?0.037), but more likely for participants with higher complex mental activity (p?=?0.003), greater openness to experience (p?=?0.041), better vision (p?=?0.014), better smelling ability (p?=?0.040), or larger combined volume of the left hippocampus and left amygdala (p<0.040). Reversion was also associated with a larger drop in diastolic blood pressure between baseline and follow-up (p?=?0.026). Discussion Numerous factors are associated with reversion from MCI to normal cognition. Assessing these factors could facilitate more accurate prognosis of individuals with MCI. Participation in cognitively enriching activities and efforts to lower blood pressure might promote reversion. PMID:23544083

  10. Predicting Cognitive Function from Clinical Measures of Physical Function and Health Status in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Kording, Konrad; Salowitz, Nicole; Davis, Jennifer C.; Hsu, Liang; Chan, Alison; Sharma, Devika; Blohm, Gunnar; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current research suggests that the neuropathology of dementia—including brain changes leading to memory impairment and cognitive decline—is evident years before the onset of this disease. Older adults with cognitive decline have reduced functional independence and quality of life, and are at greater risk for developing dementia. Therefore, identifying biomarkers that can be easily assessed within the clinical setting and predict cognitive decline is important. Early recognition of cognitive decline could promote timely implementation of preventive strategies. Methods We included 89 community-dwelling adults aged 70 years and older in our study, and collected 32 measures of physical function, health status and cognitive function at baseline. We utilized an L1–L2 regularized regression model (elastic net) to identify which of the 32 baseline measures were strongly predictive of cognitive function after one year. We built three linear regression models: 1) based on baseline cognitive function, 2) based on variables consistently selected in every cross-validation loop, and 3) a full model based on all the 32 variables. Each of these models was carefully tested with nested cross-validation. Results Our model with the six variables consistently selected in every cross-validation loop had a mean squared prediction error of 7.47. This number was smaller than that of the full model (115.33) and the model with baseline cognitive function (7.98). Our model explained 47% of the variance in cognitive function after one year. Discussion We built a parsimonious model based on a selected set of six physical function and health status measures strongly predictive of cognitive function after one year. In addition to reducing the complexity of the model without changing the model significantly, our model with the top variables improved the mean prediction error and R-squared. These six physical function and health status measures can be easily implemented in a clinical setting. PMID:25734446

  11. Critical Periods of Brain Growth and Cognitive Function in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Catharine R.; O'Callaghan, Finbar J.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Law, Catherine M.; Martyn, Christopher N.

    2004-01-01

    There is evidence that IQ tends to be higher in those who were heavier at birth or who grew taller in childhood and adolescence. Although these findings imply that growth in both foetal and postnatal life influences cognitive performance, little is known about the relative importance of brain growth during different periods of development. We…

  12. Improving functional disability and cognition in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Javier; García-Gorostiaga, Inés; Gomez-Beldarrain, Maria Angeles; Díez-Cirarda, María; Ojeda, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the efficacy of an integrative cognitive training program (REHACOP) to improve cognition, clinical symptoms, and functional disability of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: Forty-two patients diagnosed with PD in Hoehn & Yahr stages 1 to 3 were randomly assigned to either the cognitive training group (REHACOP) or the control group (occupational activities) for 3 months (3 sessions, 60 min/wk). Primary outcomes were change on processing speed, verbal memory, visual memory, executive functioning, and theory of mind. Secondary outcomes included changes on neuropsychiatric symptoms, depression, apathy, and functional disability. The trial was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02118480). Results: No baseline group differences were found. Bootstrapped analysis of variance results showed significant differences in the mean change scores between the REHACOP group and control group in processing speed (0.13 [SE = 0.07] vs ?0.15 [SE = 0.09], p = 0.025), visual memory (0.10 [SE = 0.10] vs ?0.24 [SE = 0.09], p = 0.011), theory of mind (1.00 [SE = 0.37] vs ?0.27 [SE = 0.29], p = 0.013), and functional disability (?5.15 [SE = 1.35] vs 0.53 [SE = 1.49], p = 0.012). Conclusions: Patients with PD receiving cognitive training with REHACOP demonstrated statistically significant and clinically meaningful changes in processing speed, visual memory, theory of mind, and functional disability. Future studies should consider the long-term effect of this type of intervention. These findings support the integration of cognitive training into the standard of care for patients with PD. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with PD, an integrative cognitive training program improves processing speed, visual memory, theory of mind, and functional disability. PMID:25361785

  13. Steady-state BOLD Response to Higher-order Cognition Modulates Low-Frequency Neural Oscillations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Feng; Dai, Gang-Shu; Liu, Feng; Long, Zhi-Liang; Yan, Jin H; Chen, Hua-Fu

    2015-12-01

    Steady-state responses (SSRs) reflect the synchronous neural oscillations evoked by noninvasive and consistently repeated stimuli at the fundamental or harmonic frequencies. The steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs; the representative form of the SSRs) have been widely used in the cognitive and clinical neurosciences and brain-computer interface research. However, the steady-state evoked potentials have limitations in examining high-frequency neural oscillations and basic cognition. In addition, synchronous neural oscillations in the low frequency range (<1 Hz) and in higher-order cognition have received a little attention. Therefore, we examined the SSRs in the low frequency range using a new index, the steady-state BOLD responses (SSBRs) evoked by semantic stimuli. Our results revealed that the significant SSBRs were induced at the fundamental frequency of stimuli and the first harmonic in task-related regions, suggesting the enhanced variability of neural oscillations entrained by exogenous stimuli. The SSBRs were independent of neurovascular coupling and characterized by sensorimotor bias, an indication of regional-dependent neuroplasticity. Furthermore, the amplitude of SSBRs may predict behavioral performance and show the psychophysiological relevance. Our findings provide valuable insights into the understanding of the SSRs evoked by higher-order cognition and how the SSRs modulate low-frequency neural oscillations. PMID:26284992

  14. The Effects of Isoflurane and Desflurane on Cognitive Function in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Tian, Ming; Zhen, Yu; Yue, Yun; Sherman, Janet; Zheng, Hui; Li, Shuren; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Xie, Zhongcong

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) remains to be determined. Anesthetic isoflurane, but not desflurane, may induce neurotoxicity. However, the functional consequences of these effects have not been assessed. We therefore performed a pilot study to determine the effects of isoflurane and desflurane on cognitive function in humans. METHODS: The subjects included patients who had lower extremity or abdominal surgery under spinal anesthesia alone (S, n = 15), spinal plus desflurane anesthesia (SD, n = 15), or spinal plus isoflurane anesthesia (SI, n = 15) by randomization. Each of the subjects received cognitive tests immediately before and 1 week after anesthesia and surgery administered by an investigator who was blinded to the anesthesia regimen. POCD was defined using the scores from each of these tests. RESULTS: We studied 45 subjects, 24 males and 21 females. The mean age of the subjects was 69.0 ± 1.9 years. There was no significant difference in age and other characteristics among the treatment arms. The mean number of cognitive function declines in the S, SD, and SI groups was 1.13, 1.07, and 1.40, respectively. POCD incidence after SI (27%), but not SD (0%), anesthesia was higher than that after S (0%), P = 0.028 (3-way comparison). CONCLUSION: These findings from our pilot study suggest that isoflurane and desflurane may have different effects on postoperative cognitive function, and additional studies with a larger sample size and longer times of follow-up testing are needed. PMID:22075020

  15. Variation in cognitive functioning as a refined approach to comparing aging across countries.

    PubMed

    Skirbekk, Vegard; Loichinger, Elke; Weber, Daniela

    2012-01-17

    Comparing the burden of aging across countries hinges on the availability of valid and comparable indicators. The Old Age Dependency Ratio allows only a limited assessment of the challenges of aging, because it does not include information on any individual characteristics except age itself. Existing alternative indicators based on health or economic activity suffer from measurement and comparability problems. We propose an indicator based on age variation in cognitive functioning. We use newly released data from standardized tests of seniors' cognitive abilities for countries from different world regions. In the wake of long-term advances in countries' industrial composition, and technological advances, the ability to handle new job procedures is now of high and growing importance, which increases the importance of cognition for work performance over time. In several countries with older populations, we find better cognitive performance on the part of populations aged 50+ than in countries with chronologically younger populations. This variation in cognitive functioning levels may be explained by the fact that seniors in some regions of the world experienced better conditions during childhood and adult life, including nutrition, duration and quality of schooling, lower exposure to disease, and physical and social activity patterns. Because of the slow process of cohort replacement, those countries whose seniors already have higher cognitive levels today are likely to continue to be at an advantage for several decades to come. PMID:22184241

  16. Variation in cognitive functioning as a refined approach to comparing aging across countries

    PubMed Central

    Skirbekk, Vegard; Loichinger, Elke; Weber, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Comparing the burden of aging across countries hinges on the availability of valid and comparable indicators. The Old Age Dependency Ratio allows only a limited assessment of the challenges of aging, because it does not include information on any individual characteristics except age itself. Existing alternative indicators based on health or economic activity suffer from measurement and comparability problems. We propose an indicator based on age variation in cognitive functioning. We use newly released data from standardized tests of seniors' cognitive abilities for countries from different world regions. In the wake of long-term advances in countries’ industrial composition, and technological advances, the ability to handle new job procedures is now of high and growing importance, which increases the importance of cognition for work performance over time. In several countries with older populations, we find better cognitive performance on the part of populations aged 50+ than in countries with chronologically younger populations. This variation in cognitive functioning levels may be explained by the fact that seniors in some regions of the world experienced better conditions during childhood and adult life, including nutrition, duration and quality of schooling, lower exposure to disease, and physical and social activity patterns. Because of the slow process of cohort replacement, those countries whose seniors already have higher cognitive levels today are likely to continue to be at an advantage for several decades to come. PMID:22184241

  17. Educational attainment, MRI changes, and cognitive function in older postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Stephen R; Espeland, Mark A; Manson, Joann E; Resnick, Susan M; Bryan, Nick R; Smoller, Sylvia; Coker, Laura H; Phillips, Lawrence S; Stefanick, Marcia L; Sarto, Gloria E

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between neuropathology and clinically manifested functional and cognitive deficits is complex. Clinical observations of individuals with greater neuropathology who function better than some individuals with less neuropathology are common and puzzling. Educational attainment, a proxy for "cognitive reserve," may help to explain this apparent contradiction. The objective of this study is to determine if educational attainment is correlated with cognitive decline, brain lesion volume, and total brain atrophy. One thousand three hundred ninety of the 7,479 community-dwelling women 65 years of age and older enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study, two parallel randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials comparing unopposed and opposed postmenopausal hormone therapy with placebo, were studied. Study participants received annual assessments of global cognitive function with the Modified Mini Mental State exam. One thousand sixty-three participants also received supplemental neurocognitive battery and neuroimaging studies. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to calculate total ischemic lesion and brain volumes. Incident cases of probable dementia and mild cognitive impairment were centrally adjudicated. After adjustment for total lesion and total brain volumes (atrophy), higher educational attainment predicted better cognitive performance (p < 0.001). Following conversion to dementia/MCI, higher education predicted steeper declines in cognitive function (p < 0.001). Thus, higher educational attainment was associated with a delay in diagnosis of dementia/MCI in the face of a growing neuropathological load. PMID:24552037

  18. Educational attainment, MRI changes and cognitive function in older postmenopausal women from the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Stephen R.; Espeland, Mark A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Resnick, Susan M.; Bryan, Nick R.; Smoller, Sylvia; Coker, Laura H.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Sarto, Gloria E.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between neuropathology and clinically manifested functional and cognitive deficits is complex. Clinical observations of individuals with greater neuropathology who function better than some individuals with less neuropathology are common and puzzling. Educational attainment, a proxy for ‘cognitive reserve’, may help to explain this apparent contradiction. The objective of this study is to determine if educational attainment is correlated with cognitive decline, brain lesion volume and total brain atrophy. One thousand three hundred ninety of the 7,479 community-dwelling women 65 years of age and older enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study, two parallel randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials comparing unopposed and opposed post-menopausal hormone therapy with placebo, were studied. Study participants received annual assessments of global cognitive function with the Modified Mini Mental State exam. One thousand sixty-three participants also received a supplemental neurocognitive battery and neuroimaging studies. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to calculate total ischemic lesion and brain volumes. Incident cases of probable dementia and mild cognitive impairment were centrally adjudicated. After adjustment for total lesion and total brain volumes (atrophy), higher educational attainment predicted better cognitive performance (p<0.001). Following conversion to dementia/MCI, higher education predicted steeper declines in cognitive function (p<0.001). Thus, higher educational attainment was associated with a delay in diagnosis of dementia/MCI in the face of a growing neuropathological load. PMID:24552037

  19. Elevated body mass index and maintenance of cognitive function in late life: exploring underlying neural mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chun Liang; Voss, Michelle W.; Best, John R.; Handy, Todd C.; Madden, Kenneth; Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with vascular risk factors that in turn, may increase dementia risk. However, higher body mass index (BMI) in late life may be neuroprotective. The possible neural mechanisms underlying the benefit of higher BMI on cognition in older adults are largely unknown. Thus, we used functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) to examine: (1) the relationship between BMI and functional brain connectivity; and (2) the mediating role of functional brain connectivity in the association between baseline BMI and change in cognitive function over a 12-month period. Methods:We conducted a 12-month, prospective study among 66 community-dwelling older adults, aged 70 to 80 years, who were categorized as: normal weight (BMI from 18.50 to 24.99); overweight (BMI from 25.00 to 29.99); and obese (BMI ? 30.00). At baseline, participants performed a finger-tapping task during fMRI scanning. Relevant neural networks were initially identified through independent component analysis (ICA) and subsequently examined through seed-based functional connectivity analysis. At baseline and 12-months, we measured three executive cognitive processes: (1) response inhibition; (2) set shifting; and (3) working memory. Results:Obese individuals showed lower task-related functional connectivity during finger tapping in the default mode network (DMN) compared with their healthy weight counterparts (p < 0.01). Lower task-related functional connectivity in the DMN at baseline was independently associated with better working memory performance at 12-months (p = 0.02). Finally, DMN functional connectivity during finger tapping significantly mediated the relationship between baseline BMI and working memory at 12-months (indirect effect: ?0.155, 95% confidence interval [?0.313, ?0.053]). Conclusions:These findings suggest that functional connectivity of the DMN may be an underlying mechanism by which higher BMI confers protective effects to cognition in late life. PMID:26347646

  20. Cognitive Functioning in Long Duration Head-down Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaton, Kimberly A.; Slack, Kelley J.; Sipes, Walter A.; Bowie, Kendra

    2008-01-01

    The Space Flight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a self-administered battery of tests used on the International Space Station for evaluating cognitive functioning. Here, WinSCAT was used to assess cognitive functioning during extended head-down bed rest. Thirteen subjects who participated in 60 or 90 days of 6 deg head-down bed rest took WinSCAT during the pre-bed rest phase, the in-bed rest phase, and the post-bed rest (reconditioning) phase of study participation. After adjusting for individual baseline performance, 12 off-nominal scores were observed out of 351 total observations during bed rest and 7 of 180 during reconditioning. No evidence was found for systematic changes in off-nominal incidence as time in bed rest progressed, or during the reconditioning period. Cognitive functioning does not appear to be adversely affected by long duration head-down bed rest. Individual differences in underlying cognitive ability and motivation level are likely explanations for the current findings.

  1. The effect of cognitive functioning on treatment attendance and adherence in comorbid bipolar disorder and cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Colleen S; Carmody, Thomas J; McClintock, Shawn M; Suris, Alina; Nakamura, Alyson; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Lo, Alexander; Brown, E Sherwood

    2015-02-01

    Although bipolar disorder and substance dependence are both associated with treatment non-adherence and cognitive impairment, no studies have investigated relationships between treatment adherence and cognitive functioning in this population. As part of a clinical trial, baseline performance on two neuropsychological tests in 120 outpatients with bipolar disorder and cocaine dependence was used to examine whether cognitive functioning was associated with appointment attendance, medication adherence, and return of medication bottles. This study found that higher baseline cognitive functioning measured by the Stroop Color-Word condition predicted better treatment adherence. However, this study also reports measurement sensitivity of cognition as it relates to treatment adherence when applied to this dual diagnosis population. Poorer performance in simple visual attention tasks as assessed by the Stroop Word condition was inversely associated with some measures of adherence. Future studies are warranted that include a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and advanced medication adherence measures to confirm these findings. PMID:25108685

  2. Automated Semantic Indices Related to Cognitive Function and Rate of Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Pakhomov, Serguei V.S.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Lim, Kelvin O.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study is to introduce a fully automated, computational linguistic technique to quantify semantic relations between words generated on a standard semantic verbal fluency test and to determine its cognitive and clinical correlates. Cognitive differences between patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment are evident in their performance on the semantic verbal fluency test. In addition to the semantic verbal fluency test score, several other performance characteristics sensitive to disease status and predictive of future cognitive decline have been defined in terms of words generated from semantically related categories (clustering) and shifting between categories (switching). However, the traditional assessment of clustering and switching has been performed manually in a qualitative fashion resulting in subjective scoring with limited reproducibility and scalability. Our approach uses word definitions and hierarchical relations between the words in WordNet®, a large electronic lexical database, to quantify the degree of semantic similarity and relatedness between words. We investigated the novel semantic fluency indices of mean cumulative similarity and relatedness between all pairs of words regardless of their order, and mean sequential similarity and relatedness between pairs of adjacent words in a sample of patients with clinically diagnosed probable (n=55) or possible (n=27) Alzheimer’s disease or mild cognitive impairment (n=31). The semantic fluency indices differed significantly between the diagnostic groups, and were strongly associated with neuropsychological tests of executive function, as well as the rate of global cognitive decline. Our results suggest that word meanings and relations between words shared across individuals and computationally modeled via WordNet and large text corpora provide the necessary context to account for the variability in language-based behavior and relate it to cognitive dysfunction observed in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:22659109

  3. Modulation of Higher-Order Olfaction Components on Executive Functions in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Fagundo, Ana B.; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Islam, Mohammed Anisul; de la Torre, Rafael; Pastor, Antoni; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Granero, Roser; Baños, Rosa; Botella, Cristina; Fernández-Real, Jose M.; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Menchón, José M.; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The prefrontal (PFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) appear to be associated with both executive functions and olfaction. However, there is little data relating olfactory processing and executive functions in humans. The present study aimed at exploring the role of olfaction on executive functioning, making a distinction between primary and more cognitive aspects of olfaction. Three executive tasks of similar difficulty were used. One was used to assess hot executive functions (Iowa Gambling Task-IGT), and two as a measure of cold executive functioning (Stroop Colour and Word Test-SCWT and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-WCST). Sixty two healthy participants were included: 31 with normosmia and 31 with hyposmia. Olfactory abilities were assessed using the ‘‘Sniffin’ Sticks’’ test and the olfactory threshold, odour discrimination and odour identification measures were obtained. All participants were female, aged between 18 and 60. Results showed that participants with hyposmia displayed worse performance in decision making (IGT; Cohen’s-d = 0.91) and cognitive flexibility (WCST; Cohen’s-d between 0.54 and 0.68) compared to those with normosmia. Multiple regression adjusted by the covariates participants’ age and education level showed a positive association between odour identification and the cognitive inhibition response (SCWT-interference; Beta = 0.29; p = .034). The odour discrimination capacity was not a predictor of the cognitive executive performance. Our results suggest that both hot and cold executive functions seem to be associated with higher-order olfactory functioning in humans. These results robustly support the hypothesis that olfaction and executive measures have a common neural substrate in PFC and OFC, and suggest that olfaction might be a reliable cognitive marker in psychiatric and neurologic disorders. PMID:26083418

  4. Cognitive Variability in Adults with ADHD and AS: Disentangling the Roles of Executive Functions and Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Baez, Sandra; Torralva, Teresa; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Rattazzi, Alexia; Bein, Victoria; Rogg, Katharina; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Asperger's Syndrome (AS) share a heterogeneous cognitive profile. Studies assessing executive functions (EF) and social cognition in both groups have found preserved and impaired performances. These inconsistent findings would be partially explained by the cognitive variability reported in these…

  5. Personalized Cognitive Training in Unipolar and Bipolar Disorder: A Study of Cognitive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Preiss, Marek; Shatil, Evelyn; ?ermáková, Radka; Cimermanová, Dominika; Ram, Ilana

    2013-01-01

    Patients with unipolar depressive disorder and in the depressive phase of bipolar disorder often manifest psychological distress and cognitive deficits, notably in executive control. We used computerized cognitive training in an attempt to reduce psychological affliction, improve everyday coping, and cognitive function. We asked one group of patients (intervention group) to engage in cognitive training three times a week, for 20?min each time, for eight consecutive weeks. A second group of patients (control group) received standard care only. Before the onset of training we administered to all patients self-report questionnaires of mood, mental and psychological health, and everyday coping. We also assessed executive control using a broad computerized neurocognitive battery of tests which yielded, among others, scores in Working Memory, Shifting, Inhibition, Visuomotor Vigilance, Divided Attention, Memory Span, and a Global Executive Function score. All questionnaires and tests were re-administered to the patients who adhered to the study at the end of training. When we compared the groups (between-group comparisons) on the amount of change that had taken place from baseline to post-training, we found significantly reduced depression level for the intervention group. This group also displayed significant improvements in Shifting, Divided Attention, and in the Global executive control score. Further exploration of the data showed that the cognitive improvement did not predict the improvements in mood. Single-group data (within-group comparisons) show that patients in the intervention group were reporting fewer cognitive failures, fewer dysexecutive incidents, and less difficulty in everyday coping. This group had also improved significantly on the six executive control tests and on the Global executive control score. By contrast, the control group improved only on the reports of cognitive failure and on working memory. PMID:23717272

  6. 1. Introduction Cognitive neuroscience provides a new conceptual frame-

    E-print Network

    locally specialized functions emerging as clearly dominant. Neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neuropsychology.silverstein@att.net Abstract: The concept of locally specialized functions dominates research on higher brain function and its. Keywords: attention; cerebral cortex; cognitive coordination; cognitive neuropsychiatry; cognitive

  7. Global cognitive function before, surrounding, and after ischemic stroke: the role of risk and protective factors varies with time among ischemic stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Leslie; Bushnell, Cheryl; Bell, Christina L; Espeland, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 65% of individuals demonstrate multidomain cognitive impairment poststroke, although little is known about the varying role of cognitive risk and protective factors in preischemic, peri-ischemic, and postischemic stroke phases. Longitudinal changes in global cognitive function after ischemic stroke are not well characterized, especially in older adults over age 80. We examined global cognitive function trajectories in these three phases across a mean follow-up of 8.12 (2.30) years in 159 female stroke survivors aged 65-79 at baseline using linear mixed models with change points. In separate models controlling for demographic variables, we tested the interaction of baseline risk and protective factors with stroke phase on global cognitive function. None of the prestroke global cognitive function means or trajectories differed significantly. At the time of ischemic stroke, higher body mass index (BMI), the presence of hypertension (HTN), low optimism, and higher physical function were all associated with significantly greater mean decreases in global cognition (all p's <.0.0001), but were not significantly different from the contrasting level (all p's >0.05). Higher BMI, the presence of HTN, low optimism, and higher physical function were in turn protective of global cognitive decline postischemic stroke (all contrasting p values <.01). Baseline factors may play either a risk or a protective role in global cognitive function depending on the phase of ischemic stroke. PMID:26073439

  8. Estradiol and cognitive function: Past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Luine, Victoria N.

    2014-01-01

    A historical perspective on estradiol’s enhancement of cognitive function is presented, and research, primarily in animals, but also in humans, is reviewed. Data regarding the mechanisms underlying the enhancements are discussed. Newer studies showing rapid effects of estradiol on consolidation of memory through membrane interactions and activation of inter-cellular signaling pathways are reviewed as well as studies focused on traditional genomic mechanisms. Recent demonstrations of intra-neuronal estradiol synthesis and possible actions as a neurosteroid to promote memory are discussed. This information is applied to the critical issue of the current lack of effective hormonal (or other) treatments for cognitive decline associated with menopause and aging. Finally, the critical period hypothesis for estradiol effects is discussed along with novel strategies for hormone/drug development. Overall, the historical record documents that estradiol positively impacts some aspects of cognitive function, but effective therapeutic interventions using this hormone have yet to be realized. PMID:25205317

  9. Association Between Dental Student-Developed Exam Questions and Learning at Higher Cognitive Levels.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Cabezas, Carlos; Anderson, Olivia S; Wright, Mary C; Fontana, Margherita

    2015-11-01

    New dental accreditation standards emphasize that graduates must be competent in the use of critical thinking (a high cognitive-level skill). Despite this new standard, most written assessments in dental school courses are still based on low cognitive-level questions. The aim of this study was to determine if an exercise that allows students to collaboratively write exam questions would help cultivate higher cognitive levels of learning. To evaluate this exercise at one U.S. dental school, the cognitive level (according to Bloom's taxonomy) of multiple-choice exam questions and students' scores across two cohorts in a cariology course were compared. This evaluation took place using a control group in which questions were instructor-generated and an intervention group in which students worked in groups to develop questions. All students in one first-year class participated in the intervention group (n=104); all students in the first-year class two years earlier served as the control group (n=106). Among students in the intervention group, the response rate to a post-intervention survey measuring students' attitudes about the experience was 70% (N=73). The results showed that the students generating their own assessments developed higher cognitive-level exam questions than the instructor-generated assessments. The intervention group (with student-generated assessments) also performed as well or better on tests compared to the control group (with instructor-generated assessments). In the intervention group survey, the vast majority of students agreed that the exercise was helpful for their overall learning experience, but working in teams was said to be the least valuable component of the activity for their learning. This study suggests that student-driven, collaborative assessments can be an important tool for building critical thinking skills in dental classrooms and that it may be worthwhile to expand this type of exercise into other courses. PMID:26522634

  10. Risk factors for cognitive and functional change in one year in patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia from São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fabricio Ferreira; Pivi, Glaucia Akiko Kamikado; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Smith, Marilia Cardoso; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira

    2015-12-15

    Midlife cerebrovascular risk, low cognitive reserve and APOE4+ haplotypes are risk factors for Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD). We prospectively searched for factors that might be associated with yearly changes in caregiver burden, cognition, basic and instrumental functionality in 193 consecutive outpatients with late-onset AD, namely gender, APOE haplotypes, schooling, age at AD onset, marital status, depression, cerebrovascular risk factors, serum TSH levels, cognitive and physical activities, and treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors or anti-psychotics, while also investigating associations between APOE haplotypes and patient participation in cognitive or physical activities. Higher education led to greater declines in instrumental functionality, whereas increases in body mass index were associated with rises in basic functionality and cognitive test scores. Established cerebrovascular risk factors had no independent effects over cognitive or functional change, but their combinations led to cognitive improvement, possibly related to enhanced cerebral perfusion in late life. Cholinesterase inhibitors improved caregiver burden. Enhanced instrumental functionality and steeper cognitive decline by the use of anti-psychotics might be attributed to improved behavioural symptoms and neuropsychiatric side effects, respectively. Each copy of APOE-?4 (?=-0.102) led to cumulative decreased participation in physical activities (?=0.015). These results might impact public health policies and the interpretation of clinical trials for AD. PMID:26671101

  11. Cognitive Function In Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Rheumatoid Arthritis And Multiple Sclerosis Assessed By Computerized Neuropsychological Tests

    PubMed Central

    Hanly, John G.; Omisade, Antonina; Su, Li; Farewell, Vern; Fisk, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Computerized neuropsychological testing may facilitate screening for cognitive impairment in SLE. We used the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM), to compare patients with SLE, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS) with healthy controls. Methods Patients with SLE (68), RA (33), and MS (20), were compared to 29 healthy controls. Efficiency of cognitive performance on eight ANAM subtests was examined using throughput (Tp), inverse efficiency (IE) and adjusted IE scores. The latter is more sensitive to higher cognitive functions because it adjusts for the impact of simple reaction time on performance. The results were analyzed using O’Brien’s generalized least squares test. Results Control subjects were the most efficient in cognitive performance. MS patients were least efficient overall (Tp and IE scores) and were less efficient than both SLE (p=0.01) and RA (p<0.01) patients, who did not differ. Adjusted IE scores were similar between SLE, RA patients and controls reflecting the impact of simple reaction time on cognitive performance. Thus, 50% of SLE patients, 61% of RA patients and 75% of MS patients were impaired on at least one ANAM subtest. Only 9% of RA patients and 11% of SLE patients were impaired on 4 or more subtests, whereas this was true for 20% of MS patients. Conclusion ANAM is sensitive to cognitive impairment. While such computerized testing may be a valuable screening tool, our results emphasize the lack of specificity of slowed performance as a reliable indicator of impairment of higher cognitive function in SLE patients. PMID:20155829

  12. Long working hours and cognitive function: the Whitehall II Study.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Marianna; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Ferrie, Jane E; Gimeno, David; Marmot, Michael G; Elovainio, Marko; Jokela, Markus; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2009-03-01

    This study examined the association between long working hours and cognitive function in middle age. Data were collected in 1997-1999 (baseline) and 2002-2004 (follow-up) from a prospective study of 2,214 British civil servants who were in full-time employment at baseline and had data on cognitive tests and covariates. A battery of cognitive tests (short-term memory, Alice Heim 4-I, Mill Hill vocabulary, phonemic fluency, and semantic fluency) were measured at baseline and at follow-up. Compared with working 40 hours per week at most, working more than 55 hours per week was associated with lower scores in the vocabulary test at both baseline and follow-up. Long working hours also predicted decline in performance on the reasoning test (Alice Heim 4-I). Similar results were obtained by using working hours as a continuous variable; the associations between working hours and cognitive function were robust to adjustments for several potential confounding factors including age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, income, physical diseases, psychosocial factors, sleep disturbances, and health risk behaviors. This study shows that long working hours may have a negative effect on cognitive performance in middle age. PMID:19126590

  13. [The stimulating impact of light on brain cognition function].

    PubMed

    Vandewalle, Gilles

    2014-10-01

    Light regulates multiple non-visual circadian, neuroendocrine, and neurobehavioral functions, and conveys a strong stimulating signal for alert-ness and cognition. This review summarizes a series of neuroimaging studies investigating the brain mechanisms underlying the latter stimulating impact of light. Results of these studies are compatible with a scenario where light would first hit subcortical areas involved in arousal regulation before affecting cortical areas involved in the ongoing non-visual cognitive process, and then cognitive performance. Recent data demonstrated that the non-visual impact of light is most likely triggered via outputs from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC) expressing the photopigment melanopsin, which are maximally sensitive to blue light. In addition, the stimulating impact of light is intimately related to wakefulness regulation as it changes with circadian phase and sleep pressure. Finally, markers of inter-individual difference have also been described: age, PERIOD3 genotype, and psychiatric status. This review emphasizes the importance of light for human brain cognitive function and for cognition in general. PMID:25311026

  14. State-based functional connectivity changes associate with cognitive decline in amnestic mild cognitive impairment subjects.

    PubMed

    Yue, Chunxian; Wu, Di; Bai, Feng; Shi, Yongmei; Yu, Hui; Xie, Chunming; Zhang, Zhijun

    2015-07-15

    Episodic memory (EM) dysfunction is a central characteristic of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) subjects, and has a high risk of converting to Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is unknown how the EM network is modulated when a situation is switched. Twenty-six aMCI and twenty-two cognitively normal (CN) subjects were enrolled in this study. All of the subjects completed multi-dimensional neuropsychological tests and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans during a resting-state and an episodic memory retrieval task state. The EM network was constructed using a seed-based functional connectivity (FC) approach. AMCI subjects showed poorer cognitive performances in the episodic memory and executive function. We demonstrated that connectivity of the left posterior parahippocampal gyrus (LpPHG) connected to the left ventral medial prefrontal cortex and the right postcentral gyrus (RPCG) was significantly decreased in aMCI subjects compared to CN subjects. Meanwhile, there was increased connectivity of the LpPHG to the right dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (RDMPFC), RPCG, left inferior parietal cortex, and bilateral superior parietal lobe in all of the subjects that changed from a resting-state to a task-state. Interestingly, the changed LpPHG-RDMPFC connectivity strength was significantly correlated with EM scores and executive function in the aMCI subjects. As a result, general brain regions are functionally organized and integrated into the EM network, and this strongly suggests that more cognitive resources are mobilized to meet the challenge of cognitive demand in the task state. These findings extend our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of EM deficits in aMCI subjects. PMID:25907751

  15. Phenomenological and biological correlates of improved cognitive function in hospitalized elderly medical inpatients.

    PubMed

    Adamis, Dimitrios; Meagher, David; Treloar, Adrian; Dunne, Colum; Larvin, Michael; Martin, Finbarr C; Macdonald, Alastair J D

    2014-01-01

    Deterioration of cognitive ability is a recognized outcome following acute illness in older patients. Levels of circulating cytokines and APOE genotype have both been linked with acute illness-related cognitive decline. In this observational longitudinal study, consecutive admissions to an elderly medical unit of patients aged ?70 years were assessed within 3 days and re-assessed twice weekly with a range of scales assessing cognitive function, functional status and illness severity. Cytokines and APOE genotype were measured in a subsample. Improvement was defined as either a 20% or three points increase in mini mental state examination (MMSE). From the 142 participants 55 (39%) experienced cognitive improvement, of which 30 (54.5%) had delirium while 25 had non-delirious acute cognitive disorder. Using bivariate statistics, subjects with more severe acute illness, lower insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels and more severe delirium were more likely to experience a ?20% improvement in MMSE scores. When the criterion of cognitive improvement was a 3 point improvement in MMSE, those with more severe delirium, females and older were more likely to be improved. Longitudinal analysis using any criterion of improvement indicated that improvement was significantly (p<.05) predicted by higher levels of IGF-I, lower levels of IL-1 (alpha and beta), lack of APOE epsilon 4 allele, and female gender. In conclusion, cognitive recovery during admission is not exclusively linked to delirium status, but reflects a range of factors. The character and relevance of non-delirious acute cognitive disorder warrants further study. PMID:25189345

  16. Sleep and Cognitive Functioning in Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders and sleep of insufficient duration and quality have been associated with impaired cognitive functioning in typically developing children and in children with a wide array of disabilities and medical conditions. Among children with disabilities, those with intellectual disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism…

  17. Gender Characteristics of Cerebral Hemodynamics during Complex Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misteli, Maria; Duschek, Stefan; Richter, Andre; Grimm, Simone; Rezk, Markus; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Boeker, Heinz; Seifritz, Erich; Schuepbach, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Functional Transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) has been applied to assess peak mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MFV) with a high temporal resolution during cognitive activation. Yet, little attention has been devoted to gender-related alterations of MFV, including spectral analysis. In healthy subjects, fTCD was used to investigate a series…

  18. Functional Neuroimaging of Social and Nonsocial Cognitive Control in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatino, Antoinette; Rittenberg, Alison; Sasson, Noah J.; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Bodfish, James W.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated cognitive control of social and nonsocial information in autism using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and a neurotypical control group completed an oddball target detection task where target stimuli were either faces or nonsocial objects previously shown to be related…

  19. Preschooler Sleep Patterns Related to Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe-Cooperman, Kathleen; Brady-Amoon, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Preschoolers' sleep patterns were examined related to cognitive and adaptive functioning. The sample consisted of 874 typically developing preschool children with a mean age of 40.01 months. Parent/caregiver reports of children's sleep pattern factors, Stanford-Binet 5 intelligence scale scores, and Behavior Assessment…

  20. Modelling generic cognitive functions with operational Hebbian cell assemblies

    E-print Network

    Wennekers, Thomas

    memory models for the neocortex. This approach extends Donald Hebb's classical ideas about Cell AsModelling generic cognitive functions with operational Hebbian cell assemblies Thomas Wennekers1 University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, PSQ, Rm A218 Plymouth PL4 8AA, United Kingdom Phone: +44

  1. Emotion Responsivity, Social Cognition, and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia

    E-print Network

    Emotion Responsivity, Social Cognition, and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia Jennifer R. Mathews been a defining feature in schizophrenia, but relatively little research has examined how emotion in schizophrenia. Participants were 40 outpatients with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 40

  2. Environmental exposure to manganese in air: Associations with cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Bowler, Rosemarie M; Kornblith, Erica S; Gocheva, Vihra V; Colledge, Michelle A; Bollweg, George; Kim, Yangho; Beseler, Cheryl L; Wright, Chris W; Adams, Shane W; Lobdell, Danelle T

    2015-07-01

    Manganese (Mn), an essential element, can be neurotoxic in high doses. This cross-sectional study explored the cognitive function of adults residing in two towns (Marietta and East Liverpool, Ohio, USA) identified as having high levels of environmental airborne Mn from industrial sources. Air-Mn site surface emissions method modeling for total suspended particulate (TSP) ranged from 0.03 to 1.61 ?g/m(3) in Marietta and 0.01-6.32 ?g/m(3) in East Liverpool. A comprehensive screening test battery of cognitive function, including the domains of abstract thinking, attention/concentration, executive function and memory was administered. The mean age of the participants was 56 years (±10.8 years). Participants were mostly female (59.1) and primarily white (94.6%). Significant relationships (p<0.05) were found between Mn exposure and performance on working and visuospatial memory (e.g., Rey-O Immediate ?=-0.19, Rey-O Delayed ?=-0.16) and verbal skills (e.g., Similarities ?=-0.19). Using extensive cognitive testing and computer modeling of 10-plus years of measured air monitoring data, this study suggests that long-term environmental exposure to high levels of air-Mn, the exposure metric of this paper, may result in mild deficits of cognitive function in adult populations. PMID:26096496

  3. Hydration and cognitive function in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate fluid intake is critical for survival. While adults are at liberty to drink fluids, as they will, children and infants are dependent upon caregivers for food and fluid. Children are at greater risk for dehydration than adults due to higher surface-to-mass ratio. Additionally, children ha...

  4. Regional functional connectivity predicts distinct cognitive impairments in Alzheimer’s disease spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, Kamalini G.; Hinkley, Leighton B.; Beagle, Alexander J.; Mizuiri, Danielle; Dowling, Anne F.; Honma, Susanne M.; Finucane, Mariel M.; Scherling, Carole; Miller, Bruce L.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Vossel, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding neural network dysfunction in neurodegenerative disease is imperative to effectively develop network-modulating therapies. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), cognitive decline associates with deficits in resting-state functional connectivity of diffuse brain networks. The goal of the current study was to test whether specific cognitive impairments in AD spectrum correlate with reduced functional connectivity of distinct brain regions. We recorded resting-state functional connectivity of alpha-band activity in 27 patients with AD spectrum ? 22 patients with probable AD (5 logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia, 7 posterior cortical atrophy, and 10 early-onset amnestic/dysexecutive AD) and 5 patients with mild cognitive impairment due to AD. We used magnetoencephalographic imaging (MEGI) to perform an unbiased search for regions where patterns of functional connectivity correlated with disease severity and cognitive performance. Functional connectivity measured the strength of coherence between a given region and the rest of the brain. Decreased neural connectivity of multiple brain regions including the right posterior perisylvian region and left middle frontal cortex correlated with a higher degree of disease severity. Deficits in executive control and episodic memory correlated with reduced functional connectivity of the left frontal cortex, whereas visuospatial impairments correlated with reduced functional connectivity of the left inferior parietal cortex. Our findings indicate that reductions in region-specific alpha-band resting-state functional connectivity are strongly correlated with, and might contribute to, specific cognitive deficits in AD spectrum. In the future, MEGI functional connectivity could be an important biomarker to map and follow defective networks in the early stages of AD. PMID:25180158

  5. Functional disconnection and social cognition in schizophrenia 

    E-print Network

    Mukherjee, Prerona

    2011-11-25

    Introduction Social and emotional functions play a key role in schizophrenia. Both positive symptoms, such as hallucinations and persecutory delusions, as well as negative symptoms such as social withdrawal, and flattened ...

  6. Enrichment Effects on Adult Cognitive Development: Can the Functional Capacity of Older Adults Be Preserved and Enhanced?

    PubMed

    Hertzog, Christopher; Kramer, Arthur F; Wilson, Robert S; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2008-10-01

    In this monograph, we ask whether various kinds of intellectual, physical, and social activities produce cognitive enrichment effects-that is, whether they improve cognitive performance at different points of the adult life span, with a particular emphasis on old age. We begin with a theoretical framework that emphasizes the potential of behavior to influence levels of cognitive functioning. According to this framework, the undeniable presence of age-related decline in cognition does not invalidate the view that behavior can enhance cognitive functioning. Instead, the course of normal aging shapes a zone of possible functioning, which reflects person-specific endowments and age-related constraints. Individuals influence whether they function in the higher or lower ranges of this zone by engaging in or refraining from beneficial intellectual, physical, and social activities. From this point of view, the potential for positive change, or plasticity, is maintained in adult cognition. It is an argument that is supported by newer research in neuroscience showing neural plasticity in various aspects of central nervous system functioning, neurochemistry, and architecture. This view of human potential contrasts with static conceptions of cognition in old age, according to which decline in abilities is fixed and individuals cannot slow its course. Furthermore, any understanding of cognition as it occurs in everyday life must make a distinction between basic cognitive mechanisms and skills (such as working-memory capacity) and the functional use of cognition to achieve goals in specific situations. In practice, knowledge and expertise are critical for effective functioning, and the available evidence suggests that older adults effectively employ specific knowledge and expertise and can gain new knowledge when it is required. We conclude that, on balance, the available evidence favors the hypothesis that maintaining an intellectually engaged and physically active lifestyle promotes successful cognitive aging. First, cognitive-training studies have demonstrated that older adults can improve cognitive functioning when provided with intensive training in strategies that promote thinking and remembering. The early training literature suggested little transfer of function from specifically trained skills to new cognitive tasks; learning was highly specific to the cognitive processes targeted by training. Recently, however, a new generation of studies suggests that providing structured experience in situations demanding executive coordination of skills-such as complex video games, task-switching paradigms, and divided attention tasks-train strategic control over cognition that does show transfer to different task environments. These studies suggest that there is considerable reserve potential in older adults' cognition that can be enhanced through training. Second, a considerable number of studies indicate that maintaining a lifestyle that is intellectually stimulating predicts better maintenance of cognitive skills and is associated with a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in late life. Our review focuses on longitudinal evidence of a connection between an active lifestyle and enhanced cognition, because such evidence admits fewer rival explanations of observed effects (or lack of effects) than does cross-sectional evidence. The longitudinal evidence consistently shows that engaging in intellectually stimulating activities is associated with better cognitive functioning at later points in time. Other studies show that meaningful social engagement is also predictive of better maintenance of cognitive functioning in old age. These longitudinal findings are also open to important rival explanations, but overall, the available evidence suggests that activities can postpone decline, attenuate decline, or provide prosthetic benefit in the face of normative cognitive decline, while at the same time indicating that late-life cognitive changes can result in curtailment of activities. Given the complexity of the dynamic reciprocal re

  7. Semantic Memory fMRI and Cognitive Function After Exercise Intervention in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. Carson; Nielson, Kristy A.; Antuono, Piero; Lyons, Jeri-Annette; Hanson, Ryan J.; Butts, Alissa M.; Hantke, Nathan C.; Verber, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with early memory loss, Alzheimer neuropathology, inefficient or ineffective neural processing, and increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Unfortunately, treatments aimed at improving clinical symptoms or markers of brain function generally have been of limited value. Physical exercise is often recommended for people diagnosed with MCI, primarily because of its widely reported cognitive benefits in healthy older adults. However, it is unknown if exercise actually benefits brain function during memory retrieval in MCI. Here, we examined the effects of exercise training on semantic memory activation during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Seventeen MCI participants and 18 cognitively intact controls, similar in sex, age, education, genetic risk, and medication use, volunteered for a 12-week exercise intervention consisting of supervised treadmill walking at a moderate intensity. Both MCI and control participants significantly increased their cardiorespiratory fitness by approximately 10% on a treadmill exercise test. Before and after the exercise intervention, participants completed a fMRI famous name discrimination task and a neuropsychological battery, Performance on Trial 1 of a list-learning task significantly improved in the MCI participants. Eleven brain regions activated during the semantic memory task showed a significant decrease in activation intensity following the intervention that was similar between groups (p-values ranged .048 to .0001). These findings suggest exercise may improve neural efficiency during semantic memory retrieval in MCI and cognitively intact older adults, and may lead to improvement in cognitive function. Clinical trials are needed to determine if exercise is effective to delay conversion to AD. PMID:23803298

  8. Association between Tooth Loss and Cognitive Function among 3063 Chinese Older Adults: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jianfeng; Wu, Bei; Zhao, Qianhua; Guo, Qihao; Meng, Haijiao; Yu, Lirong; Zheng, Li; Hong, Zhen; Ding, Ding

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral health has been found to be associated with cognitive function in basic research and epidemiology studies. Most of these studies had no comprehensive clinical diagnosis on cognitive function. This study firstly reported the association between tooth loss and cognitive function among Chinese older population. Methods The study included 3,063 community dwelling older adults aged 60 or above from the Shanghai Aging Study. Number of teeth missing was obtained from self-reporting questionnaire and confirmed by trained interviewers. Participants were diagnosed as “dementia”, “mild cognitive impairment (MCI)”, or “cognitive normal” by neurologists using DSM-IV and Petersen criteria. Multivariate logistic regression model was applied to examine the association between number of teeth missing and cognitive function. Results The study participants had an average of 10.2 teeth lost. Individuals with dementia lost 18.7 teeth on average, much higher than those with MCI (11.8) and cognitive normal (9.3) (p<0.001). After adjusted for sex, age, education year, living alone, body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, anxiety, depression, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and APOE-?4, tooth loss of >16 were significantly associated with dementia with an OR of 1.56 (95%CI 1.12-2.18). Conclusion Having over 16 missing teeth was associated with severe cognitive impairment among Chinese older adults. Poor oral health might be considered as a related factor of neurodegenerative symptom among older Chinese population. PMID:25803052

  9. Cognitive function and endogenous cytokine levels in children with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Abu Faddan, N H; Shehata, G A; Abd Elhafeez, H A; Mohamed, A O; Hassan, H S; Abd El Sameea, F

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about how hepatitis C (HCV) infection affects cognitive function in children. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of HCV infection on cognitive function of children with normal liver functions and their relationships to endogenous IFN-?, IL-6 and TNF-?. IFN-?, IL-6 and TNF-? were measured and the Arabic version of the Stanford-Binet test used to assess cognitive functions in 35 children with HCV infection and 23 controls. Serum levels of IL-6 and IFN-? were significantly higher in patients compared to controls. There was a significant effect on vocabulary, comprehension, and abstract visual reasoning, quantitative reasoning and bead memory tests, as well as total short-term memory and intelligence quotient in patients compared to controls. There was a significant positive correlation between IFN-? and IL-6. Also there were significant negative correlations between IFN-? and Abstract visual reasoning test, Quantitative reasoning test, Bead memory test, Total short-term memory and Intelligence quotient; and between IL-6 and Abstract visual reasoning test, Quantitative reasoning test and Intelligence quotient. There was no significant correlation between TNF-? and any of the cognitive functions. Cytokine levels were not related to demographic characteristics of the patients or viral load (PCR). Children with chronic hepatitis C infection in its early stages showed signs of cognitive impairment, with the memory tasks being mostly affected. There was a significant correlation between endogenous cytokines and cognitive impairment in these children. Further studies are needed to define the effect of successful antiviral treatment. PMID:25496114

  10. Long-term action of propofol on cognitive function and hippocampal neuroapoptosis in neonatal rats

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dan; Jin, Jianhua; Fang, Hao; Xu, Guoxiong

    2015-01-01

    Propofol is a short-acting anesthetic and generally is utilized for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia in pediatrics and adults. However, whether repeated use of propofol affects long-term cognitive function remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of propofol on cognitive function and hippocampal neuroapoptosis in neonatal rat. A total of 112 male newborn 7-day old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=14 rats per group) and intraperitoneally injected either with saline or propofol at 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days. Four non-surgical groups were assigned as Con1, P50, P100, and P150. Four surgical groups were received an appendicectomy under propofol anesthesia and assigned as Con2, SP50, SP100, SP150. After 2 months raising, cognitive function, hippocampal neuroapoptosis, and intracephalic inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. There was no obvious effect on the cognitive function and neuroapoptosis after repeated use of propofol at a low dose for 5 days, whereas repeated use of propofol at a middle/high dose significantly increase the expression of apoptotic factors (caspase-3 and Bax), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?), and impair the cognitive function. Thus, our data suggest that repeated use of propofol at a low dose may be safe during the period of brain growth spurt. Using propofol at a recommended or higher dose for anaesthesia may lead to the cognitive defects, attributed to hippocampal neuroapoptosis and the overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the brain. PMID:26379861

  11. Alterations in cognitive and psychological functioning after organic solvent exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, L.A.; Ryan, C.M.; Hodgson, M.J.; Robin, N. )

    1990-05-01

    Exposure to organic solvents has been linked repeatedly to alterations in both personality and cognitive functioning. To assess the nature and extent of these changes more thoroughly, 32 workers with a history of exposure to mixtures of organic solvents and 32 age- and education-matched blue-collar workers with no history of exposure were assessed with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Although both groups were comparable on measures of general intelligence, significant differences were found in virtually all other cognitive domains tested (Learning and Memory, Visuospatial, Attention and Mental Flexibility, Psychomotor Speed). In addition, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories of exposed workers indicated clinically significant levels of depression, anxiety, somatic concerns and disturbances in thinking. The reported psychological distress was unrelated to degree of cognitive deficit. Finally, several exposure-related variables were associated with poorer performance on tests of memory and visuospatial ability.

  12. From ear to uncertainty: vestibular contributions to cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Paul F.; Zheng, Yiwen

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the deficits in the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is substantial evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and neocortex play in spatial orientation. In this review we summarize the evidence that vestibular loss causes cognitive disorders, especially spatial memory deficits, in animals and humans and critically evaluate the evidence that these deficits are not due to hearing loss, problems with motor control, oscillopsia or anxiety and depression. We review the evidence that vestibular lesions affect head direction and place cells as well as the emerging evidence that artificial activation of the vestibular system, using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), can modulate cognitive function. PMID:24324413

  13. White matter predictors of cognitive functioning in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Irene B.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Provenzano, Frank A.; Louie, Karmen S.; Wasserman, Ben T.; Griffith, Erica Y.; Hector, Josina T.; Allocco, Elizabeth; Brickman, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have applied multiple imaging modalities to examine cognitive correlates of white matter. We examined the utility of T2-weighted MRI-derived white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and diffusion tensor imaging-derived fractional anisotropy (FA) to predict cognitive functioning among older adults. Methods Quantitative MRI and neuropsychological evaluations were performed in 112 older participants from an ongoing study of the genetics of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in African Americans. Regional WMH volumes and FA were measured in multiple regions of interest. We examined the association of regional WMH and an FA summary score with cognitive test performance. Differences in WMH and FA were compared across diagnostic groups (i.e., normal controls, mild cognitive impairment, and probable AD). Results Increased WMH volume in frontal lobes was associated with poorer delayed memory performance. FA did not emerge as a significant predictor of cognition. White matter hyperintensity volume in the frontal and parietal lobes was increased in MCI participants and more so in AD patients relative to controls. Discussion These results highlight the importance of regionally-distributed small vessel cerebrovascular disease in memory performance and AD among African American older adults. White matter microstructural changes, quantified with DTI, appear to play a lesser role in our sample. PMID:22390883

  14. The dystrophin gene and cognitive function in the general population.

    PubMed

    Vojinovic, Dina; Adams, Hieab H H; van der Lee, Sven J; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Brouwer, Rutger; van den Hout, Mirjam C G N; Oole, Edwin; van Rooij, Jeroen; Uitterlinden, Andre; Hofman, Albert; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; van Ommen, GertJan B; Ikram, M Arfan; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Amin, Najaf

    2015-06-01

    The aim of our study is to investigate whether single-nucleotide dystrophin gene (DMD) variants associate with variability in cognitive functions in healthy populations. The study included 1240 participants from the Erasmus Rucphen family (ERF) study and 1464 individuals from the Rotterdam Study (RS). The participants whose exomes were sequenced and who were assessed for various cognitive traits were included in the analysis. To determine the association between DMD variants and cognitive ability, linear (mixed) modeling with adjustment for age, sex and education was used. Moreover, Sequence Kernel Association Test (SKAT) was used to test the overall association of the rare genetic variants present in the DMD with cognitive traits. Although no DMD variant surpassed the prespecified significance threshold (P<1 × 10(-4)), rs147546024:A>G showed strong association (? = 1.786, P-value = 2.56 × 10(-4)) with block-design test in the ERF study, while another variant rs1800273:G>A showed suggestive association (? = -0.465, P-value = 0.002) with Mini-Mental State Examination test in the RS. Both variants are highly conserved, although rs147546024:A>G is an intronic variant, whereas rs1800273:G>A is a missense variant in the DMD which has a predicted damaging effect on the protein. Further gene-based analysis of DMD revealed suggestive association (P-values = 0.087 and 0.074) with general cognitive ability in both cohorts. In conclusion, both single variant and gene-based analyses suggest the existence of variants in the DMD which may affect cognitive functioning in the general populations. PMID:25227141

  15. Intrinsic Motivation in Schizophrenia: Relationships to Cognitive Function, Depression, Anxiety, and Personality

    E-print Network

    Intrinsic Motivation in Schizophrenia: Relationships to Cognitive Function, Depression, Anxiety The goal of the current project was to assess subjective reports of intrinsic motivation and their relationship to cognitive function, mood, and personality in schizophrenia. The authors used the Motivational

  16. Cognitive functioning moderates the relation between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and alcohol use in women.

    PubMed

    Span, Sherry A; Earleywine, Mitchell

    2004-11-01

    Previous work revealed that cognitive functioning moderated the relation between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms and alcohol use [Alcohol., Clin. Exp. Res. 23 (1999) 224]. ADHD Symptoms correlated significantly with alcohol use for individuals with a poorer performance on tasks assessing prefrontal area functioning but not for individuals with higher scores on these tasks. The current study proposes to replicate this previous work and extend it in three ways. These include using a sample consisting solely of women, including the current DSM-IV [American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., revised). Washington, DC: Author] criteria for ADHD, and increasing the number of measures to assess cognitive functioning and drinking habits. Eighty-two female undergraduates completed four measures of alcohol use, three measures of ADHD, and six measures of cognitive functioning. Stacked two-group analyses replicated the previous moderator effect. Alcohol use and ADHD symptoms correlated .31 (ns) for the individuals who scored higher on the neuropsychological tasks. However, these constructs correlated .53 (P < .05) for individuals with lower scores on these tasks. Better performance on tasks assessing prefrontal area functioning may protect individuals from drinking in accordance with their ADHD symptoms. PMID:15451127

  17. Posterior Teeth Occlusion Associated with Cognitive Function in Nursing Home Older Residents: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Kenji; Izumi, Maya; Furuta, Michiko; Takeshita, Toru; Shibata, Yukie; Kageyama, Shinya; Ganaha, Seijun; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Early detection and subsequent reduction of modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline is important for extending healthy life expectancy in the currently aging society. Although a recent increase in studies on the state or number of the teeth and cognitive function, few studies have focused on the association between posterior teeth occlusion necessary to maintain chewing function and cognitive function among older adults. This study examined the association between posterior teeth occlusion and cognitive function in nursing home older residents. In this cross-sectional study, 279 residents aged ?60 years from eight nursing homes in Aso City, Japan participated in cognitive function and dental status assessments and completed a comprehensive questionnaire survey in 2014. Cognitive function was measured using a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Posterior teeth occlusion was assessed using a total number of functional tooth units (total-FTUs), depending on the number and location of the remaining natural and artificial teeth on implant-supported, fixed, and removable prostheses. Linear regression models were used to assess univariate and multivariate associations between total-FTUs and MMSE scores. Models were sequentially adjusted for demographic characteristics, number of natural teeth, socioeconomic status, health behaviors, comorbidities, physical function, and nutritional status. Among the 200 residents included in our analysis, mean MMSE scores and total-FTUs were 11.0 ± 8.6 and 9.3 ± 4.6, respectively. Higher total-FTUs were significantly associated with higher MMSE scores after adjustment for demographics and teeth number (B = 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.22–0.74). The association remained significant even after adjustment for all covariates (B = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.01–0.49). The current findings demonstrated that loss of posterior teeth occlusion was independently associated with cognitive decline in nursing home older residents in Japan. Maintenance and restoration of posterior teeth occlusion may be a preventive factor against cognitive decline in aged populations. PMID:26512900

  18. Effect of home and hospital delivery on long-term cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, H T; Steffensen, F H; Rothman, K J; Gillman, M W; Fischer, P; Sabroe, S; Olsen, J

    2000-11-01

    We examined the relation between place of birth and cognitive function in young adult life in a historical cohort study based upon birth data from the computerized Danish Medical Birth Registry and cognitive function as measured at time of drafting for military service in two Danish counties. The cohort included 4,296 Danish conscripts born between 1973 and 1976, 123 born at home and 4,173 born in hospital or at a birth clinic. Cognitive function was measured by the Boerge Prien test in men, 18 to 20 years of age. The highest possible score is 78. The mean Boerge Prien test score was 43.1 for conscripts born in specialized hospital departments, 2.4 higher for conscripts born in a birth clinic (95% confidence interval = 0.9-4.0), and 2.1 lower for conscripts born at home (95% confidence limits = -3.8 to -0.4) after adjusting for birth weight, length at birth, birth order, gestational age, maternal age, and marital and occupational status. Our findings raise the possibility that home birth can lead to lower cognitive function in adulthood; however, from our data we could not distinguish between planned and unplanned births at home. PMID:11055634

  19. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination–Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The “MFDF” dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the “WNC” dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44–0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults. PMID:26035243

  20. Dual Use of Bladder Anticholinergics and Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Long-Term Functional and Cognitive Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sink, Kaycee M.; Thomas, Joseph; Xu, Huiping; Craig, Bruce; Kritchevsky, Steven; Sands, Laura P.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the cognitive and functional consequences of dual use of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChIs) and the bladder anticholinergics oxybutynin or tolterodine. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING Nursing homes (NHs) in the state of Indiana. PARTICIPANTS Three thousand five hundred thirty-six Medicaid-eligible NH residents aged 65 and older taking a ChI between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2004. Residents were excluded if they were taking an anticholinergic other than oxybutynin or tolterodine. MEASUREMENTS Indiana Medicaid claims data were merged with data from the Minimum Data Set (MDS). Repeated-measures analyses were performed to assess the effects of dual therapy on change in cognitive function measured using the MDS Cognition Scale (MDS-COGS; scored 0–10) and change in activity of daily living (ADL) function using the seven ADL items in the MDS (scored 0–28). Potential covariates included age, sex, race, number of medications, and Charlson Comorbidity Index score. RESULTS Three hundred seventy-six (10.6%) residents were prescribed oxybutynin or tolterodine concomitantly with a ChI. In residents in the top quartile of ADL function, ADL function declined an average of 1.08 points per quarter when not taking bladder anticholinergics (ChI alone), compared with 1.62 points per quarter when taking dual therapy, a 50% greater rate in quarterly decline in ADL function (P =.01). There was no excess decline attributable to dual therapy in MDS-COGS scores or in ADL function for residents who started out with lower functioning. CONCLUSION In higher-functioning NH residents, dual use of ChIs and bladder anticholinergics may result in greater rates of functional decline than use of ChIs alone. The MDS-COGS may not be sensitive enough to detect differences in cognition due to dual use. PMID:18384584

  1. Impaired emotional state, quality of life and cognitive functions in young hypogonadal men.

    PubMed

    Lašait?, L; Ceponis, J; Preikša, R T; Zilaitien?, B

    2014-12-01

    The study aimed to analyse emotional state, quality of life and cognitive functions in young hypogonadal men. Thirty-four males with hypogonadism (age 29.1 ± 10.5 years) and 34 age-matched healthy males (age 30.5 ± 11.0 years) were recruited. Their emotional state was evaluated by Profile of Mood States, quality of life - by WHO Brief Quality of Life Questionnaire - and cognitive functioning - by Trail Making Test and Digit Span Test of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. It was found that young men with hypogonadism had higher depression-dejection (13.1 ± 8.8 versus 7.4 ± 5.9, P = 0.003), fatigue-inertia (10.0 ± 5.8 versus 7.0 ± 4.9, P = 0.030), confusion-bewilderment (5.1 ± 4.6 versus 2.3 ± 3.1, P = 0.004) and lower vigour-activity (14.3 ± 5.1 versus 17.7 ± 4.3, P = 0.008) levels than age- and sex-matched controls. Quality of life psychological (13.1 ± 2.8 versus 15.1 ± 1.9, P = 0.005) and social (13.6 ± 2.4 versus 15.7 ± 2.0, P < 0.001) domains were significantly worse in men with hypogonadism than in controls. Cognitive functions were significantly worse (P < 0.001) in men with hypogonadism than in controls, showing worse executive function, attention, visual scanning abilities and psychomotor speed. A significant correlation was found between testosterone concentration and quality of life psychological domain. Cognitive functioning scores were significantly related with FT4 concentration. It is concluded that young hypogonadal patients have impaired emotional state and quality of life, but the most severe impairment was found in cognitive functioning. PMID:24313565

  2. A Cognitive Engineering Analysis of the Vertical Navigation (VNAV) Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherry, Lance; Feary, Michael; Polson, Peter; Mumaw, Randall; Palmer, Everett

    2001-01-01

    A cognitive engineering analysis of the Flight Management System (FMS) Vertical Navigation (VNAV) function has identified overloading of the VNAV button and overloading of the Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA) used by the VNAV function. These two types of overloading, resulting in modal input devices and ambiguous feedback, are well known sources of operator confusion, and explain, in part, the operational issues experienced by airline pilots using VNAV in descent and approach. A proposal to modify the existing VNAV design to eliminate the overloading is discussed. The proposed design improves pilot's situational awareness of the VNAV function, and potentially reduces the cost of software development and improves safety.

  3. Does Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy Affect Cognitive Function?

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, P; Blackburne, H; Dixon, L; Dobbs, B; Eglinton, T; Ing, A; Mulder, R; Porter, R J; Wakeman, C; Frizelle, F A

    2015-11-01

    Colonoscopy is a common procedure used in the diagnosis and treatment of a range of bowel disorders. Prior preparation involving potent laxatives is a necessary stage to ensure adequate visualization of the bowel wall. It is known that the sedatives given to most patients during the colonoscopy cause a temporary impairment in cognitive function; however, the potential for bowel preparation to affect cognitive function has not previously been investigated. To assess the effect of bowel preparation for colonoscopy on cognitive function. This was a prospective, nonrandomized controlled study of cognitive function in patients who had bowel preparation for colonoscopy compared with those having gastroscopy and therefore no bowel preparation. Cognitive function was assessed using the Modified Mini Mental State Examination (MMMSE) and selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Individual test scores and changes between initial and subsequent tests were compared between the groups. Age, gender, and weight were also compared. Forty-three colonoscopy and 25 gastroscopy patients were recruited. The 2 groups were similar for age and gender; however, patients having gastroscopy were heavier. MMMSE scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 28.6 and 29.5 (P?=?0.24) at baseline, 28.7 and 29.8 (P?=?0.32) at test 2, 28.1 and 28.5 (P?=?0.76) at test 3. Motor screening scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 349.3 and 354.1 (P?=?0.97) at baseline, 307.5 and 199.7 (P?=?0.06) at test 2, 212.0 and 183.2 (P?=?0.33) at test 3. Spatial working memory scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 14.4 and 6.7 (P?=?0.29) at baseline, 9.7 and 4.3 (P?=?0.27) at test 2, 10 and 4.5 (P?=?0.33) at test 3. Digit Symbol Substitution Test scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 36.3 and 37.8 (P?=?0.84) at baseline, 36.4 and 40.0 (P?=?0.59) at test 2, 38.6 and 40.8 (P?=?0.76) at test 3.This study did not find evidence of cognitive impairment resulting from administration of bowel preparation before colonoscopy. PMID:26554781

  4. The cognitive neuroscience toolkit for the neuroeconomist: A functional overview

    PubMed Central

    Kable, Joseph W.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides the beginning neuroeconomist with an introductory overview to the different methods used in human neuroscience. It describes basic strengths and weaknesses of each technique, points to examples of how each technique has been used in neuroeconomic studies, and provides key tutorial references that contain more detailed information. In addition to this overview, the article presents a framework that organizes human neuroscience methods functionally, according to whether they provide tests of the association between brain activity and cognition or behavior, or whether they test the necessity or the sufficiency of brain activity for cognition and behavior. This framework demonstrates the utility of a multi-method research approach, since converging evidence from tests of association, necessity and sufficiency provides the strongest inference regarding brain-behavior relationships. Set against this goal of converging evidence, human neuroscience studies in neuroeconomics currently rely far too heavily on methods that test association, most notably functional MRI. PMID:21796272

  5. Cognitive functioning of young children with Apert's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sarimski, K

    1997-01-01

    Apert's syndrome is characterized by severe craniosynostosis, midface hypoplasia, symmetric syndactyly of the hands and sometimes feet. Cognitive functioning was evaluated in 11 children between 2.5 and 12.3 years. Four children had a normal IQ, four children had an intellectual ability in the borderline range and three children were mentally retarded. There was a consistent relative deficit in short-term memory and arithmetics. Some recommendations for psychological monitoring are discussed. PMID:9457501

  6. Breakfast glycaemic index and cognitive function in adolescent school children.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Simon B; Bandelow, Stephan; Nute, Maria L; Morris, John G; Nevill, Mary E

    2012-06-01

    It has been suggested that a low-glycaemic index (GI) breakfast may be beneficial for some elements of cognitive function (e.g. memory and attention), but the effects are not clear, especially in adolescents. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a low-GI breakfast, a high-GI breakfast and breakfast omission on cognitive function in adolescents. A total of fifty-two adolescents aged 12-14 years were recruited to participate in the study. Participants consumed a low-GI breakfast, a high-GI breakfast or omitted breakfast. A battery of cognitive function tests was completed 30 and 120 min following breakfast consumption and capillary blood samples were taken during the 120 min postprandial period. The findings show that there was a greater improvement in response times following a low-GI breakfast, compared with breakfast omission on the Stroop (P = 0·009) and Flanker (P = 0·041) tasks, and compared with a high-GI breakfast on the Sternberg paradigm (P = 0·013). Furthermore, accuracy on all three tests was better maintained on the low-GI trial compared with the high-GI (Stroop: P = 0·039; Sternberg: P = 0·018; Flanker: P = 0·014) and breakfast omission (Stroop: P < 0·001; Sternberg: P = 0·050; Flanker: P = 0·014) trials. Following the low-GI breakfast, participants displayed a lower glycaemic response (P < 0·001) than following the high-GI breakfast, but there was no difference in the insulinaemic response (P = 0·063) between the high- and low-GI breakfasts. Therefore, we conclude that a low-GI breakfast is most beneficial for adolescents' cognitive function, compared with a high-GI breakfast or breakfast omission. PMID:22017815

  7. Computational Neuropsychiatry - Schizophrenia as a Cognitive Brain Network Disorder

    E-print Network

    Dauvermann, Maria R.

    Computational modeling of functional brain networks in fMRI data has advanced the understanding of higher cognitive function. It is hypothesized that functional networks mediating higher cognitive processes are disrupted ...

  8. Sustaining multiple ecosystem functions in grassland communities requires higher biodiversity

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    Sustaining multiple ecosystem functions in grassland communities requires higher biodiversity Erika by ongoing biodiversity losses. Recent empirically based models using individual species' traits sug- gest.Weusedatafromthelongest-running biodiversity-functioning field experiment to date totest how species diversity affects the ability of grassland

  9. Dietary Phytoestrogen Intakes and Cognitive Function During the Menopause Transition: Results from the SWAN Phytoestrogen Study

    PubMed Central

    Greendale, Gail A.; Huang, Mei-Hua; Leung, Katherine; Crawford, Sybil L.; Gold, Ellen B.; Wight, Richard; Waetjen, Elaine; Karlamangla, Arun S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Phytoestrogens, which consist mainly of isoflavones, lignans and coumestans have estrogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Prior research suggests that higher dietary or supplemental intakes of isoflavones and lignans are related to better cognitive performance in middle aged and older women. Methods We conducted longitudinal analysis of dietary phytoestrogens and cognitive performance in a cohort of African-American, white, Chinese and Japanese women undergoing the menopause transition (MT). Tests were: Symbol Digit Modalities, East Boston Memory and Digits Span Backward. Phytoestrogens were assessed by Food Frequency Questionnaire. We modeled each cognitive score as a function of concurrent value of the primary predictors (highest tertile of isoflavones, lignans or coumestrol) and covariates including MT stage. Results Coumestrol and isoflavone intakes were 10 and 25 times greater, respectively, in Asian versus non-Asian participants. During late perimenopause and postmenopause, Asian women with high isoflavone intakes did better on processing speed, but during early perimenopause and postmenopause, high isoflavone Asian consumers performed worse on verbal memory. The highest isoflavone consumers among non-Asians likewise posted lower verbal memory scores during early perimenopause. A verbal memory benefit of higher dietary lignan consumption was apparent only during late perimenopause, when women from all ethnic/racial groups who were in the highest tertile of intake demonstrated a small advantage. Coumestrol was unrelated to cognitive performance. Conclusions Cognitive effects of dietary phytoestrogens are small, appear to be class-specific, vary by menopause stage and cognitive domain and differ among ethic/racial groups (but whether this is related to dose or to host factors cannot be discerned). PMID:22415567

  10. Higher Height, Higher Ability: Judgment Confidence as a Function of Spatial Height Perception

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Wang, Fei; Li, Shu

    2011-01-01

    Based on grounded cognition theories, the current study showed that judgments about ability were regulated by the subjects' perceptions of their spatial height. In Experiment 1, we found that after seeing the ground from a higher rather than lower floor, people had higher expectations about their performance on a knowledge test and assigned themselves higher rank positions in a peer comparison evaluation. In Experiment 2, we examined the boundary conditions of the spatial height effects and showed that it could still occur even if we employed photos rather than actual building floors to manipulate the perceptions of spatial heights. In addition, Experiment 2 excluded processing style as an explanation for these observations. In Experiment 3, we investigated a potential mechanism for the spatial height effect by manipulating the scale direction in the questionnaire. Consequently, consistent with our representational dependence account, the effect of spatial heights on ability judgments was eliminated when the mental representation of ability was disturbed by a reverse physical representation. These results suggest that people's judgments about their ability are correlated with their spatial perception. PMID:21818299

  11. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    PubMed Central

    Ghayour Najafabadi, Mahboubeh; Rahbar Nikoukar, Laya; Memari, Amir; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Beygi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n = 9) and nonfasting (n = 8) groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan). Digit span test (DST) and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p < 0.05). Interference indices did not change significantly across the study except in post-Ramadan period of fasting group (p < 0.05). Group × week interaction was significant only for error numbers (p < 0.05). Athletes in nonfasting showed a significant decrease in number of errors in Ramadan compared to baseline (p < 0.05). The results suggest that Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes. PMID:26697263

  12. Marijuana use and cognitive function in HIV-infected people.

    PubMed

    Cristiani, Sarah A; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D; Bornstein, Robert A

    2004-01-01

    The effect of marijuana use on cognitive function is controversial. Although marijuana use is common in HIV-infected individuals for recreational and medicinal purposes, there have been no studies of the impact of marijuana on cognitive function in these subjects. Marijuana also has known immunologic effects, which increases the relevance in HIV-infected patients. We examined the interaction of HIV disease-stage and marijuana use in 282 subjects, stratified by disease stage and frequency of marijuana use. After controlling for the effects of depression, anxiety, and alcohol use, a significant interaction was observed on an overall measure of cognitive impairment. The effect of marijuana use was greatest in subjects with symptomatic HIV infection. Further inspection suggested that this effect was due primarily to performance on memory tasks. These data suggest that although there is minimal impact of marijuana on uninfected individuals or those at early stages of HIV infection, there is a synergistic effect of HIV and marijuana use in patients with advanced HIV disease. This is consistent with other data suggesting that the subtle effects of some conditions may become more manifest in the setting of immunocompromise. PMID:15377740

  13. Histamine-selective H3 receptor ligands and cognitive functions: an overview.

    PubMed

    Vohora, Divya

    2004-07-01

    This review presents a link between histamine and cognition and provides an overview on the effect of histamine and selective ligands of histamine receptors on experimental models for learning, memory and cognitive functions, with a special focus on recently developed H(3) receptor ligands. Studies suggest a tremendous potential for H(3) antagonists in cognitive function disorders. PMID:15243869

  14. NMDA Receptor Function During Senescence: Implication on Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, a family of L-glutamate receptors, play an important role in learning and memory, and are critical for spatial memory. These receptors are tetrameric ion channels composed of a family of related subunits. One of the hallmarks of the aging human population is a decline in cognitive function; studies in the past couple of years have demonstrated deterioration in NMDA receptor subunit expression and function with advancing age. However, a direct relationship between impaired memory function and a decline in NMDA receptors is still ambiguous. Recent studies indicate a link between an age-associated NMDA receptor hypofunction and memory impairment and provide evidence that age-associated enhanced oxidative stress might be contributing to the alterations associated with senescence. However, clear evidence is still deficient in demonstrating the underlying mechanisms and a relationship between age-associated impaired cognitive faculties and NMDA receptor hypofunction. The current review intends to present an overview of the research findings regarding changes in expression of various NMDA receptor subunits and deficits in NMDA receptor function during senescence and its implication in age-associated impaired hippocampal-dependent memory function. PMID:26732087

  15. Predictive utility of the Framingham general cardiovascular disease risk profile for cognitive function: evidence from the Whitehall II study.

    PubMed

    Kaffashian, Sara; Dugravot, Aline; Nabi, Hermann; Batty, G David; Brunner, Eric; Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2011-09-01

    Aims Vascular risk factors are associated with cognitive impairment and dementia, although most of the research in this domain focuses on cerebrovascular factors. We examined the relationship between the recently developed Framingham general cardiovascular risk profile and cognitive function and 10-year decline in late midlife. Methods and results Study sample comprised of 3486 men and 1341 women, mean age 55 years [standard deviation (SD)=6], from the Whitehall II study, a longitudinal British cohort study. The Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk profile, assessed between 1997 and 1999, included age, sex, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, and diabetes status. Measures of cognitive function consisted of tests of reasoning (Alice Heim 4-I), memory, phonemic and semantic fluency, and vocabulary (Mill-Hill), assessed three times (1997-1999, 2002-2004, 2007-2009) over 10 years. In cross-sectional age-adjusted models, 10% point increments in cardiovascular risk were associated with poor performance in all cognitive domains in both men and women (all P-values <0.001). In models adjusted for age, ethnicity, marital status, and education, 10% higher cardiovascular risk was associated with greater overall 10-year cognitive decline in men, reasoning in particular (-0.47; 95% CI: -0.81, -0.11). Conclusion In middle-aged individuals free of cardiovascular disease, an adverse cardiovascular risk profile is associated with poor cognitive function, and decline in at least one cognitive domain in men. PMID:21606085

  16. Does Vitamin C Deficiency Affect Cognitive Development and Function?

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(?/?) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies. PMID:25244370

  17. Cognitive Function During Nicotine Withdrawal: Implications for Nicotine Dependence Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ashare, Rebecca L.; Falcone, Mary; Lerman, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine withdrawal is associated with deficits in neurocognitive function including sustained attention, working memory, and response inhibition. Several convergent lines of evidence suggest that these deficits may represent a core dependence phenotype and a target for treatment development efforts. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying withdrawal-related cognitive deficits may lead to improve nicotine dependence treatment. We begin with an overview of the neurocognitive effects of withdrawal in rodent and human models, followed by discussion of the neurobehavioral mechanisms that are thought to underlie these effects. We then review individual differences in withdrawal-related neurocognitive effects including genetics, gender, and psychiatric comorbidity. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of this research for developing improved therapies, both pharmacotherapy and behavioral treatments, that target cognitive symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. PMID:23639437

  18. Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis: From Genes to Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Aimone, James B.; Li, Yan; Lee, Star W.; Clemenson, Gregory D.; Deng, Wei; Gage, Fred H.

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. This review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages of maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. The increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders. PMID:25287858

  19. Maternal Exercise and Cognitive Functions of the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Andrea M.; Bucci, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Substantial research has established that exercise can improve mental health and cognitive function in both human and non-human animals. Exercise has been shown to improve learning and memory in both adult and juvenile animals, with larger and more durable effects associated with exercising during development. Exercise during the gestational period has also been shown to improve cognition in the offspring. Several recent studies indicate that the offspring of mothers that exercised during pregnancy exhibit improved learning and memory and decreased anxiety-like behaviors. These behavioral changes are accompanied by increased neurogenesis, neurotrophic factor expression, and neuronal activity in the offspring. This review summarizes the current literature regarding the effects of maternal exercise in rodents and presents avenues for future research to reveal the biological mechanism(s) through which maternal exercise changes the brain and behavior of the offspring.

  20. Social Cognitive Impairments and Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Are There Subtypes With Distinct Functional Correlates?

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Morris D.; Corbera, Silvia; Johannesen, Jason K.; Fiszdon, Joanna M.; Wexler, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Social cognitive impairments and negative symptoms are core features of schizophrenia closely associated with impaired community functioning. However, little is known about whether these are independent dimensions of illness and if so, whether individuals with schizophrenia can be meaningfully classified based on these dimensions (SANS) and potentially differentially treated. Five social cognitive measures plus Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores in a sample of 77 outpatients produced 2 distinct factors—a social cognitive factor and a negative symptom factor. Factor scores were used in a cluster analysis, which yielded 3 well-defined groupings—a high negative symptom group (HN) and 2 low negative symptom groups, 1 with higher social cognition (HSC) and 1 with low social cognition (LSC). To make these findings more practicable for research and clinical settings, a rule of thumb for categorizing using only the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test and PANSS negative component was created and produced 84.4% agreement with the original cluster groups. An additional 63 subjects were added to cross validate the rule of thumb. When samples were combined (N = 140), the HSC group had significantly better quality of life and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores, higher rates of marriage and more hospitalizations. The LSC group had worse criminal and substance abuse histories. With 2 common assessment instruments, people with schizophrenia can be classified into 3 subgroups that have different barriers to community integration and could potentially benefit from different treatments. PMID:21976710

  1. Social cognitive impairments and negative symptoms in schizophrenia: are there subtypes with distinct functional correlates?

    PubMed

    Bell, Morris D; Corbera, Silvia; Johannesen, Jason K; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Wexler, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    Social cognitive impairments and negative symptoms are core features of schizophrenia closely associated with impaired community functioning. However, little is known about whether these are independent dimensions of illness and if so, whether individuals with schizophrenia can be meaningfully classified based on these dimensions (SANS) and potentially differentially treated. Five social cognitive measures plus Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores in a sample of 77 outpatients produced 2 distinct factors--a social cognitive factor and a negative symptom factor. Factor scores were used in a cluster analysis, which yielded 3 well-defined groupings--a high negative symptom group (HN) and 2 low negative symptom groups, 1 with higher social cognition (HSC) and 1 with low social cognition (LSC). To make these findings more practicable for research and clinical settings, a rule of thumb for categorizing using only the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test and PANSS negative component was created and produced 84.4% agreement with the original cluster groups. An additional 63 subjects were added to cross validate the rule of thumb. When samples were combined (N = 140), the HSC group had significantly better quality of life and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores, higher rates of marriage and more hospitalizations. The LSC group had worse criminal and substance abuse histories. With 2 common assessment instruments, people with schizophrenia can be classified into 3 subgroups that have different barriers to community integration and could potentially benefit from different treatments. PMID:21976710

  2. Plasma alkaline phosphatase is elevated in Alzheimer's disease and inversely correlates with cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Kellett, Katherine AB; Williams, Jonathan; Vardy, Emma RLC; Smith, A David; Hooper, Nigel M

    2011-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is present on neuronal membranes and plasma alkaline phosphatase activity increases in brain injury and cerebrovascular disease, suggesting that plasma alkaline phosphatase may partly reflect neuronal loss. As neuronal loss occurs in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we hypothesised that alterations in plasma alkaline phosphatase activity may correlate with cognitive impairment. Plasma alkaline phosphatase activity was measured in the longitudinal Oxford Project to Investigate Memory and Aging (OPTIMA) cohort (121 AD patients, 89 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and 180 control subjects). Plasma alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly higher in the AD patients relative to the controls (p<0.001). In the MCI patients, plasma alkaline phosphatase was at a level in between that seen in control and AD subjects, consistent with the clinical status of this group. Furthermore, plasma alkaline phosphatase activity inversely correlated with cognitive function (assessed by the Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders (CAMC0G)) in controls (z= ?2.21 p=0.027), MCI (z= ?2.49, p=0.013) and AD patients (z= ?3.61, p=0.0003). These data indicate that plasma alkaline phosphatase activity is increased in AD and inversely correlates with cognitive function regardless of diagnostic status. PMID:21686125

  3. Cognitive Functioning in Space Exploration Missions: A Human Requirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiedler, Edan; Woolford, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Solving cognitive issues in the exploration missions will require implementing results from both Human Behavior and Performance, and Space Human Factors Engineering. Operational and research cognitive requirements need to reflect a coordinated management approach with appropriate oversight and guidance from NASA headquarters. First, this paper will discuss one proposed management method that would combine the resources of Space Medicine and Space Human Factors Engineering at JSC, other NASA agencies, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Wyle Labs, and other academic or industrial partners. The proposed management is based on a Human Centered Design that advocates full acceptance of the human as a system equal to other systems. Like other systems, the human is a system with many subsystems, each of which has strengths and limitations. Second, this paper will suggest ways to inform exploration policy about what is needed for optimal cognitive functioning of the astronaut crew, as well as requirements to ensure necessary assessment and intervention strategies for the human system if human limitations are reached. Assessment strategies will include clinical evaluation and fitness-to-perform evaluations. Clinical intervention tools and procedures will be available to the astronaut and space flight physician. Cognitive performance will be supported through systematic function allocation, task design, training, and scheduling. Human factors requirements and guidelines will lead to well-designed information displays and retrieval systems that reduce crew time and errors. Means of capturing process, design, and operational requirements to ensure crew performance will be discussed. Third, this paper will describe the current plan of action, and future challenges to be resolved before a lunar or Mars expedition. The presentation will include a proposed management plan for research, involvement of various organizations, and a timetable of deliverables.

  4. Sweet Taste Receptor Signaling Network: Possible Implication for Cognitive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Menizibeya O.; Mastorakis, Nikos E.; Pereverzev, Vladimir A.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special “sweet” molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose) regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning. PMID:25653876

  5. [Importance of sucrose in cognitive functions: knowledge and behavior].

    PubMed

    Zamora Navarro, Salvador; Pérez Llamas, Francisca

    2013-07-01

    Sucrose is not present in the internal milieu as such, so it is physically impossible that it may have a direct influence on cognitive functions, behaviour and knowledge. However, during the digestive process, disaccharides are released into monosaccharides, in the case of sucrose into glucose and fructose, which reach the liver via the portal vein. Finally, they go into bloodstream in the form of glucose and in some cases as very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). Brain needs almost exclusively a constant supply of glucose from the bloodstream. Adult brain requires about 140 g of glucose per day, which represents up to a 50% of total carbohydrates consumed daily in the diet. The consumption of a food or beverage enriched with sucrose has been associated with improved mental alertness, memory, reaction time, attention and ability to solve mathematical problems, as well as a reduction in the feeling of fatigue, both in healthy individuals and patients with Alzheimer disease. An adequate nutrition of brain contributes to structural and functional integrity of neurons. It has been shown that in major mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, depression and Alzheimer's disease, nutritional deficiencies at cellular level are implicated. At present, several studies highlight the need to improve understanding of the processes involved in the deterioration of cognitive functions and mechanisms through which, the nutritive components of the diet, particularly the sucrose, may modulate such functions. PMID:23834099

  6. No effect on cognitive function from daily mobile phone use.

    PubMed

    Besset, Alain; Espa, Fabrice; Dauvilliers, Yves; Billiard, Michel; de Seze, René

    2005-02-01

    The increasing use of mobiles phones (MP) has raised the problem of the effects of daily electromagnetic fields (EMF) exposure on human health. To date several studies have been published concerning the effects of acute MP exposure on psychomotor performances. This study investigated the effects of daily exposure to GSM 900 type MP on cognitive function. Fifty-five subjects (27 male and 28 female) were divided into two groups: a group with MP switched on and a group with MP switched off. The two groups were matched according to age, gender, and IQ. This double blind study lasted for 45 days and was divided in three periods: baseline (BLP, 2 days), exposure (EP, 27 days), and recovery (RP, 13 days). Subjects were exposed during EP and sham exposed during RP for 2 h/day, 5 days/week. The neuropsychological test battery composed of 22 tasks screened four neuropsychological categories: information processing, attention capacity, memory function, and executive function. This neuropsychological battery was performed four times on day 2 (BLP), day 15 (EP), day 29 (EP), and day 43 (RP). Our results indicate that daily MP use has no effect on cognitive function after a 13-h rest period. PMID:15672372

  7. Conserved higher-order chromatin regulates NMDA receptor gene expression and cognition.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Rahul; Peter, Cyril J; Jiang, Yan; Roussos, Panos; Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Shen, Erica Y; Mitchell, Amanda C; Mao, Wenjie; Whittle, Catheryne; Dincer, Aslihan; Jakovcevski, Mira; Pothula, Venu; Rasmussen, Theodore P; Giakoumaki, Stella G; Bitsios, Panos; Sherif, Ajfar; Gardner, Paul D; Ernst, Patricia; Ghose, Subroto; Sklar, Pamela; Haroutunian, Vahram; Tamminga, Carol; Myers, Richard H; Futai, Kensuke; Wood, Marcelo A; Akbarian, Schahram

    2014-12-01

    Three-dimensional chromosomal conformations regulate transcription by moving enhancers and regulatory elements into spatial proximity with target genes. Here we describe activity-regulated long-range loopings bypassing up to 0.5 Mb of linear genome to modulate NMDA glutamate receptor GRIN2B expression in human and mouse prefrontal cortex. Distal intronic and 3' intergenic loop formations competed with repressor elements to access promoter-proximal sequences, and facilitated expression via a "cargo" of AP-1 and NRF-1 transcription factors and TALE-based transcriptional activators. Neuronal deletion or overexpression of Kmt2a/Mll1 H3K4- and Kmt1e/Setdb1 H3K9-methyltransferase was associated with higher-order chromatin changes at distal regulatory Grin2b sequences and impairments in working memory. Genetic polymorphisms and isogenic deletions of loop-bound sequences conferred liability for cognitive performance and decreased GRIN2B expression. Dynamic regulation of chromosomal conformations emerges as a novel layer for transcriptional mechanisms impacting neuronal signaling and cognition. PMID:25467983

  8. CONSERVED HIGHER ORDER CHROMATIN REGULATES NMDA RECEPTOR GENE EXPRESSION AND COGNITION

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Rahul; Peter, Cyril J.; Jiang, Yan; Roussos, Panos; Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Shen, Erica; Mitchell, Amanda; Mao, Wenjie; Whittle, Catheryne; Dincer, Aslihan; Jakovcevski, Mira; Pothula, Venu; Rasmussen, Theodore P.; Giakoumaki, Stella G.; Bitsios, Panos; Sherif, Ajfar; Gardner, Paul D.; Ernst, Patricia; Ghose, Subroto; Sklar, Pamela; Haroutunian, Vahram; Tamminga, Carol; Myers, Richard H.; Futai, Kensuke; Wood, Marcelo A.; Akbarian, Schahram

    2014-01-01

    3-dimensional chromosomal conformations regulate transcription by moving enhancers and regulatory elements into spatial proximity with target genes. Here, we describe activity-regulated long-range loopings bypassing up to 0.5 megabase of linear genome to modulate NMDA glutamate receptor GRIN2B expression in human and mouse prefrontal cortex. Distal intronic and 3’ intergenic loop formations competed with repressor elements to access promoter-proximal sequences, and facilitated expression via a ‘cargo’ of AP-1 and NRF-1 transcription factors and TALE-based transcriptional activators. Neuronal deletion or overexpression of Kmt2a/Mll1 H3K4- and Kmt1e/Setdb1 H3K9-methyltransferase was associated with higher order chromatin changes at distal regulatory Grin2b sequences and impairments in working memory. Genetic polymorphisms and isogenic deletions of loop-bound sequences conferred liability for cognitive performance and decreased GRIN2B expression. Dynamic regulation of chromosomal conformations emerges as a novel layer for transcriptional mechanisms impacting neuronal signaling and cognition. PMID:25467983

  9. [Cognitive and linguistic abilities of a boy with PVL showing relatively higher VIQ compared to PIQ].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Yukako; Natsume, Jun; Nakamura, Miho

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the cognitive processing and language abilities of a 13-year-old boy with moderate periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), spastic diplegia and exotropia who had discrepant scores in the verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ) and performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) in the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, third edition (VIQ; 82 > PIQ; under 40). In the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children and Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System, his performance was poor at simultaneous processing compared to sequential processing. He could not copy three-dimensional figures, and he could place only two out of eight blocks correctly in the second level models of Benton three-dimensional block construction test, showing visuospatial impairment typical of patients with PVL. Despite the relatively high score in VIQ, there was a gap among the scores of the subtests in the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. He tended to get low scores in tests that required visual abilities. In addition, there was also an impairment in reading fluency tested by the Diagnostic Criteria and Medical Guideline for Specific Developmental Disorders. He was much less fluent in reading syllables, words or sentences (6.0 SD or more compared to 12-year-old boys). The relatively higher score in VIQ superficially suggests adequate language ability. However, in the present study, precise investigation revealed some discrepancies even within the field of language. Thus, defining stronger and weaker points of a patient is important in order to determine optimal medical or educational approaches. PMID:26502654

  10. Does Domain Knowledge Moderate Involvement of Working Memory Capacity in Higher-Level Cognition? A Test of Three Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, D.Z.; Oswald, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that both working memory capacity and domain knowledge contribute to individual differences in higher-level cognition. This study evaluated three hypotheses concerning the interplay between these factors. The compensation hypothesis predicts that domain knowledge attenuates the influence of working memory capacity on higher-level…

  11. Cognitive functioning in socially anxious adults: insights from the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery

    PubMed Central

    Troller-Renfree, Sonya V.; Barker, Tyson V.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Theory suggests that individuals with social anxiety manifest unique patterns of cognition with less efficient fluid cognition and unperturbed crystallized cognition; however, empirical support for these ideas remains inconclusive. The heterogeneity of past findings may reflect unreliability in cognitive assessments or the influence of confounding variables. The present study examined the relations among social anxiety and performance on the reliable, newly established NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. Results indicate that high socially anxious adults performed as well as low anxious participants on all measures of fluid cognition. However, high socially anxious adults demonstrated enhanced crystallized cognitive abilities relative to a low socially anxious comparison group. PMID:26106346

  12. Environmental lead exposure and children’s cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    CANFIELD, R. L.; JUSKO, T. A.; KORDAS, K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent research has substantially increased knowledge about the effects of low-level lead exposure on children’s neurobehavioral development. This update article focuses on two specific areas of recent research: low-level effects on cognitive function, and results from experimental and observational studies designed to prevent or reverse the damaging effects of lead on intellectual development, either through chelation therapy or micronutrient supplementation. Taken as a whole, these studies suggest that there is no safe level of lead exposure for young children and, although small, these effects are enduring and possibly permanent.

  13. Impact of untreated major depressive disorder on cognition and daily function.

    PubMed

    Culpepper, Larry

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive symptoms are an emerging clinical focus in patients with major depressive disorder. Deficits in executive function, memory, attention, and processing speed, as well as negative cognitive bias, can contribute to low mood symptoms and reduced occupational and social functioning. Both patient reports and objective measures demonstrate that cognitive symptoms are common in patients with depression. Cognitive dysfunction may be present even before the first depressive episode and may remain after mood symptoms have remitted. Clinicians must assess cognitive symptoms in their patients with major depressive disorder, monitor symptoms throughout the course of the disorder and after remission, and understand how these symptoms affect daily function. PMID:26231021

  14. Higher Integrability for Minimizers of the Mumford-Shah Functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Philippis, Guido; Figalli, Alessio

    2014-08-01

    We prove higher integrability for the gradient of local minimizers of the Mumford-Shah energy functional, providing a positive answer to a conjecture of De Giorgi (Free discontinuity problems in calculus of variations. Frontiers in pure and applied mathematics, North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp 55-62, 1991).

  15. Specific cognitive functions and depressive symptoms as predictors of activities of daily living in older adults with heterogeneous cognitive backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Jonas J.; Diniz, Breno S.; Bicalho, Maria A.; Albuquerque, Maicon Rodrigues; Nicolato, Rodrigo; de Moraes, Edgar N.; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive functioning influences activities of daily living (ADL). However, studies reporting the association between ADL and neuropsychological performance show inconsistent results regarding what specific cognitive domains are related to each specific functional domains. Additionally, whether depressive symptoms are associated with a worse functional performance in older adults is still under explored. We investigated if specific cognitive domains and depressive symptoms would affect different aspects of ADL. Participants were 274 older adults (96 normal aging participants, 85 patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 93 patients probable with mild Alzheimer’s disease dementia) with low formal education (?4 years). Measures of ADL included three complexity levels: Self-care, Instrumental-Domestic, and Instrumental-Complex. The specific cognitive functions were evaluated through a factorial strategy resulting in four cognitive domains: Executive Functions, Language/Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory, and Visuospatial Abilities. The Geriatric Depression Scale measured depressive symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis showed executive functions and episodic memory as significant predictors of Instrumental-Domestic ADL, and executive functions, episodic memory and language/semantic memory as predictors of Instrumental-Complex ADL (22 and 28% of explained variance, respectively). Ordinal regression analysis showed the influence of specific cognitive functions and depressive symptoms on each one of the instrumental ADL. We observed a heterogeneous pattern of association with explained variance ranging from 22 to 38%. Different instrumental ADL had specific cognitive predictors and depressive symptoms were predictive of ADL involving social contact. Our results suggest a specific pattern of influence depending on the specific instrumental daily living activity. PMID:26257644

  16. Correlation functions of the higher spin XXX chains

    E-print Network

    N. Kitanine

    2001-07-31

    Using the Algebraic Bethe Ansatz we consider the correlation functions of the integrable higher spin chains. We apply a method recently developed for the spin $\\frac 12$ Heisenberg chain, based on the solution of the quantum inverse problem. We construct a representation for the correlation functions on a finite chain for arbitrary spin. Then we show how the string solutions of the Bethe equations can be considered in the framework of this approach in the thermodynamic limit. Finally, a multiple integral representation for the spin 1 zero temperature correlation functions is obtained in the thermodynamic limit.

  17. Relationships between macular pigment optical density and cognitive function in unimpaired and mildly cognitively impaired older adults.

    PubMed

    Renzi, Lisa M; Dengler, Melissa J; Puente, Antonio; Miller, L Stephen; Hammond, Billy R

    2014-07-01

    Low carotenoid status (especially of the xanthophylls, lutein [L], and zeaxanthin [Z]) is common in older adults and has been associated with a number of degenerative diseases of the central nervous system ranging from retina (e.g., macular degeneration) to brain (e.g., Alzheimer's disease). In this study, we tested whether retinal measures of L + Z (macular pigment optical density [MPOD]), used as a surrogate for brain L + Z levels, were related to cognitive function when comparing healthy older adults with mildly cognitively impaired older adults. Twenty-four subjects with mild cognitive impairment were compared with 24 matched controls. Subjects were matched with respect to age, body mass index, ethnicity, sex, and smoking status. Degree of cognitive impairment and cognitive ability was determined via structured clinical interview. MPOD was measured psychophysically. In healthy older adults, MPOD was only related to visual-spatial and constructional abilities (p = 0.04). For subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), however, MPOD was broadly related to cognition including the composite score on the mini-mental state examination (p = 0.02), visual-spatial and constructional abilities (p = 0.04), language ability (p = 0.05), attention (p = 0.03), and the total scale on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (p = 0.03). It is possible that L/Z status may be more strongly related to cognition when individuals are considered with established onset of cognitive decline. PMID:24508218

  18. Association between adjuvant regional radiotherapy and cognitive function in breast cancer patients treated with conservation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shibayama, Osamu; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Eisho; Sugawara, Yuriko; Akechi, Tatsuo; Wada, Noriaki; Imoto, Shigeru; Murakami, Koji; Ogawa, Asao; Akabayashi, Akira; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2014-01-01

    Although protracted cognitive impairment has been reported to occur after radiotherapy even when such therapy is not directed to brain areas, the mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated whether breast cancer patients exposed to local radiotherapy showed lower cognitive function mediated by higher plasma interleukin (IL)-6 levels than those unexposed. We performed the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) and measured plasma IL-6 levels for 105 breast cancer surgical patients within 1 year after the initial therapy. The group differences in each of the indices of WMS-R were investigated between cancer patients exposed to adjuvant regional radiotherapy (n = 51) and those unexposed (n = 54) using analysis of covariance. We further investigated a mediation effect by plasma IL-6 levels on the relationship between radiotherapy and the indices of WMS-R using the bootstrapping method. The radiotherapy group showed significantly lower Immediate Verbal Memory Index and Delayed Recall Index (P = 0.001, P = 0.008, respectively). Radiotherapy exerted an indirect effect on the lower Delayed Recall Index of WMS-R through elevation of plasma IL-6 levels (bootstrap 95% confidence interval = ?2.6626 to ?0.0402). This study showed that breast cancer patients exposed to adjuvant regional radiotherapy in conservation therapy might have cognitive impairment even several months after their treatment. The relationship between the therapy and the cognitive impairment could be partially mediated by elevation of plasma IL-6 levels. PMID:24756915

  19. Changes in Socioeconomic Inequality in Indonesian Children’s Cognitive Function from 2000 to 2007: A Decomposition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Maika, Amelia; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Brinkman, Sally; Harper, Sam; Satriawan, Elan; Lynch, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Measuring social inequalities in health is common; however, research examining inequalities in child cognitive function is more limited. We investigated household expenditure-related inequality in children’s cognitive function in Indonesia in 2000 and 2007, the contributors to inequality in both time periods, and changes in the contributors to cognitive function inequalities between the periods. Methods Data from the 2000 and 2007 round of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) were used. Study participants were children aged 7–14 years (n?=?6179 and n?=?6680 in 2000 and 2007, respectively). The relative concentration index (RCI) was used to measure the magnitude of inequality. Contribution of various contributors to inequality was estimated by decomposing the concentration index in 2000 and 2007. Oaxaca-type decomposition was used to estimate changes in contributors to inequality between 2000 and 2007. Results Expenditure inequality decreased by 45% from an RCI?=?0.29 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.36) in 2000 to 0.16 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.20) in 2007 but the burden of poorer cognitive function was higher among the disadvantaged in both years. The largest contributors to inequality in child cognitive function were inequalities in per capita expenditure, use of improved sanitation and maternal high school attendance. Changes in maternal high school participation (27%), use of improved sanitation (25%) and per capita expenditures (18%) were largely responsible for the decreasing inequality in children’s cognitive function between 2000 and 2007. Conclusions Government policy to increase basic education coverage for women along with economic growth may have influenced gains in children’s cognitive function and reductions in inequalities in Indonesia. PMID:24205322

  20. Better memory functioning associated with higher total and LDL cholesterol levels in very elderly subjects without the APOE4 allele

    PubMed Central

    West, Rebecca; Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Schmeidler, James; Hannigan, Christine M.; Angelo, Gary; Grossman, Hillel T.; Rosendorff, Clive; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of cholesterol with cognitive functioning in oldest old community dwelling individuals with and without the APOE4 allele. Method 185 non-demented community dwelling individuals (? 85) were assessed with a broad neuropsychological battery. Bloods were drawn to assess total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol, as well as for APOE genotyping. Results In contrast to our expectations, high total cholesterol and high LDL cholesterol were associated with higher memory scores for non-carriers of the APOE4 allele. No significant associations between cognitive performance and lipid profile were found for carriers of the APOE4 allele. Conclusions In oldest old non-demented non-carriers of the APOE4 allele, high cholesterol is associated with better memory function. Further examination of the role of APOE genotype on the association between cholesterol and cognitive performance, especially in the oldest old, is warranted. PMID:18757771

  1. Self-reported physical activity is associated with cognitive function in lean, but not obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Galioto Wiedemann, R; Calvo, D; Meister, J; Spitznagel, M B

    2014-12-01

    Convergent evidence demonstrates that greater physical activity is associated with better cognitive functioning across many patient and healthy samples. However, this relationship has not been well examined among obese individuals and remains unclear. The present study examined the relationship between performance-based measures of attention/executive function and self-reported physical activity, as measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, among lean (n?=?36) and obese (n?=?36) college students. Lean individuals performed better than obese individuals on measures of attention/executive function. No significant differences in self-reported physical activity emerged between weight groups. Higher self-reported physical activity was related to faster reaction time in lean individuals but slower reaction time in obese individuals. Additionally, in lean individuals, higher levels of self-reported physical activity were related to more errors on a task of speeded inhibitory control. The results are consistent with previous research demonstrating that greater physical activity is associated with faster attention and executive function abilities in healthy samples and highlight the importance of examining reaction time and accuracy indices separately on these measures. The lack of association among obese individuals may be due in part to inaccurate self-report in the current study. Additionally, the cognitive consequences of obesity may outweigh the benefits of physical activity in this group. Future work should investigate these associations in obese individuals using physical activity interventions, as well as a combination of self-report and objective measures to investigate discrepancies in reporting. PMID:25826160

  2. From higher order thinking to higher order behavior: exploring the relationship between early cognitive skills and social competence in black boys.

    PubMed

    Scott, Kristin M; Barbarin, Oscar A; Brown, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relations of higher order (i.e., abstract) thinking (HOT) skills to specific domains of social competence in Black boys (n = 108) attending publicly sponsored prekindergarten (pre-K) programs. Data for the study were collected as part of the National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL) Multi-State Study, a national, longitudinal study examining the quality and outcomes in a representative sample of publicly sponsored pre-K programs in six states (N = 240). Pre-K and kindergarten teachers rated randomly selected children on measures of abstract thinking, self-regulation, and social functioning at the beginning and end of each school year. Applying structural equation modeling, compared with earlier time points, HOT measured in the fall of kindergarten significantly predicted each of the domains of social competence in the spring of kindergarten, with the exception of peer social skills, while controlling for general cognitive ability. Results suggest that early intervention to improve HOT may be an effective and more focused approach to address concerns about Black boys' early social competencies in specific domains and potentially reduce the risk of later social difficulties. PMID:23889011

  3. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Moderate Effects of Physical Activity on Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Leckie, Regina L.; Manuck, Stephen B.; Bhattacharee, Neha; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Flory, Janine M.; Erickson, Kirk I.

    2014-01-01

    Greater amounts of physical activity (PA) and omega-3 fatty acids have both been independently associated with better cognitive performance. Because of the overlapping biological effects of omega-3 fatty acids and PA, fatty acid intake may modify the effects of PA on neurocognitive function. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining whether the ratio of serum omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid levels would moderate the association between PA and executive and memory functions in 344 participants (Mean age = 44.42 years, SD = 6.72). The Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ), serum fatty acid levels, and performance on a standard neuropsychological battery were acquired on all subjects. A principal component analysis reduced the number of cognitive outcomes to three factors: n-back working memory, Trail Making test, and Logical Memory. We found a significant interaction between PA and the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid serum levels on Trail Making performance and n-back performance, such that higher amounts of omega-3 levels offset the deleterious effects of lower amounts of PA. These effects remained significant in a subsample (n=299) controlling for overall dietary fat consumption. There were no significant additive or multiplicative benefits of higher amounts of both omega-3 and PA on cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids might mitigate the effect of lower levels of PA on cognitive performance. This study illuminates the importance of understanding dietary and PA factors in tandem when exploring their effects on neurocognitive health. PMID:24813150

  4. Cognitive Profile of Students Who Enter Higher Education with an Indication of Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Brysbaert, Marc

    2012-01-01

    For languages other than English there is a lack of empirical evidence about the cognitive profile of students entering higher education with a diagnosis of dyslexia. To obtain such evidence, we compared a group of 100 Dutch-speaking students diagnosed with dyslexia with a control group of 100 students without learning disabilities. Our study showed selective deficits in reading and writing (effect sizes for accuracy between d?=?1 and d?=?2), arithmetic (d?1), and phonological processing (d>0.7). Except for spelling, these deficits were larger for speed related measures than for accuracy related measures. Students with dyslexia also performed slightly inferior on the KAIT tests of crystallized intelligence, due to the retrieval of verbal information from long-term memory. No significant differences were observed in the KAIT tests of fluid intelligence. The profile we obtained agrees with a recent meta-analysis of English findings suggesting that it generalizes to all alphabetic languages. Implications for special arrangements for students with dyslexia in higher education are outlined. PMID:22719864

  5. Cognitive profile of students who enter higher education with an indication of dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Callens, Maaike; Tops, Wim; Brysbaert, Marc

    2012-01-01

    For languages other than English there is a lack of empirical evidence about the cognitive profile of students entering higher education with a diagnosis of dyslexia. To obtain such evidence, we compared a group of 100 Dutch-speaking students diagnosed with dyslexia with a control group of 100 students without learning disabilities. Our study showed selective deficits in reading and writing (effect sizes for accuracy between d = 1 and d = 2), arithmetic (d?1), and phonological processing (d>0.7). Except for spelling, these deficits were larger for speed related measures than for accuracy related measures. Students with dyslexia also performed slightly inferior on the KAIT tests of crystallized intelligence, due to the retrieval of verbal information from long-term memory. No significant differences were observed in the KAIT tests of fluid intelligence. The profile we obtained agrees with a recent meta-analysis of English findings suggesting that it generalizes to all alphabetic languages. Implications for special arrangements for students with dyslexia in higher education are outlined. PMID:22719864

  6. Cognitive reserve is associated with the functional organization of the brain in healthy aging: a MEG study

    PubMed Central

    López, María E.; Aurtenetxe, Sara; Pereda, Ernesto; Cuesta, Pablo; Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Bruña, Ricardo; Niso, Guiomar; Maestú, Fernando; Bajo, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of elderly people in the population has increased rapidly in the last century and consequently “healthy aging” is expected to become a critical area of research in neuroscience. Evidence reveals how healthy aging depends on three main behavioral factors: social lifestyle, cognitive activity, and physical activity. In this study, we focused on the role of cognitive activity, concentrating specifically on educational and occupational attainment factors, which were considered two of the main pillars of cognitive reserve (CR). Twenty-one subjects with similar rates of social lifestyle, physical and cognitive activity were selected from a sample of 55 healthy adults. These subjects were divided into two groups according to their level of CR; one group comprised subjects with high CR (9 members) and the other one contained those with low CR (12 members). To evaluate the cortical brain connectivity network, all participants were recorded by Magnetoencephalography (MEG) while they performed a memory task (modified version of the Sternberg's Task). We then applied two algorithms [Phase Locking Value (PLV) and Phase Lag Index (PLI)] to study the dynamics of functional connectivity. In response to the same task, the subjects with lower CR presented higher functional connectivity than those with higher CR. These results may indicate that participants with low CR needed a greater “effort” than those with high CR to achieve the same level of cognitive performance. Therefore, we conclude that CR contributes to the modulation of the functional connectivity patterns of the aging brain. PMID:24982632

  7. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and functional connectivity in mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Catherine E.; Donovan, Nancy J.; Guercio, Brendan J.; Wigman, Sarah E.; Schultz, Aaron P.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Marshall, Gad A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), such as apathy and depression, commonly accompany cognitive and functional decline in early Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Prior studies have shown associations between affective NPS symptoms and neurodegeneration of medial frontal and inferior temporal regions in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD dementia. Objective To investigate the association between functional connectivity in four brain networks and NPS in elderly with MCI. Methods NPS were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory in 42 subjects with MCI. Resting-state functional connectivity in four networks (default mode network, fronto-parietal control network (FPCN), dorsal attention network, and ventral attention network) was assessed using seed-based magnetic resonance imaging. Factor analysis was used to identify two factors of NPS: Affective and Hyperactivity. Linear regression models were utilized with the neuropsychiatric factors as the dependent variable and the four networks as the predictors of interest. Covariates included age, sex, premorbid intelligence, processing speed, memory, head movement, and signal-to-noise ratio. These analyses were repeated with the individual items of the Affective factor, using the same predictors. Results There was a significant association between greater Affective factor symptoms and reduced FPCN connectivity (p=0.03). There was no association between the Hyperactivity factor and any of the networks. Secondary analyses revealed an association between greater apathy and reduced FPCN connectivity (p=0.005), but none in other networks. Conclusions Decreased connectivity in the FPCN may be associated with greater affective symptoms, particularly apathy, early in AD. These findings extend prior studies, using different functional imaging modalities in individuals with greater disease severity. PMID:25854929

  8. [Effect of aerospace weightlessness on cognitive functions and the relative dialectical analysis of Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Dong, Li; Liu, Xin-Min; Wu, Li-Sha; Yang, Si-Jin; Wang, Qiong

    2014-03-01

    Aerospace medicine has paid more and more attention to abnormal changes of physiological functions induced by weightlessness and studies on their prevention during space flight. In this paper, the effect of space weightlessness on cognitive functions was introduced. We tried to analyze the correlation between the cognitive function changes and relevant Chinese medical syndromes, thus providing a potential available way to prevent and treat weightlessness induced cognitive deficit during space flight. PMID:24758090

  9. Psychiatric and Cognitive Functioning in Adolescent Inpatients with Histories of Dating Violence Victimization.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Christie J; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Spirito, Anthony; Thompson, Ariel

    2010-07-01

    The presence of dating violence victimization as well as its relation to psychiatric diagnosis and cognitive processes was examined in a sample of 155 adolescents hospitalized in a psychiatric facility. Participants and their parents completed semi-structured diagnostic interviews. Participants also completed self-report measures of dating violence victimization and cognitive functioning. Seventy-seven percent of adolescents who had initiated dating reported psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse by a dating partner over the past year. Victims of psychological abuse alone as well as physical and/or sexual violence endorsed higher rates of major depressive disorder compared to non-victims. Physical/sexual dating violence victims also endorsed significantly higher rates of PTSD and alcohol use disorders, more frequent co-occurrence of externalizing and internalizing disorders, and more frequent negative cognitive biases, relative to non-victimized adolescents. Findings suggest that psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents with dating violence histories represent a subgroup of adolescent inpatients with a particularly serious clinical picture. PMID:20824193

  10. Self-reported sleep duration mitigates the association between inflammation and cognitive functioning in hospitalized older men

    PubMed Central

    Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Song, Yeonsu; Fung, Constance H.; Rodriguez, Juan C.; Jouldjian, Stella; Alessi, Cathy A.; Breen, Elizabeth C.; Irwin, Michael R.; Martin, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Examination of predictors of late-life cognitive functioning is particularly salient in at-risk older adults, such as those who have been recently hospitalized. Sleep and inflammation are independently related to late-life cognitive functioning. The potential role of sleep as a moderator of the relationship between inflammation and global cognitive functioning has not been adequately addressed. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration, inflammatory markers, and general cognitive functioning in hospitalized older men. Older men (n = 135; Mean age = 72.9 ± 9.7 years) were recruited from inpatient rehabilitation units at a VA Medical Center to participate in a cross-sectional study of sleep. Participants completed the Mini-Mental State Examination and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and underwent an 8 a.m. blood draw to measure inflammatory markers [i.e., C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)]. Hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for age, education, race, depression, pain, health comorbidity, and BMI) revealed that higher levels of CRP and sICAM are associated with higher global cognitive functioning in older men with sleep duration ?6 h (? = ?0.19, ? = ?0.18, p's < 0.05, respectively), but not in those with short sleep durations (p's > 0.05). In elderly hospitalized men, sleep duration moderates the association between inflammation and cognitive functioning. These findings have implications for the clinical care of older men within medical settings. PMID:26257670

  11. Self-reported sleep duration mitigates the association between inflammation and cognitive functioning in hospitalized older men.

    PubMed

    Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Song, Yeonsu; Fung, Constance H; Rodriguez, Juan C; Jouldjian, Stella; Alessi, Cathy A; Breen, Elizabeth C; Irwin, Michael R; Martin, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Examination of predictors of late-life cognitive functioning is particularly salient in at-risk older adults, such as those who have been recently hospitalized. Sleep and inflammation are independently related to late-life cognitive functioning. The potential role of sleep as a moderator of the relationship between inflammation and global cognitive functioning has not been adequately addressed. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration, inflammatory markers, and general cognitive functioning in hospitalized older men. Older men (n = 135; Mean age = 72.9 ± 9.7 years) were recruited from inpatient rehabilitation units at a VA Medical Center to participate in a cross-sectional study of sleep. Participants completed the Mini-Mental State Examination and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and underwent an 8 a.m. blood draw to measure inflammatory markers [i.e., C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)]. Hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for age, education, race, depression, pain, health comorbidity, and BMI) revealed that higher levels of CRP and sICAM are associated with higher global cognitive functioning in older men with sleep duration ?6 h (? = -0.19, ? = -0.18, p's < 0.05, respectively), but not in those with short sleep durations (p's > 0.05). In elderly hospitalized men, sleep duration moderates the association between inflammation and cognitive functioning. These findings have implications for the clinical care of older men within medical settings. PMID:26257670

  12. Efficiency of weak brain connections support general cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Galli, Giulia; Polizzotto, Nicola Riccardo; Rossi, Alessandro; Rossi, Simone

    2014-09-01

    Brain network topology provides valuable information on healthy and pathological brain functioning. Novel approaches for brain network analysis have shown an association between topological properties and cognitive functioning. Under the assumption that "stronger is better", the exploration of brain properties has generally focused on the connectivity patterns of the most strongly correlated regions, whereas the role of weaker brain connections has remained obscure for years. Here, we assessed whether the different strength of connections between brain regions may explain individual differences in intelligence. We analyzed-functional connectivity at rest in ninety-eight healthy individuals of different age, and correlated several connectivity measures with full scale, verbal, and performance Intelligent Quotients (IQs). Our results showed that the variance in IQ levels was mostly explained by the distributed communication efficiency of brain networks built using moderately weak, long-distance connections, with only a smaller contribution of stronger connections. The variability in individual IQs was associated with the global efficiency of a pool of regions in the prefrontal lobes, hippocampus, temporal pole, and postcentral gyrus. These findings challenge the traditional view of a prominent role of strong functional brain connections in brain topology, and highlight the importance of both strong and weak connections in determining the functional architecture responsible for human intelligence variability. PMID:24585433

  13. Automated Semantic Indices Related to Cognitive Function and Rate of Cognitive Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakhomov, Serguei V. S.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Lim, Kelvin O.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study is to introduce a fully automated, computational linguistic technique to quantify semantic relations between words generated on a standard semantic verbal fluency test and to determine its cognitive and clinical correlates. Cognitive differences between patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment are…

  14. Multifactorial determinants of cognition — Thyroid function is not the only one

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Roy; Ortner, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Background Since the 1960s hypothyroidism together with iodine deficiency have been considered to be a principal determinant of cognition development. Following iodine supplementation programs and improved treatment options for hypothyroidism this relation might not be valid in 2015. On the other hand neurosciences have added different inputs also related to cognition. Scope of review We will examine the characteristics of the original and current publications on thyroid function and cognition and also add some general determinants of intelligence and cognition. One central issue for us is the relation of stress to cognition knowing that both physical and psychological stress, are frequent elements in subjects with thyroid dysfunction. We have considered a special type of stress called pre-natal stress which can influence cognitive functions. Fear and anxiety can be intermingled requiring mechanisms of fear extinction. Major conclusions Recent studies have failed to show an influence of thyroid medication during pregnancy on intellectual development. Neuroscience offers a better explanation of cognition than hypothyroidism and iodine deficiency. Additional factors relevant to cognition are nutrition, infection, prenatal stress, and early life stress. In turn stress is related to low magnesium levels. Magnesium supplementation can correct both latent hypothyroidism and acquired mild cognitive deficits. General significance Cognition is a complex process that depends on many determinants and not only on thyroid function. Magnesium deficiency appears to be a basic mechanism for changes in thyroid function as well as of cognition. PMID:26672993

  15. Effects of allantoin on cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Young Je; Park, Se Jin; Woo, Hyun; Lee, Hyung Eun; Kim, Hyun Ji; Kwon, Guyoung; Gao, Qingtao; Jang, Dae Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2014-02-01

    Allantoin is contained in Nelumbo nucifera (lotus) and a well-known cosmetic ingredient reported to have anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we investigated whether allantoin affects cognitive function in mice. The subchronic administration of allantoin (1, 3 or 10 mg/kg, for 7 days) significantly increased the latency time measured during the passive avoidance task in scopolamine-induced cholinergic blockade and normal naïve mice. Allantoin treatment (3 or 10 mg/kg, for 7 days) also increased the expression levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?). Doublecortin and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine immunostaining revealed that allantoin significantly increased the neuronal cell proliferation of immature neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus region. In conclusion, allantoin has memory-enhancing effects, and these effects may be partly mediated by the PI3K-Akt-GSK-3? signal pathway. These findings suggest that allantoin has therapeutic potential for the cognitive dysfunctions observed in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24296131

  16. Hippocampal-neocortical functional reorganization underlies children's cognitive development

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shaozheng; Cho, Soohyun; Chen, Tianwen; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Geary, David C.; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the hippocampal system for rapid learning and memory is well recognized, but its contributions to a cardinal feature of children's cognitive development – the transition from procedure-based to memory-based problem solving strategies – are unknown. Here we show that the hippocampal system is pivotal to this strategic transition. Longitudinal fMRI in children, ages 7 to 9, revealed that the transition from use of counting to memory-based retrieval parallels increased hippocampal and decreased prefrontal-parietal engagement during arithmetic problem solving. Critically, longitudinal improvements in retrieval strategy use were predicted by increased hippocampal-neocortical functional connectivity. Beyond childhood, retrieval strategy use continued to improve through adolescence into adulthood, and was associated with decreased activation but more stable inter-problem representations in the hippocampus. Our findings provide novel insights into the dynamic role of the hippocampus in the maturation of memory-based problem solving, and establish a critical link between hippocampal-neocortical reorganization and children's cognitive development. PMID:25129076

  17. Nodakenin Enhances Cognitive Function and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qingtao; Jeon, Se Jin; Jung, Hyun Ah; Lee, Hyung Eun; Park, Se Jin; Lee, Younghwan; Lee, Younghwa; Ko, Sang Yoon; Kim, Boseong; Choi, Jae Sue; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2015-07-01

    In our previous study, we demonstrated that nodakenin, a coumarin compound isolated from Angelica decursiva, ameliorates learning and memory impairments induced by scopolamine. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nodakenin on the cognitive function in the normal naïve mice in a passive avoidance task, and the results showed that nodakenin significantly increased the latency time in normal naïve mice. In addition, sub-chronic administration of nodakenin increased the number of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region. The percentage of BrdU and NeuN (neuronal cell marker)-immunopositive cells was also significantly increased by the nodakenin administration. Western blotting results showed that the expression levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) were significantly increased in hippocampal tissue by sub-chronic nodakenin administration. These findings suggest that the sub-chronic administration of nodakenin enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the DG region via Akt-GSK-3? signaling and this increase may be associated with nodakenin's positive effect on cognitive processing. PMID:25998887

  18. Towards holographic higher-spin interactions: Four-point functions and higher-spin exchange

    E-print Network

    Xavier Bekaert; Johanna Erdmenger; Dmitry Ponomarev; Charlotte Sleight

    2014-12-24

    Within holography, we calculate the contribution of an arbitrary spin-s gauge boson exchange in $AdS_{d+1}$ to the four-point function with scalar operators on the boundary. As an important ingredient, we first compute the complete bulk-to-bulk propagators for massless bosonic higher-spin fields in the metric-like formulation, in any dimension and in various gauges. The split representation of the bulk-to-bulk propagators in terms of bulk-to-boundary propagators allows to present the higher-spin exchange diagram in the form of a conformal partial wave expansion. Our results provide a step towards the larger goal of the holographic reconstruction of bulk interactions, and of clarifying bulk locality.

  19. The Dynamic Relationship Between Cognitive Function and Positive Well-Being in Older People: A Prospective Study Using the English Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that having a stronger sense of positive well-being may be a potential resource for healthier aging as represented by slower physical decline, reduced risk of frailty and longer survival. However, it is unclear whether positive well-being is protective of another crucial component of healthy aging, cognitive function, or whether it has a bidirectional relationship with cognitive function. We use multilevel models with within-person centering to estimate the within- and between-person association between cognitive function and positive well-being in 4 waves of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), (N = 10985, aged 50–90 years at wave 1). Our findings show that, although most variation in cognitive function was explained by age, and most variation in well-being was explained by depression, small but significant associations between cognition and well-being remained after variation in age and depression were controlled. In models where cognition was the outcome, the association was mainly because of variation in mean levels of well-being between persons. In models where well-being was the outcome, the association was mainly because of within-person fluctuation in cognitive test performance. Exercise and depression were the most important moderating influences on the association between cognition and positive well-being. Depression had greater effect upon this association for those with higher well-being, but exercise protected cognitive performance against the adverse effects of lower well-being. PMID:24955999

  20. Failing to get the gist of what's being said: background noise impairs higher-order cognitive processing

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, John E.; Ljung, Robert; Nöstl, Anatole; Threadgold, Emma; Campbell, Tom A.

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic interplay is known to exist between auditory processing and human cognition. For example, prior investigations of speech-in-noise have revealed there is more to learning than just listening: Even if all words within a spoken list are correctly heard in noise, later memory for those words is typically impoverished. These investigations supported a view that there is a “gap” between the intelligibility of speech and memory for that speech. Here, the notion was that this gap between speech intelligibility and memorability is a function of the extent to which the spoken message seizes limited immediate memory resources (e.g., Kjellberg et al., 2008). Accordingly, the more difficult the processing of the spoken message, the less resources are available for elaboration, storage, and recall of that spoken material. However, it was not previously known how increasing that difficulty affected the memory processing of semantically rich spoken material. This investigation showed that noise impairs higher levels of cognitive analysis. A variant of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure that encourages semantic elaborative processes was deployed. On each trial, participants listened to a 36-item list comprising 12 words blocked by each of 3 different themes. Each of those 12 words (e.g., bed, tired, snore…) was associated with a “critical” lure theme word that was not presented (e.g., sleep). Word lists were either presented without noise or at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5 decibels upon an A-weighting. Noise reduced false recall of the critical words, and decreased the semantic clustering of recall. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:26052289

  1. Failing to get the gist of what's being said: background noise impairs higher-order cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Marsh, John E; Ljung, Robert; Nöstl, Anatole; Threadgold, Emma; Campbell, Tom A

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic interplay is known to exist between auditory processing and human cognition. For example, prior investigations of speech-in-noise have revealed there is more to learning than just listening: Even if all words within a spoken list are correctly heard in noise, later memory for those words is typically impoverished. These investigations supported a view that there is a "gap" between the intelligibility of speech and memory for that speech. Here, the notion was that this gap between speech intelligibility and memorability is a function of the extent to which the spoken message seizes limited immediate memory resources (e.g., Kjellberg et al., 2008). Accordingly, the more difficult the processing of the spoken message, the less resources are available for elaboration, storage, and recall of that spoken material. However, it was not previously known how increasing that difficulty affected the memory processing of semantically rich spoken material. This investigation showed that noise impairs higher levels of cognitive analysis. A variant of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure that encourages semantic elaborative processes was deployed. On each trial, participants listened to a 36-item list comprising 12 words blocked by each of 3 different themes. Each of those 12 words (e.g., bed, tired, snore…) was associated with a "critical" lure theme word that was not presented (e.g., sleep). Word lists were either presented without noise or at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5 decibels upon an A-weighting. Noise reduced false recall of the critical words, and decreased the semantic clustering of recall. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:26052289

  2. Influence of social cognition on daily functioning in schizophrenia: study of incremental validity and mediational effects.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Domínguez, Sara; Penadés, Rafael; Segura, Bàrbara; González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Catalán, Rosa

    2015-02-28

    While the role of impaired neurocognition in accounting for functional outcome in schizophrenia is generally established, the influence of social cognition on this relationship is far from clear. This study aims to explore in depth the nature of the relationship between neurocognition, social cognition and daily functioning in people with schizophrenia. Twenty-one individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 15 controls completed the assessment of symptom severity, neuropsychological status, social cognition (Theory of Mind and affect processing) and other functional measures. A statistical mediation model based on hierarchical regression analyses was used to establish the mediation path with significant variables. Social cognition played a mediating role between neurocognition and functioning, accounting for significant trends in incremental variance in specific functional indexes (interpersonal behavior and employment/occupation). Consequently, this study adds to the evidence underlining the importance of targeting not only social cognitive or neurocognitive functions but to combine both interventions to reveal the best daily functioning results in schizophrenia patients. PMID:25563671

  3. Philosophical and Socio-Cognitive Foundations for Teaching in Higher Education through Collaborative Approaches to Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the implications for higher education of recent work on narrative theory, distributed cognition and artificial intelligence. These perspectives are contrasted with the educational implications of Heidegger's ontological phenomenology [being-there and being-aware (Da-sein)] and with the classic and classical foundations of…

  4. The Impact of Learning Driven Constructs on the Perceived Higher Order Cognitive Skills Improvement: Multimedia vs. Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagarukayo, Emily; Weide, Theo; Mbarika, Victor; Kim, Min

    2012-01-01

    The study aims at determining the impact of learning driven constructs on Perceived Higher Order Cognitive Skills (HOCS) improvement when using multimedia and text materials. Perceived HOCS improvement is the attainment of HOCS based on the students' perceptions. The research experiment undertaken using a case study was conducted on 223 students…

  5. Differences in General Cognitive Abilities and Domain-Specific Skills of Higher-and Lower-Achieving Students in Stoichiometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Eilks, Ingo; Bowman, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a comparison of a group of higher-and lower-achieving undergraduate chemistry students, 17 in total, as separated on their ability in stoichiometry. This exploratory study of 17 students investigated parallels and differences in the students' general and domain-specific cognitive abilities. Performance, strategies, and…

  6. Development of Knowledge Frameworks and Higher Order Cognitive Operations among Secondary School Students Who Studied a Unit on Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischoff, Paul J.; Anderson, O. Roger

    2001-01-01

    Interviews 9th and 10th grade students (n=13) who studied an ecology unit and analyzed tape-recorded data for changes in organization of knowledge, represented by ideational networks and the development of higher cognitive operations. Provides insights into how students developed knowledge schemata, ideational networks, and the capacity to express…

  7. The effects of cognitive rehabilitation on Alzheimer’s dementia patients’ cognitive assessment reference diagnosis system performance based on level of cognitive functioning

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jung-Ha; Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Cho, Hyuk-Shin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to apply cognitive rehabilitation according to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients’ level of cognitive functioning to compare changes in Cognitive Assessment Reference Diagnosis System performance and present standards for effective intervention. [Subjects] Subjects were 30 inpatients diagnosed with AD. Subjects were grouped by Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) class (CDR-0.5, CDR-1, or CDR-2, n = 10 per group), which is based on level of cognitive functioning, and cognitive rehabilitation was applied for 50 minutes per day, five days per week, for four weeks. [Methods] After cognitive rehabilitation intervention, CARDS tests were conducted to evaluate memory. [Results] Bonferroni tests comparing the three groups revealed that the CDR-0.5 and CDR-1 groups showed significant increases in Delayed 10 word-list, Delayed 10 object-list, Recognition 10 object, and Recent memory performance compared to the CDR-2 group. In addition, the CDR-0.5 group showed significant decreases in Recognition 10 word performance compared to the CDR-1 group. [Conclusion] Cognitive rehabilitation, CDR-0.5 or CDR-1 subjects showed significantly greater memory improvements than CDR-2 subjects. Moreover, was not effective for CDR-2 subjects. PMID:26504315

  8. Effects of COMT genotype on cognitive ability and functional capacity in individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Twamley, Elizabeth W; Hua, Jessica P Y; Burton, Cynthia Z; Vella, Lea; Chinh, Kelly; Bilder, Robert M; Kelsoe, John R

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive and functional impairments are core features of schizophrenia. This study examined the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype and its relationship to cognition and functional capacity in 188 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. We found that in a dose-response fashion, individuals with more Met alleles performed significantly better on tests of learning/memory and abstraction. The effects of COMT genotype on cognition were modest, explaining about 3% of the variance in learning/memory and abstraction. Larger studies will be needed to examine the relationships between COMT and other genes and cognitive performance and everyday functioning. PMID:25139113

  9. Monitoring and optimising cognitive function in cancer patients: Present knowledge and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Schagen, S.B.; Klein, M.; Reijneveld, J.C.; Brain, E.; Deprez, S.; Joly, F.; Scherwath, A.; Schrauwen, W.; Wefel, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    The potentially detrimental effects of cancer and related treatments on cognitive functioning are emerging as a key focus of cancer survivorship research. Many patients with central nervous system (CNS) or non-CNS tumours develop cognitive problems during the course of their disease that can result in diminished functional independence. We review the state of knowledge on the cognitive functioning of patients with primary and secondary brain tumours at diagnosis, during and after therapy, and discuss current initiatives to diminish cognitive decline in these patients. Similarly, attention is paid to the cognitive sequelae of cancer and cancer therapies in patients without CNS disease. Disease and treatment effects on cognition are discussed, as well as current insights into the neural substrates and the mechanisms underlying cognitive dysfunction in these patients. In addition, rehabilitation strategies for patients with non-CNS disease confronted with cognitive dysfunction are described. Special attention is given to knowledge gaps in the area of cancer and cognition, in CNS and non-CNS diseases. Finally, we point to the important role for cooperative groups to include cognitive endpoints in clinical trials in order to accelerate our understanding and treatment of cognitive dysfunction related to cancer and cancer therapies. PMID:26217164

  10. Confronting Social Injustice: Cognitive Dissonance and Civic Development in Higher Education Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Leslie Cohen

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative, insider account of student civic development in a university service-learning course has two primary goals. One is to propose frameworks for describing the process of civic development of service-learning students that are situated in theories of civic identity, cognitive development, and cognitive dissonance. The other is to…

  11. Understanding the Complexities of Cognition and Creativity to Reform Higher Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welkener, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the connections between the cognitive dimension of human meaning-making and creativity, using a metaphor from the artistic process of additive sculpture as a framework. The author weaves together various theoretical perspectives about cognition and creativity and shares the promise of recognizing the nexus of these notions…

  12. Direct and Mediated Effects of Cognitive Function with Multidimensional Outcome Measures in Schizophrenia: The Role of Functional Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jennifer S.; Moore, Raeanne C.; Davine, Taylor; Cardenas, Veronica; Bowie, Christopher R.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Mausbach, Brent T.

    2013-01-01

    Although cognitive ability is a known predictor of real-world functioning in schizophrenia, there has been an expanded interest in understanding the mechanisms by which it explains real-world functioning in this population. We examined the extent to which functional capacity (i.e., skills necessary to live independently) mediated the relationship between cognitive ability and both observer and self-reported real-world functioning in 138 outpatients with schizophrenia. Functional capacity significantly mediated the relations between cognitive ability and observer rated real world functioning, but not self-reported real world functioning, with small to medium effect sizes observed for all outcomes. The role of cognitive ability in observer vs. self-reported real-world functioning may be explained by different mechanisms. PMID:23984631

  13. Albuminuria, Cognitive Functioning and White Matter Hyperintensities in Homebound Elders

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Daniel E.; Bartolomei, Keith; Scott, Tammy; Price, Lori Lyn; Griffith, John L.; Rosenberg, Irwin; Levey, Andrew S.; Folstein, Marshal F.; Sarnak, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Albuminuria, a kidney marker of microvascular disease, may herald microvascular disease elsewhere, including in the brain. Study Design Cross sectional. Setting and Participants Boston, MA (USA) elders receiving home health services to maintain independent living who consented to brain magnetic resonance imaging. Predictor Urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR). Outcome Performance on a cognitive battery assessing executive function and memory using principal components analysis and white matter hyperintensity volume on brain imaging, evaluated in logistic and linear regression models. Results Of 335 participants, mean age was 73.4 ± 8.1 years; 123 participants had microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria. Each doubling of ACR was associated with worse executive function [?=-0.05 (p=0.005) in univariate and ?=-0.07 (p=0.004) in multivariable analyses controlling for age, sex, race, education, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, medications, and estimated glomerular filtration rate] but not with worse memory or working memory. Individuals with microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria were more likely to be in the lower versus the highest tertile of executive functioning [Odds ratio =1.18 (1.06 to 1.32) and 1.19 (1.05 to 1.35) per doubling of ACR in univariate and multivariable analyses, respectively]. Albuminuria was associated with qualitative white matter hyperintensity grade [Odds ratio =1.13 (1.02 to 1.25) and 1.15 (1.02 to 1.29) per doubling of ACR] in univariate and multivariable analyses, and with quantitative white matter hyperintensity volume [?=0.11 (p=0.007) and ?=0.10 (p=0.01)] in univariate and multivariable analyses of log-transformed data, respectively. Results were similar when excluding individuals with macroalbuminuria. Limitations Single measurement of ACR, indirect creatinine calibration and reliance on participant recall for elements of medical history Conclusions Albuminuria is associated with worse cognitive performance, particularly in executive functioning, as well as increased white matter hyperintensity volume. Albuminuria likely identifies greater brain microvascular disease burden. PMID:19070412

  14. Cognitive function and living situation in COPD: is there a relationship with self-management and quality of life?

    PubMed Central

    Dulohery, Megan M; Schroeder, Darrell R; Benzo, Roberto P

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment is increasingly being found to be a common comorbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study sought to understand the relationship of comprehensively measured cognitive function with COPD severity, quality of life, living situation, health care utilization, and self-management abilities. Methods Subjects with COPD were recruited from the outpatient pulmonary clinic. Cognitive function was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA). Self-management abilities were measured using the Self Management Ability Score 30. Quality of life was measured using the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire. Pearson correlation was used to assess the bivariate association of the MOCA with other study measures. Multivariate analysis was completed to understand the interaction of the MOCA and living situation on COPD outcomes of hospitalization, quality of life, and self-management ability. Results This study included 100 participants of mean age 70±9.4 years (63% male, 37% female) with COPD (mean FEV1 [forced expiratory volume in 1 second] percentage predicted 40.4±16.7). Mean MOCA score was 23.8±3.9 with 63% of patients having mild cognitive impairment. The MOCA was negatively correlated with age (r=?0.28, P=0.005) and positively correlated with education (r=+0.24, P=0.012). There was no significant correlation between cognitive function and exacerbations, emergency room (ER) visits, or hospitalizations. There was no association between the MOCA score and self-management abilities or quality of life. We tested the interaction of living situation and the MOCA with self-management abilities and found statistical significance (P=0.017), indicating that individuals living alone with higher cognitive function report lower self-management abilities. Conclusion Cognitive impairment in COPD does not appear to be meaningfully associated with COPD severity, health outcomes, or self-management abilities. The routine screening for cognitive impairment due to a diagnosis of COPD may not be indicated. Living alone significantly affects the interaction between self-management abilities and cognitive function. PMID:26392762

  15. No association between gain in body mass index across the life course and midlife cognitive function and cognitive reserve—The 1946 British birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Emiliano; Hardy, Rebecca; Wills, Andrew; Kuh, Diana; Guralnik, Jack; Richards, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between lifelong body mass index (BMI) and cognitive function has not been comprehensively studied. Methods In more than 2000 men and women born in 1946, we tested associations between BMI gain at 15, 20, 26, 36, 43, and 53 years with respect to the previous measure (gain at age 15 years with respect to BMI at age 11 years), and semantic fluency (animal naming) and cognitive reserve (the National Adult Reading Test) at age 53 years, and verbal memory (word list recall) and speed/concentration (letter cancellation) at ages 43 and 53 years. Measures of BMI gain were adjusted in stages for childhood intelligence, education, socioeconomic position (SEP), lifestyle, and vascular risk factors. Results Independent of childhood intelligence, BMI gain between ages 26 and 36 years was associated with lower memory scores (? per SD increase in BMI in men = ?0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: ?0.19, ?0.02), verbal fluency (? in women = ?0.11; 95% CI: ?0.20, ?0.02), and lower National Adult Reading Test score (? in women = ?0.08; 95% CI: ?0.15, ?0.01), but not with speed/concentration (? in men = 0.02; 95% CI: ?0.11, 0.07). Associations were largely explained by educational attainment and SEP (P ? .10). However, BMI gain at 53 years in men was independently associated with better memory (? = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.22), and both underweight (? = ?1.54; 95% CI: ?2.52, ?0.57) and obese (? = ?0.30; 95% CI: ?2.52, ?0.57) women at 53 years had significantly lower memory scores. Conclusion The adverse effect of higher BMI gain on midlife cognitive function and cognitive reserve is independent of childhood intelligence but not of education and SEP. The independent association between greater BMI gain in midlife and better cognitive function deserves further investigation. PMID:22858531

  16. How Do Cognitive Function and Knowledge Affect Heart Failure Self-Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Lee, Christopher S.; Riegel, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive patient education, few heart failure (HF) patients master self-care. Impaired cognitive function may explain why patient education is ineffective. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was used to explore how knowledge and cognitive function influence HF self-care. A total of 41 adults with HF participated in interviews…

  17. Vitamin D is associated with cognitive function in elders receiving home health services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D status has recently been associated with neurological disorders, but little research has evaluated vitamin D and cognitive function. We conducted a cross-sectional investigation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and cognitive function in 377 black and 703 non-black (Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian...

  18. Amphetamine improves cognitive function in medicated individuals with schizophrenia and in healthy volunteers

    E-print Network

    Amphetamine improves cognitive function in medicated individuals with schizophrenia and in healthy administration of d-amphetamine can improve cognitive function in individuals with schizophrenia who are well production, and Stroop tasks under both placebo and 0.25 mg/kg of d-amphetamine. Results: d-Amphetamine

  19. Cognitive Functioning in Children with Pantothenate-Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration Undergoing Deep Brain Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Rachel; Selway, Richard; Lin, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To examine the cognitive functioning of young people with pantothenate-kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) after pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS). PKAN is characterized by progressive generalized dystonia and has historically been associated with cognitive decline. With growing evidence that DBS can improve motor function in…

  20. Higher-dimensional Wannier functions of multiparameter Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanke, Jan-Philipp; Freimuth, Frank; Blügel, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy

    2015-05-01

    When using Wannier functions to study the electronic structure of multiparameter Hamiltonians H(k ,? ) carrying a dependence on crystal momentum k and an additional periodic parameter ? , one usually constructs several sets of Wannier functions for a set of values of ? . We present the concept of higher-dimensional Wannier functions (HDWFs), which provide a minimal and accurate description of the electronic structure of multiparameter Hamiltonians based on a single set of HDWFs. The obstacle of nonorthogonality of Bloch functions at different ? is overcome by introducing an auxiliary real space, which is reciprocal to the parameter ? . We derive a generalized interpolation scheme and emphasize the essential conceptual and computational simplifications in using the formalism, for instance, in the evaluation of linear response coefficients. We further implement the necessary machinery to construct HDWFs from ab initio within the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method (FLAPW). We apply our implementation to accurately interpolate the Hamiltonian of a one-dimensional magnetic chain of Mn atoms in two important cases of ? : (i) the spin-spiral vector q and (ii) the direction of the ferromagnetic magnetization m ?. Using the generalized interpolation of the energy, we extract the corresponding values of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy, Heisenberg exchange constants, and spin stiffness, which compare very well with the values obtained from direct first principles calculations. For toy models we demonstrate that the method of HDWFs can also be used in applications such as the virtual crystal approximation, ferroelectric polarization, and spin torques.

  1. Toward a more embedded/extended perspective on the cognitive function of gestures

    PubMed Central

    Pouw, Wim T. J. L.; de Nooijer, Jacqueline A.; van Gog, Tamara; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Paas, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Gestures are often considered to be demonstrative of the embodied nature of the mind (Hostetter and Alibali, 2008). In this article, we review current theories and research targeted at the intra-cognitive role of gestures. We ask the question how can gestures support internal cognitive processes of the gesturer? We suggest that extant theories are in a sense disembodied, because they focus solely on embodiment in terms of the sensorimotor neural precursors of gestures. As a result, current theories on the intra-cognitive role of gestures are lacking in explanatory scope to address how gestures-as-bodily-acts fulfill a cognitive function. On the basis of recent theoretical appeals that focus on the possibly embedded/extended cognitive role of gestures (Clark, 2013), we suggest that gestures are external physical tools of the cognitive system that replace and support otherwise solely internal cognitive processes. That is gestures provide the cognitive system with a stable external physical and visual presence that can provide means to think with. We show that there is a considerable amount of overlap between the way the human cognitive system has been found to use its environment, and how gestures are used during cognitive processes. Lastly, we provide several suggestions of how to investigate the embedded/extended perspective of the cognitive function of gestures. PMID:24795687

  2. Cognitive profiles and social-communicative functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Robert M.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Lord, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Background Whether there is an unusual degree of unevenness in the cognitive abilities of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and whether different cognitive profiles among children with ASD might index etiologically significant subgroups are questions of continued debate in autism research. Method The Differential Ability Scales (DAS) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) were used to examine profiles of verbal and nonverbal abilities and their relationship to autistic symptomatology in 120 relatively high-functioning children with ADI-confirmed diagnoses of autism. Results Discrepancies between verbal and nonverbal ability scores occurred at a significantly higher rate than in the DAS normative sample (30%) in both a younger group of 73 children (56%) with a mean age of 5;5 and an older group of 47 children (62%) with a mean age of 8;11. Discrepancies were mainly in favor of nonverbal ability in the younger group, but occurred equally in favor of verbal and nonverbal abilities in the older group. Comparison of the two age groups suggested a growing dissociation between verbal and nonverbal (and particularly visual processing) skills with age. In the older group, children with discrepantly higher nonverbal abilities demonstrated significantly greater impairment in social functioning, as measured on the ADOS, independent of absolute level of verbal and overall ability. Conclusions These findings demonstrate a high rate of uneven cognitive development in children with ASD. Indications of a dissociation between verbal and visual-perceptual skills among the older children, and the specific association of discrepantly high nonverbal skills with increased social symptoms suggest that the nonverbal > verbal profile may index an etiologically significant subtype of autism. PMID:12236615

  3. Functional cognitive disorder: what is it and what to do about it?

    PubMed

    Pennington, Catherine; Newson, Margaret; Hayre, Amrit; Coulthard, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    To err is human, and it is normal to make minor cognitive errors from time to time. Some people experience persistent subjective cognitive difficulties that cause distress and functional impairment, with no underlying structural, neurodegenerative, toxic or metabolic cause. This is considered a form of functional disorder. In this article, we review functional cognitive disorder and outline its core clinical features. Patients with this are typically of working age and have a source of psychological distress, such as chronic pain, work stress or family difficulties. Its distinction from incipient dementia is difficult and usually requires interval follow-up. Pointers towards possible dementia include abnormal neuroimaging or loss of insight. Many patients accept a functional cognitive disorder diagnosis and willingly engage with psychological therapies but there is no defined optimal treatment. Functional cognitive disorder is common but under-studied; future research priorities include the development of clear diagnostic criteria and robust trials of therapeutic strategies. PMID:26271265

  4. Learning an atlas of a cognitive process in its functional geometry

    E-print Network

    Langs, Georg

    In this paper we construct an atlas that captures functional characteristics of a cognitive process from a population of individuals. The functional connectivity is encoded in a low-dimensional embedding space derived from ...

  5. Multimodal MRI and cognitive function in patients with breast cancer prior to adjuvant treatment--the role of fatigue.

    PubMed

    Menning, Sanne; de Ruiter, Michiel B; Veltman, Dick J; Koppelmans, V; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Boogerd, Willem; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schagen, Sanne B

    2015-01-01

    An increasing body of literature indicates that chemotherapy (ChT) for breast cancer (BC) is associated with adverse effects on the brain. Recent research suggests that cognitive and brain function in patients with BC may already be compromised before the start of chemotherapy. This is the first study combining neuropsychological testing, patient-reported outcomes, and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine pretreatment cognition and various aspects of brain function and structure in a large sample. Thirty-two patients with BC scheduled to receive ChT (pre-ChT+), 33 patients with BC not indicated to undergo ChT (pre-ChT-), and 38 no-cancer controls (NCs) were included. The examination consisted of a neuropsychological test battery, self-reported aspects of psychosocial functioning, and multimodal MRI. Patients with BC reported worse scores on several aspects of quality of life, such as higher levels of fatigue and stress. However, cortisol levels were not elevated in the patient groups compared to the control group. Overall cognitive performance was lower in the pre-ChT+ and the pre-ChT- groups compared to NC. Further, patients demonstrated prefrontal hyperactivation with increasing task difficulty on a planning task compared to NC, but not during a memory task. White matter integrity was lower in both patient groups. No differences in regional brain volume and brain metabolites were found. The cognitive and imaging data converged to show that symptoms of fatigue were associated with the observed abnormalities; the observed differences were no longer significant when fatigue was accounted for. This study suggests that cancer-related psychological or biological processes may adversely impact cognitive functioning and associated aspects of brain structure and function before the start of adjuvant treatment. Our findings stress the importance to further explore the processes underlying the expression of fatigue and to study whether it has a contributory role in subsequent treatment-related cognitive decline. PMID:25844311

  6. Multimodal MRI and cognitive function in patients with breast cancer prior to adjuvant treatment — The role of fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Menning, Sanne; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Veltman, Dick J.; Koppelmans, V.; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Boogerd, Willem; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schagen, Sanne B.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing body of literature indicates that chemotherapy (ChT) for breast cancer (BC) is associated with adverse effects on the brain. Recent research suggests that cognitive and brain function in patients with BC may already be compromised before the start of chemotherapy. This is the first study combining neuropsychological testing, patient-reported outcomes, and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine pretreatment cognition and various aspects of brain function and structure in a large sample. Thirty-two patients with BC scheduled to receive ChT (pre-ChT+), 33 patients with BC not indicated to undergo ChT (pre-ChT?), and 38 no-cancer controls (NCs) were included. The examination consisted of a neuropsychological test battery, self-reported aspects of psychosocial functioning, and multimodal MRI. Patients with BC reported worse scores on several aspects of quality of life, such as higher levels of fatigue and stress. However, cortisol levels were not elevated in the patient groups compared to the control group. Overall cognitive performance was lower in the pre-ChT+ and the pre-ChT? groups compared to NC. Further, patients demonstrated prefrontal hyperactivation with increasing task difficulty on a planning task compared to NC, but not during a memory task. White matter integrity was lower in both patient groups. No differences in regional brain volume and brain metabolites were found. The cognitive and imaging data converged to show that symptoms of fatigue were associated with the observed abnormalities; the observed differences were no longer significant when fatigue was accounted for. This study suggests that cancer-related psychological or biological processes may adversely impact cognitive functioning and associated aspects of brain structure and function before the start of adjuvant treatment. Our findings stress the importance to further explore the processes underlying the expression of fatigue and to study whether it has a contributory role in subsequent treatment-related cognitive decline. PMID:25844311

  7. The Class-Size Effect upon Activity and Cognitive Dimensions of Lessons in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, Sophia; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of the relationship of class size to the length, frequency, and cognitive level and diversity of both teacher and student verbalizations in medical instruction in an Israeli university is reported. (MSE)

  8. Moving to higher ground: The dynamic field theory and the dynamics of visual cognition

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Spencer, John P.; Schöner, Gregor

    2009-01-01

    In the present report, we describe a new dynamic field theory that captures the dynamics of visuo-spatial cognition. This theory grew out of the dynamic systems approach to motor control and development, and is grounded in neural principles. The initial application of dynamic field theory to issues in visuo-spatial cognition extended concepts of the motor approach to decision making in a sensori-motor context, and, more recently, to the dynamics of spatial cognition. Here we extend these concepts still further to address topics in visual cognition, including visual working memory for non-spatial object properties, the processes that underlie change detection, and the ‘binding problem’ in vision. In each case, we demonstrate that the general principles of the dynamic field approach can unify findings in the literature and generate novel predictions. We contend that the application of these concepts to visual cognition avoids the pitfalls of reductionist approaches in cognitive science, and points toward a formal integration of brains, bodies, and behavior. PMID:19173013

  9. Involuntary Cognitions in Everyday Life: Exploration of Type, Quality, Content, and Function

    PubMed Central

    Krans, Julie; de Bree, June; Moulds, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research into spontaneous or intrusive cognitions has typically focused on cognitions in one predefined domain, such as obsessional thoughts in OCD, intrusive memories in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, or involuntary autobiographical memories and daydreaming in everyday life. Such studies have resulted in a wealth of knowledge about these specific cognitions. However, by focusing on a predefined type of cognition, other subtypes of cognition that may co-occur can be missed. In this exploratory study, we aimed to assess involuntary cognitions in everyday life without a pre-determined focus on any specific subtype of cognition. Seventy unselected undergraduate student participants were administered a questionnaire that assessed the presence of any involuntary cognitions in the past month, their quality, type, content, and potential function. In addition, participants provided self-descriptions and completed measures of psychopathology. Content analyses showed that involuntary cognitions were common, predominantly visual in nature, emotional, often about social relationships, and often related to a hypothetical function of emotional processing. About two-thirds of the cognitions that participants reported were memories. Non-memories included daydreams, imaginary worst case scenarios, imaginary future events, hypothetical reconstructions, and ruminations. Memories and non-memories were strikingly similar in their subjective experience of content and emotionality. Negative (but not positive) self-descriptions were associated with negative involuntary cognitions and psychopathology, suggesting a link between involuntary cognitions and the self. Overall, the findings suggest that people experience a wide variety of subtypes of involuntary cognitions in everyday life. Moreover, the specific subtype of involuntary cognition appears to be less important than its valence or content, at least to the subjective experience of the individual. PMID:25698979

  10. Functional significance of complex fluctuations in brain activity: from resting state to cognitive neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Papo, David

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral studies have shown that human cognition is characterized by properties such as temporal scale invariance, heavy-tailed non-Gaussian distributions, and long-range correlations at long time scales, suggesting models of how (non observable) components of cognition interact. On the other hand, results from functional neuroimaging studies show that complex scaling and intermittency may be generic spatio-temporal properties of the brain at rest. Somehow surprisingly, though, hardly ever have the neural correlates of cognition been studied at time scales comparable to those at which cognition shows scaling properties. Here, we analyze the meanings of scaling properties and the significance of their task-related modulations for cognitive neuroscience. It is proposed that cognitive processes can be framed in terms of complex generic properties of brain activity at rest and, ultimately, of functional equations, limiting distributions, symmetries, and possibly universality classes characterizing them. PMID:24966818

  11. Cognitive function after radiotherapy for supratentorial low-grade glioma: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Laack, Nadia N.; Brown, Paul D. . E-mail: brown.paul@mayo.edu; Ivnik, Robert J.; Furth, Alfred F. M.S.; Ballman, Karla V.; Hammack, Julie E.; Arusell, Robert M.; Shaw, Edward G.; Buckner, Jan C.

    2005-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of cranial radiotherapy (RT) on cognitive function in patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Twenty adult patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma were treated with 50.4 Gy (10 patients) or 64.8 Gy (10 patients) localized RT. The patients then were evaluated with an extensive battery of psychometric tests at baseline (before RT) and at approximately 18-month intervals for as long as 5 years after completing RT. To allow patients to serve as their own controls, cognitive performance was evaluated as change in scores over time. All patients underwent at least two evaluations. Results: Baseline test scores were below average compared with age-specific norms. At the second evaluation, the groups' mean test scores were higher than their initial performances on all psychometric measures, although the improvement was not statistically significant. No changes in cognitive performance were seen during the evaluation period when test scores were analyzed by age, treatment, tumor location, tumor type, or extent of resection. Conclusions: Cognitive function was stable after RT in these patients evaluated prospectively during 3 years of follow-up. Slight improvements in some cognitive areas are consistent with practice effects attributable to increased familiarity with test procedures and content.

  12. Kidney function is associated with the rate of cognitive decline in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Buchman, A S.; Tanne, D; Boyle, P A.; Shah, R C.; Leurgans, S E.; Bennett, D A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We tested the hypothesis that impaired kidney function in the elderly is associated with a more rapid rate of cognitive decline. Methods: Baseline serum was used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula, for 886 elderly without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a prospective, observational cohort study. Kidney function was also dichotomized into impairment or no impairment based on eGFR < or ?60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Structured cognitive testing was performed at baseline and at annual evaluations, using a battery of 19 cognitive tests summarized into global cognition and 5 cognitive domains. Results: In mixed-effects models adjusted for age, sex, and education, a lower eGFR at baseline was associated with a more rapid rate of cognitive decline (estimate 0.0008, SE <0.001, p = 0.017). The increased rate of cognitive decline associated with a 15-mL/min/1.73 m2 lower eGFR at baseline (approximately 1 SD) was similar to the effect of being 3 years older at baseline. Impaired kidney function at baseline was associated with a more rapid rate of cognitive decline (estimate ?0.028, SE <0.009, p = 0.003). The increased rate of cognitive decline associated with impaired kidney function at baseline was approximately 75% the effect of ApoE4 allele on the rate of cognitive decline. Baseline kidney function was associated with declines in semantic memory, episodic memory, and working memory but not visuospatial abilities or perceptual speed. Conclusion: Impaired kidney function is associated with a more rapid rate of cognitive decline in old age. GLOSSARY AD = Alzheimer disease; BMI = body mass index; CRN = creatinine; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate. PMID:19657107

  13. Effect of Cognitive Rehabilitation on Improving Cognitive Function and Activities of Daily Living among Elderly Patients with Stroke at Assiut University Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-Elaziz, Saieda Abd-Elhameed; Khedr, Eman M.; Ahmed, Hanaa Abd Elhakiem; Ibrahim, Hoda Diab Fahmy

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a frequent consequence of stroke. The study aimed to measure the effect of cognitive rehabilitation of elderly patients with stroke on their cognitive function and activities of daily living. Quasi experimental research design were used in this study. This study was conducted at neuropsychiatric, physical medicine and…

  14. Test Experience Effects in Longitudinal Comparisons of Adult Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    It is widely recognized that experience with cognitive tests can influence estimates of cognitive change. Prior research has estimated experience effects at the level of groups by comparing the performance of a group of participants tested for the second time with the performance of a different group of participants at the same age tested for the…

  15. Functional architecture of higher plant photosystem II supercomplexes

    PubMed Central

    Caffarri, Stefano; Kou?il, Roman; Kereïche, Sami; Boekema, Egbert J; Croce, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it to homogeneity. In this work, homogeneous preparations ranging from a newly identified particle composed by a monomeric core and antenna proteins to the largest C2S2M2 supercomplex were isolated. Characterization by biochemical methods and single particle electron microscopy allowed to relate for the first time the supramolecular organization to the protein content. A projection map of C2S2M2 at 12 Å resolution was obtained, which allowed determining the location and the orientation of the antenna proteins. Comparison of the supercomplexes obtained from WT and Lhcb-deficient plants reveals the importance of the individual subunits for the supramolecular organization. The functional implications of these findings are discussed and allow redefining previous suggestions on PSII energy transfer, assembly, photoinhibition, state transition and non-photochemical quenching. PMID:19696744

  16. Tai chi improves cognitive and physical function in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiao; Kanagawa, Katsuko; Sasaki, Junko; Ooki, Syuichi; Xu, Huali; Wang, Li

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effect of Tai Chi on cognitive and physical function in the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] A randomized trial design was used. A total 150 subjects were enrolled and were divided into Tai Chi and control groups. Subjects in the Tai Chi group participated Tai Chi for 6 months, and subjects in the control group participated in other non-athletic activities. [Results] There were no differences between the groups in the one leg standing time with eyes open, left grip strength, or the Frontal Assessment Battery at bedside after 3 and 6 months of intervention. The Mini-Mental State Examination scores after 3 and 6 months were higher in the Tai Chi group than in the control group. The right grip strength after 3 months increased more in the Tai Chi group than in the control group. Both the 5-m high walking speed and 10-m normal walking speed were significantly lower after 3 and 6 months of Tai Chi practice. [Conclusion] These results suggest that regular Tai Chi practice may improve cognitive and physical function in the elderly. PMID:26157242

  17. Can We Understand Why Cognitive Function Predicts Mortality? Results from the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallacher, John; Bayer, Anthony; Dunstan, Frank; Yarnell, John; Elwood, Peter; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2009-01-01

    The association between cognitive function and mortality is of increasing interest. We followed 1870 men aged 55-69 years at cognitive assessment for 16 years to establish associations with all case and cause specific mortality. Cognitive assessment included AH4, 4 choice reaction time (used as estimates of mid-life cognition) and the National…

  18. Research progress in China on the assessment of cognitive function in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Dengtang; WANG, Yingchan; XU, Yifeng; JIANG, Kaida

    2013-01-01

    Summary Cognitive impairment – one of the core symptoms of schizophrenia – has become a focus of research about schizophrenia in China and elsewhere. The main reason for the interest in cognitive functioning is that the degree of cognitive impairment is associated both with the current severity of the illness and with the prognosis of the illness due to its effect on individuals' ability to live independently and on their occupational and social functioning. The first study on cognitive function in schizophrenia in China was conducted in the late 1970s; more recently there has been a resurgence of interest in the area because of new information that has emerged as neuroimaging technologies have improved. The current review summarizes studies on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia conducted in China and proposes directions for future research in this area. PMID:24991166

  19. Relationship between financial competence and cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Niekawa, Nobuyuki; Sakuraba, Yukie; Uto, Hanae; Kumazawa, Yoshiko; Matsuda, Osamu

    2007-10-01

    The present study examined financial competence in patients with schizophrenia and the relationship between their financial competence and cognitive function. The subjects consisted of 25 patients with schizophrenia (10 inpatients and 15 outpatients) and 22 normal controls who were community-dwelling people with no psychiatric disorders or cognitive deficit. To assess the subjects' cognitive function and financial competence, they completed the Japanese version of the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (COGNISTAT), which has 10 subtests, and the Financial Competency Assessment Tool (FCAT), which has six subordinate domains of financial competence. Patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse than the controls in all scores on the FCAT. The financial scores that were significantly different between the patients and the normal controls were significantly positively correlated with the scores on several COGNISTAT subtests (e.g. comprehension). These results suggest that patients with schizophrenia have problems with financial competence and that these problems may be accounted for by deficits in several cognitive functions. PMID:17875022

  20. Association between Community Ambulation Walking Patterns and Cognitive Function in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Further Insights into Motor-Cognitive Links

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Aner; Herman, Talia; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cognitive function is generally evaluated based on testing in the clinic, but this may not always reflect real-life function. We tested whether parameters derived from long-term, continuous monitoring of gait are associated with cognitive function in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. 107 patients with PD (age: 64.9 ± 9.3?yrs; UPDRS motor sum “off”: 40.4 ± 13.2; 25.23% women) wore a 3D accelerometer on their lower back for 3 days. Computerized measures of global cognitive function, executive function, attention, and nonverbal memory were assessed. Three-day acceleration derived measures included cadence, variability, bilateral coordination, and dynamic postural control. Associations between the acceleration derived measures and cognitive function were determined. Results. Linear regression showed associations between vertical gait variability and cadence and between global cognitive score, attention, and executive function (p ? 0.048). Dynamic postural control was associated with global cognitive score and attention (p ? 0.027). Nonverbal memory was not associated with the acceleration-derived measures. Conclusions. These findings suggest that metrics derived from a 3-day worn body-fixed sensor reflect cognitive function, further supporting the idea that the gait pattern may be altered as cognition declines and that gait provides a window into cognitive function in patients with PD. PMID:26605103

  1. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA oxidative stress has been suggested as an important pathogenic mechanism in cognitive impairment and dementia. We, therefore, examined whether urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of global DNA oxidation, was associated with cognitive function in a sample of Puerto Rican adul...

  2. Integrating Functional Brain Neuroimaging and Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience in Child Psychiatry Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Sweeney, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of cognitive neuroscience and functional brain neuroimaging to understand brain dysfunction in pediatric psychiatric disorders is discussed. Results show that bipolar youths demonstrate impairment in affective and cognitive neural systems and in these two circuits' interface. Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric…

  3. Children's Sleep and Cognitive Functioning: Race and Socioeconomic Status as Moderators of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keller, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Race and socioeconomic status (SES) moderated the link between children's sleep and cognitive functioning. One hundred and sixty-six 8- to 9-year-old African and European American children varying in SES participated. Sleep measures were actigraphy, sleep diaries, and self-report; cognitive measures were from the Woodcock-Johnson III and reaction…

  4. Differentiation of Cognitive Abilities as a Function of Neuroticism Level: A Measurement Equivalence/Invariance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonaccio, Silvia; Reeve, Charlie L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the differentiation of cognitive abilities as a function of neuroticism. Specifically, we examine Eysenck and White's [Eysenck, H. J., and White, P. O. (1964). Personality and the measurement of intelligence. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 24, 197-201.] hypothesis that cognitive abilities are less differentiated…

  5. Does Implicit Learning in Non-Demented Parkinson's Disease depend on the Level of Cognitive Functioning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenbossche, Jochen; Deroost, Natacha; Soetens, Eric; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the level of cognitive functioning on sequence-specific learning in Parkinson's disease (PD). This was done by examining the relationship between the scales for outcomes in Parkinson's disease-cognition [SCOPA-COG, Marinus, J., Visser, M., Verwey, N. A., Verhey, F. R. J., Middelkoop, H. A. M.,Stiggelbout, A., et…

  6. Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…

  7. The Relationship between Sleep and Epilepsy: The Effect on Cognitive Functioning in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Pasquale; Bruni, Oliviero; Pia Villa, Maria; Verrotti, Alberto; Miano, Silvia; Luchetti, Anna; Curatolo, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this review was to examine the possible pathophysiological links between epilepsy, cognition, sleep macro- and microstructure, and sleep disorders to highlight the contributions and interactions of sleep and epilepsy on cognitive functioning in children with epilepsy. Method: PubMed was used as the medical database source. No…

  8. Cerebrovascular function and cognition in childhood: a systematic review of transcranial doppler studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The contribution of cerebrovascular function to cognitive performance is gaining increased attention. Transcranial doppler (TCD) is portable, reliable, inexpensive and extremely well tolerated by young and clinical samples. It enables measurement of blood flow velocity in major cerebral arteries at rest and during cognitive tasks. Methods We systematically reviewed evidence for associations between cognitive performance and cerebrovascular function in children (0-18 years), as measured using TCD. A total of 2778 articles were retrieved from PsychInfo, Pubmed, and EMBASE searches and 25 relevant articles were identified. Results Most studies investigated clinical groups, where decreased blood flow velocities in infants were associated with poor neurological functioning, and increased blood flow velocities in children with Sickle cell disease were typically associated with cognitive impairment and lower intelligence. Studies were also identified assessing autistic behaviour, mental retardation and sleep disordered breathing. In healthy children, the majority of studies reported cognitive processing produced lateralised changes in blood flow velocities however these physiological responses did not appear to correlate with behavioural cognitive performance. Conclusion Poor cognitive performance appears to be associated with decreased blood flow velocities in premature infants, and increased velocities in Sickle cell disease children using TCD methods. However knowledge in healthy samples is relatively limited. The technique is well tolerated by children, is portable and inexpensive. It therefore stands to make a valuable contribution to knowledge regarding the underlying functional biology of cognitive performance in childhood. PMID:24602446

  9. Aberrant Function of Learning and Cognitive Control Networks Underlie Inefficient Cognitive Flexibility in Anorexia Nervosa: A Cross-Sectional fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Lao-Kaim, Nick P.; Fonville, Leon; Giampietro, Vincent P.; Williams, Steven C. R.; Simmons, Andrew; Tchanturia, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Objectives People with Anorexia Nervosa exhibit difficulties flexibly adjusting behaviour in response to environmental changes. This has previously been attributed to problematic behavioural shifting, characterised by a decrease in fronto-striatal activity. Additionally, alterations of instrumental learning, which relies on fronto-striatal networks, may contribute to the observation of inflexible behaviour. The authors sought to investigate the neural correlates of cognitive flexibility and learning in Anorexia Nervosa. Method Thirty-two adult females with Anorexia Nervosa and thirty-two age-matched female control participants completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task whilst undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Event-related analysis permitted the comparison of cognitive shift trials against those requiring maintenance of rule-sets and allowed assessment of trials representing learning. Results Although both groups performed similarly, we found significant interactions in the left middle frontal gyrus, precuneus and superior parietal lobule whereby blood-oxygenated-level dependent response was higher in Anorexia Nervosa patients during shifting but lower when maintaining rule-sets, as compared to healthy controls. During learning, posterior cingulate cortex activity in healthy controls decreased whilst increasing in the Anorexia Nervosa group, whereas the right precuneus exhibited the opposite pattern. Furthermore, learning was associated with lower blood-oxygenated-level dependent response in the caudate body, as compared to healthy controls. Conclusions People with Anorexia Nervosa display widespread changes in executive function. Whilst cognitive flexibility appears to be associated with aberrant functioning of the fronto-parietal control network that mediates between internally and externally directed cognition, fronto-striatal alterations, particularly within the caudate body, were associated with instrumental learning. Together, this shows how perseverative tendencies could be a substrate of multiple high-order processes that may contribute to the maintenance of Anorexia Nervosa. PMID:25970523

  10. Social disinterest attitudes and group cognitive-behavioral social skills training for functional disability in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Link, Peter C

    2009-09-01

    The majority of clinical trials of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for schizophrenia have used individual therapy to target positive symptoms. Promising results have been found, however, for group CBT interventions and other treatment targets like psychosocial functioning. CBT for functioning in schizophrenia is based on a cognitive model of functional outcome in schizophrenia that incorporates dysfunctional attitudes (eg, social disinterest, defeatist performance beliefs) as mediators between neurocognitive impairment and functional outcome. In this report, 18 clinical trials of CBT for schizophrenia that included measures of psychosocial functioning were reviewed, and two-thirds showed improvements in functioning in CBT. The cognitive model of functional outcome was also tested by examining the relationship between social disinterest attitudes and functional outcome in 79 people with schizophrenia randomized to either group cognitive-behavioral social skills training or a goal-focused supportive contact intervention. Consistent with the cognitive model, lower social disinterest attitudes at baseline and greater reduction in social disinterest during group therapy predicted better functional outcome at end of treatment for both groups. However, the groups did not differ significantly with regard to overall change in social disinterest attitudes during treatment, suggesting that nonspecific social interactions during group therapy can lead to changes in social disinterest, regardless of whether these attitudes are directly targeted by cognitive therapy interventions. PMID:19628761

  11. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of cognitive control and neurosensory deficits in mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Andrew R; Hanlon, Faith M; Dodd, Andrew B; Ling, Josef M; Klimaj, Stefan D; Meier, Timothy B

    2015-11-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury patients (mTBI) frequently report symptoms of increased distractability and sensory disturbances during mutisensory stimulation. These common post-concussive symptoms could putatively result from dysfunction within the cognitive control network (CCN; top-down) or from unisensory cortex (bottom-up) itself. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and high-resolution structural data were therefore prospectively collected during a multisensory (audio-visual) cognitive control task from 46 mTBI patients within 3 weeks of injury and 46 matched healthy controls (HC), with a subset of participants returning at 4 months. Multisensory stimuli were presented at two frequencies to manipulate cognitive and perceptual load. Patients self-reported more cognitive, emotional, somatic, vestibular and visual symptoms relative to HC, which improved, but did not entirely resolve, over the 4 month follow-up period. There were no group differences in behavior or functional activation during cognitive control (incongruent - congruent trials). In contrast, patients exhibited abnormal activation within different regions of visual cortex that depended on whether attention was focused on auditory or visual information streams. Patients also exhibited increased activation within bilateral inferior parietal lobules during higher cognitive/perceptual loads, suggesting a compensatory mechanism to achieve similar levels of behavioral performance. Functional abnormalities within the visual cortex and inferior parietal lobules were only partially resolved at 4 months post-injury, suggesting that neural abnormalities may take longer to resolve than behavioral measures used in most clinical settings. In summary, current results indicate that abnormalities within unisensory cortex (particularly visual areas) following mTBI, which likely contribute to deficits commonly reported during multisensory stimulation. Hum Brain Mapp 36:4394-4406, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26493161

  12. Lower but not higher doses of transdermal nicotine facilitate cognitive performance in smokers on gender non-preferred tasks.

    PubMed

    Poltavski, Dmitri V; Petros, Thomas V; Holm, Jeffrey E

    2012-09-01

    One of the most widely used treatments for smoking cessation is nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). There is some evidence that smokers experience abstinence-induced deficits in cognitive function, which are attenuated by NRTs. Additionally it's been suggested that the degree of reversal of cognitive deficits may depend on the NRT dose and the smoker's gender. In the present placebo-controlled study we investigated effects of three doses of transdermal nicotine (7 mg, 14 mg and 21 mg) on cognitive performance of 48 male and 48 female smokers after overnight abstinence and 6h of patch application. Cognitive tasks used in the study included the Conners' CPT, emotional Stroop, mental arithmetic, and verbal recall of affective prose passages. The results showed greater probability of attentional problems in the male sample compared to females as identified by the Conners' CPT. Within gender women showed improved performance in the 7 mg and 14 mg conditions on several measures of the Conners' CPT, and faster hit reaction time on the emotional Stroop test compared to women in the placebo and 21 mg of nicotine groups. Conversely, males showed a moderate overall advantage on the mental arithmetic task and were differentially sensitive to nicotine treatment on the prose recall task, on which the greatest improvement in recall of affective material was observed for the 14 mg group compared to the 21 mg group. The results are explained on the basis of an inverted U-shaped relationship between nicotinic stimulation and cognitive performance as well as greater sensitivity to nicotine dose manipulation on gender non-preferred cognitive tasks. PMID:22691869

  13. Moment to moment variability in functional brain networks during cognitive activity in EEG data.

    PubMed

    Dasari, Naga M; Nandagopal, Nanda D; Ramasamy, Vijayalaxmi; Cocks, Bernadine; Thomas, Bruce H; Dahal, Nabaraj; Gaertner, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Functional brain networks (FBNs) are gaining increasing attention in computational neuroscience due to their ability to reveal dynamic interdependencies between brain regions. The dynamics of such networks during cognitive activity between stimulus and response using multi-channel electroencephalogram (EEG), recorded from 16 healthy human participants are explored in this research. Successive EEG segments of 500[Formula: see text]ms duration starting from the onset of cognitive stimulation have been used to analyze and understand the cognitive dynamics. The approach employs a combination of signal processing techniques, nonlinear statistical measures and graph-theoretical analysis. The efficacy of this approach in detecting and tracking cognitive load induced changes in EEG data is clearly demonstrated using graph metrics. It is revealed that most cognitive activity occurs within approximately 500[Formula: see text]ms of the stimulus presentation in addition to temporal variability in the FBNs. It is shown that mutual information (MI), a nonlinear measure, produces good correlations between the EEG channels thus enabling the construction of FBNs which are sensitive to cognitive load induced changes in EEG. Analyses of the dynamics of FBNs and the visualization approach reveal hard to detect subtle changes in cognitive function and hence may lead to a better understanding of cognitive processing in the brain. The techniques exploited have the potential to detect human cognitive dysfunction (impairments). PMID:26365114

  14. An epigenetic blockade of cognitive functions in the neurodegenerating brain

    E-print Network

    Rei, Damien

    Cognitive decline is a debilitating feature of most neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system, including Alzheimer’s disease [superscript 1]. The causes leading to such impairment are only poorly understood ...

  15. The functional role of cognitive frameworks on visuomotor adaptation performance.

    PubMed

    Lex, Heiko; Weigelt, Matthias; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of cognitive representations of movement directions on sensorimotor adaptation performance. Adaptation performance was measured via a pointing experiment in which participants were provided with visual feedback that was distorted along the midsagittal plane (i.e., left-right reversal). Performance was analyzed relative to participants' individual adaptation gains and 3 groups were subsequently defined (i.e., skilled, average, and poor adapters). The group separation was kept for the Cognitive Measurement of Represented Directions, which was used to analyze participants' cognitive representation of movement directions. The results showed that skilled adapters, in contrast to poor adapters, possess a global representation of movement directions aligned to the cardinal axes. The cognitive representation structure hence supports the sensorimotor adaptation performance. PMID:25205332

  16. Differences in the association of peripheral insulin and cognitive function in non-diabetic Alzheimer's disease cases and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Pavlik, Valory; Massman, Paul; Barber, Robert; Doody, Rachelle

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance increases the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia, but higher insulin levels may be cognitively protective after a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The role of peripheral insulin as a predictor of cognitive decline both before and after an AD diagnosis needs further elucidation. We studied 197 AD cases and 198 normal controls enrolled in the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium. Standardized protocols were used to collect age, gender, education, body mass index (BMI), serum insulin (not restricted to fasting), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), lipids, smoking and cardiovascular disease history, and neuropsychological tests including Mini-Mental State Examination, American National Adult Reading Test (AMNART) errors, Controlled Word Association Test (COWAT), Boston Naming Test, Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMSR) Digit Span, Trails A and B, WMSR Logical Memory (LM) I and II, and Visual Reproduction (VR) I and II. We used linear regression to test the contribution of log-transformed serum insulin to each score, adjusting for age, gender, education, and BMI. In the AD cases, higher serum insulin was associated with worse performance on the COWAT (p < 0.001) and Trails B (p = 0.04). In controls, higher serum insulin was associated with worse performance on the AMNART (p = 0.001), COWAT (p = 0.007), Digit Span (p = 0.004), LM I (p = 0.004), LM II (p = 0.009), and marginally with VR II (p = 0.076). Adjustment for HbA1c, APOE4, and cardiovascular disease, or restricting the sample to mild AD, did not alter these associations. In non-demented older individuals, higher peripheral insulin appears to be associated with worse cognitive performance in multiple domains, but is not a consistent predictor in AD cases. These findings indicate the need for additional research on the role of insulin in the transition between normal and impaired cognitive function. PMID:23241558

  17. Technology Readiness as a Predictor of Cognitive Presence in Online Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, David Rajan

    2013-01-01

    Online education depends on a variety of technology tools for cognitive-related activities; however it is unclear whether the current proliferation of tools is an indicator of a learner's readiness to use them effectively to meet learning objectives is unclear. Because the effectiveness of the online experience is a measure of a…

  18. Wightman function and vacuum fluctuations in higher dimensional brane models

    SciTech Connect

    Saharian, Aram A.

    2006-02-15

    The Wightman function and the vacuum expectation value of the field square are evaluated for a massive scalar field with a general curvature coupling parameter subject to Robin boundary conditions on two codimension-one parallel branes located on a (D+1)-dimensional background spacetime AdS{sub D{sub 1}}{sub +1}x{sigma} with a warped internal space {sigma}. The general case of different Robin coefficients on separate branes is considered. The application of the generalized Abel-Plana formula for the series over zeros of combinations of cylinder functions allows us to manifestly extract the part due to the bulk without boundaries. Unlike the purely anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk, the vacuum expectation value of the field square induced by a single brane, in addition to the distance from the brane, depends also on the position of the brane in the bulk. The brane induced part in this expectation value vanishes when the brane position tends to the AdS horizon or the AdS boundary. The asymptotic behavior of the vacuum densities near the branes and at large distances is investigated. The contribution of Kaluza-Klein modes along {sigma} is discussed in various limiting cases. In the limit when the curvature radius for the AdS spacetime tends to infinity, we derive the results for two parallel Robin plates on the background spacetime R{sup (D{sub 1},1)}x{sigma}. For strong gravitational fields corresponding to large values of the AdS energy scale, both the single brane and interference parts of the expectation values integrated over the internal space are exponentially suppressed. As an example the case {sigma}=S{sup 1} is considered, corresponding to the AdS{sub D+1} bulk with one compactified dimension. An application to the higher dimensional generalization of the Randall-Sundrum brane model with arbitrary mass terms on the branes is discussed.

  19. Simulation using novel equipment designed to explain spirometric abnormalities in respiratory disease enhances learning in higher cognitive domains.

    PubMed

    Jamison, J P; Stewart, M T

    2015-10-01

    Simulation of disorders of respiratory mechanics shown by spirometry provides insight into the pathophysiology of disease but some clinically important disorders have not been simulated and none have been formally evaluated for education. We have designed simple mechanical devices which, along with existing simulators, enable all the main dysfunctions which have diagnostic value in spirometry to be simulated and clearly explained with visual and haptic feedback. We modelled the airways as Starling resistors by a clearly visible mechanical action to simulate intra- and extra-thoracic obstruction. A narrow tube was used to simulate fixed large airway obstruction and inelastic bands to simulate restriction. We hypothesized that using simulators whose action explains disease promotes learning especially in higher domain educational objectives. The main features of obstruction and restriction were correctly simulated. Simulation of variable extra-thoracic obstruction caused blunting and plateauing of inspiratory flow, and simulation of intra-thoracic obstruction caused limitation of expiratory flow with marked dynamic compression. Multiple choice tests were created with questions allocated to lower (remember and understand) or higher cognitive domains (apply, analyse and evaluate). In a cross-over design, overall mean scores increased after 1½ h simulation spirometry (43-68 %, effect size 1.06, P < 0.0001). In higher cognitive domains the mean score was lower before and increased further than lower domains (? 30 vs 20 %, higher vs lower effect size 0.22, P < 0.05). In conclusion, the devices successfully simulate various patterns of obstruction and restriction. Using these devices medical students achieved marked enhancement of learning especially in higher cognitive domains. PMID:25528245

  20. Effects of valium and librium on human psychomotor and cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Murray, J B

    1984-05-01

    Research on the effect of the benzodiazepines, Valium, and Librium on human psychomotor and cognitive functions is reviewed. Benzodiazepines which are the most important antianxiety medications also have anticonvulsant, hypnotic-sedative, and muscle-relaxant properties. Research on the benzodiazepine hypnotic "hangover" effects on cognitive and motor behavior is cited. The benzodiazepines Valium and Librium probably interact with neurotransmitters, especially GABA and very likely have specific receptors in the brain and central nervous system. Absorption and elimination rate vary with dosage, method of administration, and age. Valium and Librium have no gravely harmful side effects, little addictive potential; danger from overdosage is minimal. Although controlled studies of the impact of psychoactive drugs on psychomotor and cognitive performance are relatively recent, Valium and Librium apparently have little, if any, adverse effect on well established higher mental functions and may affect the speed with which simple repetitive motor actions are performed. None of their effects are irreversible. Benzodiazepines (BZ) have been remarkable drugs. They have virtually replaced all other forms of antianxiety medications (48, 95, 109, 225). All the BZ drugs additionally have anticonvulsant, sedative-hypnotic, and muscle-relaxant properties (4, 77, 88, 112, 252). Two of the BZ drugs, Valium (diazepam) and Librium (chlordiazepoxide) have been the best sellers of the BZ drug family and the most frequently prescribed drugs in the world (7, 15, 17, 77, 110, 137, 215, 257). The impact of Valium and Librium on human psychomotor and cognitive functions is the focus of this review of research. Since millions of people are using these drugs, how do Valium and Librium affect alertness and responsiveness, for example, in driving a car to work, or operating a machine in a factory (240)? Tranquilizing drugs like Valium and Librium were hailed when they replaced sedatives like barbiturates because they did not cloud the mind. Is decision-making or mental alertness affected in those who use Valium or Librium (69)? In studying the impact of drugs on the central nervous system (CNS) and brain, animal subjects frequently are employed. However, the human condition of anxiety for which Valium and Librium are usually prescribed is hard to evaluate and human subjects vary greatly, so that this review of research has been limited for the most part to studies with human subjects (8, 26, 50, 107, 108, 262, 263, 264). PMID:6329901

  1. Assessing and restoring cognitive functions early after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zucchella, Chiara; Capone, Annarita; Codella, Valentina; Vecchione, Carmine; Buccino, Giovanni; Sandrini, Giorgio; Pierelli, Francesco; Bartolo, Michelangelo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cognitive impairment is a frequent complication of stroke. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive training performed early after stroke. Ninety-two patients were randomly assigned to either the study group (SG) or the control group (CG). Cognitive rehabilitation consisted of 16 individual one-hour sessions in which patients performed therapist-guided computer exercises. The patients in the CG performed a sham intervention. After four weeks all the patients were re-evaluated. In the SG, significant improvements (p<0.05) were detected in all neuropsychological measures at the post-training evaluation, while the CG showed mild (not statistically significant) improvements on cognitive tests. Between-group analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the domains of memory and visual attention. Cognitive training performed early after stroke seems to be a viable option for improving cognitive outcome in stroke survivors. Further studies should assess whether this may favor their reintegration into everyday life. PMID:25764255

  2. Combined Cognitive-Psychological-Physical Intervention Induces Reorganization of Intrinsic Functional Brain Architecture in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Wang, Baoxi; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Xin; Li, Rui; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults. The intervention was composed of a 6-week program of combined activities including cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling. The results showed improved cognitive performance and reorganized regional homogeneity of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, in the participants who attended the intervention. Intriguingly, the intervention-induced changes in the coherence of local spontaneous activity correlated with the improvements in individual cognitive performance. Taken together with our previous findings of enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe regions following a combined intervention program in older adults, we conclude that the functional plasticity of the aging brain is a rather complex process, and an effective cognitive-psychological-physical intervention is helpful for maintaining a healthy brain and comprehensive cognition during old age. PMID:25810927

  3. Cognitive Performance in a Subclinical Obsessive-Compulsive Sample 1: Cognitive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Thomas; Dittrich, Winand H.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who are not clinically diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but still display obsessive-compulsive (OC) tendencies may show cognitive impairments. The present study investigated whether there are subgroups within a healthy group showing characteristic cognitive and emotional performance levels similar to those found in OCD patients and whether they differ from OCD subgroups regarding performance levels. Of interest are those cases showing subclinical symptomatology. The results revealed no impairments in the subclinical OC participants on the neuropsychological tasks, while evidence suggests that there exist high and low scores on two standardised clinical instruments (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Cognitive Assessment Instrument of Obsessions and Compulsions) in a healthy sample. OC symptoms may diminish the quality of life and prolong sustainable return to work. It may be that occupational rehabilitation programmes are more effective in rectifying subclinical OC tendencies compared to the often complex symptoms of diagnosed OCD patients. The relationship between cognitive style and subclinical OC symptoms is discussed in terms of how materials and information might be processed. Although subclinical OC tendencies would not seem to constitute a diagnosis of OCD, the quality of treatment programmes such as cognitive behavioural therapy can be improved based on the current investigation. PMID:24236282

  4. Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Saenghong, Naritsara; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tongun, Terdthai; Piyavhatkul, Nawanant; Banchonglikitkul, Chuleratana; Kajsongkram, Tanwarat

    2012-01-01

    The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800?mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women. PMID:22235230

  5. St8sia2 deficiency plus juvenile cannabis exposure in mice synergistically affect higher cognition in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Tantra, Martesa; Kröcher, Tim; Papiol, Sergi; Winkler, Daniela; Röckle, Iris; Jatho, Jasmin; Burkhardt, Hannelore; Ronnenberg, Anja; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Hildebrandt, Herbert

    2014-12-15

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and its functionally linked polysialyltransferases, ST8SIA2 and ST8SIA4, are crucial for synaptic plasticity. Variations in encoding genes have been associated with mental illness. Since cannabinoids can alter NCAM polysialylation, we hypothesized that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) might act as environmental 'second hit' regarding cognition of St8sia2(-/-) mice. These mice show per se minor behavioral abnormalities, consisting of reduced anxiety and mild cognitive deficits. Chronic ?9-THC treatment of juvenile male wildtype mice (St8sia2(+/+)) (7mg/kg every other day over 3 weeks) did not appreciably affect cognition. St8sia2(-/-) mice, however, displayed a synergistic negative consequence of ?9-THC on learning/memory, accompanied by polysialic acid-free NCAM-180 reduction in hippocampus and polysialic acid increase in dentate outer molecular layer. These synergistic effects became obvious only months after the last ?9-THC. We conclude that juvenile cannabis exposure may cause delayed but lasting damage on cognition in subjects genetically predisposed to altered NCAM polysialylation. PMID:25200516

  6. Investigating the Impact of the fMRI Environment and the Supine Position on Cognitive Function 

    E-print Network

    Bell, Stephen

    2011-07-31

    Neuroimaging techniques, such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), have allowed researchers to investigate active neuronal structures in relation to cognitive theories using a non-invasive technique. Although ...

  7. Post-operative cognitive function following general versus regional anesthesia, a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Nicholas; Lee, Melissa; Lin, Albert Y.; Lynch, Lisa; Monteleone, Matthew; Falzon, Louise; Ispahany, Nighat; Lei, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The effect of anesthetic technique on post-operative outcomes remains in question. This systematic review compares the role of regional versus general anesthesia, with a particular focus on post-operative cognitive function. Potentially relevant articles were identified by searching publicly available computerized databases for this systematic review. Any surgical procedure was accepted with the exception of cardiac, carotid, and neurosurgical procedures. Any regional anesthetic technique was accepted unless combined with a general anesthetic or in conjunction with propofol as a sedative. Any measure of post-operative cognitive function was accepted as long as it was performed no sooner than seven days post-operatively. Sixteen studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Three studies showed some difference in cognitive function between regional and general anesthesia, while the remaining thirteen showed no difference between regional and general anesthesia on postoperative cognitive function. PMID:25144505

  8. Cerebral aging: integration of brain and behavioral models of cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Park, Denise C.; Polk, Thad A.; Mikels, Joseph A.; Taylor, Stephan F.; Marshuetz, Christy

    2001-01-01

    There are substantial declines in behavioral measures of cognitive function with age, including decreased function of executive processes and long-term memory. There is also evidence that, with age, there is a decrease in brain volume, particularly in the frontal cortex. When young and older adults perform cognitive tasks that depend heavily on frontal function, neuroimaging evidence indicates that older adults recruit additional brain regions in order to perform the tasks. This additional neural recruitment is termed “dedifferentiation,” and can take multiple forms. This recruitment of additional neural tissue with age to perform cognitive tasks was not reflected in the behavioral literature, and suggests that there is more plasticity in the ability to organize brain function than was previously suspected. We review both behavioral and neuroscience perspectives on cognitive aging, and then connect the findings in the two areas. From this integration, we suggest important unresolved questions and directions for future research. PMID:22034448

  9. Attrition and bias in the MRC cognitive function and ageing study: an epidemiological investigation

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Fiona E; Chatfield, Mark; Freeman, Carol; McCracken, Cherie; Brayne, Carol; CFAS, MRC

    2004-01-01

    Background Any hypothesis in longitudinal studies may be affected by attrition and poor response rates. The MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing study (MRC CFAS) is a population based longitudinal study in five centres with identical methodology in England and Wales each recruiting approximately 2,500 individuals. This paper aims to identify potential biases in the two-year follow-up interviews. Methods Initial non-response: Those not in the baseline interviews were compared in terms of mortality to those who were in the baseline interviews at the time of the second wave interviews (1993–1996). Longitudinal attrition: Logistic regression analysis was used to examine baseline differences between individuals who took part in the two-year longitudinal wave compared with those who did not. Results Initial non-response: Individuals who moved away after sampling but before baseline interview were 1.8 times more likely to die by two years (95% Confidence interval(CI) 1.3–2.4) compared to respondents, after adjusting for age. The refusers had a slightly higher, but similar mortality pattern to responders (Odds ratio 1.2, 95%CI 1.1–1.4). Longitudinal attrition: Predictors for drop out due to death were being older, male, having impaired activities of daily living, poor self-perceived health, poor cognitive ability and smoking. Similarly individuals who refused were more likely to have poor cognitive ability, but had less years of full-time education and were more often living in their own home though less likely to be living alone. There was a higher refusal rate in the rural centres. Individuals who moved away or were uncontactable were more likely to be single, smokers, demented or depressed and were less likely to have moved if in warden-controlled accommodation at baseline. Conclusions Longitudinal estimation of factors mentioned above could be biased, particularly cognitive ability and estimates of movements from own home to residential homes. However, these differences could also affect other investigations, particularly the estimates of incidence and longitudinal effects of health and psychiatric diseases, where the factors shown here to be associated with attrition are risk factors for the diseases. All longitudinal studies should investigate attrition and this may help with aspects of design and with the analysis of specific hypotheses. PMID:15113437

  10. Early Reproductive Experiences in Females Make Differences in Cognitive Function Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rena; Cui, Jie; Jothishankar, Balaji; Shen, Juliet; He, Ping; Shen, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Women experience dramatic changes in hormones, mood and cognition through different periods of their reproductive lives, particularly during pregnancy and giving birth. While limited human studies of early pregnancy and motherhood showed alteration of cognitive function in later life, research conducted on rodents showed a persistent improvement of learning and memory performance in females with history of giving birth (primiparous or multiparous) compared to virgin controls (nulliparous). In this mini review, we will focus on the effect of early motherhood on cognitive function later in life, which would provide insight on how reproductive experiences influence women’s health during ageing. PMID:23271317

  11. A Structural Analysis of Executive Functions and Socioeconomic Status in School-Age Children: Cognitive Factors as Effect Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aran-Filippetti, Vanessa; Richaud de Minzi, Maria Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a well-known predictor of cognitive achievement and executive functioning, although the underlying cognitive mediating processes remain unclear. The authors analyze the association between different socioeconomic indicators and the executive functions (EF) of schoolchildren and the possible cognitive mediating factors…

  12. Stressful life events, social support, and cognitive function in middle-aged adults with a family history of Alzheimer's disease

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Stressful life events, social support, and cognitive function in middle- aged adults with a family is evidence that both perceived stress and social support can influence brain health and cognitive function life experiences and social support on cognitive test performance in four distinct domains (speed

  13. Multitasking: multiple, domain-specific cognitive functions in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Logie, Robert H; Trawley, Steven; Law, Anna

    2011-11-01

    Multitasking among three or more different tasks is a ubiquitous requirement of everyday cognition, yet rarely is it addressed in research on healthy adults who have had no specific training in multitasking skills. Participants completed a set of diverse subtasks within a simulated shopping mall and office environment, the Edinburgh Virtual Errands Test (EVET). The aim was to investigate how different cognitive functions, such as planning, retrospective and prospective memory, and visuospatial and verbal working memory, contribute to everyday multitasking. Subtasks were chosen to be diverse, and predictions were derived from a statistical model of everyday multitasking impairments associated with frontal-lobe lesions (Burgess, Veitch, de Lacy Costello, & Shallice, 2000b). Multiple regression indicated significant independent contributions from measures of retrospective memory, visuospatial working memory, and online planning, but not from independent measures of prospective memory or verbal working memory. Structural equation modelling showed that the best fit to the data arose from three underlying constructs, with Memory and Planning having a weak link, but with both having a strong directional pathway to an Intent construct that reflected implementation of intentions. Participants who followed their preprepared plan achieved higher scores than those who altered their plan during multitask performance. This was true regardless of whether the plan was efficient or poor. These results substantially develop and extend the Burgess et al. (2000b) model to healthy adults and yield new insight into the poorly understood area of everyday multitasking. The findings also point to the utility of using virtual environments for investigating this form of complex human cognition. PMID:21691876

  14. Causes and Consequences of Cognitive Functioning Across the Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Research on variation in cognitive abilities has focused largely on their genetic or experiential sources and on their economic consequences. This article takes a broader look at the consequences of cognitive ability—IQ—across the life course. Contrary to received wisdom, the effects of IQ on economic success are almost entirely mediated by educational attainment. Among persons with equal levels of schooling, IQ has little influence on job performance, occupational standing, earnings, or wealth. But there are other, sometimes surprising consequences of IQ throughout adult life. The long-term correlates of adolescent cognition include drinking behavior, survey participation, Internet use, and the timing of menopause. These are surveyed primarily using findings from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. PMID:22383855

  15. Mechanisms of Functional Improvement in a Two-Year Trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Early Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Eack, Shaun M.; Pogue-Geile, Michael F.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive rehabilitation has emerged as an effective treatment for addressing cognitive impairments and functional disability in schizophrenia; however, the degree to which changes in various social and non-social cognitive processes translate into improved functioning during treatment remains unclear. This research sought to identify the neurocognitive and social-cognitive mechanisms of functional improvement during a two-year trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) for early course schizophrenia. Method Patients in the early course of schizophrenia were randomly assigned to CET (n = 31) or an Enriched Supportive Therapy control (n = 27) and treated for up to two years. A comprehensive neurocognitive assessment battery and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) were completed annually, along with measures of functioning. Mediator analyses using mixed-effects growth models were conducted to examine the effects of neurocognitive and social-cognitive improvement on functional change. Results Two-year improvement in neurocognition and the emotion management branch of the MSCEIT were found to be significantly related to improved functional outcome in early course schizophrenia patients. Neurocognitive improvement, primarily in executive functioning, and social-cognitive change in emotion management also mediated the robust effects of CET on functioning. Conclusions Improvements in neurocognition and social cognition that result from cognitive rehabilitation are both significant mediators of functional improvement in early course schizophrenia. Cognitive rehabilitation programs for schizophrenia may need to target deficits in both social and non-social cognition to achieve an optimal functional response. PMID:20860867

  16. Effect of Carotid Artery Stenting on Cognitive Function in Patients with Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis and Cerebral Lacunar Infarction: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Zhang Yong; Sun, Qin Jian; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Ming Xia; Ban, Ru; Xu, Ge Lin; Wu, Ya Ping; Wang, Le Xin; Du, Yi Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is an important therapeutic strategy for patients with carotid artery stenosis. However, the potential influence of CAS on cognitive function in patients with carotid artery stenosis and cerebral lacunar infarction has not been determined. This study investigated changes in cognitive function associated with CAS and the factors related to these changes. Methods This prospective cohort study comprised 579 Chinese patients with cerebral lacunar infarction and carotid artery stenosis for whom CAS was indicated, and a matched control group of 552 healthy individuals. Cognitive function before CAS and at scheduled intervals from 6 months to 3 years was assessed with instruments that included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale. Potential factors that might affect cognitive function were analyzed via logistic regression. Results The MMSE and MoCA scores of the patients before CAS were significantly lower than that of the control subjects. These scores were significantly higher 6 months after CAS and sustained or increased throughout the 3-year follow-up. Also significantly improved after CAS from baseline were scores for an alternating trail test, cube copying, clock-drawing, attention, and delayed recall in an auditory-verbal learning test. Logistic regression analyses showed that age greater than 65 y, little education, diabetes, and hypertension were independent risk factors for deteriorated MoCA scores 3 years after CAS. Conclusion CAS was associated with significantly improved cognitive function in cerebral lacunar infarction patients with severe stenosis. PMID:26067432

  17. Associations between sleep disturbance, cognitive functioning and work disability in Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Boland, Elaine M; Stange, Jonathan P; Molz Adams, Ashleigh; LaBelle, Denise R; Ong, Mian-Li; Hamilton, Jessica L; Connolly, Samantha L; Black, Chelsea L; Cedeño, Angelo B; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-12-15

    Bipolar Disorder (BD) is associated with impairment in a number of areas including poor work functioning, often despite the remission of mood symptoms. The present study aimed to examine the role of sleep disturbance and cognitive functioning in occupational impairment in BD. Twenty-four euthymic BD participants and 24 healthy control participants completed a week of prospective assessment of sleep disruption via self-report and actigraphy, a battery of neuropsychological tests of executive functioning, working memory, and verbal learning, and assessments of work functioning. BD participants experienced significantly poorer cognitive functioning as well as greater months of unemployment and greater incidence of being fired than controls. Moderation analyses revealed that both poor sleep and cognitive functioning were associated with poor work performance in BD participants, but not control participants. Sleep and cognitive functioning may be impaired in euthymic BD and are associated with poor work functioning in this population. More research should be conducted to better understand how sleep and cognitive functioning may interact in BD. PMID:26474660

  18. The Relationship between Language Ability and Cognitive Function in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Shim, Joo-Cheol; Kong, Bo-Geum; Kang, Je-Wook; Moon, Jung-Joon; Jeon, Dong-Wook; Jung, Sung-Soo; Seo, Beom-Joo; Jung, Do-Un

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cognitive dysfunction is common in people with schizophrenia, and language disability is one of the most notable cognitive deficits. This study assessed the use and comprehension ability of the Korean language in patients with schizophrenia and the correlations between language ability and cognitive function. Methods Eighty-six patients with schizophrenia and a group of 29 healthy controls were recruited. We assessed both clinical symptoms and cognitive functions including Korean language ability. For clinical symptoms, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia Scale, and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale were used. For the Korean language ability assessment, a portion of the Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) Korean Language Test was used. The Short-form of Korean-Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Korean version of the University of California San Diego (UCSD) Performance-based Skills Assessment (K-UPSA), and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were used to assess cognitive functions. Results Schizophrenic patients had significantly lower scores in the language and cognitive function tests both in the total and subscale scores. Various clinical scores had negative correlations with reading comprehension ability of the KBS Korean Language Test. The WCST and a part of the K-UPSA had positive correlations with multiple domains of the language test. Conclusion A significant difference was found between schizophrenic patients and controls in language ability. Correlations between Korean language ability and several clinical symptoms and cognitive functions were demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia. Tests of cognitive function had positive correlations with different aspects of language ability. PMID:26598588

  19. A new method to measure higher visual functions in an immersive environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Higher visual functions can be defined as cognitive processes responsible for object recognition, color and shape perception, and motion detection. People with impaired higher visual functions after unilateral brain lesion are often tested with paper pencil tests, but such tests do not assess the degree of interaction between the healthy brain hemisphere and the impaired one. Hence, visual functions are not tested separately in the contralesional and ipsilesional visual hemifields. Methods A new measurement setup, that involves real-time comparisons of shape and size of objects, orientation of lines, speed and direction of moving patterns, in the right or left visual hemifield, has been developed. The setup was implemented in an immersive environment like a hemisphere to take into account the effects of peripheral and central vision, and eventual visual field losses. Due to the non-flat screen of the hemisphere, a distortion algorithm was needed to adapt the projected images to the surface. Several approaches were studied and, based on a comparison between projected images and original ones, the best one was used for the implementation of the test. Fifty-seven healthy volunteers were then tested in a pilot study. A Satisfaction Questionnaire was used to assess the usability of the new measurement setup. Results The results of the distortion algorithm showed a structural similarity between the warped images and the original ones higher than 97%. The results of the pilot study showed an accuracy in comparing images in the two visual hemifields of 0.18 visual degrees and 0.19 visual degrees for size and shape discrimination, respectively, 2.56° for line orientation, 0.33 visual degrees/s for speed perception and 7.41° for recognition of motion direction. The outcome of the Satisfaction Questionnaire showed a high acceptance of the battery by the participants. Conclusions A new method to measure higher visual functions in an immersive environment was presented. The study focused on the usability of the developed battery rather than the performance at the visual tasks. A battery of five subtasks to study the perception of size, shape, orientation, speed and motion direction was developed. The test setup is now ready to be tested in neurological patients. PMID:25069675

  20. Screening hospitalized injured older adults for cognitive impairment and pre-injury functional impairment.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Cathy A

    2013-08-01

    Cognitive and functional impairments are leading predictors of poor outcomes among older adults, yet few hospitals collect these variables for injured older adults (IOAs). In this prospective descriptive study, we sought to determine the feasibility of screening IOAs for cognitive and pre-injury functional impairment; and to examine the prevalence of impairment at two acute care hospitals, using the Mini-Cog or Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCDE), and Vulnerable Elder Survey (VES-13). Eighty patients were screened. Demographics included: mean age 78.7; female gender 83%; falls 89%. Cognitive impairment was present in 36 (44%) patients, and pre-injury functional impairment was present in 62 (78%) patients. Screening respondents included: patients: 53 (66%); adult children: 18 (23%); spouses: 5 (6%), and other 4 (5%). A combination of brief screening instruments for use with IOAs or surrogates is useful for capturing important variables for risk adjustment and care management. PMID:23639524

  1. Higher levels of cardiovascular fitness are associated with better executive function and prefrontal oxygenation in younger and older women

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, Olivier; Gauthier, Claudine J.; Fraser, Sarah A.; Desjardins-Crèpeau, Laurence; Desjardins, Michèle; Mekary, Said; Lesage, Frederic; Hoge, Rick D.; Pouliot, Philippe; Bherer, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Many studies have suggested that physical exercise training improves cognition and more selectively executive functions. There is a growing interest to clarify the neurophysiological mechanisms that underlie this effect. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the neurophysiological changes in cerebral oxygenation associated with physical fitness level and executive functions. Method: In this study, 22 younger and 36 older women underwent a maximal graded continuous test (i.e., V?O2max) in order to classify them into a fitness group (higher vs. lower fit). All participants completed neuropsychological paper and pencil testing and a computerized Stroop task (which contained executive and non-executive conditions) in which the change in prefrontal cortex oxygenation was evaluated with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Results: Our findings revealed a Fitness × Condition interaction (p < 0.05) such that higher fit women scored better on measures of executive functions than lower fit women. In comparison to lower fit women, higher fit women had faster reaction times in the Executive condition of the computerized Stroop task. No significant effect was observed in the non-executive condition of the test and no interactions were found with age. In measures of cerebral oxygenation (?HbT and ?HbO2), we found a main effect of fitness on cerebral oxygenation during the Stroop task such that only high fit women demonstrated a significant increase in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Discussion/Conclusion: Higher fit individuals who demonstrate better cardiorespiratory functions (as measured by V?O2max) show faster reaction times and greater cerebral oxygenation in the right inferior frontal gyrus than women with lower fitness levels. The lack of interaction with age, suggests that good cardiorespiratory functions can have a positive impact on cognition, regardless of age. PMID:25741267

  2. White Matter Damage Disorganizes Brain Functional Networks in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Garcés, Pilar; López, María Eugenia; Aurtenetxe, Sara; Cuesta, Pablo; Marcos, Alberto; Montejo, Pedro; Yus, Miguel; Hernández-Tamames, Juan Antonio; del Pozo, Francisco; Becker, James T.; Maestú, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Although progressive functional brain network disruption has been one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's Disease, little is known about the origin of this functional impairment that underlies cognitive symptoms. We investigated how the loss of white matter (WM) integrity disrupts the organization of the functional networks at different frequency bands. The analyses were performed in a sample of healthy elders and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects. Spontaneous brain magnetic activity (measured with magnetoencephalography) was characterized with phase synchronization analysis, and graph theory was applied to the functional networks. We identified WM areas (using diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging) that showed a statistical dependence between the fractional anisotropy and the graph metrics. These regions are part of an episodic memory network and were also related to cognitive functions. Our data support the hypothesis that disruption of the anatomical networks influences the organization at the functional level resulting in the prodromal dementia syndrome of MCI. PMID:24617580

  3. Association between mental demands at work and cognitive functioning in the general population – results of the health study of the Leipzig research center for civilization diseases (LIFE)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The level of mental demands in the workplace is rising. The present study investigated whether and how mental demands at work are associated with cognitive functioning in the general population. Methods The analysis is based on data of the Health Study of the Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Disease (LIFE). 2,725 participants aged 40–80 years underwent cognitive testing (Trail-Making Test, Verbal Fluency Test) and provided information on their occupational situation. Participants over the age of 65 years additionally completed the Mini-Mental State Examination. Mental demands at work were rated by a standardized classification system (O*NET). The association between mental demands and cognitive functioning was analyzed using Generalized Linear Modeling (GENLIN) adjusted for age, gender, self-regulation, working hour status, education, and health-related factors. Results Univariate as well as multivariate analyses demonstrated significant and highly consistent effects of higher mental demands on better performance in cognitive testing. The results also indicated that the effects are independent of education and intelligence. Moreover, analyses of retired individuals implied a significant association between high mental demands at work of the job they once held and a better cognitive functioning in old age. Conclusions In sum, our findings suggest a significant association between high mental demands at work and better cognitive functioning. In this sense, higher levels of mental demands – as brought about by technological changes in the working environment – may also have beneficial effects for the society as they could increase cognitive capacity levels and might even delay cognitive decline in old age. PMID:24914403

  4. Measuring Cognition: The Chicago Cognitive Function Measure in the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project, Wave 2

    PubMed Central

    Sunkara, Priya D.; Kotwal, Ashwin; Kern, David W.; Henning, Sara L.; McClintock, Martha K.; Schumm, Philip; Waite, Linda J.; Dale, William

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To describe the development of a multidimensional test of cognition for the National Social life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP), the Chicago Cognitive Function Measure (CCFM). Method. CCFM development included 3 steps: (a) A pilot test of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to create a standard protocol, choose specific items, reorder items, and improve clarity; (b) integration into a CAPI-based format; and (c) evaluation of the performance of the CCFM in the field. The CCFM was subsequently incorporated into NSHAP, Wave 2 (n = 3,377). Results. The pre-test (n = 120) mean age was 71.35 (SD 8.40); 53% were female, 69% white, and 70% with college or greater education. The MoCA took an average of 15.6min; the time for the CCFM was 12.0min. CCFM scores (0–20) can be used as a continuous outcome or to adjust for cognition in a multivariable analysis. CCFM scores were highly correlated with MoCA scores (r = .973). Modeling projects MoCA scores from CCFM scores using the equation: MoCA = (1.14 × CCFM) + 6.83. In Wave 2, the overall weighted mean CCFM score was 13.9 (SE 0.13). Discussion. A survey-based adaptation of the MoCA was successfully integrated into a nationally representative sample of older adults, NSHAP Wave 2. PMID:25360018

  5. Functional Plasticity in Ventral Temporal Cortex following Cognitive Rehabilitation of a

    E-print Network

    Robertson, Lynn

    selectivity after training was normal. fMRI demonstrated increased functional connectivity between ventral to the investiga- tion of functional changes and neural plasticity resulting from training because this process hasFunctional Plasticity in Ventral Temporal Cortex following Cognitive Rehabilitation of a Congenital

  6. The influence of shift work on cognitive functions and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, P?nar Güzel; Selvi, Yavuz; Özkol, Halil; Ayd?n, Adem; Tülüce, Yasin; Boysan, Murat; Be?iro?lu, Lütfullah

    2013-12-30

    Shift work influences health, performance, activity, and social relationships, and it causes impairment in cognitive functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of shift work on participants' cognitive functions in terms of memory, attention, and learning, and we measured the effects on oxidative stress. Additionally, we investigated whether there were significant relationships between cognitive functions and whole blood oxidant/antioxidant status of participants. A total of 90 health care workers participated in the study, of whom 45 subjects were night-shift workers. Neuropsychological tests were administered to the participants to assess cognitive function, and blood samples were taken to detect total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status at 08:00. Differences in anxiety, depression, and chronotype characteristics between shift work groups were not significant. Shift workers achieved significantly lower scores on verbal memory, attention-concentration, and the digit span forward sub-scales of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), as well as on the immediate memory and total learning sub-scales of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Oxidative stress parameters were significantly associated with some types of cognitive function, including attention-concentration, recognition, and long-term memory. These findings suggest that night shift work may result in significantly poorer cognitive performance, particularly working memory. PMID:24176594

  7. A neurological model of sensory-motor problem solving with possible implications for higher-order cognition and instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Grossberg's neural modeling principles of learning, perception, cognition, and motor control are presented as the basis for construction of a neurological model of sensory-motor problem solving. The pattern of problem solving is assumed to be universal, thus is sought in the higher-order shift from the child's use of an additive strategy to the adolescent's use of a proportions strategy to solve the Pouring Water Task (Suarez and Rhonheimer, 1974). Possible neurological principles involved in this shift and in the process of psychological equilibration are discussed as are possible educational implications.

  8. Neurobiology of Disease Cognitive Deterioration and Functional Compensation in

    E-print Network

    Munoz, Douglas Perry

    's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized words: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; antisaccade; cognitive control; fMRI; prefrontal cortex; task set Introduction Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative dis- ease affecting motor neurons

  9. Cognitive Function Related to Environmental Exposure to Manganese

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The towns of Marietta and East Liverpool (EL), Ohio, have been identified as having elevated manganese (Mn) in air due to industrial pollution. Objectives: To evaluate relationships between environmental Mn (Mn-air) exposure and distance from the source and cognitive...

  10. Berry effects on cognition and motor function in aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last century, the lifespan of humans has almost doubled. Consequently, the percent of the population that is over the age of 65 years has markedly increased, making age-related pathologies a growing concern. Research has demonstrated, in both human and animals, that psychomotor and cognitive...

  11. Acai fruit improves motor and cognitive function in aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aged rats show impaired performance on motor and cognitive tasks that require the use of spatial learning and memory. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various berry fruits (blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries) in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and ne...

  12. Ten-Year Effects of the ACTIVE Cognitive Training Trial on Cognition and Everyday Functioning in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rebok, George W.; Ball, Karlene; Guey, Lin T.; Jones, Richard N.; Kim, Hae-Young; King, Jonathan W.; Marsiske, Michael; Morris, John N.; Tennstedt, Sharon L.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Willis, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of cognitive training on cognitive abilities and everyday function over 10 years. Design, Setting, and Participants Ten-year follow-up of a randomized, controlled single-blind trial with 3 intervention groups and a no-contact control group. A volunteer sample of 2832 persons (mean baseline age, 73.6 years; 26% African American) living independently in 6 US cities. Interventions Ten-session training for memory, reasoning, or speed-of-processing.; 4-session booster training at 11 and at 35 months after training. Measurements Objectively measured cognitive abilities and self-reported and performance-based measures of everyday function. Results Participants in each intervention group reported less difficulty with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) (memory: effect size, 0.48 [99% CI, 0.12-0.84]; reasoning: effect size, 0.38 [99% CI, 0.02-0.74]; speed-of-processing: effect size, 0.36 [99% CI, 0.01-0.72]). At mean age of 82 years, about 60% of trained participants compared to 50% of controls (p<.05) were at or above their baseline level of self-reported IADL function at 10 years. The reasoning and speed-of-processing interventions maintained their effects on their targeted cognitive abilities at 10 years (reasoning: effect size, 0.23 [99% CI, 0.09-0.38]; speed-of-processing: effect size, 0.66 [99% CI, 0.43-0.88]). Memory training effects were no longer maintained for memory performance. Booster training produced additional and durable improvement for the reasoning intervention for reasoning performance (effect size, 0.21 [99% CI, 0.01-0.41]) and the speed-of-processing intervention for speed-of-processing performance (effect size, 0.62 [99% CI, 0.31-0.93]). Conclusions Each ACTIVE cognitive intervention resulted in less decline in self-reported IADL compared with the control group. Reasoning and speed, but not memory, training resulted in improved targeted cognitive abilities for 10 years. PMID:24417410

  13. COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN PATIENTS WITH COMPLEX ABSENCE FOLLOWING TREATMENT WITH SODIUM VALPROATE

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Shobini L.; Satischandra, P.; Devi, M. Gourie

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY The association of sodium valproate with cognitive functions was studied in 29 patients with complex absence seizures. Seventeen patients were on monotherapy and twelve on polypharmacy with sodium valproate. Cognitive functions assessed were attention, speech, visuo-speciat perception, memory and intelligence. Behavioral disturbances were also assessed. Two assessments were made six months apart; in the first assessment, attention and speech were adequate, while memory, visuo-spatial perception, and behavioral functioning were impaired. Intelligence was lower in the polypharmacy group, while other functions were similar. In the second assessment, intelligence and visual memory improved in the monotherapy group, while no changes were present in the polypharmacy group. PMID:21776171

  14. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and cognitive function in very old men.

    PubMed

    Kalmijn, S; Feskens, E J; Launer, L J; Kromhout, D

    1997-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and thrombosis may lead to cognitive impairment through cerebral infarcts or white matter hyperintensities. Oxidative stress is now seen as a major contributor to the process of atherogenesis. High intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, e.g., linoleic acid, or low intake of antioxidants can increase oxidative stress. High intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and its main source, fish, may reduce the risk of thrombosis. Little is known, however, about the relation between these dietary factors and cognitive function. The authors investigated this relation with data derived from a cohort of men, aged 69-89 years, who were participants in the Zutphen Elderly Study. The 30-point Mini-Mental State Examination was used to assess cognitive impairment in 1990 (score < or = 25 in 153/476 men, 32%) and cognitive decline from 1990 to 1993 (drop > 2 points in 51/342 men, 15%). Food intake was estimated in 1985 and 1990 by the cross-check dietary history method. High linoleic acid intake was associated with cognitive impairment after adjustment for age, education, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and energy intake (odds ratio (OR) for highest vs. lowest tertile = 1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-3.01). Intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was not associated with cognitive impairment, whereas high fish consumption tended to be inversely associated with cognitive impairment (OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.33-1.21) and cognitive decline (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.17-1.16). Intakes of beta-carotene, vitamins C and E, and flavonoids were not inversely associated with cognitive impairment or decline. This study raises the possibility that high linoleic acid intake is positively associated with cognitive impairment and high fish consumption inversely associated with cognitive impairment. PMID:8982020

  15. Effect of Dance Exercise on Cognitive Function in Elderly Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se-Hong; Kim, Minjeong; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Lim, Hyun-Kook; Kang, Sung-Goo; Cho, Jung-hyoun; Park, Seo-Jin; Song, Sang-Wook

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group). The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease (CERAD-K). Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of dance exercise on cognitive function and cardiometabolic risk factors. Compared with the control group, the exercise group significantly improved in verbal fluency (p = 0.048), word list delayed recall (p = 0.038), word list recognition (p = 0.007), and total CERAD-K score (p = 0.037). However, no significance difference was found in body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol between groups over the 6-month period. In the present study, six months of dance exercise improved cognitive function in older adults with metabolic syndrome. Thus, dance exercise may reduce the risk for cognitive disorders in elderly people with metabolic syndrome. Key points Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. Aerobic exercise improves cognitive function in elderly people and contributes to the prevention of degenerative neurological disease and brain damage. Dance sport is a form of aerobic exercise that has the additional benefits of stimulating the emotions, promoting social interaction, and exposing subjects to acoustic stimulation and music. In the present study, dance exercise for a 6-month period improved cognitive function in older adults with MS. In particular, positive effects were observed in verbal fluency, word list delayed recall, word list recognition, and the total CERAD-K score. Our data suggest that the implementation of dance exercise programs may be an effective means of prevention and treatment of cognitive disorders. PMID:24149557

  16. Small-World Brain Network and Dynamic Functional Distribution in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yongqiang; Zhou, Xia; Wang, Haibao; Hu, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Xiaoqun; Xu, Liyan; Zhang, Chao; Sun, Zhongwu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the topological properties of the functional connectivity and their relationships with cognition impairment in subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI) patients, resting-state fMRI and graph theory approaches were employed in 23 SVCI patients and 20 healthy controls. Functional connectivity between 90 brain regions was estimated using bivariate correlation analysis and thresholded to construct a set of undirected graphs. Moreover, all of them were subjected to a battery of cognitive assessment, and the correlations between graph metrics and cognitive performance were further analyzed. Our results are as follows: functional brain networks of both SVCI patients and controls showed small-world attributes over a range of thresholds(0.15?sparsity?0.40). However, global topological organization of the functional brain networks in SVCI was significantly disrupted, as indicated by reduced global and local efficiency, clustering coefficients and increased characteristic path lengths relative to normal subjects. The decreased activity areas in SVCI predominantly targeted in the frontal-temporal lobes, while subcortical regions showed increased topological properties, which are suspected to compensate for the inefficiency of the functional network. We also demonstrated that altered brain network properties in SVCI are closely correlated with general cognitive and praxis dysfunction. The disruption of whole-brain topological organization of the functional connectome provides insight into the functional changes in the human brain in SVCI. PMID:26132397

  17. Effect of smoking and time on cognitive function in the elderly without dementia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between smoking and changes in cognitive function over time in the elderly persons without dementia. Methods The results of neuropsychological tests grouped into domains of memory, abstract-visuospatial and language, from several intervals over a five-year-period in 791 elderly without dementia or cognitive impairment. Smoking history was categorized as never, current or past smokers and related to the slope of performance in each cognitive domain using generalized estimating equations. Results Performance in all cognitive domains declined over time. Memory performance declined more rapidly among current smokers over age 75 years than in non-smokers similar in age, including those who never smoked or had quit smoking. The effect was stronger among those without an APOE-e4 allele. There was no association between smoking and performance in any cognitive domain in persons under age 75 years, and there was no association between past smoking and performance on any of the three cognitive factors at any time interval in either age group. Conclusion Current smokers over age 75 years perform more poorly on cognitive tests and appear to decline in memory more rapidly than their peers who do not smoke, especially if they lack the APOE-e4 allele. Smoking does not effect cognitive performance in those persons under age 75 years. PMID:16186526

  18. Cognitive function and quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nearly half of all patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) will develop cognitive dysfunction. Studies highlighted from no/weak impact to a strong impact of cognitive impairment on quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of cognitive dysfunction on self-reported QoL in MS patients while considering key confounding factors. Methods Design: cross-sectional study. Inclusion criteria: MS patients of any disease subtype. Data collection: sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status, education level, and occupational activity) and clinical data (MS subtype, disease duration); MS disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale, EDSS); depression (Beck Depression Inventory); fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale); QoL (SF36 and MusiQoL); and neuropsychological performance (Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests, BRB-N). Statistical analysis: multiple linear regressions (forward-stepwise selection). Results One hundred and twenty-four patients were enrolled. Performance on BRB-N subtests varied widely (6% to 70% abnormal). The BRB-N classified 37-78% of the patients as cognitively impaired, depending on the definition of cognitive impairment. No links were found between the MusiQoL index and cognitive subtests, whereas marital status, EDSS, and depression were found to be independent predictive factors. Conclusions The present study demonstrated the weak and scarce association between cognitive impairment and QoL, when the key confounding factors were considered. These results need to be confirmed with larger samples and more accurate tests of cognitive function. PMID:21288343

  19. Working Memory and Executive Function Decline across Normal Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kirova, Anna-Mariya; Bays, Rebecca B.; Lagalwar, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease marked by deficits in episodic memory, working memory (WM), and executive function. Examples of executive dysfunction in AD include poor selective and divided attention, failed inhibition of interfering stimuli, and poor manipulation skills. Although episodic deficits during disease progression have been widely studied and are the benchmark of a probable AD diagnosis, more recent research has investigated WM and executive function decline during mild cognitive impairment (MCI), also referred to as the preclinical stage of AD. MCI is a critical period during which cognitive restructuring and neuroplasticity such as compensation still occur; therefore, cognitive therapies could have a beneficial effect on decreasing the likelihood of AD progression during MCI. Monitoring performance on working memory and executive function tasks to track cognitive function may signal progression from normal cognition to MCI to AD. The present review tracks WM decline through normal aging, MCI, and AD to highlight the behavioral and neurological differences that distinguish these three stages in an effort to guide future research on MCI diagnosis, cognitive therapy, and AD prevention. PMID:26550575

  20. Effect of Structured and Unstructured Physical Activity Training on Cognitive Functions in Adolescents – A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Arunachalam, Vinayathan; Radhakrishnan, Krishnakumar; Ramamurthy, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity in children and adolescents promotes not only their physical health but also improves their cognition. Paper and pencil Neurocognitive tests (NCT) are commonly used to assess the various cognitive domains of a person and can be used as simple tests to assess improvements, if any, in the cognitive abilities of growing adolescents who practice regular physical activity. Aim To study the effect of six months of structured and unstructured physical activity on cognitive functions in adolescents. Materials and Methods We recruited 439 healthy adolescent volunteers in the age group of 12 to 17 years (boys 250, girls 189) from a residential school (Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Pondicherry). The following paper and pencil neuropsychological cognitive tests were administered: Two Target Letter Cancellation test, Trail Making test A and B, Ruff Figural Fluency test (RFFT). These participants were then divided into Structured Physical Activity (SPA: n=219; boys 117, girls 102) and Unstructured Physical Activity (USPA: n=220; boys 119, girls 101) groups based on age and gender block randomization method. Six-month intervention was successfully completed by 347 participants only (SPA group: n= 136; boys 77, girls 59; USPA group: n = 139; boys 75, girls 64) and the tests were repeated. Statistical Analysis The data were recorded and statistically analysed by per-protocol analysis method, using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 19. Results After six months of intervention, both SPA and USPA group participants showed significant improvements in all the tested neurocognitive parameters. On inter-group comparison, participants in SPA group showed significantly better improvements. Conclusion Physical activity training in adolescents is more beneficial when structured as per WHO guidelines, probably due to higher cognitive loading. PMID:26675059

  1. Influence of Pharmacotherapy on Cognitive Functions in Depression: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Orzechowska, Agata; Filip, Maria; Ga?ecki, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    In addition to irregularities relating to the emotional sphere, the cognitive impairment in depression is a part of the clinical picture of this affective disorder. Some of the cognitive deficits may be associated with the severity of psychopathological symptoms of depression, while others are more established and can also occur during periods of remission. The participation in cognitive functioning of people with depression have a number of factors: the severity of symptoms, concurrent anxiety disorders, gender, age, education, duration of the disease, and number of previous episodes, as well as general somatic health or medication used. The pharmacological treatment may have varying impact on the different areas of cognition. Research on pharmacotherapy for depression and its impact on cognitive functioning continue and are very popular among clinicians and researchers. The relationship between antidepressants and cognitive abilities is always modulated by the type of depressive disorder, neurobiological factors, and demographic variables. This article presents a review of the studies relating to assessment of the effects of various antidepressants on cognitive abilities among patients with depression. PMID:26599597

  2. Cognitive dysfunction and functional magnetic resonance imaging in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, M; Elliott, R; McKie, S; Parker, B; Bruce, I N

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a common aspect of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and is increasingly reported as a problem by patients. In many cases the exact cause is unclear. Limited correlations between specific autoantibodies or structural brain abnormalities and cognitive dysfunction in SLE have been reported. It may be that the most appropriate biomarkers have yet to be found. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique used in many other conditions and provides sensitive measures of brain functionality during cognitive tasks. It is now beginning to be employed in SLE studies. These studies have shown that patients with SLE often perform similarly to healthy controls in terms of behavioural measures on cognitive tasks. However, SLE patients appear to employ compensatory brain mechanisms, such as increased response in fronto-parietal regions, to maintain adequate cognitive performance. As there have been only a few studies using fMRI in SLE to investigate cognitive dysfunction, many questions remain unanswered. Further research could, however, help to identify biomarkers for cognitive dysfunction in SLE. PMID:26124237

  3. Influence of Pharmacotherapy on Cognitive Functions in Depression: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Orzechowska, Agata; Filip, Maria; Ga?ecki, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    In addition to irregularities relating to the emotional sphere, the cognitive impairment in depression is a part of the clinical picture of this affective disorder. Some of the cognitive deficits may be associated with the severity of psychopathological symptoms of depression, while others are more established and can also occur during periods of remission. The participation in cognitive functioning of people with depression have a number of factors: the severity of symptoms, concurrent anxiety disorders, gender, age, education, duration of the disease, and number of previous episodes, as well as general somatic health or medication used. The pharmacological treatment may have varying impact on the different areas of cognition. Research on pharmacotherapy for depression and its impact on cognitive functioning continue and are very popular among clinicians and researchers. The relationship between antidepressants and cognitive abilities is always modulated by the type of depressive disorder, neurobiological factors, and demographic variables. This article presents a review of the studies relating to assessment of the effects of various antidepressants on cognitive abilities among patients with depression. PMID:26599597

  4. The potential role of melatonin on sleep deprivation-induced cognitive impairments: implication of FMRP on cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Kwon, K J; Lee, E J; Kim, M K; Jeon, S J; Choi, Y Y; Shin, C Y; Han, S-H

    2015-08-20

    While prolonged sleep deprivation (SD) could lead to profound negative health consequences, such as impairments in vital biological functions of immunity and cognition, melatonin possesses powerful ameliorating effects against those harmful insults. Melatonin has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that help to restore body's immune and cognitive functions. In this study, we investigated the possible role of melatonin in reversing cognitive dysfunction induced by SD in rats. Our experimental results revealed that sleep-deprived animals exhibited spatial memory impairment in the Morris water maze tasks compared with the control groups. Furthermore, there was an increased glial activation most prominent in the hippocampal region of the SD group compared to the normal control (NC) group. Additionally, markers of oxidative stress such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-deoxyguanine (8-oxo-dG) were significantly increased, while fragile X-mental retardation protein (FMRP) expression was decreased in the SD group. Interestingly, melatonin treatment normalized these events to control levels following SD. Our data demonstrate that SD induces oxidative stress through glial activation and decreases FMRP expression in the neurons. Furthermore, our results suggest the efficacy of melatonin for the treatment of sleep-related neuronal dysfunction, which occurs in neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and autism. PMID:26047724

  5. The effects of antiepileptic drugs on cognitive functional magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Beltramini, Guilherme Coco; Cendes, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive dysfunction caused by antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has been extensively described, although the mechanisms underlying such collateral effects are still poorly understood. The combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies with pharmacological intervention (pharmaco-MRI or ph-MRI) offers the opportunity to investigate the effect of drugs such as AEDs on brain activity, including cognitive tasks. Here we review the studies that investigated the effects of AEDs [topiramate (TPM), lamotrigine (LMT), carbamazepine (CBZ), pregabalin (PGB), valproate (VPA) and levetiracetam (LEV)] on cognitive fMRI tasks. Despite the scarcity of fMRI studies focusing on the impact of AEDs on cognitive task, the results of recent work have provided important information about specific drug-related changes of brain function. PMID:25853082

  6. Cognitive functioning, mental health, and quality of life in ICU survivors: an overview.

    PubMed

    Jackson, James C; Mitchell, Nathaniel; Hopkins, Ramona O

    2015-03-01

    Critical illness can and often does lead to significant cognitive impairment and to the development of psychological disorders. These conditions are persistent and, although they improve with time, often fail to completely abate. Although the functional correlates of cognitive and psychological morbidity (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder) have been studied, they may include poor quality of life, inability to return to work or to work at previously established levels, and inability to function effectively in emotional and interpersonal domains. The potential etiologies of cognitive impairment and psychological morbidity in ICU survivors are particularly poorly understood and may vary widely across patients. Potential contributors may include the potentially toxic effects of sedatives and narcotics, delirium, hypoxia, glucose dysregulation, metabolic derangements, and inflammation. Patients with preexisting vulnerabilities, including predisposing genetic factors, and frail elderly populations may be at particular risk for emergence of acceleration of conditions such as mild cognitive impairment. PMID:25725571

  7. The effects of antiepileptic drugs on cognitive functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Beltramini, Guilherme Coco; Cendes, Fernando; Yasuda, Clarissa Lin

    2015-04-01

    The cognitive dysfunction caused by antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has been extensively described, although the mechanisms underlying such collateral effects are still poorly understood. The combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies with pharmacological intervention (pharmaco-MRI or ph-MRI) offers the opportunity to investigate the effect of drugs such as AEDs on brain activity, including cognitive tasks. Here we review the studies that investigated the effects of AEDs [topiramate (TPM), lamotrigine (LMT), carbamazepine (CBZ), pregabalin (PGB), valproate (VPA) and levetiracetam (LEV)] on cognitive fMRI tasks. Despite the scarcity of fMRI studies focusing on the impact of AEDs on cognitive task, the results of recent work have provided important information about specific drug-related changes of brain function. PMID:25853082

  8. Breakfast is associated with enhanced cognitive function in schoolchildren. An internet based study.

    PubMed

    Wesnes, Keith A; Pincock, Claire; Scholey, Andrew

    2012-12-01

    In this study, 1386 children aged between 6 and 16years, from schools throughout the UK, logged on to a web site before lunch during Farmhouse Breakfast Week 2004. They answered a number of questions concerning their food and drink consumption that day and performed cognitive tests of attention and episodic memory. Children who had had breakfast showed superior performance on tests of attention and memory, confirming a previous laboratory based study using the same cognitive tests. This study adds weight to the growing body of literature indicating that breakfast plays a positive role in maintaining cognitive function during the morning. PMID:22902600

  9. Altered Functional Connectivity between Emotional and Cognitive Resting State Networks in Euthymic Bipolar I Disorder Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lois, Giannis; Linke, Julia; Wessa, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by a functional imbalance between hyperactive ventral/limbic areas and hypoactive dorsal/cognitive brain regions potentially contributing to affective and cognitive symptoms. Resting-state studies in bipolar disorder have identified abnormal functional connectivity between these brain regions. However, most of these studies used a seed-based approach, thus restricting the number of regions that were analyzed. Using data-driven approaches, researchers identified resting state networks whose spatial maps overlap with frontolimbic areas such as the default mode network, the frontoparietal networks, the salient network, and the meso/paralimbic network. These networks are specifically engaged during affective and cognitive tasks and preliminary evidence suggests that functional connectivity within and between some of these networks is impaired in bipolar disorder. The present study used independent component analysis and functional network connectivity approaches to investigate functional connectivity within and between these resting state networks in bipolar disorder. We compared 30 euthymic bipolar I disorder patients and 35 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Inter-network connectivity analysis revealed increased functional connectivity between the meso/paralimbic and the right frontoparietal network in bipolar disorder. This abnormal connectivity pattern did not correlate with variables related to the clinical course of the disease. The present finding may reflect abnormal integration of affective and cognitive information in ventral-emotional and dorsal-cognitive networks in euthymic bipolar patients. Furthermore, the results provide novel insights into the role of the meso/paralimbic network in bipolar disorder. PMID:25343370

  10. Applying cognitive training to target executive functions during early development

    PubMed Central

    Wass, Sam V.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental psychopathology is increasingly recognizing the importance of distinguishing causal processes (i.e., the mechanisms that cause a disease) from developmental outcomes (i.e., the symptoms of the disorder as it is eventually diagnosed). Targeting causal processes early in disordered development may be more effective than waiting until outcomes are established and then trying to reverse the pathogenic process. In this review, I evaluate evidence suggesting that neural and behavioral plasticity may be greatest at very early stages of development. I also describe correlational evidence suggesting that, across a number of conditions, early emerging individual differences in attentional control and working memory may play a role in mediating later-developing differences in academic and other forms of learning. I review the currently small number of studies that applied direct and indirect cognitive training targeted at young individuals and discuss methodological challenges associated with targeting this age group. I also discuss a number of ways in which early, targeted cognitive training may be used to help us understand the developmental mechanisms subserving typical and atypical cognitive development. PMID:24511910

  11. The association between community environment and cognitive function: a systematic review

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A. Matthew; Brayne, Carol

    2014-08-03

    , adolescent, youth (N=184) - Biomarkers, brain images (N=202) - Health service and caregiving (N=182) - Nursing home, clinical, institution (N=108) - Others such as physical activity, quality of Abstract/ full text review Inclusion criteria: - Cognitive... /plain; charset=UTF-8 REVIEW The association between community environment and cognitive function: a systematic review Yu-Tzu Wu • A. Matthew Prina • Carol Brayne Received: 10 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 July 2014 ? The Author(s) 2014. This article...

  12. Reliability and Validity of the Beijing Version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in the Evaluation of Cognitive Function of Adult Patients with OSAHS

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jiaqi; Niu, Xun; Kong, Weijia

    2015-01-01

    Background The patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) tend to develop cognitive deficits, which usually go unrecognized, and can affect their daily life. The Beijing version of the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA-BJ), a Chinese version of MoCA, has been used for the assessment of cognitive functions of OSAHS patients in clinical practice. So far, its reliability and validity have not been tested. This study examined the reliability and validity of MoCA-BJ in a cohort of adult OSAHS patients. Methods 152 OSAHS patients, ranging from mild, moderate to severe, 49 primary snoring subjects and 40 normal controls were evaluated for cognitive functions by employing both MoCA-BJ and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Forty of them were re-tested by MoCA-BJ 14 days after the first test. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, discriminate and concurrent validity of MoCA-BJ were analyzed. Results Internal consistency reliability by Cronbach’s alpha was adequate (0.73). Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), an measure of test-retest reliability, was 0.87 (P<0.001). The total MoCA-BJ scores were significant higher in normal controls than in OSAHS groups (p<0.05). The performances of visuospatial ability in severe OSAHS group were significantly weaker than in normal controls and primary snoring group. The performances of executive ability in severe OSAHS patients were weaker than in normal controls. An optimal cut-off between normal controls and non-normal subjects was at 26 points (total MoCA score). Moreover, cut-off between non-severe and severe OSAHS was at 2 points on visuospatial subscale. Analysis of the correlation between MoCA total scores and MMSE total scores revealed a statistically significant, though relatively weak, correlation (r=0.41, P<0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, our study showed that the Beijing version of the MoCA was reliable and stable. The MoCA-BJ was capable of detecting cognitive dysfunction by visuospatial and total MoCA-BJ score. PMID:26208289

  13. Generalized partition functions, interpolating statistics and higher virial coefficients

    E-print Network

    P. F. Borges; H. Boschi-Filho; C. Farina

    1998-11-17

    Starting from determinants at finite temperature obeying an intermediate boundary condition between the periodic (bosonic) and antiperiodic (fermionic) cases, we find results which can be mapped onto the ones obtained from anyons for the second virial coefficient. Using this approach, we calculate the corresponding higher virial coefficients and compare them with the results known in the literature.

  14. Health Literacy, Cognitive Ability, and Functional Health Status among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Serper, Marina; Patzer, Rachel E; Curtis, Laura M; Smith, Samuel G; O'Conor, Rachel; Baker, David W; Wolf, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether previously noted associations between health literacy and functional health status might be explained by cognitive function. Data Sources/Study Setting Health Literacy and Cognition in Older Adults (“LitCog,” prospective study funded by National Institute on Aging). Data presented are from interviews conducted among 784 adults, ages 55–74 years receiving care at an academic general medicine clinic or one of four federally qualified health centers in Chicago from 2008 to 2010. Study Design Study participants completed structured, in-person interviews administered by trained research assistants. Data Collection Health literacy was measured using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, and Newest Vital Sign. Cognitive function was assessed using measures of long-term and working memory, processing speed, reasoning, and verbal ability. Functional health was assessed with SF-36 physical health summary scale and Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System short form subscales for depression and anxiety. Principal Findings All health literacy measures were significantly correlated with all cognitive domains. In multivariable analyses, inadequate health literacy was associated with worse physical health and more depressive symptoms. After adjusting for cognitive abilities, associations between health literacy, physical health, and depressive symptoms were attenuated and no longer significant. Conclusions Cognitive function explains a significant proportion of the associations between health literacy, physical health, and depression among older adults. Interventions to reduce literacy disparities in health care should minimize the cognitive burden in behaviors patients must adopt to manage personal health. PMID:24476068

  15. Physical Fitness Measures as Potential Markers of Low Cognitive Function in Japanese Community-Dwelling Older Adults without Apparent Cognitive Problems

    PubMed Central

    Narazaki, Kenji; Matsuo, Eri; Honda, Takanori; Nofuji, Yu; Yonemoto, Koji; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2014-01-01

    Detecting signs of cognitive impairment as early as possible is one of the most urgent challenges in preventive care of dementia. It has still been unclear whether physical fitness measures can serve as markers of low cognitive function, a sign of cognitive impairment, in older people free from dementia. The aim of the present study was to examine an association between each of five physical fitness measures and global cognition in Japanese community-dwelling older adults without apparent cognitive problems. The baseline research of the Sasaguri Genkimon Study was conducted from May to August 2011 in Sasaguri town, Fukuoka, Japan. Of the 2,629 baseline subjects who were aged 65 years or older and not certified as individuals requiring nursing care by the town, 1,552 participants without apparent cognitive problems (Mini-Mental State Examination score ?24) were involved in the present study (59.0% of the baseline subjects, median age: 72 years, men: 40.1%). Global cognitive function was measured by the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Handgrip strength, leg strength, sit-to-stand rate, gait speed, and one-leg stand time were examined as physical fitness measures. In multiple linear regression analyses, each of the five physical fitness measures was positively associated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment score after adjusting for age and sex (p < 0.001). These associations were preserved after additional adjustment for years of formal education, body mass index, and other confounding factors (p < 0.001). The present study first demonstrated the associations between multiple aspects of physical fitness and global cognitive function in Japanese community-dwelling older people without apparent cognitive problems. These results suggest that each of the physical fitness measures has a potential as a single marker of low cognitive function in older populations free from dementia and thereby can be useful in community-based preventive care of dementia. Key points There is a great need for identifying lifestyle-related markers which help detect subtle cognitive impairment in the preclinical or earlier phase of dementia. In the present study, each of the five physical fitness measures employed was linearly and positively associated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment score in the present older adults without apparent cognitive problems, after adjusting for age, sex, education, body mass index, and other confounding factors. The results suggest the potential of each physical fitness measure as a single lifestyle-related marker of low cognitive function in the population, which can be useful in community-based preventive care of dementia. PMID:25177186

  16. Physical Fitness Measures as Potential Markers of Low Cognitive Function in Japanese Community-Dwelling Older Adults without Apparent Cognitive Problems.

    PubMed

    Narazaki, Kenji; Matsuo, Eri; Honda, Takanori; Nofuji, Yu; Yonemoto, Koji; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2014-09-01

    Detecting signs of cognitive impairment as early as possible is one of the most urgent challenges in preventive care of dementia. It has still been unclear whether physical fitness measures can serve as markers of low cognitive function, a sign of cognitive impairment, in older people free from dementia. The aim of the present study was to examine an association between each of five physical fitness measures and global cognition in Japanese community-dwelling older adults without apparent cognitive problems. The baseline research of the Sasaguri Genkimon Study was conducted from May to August 2011 in Sasaguri town, Fukuoka, Japan. Of the 2,629 baseline subjects who were aged 65 years or older and not certified as individuals requiring nursing care by the town, 1,552 participants without apparent cognitive problems (Mini-Mental State Examination score ?24) were involved in the present study (59.0% of the baseline subjects, median age: 72 years, men: 40.1%). Global cognitive function was measured by the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Handgrip strength, leg strength, sit-to-stand rate, gait speed, and one-leg stand time were examined as physical fitness measures. In multiple linear regression analyses, each of the five physical fitness measures was positively associated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment score after adjusting for age and sex (p < 0.001). These associations were preserved after additional adjustment for years of formal education, body mass index, and other confounding factors (p < 0.001). The present study first demonstrated the associations between multiple aspects of physical fitness and global cognitive function in Japanese community-dwelling older people without apparent cognitive problems. These results suggest that each of the physical fitness measures has a potential as a single marker of low cognitive function in older populations free from dementia and thereby can be useful in community-based preventive care of dementia. Key pointsThere is a great need for identifying lifestyle-related markers which help detect subtle cognitive impairment in the preclinical or earlier phase of dementia.In the present study, each of the five physical fitness measures employed was linearly and positively associated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment score in the present older adults without apparent cognitive problems, after adjusting for age, sex, education, body mass index, and other confounding factors.The results suggest the potential of each physical fitness measure as a single lifestyle-related marker of low cognitive function in the population, which can be useful in community-based preventive care of dementia. PMID:25177186

  17. Npas4: A Neuronal Transcription Factor with a Key Role in Social and Cognitive Functions Relevant to Developmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Coutellier, Laurence; Beraki, Simret; Ardestani, Pooneh Memar; Saw, Nay Lui; Shamloo, Mehrdad

    2012-01-01

    Npas4 is a transcription factor, which is highly expressed in the brain and regulates the formation and maintenance of inhibitory synapses in response to excitatory synaptic activity. A deregulation of the inhibitory-excitatory balance has been associated with a variety of human developmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. However, not much is known about the role played by inhibitory synapses and inhibitory pathways in the development of nervous system disorders. We hypothesized that alterations in the inhibitory pathways induced by the absence of Npas4 play a major role in the expression of the symptoms observed in psychiatric disorders. To test this hypothesis we tested mice lacking the transcription factor (Npas4 knock-out mice (Npas4-KO)) in a battery of behavioral assays focusing on general activity, social behaviors, and cognitive functions. Npas4-KO mice are hyperactive in a novel environment, spend less time exploring an unfamiliar ovariectomized female, spend more time avoiding an unfamiliar male during a first encounter, show higher social dominance than their WT littermates, and display pre-pulse inhibition, working memory, long-term memory, and cognitive flexibility deficits. These behavioral deficits may replicate schizophrenia-related symptomatology such as social anxiety, hyperactivity, and cognitive and sensorimotor gating deficits. Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that Npas4 expression is induced in the hippocampus after a social encounter and that Npas4 regulates the expression of c-Fos in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus after a cognitive task. Our results suggest that Npas4 may play a major role in the regulation of cognitive and social functions in the brain with possible implications for developmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. PMID:23029555

  18. Effects of cannabis on cognitive function in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Honarmand, Kimia; Tierney, Mary C.; O'Connor, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background: While neuropsychological deficits have been reported in healthy individuals who use street cannabis, data in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are lacking. Given that MS is associated with cognitive deterioration, the aim of this study was to determine the neuropsychological effects of cannabis use in this population. Methods: Two groups, each of 25 patients with MS (cannabis users and nonusers), were administered the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in MS battery of neuropsychological tests, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Group-matching and regression analysis were used to control for the effects of age, sex, education, premorbid intelligence, disability, and disease course and duration on cognitive function. Results: Cannabis users performed significantly more poorly than nonusers on measures of information processing speed, working memory, executive functions, and visuospatial perception. They were also twice as likely as nonusers to be classified as globally cognitively impaired. There were no between-group differences on the HADS measures of depression and anxiety or lifetime SCID-I psychiatric diagnoses. Conclusion: This cross-sectional study provides empirical evidence that prolonged use of inhaled or ingested street cannabis in patients with MS is associated with poorer performance on cognitive domains commonly affected in this population. Whatever subjective benefits patients may derive from using street cannabis (e.g., pain and spasticity relief) should be weighed against the associated cognitive side effects. PMID:21444900

  19. Mapping mental function to brain structure: How can cognitive neuroimaging succeed?

    PubMed Central

    Poldrack, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of cognitive neuroscience is to identify the mapping between brain function and mental processing. In this paper, I examine the strategies that have been used to identify such mappings, and argue that they may be fundamentally unable to identify selective structure-function mappings. I argue that in order to understand the functional anatomy of mental processes, it will be necessary to move from the brain mapping strategies that the field has employed towards a search for selective associations. This will require a greater focus on the structure of cognitive processes, which can be achieved through the development of formal ontologies that describe the structure of mental processes. I outline the Cognitive Atlas project, which is developing such ontologies, and show how this knowledge could be used in conjunction with data mining approaches to more directly relate mental processes and brain function. PMID:25076977

  20. Differential engagement of anterior cingulate cortex subdivisions for cognitive and emotional function.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Aprajita; Engels, Anna S; Herrington, John D; Heller, Wendy; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Banich, Marie T; Webb, Andrew G; Warren, Stacie L; Miller, Gregory A

    2007-05-01

    Functional differentiation of dorsal (dACC) and rostral (rACC) anterior cingulate cortex for cognitive and emotional function has received considerable indirect support. Using fMRI, parallel tasks, and within-subject analysis, the present study directly tested the proposed specialization of ACC subdivisions. A Task x Region interaction confirmed more dACC activation during color-word distractors and more rACC activation during emotion-word distractors. Activity in ACC subdivisions differentially predicted behavioral performance. Connectivity with prefrontal and limbic regions also supported distinct dACC and rACC roles. Findings provide direct evidence for differential engagement of ACC subdivisions in cognitive and emotional processing and for differential functional connectivity in the implementation of cognitive control and emotion regulation. Results point to an anatomical and functional continuum rather than segregated operations. PMID:17433093

  1. Cognitive and academic functioning of juvenile detainees: Implications for correctional populations and public health

    PubMed Central

    Lansing, Amy E.; Washburn, Jason J.; Abram, Karen M.; Thomas, Ursula C.; Welty, Leah J.; Teplin, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive functioning affects health. This study assessed cognitive functioning among participants in the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a stratified random sample of 1,829 newly detained juveniles (10-18 years old) from Cook County, Illinois. We examined receptive vocabulary, oral reading, arithmetic computation skills, and general intellectual abilities. Our sample exhibited impaired overall intellectual functioning and deficits in all areas. Males performed more poorly than females overall. More than three-quarters of males showed below average overall intellectual functioning, and nine in ten males had below average receptive vocabulary skills. Hispanic and African American males performed more poorly than non-Hispanic white males; The multiple systems that serve delinquent youth—correctional, health, legal, and rehabilitative—must collaborate to tailor needed services to the cognitive level of youth in the juvenile justice system. PMID:24352405

  2. Long-term supratentorial brain structure and cognitive function following cerebellar tumour resections in childhood.

    PubMed

    Moberget, T; Andersson, S; Lundar, T; Due-Tønnessen, B J; Heldal, A; Endestad, T; Westlye, L T

    2015-03-01

    The cerebellum is connected to extensive regions of the cerebrum, and cognitive deficits following cerebellar lesions may thus be related to disrupted cerebello-cerebral connectivity. Moreover, early cerebellar lesions could affect distal brain development, effectively inducing long-term changes in brain structure and cognitive function. Here, we characterize supratentorial brain structure and cognitive function in 20 adult patients treated for cerebellar tumours in childhood (mean age at surgery: 7.1 years) and 26 matched controls. Relative to controls, patients showed reduced cognitive function and increased grey matter density in bilateral cingulum, left orbitofrontal cortex and the left hippocampus. Within the patient group, increased grey matter density in these regions was associated with decreased performance on tests of processing speed and executive function. Further, diffusion tensor imaging revealed widespread alterations in white matter microstructure in patients. While current ventricle volume (an index of previous hydrocephalus severity it patients) was associated with grey matter density and white matter microstructure in patients, this could only partially account for the observed group differences in brain structure and cognitive function. In conclusion, our results show distal effects of cerebellar lesions on cerebral integrity and wiring, likely caused by a combination of neurodegenerative processes and perturbed neurodevelopment. PMID:25665770

  3. The costs and benefits of self-monitoring for higher functioning children and adolescents with autism.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Heather A; Ono, Kim E; McMahon, Camilla M; Schwartz, Caley B; Usher, Lauren V; Mundy, Peter C

    2015-02-01

    The ability to regulate behaviors and emotions depends in part on the ability to flexibly monitor one's own progress toward a goal. Atypical patterns of response monitoring have been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the current study we examined the error related negativity (ERN), an electrophysiological index of response monitoring, in relation to behavioral, social cognitive, and emotional presentation in higher functioning children (8-16 years) diagnosed with autism (HFA: N = 38) and an age- and IQ-matched sample of children without autism (COM: N = 36). Both HFA and COM participants displayed larger amplitude responses to error compared to correct response trials and these amplitudes did not differ by diagnostic group. For participants with HFA, larger ERN amplitudes were associated with more parent-reported autistic symptoms and more self-reported internalizing problems. However, across the full sample, larger ERN amplitudes were associated with better performance on theory of mind tasks. The results are discussed in terms of the utility of electrophysiological measures for understanding essential moderating processes that contribute to the spectrum of behavioral expression in the development of ASD. PMID:24682651

  4. Cigarette smoking and cognitive function in human immunodeficiency virus seropositive women Short running title: Smoking and cognition in women with HIV

    E-print Network

    Lasalde Dominicc, Jose A. - Department of Biology, Universidad de Puerto Rico

    Cigarette smoking and cognitive function in human immunodeficiency virus seropositive women Short running title: Smoking and cognition in women with HIV Valerie Wojna1,2 , Lizbeth Robles1 , Richard L the official views of NCRR or NIH. #12;Abstract Cigarette smoking alters the immune system and may improve

  5. Toward a comprehensive understanding of executive cognitive function in implicit racial bias.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tiffany A; Friedman, Naomi P; Bartholow, Bruce D; Correll, Joshua; Loersch, Chris; Altamirano, Lee J; Miyake, Akira

    2015-02-01

    Although performance on laboratory-based implicit bias tasks often is interpreted strictly in terms of the strength of automatic associations, recent evidence suggests that such tasks are influenced by higher-order cognitive control processes, so-called executive functions (EFs). However, extant work in this area has been limited by failure to account for the unity and diversity of EFs, focus on only a single measure of bias and/or EF, and relatively small sample sizes. The current study sought to comprehensively model the relation between individual differences in EFs and the expression of racial bias in 3 commonly used laboratory measures. Participants (N = 485) completed a battery of EF tasks (Session 1) and 3 racial bias tasks (Session 2), along with numerous individual difference questionnaires. The main findings were as follows: (a) measures of implicit bias were only weakly intercorrelated; (b) EF and estimates of automatic processes both predicted implicit bias and also interacted, such that the relation between automatic processes and bias expression was reduced at higher levels of EF; (c) specific facets of EF were differentially associated with overall task performance and controlled processing estimates across different bias tasks; (d) EF did not moderate associations between implicit and explicit measures of bias; and (e) external, but not internal, motivation to control prejudice depended on EF to reduce bias expression. Findings are discussed in terms of the importance of global and specific EF abilities in determining expression of implicit racial bias. PMID:25603372

  6. The Long Term Impact of Micronutrient Supplementation during Infancy on Cognition and Executive Function Performance in Pre-School Children

    PubMed Central

    Warthon-Medina, Marisol; Qualter, Pamela; Zavaleta, Nelly; Dillon, Stephanie; Lazarte, Fabiola; Lowe, Nicola M.

    2015-01-01

    Brain growth and development are critically dependent on several micronutrients. During early development cellular activity may be sensitive to micronutrient deficiencies, however the evidence from human studies is equivocal. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term cognitive and social-emotional effects of multiple micronutrient supplementation compared with iron supplementation alone, administered during infancy. This study was a follow-up to an initial randomized, double-blind controlled trial (RCT) in 2010 in which 902 infants, aged 6–17 months, from Lima, Peru, were given daily supplements of either iron (Fe) or multiple micronutrients (MMN) including zinc (451 in each group). The supplementation period for both groups was six months. In 2012, a subsample of 184 children from the original cohort (now aged 36–48 months) was randomly selected to participate in a follow-up trial and was assessed for intelligence, working memory, inhibition, and executive function. The tests showed no significant differences between the supplementation groups though there were some gender differences, with girls displaying higher scores than boys across both groups on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) Verbal IQ sentences subtest, the Day-Night cognitive test and on the Brief Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) social competency, and boys scoring higher than girls in problem behaviour. The results indicate that MMN supplementation had no long term additional effects on cognitive function compared with iron supplementation alone. The timing of supplement administration for maximum impact on a child’s cognitive development requires further investigation. PMID:26262642

  7. The Long Term Impact of Micronutrient Supplementation during Infancy on Cognition and Executive Function Performance in Pre-School Children.

    PubMed

    Warthon-Medina, Marisol; Qualter, Pamela; Zavaleta, Nelly; Dillon, Stephanie; Lazarte, Fabiola; Lowe, Nicola M

    2015-08-01

    Brain growth and development are critically dependent on several micronutrients. During early development cellular activity may be sensitive to micronutrient deficiencies, however the evidence from human studies is equivocal. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term cognitive and social-emotional effects of multiple micronutrient supplementation compared with iron supplementation alone, administered during infancy. This study was a follow-up to an initial randomized, double-blind controlled trial (RCT) in 2010 in which 902 infants, aged 6-17 months, from Lima, Peru, were given daily supplements of either iron (Fe) or multiple micronutrients (MMN) including zinc (451 in each group). The supplementation period for both groups was six months. In 2012, a subsample of 184 children from the original cohort (now aged 36-48 months) was randomly selected to participate in a follow-up trial and was assessed for intelligence, working memory, inhibition, and executive function. The tests showed no significant differences between the supplementation groups though there were some gender differences, with girls displaying higher scores than boys across both groups on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) Verbal IQ sentences subtest, the Day-Night cognitive test and on the Brief Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) social competency, and boys scoring higher than girls in problem behaviour. The results indicate that MMN supplementation had no long term additional effects on cognitive function compared with iron supplementation alone. The timing of supplement administration for maximum impact on a child's cognitive development requires further investigation. PMID:26262642

  8. Cognitive, Behavioral, and Adaptive Functioning in Fragile X and Non-Fragile X Retarded Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykens, Elisabeth; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of the cognitive, behavioral, and adaptive functioning of 12 retarded men with fragile X syndrome indicated that fragile X men were largely indistinguishable from comparison groups. They were, however, significantly more likely to have achieved levels of adaptive functioning commensurate with their intellectual abilities. (Author/DB)

  9. Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome: Can We Differentiate Their Cognitive Profiles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planche, Pascale; Lemonnier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS) can be differentiated from each other and from typically developing children on their cognitive profiles. The present study included a total of 45 participants: children with autism (high-functioning autism or Asperger's…

  10. DEPRESSION SYMPTOMS AND COGNITIVE CONTROL OF EMOTION CUES: A FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING STUDY

    E-print Network

    Beevers, Christopher

    DEPRESSION SYMPTOMS AND COGNITIVE CONTROL OF EMOTION CUES: A FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING at Austin, Austin, TX, USA Abstract--Few studies have examined associations between depressive symptoms- erate symptoms of depression and a non-depressed control group while functional magnetic resonance

  11. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo among Young Adolescents with ADHD: Relations to Mental Health, Academic, and Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Stephen P.; Langberg, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the role of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in relation to externalizing and internalizing mental health problems, academic functioning, and social functioning among young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: In all, 57 youth ages 10 to 14 participated in the study. Parents…

  12. Theory of Mind and Emotional Functioning in Fibromyalgia Syndrome: An Investigation of the Relationship between Social Cognition and Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Di Tella, Marialaura; Castelli, Lorys; Colonna, Fabrizio; Fusaro, Enrico; Torta, Riccardo; Ardito, Rita B.; Adenzato, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a syndrome primarily characterised by chronic, widespread musculoskeletal pain. In the aetiology of this syndrome a crucial role is played by complex interactions among biological, genetic, psychological, and socio-cultural factors. Recently, researchers have started to explore emotional functioning in FM, with their attention focused on alexithymia, a personality construct that affects the regulation of a person’s own emotions. On the other hand, the detection and experience of emotional signals from other people have only been sparsely investigated in FM syndrome and no studies have investigated the ability to represent other people’s mental states (i.e. Theory of Mind, ToM) in these patients. Here we present the first study investigating a large set of social-cognitive abilities, and the possible relationships between these abilities and the performance on executive-function tasks, in a homogenous sample of patients with FM. Methodology Forty women with FM and forty-one healthy women matched for education and age were involved in the study. Social cognition was assessed with a set of validated experimental tasks. Measures of executive function were used to test the correlations between this dimension and the social-cognitive profile of patients with FM. Relationships between social-cognitive abilities and demographic, clinical and psychological variables were also investigated. Principal Findings Patients with FM have impairments both in the regulation of their own affect and in the recognition of other’s emotions, as well as in representing other people’s mental states. No significant correlations were found between social cognition tasks and the subcomponents of the executive function that were analysed. Conclusions The results show the presence of several impairments in social cognition skills in patients with FM, which are largely independent of both executive function deficits and symptoms of psychological distress. The impairments reported highlight the importance of adequately assessing ToM and emotional functioning in clinical practice. PMID:25594169

  13. Neurophysiological analyses in different color environments of cognitive function in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Takayuki; Morita, Kiichiro; Doi, Ryo; Shoji, Yoshihisa; Shigemori, Minoru

    2010-09-01

    Colors are thought to elicit various emotional effects. Red, with its high likelihood of attracting attention, is considered to have an exciting, active effect; whereas green, with its low attention value, is considered to have a relaxing, sedative effect. Colors are also thought to affect human cognition and emotion. However, there have been few studies of the influence of colors in one's surroundings (e.g., the color environment and its effect on cognitive function). In this study, we investigated the influence of differences in color environments (red, green, or darkness) on cognitive function by analyzing the P300 component of event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by oddball visual paradigms as a measure of cognitive characteristics in patients who had sustained traumatic brain injury (TBI). In 18 patients with TBI and 18 age-matched control subjects, ERPs were recorded in response to photographs of crying babies. We found that P300 amplitudes in the red environment were significantly larger in controls than in TBI patients, while those in both the green environment and darkness showed no difference between controls and patients. P300 latencies in the red environment and in darkness were significantly longer in patients than in controls. P300 latency in the red environment was significantly shorter than that in darkness. However, P300 latency in the green environment showed no difference between controls and patients. In healthy individuals, the emotional effects of the red environment enhanced cognitive function. In patients with TBI, however, cognitive function was reduced in the red environment. Furthermore, P300 amplitude and latency were strongly correlated with the time on the Trail Making Test (TMT), and the value of the intelligence quotient of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III). These findings suggest that P300 amplitude and latency are useful indexes for the evaluation of TBI patients, and that color environments affect cognitive function. PMID:20649469

  14. Long-term Impact of Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention on Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Stephen R.; Bray, George A.; Houston, Denise K.; Johnson, Karen C.; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Hergenroeder, Andrea L.; Williamson, Jeff; Jakicic, John M.; van Dorsten, Brent; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Background. It is unknown whether intentional weight loss provides long-term benefits for cognitive function. Methods. An ancillary study to a randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in overweight and obese individuals (N = 978), aged 45–76 years at enrollment, with type 2 diabetes. An intensive behavioral intervention designed to promote and maintain weight loss through caloric restriction and increased physical activity was compared with diabetes support and education. Standardized assessments of cognitive function were collected an average of 8.1 years after trial enrollment. Results. Participants assigned to intensive lifestyle intervention lost a mean (SE) 11.1% (0.4%) and 7.2% (0.5%) of weight at Years 1 and 8, respectively, compared with 1.0% (0.2%) and 3.3% (0.5%) in the control group (p < .001). Covariate-adjusted mean composite cognitive function test scores were similar for the two groups (p = .69), and no significant differences were found for any individual cognitive test. There was some evidence of a differential effect (nominal interaction p = .008) for a prespecified comparison: Intensive lifestyle intervention was associated with a relative mean benefit for composite cognitive function of 0.276 (95% confidence interval: 0.033, 0.520) SDs among individuals with body mass index less than 30kg/m2 at baseline compared with a relative mean deficit of 0.086 (?0.021, 0.194) SDs among individuals with body mass more than or equal to 30kg/m2. Conclusions. Eight years of intensive lifestyle intervention did not alter cognitive function in obese adults with type 2 diabetes; however, there was evidence for benefit among overweight but not obese individuals. Changes in cognition were not assessed in this cross-sectional study. PMID:24619151

  15. Influence of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) gene polymorphism on cognitive function in schizophrenia?,??

    PubMed Central

    Wonodi, Ikwunga; McMahon, Robert P.; Krishna, Nithin; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Liu, Judy; Glassman, Matthew; Hong, L. Elliot; Gold, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive deficits compromise quality of life and productivity for individuals with schizophrenia and have no effective treatments. Preclinical data point to the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism as a potential target for pro-cognitive drug development. We have previously demonstrated association of a kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) gene variant with reduced KMO gene expression in postmortem schizophrenia cortex, and neurocognitive endophenotypic deficits in a clinical sample. KMO encodes kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), the rate-limiting microglial enzyme of cortical kynurenine metabolism. Aberration of the KMO gene might be the proximal cause of impaired cortical kynurenine metabolism observed in schizophrenia. However, the relationship between KMO variation and cognitive function in schizophrenia is unknown. This study examined the effects of the KMO rs2275163C>T C (risk) allele on cognitive function in schizophrenia. Methods We examined the association of KMO polymorphisms with general neuropsychological performance and P50 gating in a sample of 150 schizophrenia and 95 healthy controls. Results Consistent with our original report, the KMO rs2275163C>T C (risk) allele was associated with deficits in general neuropsychological performance, and this effect was more marked in schizophrenia compared with controls. Additionally, the C (Arg452) allele of the missense rs1053230C>T variant (KMO Arg452Cys) showed a trend effect on cognitive function. Neither variant affected P50 gating. Conclusions These data suggest that KMO variation influences a range of cognitive domains known to predict functional outcome. Extensive molecular characterization of this gene would elucidate its role in cognitive function with implications for vertical integration with basic discovery. PMID:25464917

  16. Quantum groups and functional relations for higher rank

    E-print Network

    H. Boos; F. Göhmann; A. Klümper; Kh. S. Nirov; A. V. Razumov

    2015-04-13

    A detailed construction of the universal integrability objects related to the integrable systems associated with the quantum group $\\mathrm U_q(\\mathcal L(\\mathfrak{sl}_3))$ is given. The full proof of the functional relations in the form independent of the representation of the quantum group on the quantum space is presented. The case of the general gradation and general twisting is treated. The specialization of the universal functional relations to the case when the quantum space is the state space of a discrete spin chain is described.

  17. Diverging functions among calreticulin isoforms in higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Thelin, Lisa; Mutwil, Marek; Sommarin, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    The ER chaperone calreticulin plays vital roles in numerous cellular processes, including Ca2+-homeostasis, apoptosis and cell adhesion, in animal cells. Although calreticulin has been systematically characterized in animal cells, the focus has been on one of the isoforms. However, recent advances in the plant calreticulin field have revealed functional divergence of calreticulin isoforms. While two of the plant isoforms appear to work within a general ER chaperone framework, the third isoform is associated with folding of receptors for brassinosteroids and bacterial peptides. Hence, the discovery of functional specialization of plant calreticulins opens up new vistas for calreticulins also in the animal field. PMID:21586899

  18. Diverging functions among calreticulin isoforms in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Thelin, Lisa; Mutwil, Marek; Sommarin, Marianne; Persson, Staffan

    2011-06-01

    The ER chaperone calreticulin plays vital roles in numerous cellular processes, including Ca2+-homeostasis, apoptosis, and cell adhesion, in animal cells. Although calreticulin has been systematically characterized in animal cells, the focus has been on one of the isoforms. However, recent advances in the plant calreticulin field have revealed functional divergence of calreticulin isoforms. While two of the plant isoforms appear to work within a general ER chaperone framework, the third isoform is associated with folding of receptors for brassinosteroids and bacterial peptides. Hence, the discovery of functional specialization of plant calreticulins opens up new vistas for calreticulins also in the animal field. PMID:21586899

  19. Psychological Intervention for Improving Cognitive Function in Cancer Survivors: A Literature Review and Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    King, Summer; Green, Heather Joy

    2015-01-01

    Although the impact of cancer and associated treatments on cognitive functioning is becoming an increasingly recognized problem, there are few published studies that have investigated psychological interventions to address this issue. A waitlist randomized controlled trial methodology was used to assess the efficacy of a group cognitive rehabilitation intervention (“ReCog”) that successfully targeted cancer-related cognitive decline in previously published pilot research. Participants were 29 cancer survivors who were randomly allocated to either the intervention group or a waitlist group who received the intervention at a later date, and 16 demographically matched community volunteers with no history of cancer (trial registration ACTRN12615000009516, available at http://www.ANZCTR.org.au/ACTRN12615000009516.aspx). The study was the first to include an adapted version of the Traumatic Brain Injury Self-Efficacy Scale to assess cognitive self-efficacy (CSE) in people who have experienced cancer. Results revealed participating in the intervention was associated with significantly faster performance on one objective cognitive task that measures processing speed and visual scanning. Significantly larger improvements for the intervention group were also found on measures of perceived cognitive impairments and CSE. There was some evidence to support the roles of CSE and illness perceptions as potential mechanisms of change for the intervention. Overall, the study provided additional evidence of feasibility and efficacy of group psychological intervention for targeting cancer-related cognitive decline. PMID:25859431

  20. Life Course Socioeconomic Position and Mid-Late Life Cognitive Function in Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether the positive relation between socioeconomic position (SEP) across the life course and later life cognitive function observed in Western populations exists in former communist countries with apparently smaller income inequalities. Method. Structural equation modeling analysis of cross-sectional data on 30,846 participants aged 45–78 years in four Central and Eastern European centers: Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania), and six Czech towns from the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study. SEP was measured using self-reported childhood (maternal education, household amenities), adult (education), and older adult (current material circumstances) indicators. Latent variable for cognition was constructed from word recall, animal naming, and letter search. Results. Associations between SEP measures over the life course and cognition were similar across study centers. Education had the strongest direct association with cognition, followed by current material circumstances. Indirect path from education to cognition, mediated by current SEP, was small. Direct path from mother’s education to cognition was significant but modest, and partially mediated by later SEP measures, particularly education. Discussion. In these Eastern European populations, late life cognition reflected life course socioeconomic trajectories similarly to findings in Western countries. PMID:24598045

  1. Higher Plant Calreticulins Have Acquired Specialized Functions in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjing; Tintor, Nico; Prins, Daniel; Funke, Norma; Michalak, Marek; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Saijo, Yusuke; Sommarin, Marianne; Widell, Susanne; Persson, Staffan

    2010-01-01

    Background Calreticulin (CRT) is a ubiquitous ER protein involved in multiple cellular processes in animals, such as protein folding and calcium homeostasis. Like in animals, plants have evolved divergent CRTs, but their physiological functions are less understood. Arabidopsis contains three CRT proteins, where the two CRTs AtCRT1a and CRT1b represent one subgroup, and AtCRT3 a divergent member. Methodology/Principal Findings Through expression of single Arabidopsis family members in CRT-deficient mouse fibroblasts we show that both subgroups have retained basic CRT functions, including ER Ca2+-holding potential and putative chaperone capabilities. However, other more general cellular defects due to the absence of CRT in the fibroblasts, such as cell adhesion deficiencies, were not fully restored. Furthermore, in planta expression, protein localization and mutant analyses revealed that the three Arabidopsis CRTs have acquired specialized functions. The AtCRT1a and CRT1b family members appear to be components of a general ER chaperone network. In contrast, and as recently shown, AtCRT3 is associated with immune responses, and is essential for responsiveness to the bacterial Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP) elf18, derived from elongation factor (EF)-Tu. Whereas constitutively expressed AtCRT1a fully complemented Atcrt1b mutants, AtCRT3 did not. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the physiological functions of the two CRT subgroups in Arabidopsis have diverged, resulting in a role for AtCRT3 in PAMP associated responses, and possibly more general chaperone functions for AtCRT1a and CRT1b. PMID:20596537

  2. Cognitive Communication 2.0 in Higher Education: To Tweet or Not to Tweet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Antonio; Castro, Cornelia; Ferreira, Sergio Andre

    2012-01-01

    Research has been fertile in producing studies on pedagogical change and innovation through technology in Higher Education Institutions, namely the integration of the social media in pedagogical practice. However, there is a lack of studies on the integration of the social media in the particular field of lectures. In this context, commonly…

  3. Physical exercise improves peripheral BDNF levels and cognitive functions in mild cognitive impairment elderly with different bdnf Val66Met genotypes.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Carla Manuela Crispim; Pereira, Jessica Rodrigues; Pires de Andrade, Larissa; Garuffi, Marcelo; Ayan, Carlos; Kerr, Daniel Shikanai; Talib, Leda Leme; Cominetti, Márcia Regina; Stella, Florindo

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of physical exercise on improvements in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and cognitive functioning have been reported in the literature. However, the variability of individual responses may be linked to genetic differences. BDNF is considered one of the most plausible factors involved in the cognitive benefits associated with physical activity practice. A single nucleotide polymorphism localized in the gene that codes BDNF results in a missense mutation that promotes an amino acid substitution (Val66Met) in the protein. This process has been associated with decreased levels of BDNF secretion, with corresponding impairments in specific cognitive functions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a multimodal physical exercise program on peripheral BDNF levels and cognitive functions in elderly individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The participants were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. Cognitive functions were assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) prior to and after the intervention. Forty-five participants were assigned to the control and trained groups. The trained group participated in a multimodal physical training for a 16-week period. The results showed a significant between-subjects interaction (p < 0.05), which indicates the beneficial contribution of training on cognitive functions independent of the BDNF genotype. However, only participants with BDNF-Met genotypes exhibited significant improvements in peripheral BDNF levels. The BDNF genotype appears to modulate the effects of physical exercise on BDNF secretion, but it does not influence cognition. This is the first study that evaluated the influence of a BDNF polymorphism on physical activity and cognition performance in elderly MCI individuals. PMID:25062900

  4. Essential functions of primate frontopolar cortex in cognition

    PubMed Central

    Boschin, Erica A.; Piekema, Carinne; Buckley, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Brodmann’s area 10 is one of the largest cytoarchitecturally defined regions in the human cerebral cortex, occupying the most anterior part of the prefrontal cortex [frontopolar cortex (FPC)], and is believed to sit atop a prefrontal hierarchy. The crucial contributions that the FPC makes to cognition are unknown. Rodents do not possess such a FPC, but primates do, and we report here the behavioral effects of circumscribed FPC lesions in nonhuman primates. FPC lesions selectively impaired rapid one-trial learning about unfamiliar objects and unfamiliar objects-in-scenes, and also impaired rapid learning about novel abstract rules. Object recognition memory, shifting between established abstract behavioral rules, and the simultaneous application of two distinct rules were unaffected by the FPC lesion. The distinctive pattern of impaired and spared performance across these seven behavioral tasks reveals that the FPC mediates exploration and rapid learning about the relative value of novel behavioral options, and shows that the crucial contributions made by the FPC to cognition differ markedly from the contributions of other primate prefrontal regions. PMID:25691741

  5. The loss of independence in activities of daily living: the role of low normal cognitive function in elderly nuns.

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, P A; Snowdon, D A; Schmitt, F A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study investigated the role of low normal cognitive function in the subsequent loss of independence in activities of daily living. METHODS. Of the 678 elderly nuns who-completed cognitive and physical function assessments in 1992/93, 575 were reassessed in 1993/94. Mini-Mental State Examination scores were divided into three categories and related to loss of independence in six activities of daily living. RESULTS. Participants with low normal cognitive function at first assessment had twice the risk of losing independence in three activities of daily living by second assessment relative to those with high normal cognitive function. This relationship was largely due to a progression from low normal cognitive function at first assessment to impaired cognitive function at second assessment and was associated with an elevated risk of losing independence in the six activities. CONCLUSIONS. Progression from low normal to impaired cognitive function was associated with loss of independence in activities of daily living. Thus low normal cognitive function could be viewed as an early warning of impending cognitive impairment and loss of physical function. PMID:8561244

  6. Trajectories of Cognitive Function in Late Life in the United States: Demographic and Socioeconomic Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Miller-Martinez, Dana; Aneshensel, Carol S.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Wight, Richard G.; Chodosh, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    This study used mixed-effects modeling of data from a national sample of 6,476 US adults born before 1924, who were tested 5 times between 1993 and 2002 on word recall, serial 7's, and other mental status items to determine demographic and socioeconomic predictors of trajectories of cognitive function in older Americans. Mean decline with aging in total cognition score (range, 0–35; standard deviation, 6.00) was 4.1 (0.68 standard deviations) per decade (95% confidence interval: 3.8, 4.4) and in recall score (range, 0–20; standard deviation, 3.84) was 2.3 (0.60 standard deviations) per decade (95% confidence interval: 2.1, 2.5). Older cohorts (compared with younger cohorts), women (compared with men), widows/widowers, and those never married (both compared with married individuals) declined faster, and non-Hispanic blacks (compared with non-Hispanic whites) and those in the bottom income quintile (compared with the top quintile) declined slower. Race and income differences in rates of decline were not sufficient to offset larger differences in baseline cognition scores. Educational level was not associated with rate of decline in cognition scores. The authors concluded that ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in cognitive function in older Americans arise primarily from differences in peak cognitive performance achieved earlier in the life course and less from declines in later life. PMID:19605514

  7. A meta-analysis of cognitive functions in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Stefanie; Müller, Carmen; Helmreich, Isabella; Huss, Michael; Tadi?, André

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative prevalence rates of major depressive disorders (MDD) in children and adolescents averages 9.5 %. The majority of adults with MDD suffer from significant cognitive deficits, but the available neuropsychological data on the cognitive performance of children and adolescents with MDD yielded mixed results. Meta-analytic methods were used to assess the severity of cognitive deficits in children and adolescents with MDD as compared to healthy children and adolescents. We identified 17 studies comparing the intelligence, executive functions, verbal memory and attention of 447 patients with DSM-IV MDD and 1,347 healthy children and adolescents. Children and adolescents with MDD performed 0.194-0.772 (p < 0.001) standard mean differences worse than healthy control subjects in neuropsychological test procedures. The most pronounced deficits of children and adolescents with MDD were seen in inhibition capacity (STD = 0.772; p = 0.002), phonemic verbal fluency (STD = 0.756; p = 0.0001), sustained attention (STD = 0.522; p = 0.000), verbal memory (STD = 0.516; p = 0.0009) and planning (STD = 0.513; p = 0.014). We revealed cognitive deficits of children and adolescents with MDD in various cognitive domains. Long-term studies should investigate how the cognitive deficits of depressed youth affect their academic and social functioning, and whether age, comorbidity and depression severity play a role in this process. PMID:24869711

  8. Integral approximants for functions of higher monodromic dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, G.A. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    In addition to the description of multiform, locally analytic functions as covering a many sheeted version of the complex plane, Riemann also introduced the notion of considering them as describing a space whose ''monodromic'' dimension is the number of linearly independent coverings by the monogenic analytic function at each point of the complex plane. I suggest that this latter concept is natural for integral approximants (sub-class of Hermite-Pade approximants) and discuss results for both ''horizontal'' and ''diagonal'' sequences of approximants. Some theorems are now available in both cases and make clear the natural domain of convergence of the horizontal sequences is a disk centered on the origin and that of the diagonal sequences is a suitably cut complex-plane together with its identically cut pendant Riemann sheets. Some numerical examples have also been computed.

  9. Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure: Effects on Cognitive Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.; Seaton, Kim; Slack, Kellely; Bowie, Kendra

    2007-01-01

    The Space Flight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a medical requirement on the International Space Station, and its purpose is to evaluate cognitive functioning after physical insult (e.g., head trauma, decompression sickness, exposure to toxic gases, medication side effects). The current objective is to assess cognitive functioning in a long duration space mission analog environment where Artificial Gravity is being applied as a countermeasure in a Bed Rest study. Methods: Fifteen male subjects (8 treatment and 7 control) who participated in 21 days of -6 degree head-down bed rest were assessed. Three practice and three baseline WinSCAT test sessions were administered during the pre-bed rest phase of study participation. During the bed rest phase, the WinSCAT test was scheduled every other day, following the centrifuge, for a total of 10 test sessions. (The treatment group received 60 minutes of centrifugation each day during the 21 days of bed rest. The control subjects were strapped to the centrifuge for the same length of time as the treatment group but were not spun.) During the post-bed rest (reconditioning) phase, the test was administered 4 times. Results: Individual differences were found both within and between the treatment and control groups. After controlling for the number of subjects in each group, the treatment group accounted for more off-nominal WinSCAT scores than the control group. Conclusions:There is some preliminary evidence that centrifuge spinning might negatively impact cognitive functioning. However, due to sample size limitations, it cannot be ascertained whether there were significant differences in cognitive performance between the treatment and control groups. If centrifugation had a negative effect on cognitive functioning, consistent decrements would be expected to be found with all treatment subjects across time. Individual differences in underlying cognitive ability and motivation level are other possible explanations for the results found in this study.

  10. Resting-state functional connectivity associated with mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Amboni, Marianna; Tessitore, Alessandro; Esposito, Fabrizio; Santangelo, Gabriella; Picillo, Marina; Vitale, Carmine; Giordano, Alfonso; Erro, Roberto; de Micco, Rosa; Corbo, Daniele; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Barone, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in PD, even in early stages. The construct of mild cognitive impairment has been used to identify clinically evident cognitive impairment without functional decline in PD patients (PD-MCI). The aim of the present study was to investigate brain connectivity associated with PD-MCI through RS-fMRI. RS-fMRI at 3T was collected in 42 PD patients and 20 matched healthy controls. Among PD patients, 21 were classified as having MCI (PD-MCI) and 21 as cognitively unimpaired (PD-nMCI) based on criteria for possible PD-MCI (level I category). Single-subject and group-level ICA was used to investigate the integrity of brain networks related to cognition in PD patients with and without MCI. Image data processing and statistical analysis were performed in BrainVoyager QX. In addition, we used VBM to test whether functional connectivity differences were related to structural abnormalities. PD-nMCI and PD-MCI patients compared with controls showed decreased DMN connectivity. PD-MCI patients, but not PD-nMCI, compared with controls, showed decreased functional connectivity of bilateral prefrontal cortex within the frontoparietal network. The decreased prefrontal cortex connectivity correlated with cognitive parameters but not with clinical variables. VBM analysis did not reveal any difference in local gray matter between patients and controls. Our findings suggest that an altered DMN connectivity characterizes PD patients, regardless of cognitive status, whereas a functional disconnection of the frontoparietal network could be associated with MCI in PD in the absence of detectable structural changes. PMID:25428532

  11. Risk of Cognitive and Functional Impairment in Spouses of People With Dementia: Evidence From the Health and Retirement Study.

    PubMed

    Pertl, Maria M; Lawlor, Brian A; Robertson, Ian H; Walsh, Cathal; Brennan, Sabina

    2015-12-01

    Caring for a spouse with dementia is a chronic stressor that may compromise caregivers' own cognitive functioning and capacity to provide adequate care. We examined whether having (i) a spouse with dementia and (ii) a spouse who requires assistance with activities of daily living predicted cognitive and functional impairments in respondents to the Health and Retirement Study (n = 7965). Respondents who had a spouse who requires care had poorer cognitive functioning, whereby this relationship was significantly stronger for male respondents. Having a spouse with dementia moderated the relationship between income and cognition and predicted caregiver functional impairment, though not when depression was controlled. Although we found no significant differences on any individual cognitive domains between 179 dementia caregivers and sociodemographically matched noncaregivers, our findings suggest that caregivers, especially men, and low-income individuals who have a spouse with dementia are more vulnerable to adverse cognitive outcomes. Targeting depression in spouses of people with dementia may help to prevent functional impairments. PMID:26071444

  12. Physiological Functions of the COPI Complex in Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hee-Kyung; Kang, Yong Won; Lim, Hye Min; Hwang, Inhwan; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2015-01-01

    COPI vesicles are essential to the retrograde transport of proteins in the early secretory pathway. The COPI coatomer complex consists of seven subunits, termed ?-, ?-, ??-, ?-, ?-, ?-, and ?-COP, in yeast and mammals. Plant genomes have homologs of these subunits, but the essentiality of their cellular functions has hampered the functional characterization of the subunit genes in plants. Here we have employed virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and dexamethasone (DEX)-inducible RNAi of the COPI subunit genes to study the in vivo functions of the COPI coatomer complex in plants. The ??-, ?-, and ?-COP subunits localized to the Golgi as GFP-fusion proteins and interacted with each other in the Golgi. Silencing of ??-, ?-, and ?-COP by VIGS resulted in growth arrest and acute plant death in Nicotiana benthamiana, with the affected leaf cells exhibiting morphological markers of programmed cell death. Depletion of the COPI subunits resulted in disruption of the Golgi structure and accumulation of autolysosome-like structures in earlier stages of gene silencing. In tobacco BY-2 cells, DEX-inducible RNAi of ??-COP caused aberrant cell plate formation during cytokinesis. Collectively, these results suggest that COPI vesicles are essential to plant growth and survival by maintaining the Golgi apparatus and modulating cell plate formation. PMID:26434491

  13. Physiological Functions of the COPI Complex in Higher Plants.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hee-Kyung; Kang, Yong Won; Lim, Hye Min; Hwang, Inhwan; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2015-10-31

    COPI vesicles are essential to the retrograde transport of proteins in the early secretory pathway. The COPI coatomer complex consists of seven subunits, termed ?-, ?-, ?'-, ?-, ?-, ?-, and ?-COP, in yeast and mammals. Plant genomes have homologs of these subunits, but the essentiality of their cellular functions has hampered the functional characterization of the subunit genes in plants. Here we have employed virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and dexamethasone (DEX)-inducible RNAi of the COPI subunit genes to study the in vivo functions of the COPI coatomer complex in plants. The ?'-, ?-, and ?-COP subunits localized to the Golgi as GFP-fusion proteins and interacted with each other in the Golgi. Silencing of ?'-, ?-, and ?-COP by VIGS resulted in growth arrest and acute plant death in Nicotiana benthamiana, with the affected leaf cells exhibiting morphological markers of programmed cell death. Depletion of the COPI subunits resulted in disruption of the Golgi structure and accumulation of autolysosome-like structures in earlier stages of gene silencing. In tobacco BY-2 cells, DEX-inducible RNAi of ?'-COP caused aberrant cell plate formation during cytokinesis. Collectively, these results suggest that COPI vesicles are essential to plant growth and survival by maintaining the Golgi apparatus and modulating cell plate formation. PMID:26434491

  14. Higher-Order Theory for Functionally Graded Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, J.; Pindera, M. J.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2001-01-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGM's) are a new generation of engineered materials wherein the microstructural details are spatially varied through nonuniform distribution of the reinforcement phase(s). Engineers accomplish this by using reinforcements with different properties, sizes, and shapes, as well as by interchanging the roles of the reinforcement and matrix phases in a continuous manner (ref. 1). The result is a microstructure that produces continuously or discretely changing thermal and mechanical properties at the macroscopic or continuum scale. This new concept of engineering the material's microstructure marks the beginning of a revolution both in the materials science and mechanics of materials areas since it allows one, for the first time, to fully integrate the material and structural considerations into the final design of structural components. Functionally graded materials are ideal candidates for applications involving severe thermal gradients, ranging from thermal structures in advanced aircraft and aerospace engines to computer circuit boards. Owing to the many variables that control the design of functionally graded microstructures, full exploitation of the FGM's potential requires the development of appropriate modeling strategies for their response to combined thermomechanical loads. Previously, most computational strategies for the response of FGM's did not explicitly couple the material's heterogeneous microstructure with the structural global analysis. Rather, local effective or macroscopic properties at a given point within the FGM were first obtained through homogenization based on a chosen micromechanics scheme and then subsequently used in a global thermomechanical analysis.

  15. The inflammatory response of two different kinds of anesthetics on vascular cognitive impairment rats and the effect on long term cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bing; Yang, Jia; Kang, Fang; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment, caused by vascular injury and inflammation, affects brain function. Present treatment for vascular injury primarily relies on combination therapy of surgery with anesthesia. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of anesthetics, sevoflurane and fentanyl, on long-term cognitive function in brain tissue of rats, and potential correlations with inflammatory factors such as VEGF, IL-1?, TNF-?. We used shuttle box and water maze tests to study the cognitive function of Wistar rats. The results demonstrated that rats treated with sevoflurane or fentanyl performed less shock times and more active escape times compared with rats model undergoing vascular cognitive impairment. Treatment of anesthetics also shortened the periods of learning and memory incubation, suggesting a protective role in cognitive function. In addition, our results unraveled a reducing expression of TNF-? and IL-1? but an increasing level of VEGF in head tissues of rats implemented with anesthetics. These findings underscore the improving role of sevoflurane and fentanyl in the recovery of vascular cognitive impairment rats as well as the cognitive function in rats, by regulating the expression of inflammatory factors. PMID:26629205

  16. Prefrontal Gray Matter Morphology Mediates the Association Between Serum Anticholinergicity and Cognitive Functioning in Early Course Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Wojtalik, Jessica A.; Eack, Shaun M.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2012-01-01

    Antipsychotic and other medications used in the treatment of schizophrenia place a burden on the cholinergic subsystems of the brain, which have been associated with increased cognitive impairment in the disorder. This study sought to examine the neurobiologic correlates of the association between serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) and cognitive impairments in early schizophrenia. Neurocognitive performance on measures of memory and executive function, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and SAA assays were collected from 47 early course, stabilized outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Voxel-based morphometry analyses employing general linear models, adjusting for demographic and illness-related confounds, were used to investigate the associations between SAA, gray matter morphology, and neurocognitive impairment. SAA was related to working memory and executive function impairments. Higher SAA was significantly associated with lower gray matter density in broad regions of the frontal and medial-temporal lobes, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), hippocampus, and striatum. Lower gray matter volume in the left DLPFC was found to significantly mediate the association between SAA and working memory impairment. Disease and/or medication-related cholinergic dysfunction may be associated with brain volume abnormalities in early course schizophrenia, which may account for the association between SAA and cognitive dysfunction in the disorder. PMID:23158779

  17. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a multi-skill program for training younger drivers on higher cognitive skills.

    PubMed

    Yamani, Yusuke; Samuel, Siby; Knodler, Michael A; Fisher, Donald L

    2016-01-01

    Training programs exist that prove effective at teaching novice drivers to anticipate latent hazards (RAPT), mitigate hazards (ACT) and maintain attention (FOCAL). The current study (a) measures the effectiveness of a novel integrated training program (SAFE-T) that takes only a third as long to complete compared to the three individual training programs and (b) determines if integrating the training of all the three higher cognitive skills would yield results comparable to the existing programs. Three groups were evaluated: SAFE-T, RAPT and Placebo. The results show that the drivers in the SAFE-T-trained group were more likely to anticipate hazards, quicker and more effective at responding to hazards, and more likely to maintain glance durations under a critical threshold of 2 s as compared to drivers in the Placebo-trained group who received a control program that does not actively train on any of the three cognitive skills. Moreover, the results show that the drivers in the SAFE-T trained group were just as likely to anticipate hazards as the drivers in the RAPT trained group. Finally, when compared with prior studies, the drivers in the SAFE-T trained group showed similar effects of attention maintenance training. PMID:26360204

  18. Information Communication Technology in the Form of an Expert System Shell as a Cognitive Tool to Facilitate Higher-Order Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Gary W.; Knoetze, Johan G.

    2014-01-01

    Information communication technology is capable of contributing supplementary teaching and learning strategies that can be used to address various educational challenges faced by higher education. Students who enter South African higher education institutions are often academically under-prepared and have not developed the cognitive skills…

  19. A Comparison of the Higher-order and Hierarchical Model of Human Cognitive Ability Structure Using Nested Models Confirmatory Factor Analysis 

    E-print Network

    Murray, Aja Louise

    2012-11-28

    Nested models confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare a higher-order and hierarchical model of human cognitive ability structure. In a higher-model the effects of g on observed subtest scores are completely mediated by lower-order, more...

  20. An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Cognitive Functioning of First-Year Bachelor Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callens, Maaike; Tops, Wim; Stevens, Michaël; Brysbaert, Marc

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of students with dyslexia register in higher education. As a consequence, information on their pattern of strengths and weaknesses is essential to construct adequate assessment and diagnostic protocols. In a sample of 100 first-year bachelor students with dyslexia and 100 control students, a large pool of cognitive skills were…

  1. Detection of Impaired Cognitive Function in Rat with Hepatosteatosis Model and Improving Effect of GLP-1 Analogs (Exenatide) on Cognitive Function in Hepatosteatosis

    PubMed Central

    Erba?, Oytun; Sarac, Fulden; Aktu?, Hüseyin; Peker, Gönül

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate (1) detection of cognitive function changing in rat with hepatosteatosis model and (2) evaluate the effect of GLP-1 analog (exenatide) on cognitive function in hepatosteatosis. In the study group, 30% fructose was given in nutrition water to perform hepatosteatosis for 8 weeks to 18 male rats. Six male rats were chosen as control group and had normal nutrition. Fructose nutrition group were stratified into 3 groups. In first group (n = 6), intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of exenatide (n = 6) was given. ICV infusion of NaCl (n = 6) was given to second group. And also, the third group had no treatment. And also, rats were evaluated for passive avoidance learning (PAL) and liver histopathology. Mean levels of latency time were statistically significantly decreased in rats with hepatosteatosis than those of normal rats (P < 0.00001). However, mean level of latency time in rats with hepatosteatosis treated with ICV exenatide was statistically significantly increased than that of rats treated with ICV NaCl (P < 0.001). Memory performance falls off in rats with hepatosteatosis feeding on fructose (decreased latency time). However, GLP-1 ameliorates cognitive functions (increased latency time) in rats with hepatosteatosis and releated metabolic syndrome. PMID:24741367

  2. Detection of impaired cognitive function in rat with hepatosteatosis model and improving effect of GLP-1 analogs (exenatide) on cognitive function in hepatosteatosis.

    PubMed

    Erba?, Oytun; Sarac, Fulden; Aktu?, Hüseyin; Peker, Gönül

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate (1) detection of cognitive function changing in rat with hepatosteatosis model and (2) evaluate the effect of GLP-1 analog (exenatide) on cognitive function in hepatosteatosis. In the study group, 30% fructose was given in nutrition water to perform hepatosteatosis for 8 weeks to 18 male rats. Six male rats were chosen as control group and had normal nutrition. Fructose nutrition group were stratified into 3 groups. In first group (n = 6), intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of exenatide (n = 6) was given. ICV infusion of NaCl (n = 6) was given to second group. And also, the third group had no treatment. And also, rats were evaluated for passive avoidance learning (PAL) and liver histopathology. Mean levels of latency time were statistically significantly decreased in rats with hepatosteatosis than those of normal rats (P < 0.00001). However, mean level of latency time in rats with hepatosteatosis treated with ICV exenatide was statistically significantly increased than that of rats treated with ICV NaCl (P < 0.001). Memory performance falls off in rats with hepatosteatosis feeding on fructose (decreased latency time). However, GLP-1 ameliorates cognitive functions (increased latency time) in rats with hepatosteatosis and releated metabolic syndrome. PMID:24741367

  3. Cognitive Control Network Function in Alcohol Use Disorder Before and During Treatment With Lorazepam

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Claire E.; Mayer, Andrew R.; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Ling, Josef; Dekonenko, Charlene; Cumbo, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have deficits in cognitive control, but how they change with treatment is unclear. Seven patients with AUD and anxiety from an open-label trial of disulfiram plus lorazepam performed a multisensory Stroop task during fMRI (both pre and post initiation of treatment), and were compared to nine healthy controls (HCs) (n = 16; Albuquerque, NM; years 2009–2012). Evoked BOLD signal and resting state functional connectivity were compared (HC vs. AUD; Scan 1 vs. Scan 2). AUD demonstrated hyperactivity and altered connectivity in the cognitive control network compared to HC, but treatment did not normalize function. PMID:25290463

  4. Cognitive control network function in alcohol use disorder before and during treatment with lorazepam.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Claire E; Mayer, Andrew R; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Ling, Josef; Dekonenko, Charlene; Cumbo, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have deficits in cognitive control, but how they change with treatment is unclear. Seven patients with AUD and anxiety from an open-label trial of disulfiram plus lorazepam performed a multisensory Stroop task during fMRI (both pre and post initiation of treatment), and were compared to nine healthy controls (HCs) (n = 16; Albuquerque, NM; years 2009-2012). Evoked BOLD signal and resting state functional connectivity were compared (HC vs. AUD; Scan 1 vs. Scan 2). AUD demonstrated hyperactivity and altered connectivity in the cognitive control network compared to HC, but treatment did not normalize function. PMID:25290463

  5. Evolutionary and Developmental Changes in the Lateral Frontoparietal Network: A Little Goes a Long Way for Higher-Level Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Vendetti, Michael S.; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2015-01-01

    Relational thinking, or the ability to represent the relations between items, is widespread in the animal kingdom. However, humans are unparalleled in their ability to engage in the higher-order relational thinking required for reasoning and other forms of abstract thought. Here we propose that the versatile reasoning skills observed in humans can be traced back to developmental and evolutionary changes in the lateral frontoparietal network (LFPN). We first identify the regions within the LFPN that are most strongly linked to relational thinking, and show that stronger communication between these regions over the course of development supports improvements in relational reasoning. We then explore differences in the LFPN between humans and other primate species that could explain species differences in the capacity for relational reasoning. We conclude that fairly small neuroanatomical changes in specific regions of the LFPN and their connections have led to big ontogenetic and phylogenetic changes in cognition. PMID:25475185

  6. Midlife Hypertensive Status and Cognitive Function 20 Years Later: The Southall and Brent Revisited Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Clare; Tillin, Therese; Chaturvedi, Nish; Dewey, Michael; Ferri, Cleusa P; Hughes, Alun; Prince, Martin; Richards, Marcus; Shah, Ajit; Stewart, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate long-term prospective associations between a range of measurements of hypertensive status in midlife and cognitive impairment 20 years later. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Two areas (Southall and Brent) of northwest London. Participants: Survey samples of a multiethnic population (European, African Caribbean, South Asian) aged 40 to 67 were followed up 20 years later. Measurements: Comprehensive cardiovascular assessments were performed at baseline, including measurements of resting blood pressure (BP) and, in a subsample, ambulatory BP. At follow-up, a battery of cognitive assessments was administered, and a composite outcome was derived, with impairment defined as the lowest 10% within each ethnic group. Logistic regression models were used to investigate associations with prior measures of hypertensive status. Results: In 1,484 participants at follow-up, cognitive impairment showed significant U-shaped associations with baseline diastolic BP (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP; strongest for those aged ?50 at baseline), independent of a range of covariates, but no associations were found with systolic BP or pulse pressure. Cognitive impairment was also associated with antihypertensive medication use and higher evening ambulatory DBP at baseline. No substantial differences in strengths of association were found between ethnic groups. Conclusion: Low and high DBP and MAP were associated with cognitive impairment 20 years later. Higher evening DBP on ambulatory monitoring was also associated with greater risk. PMID:24028355

  7. Effects of poverty on cognitive function: a hidden neurologic epidemic.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Donna C

    2008-08-01

    Mental retardation is one of the most prevalent neurologic disorders globally. Surveys in high-income countries show 3 to 5 per 1,000 with severe intellectual disability, i.e., IQ below 55. Estimates from developing countries, however, have found prevalence rates from 5 to as much as 22 per 1,000. Protein-energy malnutrition, dietary micronutrient deficiencies, environmental toxins, and lack of early sensory stimulation or the ability to profit from it may contribute to neurodevelopmental disabilities. Tropical diseases such as parasitosis with resultant anemia, malaria, and other infections are major contributory causes. Reduction of poverty and its effects would reduce the present and future burden of mental retardation and cognitive dysfunction, especially in developing countries. PMID:18678828

  8. Cognitive functioning in long-term survivors of childhood leukemia: A prospective analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rubenstein, C.L.; Varni, J.W.; Katz, E.R. )

    1990-12-01

    Treatment-related cognitive impairments have been reported for survivors of childhood leukemia following prophylactic central nervous system (CNS) treatment with 2400 cGy craniospinal irradiation and intrathecal chemotherapy. The present study was designed to prospectively evaluate cognitive functioning of 24 children prior to CNS prophylaxis of 1800 cGy of craniospinal irradiation and intrathecal drugs, and at intervals of 1 and 4-5 years. At diagnosis, prior to CNS treatment, all 24 subjects performed in the average range of intelligence, as measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scales. Subjects continued to perform in the average range with no significant declines at the 1-year follow-up. Significant declines in cognitive functioning, however, were found at the 4- to 5-year follow-up period, with five subjects (21%) performing in the low average or borderline levels of intelligence. Of the 19 subjects performing in the average range, five showed significant discrepancies between Verbal and Performance IQ scores. Nine subjects exhibited poor performance on a subtest cluster assessing perceptual and attentional processes. With regard to school experiences, 50% of the subjects had received some type of special education services. The findings indicate the need for annual evaluations of cognitive functioning in long-term survivors of childhood leukemia who received 1800 cGy craniospinal irradiation, to identify potential cognitive late effects of treatment requiring appropriate special education services.

  9. Neighborhood Psychosocial Hazards and the Association of Cumulative Lead Dose With Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bandeen-Roche, Karen; McAtee, Matthew; Bolla, Karen; Todd, Andrew C.; Schwartz, Brian S.

    2009-01-01

    Before the 1970s, today's older Americans were exposed to high levels of lead in the environment. The authors previously reported that lifetime cumulative lead dose was associated with lower cognitive test performance in older adults. Experiments suggest that environmental stress may intensify the detrimental influence of lead. No large, population-based studies of this question have been done. The authors evaluated whether cross-sectional associations of tibia lead with cognitive function were modified by neighborhood psychosocial hazards in the Baltimore Memory Study (2001–2005), a longitudinal cohort study of determinants of cognitive decline. Tibia lead was measured via 109Cd-induced K-shell X-ray fluorescence. Neighborhood psychosocial hazards were measured independently of study subjects. Complete data were available among 1,001 demographically diverse adults aged 50–70 years, randomly selected from 65 contiguous neighborhoods in Baltimore City. Hierarchical mixed-effects regression models showed that neighborhood psychosocial hazards exacerbated the adverse associations of tibia lead in 3 of 7 cognitive domains after adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, testing technician, and time of day (language, P = 0.039; processing speed, P = 0.067; executive functioning, P = 0.025). The joint occurrence of environmental stress and lead exposure across the life span may partially explain persistent racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in cognitive function in late life. PMID:19155330

  10. The Influence of Functional Fitness and Cognitive Training of Physical Disabilities of Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, I-Chen; Chang, Chia-Ming; Chen, Ko-Chia; Hong, Wei-Chin; Lu, Yu-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    According to an investigation done by Taiwan Ministry of the Interior in 2013, there was more than 90% of the disability care institutions mainly based on life care. Previous studies have shown that individuals can effectively improve physical and cognitive training, improved in independent living and everyday competence. The purpose of the study was to investigate influence of the intervention program applying functional fitness and cognitive training to disabled residents in the institution. The subjects were disabled persons of a care institution in southern Taiwan and were randomly divided into training and control groups, both having 17 subjects. The age of the subjects was between 56 and 98 years with a mean age of 79.08 ± 10.04 years; the subjects of training group implemented 12 weeks of training on physical and cognitive training, while the control group subjects did not have any training program. The results revealed that subjects of the training group have significantly improved their functional shoulder rotation flexibility of left and right anterior hip muscle group flexibility of right, sitting functional balance of left and right, naming, attention, delayed recall, orientation, and Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA). The study suggested developing physical fitness programs and physical and cognitive prescriptions for the disabled people of the institutions. PMID:25756064

  11. Protective effect of neovibsanin B on spatial cognitive functions of rats with cerebrovascular hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing-Wang; Lv, Yong-Tao; Han, Ye; Huan, Ying; Feng, Xiao-Ya; Chen, Chun-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Neovibsanins are believed to be promising candidates for the development of novel therapeutic agents to treat neurological diseases like Alzheimer's disease. It has been shown that chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is linked to neurodegenerative disorders and their subsequent cognitive impairment. In the present study effect of neovibsanin B (NVB) on spatial cognitive functions of rats with lobal cerebrovascular hypoperfusion was investigated. The cerebrovascular hypoperfusion rat model was prepared by bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (2VO). Morris water maze (MWM) test was employed to examine the effect of NVB on spatial cognitive function before and after 2VO intervention. The animals were divided into two groups; long-term memory (LTM) and short-term memory (STM) groups. Each of the groups was subdivided into 3 subgroups: control, untreated and NVB treated groups. After ten weeks of the surgery, all the subgroups were tested with MWM. The results of working memory test for both control and NVB treated groups revealed that escape latency time and total distance travelled were significantly lower compared to untreated group. Similarly, the maze test performance was observed to be significantly improved for control and NVB treated groups. Moreover, the probe memory test performance for control and NVB treated groups was markedly better than untreated group. Thus NVB has a significant effect on the spatial cognitive preservation in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Thus NVB can be a promising agent for the spatial cognitive functions improvement. PMID:26550122

  12. Subclavian steal syndrome decreases neurogenesis in the cerebellar cortex and affects cognitive function in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    FU, XIAO-YANG; ZHANG, ZHI-DONG; LIANG, KAI; SHI, SHUAI-TAO; WANG, GUO-QUAN; ZHANG, KE-WEI; LI, KUN; LI, WEI-XIAO; LI, TIAN-XIAO; ZHAI, SHUI-TING

    2015-01-01

    Subclavian steal syndrome (SSS) is a condition characterized by a steno-occlusive impairment of the proximal subclavian artery. The majority of patients with SSS are asymptomatic, while symptomatic patients present with neurological symptoms. SSS is a risk factor for cerebral ischemia, which reacts badly upon cognitive function; however, it remains unknown whether SSS is able to cause progressive cognitive impairment. In the present study, the potential effects of SSS on cognitive function were investigated using atherosclerotic rabbits as a model of SSS. A total of 48 male New Zealand rabbits were divided into the control, sham and SSS groups. The results of eyeblink experiments indicated no significant differences among the three groups; however, SSS did appear to exert a negative impact on neurogenesis in the cerebellar cortex. In order to further clarify the mechanisms underlying this SSS-mediated reduction in cell proliferation, the energy metabolism, immune function and oxidative stress statuses were evaluated by determining the levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, malondialdehyde, 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine, CuZn-superoxide dismutase and catalase. The results showed that the levels of extracellular ATP in the cerebellar cortex had decreased, while levels of adenosine had also decreased. These findings suggest that SSS is able to inhibit neurogenesis in the cerebellar cortex by decreasing the extracellular ATP levels. Furthermore, these changes may result in an impairment of the cognition of the rabbits. The early diagnosis and treatment of SSS may, therefore, prevent or mitigate cognitive impairment in the future. PMID:26622506

  13. A review on functional and structural brain connectivity in numerical cognition

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Korbinian; Willmes, Klaus; Klein, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Only recently has the complex anatomo-functional system underlying numerical cognition become accessible to evaluation in the living brain. We identified 27 studies investigating brain connectivity in numerical cognition. Despite considerable heterogeneity regarding methodological approaches, populations investigated, and assessment procedures implemented, the results provided largely converging evidence regarding the underlying brain connectivity involved in numerical cognition. Analyses of both functional/effective as well as structural connectivity have consistently corroborated the assumption that numerical cognition is subserved by a fronto-parietal network including (intra)parietal as well as (pre)frontal cortex sites. Evaluation of structural connectivity has indicated the involvement of fronto-parietal association fibers encompassing the superior longitudinal fasciculus dorsally and the external capsule/extreme capsule system ventrally. Additionally, commissural fibers seem to connect the bilateral intraparietal sulci when number magnitude information is processed. Finally, the identification of projection fibers such as the superior corona radiata indicates connections between cortex and basal ganglia as well as the thalamus in numerical cognition. Studies on functional/effective connectivity further indicated a specific role of the hippocampus. These specifications of brain connectivity augment the triple-code model of number processing and calculation with respect to how gray matter areas associated with specific number-related representations may work together. PMID:26029075

  14. Functional Connectivity in Multiple Cortical Networks Is Associated with Performance Across Cognitive Domains in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Emily E.; Schultz, Aaron P.; Sperling, Reisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intrinsic functional connectivity MRI has become a widely used tool for measuring integrity in large-scale cortical networks. This study examined multiple cortical networks using Template-Based Rotation (TBR), a method that applies a priori network and nuisance component templates defined from an independent dataset to test datasets of interest. A priori templates were applied to a test dataset of 276 older adults (ages 65–90) from the Harvard Aging Brain Study to examine the relationship between multiple large-scale cortical networks and cognition. Factor scores derived from neuropsychological tests represented processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Resting-state BOLD data were acquired in two 6-min acquisitions on a 3-Tesla scanner and processed with TBR to extract individual-level metrics of network connectivity in multiple cortical networks. All results controlled for data quality metrics, including motion. Connectivity in multiple large-scale cortical networks was positively related to all cognitive domains, with a composite measure of general connectivity positively associated with general cognitive performance. Controlling for the correlations between networks, the frontoparietal control network (FPCN) and executive function demonstrated the only significant association, suggesting specificity in this relationship. Further analyses found that the FPCN mediated the relationships of the other networks with cognition, suggesting that this network may play a central role in understanding individual variation in cognition during aging. PMID:25827242

  15. Lexical Characteristics of Emotional Narratives in Schizophrenia: Relationships With Symptoms, Functioning, and Social Cognition.

    PubMed

    Buck, Benjamin; Penn, David L

    2015-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that complexity of speech, speech rate, use of emotion words, and use of pronouns are all potential indicators of important clinical components of schizophrenia, but little research has examined the relationships of these disturbances to cognitive variables impaired in schizophrenia, including social cognition. The current study examined these lexical differences to better characterize the cognitive substrates of speech disturbances in schizophrenia. Brief narratives of individuals with schizophrenia (n = 42) and non-clinical controls (n = 48) were compared according to their lexical characteristics, and these were examined for relationships to social cognition and real-world functioning. Significant differences between the groups were found in words per sentence (related to functioning, but not negative symptoms) as well as pronoun use (related to attributional style and theory of mind). Additionally, lexical characteristics effectively distinguished individuals with schizophrenia from non-clinical controls. Language disturbances in schizophrenia seem related to social cognition impairments and real-world functioning, and are a robust indicator of clinical status. PMID:26252823

  16. Protective effect of neovibsanin B on spatial cognitive functions of rats with cerebrovascular hypoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xing-Wang; Lv, Yong-Tao; Han, Ye; Huan, Ying; Feng, Xiao-Ya; Chen, Chun-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Neovibsanins are believed to be promising candidates for the development of novel therapeutic agents to treat neurological diseases like Alzheimer’s disease. It has been shown that chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is linked to neurodegenerative disorders and their subsequent cognitive impairment. In the present study effect of neovibsanin B (NVB) on spatial cognitive functions of rats with lobal cerebrovascular hypoperfusion was investigated. The cerebrovascular hypoperfusion rat model was prepared by bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (2VO). Morris water maze (MWM) test was employed to examine the effect of NVB on spatial cognitive function before and after 2VO intervention. The animals were divided into two groups; long-term memory (LTM) and short-term memory (STM) groups. Each of the groups was subdivided into 3 subgroups: control, untreated and NVB treated groups. After ten weeks of the surgery, all the subgroups were tested with MWM. The results of working memory test for both control and NVB treated groups revealed that escape latency time and total distance travelled were significantly lower compared to untreated group. Similarly, the maze test performance was observed to be significantly improved for control and NVB treated groups. Moreover, the probe memory test performance for control and NVB treated groups was markedly better than untreated group. Thus NVB has a significant effect on the spatial cognitive preservation in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Thus NVB can be a promising agent for the spatial cognitive functions improvement. PMID:26550122

  17. Phase separation in biology; functional organization of a higher order.

    PubMed

    Mitrea, Diana M; Kriwacki, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    Inside eukaryotic cells, macromolecules are partitioned into membrane-bounded compartments and, within these, some are further organized into non-membrane-bounded structures termed membrane-less organelles. The latter structures are comprised of heterogeneous mixtures of proteins and nucleic acids and assemble through a phase separation phenomenon similar to polymer condensation. Membrane-less organelles are dynamic structures maintained through multivalent interactions that mediate diverse biological processes, many involved in RNA metabolism. They rapidly exchange components with the cellular milieu and their properties are readily altered in response to environmental cues, often implicating membrane-less organelles in responses to stress signaling. In this review, we discuss: (1) the functional roles of membrane-less organelles, (2) unifying structural and mechanistic principles that underlie their assembly and disassembly, and (3) established and emerging methods used in structural investigations of membrane-less organelles. PMID:26727894

  18. Star-Product Functions in Higher-Spin Theory and Locality

    E-print Network

    M. A. Vasiliev

    2015-05-27

    Properties of the functional classes of star-product elements associated with higher-spin gauge fields and gauge parameters are elaborated. Cohomological interpretation of the nonlinear higher-spin equations is given. An algebra ${\\mathcal H}$, where solutions of the nonlinear higher-spin equations are valued, is found. A conjecture on the classes of star-product functions underlying (non)local maps and gauge transformations in the nonlinear higher-spin theory is proposed.

  19. Effect of Integrated Cognitive Therapy on Hippocampal Functional Connectivity Patterns in Stroke Patients with Cognitive Dysfunction: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shanli; Jiang, Cai; Ye, Haicheng; Tao, Jing; Huang, Jia; Gao, Yanling; Lin, Zhicheng; Chen, Lidian

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to identify abnormal hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) following ischemic stroke using resting-state fMRI. We also explored whether abnormal hippocampal FC could be modulated by integrated cognitive therapy and tested whether these alterations were associated with cognitive performance. Methods. 18 right-handed cognitively impaired ischemic stroke patients and 18 healty control (HC) subjects were included in this study. Stroke subjects were scanned at baseline and after integrated cognitive therapy, while HCs were only scanned at baseline, to identify regions that show significant correlations with the seed region. Behavioral and cognitive assessments were obtained before each scan. Results. During the resting state, we found abnormal hippocampal FC associated with temporal regions, insular cortex, cerebellum, and prefrontal cortex in stroke patients compared to HCs. After integrated cognitive therapy, however, the stroke group showed increased hippocampal FC mainly located in the prefrontal gyrus and the default mode network (DMN). Altered hippocampal FC was associated with cognitive improvement. Conclusion. Resting-state fMRI may provide novel insight into the study of functional networks in the brain after stroke. Furthermore, altered hippocampal FC may be a compensatory mechanism for cognitive recovery after ischemic stroke. PMID:25548595

  20. [Cognitive Function in Patients Before and After Micro-neurosurgical Resection of Frontal Brain Tumors].

    PubMed

    Eren, O E; Straube, A; Tonn, J C; Ilmberger, J; Kraft, E

    2015-11-01

    Patients with lesions of the prefrontal cortex as a result of frontal brain tumors (intra- and extra-axial) can show impairments of executive functions 1 2 3 4. Although there are a large number of psychological tests, the detection of impairments of relevant everyday executive functions in these patients is still extremely difficult. In 30 patients with lesions of the prefrontal cortex, the executive functions were tested with the Behavioral Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) and 21 patients were also followed up postoperatively. Additionally, if possible, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), a widely used executive function test, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) for general cognitive performance were conducted. Pre- and postoperatively, a total of 16 patients were followed up with all three tests. The aim was to investigate the neuropsychological assessment pre- and postoperatively, to evaluate it in terms of deficits and changes in performance and to ensure that no new relevant everyday cognitive deficits arose. Preoperatively, only one patient, who could not be tested post-surgery, showed a reduced overall profile value in the BADS.?In all tested patients, there was no evidence of deterioration of cognitive status 8?-?12 weeks postoperatively. Further investigations using fMRI should be used to clarify whether the results obtained should be interpreted as neuroplastic adaptations of prefrontal cognitive functions or as a failure to detect deficits due to a lack of sensitivity of the tests used. PMID:26633842

  1. Preventing Depressive Relapse and Recurrence in Higher Risk Cognitive Therapy Responders: A Randomized Trial of Continuation Phase Cognitive Therapy, Fluoxetine, or Matched Pill Placebo

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Robin B.; Minhajuddin, Abu; Gershenfeld, Howard; Friedman, Edward S.; Thase, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Context Strategies to improve the course of recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) have great public health relevance. To reduce the risk of relapse/recurrence after acute phase Cognitive Therapy (CT), a continuation phase model of therapy (C-CT) may improve outcomes. Objectives To test the efficacy of C-CT and fluoxetine (FLX) for relapse prevention in a placebo (PBO) controlled randomized trial and compare the durability of prophylaxis after discontinuation of treatments. Design A sequential, three stage design with: acute phase (all patients received 12 weeks of CT), 8 month experimental phase (responders at higher risk were randomized to C-CT, FLX, or PBO), and 24 months of longitudinal, post-treatment follow-up. Setting Two university-based specialty clinics. Patients 523 adults with recurrent MDD began acute phase CT, of which 241 “higher risk” responders were randomized and 181 subsequently entered the follow-up. Interventions CT responders at higher risk for relapse were randomized to receive 8 months of C-CT (n = 86), FLX (n = 86) or PBO (n = 69). Main Outcome Measures Survival analyses of relapse/recurrence rates, as determined by “blinded” evaluators using DSM-IV criteria and the LIFE interview. Results As predicted, the C-CT or FLX groups were significantly less likely to relapse than the PBO group across 8 months. Relapse/recurrence rates for C-CT and FLX were nearly identical during the 8 months of treatment, although C-CT patients were more likely to accept randomization, stayed in treatment longer, and attended more sessions than those in FLX/PBO. Contrary to prediction, relapse/recurrence rates following the discontinuation of C-CT and FLX did not differ. Conclusions Relapse risk was reduced by both C-CT and FLX in an “enriched” randomization sampling only CT responders. The preventive effects of C-CT were not significantly more ‘durable’ than those of FLX after treatment was stopped, suggesting that some higher risk patients may require alternate longer-term interventions. PMID:24005123

  2. Cognitive Test Performance in Relation to Health and Function in 12 European Countries: The SHARE Study

    PubMed Central

    Sterniczuk, Roxanne; Theou, Olga; Rusak, Benjamin; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Background Even subtle impairments on cognitive test scores can be associated with future cognitive decline and dementia. We assayed the relationships between test score impairment and adverse outcomes. Methods Secondary analyses were performed on data from non-institutionalized participants, 50+ years of age (N = 30,038), from 12 countries taking part in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) longitudinal study on aging. At baseline, participants’ cognition was tested using verbal fluency, immediate recall, and delayed recall tasks. Results Greater levels of cognitive impairment at baseline were strongly associated with future poor health outcomes and functional impairment. Controlling for age, sex and education, those with 1 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.34–1.87) or ? 2 (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 2.17–3.09) impaired tests at baseline were more likely to die after an average of 40 months compared to individuals with no impairments. After selecting for participants who reported the absence of dementia initially, those with ? 2 cognitive impairments at baseline (OR = 3.34, 95% CI = 2.27–4.92) were more likely to report dementia at follow-up compared to those with no impairment. Conclusions People with impaired cognitive test scores at baseline are at greater risk to die or develop dementia within four years than their less impaired or unimpaired counterparts. PMID:26495048

  3. Accounting for Functional Loss in Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia with Lewy Bodies: Beyond Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Joanne M.; Salmon, David P.; Raman, Rema; Hansen, Lawrence A.; Masliah, Eliezer; Peavy, Guerry M.; Galasko, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Background The relative contributions of cognitive, motor and behavioral deficits to the impairment of physical or instrumental activities of daily living (ADL) may differ in patients with Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Methods Multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify the amount of variability in physical self-maintenance and instrumental ADL ratings predicted by cognitive, motor, and behavioral indices separately for patients with autopsy-diagnosed DLB (n=39) or AD (n=39). Results Motor dysfunction accounted for significant variance in physical ADL in DLB (R2 change=0.17), whereas behavioral (R2 change=0.23) and motor dysfunction (R2 change=0.13) accounted for significant variance in AD. Motor (R2 change=0.32) and cognitive (R2 change=0.10) dysfunction accounted for significant variance in instrumental ADL in DLB, whereas cognitive (R2 change=0.36) and behavioral (R2 change=0.12) dysfunction accounted for significant variance in AD. Conclusion Cognitive, motor, and behavioral deficits contribute differently to ADL changes in DLB and AD. Thus, treatments designed to ameliorate a certain aspect of AD or DLB (e.g., cognitive dysfunction) may have a larger impact on everyday function in one disorder than the other. PMID:23850331

  4. Lactulose enhances neuroplasticity to improve cognitive function in early hepatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Nan; Liu, He; Jiang, Yao; Zheng, Ji; Li, Dong-mei; Ji, Chao; Liu, Yan-yong; Zuo, Ping-ping

    2015-01-01

    Lactulose is known to improve cognitive function in patients with early hepatic encephalopathy; however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the behavioral and neurochemical effects of lactulose in a rat model of early hepatic encephalopathy induced by carbon tetrachloride. Immunohistochemistry showed that lactulose treatment promoted neurogenesis and increased the number of neurons and astrocytes in the hippocampus. Moreover, lactulose-treated rats showed shorter escape latencies than model rats in the Morris water maze, indicating that lactulose improved the cognitive impairments caused by hepatic encephalopathy. The present findings suggest that lactulose effectively improves cognitive function by enhancing neuroplasticity in a rat model of early hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:26604907

  5. Lactulose enhances neuroplasticity to improve cognitive function in early hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Liu, He; Jiang, Yao; Zheng, Ji; Li, Dong-Mei; Ji, Chao; Liu, Yan-Yong; Zuo, Ping-Ping

    2015-09-01

    Lactulose is known to improve cognitive function in patients with early hepatic encephalopathy; however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the behavioral and neurochemical effects of lactulose in a rat model of early hepatic encephalopathy induced by carbon tetrachloride. Immunohistochemistry showed that lactulose treatment promoted neurogenesis and increased the number of neurons and astrocytes in the hippocampus. Moreover, lactulose-treated rats showed shorter escape latencies than model rats in the Morris water maze, indicating that lactulose improved the cognitive impairments caused by hepatic encephalopathy. The present findings suggest that lactulose effectively improves cognitive function by enhancing neuroplasticity in a rat model of early hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:26604907

  6. Age-related differences in white matter integrity and cognitive function are related to APOE status.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Lee; Walther, Katrin; Bendlin, Barbara B; Lue, Lih-Fen; Walker, Douglas G; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2011-01-15

    While an extensive literature is now available on age-related differences in white matter integrity measured by diffusion MRI, relatively little is known about the relationships between diffusion and cognitive functions in older adults. Even less is known about whether these relationships are influenced by the apolipoprotein (APOE) ?4 allele, despite growing evidence that ?4 increases cognitive impairment in older adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine these relationships in a group of community-dwelling cognitively normal older adults. Data were obtained from a sample of 126 individuals (ages 52-92) that included 32 ?4 heterozygotes, 6 ?4 homozygotes, and 88 noncarriers. Two measures of diffusion, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA), were obtained from six brain regions-frontal white matter, lateral parietal white matter, the centrum semiovale, the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, and the temporal stem white matter-and were used to predict composite scores of cognitive function in two domains, executive function and memory function. Results indicated that ADC and FA differed with increasing age in all six brain regions, and these differences were significantly greater for ?4 carriers compared to noncarriers. Importantly, after controlling for age, diffusion measures predicted cognitive function in a region-specific way that was also influenced by ?4 status. Regardless of APOE status, frontal ADC and FA independently predicted executive function scores for all participants, while temporal lobe ADC additionally predicted executive function for ?4 carriers but not noncarriers. Memory scores were predicted by temporal lobe ADC but not frontal diffusion for all participants, and this relationship was significantly stronger in ?4 carriers compared to noncarriers. Taken together, age and temporal lobe ADC accounted for a striking 53% of the variance in memory scores within the ?4 carrier group. The results provide further evidence that APOE ?4 has a significant impact on the trajectory of age-related cognitive functioning in older adults. Possible mechanisms are discussed that could account for the associations between ?4, diffusion, and cognitive function, including the influence of ?4 on neural repair, oxidative stress, and the health of myelin-producing oligodendroglia. PMID:20804847

  7. Higher Education Is an Age-Independent Predictor of White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Control in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Kimberly G.; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S.; Grieve, Stuart M.; Brickman, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is…

  8. Cognitive function after transapical aortic valve implantation: a single-centre study with 3-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Knipp, Stephan C.; Kahlert, Philipp; Jokisch, Daniel; Schlamann, Marc; Wendt, Daniel; Weimar, Christian; Jakob, Heinz; Thielmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Reports on adverse neurological events following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) have focused on strokes, while more subtle postoperative cognitive decline has not yet been systematically investigated. In this study, we prospectively examined neurological and cognitive outcomes in patients undergoing transapical (TA) and surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). METHODS A total of 64 patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis were investigated between January 2008 and July 2009. Clinical neurological examination and comprehensive neuropsychological testing were performed before and after the procedure, at discharge and at 3-month follow-up. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) was applied to detect morphological brain injury. RESULTS TA-TAVI patients (n = 27) were older and at higher surgical risk compared with surgical AVR patients (n = 37; mean age 82.2 ± 4.7 vs 67.5 ± 8.9 years; log EuroSCORE 36.4 ± 13.2 vs 2.6 ± 8.5%, both P <0.001). There was one stroke in each group (3.7 vs 2.7%, P = 0.49), both classified as embolic based on imaging characteristics. After TA-TAVI, cognitive tests showed no decline during follow-up, while, after AVR, 7 of 11 tests showed a decline early after surgery. Similarly, with-in patient analysis showed that the rate of individuals with clinically relevant cognitive decline was increased early after AVR (TA-TAVI vs AVR: 18 vs 46% at discharge [P = 0.03]; 28 vs 6% at 3 months [P = 0.04]). New focal ischaemic cerebral lesions were detected on DW-MRI in 58% (7 of 12) of patients after TA-TAVI vs 34% (12 of 35) after AVR (P = 0.13). The number of brain lesions per patient and cumulative embolic load per patient were similar between groups. An association between postoperative cerebral ischaemia and cognitive dysfunction was not found (odds ratio 2.37, 95% confidence interval 0.05–113.75, P = 0.66). CONCLUSIONS Cognitive function was only mildly impaired after TA-TAVI when compared with a marked, albeit transient, decline after surgical AVR. Focal embolic brain injury tended to occur more frequently after TA-TAVI, but this was not related to cognitive decline during the 3-month follow-up. PMID:23148084

  9. The emotional fundamentals of personality and the higher affective polarities of mind. Comment on "Personality from a cognitive-biological perspective" by Y. Neuman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panksepp, Jaak; Davis, Ken

    2014-12-01

    In brain-based personality theory, two things seem certain: i) the evolved functional organization of our subcortical affective mind, and ii) the diverse potentials for developmental programming of our high cognitive minds (i.e., our initially empty - tabula rasa like - neocortical spaces are largely developmentally programed to manifest higher mental abilities). In considering these two global aspects of brain-mind functions, we can be confident that primal subcortical functions (e.g., the capacity for raw emotions/affects, evident in all vertebrate species) evolved. Indeed, ancient creatures such as lamprey eels, with whom we shared ancestry 560 million years ago, still posses most neural systems that are homologous to those that constitute our own primal affective capacities [1]. Considering that primal emotional affects arise from such systems, there appears to be some remarkable continuity in our primal mental origins. The neural foundations of human emotional feelings, long neglected by academic psychology (for lack of empirical accessibility), may contain the rudimentary neuro-affective substrates of personality [2].

  10. Patterns of Spontaneous Local Network Activity in Developing Cerebral Cortex: Relationship to Adult Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Peinado, Alejandro; Abrams, Charles K.

    2015-01-01

    Detecting neurodevelop?ental disorders of cognition at the earliest possible stages could assist in understanding them mechanistically and ultimately in treating them. Finding early physiological predictors that could be visualized with functional neuroimaging would represent an important advance in this regard. We hypothesized that one potential source of physiological predictors is the spontaneous local network activity prominent during specific periods in development. To test this we used calcium imaging in brain slices and analyzed variations in the frequency and intensity of this early activity in one area, the entorhinal cortex (EC), in order to correlate early activity with level of cognitive function later in life. We focused on EC because of its known role in different types of cognitive processes and because it is an area where spontaneous activity is prominent during early postnatal development in rodent models of cortical development. Using rat strains (Long-Evans, Wistar, Sprague-Dawley and Brattleboro) known to differ in cognitive performance in adulthood we asked whether neonatal animals exhibit corresponding strain-related differences in EC spontaneous activity. Our results show significant differences in this activity between strains: compared to a high cognitive-performing strain, we consistently found an increase in frequency and decrease in intensity in neonates from three lower performing strains. Activity was most different in one strain considered a model of schizophrenia-like psychopathology. While we cannot necessarily infer a causal relationship between early activity and adult cognition our findings suggest that the pattern of spontaneous activity in development could be an early predictor of a developmental trajectory advancing toward sub-optimal cognitive performance in adulthood. Our results further suggest that the strength of dopaminergic signaling, by setting the balance between excitation and inhibition, is a potential underlying mechanism that could explain the observed differences in early spontaneous activity patterns. PMID:26098958

  11. Relationship between individual differences in speech processing and cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Ou, Jinghua; Law, Sam-Po; Fung, Roxana

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of research has suggested that cognitive abilities may play a role in individual differences in speech processing. The present study took advantage of a widespread linguistic phenomenon of sound change to systematically assess the relationships between speech processing and various components of attention and working memory in the auditory and visual modalities among typically developed Cantonese-speaking individuals. The individual variations in speech processing are captured in an ongoing sound change-tone merging in Hong Kong Cantonese, in which typically developed native speakers are reported to lose the distinctions between some tonal contrasts in perception and/or production. Three groups of participants were recruited, with a first group of good perception and production, a second group of good perception but poor production, and a third group of good production but poor perception. Our findings revealed that modality-independent abilities of attentional switching/control and working memory might contribute to individual differences in patterns of speech perception and production as well as discrimination latencies among typically developed speakers. The findings not only have the potential to generalize to speech processing in other languages, but also broaden our understanding of the omnipresent phenomenon of language change in all languages. PMID:25917143

  12. Evaluation of a Brief Survey Instrument for Assessing Subtle Differences in Cognitive Function Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kotwal, Ashwin A; Schumm, Philip; Kern, David W; McClintock, Martha K; Waite, Linda J; Shega, Joseph W; Huisingh-Scheetz, Megan J; Dale, William

    2015-01-01

    Most measures of cognitive function used in large-scale surveys of older adults have limited ability to detect subtle differences across cognitive domains, and standard clinical instruments are impractical to administer in general surveys. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) can address this need, but has limitations in a survey context. Therefore, we developed a survey adaptation of the MoCA, called the MoCA-SA, and describe its psychometric properties in a large national survey. Using a pretest sample of older adults (n=120), we reduced MoCA administration time by 26%, developed a model to accurately estimate full MoCA scores from the MoCA-SA, and tested the model in an independent clinical sample (n=93). The validated 18-item MoCA-SA was then administered to community-dwelling adults aged 62 to 91 as part of the National Social life Health and Aging Project Wave 2 sample (n=3196). In National Social life Health and Aging Project Wave 2, the MoCA-SA had good internal reliability (Cronbach ?=0.76). Using item-response models, survey-adapted items captured a broad range of cognitive abilities and functioned similarly across sex, education, and ethnic groups. Results demonstrate that the MoCA-SA can be administered reliably in a survey setting while preserving sensitivity to a broad range of cognitive abilities and similar performance across demographic subgroups. PMID:25390883

  13. Association between toxocariasis and cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Lance D; Gale, Shawn D; Berrett, Andrew; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-01-01

    The ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782) and Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788) may infect humans resulting in toxocariasis. A prior study associated species of Toxocara Stiles, 1905 with cognitive deficits in children. To determine if a similar association between toxocariasis and cognition exists in adults, we analysed a large dataset from the United States' Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used linear-regression and multivariate models to examine the association between toxocariasis as assessed by the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies and three measures of cognitive function - simple reaction time (SRT), symbol-digit substitution (SDS) and serial-digit learning (SDL) in 4 279 adults aged 21 to 59 years. Toxocara seroprevalence did not vary with age or blood-lead concentration but did vary with gender, ethnicity, educational attainment and poverty-to-income ratio. Controlling for gender, age, blood-lead concentration, educational attainment, ethnic background and the poverty-to-income ratio, we found that toxocariasis predicted worse performance on the SDS but not on the SRT or the SDL. Moreover, there were significant interactions between toxocariasis and age, gender and educational attainment. In conclusion, toxocariasis appears to be associated with decreased cognitive function. Interactions between toxocariasis and gender, age and educational attainment further suggest that certain groups may be more susceptible than others to the cognitive dysfunction associated with toxocariasis in adults. PMID:26374832

  14. Correlation between Frailty and Cognitive Function in Non-Demented Community Dwelling Older Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun; Park, Jun Li; Hwang, Hwan Sik

    2014-01-01

    Background Frailty and cognitive impairment are considered the most common and yet least understood conditions in older adults. This study was conducted to investigate the correlation between frailty and cognitive function in non-demented older Koreans. Methods Korean Mini-Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE) scores and Cardiovascular Health Study Frailty Indices were obtained for 486 older adults aged 65 and over who registered at six senior welfare centers in Seoul and Gyeonggi province. Multiple linear regression was performed to identify the association between frailty and K-MMSE scores. Results Of the 486 older adults, 206 (42.4%) were robust, 244 (50.2%) were prefrail, and 36 (7.4%) were frail. Prevalence of cognitive impairment (K-MMSE ? 23) was 6.3% in the robust group, 16.8% in the prefrail group, and 30.6% in the frail group (P < 0.001), and mean K-MMSE score was 27.5 ± 2.2, 26.5 ± 3.1, and 23.7 ± 5.3, respectively (P < 0.001). Frailty tended to be associated with lower MMSE scores (B = -1.92, standard error, 0.52; P < 0.001). Conclusion Frailty was found to be correlated with cognitive impairment in non-demented older Koreans. However, further cohort studies are required to determine the association between frailty and cognitive function. PMID:25426279

  15. Relocation at older age: results from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A. Matthew; Barnes, Linda E.; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background Community environment might play an important role in supporting ageing in place. This paper aims to explore relocation at older age and its associations with individual and community level factors. Methods The postcodes of the 2424 people in the year-10 interview of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS) in England were mapped onto Enumeration Districts and linked to their corresponding Townsend deprivation score and the 2011 rural/urban categories. Multilevel logistic regression was conducted to examine the influence of the baseline individual (age, gender, education and social class) and community (rural/urban categories and area deprivation) level factors on relocation over 10 years. Results One-third of people moved residence after the age of 65 years and over. Older age, low education, low social class and living in rural areas at baseline were associated with higher probability of moving later in life. The likelihood of relocation in later life increased from least to most deprived areas (odds ratio: 2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 2.8). Conclusions Urban/rural contexts and area deprivation are associated with relocation at older age and indicate that community environment may be relevant to ageing in place. PMID:25922369

  16. Brain structural, functional, and cognitive correlates of recent versus remote autobiographical memories in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Tomadesso, Clémence; Perrotin, Audrey; Mutlu, Justine; Mézenge, Florence; Landeau, Brigitte; Egret, Stéphanie; de la Sayette, Vincent; Jonin, Pierre-Yves; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Chételat, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in autobiographical memory appear earlier for recent than for remote life periods over the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study aims to further our understanding of this graded effect by investigating the cognitive and neural substrates of recent versus remote autobiographical memories in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) thanks to an autobiographical fluency task. 20 aMCI patients and 25 Healthy elderly Controls (HC) underwent neuropsychological tests assessing remote (20-to-30 years old) and recent (the ten last years) autobiographical memory as well as episodic and semantic memory, executive function and global cognition. All patients also had a structural MRI and an FDG-PET scan. Correlations were assessed between each autobiographical memory score and the other tests as well as grey matter volume and metabolism. Within the aMCI, performances for the remote period correlated with personal semantic memory and episodic memory retrieval whereas performances for the recent period only correlated with episodic memory retrieval. Neuroimaging analyses revealed significant correlations between performances for the remote period and temporal pole and temporo-parietal cortex volumes and anterior cingulate gyrus metabolism, while performances for the recent period correlated with hippocampal volume and posterior cingulate, medial prefrontal and hippocampus metabolism. The brain regions related with the retrieval of events from the recent period showed greater atrophy/hypometabolism in aMCI patients compared to HC than those involved in remote memories. Recall of recent memories essentially relies on episodic memory processes and brain network while remote memories also involve other processes such as semantic memory. This is consistent with the semanticization of memories with time and may explain the better resistance of remote memory in AD. PMID:26106572

  17. Cognitive Functioning and Family Risk Factors in Relation to Symptom Behaviors of ADHD and ODD in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forssman, Linda; Eninger, Lilianne; Tillman, Carin M.; Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the authors investigated whether ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors share associations with problems in cognitive functioning and/or family risk factors in adolescence. This was done by examining independent as well as specific associations of cognitive functioning and family risk factors with ADHD and…

  18. CRCC Technical Report #67 Scale-Degree Function: Cognition Research and Its Application to Aural-Skills Pedagogy

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    CRCC Technical Report #67 Scale-Degree Function: Cognition Research and Its Application to Aural-Skills Pedagogy [CRCC Technical Report 1#67, revised Tuesday, November 3, 1992) Scale-Degree Function: Cognition Research and Its Application to Aural-Skills Pedagogy CRCC Technical Report #67 Steve Larson Center

  19. VITAMIN B6, B12 AND FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED TRIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from re...

  20. HETEROGENEITY AND LACK OF GOOD QUALITY STUDIES LIMIT ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FOLATE, VITAMIN B-6 AND B-12, AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from rev...

  1. Genetic Influences on Cognitive Function Using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Jamie J.; MacGregor, Alex J.; Cherkas, Lynn F.; Spector, Tim D.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic relationship between intelligence and components of cognition remains controversial. Conflicting results may be a function of the limited number of methods used in experimental evaluation. The current study is the first to use CANTAB (The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery). This is a battery of validated computerised…

  2. Relationship of nutritional risk, Body Mass Index (BMI), and cognitive functioning in preschoolers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To determine the relationships, if any, between nutritional risk, BMI z-score, and cognitive function in preschoolers. Background: Excessive adipose tissue found in obesity places children at increased health risk. Considerable research has documented that obesity leads to increased ri...

  3. Cognitive consonance: complex brain functions in the fruit fly and its relatives

    E-print Network

    Cognitive consonance: complex brain functions in the fruit fly and its relatives Ralph J. Greenspan The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has become a model for the study of a growing number of human of their arachnid relatives, as well as specific probing of the capabilities of fruit flies, suggests that even

  4. Number Magnitude Processing and Basic Cognitive Functions in Children with Mathematical Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Ulf; Ostergren, Rickard

    2012-01-01

    The study sought out to extend our knowledge regarding the origin of mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) in children by testing different hypotheses in the same samples of children. Different aspects of cognitive functions and number processing were assessed in fifth- and sixth-graders (11-13 years old) with MLD and compared to controls. The…

  5. Assessment of Differential Item Functioning under Cognitive Diagnosis Models: The DINA Model Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaomin; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of differential item functioning (DIF) is routinely conducted to ensure test fairness and validity. Although many DIF assessment methods have been developed in the context of classical test theory and item response theory, they are not applicable for cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs), as the underlying latent attributes of CDMs are…

  6. Cognitive Functioning and the Probability of Falls among Seniors in Havana, Cuba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Antonio J.; Hyder, Adnan A.; Steinhardt, Laura C.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the connection between cognitive functioning and falls among seniors (greater than or equal to 60 years of age) in Havana, Cuba, after controlling for observable characteristics. Using the SABE (Salud, Bienestar, and Envejecimiento) cross-sectional database, we used an econometric strategy that takes advantage of available…

  7. Examination of Cognitive and Instrumental Functional Performance as Indicators for Driving Cessation Risk across 3 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Michelle L.; Edwards, Jerri D.; Ross, Lesley A.; Ball, Karlene K.; Lunsman, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the role of cognitive and instrumental functional performance in driving cessation while simultaneously accounting for any contributions of demographics, vision, physical performance, and health among a sample of older adults without dementia. Design and Methods: Included in the…

  8. Concurrent and Longitudinal Relations between Children's Sleep and Cognitive Functioning: The Moderating Role of Parent Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keller, Peggy S.; Kelly, Ryan J.

    2009-01-01

    Relations between children's sleep and cognitive functioning were examined over 2 years, and race and socioeconomic status were assessed as moderators of effects. Third-grade African American and European American children (N = 166; M = 8.72 years) participated at Time 1 and again 2 years later (N = 132). At both Time 1 and Time 2, sleep was…

  9. Functional Analysis of Genes Implicated in Down Syndrome: 1. Cognitive Abilities in Mice Transpolygenic for Down

    E-print Network

    Smith, Desmond J.

    Functional Analysis of Genes Implicated in Down Syndrome: 1. Cognitive Abilities in Mice Transpolygenic for Down Syndrome Chromosomal Region-1 (DCR-1) Caroline Chabert,1,5 Marc Jamon,2 Ameziane Cherfouh Oct. 2002--Accepted 20 April 2004 Down syndrome occurs every 1/1000 births and is the most frequent

  10. Distinguishing Sluggish Cognitive Tempo from ADHD in Children and Adolescents: Executive Functioning, Impairment, and Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.

    2013-01-01

    Controversy continues as to whether sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is a subtype of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or a distinct disorder. This study examined differences between these disorders in demographics, executive functioning (EF), impairment, and prior professional diagnoses to address the issue. There were 1,800 children…

  11. A Mechanistic Account of Striatal Dopamine Function in Human Cognition: Psychopharmacological Studies With Cabergoline

    E-print Network

    O'Reilly, Randall C.

    A Mechanistic Account of Striatal Dopamine Function in Human Cognition: Psychopharmacological, psychopharmacology The basal ganglia (BG) participate in various aspects of cogni- tion and behavior by interacting, 2005; J. O. Rinne et al., 2000). Psychopharmacological studies that transiently manipulate the DA

  12. Parental Family Stress during Pregnancy and Cognitive Functioning in Early Childhood: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrichs, Jens; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Kok, Rianne; Ftitache, Bouchra; Schmidt, Henk G.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether parental family stress during pregnancy is associated with cognitive functioning in early childhood in a population-based cohort (n = 3139). Family stress was assessed using the Family Assessment Device at the 20th week of pregnancy and was reported by mothers and fathers. Mothers completed the MacArthur Communicative…

  13. Developmental Changes in Cognitive and Behavioural Functioning of Adolescents with Fragile-X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frolli, A.; Piscopo, S.; Conson, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individuals with fragile-X syndrome exhibit developmental delay, hyperexcitation and social anxiety; they also show lack of attention and hyperactivity. Few studies have investigated whether levels of functioning change with increasing age. Here, we explored developmental changes across adolescence in the cognitive and behavioural…

  14. Body iron is associated with cognitive executive planning function in college women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence of the relationship between altered cognitive function and depleted Fe status is accumulating in women of reproductive age but the degree of Fe deficiency associated with negative neuropsychological outcomes needs to be delineated. Data are limited regarding this relationship in university ...

  15. Subtle neurological signs predict the severity of subacute cognitive and functional impairments after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wortzel, Hal S; Frey, Kimberly L; Anderson, C Alan; Arciniegas, David B

    2009-01-01

    The presence of paratonia and primitive reflexes ("frontal release signs"), such as glabellar, snout, suck, grasp, and palmomental responses, after traumatic brain injury predicts performance on bedside cognitive assessments, level of functional independence, and duration of acute inpatient rehabilitation. PMID:19996256

  16. Executive Cognitive Functions and Impulsivity as Correlates of Risk Taking and Problem Behavior in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura; Giannetta, Joan M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Farah, Martha; Hurt, Hallam

    2009-01-01

    Initiation of drug use and other risky behavior in preadolescence is associated with poor developmental outcomes. In this research, we examine models that ascribe the trajectory to (a) weak executive cognitive function (ECF), (b) early manifestation of externalizing problems, or (c) heightened levels of trait impulsivity. We test the explanatory…

  17. Tracing Differential Pathways of Risk: Associations among Family Adversity, Cortisol, and Cognitive Functioning in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suor, Jennifer H.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Manning, Liviah G.

    2015-01-01

    Guided by family risk and allostasis theoretical frameworks, the present study utilized a prospective longitudinal design to examine associations among family risk experiences, basal cortisol patterns, and cognitive functioning in children. The sample included 201 low-income children living within a midsize city in the Northeastern United States.…

  18. Non-mnestic Cognitive Function in the Scopolamine Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    E-print Network

    Crawford, John R.

    Non-mnestic Cognitive Function in the Scopolamine Model of Alzheimer's Disease MARC C. OBONSAWIN1 with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) was investigated. Scopolamine (0.5 mg) was administered & Sons, Ltd. KEY WORDS Ð scopolamine; muscarinic blockade; senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type; Fuld

  19. Cognitive Declines Precede and Predict Functional Declines in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease

    E-print Network

    Cognitive Declines Precede and Predict Functional Declines in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Laura B of Neurology and Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, Columbia University with or without Alzheimer's disease (AD). Design and Setting: A community-based longitudinal study of aging

  20. Performance of a computer-based assessment of cognitive function measures in two cohorts of seniors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Computer-administered assessment of cognitive function is being increasingly incorporated in clinical trials, however its performance in these settings has not been systematically evaluated. The Seniors Health and Activity Research Program (SHARP) pilot trial (N=73) developed a computer-based tool f...

  1. School Readiness: Integrating Cognition and Emotion in a Neurobiological Conceptualization of Children's Functioning at School Entry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Clancy

    2002-01-01

    Examines the construct of emotionality, developmental relations between cognition and emotion, and neural plasticity and frontal cortical functioning. Proposes a developmental neurobiological model of self-regulation skills development, noting implications for children's school readiness. Suggests direct links among emotionality, use-dependent…

  2. The Cognitive Neuroscience Toolkit for the Neuroeconomist: A Functional Overview

    E-print Network

    Kable, Joe

    against this goal of converging evidence, human neuroscience studies in neuroeconomics currently rely far). Keywords: neuroeconomics, methods, functional MRI, lesion studies, noninvasive brain stimulation A challenge to doing research in interdisciplin- ary fields like neuroeconomics is becoming skilled

  3. Association between functional performance and executive cognitive functions in an elderly population including patients with low ankle–brachial index

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Naomi Vidal; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; da Costa, Danielle Irigoyen; dos Santos, Fernando; Costa, Fernando Oliveira; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral arterial disease, as measured by the ankle–brachial index (ABI), is prevalent among the elderly, and is associated with functional performance, assessed by the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Executive cognitive function (ECF) impairments are also prevalent in this population, but no existing study has investigated the association between ECF and functional performance in an elderly population including individuals with low ABI. Aim To investigate the association between functional performance, as measured by the 6MWT, and loss in ECF, in an elderly sample including individuals with low ABI. Method The ABI group was formed by 26 elderly individuals with low ABI (mean ABI: 0.63±0.19), and the control group was formed by 40 elderly individuals with normal ABI (mean ABI: 1.08±0.07). We analyzed functional performance using the 6MWT, global cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and ECF using the Digit Span for assessing attention span and working memory, the Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT) for assessing information processing speed and inhibitory control/impulsivity, and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) for assessing semantic verbal fluency and phonemic verbal fluency. We also used a factor analysis on all of the ECF tests (global ECF). Results Before adjustment, the ABI group performed worse on global cognition, attention span, working memory, inhibitory control/impulsivity, semantic verbal fluency, and phonemic verbal fluency. After adjustment, the ABI group performance remained worse for working memory and semantic verbal fluency. In a simple correlation analysis including all of the subjects, the 6MWT was associated with global cognition, attention span, working memory, information processing speed, inhibitory control/impulsivity, semantic verbal fluency, and global ECF. After adjustment, all the associations remained statistically significant. Conclusion This study found an independent association between functional performance and ECF in an elderly population including low ABI individuals, showing that, in elderly populations with functional impairment, ECF may also be impaired. PMID:26005338

  4. Investigation of Higher Brain Functions in Music Composition Using Models of the Cortex Based on Physical System Analogies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Xiaodan

    The trion model was developed using the Mountcastle organizational principle for the column as the basic neuronal network in the cortex and the physical system analogy of Fisher's ANNNI spin model. An essential feature is that it is highly structured in time and in spatial connections. Simulations of a network of trions have shown that large numbers of quasi-stable, periodic spatial-temporal firing patterns can be excited. Characteristics of these patterns include the quality of being readily enhanced by only a small change in connection strengths, and that the patterns evolve in certain natural sequences from one to another. With only somewhat different parameters than used for studying memory and pattern recognition, much more flowing and intriguing patterns emerged from the simulations. The results were striking when these probabilistic evolutions were mapped onto pitches and instruments to produce music: For example different simple mappings of the same evolution give music having the "flavor" of a minuet, a waltz, folk music, or styles of specific periods. A theme can be learned so that evolutions have this theme and its variations reoccurring more often. That the trion model is a viable model for the coding of musical structure in human composition and perception is suggested. It is further proposed that model is relevant for examining creativity in the higher cognitive functions of mathematics and chess, which are similar to music. An even higher level of cortical organization was modeled by coupling together several trion networks. Further, one of the crucial features of higher brain function, especially in music composition or appreciation, is the role of emotion and mood as controlled by the many neuromodulators or neuropeptides. The MILA model whose underlying basis is zero-level representation of Kac-Moody algebra is used to modulate periodically the firing threshold of each network. Our preliminary results show that the introduction of "neuromodulation" into the dynamics of a few coupled trion networks greatly enhanced the richness of the music. Neuromodulation plays a very important role in cognitive processes. I discuss many aspects of cognitive processes such as, leaning and memory, innervation of cortical functions and coordination between music and emotions. The implications of my work are discussed.

  5. Cognitive function, insulin-dependent diabetes and hypoglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Sachon, C; Grimaldi, A; Digy, J P; Pillon, B; Dubois, B; Thervet, F

    1992-05-01

    A series of seven psychometric tests, to evaluate mental concentration and the ability to retain selective attention, lexical fluency, wordlist memorizing and psychomotor speed, was perfor