Science.gov

Sample records for highly educated women

  1. Disparities in HPV and Cervical Cancer Screening between Highly Educated White and Minority Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennefield, Zinobia C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research has been conducted to determine the impact that education has on health behaviors; specifically, comparisons between highly educated and less educated groups. However, little research has been done on the racial variation among highly educated women. Purpose: This research examined the racial variation in the relationship…

  2. How High School Students View Women: The Relationship between Perceived Attractiveness, Occupation, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanier, Hope B.; Byrne, Joan

    1981-01-01

    High school students rated women for attractiveness, occupation, and educational background. A positive correlation was found between women perceived to have taken traditionally masculine courses, those perceived to be in careers generally viewed as masculine, and those perceived as physically attractive. (Author/ST)

  3. Women's Education in the WEA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarlett, Chris; Reed, Nicky; Winner, Annie

    2000-01-01

    Sketches the history of women's education in Britain's Workers Educational Association, leading to the establishment of the Women's Education Committee in 1993. Outlines questions for the future of working women in labor education. (SK)

  4. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifer, Alan

    Women have traditionally been discriminated against in higher education in both the attainment of degrees and in employment after earning degrees. It has been felt that women are not as capable, reliable, or effective as men in administrative and classroom situations. Statistics show that even at the present time women are underemployed and…

  5. How High the Sky? How Far the Moon? Women Scientists Today - An Educational Program for Girls and Women in Math and Science, Lafayette, Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Sharon L.

    This packet of resource materials contains four sections: curriculum activities, a career guide for women, a role models list, and an annotated bibliography. These materials deal with women in science and mathematics and cover primary through high school educational levels. Skill Activities are outlined for use at various (K-12) levels which were…

  6. Women Art Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Enid, Ed.; Stankiewicz, Mary Ann, Ed.

    This collection of papers on women art educators reveals the variety of roles played by those women, from anonymous art teachers to leaders in their profession. "Mary Rouse: A Remembrance" (G. Hubbard) is a personal perspective on Rouse, the development of her career, and her considerable impact in the field of art education. "The Search for Mrs.…

  7. Women -- education and empowerment.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    The International Forum on Intercultural Exchange 1996, held November 20-22 in Tokyo, had as its central theme "women's education, learning, and empowerment." The conference was organized by the National Women's Education Center (NWEC); 120 participants attended. The director of the Training Division of JOICFP, Aiko Iijima, presented a case study of the JOICFP project in Nepal. The mortality rate in Nepal is approximately 1500 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births, one of the world's highest. Trained birth attendants are present at only 6% of deliveries. Daughters, who often receive less nutrition, education, and health care than sons, are pressured to marry at a young age; the subsequent early pregnancies increase their risk of maternal mortality. Illegal abortions also increase the risk of maternal mortality. Iijima presented a JOICFP video, "Adolescent Women -- Voices Unheard." Dr. Kajsa Sundstrom, obstetrician and gynecologist, coordinator of "Q Web Sweden: Women's Empowerment Base, Sweden," and the main speaker at the forum, spoke about women's health from a historical and cross-cultural view. According to Dr. Sundstrom, almost 600,000 women die annually due to pregnancy or childbirth, and 99% of maternal mortality occurred in developing countries. Women's health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asian countries, she said, is equivalent to that in Sweden 100 years ago, before education, women's empowerment, sex education, contraception, and legal abortions produced one of the best maternal and child health levels in the world. PMID:12292052

  8. Continuing Education of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Education Association of U.S.A., Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography of about 150 items on women's continuing education begins with descriptions of a newsletter and three bibliographies, followed by documents on sex differences in ability, achievement, and role perception. Four other sections cover employment related interests and needs, women's participation in programs by universities…

  9. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Sheryl, Ed.; Shaver, Barbara, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Articles on women's studies and females in higher education are presented in this publication. A University of North Dakota project that sought to promote the integration of new research and scholarship results into the curriculum is described in "Women's Equity Committee Offers a Model Project," (Leola Furman, Robert Young). Historical…

  10. Financial Literacy Education for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarecke, Jodi; Taylor, Edward W.; Hira, Tahira K.

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the pedagogical approaches of four women's financial literacy education programs, this chapter provides an overview of trends and needs in financial education for women and offers pedagogical strategies for teaching women about finance.

  11. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furniss, W. Todd, Ed.; Graham, Patricia Albjerg, Ed.

    The analyses and suggestions of 38 leaders in education, feminism, foundations, law, and government are collected to set contexts for decisions facing colleges and universities concerning those students, faculty members, and administrators who are women. Among the issues are affirmative action, academic programs, accountability, equality, and…

  12. Reflections on having children in the future—interviews with highly educated women and men without children

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Carola; Larsson, Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a trend to delay birth of the first child until the age at which female reproductive capacity has started to decrease. The aim of the present study was to explore how highly educated women and men reflected on future parenthood. Methods Twenty-two women and 18 men, who had started their professional career, were subjected to individual qualitative semi-structured interviews with qualitative content analysis guiding the analysis. Results All informants, except for three women, planned to have children when some important prerequisites were fulfilled. Women and men reflected in much the same way, and prerequisites for parenthood were being of reasonable age and having a partner in the same phase of life. A reasonable age was considered in relation to reproductive capacity, and both women and men expressed awareness of the natural decline in fertility at higher ages. Good living conditions with stable finances were also important. Parenthood was perceived as a challenge and a sacrifice but also as enriching life. Reasons for having children included being part of the future and settling down to build their own family. Many concluded that there would never be a perfect time for having children. Conclusion Highly educated women and men reflect on various factors when considering family planning. Being of reasonable age and having good living conditions, in particular a sound personal economy, were important. Given their goals, it is not surprising that many postpone parenthood until ages when female reproductive capacity is decreased. PMID:22300332

  13. Educating Welfare Women in College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Caroline Marie

    The importance of higher education for women on welfare, the needs of welfare women in college, and college services provided to this population are discussed, along with model college programs, and policy implications for local, state, and federal programs. It is proposed that single-parent women on welfare have access to higher education so they…

  14. WOMEN'S NEEDS IN CONTINUING EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PACE, LOIS W.

    THIS STUDY SOUGHT TO DETERMINE HOW WOMEN'S FELT NEEDS FOR EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES RELATE TO EMPLOYMENT OUTSIDE THE HOME, STAGE IN THE FAMILY LIFE CYCLE, AND LEVEL OF EDUCATION. WOMEN RANDOMLY SELECTED IN LIVINGSTON COUNTY, MISSOURI, WERE SENT A QUESTIONNAIRE ON PERCEIVED EDUCATIONAL NEEDS, PREFERRED MEANS OF RECEIVING INFORMATION, AND PERSONAL…

  15. Reflections on fertility and postponed parenthood—interviews with highly educated women and men without children in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Carola; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta; Tydén, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Background Different reasons influence the current low birth-rate and the postponement of the birth of the first child throughout Europe. The aim of this study was to explore how highly educated women and men in Sweden reflect on fertility and postponed parenthood. Methods We interviewed women (n = 22) and men (n = 18) who had started their professional careers and still had no children. Data were analysed with qualitative content analysis. Results Fertility was perceived as an unconsidered capacity, sometimes unpredictable, and different for women and men, but nevertheless taken for granted. The participants were of the opinion that fertility could be restored by assisted reproductive technologies or replaced by alternatives to a biological child. Postponed parenthood was described as an adaptation to societal changes and current discourses about parenthood as well as a consequence of a contemporary lifestyle with many competing priorities. Conclusion Highly educated young women and men in contemporary Sweden have competing priorities when planning and setting goals for their lives, and having children is one of them. They describe fertility as an imperceptible and retrievable capacity and postponed parenthood as a rational adaptation to changes in society. These findings suggest that increased information about the limitations of human reproduction is needed, but also that societal support for younger parents is of utmost importance. PMID:23305524

  16. Women in Higher Education, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenniger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The 12 issues of this newsletter focus on issues concerned with women students, faculty, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news items, and profiles of significant people. The issues' main articles address: women in athletics; leadership development for women; the first year in academic administration;…

  17. Women's Voices in Experiential Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Karen, Ed.

    This book is a collection of feminist analyses of various topics in experiential education, particularly as it applies to outdoors and adventure education, as well as practical examples of how women's experiences can contribute to the field as a whole. Following an introduction, "The Quilt of Women's Voices" (Maya Angelou), the 25 chapters are:…

  18. Women and Education. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane S., Ed.; McLaren, Arlene Tigar, Ed.

    This collection of studies argues that education cannot be understood unless it is examined from a gendered perspective. This overview of women and education, which emphasizes the Canadian experience, explores questions raised by female educational experiences to introduce new ways of thinking about education in general. The feminist perspective…

  19. Pioneer Women Educators: Challenges and Contributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, C. L.

    This paper outlines the educational history of women in the United States and focuses on three women educators from the nineteenth century: Emma Willard, Catherine Beecher, and Mary Lyon. The paper considers their contributions to teaching and teacher education--all of these women founded schools to educate women. While these women paved the way…

  20. Women Learning: Ideas, Approaches & Practical Support. A Handbook for Women's Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester (England).

    This handbook is designed for use by anyone involved in providing educational or training opportunities for women. Chapter 1 discusses the outcome of women's education and use of this handbook. Chapters 2-6 make general suggestions about various issues around the provision of high quality, relevant, and responsive education and training for women.…

  1. Women in Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mary L.

    Perhaps the most significant challenge of the 1970's will be the effect the women's rights movement will have on the nation's established institutions and the extent to which the nation responds to the call of women for equal opportunities. Social pressures and expectations have been, until recently, such that women simply have not opted for jobs…

  2. Women in Higher Education Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).

    This volume contains 11 papers on the under-representation of women in higher education management in Bahrain, Finland, France, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, the United States and Canada, the South Pacific and the West Indies. All papers were written by women vice-chancellors, presidents and senior managers of universities in those…

  3. World Religions, Women and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Ursula

    1987-01-01

    Examines religious traditions--Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Islam, and Western Christianity--to see how women were taught and what knowledge was transmitted to them. Notes that women have always had some access to religious knowledge in informal ways but were excluded from formal education once sacred knowledge became transmitted in an…

  4. Writing for Women: Civic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    Nearly 360 million women who live in the countries of Asia and the Pacific are illiterate. In this region, and in much of the world, women have restricted access to education, and are the victims of economic, social, and political marginalization. In recent years, governments have become increasingly aware that the inferior position assigned to…

  5. Women in Higher Education, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenniger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the issues of a 1996 newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main articles concern: (1) a successful campaign to increase female…

  6. Women in Higher Education, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenninger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This document consists of the 12 monthly issues of a newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education, issued in 1994. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main article topics are: (1) campuses's changing…

  7. Bilingual Women in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusef, Pratima

    1991-01-01

    Successful initiatives for minority women depend on creation of an institutional ethos that supports change, adequate staff training, flexibility in scheduling and curricula, and recognition of the value of adult students' experiences. (SK)

  8. Women and Education. Equity or Equality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennema, Elizabeth, Ed.; Ayer, M. Jane, Ed.

    Suitable for use in postsecondary courses in women's studies, curriculum theory, educational policy, or introductory educational administration, this book presents current scholarship on educational goals for women as well as the role and position of women in education. Twelve essays are presented in separate chapters. Chapter 1, an introduction…

  9. Women and Education: Progress and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Margaret B.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the status of women's education throughout the world. Describes an increased access to education, progress through legislation, and women's studies. Emphasizes the concentration of women in education in the lower grades and teaching roles rather than in higher education or top administrative levels. Addresses problems such as sex role,…

  10. Women-Only (Homophilous) Networks Supporting Women Leaders in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to consider what all-women networks have, and might offer, in terms of support and development of women in educational leadership. Design/methodology/approach: The study draws on two case studies of such networks in education in England, the first, a regional network for women secondary school principals, and the other…

  11. Women, Education, and the Professions in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard-Merriam, Kathleen

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the 1952 Egyptian revolutionary regime's expansion of women's education, with particular reference to the expansion of higher education opportunities for women; its effect on employment opportunities for women; and its impact on women's participation in the professional sector of the economy. (KC)

  12. Women's Higher Education in Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gail P., Ed.; Slaughter, Sheila, Ed.

    This book presents a collection of essays on the effect of national policies and practices on women's access to higher education, the type of courses in which women are enrolled, women's roles as academics, and how the outcomes of higher education affect women in the academic workforce and the economy. Various countries are represented in the…

  13. Romani Women and Popular Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flecha, Ainhoa; Oliver, Esther

    2004-01-01

    The Romani community has traditionally been excluded from many spaces of participation, in many cases within the labour market and education. In this article, the authors analyse the situation of the Romani community, focusing especially on the reality of Romi who have been the catalysts of profound change for themselves as women and their…

  14. The Report Card on Educating Hispanic Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, Elvira Valenzuela

    1982-01-01

    Hispanic women earn less, own fewer businesses, and are less represented in politics than almost any other population segment, and their history of low educational attainment is a key factor for each of these realities. In 1981, while 69% of the total population completed four or more years of high school, only 42% of the Hispanic females reached…

  15. Women Education in Nigeria: Predicaments and Hopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akubuilo, Francis; Omeje, Monica

    2012-10-01

    This paper is focused on women education in Nigeria. It traces the genesis of western education in Nigeria and bias that existed from the traditional Nigerian society against women education. It identified and discussed barriers to women education in Nigeria. Recent trend in enrolment at various levels of education shows improvement in favor of women. In view of this realization, this paper argues that if the current momentum is sustained, women will not only achieve equal status to men in educational attainment but also have the tendency to surpass men within the next ten to fifteen years. The implications could be outreaching as the paper proffers some recommendations.

  16. Alternate Trajectories: Women Moving into Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toney, Allison F.

    2014-01-01

    While only about one-third of each year's doctoral graduates in mathematics are women, about two-thirds of the doctoral graduates in mathematics education are women. This article reports on the results of a qualitative investigation into the nature of the graduate school-related experiences of women in collegiate mathematics education doctoral…

  17. Federal Funds: Women's Educational Equity Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Charlotte

    1977-01-01

    Model programs funded under the Women's Educational Equity Act (WEEA) and administered by the Office of Education Women's Program staff are intended to reach girls and women from low-income and middle-age groups those from American-Indian, Asian- and Pacific-American, black, and Spanish-speaking backgrounds, and those from rural, urban, and…

  18. Unwritten: Young Women Faculty in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Whitney H.; Beaty, Danna M.; Crum, Karen S.; Peters, April

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: As women professors of educational leadership who are involved with feminist research and the preparation of k-12 women leaders, the authors came to the realization that while they have dedicated their professional lives to advancing women leaders in the k-12 environment, they have neglected women like themselves, particularly young…

  19. Affirmative Action and Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazzard, Terry

    The purposes of this paper are to: (1) discuss the historical development of women in higher education; (2) describe the implementation of federal policies for women; (3) focus on selected problems encountered by women in the work-place; and (4) offer recommendations and suggestions for eliminating some of the problems that women encounter. The…

  20. Women, Education and the Law: Defining the "High Qualified" Teacher--No Child Left Behind's Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    First, Patricia F.

    2003-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) provided that by the end of the 2005-06 school year, all teachers in core content areas, teaching in public schools, must be "highly qualified" in each subject they teach. Under the law, "highly qualified" means that a teacher is fully licensed through a traditional or alternative route and has demonstrated…

  1. Why Have Educational Disparities in Mortality Increased among White Women in the United States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Zajacova, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s differences in mortality risk across education levels have widened considerably among non-Hispanic white women. For example, while mortality has "declined" among college-educated women, it has remained fairly "stable" among women with a high school credential or some college education and "increased" among women without a high…

  2. The Dangers of Educated Girls and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Vaughn M.

    2016-01-01

    Why do educated girls and women constitute a danger in some societies and for this face extreme danger in their educational endeavours? This article argues that historical and contemporary educational discrimination of girls and women is the hallmark of a violently patriarchal society, and this stubborn injustice is exacerbated under conditions of…

  3. In the Company of Educated Women: A History of Women and Higher Education in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Barbara Miller

    The social, cultural, and economic circumstances that have shaped the development of women's higher education are discussed. After considering colonial America when women were outsiders to liberal arts institutions, the creation of women's and co-educational colleges is traced and the process by which women of different ethnic, racial, religious,…

  4. Excluding Women from the Educational Realm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jane Roland

    1982-01-01

    Martin examines the exclusion of women from philosophy of education both as subjects who have written about education and as objects of educational study and thought. She traces this exclusion from a misunderstanding of Plato, Rousseau, and Pestalozzi and builds a critique of the concepts of education, liberal education, and teaching. (Author/SK)

  5. Asian-American Women in Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Provides information on the immigration history, education, income, and occupation representation in the social sciences and cultural and language barriers of Asian American women educational researchers. Includes recommendations to facilitate their entry into the social sciences in general. (MJL)

  6. Women in Higher Education: Empowering Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGeorgio-Lutz, JoAnn, Ed.

    The essays in this collection discuss the position of women in higher education, noting the progress that women have made in recent years in the quest to achieve gender equality and the challenges women still face in study and academic careers. The chapters are: (1) "Expanding the Academic Knowledge Base: Helping Students To Cross Gender's Great…

  7. Status of Professional Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manicur, Alice R.

    The author presents an historical and cultural analysis of the place of women in society. It is stated that historically women have had to assume an aggressive role to become educated. In addition, as far back as the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, one finds records which indicate that women had to seek opportunities to study and to learn.…

  8. Incidental Education (for Women) in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Valmai

    The Country Women's Association (CWA) is a nationwide Australian group that started in the 1920s in response to isolated women's need to socialize. The group's activities have expanded greatly over time. It distributes essential food and clothing to needy rural families, and its extensive involvement in incidental education for women includes…

  9. Glass Ceiling for Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schedler, Petra; Glastra, Folke; Hake, Barry

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the place of women in higher education in the Netherlands. Suggests that it is not a question of numbers but of orientation, field, and the glass ceiling. Asserts that despite some improvement, higher education may be one of the last bastions against the recognition of women's worth. (Contains 42 references.) (JOW)

  10. Women, Education and Work in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anugwom, Edlyne E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the implication of the growing educational opportunities for women in Nigeria. Although bias has existed from the traditional Nigerian society against women, recent events especially in education reveal a conquering of this deep-rooted prejudice. Enrollment figures particularly in the last ten years show a remarkable bridging…

  11. Policy Inroads Undermining Women in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine; Young, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades, policy trends have differentially and negatively affected women educators, defied, denied or repressed feminist values and missed opportunities for using feminist insights to reframe policy issues. This article provides a critical feminist analysis of educational and social policies with negative implications for women in…

  12. Women and Higher Education; Recommendations for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Audrey C.

    Society has traditionally discriminated against women in the educational and professional areas, and studies have shown that even talented and educated women are affected by what has been labeled "a climate of unexpectation." Colleges and universities, as part of their responsibility to build a new society, must play a major part in affecting…

  13. Low education status still holding back women.

    PubMed

    Kyabaggu, H

    1994-01-01

    Reproductive health, which in a broad sense refers to the total population, has special significance for women. In Africa, child bearing is a dangerous activity which is associated with a 1/20 chance of dying (compared to a 1/10,000 rate in Northern Europe or 1/50 in Asia). Indicators generally used to assess the level of reproductive health are 1) total fertility rate, 2) child spacing practices or use of family planning services, 3) adolescent pregnancy, 4) availability of childbirth services, 5) the general prevalence of disease, and 6) the household workload. In Uganda, for example, the high fertility rate (7.1) and low contraceptive prevalence (5-8%) combine to create major health risks for women. Since women grow 90% of the food consumed in Uganda and provide 60% of the cash crop labor, reproductive health is a major factor in the socioeconomic development of that country as it is in others where a high fertility rate outstrips the rate of economic growth. The ability of women in Uganda to contribute to their own health and to the well-being of their family is compromised by their low educational status and generally low status in society. PMID:12318963

  14. The Successful Educational Journeys of American Indian Women: Forming Aspirations for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2014-01-01

    American Indians (AIs) have lower higher education enrollment and completion rates than Whites and most minority groups. AI women, however, participate at higher rates than AI men, White women, and White men. Research has not examined what contributes to their higher education aspirations. This study explored the middle and high school experiences…

  15. Education, work and earnings of Peruvian women.

    PubMed

    King, E M

    1996-01-01

    This study describes trends in educational attainment among women in Peru, and examines the determinants of educational attainment, labor force participation and employment, and earnings. Data were obtained from the Peruvian Living Standards Survey among a sample of 5644 women aged 20-59 years. Findings indicate that parents' educational variables had a positive and statistically significant relationship with the educational attainment of their daughters. The impact declined over time from older to younger cohorts. School reforms improved women's access to education. Education became more universal and compulsory over time. Daughters of mothers with white collar occupations had higher levels of schooling than farmers' daughters. The effects of fathers' education was larger. There was a wider gap between farmers and nonfarmers. Textbooks, teachers, and number of grades offered were the only primary school inputs that showed any clear cohort trend in their effect on years of schooling. As primary schools became more available, textbooks had a greater impact on school attainment. The impact of textbooks was larger for women than for men. The number of grades offered had a large positive effect which increased across cohorts from older to younger. Findings suggest weak effects of school reforms on women's likelihood of participating in the paid or unpaid labor force. Years of schooling had a very small and negative effect on total labor force participation. Woman's paid employment was influenced by age, education and training, household characteristics, and family's unearned income. Educational attainment had a small positive effect on participation in paid employment for younger women and no effect for older women. The average rate of return in paid employment to primary education was about 12%. Primary education had the highest rate of return. The return to job tenure was higher for younger women. PMID:12348507

  16. Women's Involvement in Educational Psychology Journals from 1976 to 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Joy; Hsieh, Peggy Pei-Hsuan; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2005-01-01

    Previously, Robinson, McKay, Katayama, and Fan (1998) examined women's involvement in six educational psychology journals ("American Educational Research Journal," "Contemporary Educational Psychology," "Educational Psychologist," "Educational Psychology Review," "Journal of Experimental Education," and "Journal of Educational Psychology") from…

  17. Status of Women in Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakamoto, Izumi; Anastas, Jeane W.; McPhail, Beverly M.; Colarossi, Lisa G.

    2008-01-01

    This invited study sought to determine the current status of women in social work education for the special section of the "Journal of Social Work Education." Analysis of the latest data available indicate that gender differences remain pervasive across many aspects of social work education, including pay, rank, job duties, and tenure. Women…

  18. Understanding the Educational Attainment of Sexual Minority Women and Men*

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany

    2015-01-01

    National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities. PMID:26257457

  19. Women's Education in India: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, M. C. Reddeppa

    1991-01-01

    Problems in educating women in India include social taboos, dependency, parents' discriminatory attitudes, low social status, early marriage, heavy work load, lack of motivation, and family poverty. Changes in attitudes, laws, and funding are needed to expand opportunities. (SK)

  20. Environmental Adult Education: Women Living the Tensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlovic, Lee; Patrick, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Seven women involved in adult and popular education explored the collective development of environmental awareness through dialogue and learning activities. Two learning patterns emerged: paying attention and awakening awareness through ritual. (SK)

  1. Early Women Geography Educators, 1783-1932.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittser, Sharan E.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the contributions of women educators to the development of geography as a discipline, focusing on seven women: (1) Susanna Rowson; (2) Emma Hart Willard; (3) Sarah Sophia Cornell; (4) Ellen Churchill Semple; (5) Zonia Baber; (6) Erna Grassmuck Gilland; and (7) Esther Sanfrieda Anderson. (CMK)

  2. Women and Education: A Canadian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane, Ed.; McLaren, Arlene, Ed.

    This four-part book contains 16 papers that explore the relationship between feminist research and education, especially in Canada. The papers in the first part, "Women as Mothers, Women as Teachers," are as follows: "The Evolution of the Sexual Division of Labour in Teaching" (Danylewycz, Light, Prentice); "More than a Labour of Love" (Task Force…

  3. Voices of Resilience: Successful Jamaican Women Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dole, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Through the use of the framework of risk and resilience in a narrative inquiry, the present study examined the protective factors affecting the academic success of 24 Jamaican women in a graduate cohort in educational administration. All but two of the women rose from poverty to become academically successful, defined as having achieved graduate…

  4. Women's Education and Earnings in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werschkul, Misha; Gault, Barbara; Caiazza, Amy; Hartmann, Heidi

    2005-01-01

    Women have made remarkable strides in education during the past three decades, but these gains have yet to translate into full equity in pay. Women still earn less than men earn in nearly every profession and at every stage of their careers, and this earnings gap is evident in every state in the nation. This report focuses on educational…

  5. Women-Friendly Perspectives in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Prummer, Christine

    1994-01-01

    Reports on research that investigated characteristics of distance education programs in Germany that influenced the participation of women. Highlights include the number of women enrolled; drop-out rates; a description of the FernUniversitat, including degree programs and characteristics of the institution; and a pilot project aimed at single…

  6. Civic and Political Education of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs.

    "This pamphlet was produced at the request of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women and the Economic and Social Council (of the United Nations)...It was written primarily for the use of leaders responsible for the civic and political education of women, whether governmental or non-governmental, and is intended as a basic document…

  7. African American Women in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamani, Eboni M.

    2003-01-01

    African American women hold a unique position as members of two groups that have been treated in a peripheral manner by postsecondary education (Moses, 1989). Membership in both marginalized groups often makes African American women invisible in colleges and universities. Given the complex intersection of race and gender, more attention should be…

  8. Asian-American Women in Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Lily

    The under-representation of Asian American women in educational research and development is related to both sociocultural and historical barriers. Some of these barriers (racial and sexual discrimination, lack of role models, and lack of professional contacts) are shared by women of all ethnic minorities. There are also, however, unique barriers…

  9. Changing Education: Women as Radicals and Conservators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antler, Joyce, Ed.; Biklen, Sari Knopp, Ed.

    Essays on feminism, theory, and education are offered in this anthology, which examines the roles of women as active agents of change, as conservators actively resisting change, or as objects of change. Seventeen chapters focus on the relationship between gender and the politics of knowledge, analyze varied situational contexts of women's…

  10. HIV and Sexual Health Education for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Christine; Engstrom, Eric L.

    1996-01-01

    Explores women's issues in HIV prevention and sexual health promotion centers in regard to the biological, psychological, developmental, and social conditions and constraints in women's lives. Concludes that multiple models of HIV-prevention education and behavioral counseling will be needed to address the complex heterogeneity of roles, stages of…

  11. Education for Women's Empowerment in Asia and South Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruzada, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue contains an editorial, "Empowering Women through Education" (Elizabeth Cruzada), and eight articles. "Women and Education" (Swarna Jayaweera) presents the status of women and girls' education in Asia vis-a-vis the goals set in the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies. "Education Reforms and Development of Chinese Minority Women" (Zhen…

  12. Women's Educational Attainment and the Timing of Entry into Parenthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Margaret Mooney

    1984-01-01

    Reviews research on the relationship between women's educational attainment and timing of their entry into parenthood. Presents data from a 15-year follow-up of high school students originally surveyed in 1957-58 (and resurveyed in 1973-74). Concludes that educational attainment has a strong delaying effect on timing parenthood, but that their…

  13. Iranian Women: Between Education and Repression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bousalis, Rina

    2012-01-01

    Iranian women have endured more than 30 years of an Islamist dictatorship that uses religion as a validation for unjust control. Human rights violations against women in Iran are a tragic phenomenon for an otherwise highly developed civilization. Invisible and powerless in a male-dominated society, Iranian women are discouraged from becoming…

  14. High Heels Increase Women's Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Research has found that the appearance of women's apparel helps increase their attractiveness as rated by men and that men care more about physical features in potential opposite-sex mates. However, the effect of sartorial appearance has received little interest from scientists. In a series of studies, the length of women's shoe heels was examined. A woman confederate wearing black shoes with 0, 5, or 9 cm heels asked men for help in various circumstances. In Study 1, she asked men to respond to a short survey on gender equality. In Study 2, the confederate asked men and women to participate in a survey on local food habit consumption. In Study 3, men and women in the street were observed while walking in back of the female confederate who dropped a glove apparently unaware of her loss. It was found that men's helping behavior increased as soon as heel length increased. However, heel length had no effect on women's helping behavior. It was also found that men spontaneously approached women more quickly when they wore high-heeled shoes (Study 4). Change in gait, foot-size judgment, and misattribution of sexiness and sexual intent were used as possible explanations. PMID:25408499

  15. Women in the Olympic Movement: Advancing Women's Roles through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stier, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews women's struggles for equal representation in the Olympic Games on the International Olympic Committee and the national committees, and as participants in the games. Discusses problems with the language in the Olympic Charter, governance of the games, and the role of education on all levels. (SM)

  16. Economic Liberalization and Its Impact on Women and Women's Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Ratna

    1996-01-01

    Externally imposed macroeconomic restructuring in developing nations (termed economic liberalization or neoliberalism) has specific effects on women because free-market processes undervalue anything without direct monetary value. Two immediate effects on education are privatization and budget cutbacks, which result in differential access to…

  17. The Progressive Education Movement and the Question of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biklen, Sari Knopp

    1978-01-01

    The reflection of women's image in major programs of the progressive education movement--vocational education, the core curriculum, and women's colleges--is discussed. Reasons for the parallel between image and progressive education are addressed. (LBH)

  18. Educating Girls and Women: A Moral Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This booklet focuses on educating girls and women. The main issues include gender gap and its persistence in education. The reasons for this persistence include poverty, distance of schools, non-availability of gender segregated schools, absence of female teachers, inflexible school timing, and irrelevant and gender-insensitive curriculum. It is…

  19. Women in Educational Leadership: Finding Common Ground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Kathleen; Moss, Glenda; Hannah, Susan; Wiener, Roberta

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to engage in self-reflective analysis of leadership development as an ongoing process of social action towards democratizing education. Four White women connected by their work as educational leaders, teachers and administrators, engaged this topic by conducting a dialogical analysis of their experiences in…

  20. The Impact of Women on American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Linda K.

    Intended for use in preservice teacher education programs, this unit provides an overview of the role that women have played as educators. The publication is designed to help future teachers become knowledgeable about issues of sexism and skilled in approaches to alleviating this problem in schools. The sections are chronological. Section 1,…

  1. The Education of Women in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Rawaf, Haya Saad; Simmons, Cyril

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development and expansion of formal education for women in Saudi Arabia since 1960. Discusses girls' curriculum in elementary and secondary schools, the influence of conservative attitudes toward sex roles, and the growth of female higher education despite a lack of female employment. Contains 20 references. (SV)

  2. Women in Virginia Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New University Conference, Hampton, VA. Peninsula Chapter.

    This document explores how Virginia higher education perpetuates stereotypic social roles, the evolution of sexually segregated schools, the current evidences of sexual discrimination towards faculty, staff and students, the State Council of Higher Education's 1967 plan for higher education, the status of Virginia higher education under the law…

  3. Educating Rita and Her Sisters. Women and Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benn, Roseanne, Ed.; Elliott, Jane, Ed.; Whaley, Pat, Ed.

    This book contains 17 papers examining the various roles--learner, teacher, researcher, manager--that women have played in the development of lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Introduction: Women and Continuing Education--Where Are We Now?" (Roseanne Benn, Jane Elliott, Pat Whaley); "Dancing into the Future: Developments in…

  4. Women's Expected Earnings and Their Investment in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferber, Marianne A.; McMahon, Walter W.

    1979-01-01

    Women's expectations of high rates of return to investment in higher education, particularly in nontraditional fields and in those requiring advanced degrees, are shown to be consistent with high levels of investment in these fields. Increasing workforce participation and decreasing fertility also contribute toward reducing the female-male…

  5. [Heart, arteries and women, a care pathway for women at high cardiovascular risk].

    PubMed

    Mounier-Vehier, C; Boudghene, F; Delsart, P; Claisse, G; Kpogbemadou, N; Debarge, V; Letombe, B

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) diseases are the primary cause of death of women. Since they kill 10 times more than breast cancer, preventive measures should be implemented. According to U.S. recommendations, a woman is either at "CV risk" or at "optimal health status" if she has no risk factors and a perfectly healthy lifestyle. Some risk factors are more deleterious to women (smoking, diabetes, stress, depression, atrial fibrillation); or specific to women (preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, contraception, menopause, headaches). The lifestyle plays a key role for them. The blood pressure measurement is the most frequent opportunity to detect women at risk. CV tests should be performed to all symptomatic women and for those over the age of 45 who want to start practicing sport. The cardiologist can play a key role to improve women's CV health by integrating their hormonal risks. Women themselves can also make a powerful contribution to prevention by adopting a healthy lifestyle. From those recommendations concerning women's CV health, there is a great opportunity to initiate a health path for women at high cardiovascular risk. The objectives of the specific path "heart, arteries and women" of University hospital of Lille will be to improve professional practice, awareness of women, educate public authorities and within a few years reduce the epidemic of CVD of French women. PMID:24972987

  6. Education and the Process of Emancipation of Western European Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Susanne M.

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that political, technological, and social changes in Western Europe have produced a need for reassessment of the education of women and greater gender equality. Introduces the articles on equal education for women contained in this journal issue. (BSR)

  7. Manitoba Women and Higher Education: Momentum to Stay the Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Carolyn; McCarthy, John R.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe the history of women in higher education in Manitoba. The historical perspective chronicles the path of women from 1825-2000. The momentum established by these women pioneers in their quest for higher education, according to the authors, must be maintained for present female students and women in academia…

  8. Phenomenological Study of Empowering Women Senior Leaders in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cselenszky, Mila P.

    2012-01-01

    The number of women in senior administrative and leadership roles in higher education is minimal compared to the number of women in higher education jobs in general. This phenomenological study explored pathways women took to advance in their careers and barriers that prevent more women from gaining senior administrative and leadership roles.…

  9. Non-Traditional Educational Trajectories: The Educational Aspirations and Expectations of Women Who Are Educationally Disadvantaged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Claudia Ditmar

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the educational aspirations and expectations of a heterogeneous group of women who were enrolled in, or had graduated from, adult education and literacy programs in Boston, Massachusetts. The research questions guiding the inquiry are: (1) Why do educationally disadvantaged women value education--how are these values…

  10. Training of Women Instructors in Workers' Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solorzano, Irene Brenes

    1987-01-01

    Describes development and implementation of a training program for women in workers' education. The three-course program focused on teaching methodology. Benefits gained by the participants included (1) cultural appreciation, (2) cultivation of the study habit, and (3) improved teaching competence. (CH)

  11. Machinic Assemblages: Women, Art Education and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamboukou, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I explore connections between women, art education and spatial relations drawing on the Deleuzo-Guattarian concept of "machinic assemblage" as a useful analytical tool for making sense of the heterogeneity and meshwork of life narratives and their social milieus. In focusing on Mary Bradish Titcomb, a fin-de-siecle Bostonian woman…

  12. Women Youth Workers and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Di

    A study examined personal and professional development experienced by women youth workers participating in five 5-day, residential, single-sex, outdoor education courses in England. Analysis of diaries and poetry at the end of the courses and questionnaires completed 1 year later by participants and their managers yielded findings in the areas of…

  13. Higher Education and Women's Empowerment in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Samina; Courtney, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded.…

  14. Women at the Top in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, Clare; Lawson, Liz

    1997-01-01

    Information about the career progression, personal traits, attitudes, and employment experiences of women principals in Further Education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom was gathered from the following: literature search; questionnaire sent to all 68 female principals in the United Kingdom (response rate, 76%); and structured interviews with a…

  15. Medieval Education of Girls and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersey, Shirley

    1980-01-01

    The author looks at what and how women were taught in the castles, convents, towns and universities of medieval Europe. She also discusses the careers of seven notable nuns and abbesses, who were both exemplars of the scholarly woman and lasting influences on female education. (SJL)

  16. Women in Educational Leadership: The Case of Hope High School in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diko, Nolutho

    2014-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 confers equality on all South African citizens regardless of race and gender. It has been reported that, under apartheid, gender inequality was a way of life and even social liberation movements observed it. Education is not exempt from gender inequality; the Department of Education in 2003…

  17. Hospitals can attract women through education.

    PubMed

    Rynne, S J

    1987-09-01

    Hospitals are responding to women's demands for information about healthcare by instituting educational programs specifically for women. To plan such programs, the first step is to establish the major goal--whether to attract new market segments or to better serve existing users of services. It is possible to accomplish both, but they may require different approaches in terms of the program's location, time, presenters, topics, and promotion. In addition to attracting an audience, these programs also can build an image and promote utilization of services. Women who hear or read of the programs will get the impression the hospital cares and is enlightened about women. Targeted segments can be established by factors such as age, geography, and employment status, and programs can be set up to meet the specific needs of each segment. The program planners must resist the urge to tell women what the planners want them to know; instead, planners should learn what the women want to know. The programs also should rely on research that deals specifically with women, instead of information applicable to all people, since that information is usually based on the study of men only. Once the program has been presented, its effectiveness can be measured through random telephone or mail surveys to determine whether the target market has been reached. PMID:10283485

  18. Empowerment of Women through Education in Twenty First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Rajeswari, K.; Jabari, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    This article explores theoretical and practical issues related to the impact of women's education in their empowerment. The development of women's education is discussed in this study. As women's education has become one of the key development objectives in the recent decades, the concept of empowerment has been tied to the range of activities…

  19. Where Are All the Real Women in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pippins, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    As organizations like the American Council on Education are seeking to advance women in higher education, and many of them are approaching (or avoiding) retirement age, many women with great potential are questioning whether a leadership opportunity in higher education is for them. As a new generation of women leaders prepares to enter the higher…

  20. Women Nurses and Male Physicians: Their Educational Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Vern; Bullough, Bonnie

    The implications for nursing education of the fact that nursing started as a woman's occupation in a field dominated by the male physician are considered. Although in 1873 nursing represented a real educational opportunity for large numbers of women, none of the prestigious women's colleges were interested in educating women for careers. In the…

  1. Role of Education in the Empowement of Women in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Rouf Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Women education in India has a major preoccupation of both the government and civil society as educated women can play a very important role in the development of the country. Education is milestone of women empowerment because it enables them to responds to the challenges, to confront their traditional role and change their life. So that we can't…

  2. Sensual sexuality education with young parenting women.

    PubMed

    Gubrium, Aline C; Shafer, Miriam B

    2014-08-01

    Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women at an alternative General Educational Development test preparation center. The program prioritized a sex positive framework, including topics such as pleasure, desire and sexual entitlement, and invited participants to explore sexuality through a multisensory orientation. Participants took part in small group discussions and activities that engaged their senses through arts-based methods. Grounded in holism, program topics were integrated with a focus on participants' everyday experiences. The pilot curriculum serves as a promising program for re-positioning young parenting women as sexual subjects, which is key to the promotion of health and wellbeing. PMID:24572457

  3. Hispanic Women: Academic Advisees of High Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quezada, Rosa; Jones-Loheyde, Katherine

    1984-01-01

    Because of cultural conflicts and policy or procedural barriers for Hispanic women pursuing higher education, the academic advising function is important. Advisers' understanding of the Hispanic culture and values, awareness of barriers created by color and language, and information about available support services will increase Hispanic women's…

  4. Balancing extensive ambition and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands: A grounded theory on stress and recovery among highly educated working young women entering male-dominated occupational areas

    PubMed Central

    Löve, Jesper; Hagberg, Mats; Dellve, Lotta

    2011-01-01

    Several factors underline the issue of stress-related health among young highly educated women. Major societal changes might provide more new challenges with considerably changed and expanded roles than were expected by earlier generations, especially among women. The quantity of young women with higher education has also increased threefold in Sweden in less than two decades and there are a growing number of young women that hereby break with traditional gender positions and enter new occupational areas traditionally dominated by men. The research questions in the present study were: “What is the main concern, regarding stress and recovery, among young highly educated working women breaking with traditional gender positions and entering male-dominated occupational areas?” and “How do they handle this concern?” We conducted open-ended interviews with 20 informants, aged 23-29 years. The results showed that the synergy between highly ambitious individuals and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands ended up in the informants’ constantly striving to find a balance in daily life (main concern). This concern refers to the respondents experiencing a constant overload of ambiguity and that they easily became entangled in a loop of stress and dysfunctional coping behavior, threatening the balance between stress and sufficient recovery. In order to handle this concern, the respondents used different strategies in balancing extensive ambition and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands (core category). This preliminary theoretical model deepens our understanding of how the increasing numbers of highly educated young women face complex living conditions endangering their possibility of maintaining health and work ability. PMID:21909337

  5. Women in Non-Traditional Vocational Education in Secondary Schools. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Roslyn D.; Frazee, Pamela E.

    As a companion to a study of women in nontraditional training in postsecondary vocational education, a national survey of secondary women in area vocational technical schools (AVTSs) was conducted to determine what factors influence the occupational decisions and future plans of high school women enrolled in nontraditional vocational training, how…

  6. Women's Changing Attitudes toward Divorce, 1974-2002: Evidence for an Educational Crossover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Steven P.; Parashar, Sangeeta

    2006-01-01

    This article examines trends in divorce attitudes of young adult women in the United States by educational attainment from 1974 to 2002. Women with 4-year college degrees, who previously had the most permissive attitudes toward divorce, have become more restrictive in their attitudes toward divorce than high school graduates and women with some…

  7. Women in Politics: Some Historical and Cultural Aspects of Voting Patterns and Possible Influences on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peggy A.; Smith, Alan D.

    The early and formative years of women's involvement in the political structure of the United States was filled with high hopes, especially issues related to women and children. Educational reform was one of the major goals that women hoped to achieve. As demonstrated by an in-depth look at the 1920 National Convention of the Republican Party,…

  8. Islam's Point of View on Women's Education in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hariri, Rafeda

    1987-01-01

    Shows links between Islamic doctrine and girls' education in Saudi Arabia providing examples of ways in which the Islamic attitude towards women and social life is applied to educational policy. Summarizes educational opportunities available for girls and women and notes milestones in the 26-year history of girls' education. (JHZ)

  9. Single- and Mixed-Gender Colleges for Women: Educational, Attitudinal, and Occupational Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riordan, Cornelius

    1992-01-01

    A study examined the effects of single- and mixed-gender colleges on women's education, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. Results indicate women's colleges have a strong, positive influence on educational and occupational achievement, self-esteem, self-control, and views on gender equality.…

  10. Obstacles to Continuing Education in Health Care for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gercke, Timothy

    A quasi-experimental research study identified obstacles to continuing education for women in the health care fields to determine if these obstacles were characteristic to continuing education for women in general. Questionnaires were distributed to 50 women health care providers within one hospital in a small community in Arizona and to 50…

  11. Shaping Social Justice Leadership: Insights of Women Educators Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Linda L.; Strachan, Jane; Lazaridou, Angeliki

    2012-01-01

    "Shaping Social Justice Leadership: Insights of Women Educators Worldwide" contains evocative portraits of twenty-three women educators and leaders from around the world whose actions are shaping social justice leadership. Woven from words of their own narratives, the women's voices lift off the page into readers' hearts and minds to inspire and…

  12. Autonomy: Solution, Transition or Possibility? Women's Emancipation and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schedler, Petra E.

    1993-01-01

    As illustrated by the educational strategies of women's groups in the Dutch Liberal Party and Leiden University, social movements contribute to adult education. The question remains whether separate programs for women or encouragement of women's participation in existing program is more conducive to emancipation. (SK)

  13. Distance Education as a Women Empowerment Strategy in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olakulein, Felix Kayode; Ojo, Olugbenga David

    2006-01-01

    Women emancipation through empowerment all over the world is at its peak and Africans generally are not left out. It is an attempt to make sure that women's voices are heard and are given their right places in the scheme of things. Nonetheless, the issue of educational attainment of women considering the low level of girls' education in Africa is…

  14. But Can She Cook? Overcoming the Barriers to Women's Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antler, Joyce

    1985-01-01

    Reviews Barbara Miller Solomon's "In the Company of Educated Women," a comprehensive survey of the history of collegiate women. Asserts that this history successfully describes the subtle interplay between women's possibilities within higher education and their shifting roles in the larger society. (KH)

  15. The Illusion of Inclusion: Women in Post-Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalker, Jacqueline, Ed.; Prentice, Susan, Ed.

    The 17 monographs in this book are written from the perspective of Canadian women students, faculty, and administrators about their experiences in postsecondary education. Selections are organized under five headings: (1) "Post-Secondary Education: The Inclusion Myth Then and Now"; (2) "Women as Students: The Marginal Majority"; (3) "Women as…

  16. Women's Education, Marital Violence, and Divorce: A Social Exchange Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kreager, Derek A; Felson, Richard B; Warner, Cody; Wenger, Marin R

    2013-06-01

    Drawing on social exchange theories, the authors hypothesized that educated women are more likely than uneducated women to leave violent marriages and suggested that this pattern offsets the negative education - divorce association commonly found in the United States. They tested these hypotheses using 2 waves of young adult data on 914 married women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The evidence suggests that the negative relationship between women's education and divorce is weaker when marriages involve abuse than when they do not. The authors observed a similar pattern when they examined the association of women's proportional earnings and divorce, controlling for education. Supplementary analyses suggested that marital satisfaction explains some of the association among women's resources, victimization, and divorce but that marital violence continues to be a significant moderator of the education - divorce association. In sum, education appears to benefit women by both maintaining stable marriages and dissolving violent ones. PMID:24357879

  17. Academic Advising Services for Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisinger, Wendy A.

    Women in institutions of higher education who deserve special attention in advising situations include those with multiple responsibilities, those in under-represented fields, and reentry women. Factors that can help women be successful in an institutional setting are a supportive family and informal peer support groups. Stressors for women seem…

  18. Religious Education Leading to Higher Education for Women: Historical Insights on Modern Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omori, Hideko

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses what kinds of religious education led to the improvement of women's status and the realization of higher education for women in modern Japan, by reconsidering the educational views of Jinzo Naruse (1859-1919), both a pioneer of Japanese women's education and a promoter of the Concordia movement (1912-1941), within…

  19. Empowering Women in Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugbomeh, George M. M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the concepts of agricultural education, women empowerment, and sustainable rural development. Suggests that, because women make up more than half of Nigeria's population, their empowerment would assist the efforts for sustainable rural development. (Contains 48 references.) (JOW)

  20. Women and Education in Eritrea: A Historical and Contemporary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanos, Asgedet

    1997-01-01

    Review of women's status in Eritrea before and since independence highlights significant advances in emancipation, with education playing a major role. The review identifies shortcomings and obstacles in the current political situation for women's rights and gender equity. (SK)

  1. Creating a Community of Women Educated in Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mev

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the creative ways in which WE LEARN (Women Expanding Literacy Education Action Resource Network) empowers women's full participation in community across all literacy levels.

  2. Adult Jewish Education and Participation among Reform Jewish Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mareschal, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    The history of adult Jewish education is rich and is replete with learning opportunities for Jewish adults, and Jewish women are active participants in adult Jewish education. In this chapter, the author examines Reform Jewish women's motivations to participate in adult Jewish education. First, she provides a historical overview of Judaism and…

  3. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  4. Women Technology Leaders: Gender Issues in Higher Education Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Women working in higher education information technology (IT) organizations and those seeking leadership positions in these organizations face a double challenge in overcoming the traditionally male-dominated environments of higher education and IT. Three women higher education chief information officers (CIOs) provided their perspectives,…

  5. Sex Education Attitudes and Outcomes among North American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Monnica T.; Bonner, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Attitudes and outcomes of sex education received by North American women are examined via an Internet survey (N = 1,400). Mean age was 19.5, with 24% reporting one or more unplanned pregnancies. Women were more satisfied with sex education from informal sources than from parents, schools, and physicians. Those receiving sex education from parents…

  6. The Improvised Lives of Women in Music Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Carol P.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses findings of a survey of 18 women music educators. Reports the educators' career paths, reasons for job changes, and professional influences. Reveals their appraisals of the importance of mentoring and goal setting and their definitions of success. Argues that it is up to women music educators to nurture one another. (SG)

  7. Toward Full Equality: More Job Education for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Pamela Ann

    Vocational education programs have been growing steadily. Despite this growth, the needs of women for vocational education have not yet been given serious attention. The first hurdle that girls and women seeking vocational education confront is admission. They must fulfill all the admission criteria concerning intelligence and educational…

  8. Assessing the impact of educational campaigns on controlling HCV among women in prison settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushayabasa, S.; Bhunu, C. P.; Smith?, Robert J.

    2012-04-01

    Prior studies have shown that imprisonment is a major risk factor for hepatitis C infection, with the risk of infection directly proportional to the length of incarceration. Women are at least twice as likely as men to contract HCV as they have limited access to information, health services and safe intravenous drug injecting equipments. We develop a mathematical model to assess the impact of educational campaigns on controlling HCV among women in prison settings. Equilibria for the model are determined and their stability are examined. Population-level effects of increased educational campaigns to encourage safe injecting practices among women in prison are evaluated through numerical simulations. The results suggest that educating women prisoners about abstaining from intravenous drug misuse may significantly reduce HCV prevalence among women in prison settings. Targeted education campaigns, which are effective at stopping transmission of HCV more than 80% of the time, will be highly effective at controlling the disease among women in prisons.

  9. Options in Education, Transcript for February 9, 1976: Federal Money for Higher Education; California High School Proficiency Test; College Students' Writing Problems; Columbus, Ohio Arts Impact Program; and Women in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    "Options in Education" is a radio news program which focuses on issues and developments in education. This transcript contains discussions of federal money for colleges and universities; the high school proficiency test in California; the writing problems of college students; letters from listeners about schooling and jobs; the Arts Impact program…

  10. Acceptability of a Virtual Patient Educator for Hispanic Women.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kristen J; Vàzquez-Otero, Coralia; Bredice, Marissa; Meade, Cathy D; Chaet, Alexis; Rivera, Maria I; Arroyo, Gloria; Proctor, Sara K; Barnes, Laura E

    2015-01-01

    There are few Spanish language interactive, technology-driven health education programs. Objectives of this feasibility study were to (a) learn more about computer and technology usage among Hispanic women living in a rural community and (b) evaluate acceptability of the concept of using an embodied conversational agent (ECA) computer application among this population. A survey about computer usage history and interest in computers was administered to a convenience sample of 26 women. A sample video prototype of a hospital discharge ECA was administered followed by questions to gauge opinion about the ECA. Data indicate women exhibited both a high level of computer experience and enthusiasm for the ECA. Feedback from community is essential to ensure equity in state of the art dissemination of health information. PMID:26671558

  11. Women Administrators in Higher Education: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. SUNY Series, Frontiers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nidiffer, Jana, Ed.; Bashaw, Carolyn Terry, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection provide the history of women administrators in higher education and explore a number of current topics, including the controversies surrounding women's education, the contributions of female college presidents, the growth and development of deans of women, and the dilemmas faced by many women administrators.…

  12. Breaking Boundaries: Women in Higher Education. Gender and Higher Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise, Ed.; Walsh, Val, Ed.

    Essays from women in higher education, organized around two major themes: diversity, equity, and change, and feminism in the academy, and with an emphasis on these issues in the United Kingdom, include: "Women and Careers in Higher Education: What Is the Problem?" (Christine Heward); "In the Prime of Their Lives? Older Women in Higher Education"…

  13. Effects of Welfare Reform on Education Acquisition of Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes. PMID:23504449

  14. A Historical View of Women in Music Education Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Sondra Wieland

    2009-01-01

    Women music educators in the USA have been active in public and private schools, churches, and community organizations. In the nineteenth century, Julia E. Crane founded the Crane Institute of Music, the first institution to train music supervisors; and women developed kindergarten programs throughout the US. In the "private sphere," women taught…

  15. Women Faculty, Higher Education, and the Recreation/Leisure Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.; Harrolle, Michelle; Rich, Samantha; Moretz, Janell

    2012-01-01

    Women represent growing numbers of faculty members in higher education as well as in recreation/leisure departments. The purpose of this study is to describe the career development of women faculty in recreation-related areas and to offer implications for faculty development and the preparation of future faculty. Data were collected from women who…

  16. Grad*Star (A Women's Educational Equity Act Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Michael

    This report discusses the proposed Grad*Star Program (a Women's Educational Equity Act Program) to deal with the extremely serious dropout program in Northern Kentucky. Housed at the University of Kentucky, it examines such factors as poor economic conditions, large numbers of women and households headed by women that exist below the poverty…

  17. The Impact of Women Teachers on Girls' Education. Advocacy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The recruitment of women teachers can have a positive impact on girls' enrollments in school. This advocacy brief promotes the recruitment of women teachers which is currently held back as a result of gender disparities. The publication explains how recruitment of women teachers could relate to girls' education, stating some current issues facing…

  18. Women's Education in Development: From Welfare to Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    1988-01-01

    Many of the programs established for women often perpetuate stereotypical roles. The most useful nonformal education programs for women should provide them with skills and knowledge related to reproductive tasks, productive work, emancipation, and empowerment. Nongovernmental voluntary organizations, especially those run by women, play a critical…

  19. Conclusion: Women around the World Reshaping Leadership for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This short essay aims to reflect on the global experiences women in education have had in becoming leaders as noted in the articles in this special issue on women's leadership. Design/methodology/approach: The essay draws upon relevant historical and contemporary literature about women in the professions and in the workforce. Findings:…

  20. Cultural Strengths to Persevere: Native American Women in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Stephanie J.; Lindley, Lorinda S.

    2013-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of historical perspectives of Native American women, this article includes some discussion of values and practices of contemporary Native American women, data pertaining to Native American women's participation in higher education, and an introduction of familial cultural capital, community cultural wealth, Native…

  1. Higher Education Learning Experiences among Vietnamese Immigrant Women in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ya-Ling; Wu, Hsing-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sociocultural approach to adult learning and poststructural feminist theories, this study draws on interviews with 11 married Vietnamese women to explore the higher education learning experiences of Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan. On the basis of their husbands' permission and support, Vietnamese immigrant women embraced the…

  2. High School Women's Liberation. FPS: A Magazine of Young People's Liberation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    This pamphlet contains 19 consciousness-raising articles for high-school women which help define their roles and rights as females, family members, and participants in the labor market. The first section, Education and Liberation, discusses ways in which schools, families, and society suppress women. For example, women are urged to take home…

  3. Introducing High School Students to the Women's Movement; A Directed Study Project for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusen, Etta; Wetzel, Jodi

    The on-going project, first initiated at the University of Minnesota in the spring of 1973, has two objectives: (1) to provide interested undergraduate women at the university with research and development training in Women's Studies; and (2) to provide metropolitan area high schools with information and education regarding the women's movement.…

  4. [Women's education according to the first women to receive doctorates in medicine from Spanish universities, 1882].

    PubMed

    Flecha Garcia, C

    1999-01-01

    This study looks at the topic of women's education as considered by the first two women to receive the degree of Doctor in Medicine from a Spanish university. Delores Aleu and Martina Castells decided to present as a doctoral thesis the development of an issue of particular relevance during the final decades of the 19th century. The importance given to public education and the difficulties young women encountered in participating under the same conditions as young men led these two women--who both held a bachelor's degree--to raise the issue and defend personal and social reasons that justified their full participation in different levels of education. PMID:11624263

  5. Without Women No Development: Selected Case Studies from Asia of Non-Formal Education for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Madhuri, Ed.

    This handbook presents 15 case studies on the non-formal education of women from four Asian countries: India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia. The goal of this publication is to provide information about education-related issues concerning women and girls and development. This information is intended for those people, in governmental and…

  6. Women's Education Looks Forward: Programmes, Experiences, Strategies 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotite, Phyllis, Ed.

    Women's education and its development have been United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) issues since its inception. As humankind enters the 21st century, it faces a range of unresolved global issues that reflect the interdependence of the world's peoples. Since women comprise half of the world's population, they…

  7. Black Women and Higher Education: Spelman and Bennett Colleges Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy-Sheftall, Beverly

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the impact that Spelman and Bennett Colleges have had on educational opportunities for Black women and highlights the contributions to the Black community of several alumnae from these institutions. Also provides an extensive bibliography of materials that focuses on Black women and higher education. (Author/GC)

  8. A History of Male Attitudes toward Educating Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clabaugh, Gary K.

    1986-01-01

    The author examines male attitudes regarding the education of women. He discusses the lives and education of women in ancient Greece and Rome, in the Middle Ages, in the Renaissance and Reformation, in the 1700s, and in the 20th century. (CT)

  9. Learning from the Women's Movement about Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The women's movement in the 1970s and 1980s was a global phenomenon that achieved significant educational change. More analysis of how it developed and had an impact on education can inform our understanding of the possibilities for change today. This paper explores how the women's movement changed schooling in Vancouver in the 1970s, using a…

  10. Coming into Her Own: Educational Success in Girls and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sara N., Ed.; Crawford, Mary, Ed.; Sebrechts, Jadwiga, Ed.

    This book outlines approaches to teaching and learning that can address the diverse needs of students of different genders, races, ethnicities, classes, ages, and sexual orientations. The text focuses on strategies that optimize women's educational experiences, particularly education that is women-centered, and the attendant strategies that…

  11. ETS Studies Related to Women and Education: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Abigail M.

    Educational Testing Service (ETS) research that is relevant to the concerns of women and the educational process can be categorized into four areas: (1) research primarily about women; (2) research focusing on sex differences or similarities; (3) research that reports, but does not focus on sex differences; and (4) research identifying methods of…

  12. Women in Educational Administration: Is There a Basic Role Conflict?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truett, Carol

    The lack of women in top administrative positions in education has often been dismissed as attributable to role conflict. The available research literature is examined to determine if there is evidence of role conflict, and, if present, if role conflict prevents women from functioning adequately as educational administrators. Three possible types…

  13. New V I E W; Vocational Internship Education for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, S. H.; Shoenhair, Margaret T.

    New VIEW (The New Vocational Education for Women Program) is an educational experiment undertaken by the Foothill-De Anza Community College district, designed to help mature women entering the labor force prepare for, and acquire, responsible careers. Objectives of the program are to raise each student's level of confidence and competence, prepare…

  14. Women Working in Music Education: The War Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    When women take up the work of music education, of the university, and become nomadic, engaging Deleuze and Guattari's war machine, all kinds of things happen. As nomads in music education, women traverse borders and boundaries that would otherwise limit and constrain them as they initiate alternative possibilities related to teaching and learning…

  15. Learning from Our Lives: Women, Research, and Autobiography in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Anna, Ed.; Peterson, Penelope L., Ed.

    The autobiographical essays in this volume offer insights into how the field of education might change as women assume positions of intellectual leadership. After the "Foreword" (Mary Catherine Bateson), the 13 chapters are: (1) "Research Lives: Women, Scholarship, and Autobiography in Education" (Anna Neumann and Penelope L. Peterson); (2)…

  16. Women in Educational Research: Their Status from Student to Employee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tittle, Carol Kehr; And Others

    The Committee on the Role and Status of Women within the American Educational Research Association (AERA) decided to send a series of questionnaires to universities, school districts, state departments of education, and major research and development organizations in order to analyze the respective roles and statuses of men and women within AERA.…

  17. The Role of "Other Women" in Current Educational Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christou, Miranda; Puigvert, Lidia

    2011-01-01

    The INCLUD-ED project's case studies of successful schools in Europe reveal that there are advantages involved in opening schools to all kinds of women as far as educational and social inclusion is concerned. "Other Women"--those whose voices have traditionally been silenced in academic settings--help in crucial ways to improve education when they…

  18. Training Women in Management: A Continuing Education Workshop Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Samuel S.

    The number of women occupying managerial positions in the U.S. is relatively small, but it rose 47% from 1,321,000 in 1970 to 1,942,000 in 1976. Circumstances contributing to this rise are enforcement of legal sanctions against discrimination and women's increased educational attainment. This report describes a continuing education workshop series…

  19. Measures to promote literacy and primary education among women, 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    In 1988, the Government of Nepal introduced the following measures to promote literacy and primary education among women: 1) provision of scholarships for 5% of female enrollees; 2) provision of school uniforms for deserving primary school girls; 3) promotion of women's teacher training programs; 4) nonformal education programs for adult women; and 5) initiation of a campaign to encourage parents in remote areas to send their daughters to school. PMID:12289218

  20. Education of Women and Women's Expectations from Distance Education on the Issues Concerning Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demiray, Emine

    2014-01-01

    The most important factor that enables women to become individuals in society is education. It is also a very crucial part of rectifying the circumstances they are in. Besides formal, mass and distance education institutions, there are some other mechanisms to support women's individuality, their personal development and improve gender…

  1. Entrance of Women to Graduate and Professional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Leonard L.

    The rates at which men and women attend graduate and professional school were compared in a large national sample of college seniors followed up a year after graduation. Women attended less often, even women with very high grades. Women were particularly underrepresented in law and medicine. When the attendance rates of individuals who had planned…

  2. Managing Risk and Experiencing Danger: Tensions between Government AIDS Education Policy and Young Women's Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Janet; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Government AIDS education programs in Britain have focused on nonheterosexual behavior. Protection of population depends on changes in high-risk sexual practices among heterosexuals. The part played by young women has received little attention. Reviews data from a survey of young women's sexual beliefs and behavior and suggests that appropriate…

  3. Educating women about the hidden dangers of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Cook, Linda J

    2004-06-01

    1. There is mounting research evidence that alcohol use and abuse affects women much differently than men. 2. Research indicates that women absorb and metabolize alcohol differently than men, partly due to body composition differences and the production of less gastric alcohol dehydrogenase by women. 3. Women of child-bearing age who engage in binge drinking are at increased risk of bearing children with fetal alcohol syndrome or alcohol-related neurological deficits. 4. Psychiatric nurses are often in the position to provide education and counseling to women regarding the hidden dangers of alcohol use and abuse. PMID:15237789

  4. The Educational Background of Women Working for Women in Rio de Janeiro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sousa, Isabela Cabral Felix

    1998-01-01

    Interviews with 20 women in governmental and nongovernmental organizations in Rio de Janeiro revealed the following: (1) formal education programs lacked courses on gender issues; (2) nonformal education was a potential source of gender awareness; and (3) informal education was the main source of gender awareness. (SK)

  5. Distance Education and Women Empowerment: The Women Who Dared at Distance Learning Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okunuga, A. O.

    2011-01-01

    In the past, the African female child had always been denied formal education due to various cultural and social prejudices. Distance education has been employed by numerous women, who had earlier thus been deprived, to bridge the educational gap between males and females in the country. These are mature females, of which the majority (54%) are…

  6. Who Won the Debate in Women Education? Rousseau or Wollstonecraft?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu-Gyamfi, Clifford

    2016-01-01

    Curriculum framework in the education of children became debatable during the enlightenment. Jean-Jacque Rousseau's treatise, "Emile," outlined an educational curriculum based on natural rights. Rousseau thought education should be based on espousing and exploring the natural abilities of a person. Therefore, since women have a natural…

  7. General Prospectus of Agricultural Education for Young Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Dublin (Ireland).

    Designed to acquaint young men and women with the agricultural education programs currently available in Ireland's institutions of vocational and higher education, this prospectus describes the educational requirements, facilities, and programs under the auspices of Ireland's Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. Specifically, this document…

  8. An Assessment of Educational Interests of Women over 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Shirley

    Educational interests of women aged 60 and over were studied, and a correlation between the respondents' ages, educational levels, marital status, as well as the number and types of educational topics they chose was investigated. The subjects' preferences as to selected program design questions were also identified. One hundred current members of…

  9. Women in Public Education: Sexual Discrimination in Promotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Catherine Dillon; Saario, Terry N.

    1973-01-01

    Cites national and State statistics indicating that women, who constitute a majority of the public education teaching profession, are not well represented in administrative positions in public education. Suggests the reason is because of sexual discrimination in promotions. Makes recommendations to education policymakers to help eliminate sex…

  10. Women, Education and the Big, Bad Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jane

    2011-01-01

    History has a habit of ignoring women. Thirty years ago one thought that re-emerging women's movement would never be dumped in the same way previous feminist generations were consigned to the dustbin of history. It took feminist activists and scholars; women trade unionists and health workers; feminist writers, publishers and artists; and the…

  11. The Development of Educated Women in India: Reflections of a Social Psychologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singhal, Sushila

    1984-01-01

    In spite of gains, Indian women's educational level still lags behind that of Indian men. Illiteracy is highest for rural women; unemployment is highest for urban women. Access to education for women is limited and is further delimited in higher levels. Acceptance of changed roles for educated women is lacking. (BRR)

  12. The Higher Education of Women: Essays in Honor of Rosemary Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astin, Helen S.; Hirsch, Werner Z.

    Essays include: some considerations on the higher education of women (Rosemary Park); three women, creators of change (Esther Raushenbush); women's education, the case for the single-sex college (Susan Romer Kaplan); liberal arts education and women's development (C. Robert Pace); women's studies, its origin, organization, and prospects (Sheila…

  13. Vocational Education Needs of Hispanic Women. The Minority Women's Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivares, Teresa

    The first half of this monograph deals with present attitudes towards Hispanic women and migrants, comparing stereotypes and facts about both groups, including population figures and other demographic data such as income level, family size, source(s) of income, maternal mortality, and morbibity rates. Self inventories on attitudes toward the…

  14. Women's Empowerment and Education: Panchayats and Women's Self-Help Groups in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Ratna; Chakravarti, Paromita; Mansi, Kumari

    2015-01-01

    While women have made many advances, their inferior status to men continues to be a global phenomenon. At a time of unprecedented economic growth, India is experiencing a dramatic intensification of violence against women and the majority of girls are still not getting equal educational opportunity. In one of the most important steps for the…

  15. Mature Women and Higher Education: Reconstructing Identity and Family Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Since Edwards' influential study on mature women students and families in the 1990s, questions have been raised about the effects of Higher Education (HE) on family lives. Edwards maintained that relationships were at risk of breakdown due to the changing identity, increased self-esteem and enhanced confidence levels of women students. Men were…

  16. Summary of Departmental Presentations on "Education of Women".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alverno Research Center on Women, Milwaukee, WI.

    This booklet presents descriptions of courses at Alverno College that were being offered during the fall of 1971 and that in some way attempted to deal with special aspects of the education of women students. In each case the faculty member listed the approach or changes in content, methodology, etc., that reflected awareness of women students'…

  17. Strategies for the Challenges Facing Women in Higher Education Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehnke, Mary Ann

    Women administrators in higher education must deal not only with the usual challenges facing administrators (decision-making, resolving conflict, and advancing professionally), but also with the effects of sex stereotyping. Women are not seen as decision-makers, nor as conflict-resolvers, and are often viewed as supporting personnel rather than…

  18. Finding Our Stride: Young Women Professors of Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewcomb, Whitney Sherman; Beaty, Danna M.; Sanzo, Karen; Peters-Hawkins, April

    2013-01-01

    This work is grounded in the literature on women in the academy and offers glimpses into four young women professors' experiences in the field of educational leadership. We utilized reflective practice and interpersonal communication to create a dialogue centered on three qualitative research questions that allows a window into our lives. We…

  19. Mentoring Experiences of Women in Graduate Education: Factors that Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Bordes, Veronica; Zapata, Angela; Arredondo, Patricia; Rutter, Marie-Christine; Howard, Christina

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study focused on the mentoring experiences of women faculty members and graduate students within a counseling psychology graduate program. Results from semi-structured interviews and focus groups identified the women's contextual mentoring experiences in higher education and highlighted several factors that contribute to…

  20. Women and Leadership in Higher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kate

    2003-01-01

    Senior academic women in Australian Universities, as elsewhere, continue to experience both direct and indirect discrimination, with the narrow white Anglo-Celtic male management profile is a factor in this discrimination. While higher education remains a hostile work environment for senior academic women their participation rates are unlikely to…

  1. A Portrayal of Women Educational Leadership in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Samina

    2011-01-01

    The researcher is stimulated to work on the growing trends of women leadership. The problem has been designed to investigate the factors influencing the emergence of women leadership at higher education level in Pakistan. On the basis of the studies conducted by Oplatka (2006) and Cubillo, Brown, 2003, it was assumed that specific factors…

  2. Minority Women in Higher Education: Status and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Mabel E.

    This paper analyzes the status of minority women in higher education in relation to recruitment, retention, fair employment, and equity. Recent research on the American Professoriate showed women made up 27 percent of full-time faculty members and that 10 percent of full- and part-time faculty members are members of a minority. In the California…

  3. Concerns of Minority Women With Respect to Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda (L.) and Associates, Bethesda, MD.

    Presented in this document are results of a study conducted to determine the needs and problems of minority women with regard to vocational education. Information provided includes: (1) a description of the study's objectives, methodologies, and development; (2) an overview of minority women and employment; (3) highlights of Federal legislation…

  4. Education, Wage Work, and Marriage: Perspectives of Egyptian Working Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amin, Sajeda; Al-Bassusi, Nagah H.

    2004-01-01

    We explore young working women's perceptions of marriage and work in contemporary Egypt, when an increase in age at marriage was evident from national survey data. Both working conditions and employment opportunities declined significantly for young women even as their educational attainment increased and marriage was delayed. In-depth interviews…

  5. Voices of Women at Entry Level Positions of Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Catherine Eggleston

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of organizational culture on women's professional lives. It focuses on women in entry-level positions in educational administration and explores the interaction of organizational attitudes and expectations with the participants' personalities, epistemological positions, work needs, performance self-esteem, and sense…

  6. A Feminist Study of a Political Education Programme for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clover, Darlene E.; McGregor, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Women's Campaign School (WCS) is a non-partisan, non-formal three-day educational programme held annually in Vancouver, to empower and inspire women to enter politics and as a means towards socio-political change. Our findings show the WCS provides excellent practical and tactical skills and an experiential learning opportunity that is highly…

  7. Self-Confidence in Women's Education: A Feminist Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Fran; Steiger, Arlene

    While acknowledging the research that suggests that women approach their education with lower levels of self-confidence than men, this paper raises fundamental questions about how self-confidence has been described and measured during the last two decades. The validity of work on women's attitudes toward academic success is shown to be undercut by…

  8. Women's Access to Continuing Employment in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, L. M.

    1996-01-01

    Changes in women's participation in Australian higher education since the 1950s, primarily as employees, are examined in the context of policies and structures in place during that period. Factors influencing employment and promotion of women university employees are discussed, and action that could be taken at personal and system levels to…

  9. Advancement of Women in Dental Education: Trends and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinkford, Jeanne C.; Valachovic, Richard W.; Harrison, Sonja

    2003-01-01

    Reviews progress made since the adoption of formal policies in support of women in the profession by the American Dental Education Association (ADEA). Provides an overview of current ADEA programs designed to increase the number of women in academic dentistry and sustain an environment in which they can contribute. (EV)

  10. Women and Their Stories: Nine Case Studies in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Carolyn L.; Papalewis, Rosemary

    Following a thorough review of current studies and literature on women in leadership, this document examines the results of a study conducted to determine the significance of female gender in educational leadership, and how attitudes, values, perceptions, and life experiences of women differ from those of men and are reflected in female leadership…

  11. Educational Status of the Married Women and Their Participation at Household Decision Making in Rural Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanda, Sanjoy Kumar; Howlader, Hasan; Nahar, Nasrin

    2012-11-01

    The key focus of this study is to explain the level of education of married women and their participation in decision making process at different arena of rural household. To find out the nature of the reality, survey research design was used for this study. The study was conducted at Maharajpur, one of the unions of Jhenidah district in Bangladesh in 2011. The respondents of the study consisted of 120 married women who were purposively selected from the study area. Data were collected through direct interview method using an interview schedule. Data were shown on univariate, as well as bivariate statistical tables and then analyzed. The study reveals that a significant percent (93.3) of higher level of education completed women had their consent of getting married whereas no consent was made by illiterate women. In the same way 46.7 percent higher level of education completed women had high level of purchasing power in compare to illiterate (.0%) and primary (14.6%) level completed women for the same level of purchasing. In the political decision making 86.7 percent higher level of education completed women had own consent to vote for election in contrast to 77.8 percent illiterate and 70.7 percent primary level completed women were influenced by their husband to decide voting.

  12. Promoting Immigrant Women's Cardiovascular Health Redesigning Patient Education Interventions.

    PubMed

    Fredericks, Suzanne; Guruge, Sepali

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death among women from low- to middle-income countries. The most common cardiovascular nursing intervention is that of patient education. However, the applicability of this intervention is questionable, as these educational initiatives are typically designed and evaluated using samples of "white" homogeneous males. Using the social determinants of health framework, this discursive article identifies specific strategies for redesigning existing cardiovascular education interventions to enhance their applicability to immigrant women. The recommendations will allow nurses to enhance the educational support offered resulting in the reduction and/or prevention of cardiovascular-related symptoms and/or complications. PMID:26517345

  13. Gynecological surveillance in high risk women.

    PubMed

    Dilley, James; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha

    2016-10-01

    In high-risk women, risk reducing surgery remains the cornerstone of prevention. However, the resulting premature menopause has led to continued efforts to develop effective screening strategies for those who wish to delay or avoid surgery. This review describes how the screening of women at risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer has evolved to its current state. Serial monitoring of CA125 is core to ovarian cancer screening and most recent studies have used the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Algorithm (ROCA) to interpret CA125 profile. The additional use of a second tumour marker, HE4, is reviewed. The results to date of key ovarian cancer screening studies in high-risk women are summarised ahead of their concluding findings due later in 2016. The role of both ultrasound and endometrial sampling in the management of women at increased risk of endometrial cancer is outlined. Exciting new methodology, which could help shape the future of screening is investigated. The article summarises the current recommendations and guidelines from recognised international bodies to aid the clinician with management of these women. PMID:26930388

  14. Rural Women and Osteoporosis: Awareness and Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hollie L.; Laya, Mary; DeWitt, Dawn E.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Little is known about rural women's knowledge about osteoporosis. Purpose: To explore what women from high-prevalence rural communities know about osteoporosis and to assess their learning preferences. Methods: We surveyed 437 women in rural Washington and Oregon. Findings: The response rate was 93% (N = 406). The mean age of respondents…

  15. Women and physics education in Trinidad and Tobago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Shelly C.; Daley, Candice

    2013-03-01

    The following paper focuses on the education system in Trinidad and Tobago, particularly on the involvement of girls and women in physics. The educational system is a three-tiered structure: primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Girls and women are given equal opportunities at all levels; however, career choices and the demand of the job market determines whether physics is chosen at the secondary level and onward. No formal survey was performed to quantify the number of girls and women involved in physics; however, scenarios are used to illustrate the different opportunities and tracks that are available to girls.

  16. Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Holford, M.

    2014-01-01

    Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W) is a 501c non profit corporation whose mission is to aid in increasing and retaining the number of women - especially underrepresented females - engaged in scientific teaching and research. Initiated by a Protein Chemist and an Astronomer, our ultimate goal has been to develop informational tools and create innovative outreach programs for women across all STEM fields. At present RAISE-W is recruiting women at the undergraduate, graduate, and early career stages to participate in a unique, 1-year, executive coaching program modeled after those used in the business sector.

  17. The development of educational programs for small-scale business women managers.

    PubMed

    Ha, P Y

    1991-01-01

    Results of a survey of demand for education among women managers of small-scale businesses in Korea are provided. Personal interviews were conducted by the Korean Women Development Institute in 1988 among 56 prospective women managers and 15 women managers and 32 experts. A pilot education program was held in 1988 and 1989; 69 women completed the course. Educational objectives are to give women an opportunity to learn the basic rudiments of running a business and develop the self-confidence to undertake this venture. The general objectives, management, evaluation, and postguidance of an educational program for women managers is given in addition to curriculum descriptions of several model programs in general and specifically directed to women. A profile of women surveyed is given; most had completed education beyond high school and were married. 66% planned to use their own money. In self-preparation for the establishment of a business, 26.9% of women used published market surveys and the advice of women already in business. 8 out of the 15 women managers had used their own start-up money. Net monthly earned income for women managers ranged from 500,000 won to 1.5 million won. Women worked 14-15 hour days. Some took holidays. Obstacles articulated by prospective managers were the lack of professional knowledge and experience and difficulties in human relationships due to lack of self-confidence and negative character. Difficulties expressed by women managers were lack of funding for expansion and maintenance of the business, of up-to-date technology, of information on the circulation of merchandise, credit dealings with customers, pricing, health, and laws. 78.5% of prospective women reported no confidence in management skills while most managers were satisfied. 54.2% reported feeling more confident after the pilot course and 39.0% had acquired skills. Content recommended included items on investment, site selection, and business planning for prospective managers

  18. Women as Leaders in Education: Succeeding Despite Inequity, Discrimination, and Other Challenges. Women and Careers in Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jennifer L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This up-to-date, candid examination of women's careers in education and leadership in education describes the pitfalls, triumphs, and future promise of female leaders in education. Despite the gains women have made in higher education over the past few decades, and an increasing number of well-qualified female candidates, they are still…

  19. Educating women about normal female genital appearance variation.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Gemma; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-03-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of two online resources aimed at improving women's knowledge of the variation in normal female genital appearance and their attitudes towards their own genitals. The first consisted of a photographic array of normal female genitals and the second consisted of a video addressing digital airbrushing of women's genitals in media images. A sample of 136 female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to view the photographs, video, both the photographs and video, or neither. The video significantly increased women's perceptions of genital appearance diversity as well as awareness of digital airbrushing of genital images. Owing to relatively low levels of genital appearance concern, there was no effect of either resource on women's attitudes towards their own genitals; however, women who viewed the video indicated they would pass on their knowledge to help other women. Our results suggest that an educational video could be a useful tool. PMID:26723015

  20. Credit with Education: A Self-Financing Way to Empower Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vor der Bruegge, Ellen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Credit with Education provides poor women with small loans; a safe place for savings; and education in health, nutrition, and family planning. The strategy integrates financial and educational services to empower women toward self-sufficiency. (SK)

  1. Selected List of Postsecondary Education Opportunities for Minorities and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Postsecondary Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    This brochure lists educational opportunities for minorities and women at the postsecondary level. In addition to specific loan, scholarship, and fellowship opportunities, it also provides some general information on how and where to seek out general assistance to prepare oneself to pursue additional education and career goals. The pamphlet was…

  2. Women's Educational Opportunities: Factors that Influence Their Graduate School Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sharrika D.; Amelink, Catherine; Hirt, Joan B.; Miyazaki, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Education is one key to economic prosperity. However, in a society bolstered by patriarchal systems, economic and educational inequalities exist among the genders. The purpose of this study was to determine whether certain collegiate experiences predict undergraduate women's expectation to enroll in graduate study and to determine if the…

  3. The Broken Web: The Educational Experience of Hispanic American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Teresa, Ed.; Ortiz, Flora Ida, Ed.

    The articles in this volume document an educational situation which underserves Chicanas/Latinas and contributes to an unraveling of women's power to perform creative functions in society. The lack of research on this topic only serves to hide the problem which threatens to undermine the educational success of a major percentage of Chicana/Latina…

  4. Women's Leadership of "Much Needed National Work" in Wartime Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Kay

    2016-01-01

    While there is a wealth of feminist research on women's educational leadership and policy-making in the interwar years, this article extends the discussion into the Second World War. My focus is the educational leadership of Dorothy Walker, head teacher of St Peter's Infant School and the youngest head teacher in Birmingham, and Lillian de Lissa,…

  5. Education of Women in India. 1921-1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Lakshmi

    After a survey of the social status and education of women in India prior to the passage of the Government of India Act and the introduction of diarchial government this document provides data on education for females in the Pre-Independence Period (1921-1947) and in the Post-Independence Period (1947-1966). Information is given on enrollment,…

  6. Gender and Early Learning Environments. Research on Women and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Beverly, Ed.; Brown, Genevieve H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The Research on Women and Education SIG of the American Educational Research Association presents the third book in its series, Gender and Early Learning Environments. Finding after the publication of Gender and Schooling in the Early Years, the second book in the series, that there was and is a paucity of published literature on early childhood…

  7. Globalization and Women in Southeast Asian Higher Education Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    This case study of Southeast Asian women in higher education management investigates culture-specific dimensions of "glass ceiling" impediments to career advancement in higher education. Respondents note that despite considerable training and expertise, Asian values and ideologies demand enactment of a construct of Asian femininity that militates…

  8. A History of Male Attitudes toward Educating Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clabaugh, Gary K.

    2010-01-01

    The very essence of a culture is revealed in its educational attitudes, policies, and practices. Just as blood pressure and body temperature are measures of physical health, such matters are measures of social justice. This article focuses on the attitudes of males toward the education of women by highlighting the attitudes of the most famous and…

  9. Trends and Issues of Women's Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jane; Carpenter, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    China has a rich educational history dating back more than three thousand years, but women did not become part of the mainstream education system until the last sixty years. The Confucian ideology, which has been deeply rooted throughout Chinese history, confined females to an oppressed social status. Moreover, this historical ideology continues…

  10. Dauntless Women in Childhood Education, 1856-1931.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Agnes

    The lives and contributions of nine women educators, all early founders or leaders of the International Kindergarten Union (IKU) or the National Council of Primary Education (NCPE), are profiled in this book. Their biographical sketches are presented in two sections. The Froebelian influences are discussed in Part 1 which includes the chapters on…

  11. What Constitutes Equity for Women in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Bernice

    Women and men too are becoming increasingly concerned about and aware of sex discrimination in higher education. In the past 2 years, formal charges of sex discrimination have been filed against 360 colleges and universities, none of which have been refuted by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Discrimination exists in all facets of…

  12. Formal or Nonformal Education? Entrepreneurial Women in Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Claire C.

    1984-01-01

    Ghanian women have a long history as traders. In early 1978, 42 Central Accra schoolgirls and 42 girls engaged in selling were surveyed to determine the relationship of formal education to marketing skills. Formal education was not significantly helpful in promoting schoolgirls' trading knowledge nor in providing skills likely to land them jobs.…

  13. Women Studying Childcare: Integrating Lives through Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Hazel R.

    2011-01-01

    Most studies of adult education align it with life change, but this research-based book tells a different story. It reveals how mature women who are training to work in childcare within the voluntary sector seek continuity in their lives. They engage with activities that connect aspects of their family, workplace and educational experience, and…

  14. Does Further Education in Adulthood Improve Physical and Mental Health among Australian Women? A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Tooth, Leigh; Mishra, Gita D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We analyzed whether further education in young adult and mid-life [adult educational mobility] influences physical functioning and depressive symptoms in women. Methods 14247 women born 1973–78 (younger cohort) and 13715 women born 1946–51 (mid-aged cohort) from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health were followed for 14–16 years. Measures were the Short-Form 36 Health Survey physical functioning subscale (SF-36 PF) and Centre for Epidemiologic Studies 10-item Depression Scale (CESD-10). Linear mixed modelling, accounting for time varying covariates, assessed the influence of further education on physical functioning and depressive symptoms over time. Sensitivity analysis to assess the impact of missing data was conducted using multiple imputation. Results Compared to younger women with a pre-existing high level of education, women gaining further education (up to age 39 years) from low levels had lower SF-36 PF scores (poorer physical functioning) (fully adjusted beta estimates (95%CIs) -1.52 (-2.59, -0.44)) while those gaining further education from middle to high levels showed equivalent SF-36 PF scores (-0.08 (-0.61, 0.44)). A similar pattern was shown for CESD-10 scores (0.78 (0.29, 1.25); -0.02 (-0.26, 0.21), respectively) where higher scores represented more depressive symptoms. For mid-age women, further education from a middle to high level resulted in equivalent SF-36 PF scores (-0.61 (-1.93,0.71)) but higher CESD-10 scores (0.49 (0.11, 0.86)), compared to highly educated women. Conclusion Women who delay further education until they are aged between their 40s and 60s can improve or maintain their physical functioning but may have missed the critical time to minimise depressive symptomatology. Public health policy should focus on encouraging women to upgrade their educational qualifications earlier in life in order to potentially offset the negative associations between their initial lower socio-economic position class of

  15. African Sojourn: Two Narratives of African American Women Educators' Educational Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Mignonne Y.

    This paper examines how the educational philosophies of two representative African American women university professors were influenced by multiple sojourns between Africa and North America. Two African American women born in the 1940s were interviewed about their early educational experiences, racial identity, and experiences in Africa. Each…

  16. Educational and Employment Opportunities for Women: Main Issues in Adult Education in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hootsmans, Helen M.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews existing programs for equal education and employment for women in Europe, including reentry to school and work, training for nontraditional fields, and management training. Discusses the role of adult educators in setting priorities, influencing policy, and obtaining funding for women's programs. (SK)

  17. Acquaintance Rape Prevention with High-Risk Women: Identification and Inoculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelein, Melissa J.

    1999-01-01

    Reasons are presented why rape education programming for women who have been sexually victimized may need to be different and separate from general programming. A process for identifying high-risk women is described. "Inoculation," a counseling group process, is described. Evaluation, feedback, and recommendations are reported. (EMK)

  18. Psychological and/or educational interventions for reducing alcohol consumption in pregnant women and women planning pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Stade, Brenda C; Bailey, Carol; Dzendoletas, Darlene; Sgro, Michael; Dowswell, Therese; Bennett, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    health of mothers and babies. Authors’ conclusions The evidence from the limited number of studies suggests that psychological and educational interventions may result in increased abstinence from alcohol, and a reduction in alcohol consumption among pregnant women. However, results were not consistent, and the paucity of studies, the number of total participants, the high risk of bias of some of the studies, and the complexity of interventions limits our ability to determine the type of intervention which would be most effective in increasing abstinence from, or reducing the consumption of, alcohol among pregnant women. PMID:19370597

  19. Women in Higher Education. Papers from a Conference Held in London on 29 June 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London Univ. (England). Inst. of Education.

    Delivered at a conference on women in British education, this collection of papers demonstrates with statistical evidence and close argument the extent of discrimination against women in higher education. "The Place of Women in the Changing Pattern of Further Education" by Eileen Byrne looks at women as they leave school at the secondary level and…

  20. Women's health education initiatives: why have they stalled?

    PubMed

    Henrich, Janet B

    2004-04-01

    Since the U.S. Congress first requested an assessment of women's health content in medical school curricula ten years ago, surveys indicate at least a two-fold increase in the number of schools with a women's health curriculum and no change in the number that offer a women's health clinical elective or rotation. Despite a marked increase in the number of schools with an office or program responsible for integration of women's health and gender-specific content into curricula, change has been modest. Reasons for this slow progress include uncertainty about the domain of women's health and what should be included in a curriculum, a lack of practical guidelines for implementation, and institutional resistance to change. The dominant factors that will influence future curriculum development are the increasing scientific knowledge base on sex and gender differences and the emerging scientific field of sex-based biology, both of which have potential to benefit the health of women. Evidence-based data on significant sex and gender differences will provide compelling reasons for schools to integrate this information into curricula, and new educational initiatives must further develop educational models to help implement change. As women's health becomes synonymous with the term "sex and gender differences," the challenge to schools is to address equally in their curricula those unique aspects of women's health that were part of the original intent of the congressional mandate. PMID:15044158

  1. Evaluation of an AIDS education model for women drug users in jail.

    PubMed

    Magura, S; Kang, S Y; Shapiro, J L; O'Day, J

    1995-02-01

    This paper reports outcome evaluation results of an AIDS education program for drug-using women in jail, of whom the majority were current drug injectors, had high-risk sexual partners, and never used condoms for insertive sex. The women participated in four small-group health/HIV education sessions. Education participants and controls were followed-up 7 months after their release from jail; the two groups did not differ significantly on drug- or sex-related HIV risk behaviors at follow-up. However, being in drug dependency treatment (primarily methadone maintenance) at follow-up was associated with reduced heroin use, crack use, drug dealing, and criminal activity. Although improved HIV education in jail is important, better networks of community resources, including more accessible community drug dependency treatment, also must be developed to support drug-dependent women after their release from jail. PMID:7790127

  2. Community Health Worker Hepatitis B Education for Cambodian American Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Victoria M.; Burke, Nancy J.; Sos, Channdara; Do, H. Hoai; Liu, Qi; Yasui, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    Background Cambodian Americans have high rates of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and liver cancer. There is very limited information about the utility of community health worker (CHW) approaches to cancer education for Asian American men. We have previously reported our positive findings from a trial of CHW education about HBV for Cambodian Americans who had never been tested for HBV. This report describes similarities and differences between the outcomes of our CHW HBV educational intervention among Cambodian American men and women. Methods The study group for this analysis included 87 individuals (39 men and 48 women) who were randomized to the experimental (HBV education) arm of our trial, participated in the CHW educational intervention, and provided follow-up data six months post-intervention. We examined HBV testing rates at follow-up, changes in HBV-related knowledge between baseline and follow-up, and barriers to HBV testing (that were reported to CHWs) by gender. Results At follow-up, 15% of men and 31% of women reported they had received a HBV test (p=0.09). HBV-related knowledge levels increased significantly among both men and women. With respect to HBV testing barriers, women were more likely than men to cite knowledge deficits, and men were more likely than women to cite logistic issues. Discussion Our study findings indicate that CHW interventions can positively impact knowledge among Cambodian American men, as well as women. They also suggest CHW interventions may be less effective in promoting the use of preventive procedures by Cambodian American men than women. Future CHW research initiatives should consider contextual factors that may differ by gender and, therefore, potentially influence the relative effectiveness of CHW interventions for men versus women. PMID:24083730

  3. A Grievance Handbook for Women Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Women Deans, Administrators, and Counselors, Washington, DC.

    Reference materials for the educator who has an employment-related grievance are presented. Basic principles and rights of employment and general procedures for filing a grievance both within and outside an employing institution are examined. The procedures apply for educators at the K-12 level, in higher education, and in social service agencies.…

  4. [The plant physiologist Julius von Sachs and the academic education of women].

    PubMed

    Gimmler, Hartmut

    2005-01-01

    The attitude of the famous plant physiologist Julius von Sachs (1832-1897) to higher education of women is described on the basis of some new documents. Generally, Sachs was in favour of academic education of women at universities, but initially wanted to exclude females from the study of medicine. However, by the example of a bright young Russian lady, who studied medicine in St. Petersburg and who worked 1871 in his laboratory in Würzburg on lower fungi for some time (presumably illegally, since the access for woman to the university was at that time officially forbidden in Würzburg), he changed his mind: 1) In contrast to many colleagues of his time he granted females similar intelligence and skills as males and stated that women had legal rights for the access to the university. 2) He favoured the general necessity of higher education (in particular in science) for women and did not see any contrast in respect to this to the role of women in the society as wives, mothers, and housewives. 3) Access to the university would stimulate the development of young women and thereby would be an improvement for our society. However, in conclusion he asked himself, whether the higher education of females should take place at special women colleges (not existing at that time in Germany) or at universities and whether girl students should preferentially become teachers at high schools for daughters of the high society. He admitted that he also felt uncomfortable because of the threatening job competition between young academic male (traditionally the majority of students in science) and female students. The liberal view of Sachs in respect to higher education of women is compared to the rather conservative view of his former student and friend Hugo Thiel. PMID:17153314

  5. The unfinished assignment: Educating Moroccan women for development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belhachmi, Zakia

    1987-12-01

    Western theories of development, and the resulting strategies and planning represent major structural barriers to Moroccan Women's Liberation. The author advocates a shift from current anti-participatory strategies to a new people-oriented approach, emphasizing the multiple roles of women within an integrated strategy. This involves linking educational projects with other parts of the infrastructure. Morocco's `way out' of exogenous development, the author contends, is contingent upon an adequate management of the educational system both at the institutional and personal levels. Therefore, educating women can be considered a sine qua non in optimizing conditions leading to endogenous development. The foundation is the establishment or strengthening of a whole infrastructure for the creation, transmission, and application of alternative methods likely to sustain socio-economic opportunities leading to Morocco's self-reliance.

  6. Peer education reaches young women factory workers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Cash, K

    1993-12-01

    In Thailand, the International Center for Research on Women conducted a study comparing the effect of various HIV/AIDS prevention activities on never-married women 14-24 years old who migrated to Chiang Mai to work in the export garment industry. These young women are very vulnerable to HIV/AIDS because they are freed from traditional norms and exposed to urban peer pressure. However, focus groups revealed that the women did not consider themselves at risk and feared negative reactions if they tried to discuss condoms with their boyfriends (who would equate knowledge with prior sexual experience). Among the interventions were a comic book which couched condom negotiation information in humorous terms and a romantic novel about a factory worker diagnosed with HIV. For 3 months trained peer leaders and health promoters led weekly educational sessions that included role-play. All participants were given a certificate noting that they had completed an AIDS education course. This certificate enabled the young women to broach the subject of AIDS with their boyfriends, their families, and their friends. The project improved their communication skills, their self-confidence, and their perceptions of risk. The most significant improvements were found among the women enrolled in the groups facilitated by peer leaders. Even though the peer leaders were not as knowledgeable as the health promoters, the peer leaders were more sensitive to the needs of the women and more capable of leading group discussions and participatory learning activities. PMID:12288826

  7. Professional Pioneers: Women Administrators in Architectural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woosnam, Margaret D.; Williams, Frankie K.

    2008-01-01

    Of the 114 accredited architecture programs within colleges and universities across America, only 18 (16%) have females in the highest administrative positions such as deans, directors, chairs, or heads. Despite this statistic, 50% of all graduates from architecture programs are female. Little is known about women administrators in architectural…

  8. Low-Educated Women with Chronic Pain Were Less Often Selected to Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Programs

    PubMed Central

    Hammarström, Anne; Haukenes, Inger; Fjellman Wiklund, Anncristine; Lehti, Arja; Wiklund, Maria; Evengård, Birgitta; Stålnacke, Britt-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a lack of research about a potential education-related bias in assessment of patients with chronic pain. The aim of this study was to analyze whether low-educated men and women with chronic pain were less often selected to multidisciplinary rehabilitation than those with high education. Methods The population consisted of consecutive patients (n = 595 women, 266 men) referred during a three-year period from mainly primary health care centers for a multidisciplinary team assessment at a pain rehabilitation clinic at a university hospital in Northern Sweden. Patient data were collected from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation National Pain Register. The outcome variable was being selected by the multidisciplinary team assessment to a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program. The independent variables were: sex, age, born outside Sweden, education, pain severity as well as the hospital, anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Results Low-educated women were less often selected to multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs than high-educated women (OR 0.55, CI 0.30–0.98), even after control for age, being born outside Sweden, pain intensity and HADS. No significant findings were found when comparing the results between high- and low-educated men. Conclusion Our findings can be interpreted as possible discrimination against low-educated women with chronic pain in hospital referrals to pain rehabilitation. There is a need for more gender-theoretical research emphasizing the importance of taking several power dimensions into account when analyzing possible bias in health care. PMID:24849625

  9. Graduate Social Work Faculty's Support for Educational Content on Women and on Sexism.

    PubMed

    Levin, Dana S; Woodford, Michael R; Gutiérrez, Lorraine M; Luke, Katherine P

    2015-10-01

    Social work faculty play an important role in preparing students to address sexism and engage in culturally competent practice with women. This study examines the nature of U.S. and Anglo-Canadian graduate social work faculty's support for content on women and on sexism. Although support appears high for both content areas, results suggest that faculty endorsement for content on women is significantly greater than that for sexism. Further, bivariate and multivariate analyses indicate that the nature of support differs for each content area. Implications for social work education are discussed. PMID:26489356

  10. The Impact of Family Migration and Family Life Cycle on the Employment Status of Married, College-Educated Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Lucy C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Data from 204 female faculty or faculty wives show that family life cycle (number and ages of children) and family migration significantly affect wives' employment status. Only extremely highly educated women initiate family relocation. (SK)

  11. Girls' and Women's Education in Nepal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    The impact of enlightened policies and incentives designed to increase girls' enrollment and achievement in education has been marginal in Nepal. Ministry of Education (MOE) goals aimed at increasing girls' participation include increasing the enrollment rate, opening early childhood development centers, promoting recruitment of at least one…

  12. Women's Aspirations for Graduate Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Meng-Jie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in Taiwan's universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative…

  13. Sensual Sexuality Education with Young Parenting Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubrium, Aline C.; Shafer, Miriam B.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women…

  14. Options in Education, Transcript for February 2, 1976: Individually Guided Education, Creative Playacting, and Women in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    "Options in Education" is a radio news program which focuses on issues and developments in education. This transcript contains discussions of Individually Guided Education, a program which was developed at the University of Wisconsin Research & Development Center; creative playacting; women in education, including children's perceptions of women…

  15. Literacy and Education for Sustainable Development and Women's Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson-Pant, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The fact that women constitute two-thirds of the world's non-literate population has been a cause for concern for several decades. Despite a number of high-profile literacy interventions specifically targeting women--including UNESCO's LIFE initiative--the disparity between male and female literacy rates persists in many countries of the world…

  16. Careers in Educational Administration: Are Women the Exception?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Susan

    Fifty percent (260) of the women in the United States identified as holding positions of superintendents, assistant/associate superintendents, and high school principals responded to questionnaires concerning career contingencies, career patterns, and career attitudes. Based on data from previous studies of men administrators, the women were, as a…

  17. Using Entertainment-Education to Promote Cervical Cancer Screening in Thai Women

    PubMed Central

    Love, Gail D.; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2015-01-01

    Southeast Asian women in California have high cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, but low levels of Pap screening. No published reports have addressed screening among Thai women. Entertainment-education (EE) is a useful strategy for low-literacy, culturally diverse populations. This quasi-experimental study determined whether a soap-opera-themed, Thai-language EE video was superior to a print handout for increasing knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intention toward Pap testing. No uniform differences were found between the intervention group (video) and the control group (brochure). Both educational modalities appeared to result in selected increases in knowledge and attitudes. PMID:22581487

  18. Strategies for Survival in Kenya: Women, Education, and Self-Help Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbugua-Murithi, Tata

    1997-01-01

    Drawing on data from 12 women's groups in Kenya, a recent study identified these women's general and demographic characteristics and discovered how rural Kenyan women acquire and exchange information, education, and learning skills; how education affects the groups' organizational management and leadership; how women work in groups and benefit…

  19. Women's Studies in England: Mature Women Students and Their Educational Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the attitudes of mature British women's studies students, exploring personal meanings given to education and kinds of knowledge appropriated. Their perspectives reveal dichotomies taken for granted throughout the university (experience versus theory and research versus teaching) which are structurally embedded in the current practices of…

  20. Women's Unequal Access to Education in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Ji-Sun

    1994-01-01

    The subordination of South Korean women, both in general and as manifested in education and employment, results from traditional patriarchal ideology derived from Confucianism and from capitalist economic development and industrialization. Discusses sex roles in the family and workplace and sex differences in school enrollments, employment, wages,…

  1. Black Feminist Thought: Implications for a Transformative Women's Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Shawn D.

    1996-01-01

    The history of black women's social reform work remains unrecognized in the academy and the general culture. The contributions of courageous black feminist authors such as bell hooks, Nikki Giovanni, and Audre Lorde are important for all students. Hooks works with educators to denounce sexist and racist stereotypes, Giovanni stresses the concept…

  2. Women Pursuing Higher Education in Ultra-Orthodox Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Nehami; Yedidya, Tova; Schwartz, Chaya; Aran, Ofra

    2014-01-01

    The study reported in this article concerns the beginnings of higher education for women in the Haredi (ultra-Orthodox) enclave in Israel. Haredi Jews are a self-secluded fundamentalist group committed to particularly strict interpretation of Jewish religious law. In recent years, they have been compelled by poverty and other factors to allow…

  3. Education and Women's Work: Some New Research Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the school-work relationship for women, noting that pertinent research traditions (occupational status attainment research, human capital research) have focused on men and male-female differences. Suggests reworking the models to focus on male-female differences in education (academic achievement, course choices, school socialization).…

  4. Resources in Women's Educational Equity. Special Issue 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Educational Equity Communications Network, San Francisco, CA.

    This compilation of over 2,000 document resumes contains abstracts or annotations of materials relevant to women's educational equity which were entered into computerized data bases from January 1975 through December 1976. Covering material produced from about 1973 to 1976, the citations relate to one of six subject categories which were the…

  5. The Identity of Educated Women in India: Confluence or Divergence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslak, Mary Ann; Singhal, Gayatri

    2008-01-01

    Under the combined effects of commercialisation, urbanisation, migration and employment, significant changes are taking place in India's process of modernisation. One change is the emergence of a population of women with degrees in higher education. These degrees, and the individuals' desire to pursue professional positions that relate to their…

  6. Women's Access to Higher Education in Tanzania: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Megan Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the ways in which first-generation women in Tanzania explained their success in pursuing a university education despite cultural and social obstacles. Such obstacles include social policies, socio-cultural factors, and academic factors. A review of the literature revealed that issues such as patriarchy,…

  7. Emancipation and Education of Indian Women Since 1829.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Glendora B.

    The problem of this study is to trace the emancipation and education of women since 1829 and to determine the factors that have shaped the course of this development and directed its trends. Before the Moslem conquest, which brought the Purdah system, child-marriage, polygamy and divorce, the Hindu woman's status had changed from equality to men…

  8. Qualitative Inequality: Experiences of Women in Ethiopian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje; Cuthbert, Denise

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the lived experiences of women in Ethiopian higher education (HE) as a counterpoint to understandings of gender equity informed only by data on admission, progression and completions rates. Drawing on a critical qualitative inquiry approach, we analyse and interpret data drawn from focus group discussions with female students…

  9. Patriarchy: A Case of Women in Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlamini, Eunice Tressa; Adams, Jabulile Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    This article presents research on women's experiences of patriarchy in a Higher Education Institution X. This is a qualitative study located within the interpretivists' paradigm. The research problem of this study is articulated through the following research questions: how do female academics experience patriarchy? How does patriarchy…

  10. Women's somatic styles: rethinking breast self-examination education.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Lyndall

    2003-11-01

    In this ethnographic study I explored women's somatic and sexual experiences, reception of breast self-examination (BSE) messages, and reactions to the practice of BSE. Mainstream BSE education uses messages that deemphasize the woman, her breasts, and her relationship to them as sexual. The turbid confluence of societally eroticized breasts and self-touch taboos makes it unlikely that women filter these messages in an asexual way. Using grounded theory, I examined women's expression of the self-body relationship and the sociocultural milieu within which women consider BSE education materials. Seven subjects varying in age, sexual orientation, parenting, and relationship status were interviewed about their physical experiences, self-touch, and body image. Subjects also participated in a BSE class and focus group, and composed a journal entry describing their reactions to practicing BSE. Discernible patterns in somatic memories, somatic styles, and reactions to BSE educational messages were found. This study suggests a need for a more consciously feminist approach to BSE education. PMID:14742115