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Sample records for highly polar molecules

  1. Nonadiabatic molecular high-order harmonic generation from polar molecules: Spectral redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Bian Xuebin; Bandrauk, Andre D.

    2011-04-15

    Molecular high-order harmonic generation (MHOHG) from the polar diatomic molecule HeH{sup 2+} in short intense laser fields is studied numerically. Due to the nonadiabatic response of the molecular dipole to the rapid change of laser intensity, a spectral redshift is predicted in high-intensity and ultrashort laser pulses, contrary to the blueshift observed in the harmonics generated from atoms in long laser pulses. The MHOHG temporal structures are investigated by a wavelet time-frequency analysis, which shows that the enhanced excitation of localized long lifetime excited states shifts the harmonic generation spectrum in the falling part of short laser pulses, due to the presence of a permanent dipole moment, and thus is unique to polar molecules.

  2. Tilting and wobble of myosin V by high-speed single-molecule polarized fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Beausang, John F; Shroder, Deborah Y; Nelson, Philip C; Goldman, Yale E

    2013-03-19

    Myosin V is biomolecular motor with two actin-binding domains (heads) that take multiple steps along actin by a hand-over-hand mechanism. We used high-speed polarized total internal reflection fluorescence (polTIRF) microscopy to study the structural dynamics of single myosin V molecules that had been labeled with bifunctional rhodamine linked to one of the calmodulins along the lever arm. With the use of time-correlated single-photon counting technology, the temporal resolution of the polTIRF microscope was improved ~50-fold relative to earlier studies, and a maximum-likelihood, multitrace change-point algorithm was used to objectively determine the times when structural changes occurred. Short-lived substeps that displayed an abrupt increase in rotational mobility were detected during stepping, likely corresponding to random thermal fluctuations of the stepping head while it searched for its next actin-binding site. Thus, myosin V harnesses its fluctuating environment to extend its reach. Additional, less frequent angle changes, probably not directly associated with steps, were detected in both leading and trailing heads. The high-speed polTIRF method and change-point analysis may be applicable to single-molecule studies of other biological systems. PMID:23528086

  3. Probing the origin of elliptical high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules in linearly polarized laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Sang-Kil; Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, Shih-I.

    2010-10-15

    A recent experiment [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009)] has demonstrated that elliptically polarized high-order harmonic generation can be produced from linearly polarized driving fields for aligned molecular systems. In order to reveal the underlying physical mechanisms of elliptical harmonics, we present fully ab initio and high-precision calculations and analyses of the amplitude, phase, and polarization state of the harmonic radiation from molecular hydrogen ions with arbitrary orientation. We find that high ellipticity arises from molecular orbital symmetry and two-center interference effects. Our ab initio exploration and findings lead to a general rule that the ellipticity becomes high for molecular orbitals represented by a symmetric combination of atomic orbitals, whereas it becomes low for molecular orbitals represented by an antisymmetric combination. This finding also applies to the general case of aligned linear molecules.

  4. High-order harmonic generation of N2 molecule in two-color circularly polarized laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Du; Jun, Zhang; Shuai, Ben; Hui-Ying, Zhong; Tong-Tong, Xu; Jing, Guo; Xue-Shen, Liu

    2016-04-01

    The generation of high-order harmonics and the attosecond pulse of the N2 molecule in two-color circularly polarized laser fields are investigated by the strong-field Lewenstein model. We show that the plateau of spectra is dramatically extended and a continuous harmonic spectrum with the bandwidth of 113 eV is obtained. When a static field is added to the x direction, the quantum path control is realized and a supercontinuum spectrum can be obtained, which is beneficial to obtain a shorter attosecond pulse. The underlying physical mechanism is well explained by the time–frequency analysis and the semi-classical three-step model with a finite initial transverse velocity. By superposing several orders of harmonics in the combination of two-color circularly polarized laser fields and a static field, an isolated attosecond pulse with a duration of 30 as can be generated. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61575077, 11271158, and 11574117).

  5. Circularly Polarized Luminescence from Simple Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Carnerero, Esther M; Agarrabeitia, Antonia R; Moreno, Florencio; Maroto, Beatriz L; Muller, Gilles; Ortiz, María J; de la Moya, Santiago

    2015-09-21

    This article aims to show the identity of "circularly polarized luminescent active simple organic molecules" as a new concept in organic chemistry due to the potential interest of these molecules, as availed by the exponentially growing number of research articles related to them. In particular, it describes and highlights the interest and difficulty in developing chiral simple (small and non-aggregated) organic molecules able to emit left- or right-circularly polarized light efficiently, the efforts realized up to now to reach this challenging objective, and the most significant milestones achieved to date. General guidelines for the preparation of these interesting molecules are also presented. PMID:26136234

  6. Production and Trapping of Ultracold Polar Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    David, DeMille

    2015-04-21

    We report a set of experiments aimed at the production and trapping of ultracold polar molecules. We begin with samples of laser-cooled and trapped Rb and Cs atoms, and bind them together to form polar RbCs molecules. The binding is accomplished via photoassociation, which uses a laser to catalyze the sticking process. We report results from investigation of a new pathway for photoassociation that can produce molecules in their absolute ground state of vibrational and rotational motion. We also report preliminary observations of collisions between these ground-state molecules and co-trapped atoms.

  7. Trapping polar molecules in an ac trap

    SciTech Connect

    Bethlem, Hendrick L.; Veldhoven, Jacqueline van; Schnell, Melanie; Meijer, Gerard

    2006-12-15

    Polar molecules in high-field seeking states cannot be trapped in static traps as Maxwell's equations do not allow a maximum of the electric field in free space. It is possible to generate an electric field that has a saddle point by superposing an inhomogeneous electric field to an homogeneous electric field. In such a field, molecules are focused along one direction, while being defocused along the other. By reversing the direction of the inhomogeneous electric field the focusing and defocusing directions are reversed. When the fields are being switched back and forth at the appropriate rate, this leads to a net focusing force in all directions. We describe possible electrode geometries for creating the desired fields and discuss their merits. Trapping of {sup 15}ND{sub 3} ammonia molecules in a cylindrically symmetric ac trap is demonstrated. We present measurements of the spatial distribution of the trapped cloud as a function of the settings of the trap and compare these to both a simple model assuming a linear force and to full three-dimensional simulations of the experiment. With the optimal settings, molecules within a phase-space volume of 270 mm{sup 3} (m/s){sup 3} remain trapped. This corresponds to a trap depth of about 5 mK and a trap volume of about 20 mm{sup 3}.

  8. Quantum Memory via Wigner Crystals of Polar Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Peng

    2011-12-01

    Collective excitations of rotational and spin states of an ensemble of polar molecules as a candidate for a high-fidelity quantum memory are studied. The dipolar crystals are formed in the high-density limit of cold clouds of polar molecules under one-dimensional trapping conditions. The lifetime of quantum memory is calculated by identifying the dominant decoherence mechanisms, and we estimate their effects on gate operations, when a molecular ensemble qubit is transferred to a superconducting microwave cavity.

  9. Fluorescence Polarization Assays in Small Molecule Screening

    PubMed Central

    Lea, Wendy A.; Simeonov, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Importance of the field Fluorescence polarization (FP) is a homogeneous method that allows rapid and quantitative analysis of diverse molecular interactions and enzyme activities. This technique has been widely utilized in clinical and biomedical settings, including the diagnosis of certain diseases and monitoring therapeutic drug levels in body fluids. Recent developments in the field has been symbolized by the facile adoption of FP in high-throughput screening (HTS) and small molecule drug discovery of an increasing range of target classes. Areas covered in this review The article provides a brief overview on the theoretical foundation of FP, followed by updates on recent advancements in its application for various drug target classes, including G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), enzymes and protein-protein interactions (PPIs). The strengths and weaknesses of this method, practical considerations in assay design, novel applications, and future directions are also discussed. What the reader will gain The reader will be informed of the most recent advancements and future directions of FP application to small molecule screening. Take home message In addition to its continued utilization in high-throughput screening, FP has expanded into new disease and target areas and has been marked by increased use of labeled small molecule ligands for receptor binding studies. PMID:22328899

  10. Spinor Bose-Einstein condensates of rotating polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y.; Yi, S.

    2015-09-01

    We propose a scheme to realize a pseudospin-1 /2 model of the 1? (v =0 ) bialkali polar molecules with the spin states corresponding to two sublevels of the first excited rotational level. We show that the effective dipole-dipole interaction between two spin-1 /2 molecules couples the rotational and orbital angular momenta and is highly tunable via a microwave field. We also investigate the ground-state properties of a spin-1 /2 molecular condensate. A variety of nontrivial quantum phases, including the doubly quantized vortex states, are discovered. Our scheme can also be used to create spin-1 model of polar molecules. Thus we show that the ultracold gases of bialkali polar molecules provide a unique platform for studying the spinor condensates of rotating molecules.

  11. Strong-field approximation for ionization of a diatomic molecule by a strong laser field. III. High-order above-threshold ionization by an elliptically polarized field

    SciTech Connect

    Busuladzic, M.; Gazibegovic-Busuladzic, A.; Milosevic, D. B.

    2009-07-15

    We investigate high-order above-threshold ionization (HATI) of diatomic molecules having different symmetries by an elliptically polarized laser field using the modified molecular strong-field approximation. The yields of high-energy electrons contributing to the plateau region of the photoelectron spectra strongly depend on the employed ellipticity. This is more pronounced if the major axis of the polarization ellipse is parallel or perpendicular to the molecular axis and at the end of the high-energy plateau. For the O{sub 2} molecule (characterized by {pi}{sub g} symmetry) the maximum yield is observed for some value of the ellipticity {epsilon} different from zero. On the other hand, in the same circumstances, the N{sub 2} molecule ({sigma}{sub g}) behaves as an atom, i.e., the yield is maximum for {epsilon}=0. These characteristics of the photoelectron spectra remain valid in a wide region of the molecular orientations and laser peak intensities. The symmetry properties of the molecular HATI spectra are considered in detail: by changing the molecular orientation one or other type of the symmetry emerges or disappears. Presenting differential ionization spectra in the ionized electron energy-emission angle plane we have observed similar interference effects as in the HATI spectra governed by a linearly polarized field.

  12. Orientation detection of a single molecule using pupil filter with electrically controllable polarization pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Mamoru; Yoshiki, Keisuke; Kurihara, Makoto; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a system for measuring the orientation of single molecules using a conventional wide-field fluorescence microscope with a polarization filter consisting of a polarizer and a compact polarization mode converter. The polarization filter electrically controls the pattern of polarization filtering. Since the polarization of the fluorescence from a single molecule highly depends on the angle between the observation direction and the molecular direction, polarization pattern filtering at the pupil plane of the objective lens allows the orientation of a single molecule to be visualized. Using this system, we demonstrated the orientation detection of single molecules.

  13. Tunable Holstein model with cold polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Felipe; Krems, Roman V.

    2011-11-15

    We show that an ensemble of polar molecules trapped in an optical lattice can be considered as a controllable open quantum system. The coupling between collective rotational excitations and the motion of the molecules in the lattice potential can be controlled by varying the strength and orientation of an external dc electric field as well as the intensity of the trapping laser. The system can be described by a generalized Holstein Hamiltonian with tunable parameters and can be used as a quantum simulator of excitation energy transfer and polaron phenomena. We show that the character of excitation energy transfer can be modified by tuning experimental parameters.

  14. Optical Production of Ultracold Polar Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Sage, Jeremy M.; Sainis, Sunil; DeMille, David; Bergeman, Thomas

    2005-05-27

    We demonstrate the production of ultracold polar RbCs molecules in their vibronic ground state, via photoassociation of laser-cooled atoms followed by a laser-stimulated state transfer process. The resulting sample of X{sup 1}{sigma}{sup +}(v=0) molecules has a translational temperature of {approx}100 {mu}K and a narrow distribution of rotational states. With the method described here it should be possible to produce samples even colder in all degrees of freedom, as well as other bialkali species.

  15. Dipolar collisions of polar molecules in the quantum regime.

    PubMed

    Ni, K-K; Ospelkaus, S; Wang, D; Qumner, G; Neyenhuis, B; de Miranda, M H G; Bohn, J L; Ye, J; Jin, D S

    2010-04-29

    Ultracold polar molecules offer the possibility of exploring quantum gases with interparticle interactions that are strong, long-range and spatially anisotropic. This is in stark contrast to the much studied dilute gases of ultracold atoms, which have isotropic and extremely short-range (or 'contact') interactions. Furthermore, the large electric dipole moment of polar molecules can be tuned using an external electric field; this has a range of applications such as the control of ultracold chemical reactions, the design of a platform for quantum information processing and the realization of novel quantum many-body systems. Despite intense experimental efforts aimed at observing the influence of dipoles on ultracold molecules, only recently have sufficiently high densities been achieved. Here we report the experimental observation of dipolar collisions in an ultracold molecular gas prepared close to quantum degeneracy. For modest values of an applied electric field, we observe a pronounced increase in the loss rate of fermionic potassium-rubidium molecules due to ultracold chemical reactions. We find that the loss rate has a steep power-law dependence on the induced electric dipole moment, and we show that this dependence can be understood in a relatively simple model based on quantum threshold laws for the scattering of fermionic polar molecules. In addition, we directly observe the spatial anisotropy of the dipolar interaction through measurements of the thermodynamics of the dipolar gas. These results demonstrate how the long-range dipolar interaction can be used for electric-field control of chemical reaction rates in an ultracold gas of polar molecules. Furthermore, the large loss rates in an applied electric field suggest that creating a long-lived ensemble of ultracold polar molecules may require confinement in a two-dimensional trap geometry to suppress the influence of the attractive, 'head-to-tail', dipolar interactions. PMID:20428166

  16. Aspects of Quantum Computing with Polar Paramagnetic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karra, Mallikarjun; Friedrich, Bretislav

    2015-05-01

    Since the original proposal by DeMille, arrays of optically trapped ultracold polar molecules have been considered among the most promising prototype platforms for the implementation of a quantum computer. The qubit of a molecular array is realized by a single dipolar molecule entangled via its dipole-dipole interaction with the rest of the array's molecules. A superimposed inhomogeneous electric field precludes the quenching of the body-fixed dipole moments by rotation and a time dependent external field controls the qubits to perform gate operations. Much like our previous work in which we considered the simplest cases of a polar 1 Σ and a symmetric top molecule, here we consider a X2Π3 / 2 polar molecule (exemplified by the OH radical) which, by virtue of its nonzero electronic spin and orbital angular momenta, is, in addition, paramagnetic. We demonstrate entanglement tuning by evaluating the concurrence (and the requisite frequencies needed for gate operations) between two such molecules in the presence of varying electric and magnetic fields. Finally, we discuss the conditions required for achieving qubit addressability (transition frequency difference, Δω , as compared with the concomitant Stark and Zeeman broadening) and high fidelity. International Max Planck Research School - Functional Interfaces in Physics and Chemistry.

  17. Dynamics of thermal Casimir-Polder forces on polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingsen, Simen Aadnoey; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Scheel, Stefan

    2009-05-15

    We study the influence of thermal Casimir-Polder forces on the near-surface trapping of cold polar molecules, with emphasis on LiH and YbF near a Au surface at room temperature. We show that even for a molecule initially prepared in its electronic and rovibrational ground state, the Casimir-Polder force oscillates with the molecule-wall separation. The nonresonant force and the evanescent part of the resonant force almost exactly cancel at high temperature which results in a saturation of the (attractive) force in this limit. This implies that the Casimir-Polder force on a fully thermalized molecule can differ dramatically from that obtained using a naive perturbative expansion of the Lifshitz formula based on the molecular ground-state polarizability. A dynamical calculation reveals how the spatial oscillations die out on a typical time scale of several seconds as thermalization of the molecule with its environment sets in.

  18. Electric field control of ultracold polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, John

    2003-05-01

    Recent work in ultracold collisions has emphasized new opportunities for artificially controlling the interactions between atoms and molecules. The most familiar example of this is a class of magnetic-field Feshbach resonances, present in certain alkali atoms, that enable experimenters to manipulate the sign and magnitude of mean-field interactions, as well as to create molecular states. In this talk I will examine instead the impact of electric fields on the interactions between ground-state polar molecules at ultralow temperatures. Electric fields have a decisive influence, and are in fact capable of changing the qualitative nature of the effective intermolecular potential. Moreover, the competition between the forces the molecules apply to each other, and the forces applied by an electric field, generates a new class of weakly-bound molecular states (avd). These ``field-linked'' states may be of great importance in interpreting and controlling cold molecular collisions, including, perhaps, chemical reactions. A. V. Avdeenkov and J. L. Bohn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 043006 (2003).

  19. Towards Hybrid Quantum Information Processing with Polar Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabl, Peter

    2008-05-01

    With the ongoing miniaturization of on-chip traps for atoms and ions it is timely to think about coherent interfaces between AMO and solid state systems with potential applications for new hybrid implementations for quantum computers. In this talk I will discuss a potential scenario, where ensembles of polar molecules serve as long-lived quantum memories for superconducting qubits and quantum information is transmitted via a high-Q microwave cavity. Polar molecules combine the exceptional features of a large electric dipole moment and long-lived rotational states with level splittings in the GHz regime. When trapped close to the surface of a chip this combination allows strong interactions with coherent solid state devices, e.g., superconducting microwave cavities or Josephson qubits. I will first introduce the system consisting of a single polar molecule coupled to a stripline cavity which realizes a cavity QED system in the microwave regime and discuss applications for quantum information processing, state detection and new cavity-assisted cooling schemes for polar molecules. I will then switch to molecular ensemble qubits where quantum information is encoded in collective spin or rotational excitations of an ensemble of N molecules. Ensemble qubits benefit from a collectively enhanced coupling ˜√N which allows quantum state transfer between the molecules and, e.g., a charge qubit on a timescale that is compatible with typical coherence times in a solid state environment. With the goal to protect ensemble qubits from collisions, I will finally discuss a scenario, where molecules are prepared in a crystalline phase under 1D trapping conditions and dipole moments aligned by an external field.

  20. Toroidal nanotraps for cold polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Salhi, Marouane; Passian, Ali; Siopsis, George

    2015-09-14

    Electronic excitations in metallic nanoparticles in the optical regime that have been of great importance in surface-enhanced spectroscopy and emerging applications of molecular plasmonics, due to control and confinement of electromagnetic energy, may also be of potential to control the motion of nanoparticles and molecules. Here, we propose a concept for trapping polarizable particles and molecules using toroidal metallic nanoparticles. Specifically, gold nanorings are investigated for their scattering properties and field distribution to computationally show that the response of these optically resonant particles to incident photons permit the formation of a nanoscale trap when proper aspect ratio, photon wavelength, and polarization are considered. However, interestingly the resonant plasmonic response of the nanoring is shown to be detrimental to the trap formation. The results are in good agreement with analytic calculations in the quasistatic limit within the first-order perturbation of the scalar electric potential. The possibility of extending the single nanoring trapping properties to two-dimensional arrays of nanorings is suggested by obtaining the field distribution of nanoring dimers and trimers.

  1. Toroidal nanotraps for cold polar molecules

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Salhi, Marouane; Passian, Ali; Siopsis, George

    2015-09-14

    Electronic excitations in metallic nanoparticles in the optical regime that have been of great importance in surface-enhanced spectroscopy and emerging applications of molecular plasmonics, due to control and confinement of electromagnetic energy, may also be of potential to control the motion of nanoparticles and molecules. Here, we propose a concept for trapping polarizable particles and molecules using toroidal metallic nanoparticles. Specifically, gold nanorings are investigated for their scattering properties and field distribution to computationally show that the response of these optically resonant particles to incident photons permit the formation of a nanoscale trap when proper aspect ratio, photon wavelength, andmore » polarization are considered. However, interestingly the resonant plasmonic response of the nanoring is shown to be detrimental to the trap formation. The results are in good agreement with analytic calculations in the quasistatic limit within the first-order perturbation of the scalar electric potential. The possibility of extending the single nanoring trapping properties to two-dimensional arrays of nanorings is suggested by obtaining the field distribution of nanoring dimers and trimers.« less

  2. Nuclear Polarization of H{sub 2} Molecules formed from Polarized Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, T.; Balewski, J.T.; Daehnick, W.W.; Doskow, J.; Friesel, D.; Haeberli, W.; Kolster,H.; Lorentz, B.; Meyer, H.O.; Pancella, P.V.; Pollock, R.E.; Przewoski, B.v.; Quin, P.A.; Rathmann, F.; Rinckel, T.; Saha, Swapan K.; Schwartz, B.; Wellinghausen, A.

    2000-12-31

    A planned experiment to measure the nuclear polarization of H{sub 2} molecules formed by recombination of polarized H atoms is described. Polarization will be measured with a longitudinally polarized 200-MeV proton beam and a longitudinally polarized storage cell gas target at the IUCF cooler ring.

  3. Transport of polar molecules by an alternating-gradient guide

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, T. E.; Armitage, S.; Hudson, J. J.; Sauer, B. E.; Dyne, J. M.; Hinds, E. A.; Tarbutt, M. R.

    2009-10-15

    An alternating-gradient electric guide provides a way to transport a wide variety of polar molecules, including those in high-field-seeking states. We investigate the motion of polar molecules in such a guide by measuring the transmission of CaF molecules in their high-field-seeking ground state, with the guide operating at a variety of switching frequencies and voltages. We model the guide using analytical and numerical techniques and compare the predictions of these models to the experimental results and to one another. The analytical results are approximate but provide simple and useful estimates for the maximum phase-space acceptance of the guide and for the switching frequency required. The numerical methods provide more accurate results over the full range of switching frequencies. Our investigation shows that, even when the fields are static, some high-field-seeking molecules are able to pass through the guide on metastable trajectories. We show that the maximum possible transmission requires accurate alignment within the guide and between the guide and detector.

  4. Continuous centrifuge decelerator for polar molecules.

    PubMed

    Chervenkov, S; Wu, X; Bayerl, J; Rohlfes, A; Gantner, T; Zeppenfeld, M; Rempe, G

    2014-01-10

    Producing large samples of slow molecules from thermal-velocity ensembles is a formidable challenge. Here we employ a centrifugal force to produce a continuous molecular beam with a high flux at near-zero velocities. We demonstrate deceleration of three electrically guided molecular species, CH3F, CF3H, and CF3CCH, with input velocities of up to 200  m s(-1) to obtain beams with velocities below 15  m s(-1) and intensities of several 10(9)  mm(-2) s(-1). The centrifuge decelerator is easy to operate and can, in principle, slow down any guidable particle. It has the potential to become a standard technique for continuous deceleration of molecules. PMID:24483892

  5. Molecular polarizability in quantum defect theory: polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Akindinova, E. V.; Chernov, V. E.; Kretinin, I. Yu.; Zon, B. A.

    2010-04-15

    The reduced-added Green's function technique in the quantum defect theory combines the advantages of analytical and ab initio methods in calculating frequency-dependent (dynamic) polarizabilities of atoms and molecules, providing an exact account for the high-excited and continuum electronic states. In the present paper this technique is modified to take into account the long-range dipole potential of a polar molecule core. The method developed is applied to calculation of the dynamic polarizability tensors of alkali-metal hydrides LiH and NaH as well as to some fluorides (CaF and BF) in the frequency range up to the first resonances. The results are in good agreement with ab initio calculations available for some frequencies.

  6. Spontaneous interlayer superfluidity in bilayer systems of cold polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Lutchyn, Roman M.; Das Sarma, S.; Rossi, Enrico

    2010-12-15

    Recent experimental progress in producing ultracold polar molecules with a net electric dipole moment opens up possibilities for realizing quantum phases governed by the long-range and anisotropic dipole-dipole interactions. In this work we predict the existence of experimentally observable broken-symmetry states with spontaneous interlayer coherence in cold polar molecule bilayers. These exotic states, which are manifestations of collective bilayer quantum entanglement, appear due to strong repulsive interlayer interactions and exhibit properties of superfluids, ferromagnets, and excitonic condensates.

  7. Quantum phase gate and controlled entanglement with polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Charron, Eric; Keller, Arne; Atabek, Osman; Milman, Perola

    2007-03-15

    We propose an alternative scenario for the generation of entanglement between rotational quantum states of two polar molecules. This entanglement arises from dipole-dipole interaction, and is controlled by a sequence of laser pulses simultaneously exciting both molecules. We study the efficiency of the process, and discuss possible experimental implementations with cold molecules trapped in optical lattices or in solid matrices. Finally, various entanglement detection procedures are presented, and their suitability for these two physical situations is analyzed.

  8. Quantum Fluids of Self-Assembled Chains of Polar Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.-W.; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Demler, Eugene

    2006-11-03

    We study polar molecules in a stack of strongly confined pancake traps. When dipole moments point perpendicular to the planes of the traps and are sufficiently strong, the system is stable against collapse but attractive interaction between molecules in different layers leads to the formation of dipolar chains, analogously to the chaining phenomenon in classical rheological electro- and magnetofluids. We analyze properties of the resulting quantum liquid of dipolar chains and show that only the longest chains undergo Bose-Einstein condensation with a strongly reduced condensation temperature. We discuss several experimental methods for studying chains of polar molecules.

  9. Reactive collisions of ultracold polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makrides, Constantinos; Kotochigova, Svetlana; Petrov, Alexander

    2013-05-01

    There has been a recent increase in the number of experimental and theoretical efforts in describing and controlling ultra cold chemistry. A number of groups have been able to create and trap a number of cold molecules and are now looking to move into controlling more exotic molecular systems. Critical to this movement is understanding the various interactions between the atoms and molecules in the trap. We offer here a study of the these interactions using Li + LiYb as a test system of interest. Using ab initio calculations we are able to obtain the long range interactions for the current system and connect to the short range interactions to provide a description of the interaction landscape. With this information, chemical reactions such as the exchange reaction (Li + LiYb --> Yb + Li2) can be practically approached in scattering calculations. We acknowledge funding from the ARO MURI on quantum control of chemical reactions and the National Science Foundation.

  10. Polarization of excitation light influences molecule counting in single-molecule localization microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ye; Lin, Han; Ludford-Menting, Mandy J; Clayton, Andrew H; Gu, Min; Russell, Sarah M

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule localization microscopy has been widely applied to count the number of biological molecules within a certain structure. The percentage of molecules that are detected significantly affects the interpretation of data. Among many factors that affect this percentage, the polarization state of the excitation light is often neglected or at least unstated in publications. We demonstrate by simulation and experiment that the number of molecules detected can be different from -40 up to 100% when using circularly or linearly polarized excitation light. This is determined mainly by the number of photons emitted by single fluorescent molecule, namely the choice of fluorescence proteins, and the background noise in the system, namely the illumination scheme. This difference can be further exaggerated or mitigated by various fixation methods, magnification, and camera settings We conclude that the final choice between circularly or linearly polarized excitation light should be made experimentally, based on the signal to noise ratio of the system. PMID:25182934

  11. Giant molecules composed of polar molecules and atoms in mixed dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ran; Tan, Shina

    2014-05-01

    Two or three polar molecules, confined to one or two dimensions, can form stable bound states with a single atom living in three dimensions, if the molecule and the atom can interact resonantly such that their mixed dimensional scattering length is large. We call these bound states ``giant molecules'' since it's a molecule composed of smaller molecules and atoms. We study their properties using techniques including exact numerical solution, exact qunatum diffusion Monte Carlo (QMC), Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA), and semiclassical approximation. These bound states have a hierarchical structure reminiscent of the celestial systems.

  12. Graphene Transport Under the Influence of Polar Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Barrett; Kim, Seohee; Park, Saungeun; Rossky, Peter; Akinwande, Deji; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2015-03-01

    Charged defects and impurities play a very important role in charge transport in graphene field-effect transistors (FETs). They influence the mobility, residual doping, and the Dirac voltage. Long-range scattering by charged impurities in fabricated graphene FETs lowers the mobility of charge carriers, while short range scattering affects the value of residual carrier concentration. Our group has shown that the electrical properties of graphene FETs are significantly improved upon exposure to fluoropolymers or polar organic vapors. We have demonstrated favorable Dirac voltage shifts, increases in mobility, and reduction in residual carrier concentration as a result of polar molecules altering the dielectric environment surrounding the graphene/substrate interface of a graphene FET. Screening of charged impurity scattering is hypothesized to be the principal effect by which the polar molecules of the altered dielectric layer bring about improvements. We employ computational chemistry to model polar organic molecule-graphene systems. Such modeling will help explain experimental results. We acknowledge support from NASCENT NSF EEC-1160494 and NSF CHE-1362381.

  13. Controlling cold collisions of polar molecules with external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticknor, Christopher Carl

    2005-11-01

    In this thesis we explore how external fields can be used to control collisions of ultracold polar molecules. First we review the Stark and Zeeman effects for polar molecules and two body multi-channel scattering theory. A general treatment of the Stark effect and dipolar interactions is also presented. We consider cold collisions of OH molecules in the 2pi 3/2 ground state under the influence of a magnetic field. We find that modest fields of several thousand Gauss can act to suppress inelastic collisions of weak-field-seeking states by two orders of magnitude. We attribute this suppression to two factors: (i) an indirect coupling of the entrance and the exit channel, in contrast to the effect of an applied electric field and (ii) the relative shift of the entrance and exit scattering thresholds. In view of these results, magnetic trapping of OH may prove experimentally feasible. We also present first steps toward understanding the ultracold scattering properties of polar molecules in strong electric field-seeking states. We have found that the elastic cross section displays a quasi-regular set of potential resonances as a function of the electric field, which potentially offers intimate details about the intermolecular interaction. We illustrate these resonances using a "toy" model composed of pure dipoles and a more physically realistic system. To analyze these resonances, we use a simple WKB approximation to the eigenphase, which proves both reasonably accurate and meaningful.

  14. Universal Matchgate Quantum Computing With Cold Polar Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Felipe

    2015-03-01

    Polar molecules in optical lattices are attractive for quantum simulation and computation due to the ability to implement a variety of spin-lattice models using static, microwave and optical fields to engineer the long-range dipolar interaction between molecular qubits. Quantum simulation of spin models requires global control over the molecular ensemble, while quantum computation requires control of individual molecules with sub-wavelength resolution. In this talk, we describe the implementation of a matchgate quantum processor with an ensemble of polar molecules in an optical lattice. The scheme uses few-body qubit encoding and sequential control of two-body dipolar interactions over small plaquetes on a square lattice to perform universal quantum computing without single-site addressing. Effective spin-spin interactions with matchgate symmetry between open-shell polar molecules (e.g., SrF, OH) are driven by two infrared control pulses in the absence of static electric fields. The resulting matchgates are robust with respect to realistic imperfections in the driving fields and lattice trapping. Applications of the architecture for the simulation of interacting fermions in quantum chemistry are discussed, considering an imperfect lattice filling.

  15. Polarized Raman optical activity of menthol and related molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, L. D.; Hecht, L.; Blyth, S. M.

    1989-01-01

    Polarized and depolarized Raman optical activity spectra of menthol, menthyl chloride, neomenthol and neothiomenthol from 800 to 1500 cm -1 are reported. Despite axial symmetry in all the bonds, the presence of the heteroatoms O or S seems to induce large deviations from the expected ratio of 2:1 between the polarized and depolarized Raman optical activity intensities, but Cl does not. These deviations might originate in large electric quadrupole contributions induced by excited state interactions involving O or S Rydberg p orbitals and valence orbitals on other parts of the molecule. Such interactions appear to undermine the bond polarizability theory of Raman intensities.

  16. Ferroelectric quantum phase transition with cold polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinsmann, Markus; Peter, David; Büchler, Hans Peter

    2015-08-01

    We analyze a system of polar molecules in a one-dimensional optical lattice. By controlling the internal structure of the polar molecules with static electric and microwave fields, we demonstrate the appearance of a quantum phase transition into a ferroelectric phase via spontaneous breaking of a U(1) symmetry. The phase diagram is first analyzed within mean-field theory, while in a second step the results are verified by a mapping onto the Bose-Hubbard model for hard-core bosons. The latter is studied within the well-established bosonization procedure. We find that the ferroelectric phase is characterized by (quasi) long-range order for the electric dipole moments.

  17. High Energy Polarized Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Rossmanith

    1987-05-01

    In nearly all high energy electron storage rings the effect of beam polarization by synchrotron radiation has been measured. The buildup time for polarization in storage rings is of the order of 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7} revolutions; the spins must remain aligned over this time in order to avoid depolarization. Even extremely small spin deviations per revolution can add up and cause depolarization. The injection and acceleration of polarized electrons in linacs is much easier. Although some improvements are still necessary, reliable polarized electron sources with sufficiently high intensity and polarization are available. With the linac-type machines SLC at Stanford and CEBAF in Virginia, experiments with polarized electrons will be possible.

  18. Spectromicroscopy Study of the Organic Molecules Utilizing Polarized Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Y.J.; Wei, D.H.; Yin, G.C.; Chung, S.C.; Hu, W.S.; Tao, Y.T.

    2004-05-12

    Spectromicroscopy combined with polarized synchrotron radiation is a powerful tool for imaging and characterizing the molecular properties on surface. In this work we utilized the photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) with linear polarized radiation provided by an elliptically polarized undulator to investigate the molecular orientations of pentacene on self-assembled monolayer (SAMs) modified gold surface and to observe the cluster domain of mixed monolayers after reorganization on silver. Varying the electric vector parallel or perpendicular to the surface, the relative intensity of {pi}* and {sigma}* transition in carbon K-edge can be used to determine the orientation of the planar-shaped pentacene molecule or long carbon chain of carboxylic acids which are important for organic semiconductor.

  19. Single-photon nonlinearities using arrays of cold polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Rajapakse, R. M.; Bragdon, T.; Rey, A. M.; Calarco, T.; Yelin, S. F.

    2009-07-15

    We model single-photon nonlinearities resulting from the dipole-dipole interactions of cold polar molecules. We propose utilizing 'dark state polaritons' to effectively couple photon and molecular states; through this framework, coherent control of the nonlinearity can be expressed and potentially used in an optical quantum computation architecture. Due to the dipole-dipole interaction the photons pick up a measurable nonlinear phase even in the single-photon regime. A manifold of protected symmetric eigenstates is used as basis. Depending on the implementation, major sources of decoherence result from nonsymmetric interactions and phonon dispersion. We discuss the strength of the nonlinearity per photon and the feasibility of this system.

  20. Topological phases in ultracold polar-molecule quantum magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manmana, Salvatore R.; Stoudenmire, E. M.; Hazzard, Kaden R. A.; Rey, Ana Maria; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    2013-02-01

    We show how to use polar molecules in an optical lattice to engineer quantum spin models with arbitrary spin S≥1/2 and with interactions featuring a direction-dependent spin anisotropy. This is achieved by encoding the effective spin degrees of freedom in microwave-dressed rotational states of the molecules and by coupling the spins through dipolar interactions. We demonstrate how one of the experimentally most accessible anisotropies stabilizes symmetry protected topological phases in spin ladders. Using the numerically exact density matrix renormalization group method, we find that these interacting phases—previously studied only in the nearest-neighbor case—survive in the presence of long-range dipolar interactions. We also show how to use our approach to realize the bilinear-biquadratic spin-1 and the Kitaev honeycomb models. Experimental detection schemes and imperfections are discussed.

  1. Spin-orbital dynamics in a system of polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syzranov, Sergey; Wall, Michael; Gurarie, Victor; Rey, Ana Maria

    2015-05-01

    We consider the dynamics of a two-dimensional system of ultracold polar molecules weakly perturbed from a stationary state. We demonstrate that dipole-dipole interactions in such a system generate chiral excitations with a non-trivial Berry phase 2 π . These excitations, which we call chirons, resemble low-energy quasiparticles in bilayer graphene and emerge regardless of the quantum statistics and for arbitrary ratios of kinetic to interaction energies. Chirons manifest themselves in the dynamics of the spin density profile, spin currents, and spin coherences, even for molecules pinned in a deep optical lattice. We derive the kinetic equation that describes chiron dynamics and calculate the distributions of physical observables for experimentally realisable initial conditions. This work was supported by NIST: JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PIF-1211914, NSF-PHY11-25915, ARO, ARO-DARPA-OLE, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI; NSF: DMR-1001240, PHY-1125844, and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

  2. Precision Spectroscopy of Polarized Molecules in an Ion Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornell, Eric

    2014-05-01

    To realize the advantages that molecules offer to a measurement of the electron's electric dipole moment (eEDM), one must apply an electric field large enough to polarize the molecule in the lab frame. We show that via the use of a rotating bias field, this can be accomplished for trapped molecular ions. We observe coherence times in excess of 150 ms on the science transition in trapped ionic hafnium fluoride. We characterize some of effects limiting the realization of still longer coherence times. We discuss the implications for an improved eEDM measurement. The work was done in collaboration with Will Cairncross, Kevin Cosell, Dan Gresh, Matt Grau, Huanqian Loh, Ed Meyer, Kang-Kuen Ni, Yiqi Ni, John Bohn and Jun Ye. This work was supported by NSF, NIST, and the Marsico Foundation.

  3. High intensity polarized electron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, C.K.

    1980-10-01

    The status of the polarized electron source development program at SLAC will be reviewed. Emission currents of 60 A, corresponding to a space charge limited current density of 180 A/cm/sup 2/, have been obtained from GaAs photocathodes. Electron beam polarization 20% greater than that obtainable from GaAs cathodes has been observed from multilayer GaAs-GaAlAs structures. Work in progress to produce high beam polarization from II-IV-V/sub 2/ chalcopyrite photocathodes will also be described.

  4. Ultracold polar molecules in a 3D optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Ultracold polar molecules, with their long-range electric dipolar interactions, offer new opportunities for studying quantum magnetism and many-body physics. KRb molecules loaded into a three-dimensional (3D) optical lattice allow one to study such a spin-lattice system in a stable environment without losses arising from chemical reactions. In the case with strong lattice confinement along two directions and a weak lattice potential along the third, we find the loss rate is suppressed by the quantum Zeno effect. In a deep 3D lattice with no tunneling, we observe evidences for spin exchange interactions. We use Ramsey spectroscopy to investigate the spin dynamics. By choosing the appropriate lattice polarizations and implementing a spin echo sequence, the single particle dephasing is largely suppressed, leaving the dipolar exchange interactions as the dominant contribution to the observed dynamics. This is supported by many-body theoretical calculations. While this initial demonstration was done with low lattice fillings, our current experimental efforts are focused on increasing the lattice filling fraction. This will greatly benefit the study of complex many-body dynamics with long-range interactions, such as transport of excitations in an out-of-equilibrium system and spin-orbit coupling in a lattice.

  5. Charge exchange of a polar molecule at its cation

    SciTech Connect

    Buslov, E. Yu. Zon, B. A.

    2011-01-15

    The Landau-Herring method is used to derive an analytic expression for the one-electron exchange interaction of a polar molecule with its positively charged ion, induced by a {sigma}-electron. Analogously to the classical Van der Pole method, the exchange interaction potential is averaged over the rotational states of colliding particles. The resonant charge-transfer cross section is calculated, and the effect of the dipole moments of the core on the cross section is analyzed. It is shown that allowance for the dependence of the exchange potential on the orientation of the dipole moments relative to the molecular axis may change the dependence of the cross section on the velocity of colliding particles, which is typical of the resonant charge exchange, from the resonance to the quasi-resonance dependence.

  6. Dynamic nuclear polarization at high magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Maly, Thorsten; Debelouchina, Galia T.; Bajaj, Vikram S.; Hu, Kan-Nian; Joo, Chan-Gyu; MakJurkauskas, Melody L.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; van der Wel, Patrick C. A.; Herzfeld, Judith; Temkin, Richard J.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a method that permits NMR signal intensities of solids and liquids to be enhanced significantly, and is therefore potentially an important tool in structural and mechanistic studies of biologically relevant molecules. During a DNP experiment, the large polarization of an exogeneous or endogeneous unpaired electron is transferred to the nuclei of interest (I) by microwave (?w) irradiation of the sample. The maximum theoretical enhancement achievable is given by the gyromagnetic ratios (?e/?l), being ?660 for protons. In the early 1950s, the DNP phenomenon was demonstrated experimentally, and intensively investigated in the following four decades, primarily at low magnetic fields. This review focuses on recent developments in the field of DNP with a special emphasis on work done at high magnetic fields (?5 T), the regime where contemporary NMR experiments are performed. After a brief historical survey, we present a review of the classical continuous wave (cw) DNP mechanismsthe Overhauser effect, the solid effect, the cross effect, and thermal mixing. A special section is devoted to the theory of coherent polarization transfer mechanisms, since they are potentially more efficient at high fields than classical polarization schemes. The implementation of DNP at high magnetic fields has required the development and improvement of new and existing instrumentation. Therefore, we also review some recent developments in ?w and probe technology, followed by an overview of DNP applications in biological solids and liquids. Finally, we outline some possible areas for future developments. PMID:18266416

  7. High Intensity Polarized Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Redwine, Robert P.

    2012-07-31

    The goal of the project was to investigate the possibility of building a very high intensity polarized electron gun for the Electron-Ion Collider. This development is crucial for the eRHIC project. The gun implements a large area cathode, ring-shaped laser beam and active cathode cooling. A polarized electron gun chamber with a large area cathode and active cathode cooling has been built and tested. A preparation chamber for cathode activation has been built and initial tests have been performed. Major parts for a load-lock chamber, where cathodes are loaded into the vacuum system, have been manufactured.

  8. Doublon dynamics and polar molecule production in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, Jacob P.; Moses, Steven A.; Gärttner, Martin; Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Miecnikowski, Matthew T.; Fu, Zhengkun; Schachenmayer, Johannes; Julienne, Paul S.; Rey, Ana Maria; Jin, Deborah S.; Ye, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Polar molecules in an optical lattice provide a versatile platform to study quantum many-body dynamics. Here we use such a system to prepare a density distribution where lattice sites are either empty or occupied by a doublon composed of an interacting Bose-Fermi pair. By letting this out-of-equilibrium system evolve from a well-defined, but disordered, initial condition, we observe clear effects on pairing that arise from inter-species interactions, a higher partial-wave Feshbach resonance and excited Bloch-band population. These observations facilitate a detailed understanding of molecule formation in the lattice. Moreover, the interplay of tunnelling and interaction of fermions and bosons provides a controllable platform to study Bose-Fermi Hubbard dynamics. Additionally, we can probe the distribution of the atomic gases in the lattice by measuring the inelastic loss of doublons. These techniques realize tools that are generically applicable to studying the complex dynamics of atomic mixtures in optical lattices.

  9. Doublon dynamics and polar molecule production in an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Covey, Jacob P; Moses, Steven A; Gärttner, Martin; Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Miecnikowski, Matthew T; Fu, Zhengkun; Schachenmayer, Johannes; Julienne, Paul S; Rey, Ana Maria; Jin, Deborah S; Ye, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Polar molecules in an optical lattice provide a versatile platform to study quantum many-body dynamics. Here we use such a system to prepare a density distribution where lattice sites are either empty or occupied by a doublon composed of an interacting Bose-Fermi pair. By letting this out-of-equilibrium system evolve from a well-defined, but disordered, initial condition, we observe clear effects on pairing that arise from inter-species interactions, a higher partial-wave Feshbach resonance and excited Bloch-band population. These observations facilitate a detailed understanding of molecule formation in the lattice. Moreover, the interplay of tunnelling and interaction of fermions and bosons provides a controllable platform to study Bose-Fermi Hubbard dynamics. Additionally, we can probe the distribution of the atomic gases in the lattice by measuring the inelastic loss of doublons. These techniques realize tools that are generically applicable to studying the complex dynamics of atomic mixtures in optical lattices. PMID:27075831

  10. Doublon dynamics and polar molecule production in an optical lattice

    PubMed Central

    Covey, Jacob P.; Moses, Steven A.; Gärttner, Martin; Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Miecnikowski, Matthew T.; Fu, Zhengkun; Schachenmayer, Johannes; Julienne, Paul S.; Rey, Ana Maria; Jin, Deborah S.; Ye, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Polar molecules in an optical lattice provide a versatile platform to study quantum many-body dynamics. Here we use such a system to prepare a density distribution where lattice sites are either empty or occupied by a doublon composed of an interacting Bose-Fermi pair. By letting this out-of-equilibrium system evolve from a well-defined, but disordered, initial condition, we observe clear effects on pairing that arise from inter-species interactions, a higher partial-wave Feshbach resonance and excited Bloch-band population. These observations facilitate a detailed understanding of molecule formation in the lattice. Moreover, the interplay of tunnelling and interaction of fermions and bosons provides a controllable platform to study Bose-Fermi Hubbard dynamics. Additionally, we can probe the distribution of the atomic gases in the lattice by measuring the inelastic loss of doublons. These techniques realize tools that are generically applicable to studying the complex dynamics of atomic mixtures in optical lattices. PMID:27075831

  11. Interaction of a polar molecule with an ion channel

    SciTech Connect

    Levadny, V.; Aguilella, V.M.; Aguilella-Arzo, M.; Belaya, M.

    2004-10-01

    The binding of a polar macromolecule to a large ion channel is studied theoretically, paying special attention to the influence of external conditions (applied voltage and ion strength of solution). The molecule behavior in bound state is considered as random thermal fluctuations within a limited fraction of its phase space. The mean duration of molecule binding (residence time {tau}{sub r}) is represented as the mean first passage time to reach the boundary of that restricted domain. By invoking the adiabatic approximation we reduce the problem to one dimension with the angle between macromolecule dipole and channel axes being the key variable of the problem. The model accounts for experimental measurements of {tau}{sub r} for the antibiotic Ampicillin within the bacterial porin OmpF of Escherichia coli. By assuming that the electrical interaction between Ampicillin dipole and OmpF ionizable groups affects the fluctuations, we find that the biased residence time-voltage dependence observed in experiments is the result of the strong transversal electric field in OmpF constriction with a tilt {approx}30 deg. aside the cis side.

  12. Interaction of a polar molecule with an ion channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levadny, V.; Aguilella, V. M.; Aguilella-Arzo, M.; Belaya, M.

    2004-10-01

    The binding of a polar macromolecule to a large ion channel is studied theoretically, paying special attention to the influence of external conditions (applied voltage and ion strength of solution). The molecule behavior in bound state is considered as random thermal fluctuations within a limited fraction of its phase space. The mean duration of molecule binding (residence time τr ) is represented as the mean first passage time to reach the boundary of that restricted domain. By invoking the adiabatic approximation we reduce the problem to one dimension with the angle between macromolecule dipole and channel axes being the key variable of the problem. The model accounts for experimental measurements of τr for the antibiotic Ampicillin within the bacterial porin OmpF of Escherichia coli. By assuming that the electrical interaction between Ampicillin dipole and OmpF ionizable groups affects the fluctuations, we find that the biased residence time-voltage dependence observed in experiments is the result of the strong transversal electric field in OmpF constriction with a tilt ˜30° aside the cis side.

  13. Creation of a low-entropy quantum gas of polar molecules in an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Moses, Steven A; Covey, Jacob P; Miecnikowski, Matthew T; Yan, Bo; Gadway, Bryce; Ye, Jun; Jin, Deborah S

    2015-11-01

    Ultracold polar molecules, with their long-range electric dipolar interactions, offer a unique platform for studying correlated quantum many-body phenomena. However, realizing a highly degenerate quantum gas of molecules with a low entropy per particle is challenging. We report the synthesis of a low-entropy quantum gas of potassium-rubidium molecules (KRb) in a three-dimensional optical lattice. We simultaneously load into the optical lattice a Mott insulator of bosonic Rb atoms and a single-band insulator of fermionic K atoms. Then, using magnetoassociation and optical state transfer, we efficiently produce ground-state molecules in the lattice at those sites that contain one Rb and one K atom. The achieved filling fraction of 25% should enable future studies of transport and entanglement propagation in a many-body system with long-range dipolar interactions. PMID:26542566

  14. Field-Linked States of Ultracold Polar Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdeenkov, Alexander V.; Bortolotti, Daniele C. E.; Bohn, John L.

    2003-05-01

    Previously, we have predicted the existence of a novel set of long- range bound states (termed "Field-Linked" states) of a pair of polar OH molecules in the presence of an electrostatic field [1]. The properties of these states are strongly dependent on the value of the field [2], hence provide a new handle for controlling ultracold matter. Here we report a more detailed study of the field-linked states aimed at classifying them by a set of approximate quantum numbers. Because their properties are strongly defined by anisotropic dipolar and Stark interactions, we construct adiabatic potential energy surfaces that depend on both the intermolecular distance R, and the angle ? between the intermolecular axis and the direction of the field. Within an adiabatic approximation we solve the 2-D Schrodinger equation in (R, ?). Analysis of the resulting wave functions suggests that the FL states can be useuflly classified by mean values of quantum numbers in the body frame of the molecular pair. This work was supported by the NSF and the ONR. [1] A. V. Avdeenkov and J. L. Bohn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 043006 (2003) [2] A. V. Avdeenkov and J. L. Bohn, Phys. Rev. A 66, 052718 (2002)

  15. A switched ring Stark decelerator for both light and heavy polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Shunyong; Wang, Qin; Deng, Lianzhong; Yin, Jianping

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing interest in cold heavy polar molecular species for their applications in fundamental physics, such as the tests of the electron’s electric dipole moment. Here we propose a switched ring Stark decelerator suitable for slowing both light and heavy polar molecules. Two typical polar molecular species, ND3 and 205TlF, are employed to test the feasibility of our scheme with the help of trajectory calculation. Our proposed scheme is found to share many advantages with the state-of-the-art traveling wave decelerator, yet with relatively simple electronics and flexible operation modes. Sub-millikelvin molecular samples can be conveniently obtained in our decelerator using a combined operation mode. These monochromatic beams are ideal starting points for precise studies of molecular collision, cold chemistry and high-resolution spectroscopy.

  16. The transition from single molecule to ensemble revealed by fluorescence polarization.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Toby D. M.; Clayton, Andrew H. A.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence polarization measurements in the condensed phase provide rich information on rotational dynamics and interactions between macromolecules. An important parameter in these studies is the limiting polarization or po which is the emission polarization in the absence of molecular rotation. Here we explore how molecular number averaging affects the observed value of po. Using a simple mathematical model we show that for a collection of fluorescent dipoles (1–50 molecules) the fluorescence polarization (p) increases with the number of molecules (N) due to the progressive onset of photo-selection with a relation of the form p = po(1 − N−β). This concept is demonstrated experimentally using single molecule polarization measurements of perylene diimide dye molecules in a rigid polymer matrix where it is shown that the average emission polarization increases significantly when the number of molecules per averaging window is increased from 1 to 10 molecules. These results suggest that the definition of limiting polarization needs to be refined in the quasi-single molecule regime. Moreover, these results pave a new way for measuring clustering of molecules from single cluster polarization histograms. PMID:25640875

  17. The transition from single molecule to ensemble revealed by fluorescence polarization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Toby D. M.; Clayton, Andrew H. A.

    2015-02-01

    Fluorescence polarization measurements in the condensed phase provide rich information on rotational dynamics and interactions between macromolecules. An important parameter in these studies is the limiting polarization or po which is the emission polarization in the absence of molecular rotation. Here we explore how molecular number averaging affects the observed value of po. Using a simple mathematical model we show that for a collection of fluorescent dipoles (1-50 molecules) the fluorescence polarization (p) increases with the number of molecules (N) due to the progressive onset of photo-selection with a relation of the form p = po(1 - N-β). This concept is demonstrated experimentally using single molecule polarization measurements of perylene diimide dye molecules in a rigid polymer matrix where it is shown that the average emission polarization increases significantly when the number of molecules per averaging window is increased from 1 to 10 molecules. These results suggest that the definition of limiting polarization needs to be refined in the quasi-single molecule regime. Moreover, these results pave a new way for measuring clustering of molecules from single cluster polarization histograms.

  18. Toward scalable information processing with ultracold polar molecules in an electric field: A numerical investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Bomble, Laeetitia; Pellegrini, Philippe; Ghesquiere, Pierre; Desouter-Lecomte, Michele

    2010-12-15

    We numerically investigate the possibilities of driving quantum algorithms with laser pulses in a register of ultracold NaCs polar molecules in a static electric field. We focus on the possibilities of performing scalable logical operations by considering circuits that involve intermolecular gates (implemented on adjacent interacting molecules) to enable the transfer of information from one molecule to another during conditional laser-driven population inversions. We study the implementation of an arithmetic operation (the addition of 0 or 1 on a binary digit and a carry in) which requires population inversions only and the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm which requires a control of the phases. Under typical experimental conditions, our simulations show that high-fidelity logical operations involving several qubits can be performed in a time scale of a few hundreds of microseconds, opening promising perspectives for the manipulation of a large number of qubits in these systems.

  19. Suppression of inelastic collisions of polar {sup 1}{sigma} state molecules in an electrostatic field

    SciTech Connect

    Avdeenkov, Alexander V.; Kajita, Masatoshi; Bohn, John L.

    2006-02-15

    Collisions of polar {sup 1}{sigma} state molecules at ultralow energies are considered, within a model that accounts for long-range dipole-dipole interactions, plus rotation of the molecules. We predict a substantial suppression of dipole-driven inelastic collisions at high values of the applied electric field, namely, field values of several times B{sub 0}/{mu}. Here B{sub 0} is the rotational constant, and {mu} is the electric dipole moment of molecules. The sudden large drop in the inelastic cross section is attributed to the onset of degeneracy between molecular rotational levels, which dramatically alters the scattering Hamiltonian. This capability could, in principle, be used to stabilize ultracold gases against collisional losses.

  20. High Power Polarized Positron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailichenko, Alexander

    2009-09-01

    We discuss the basics of polarized positron production by low energy polarized electrons. Efficiency of conversion ˜0.1-1% might be interesting for the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and the International Linear Collider (ILC).

  1. [Progress in sample preparation and analytical methods for trace polar small molecules in complex samples].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianchun; Luo, Xialin; Li, Gongke; Xiao, Xiaohua

    2015-09-01

    Small polar molecules such as nucleosides, amines, amino acids are important analytes in biological, food, environmental, and other fields. It is necessary to develop efficient sample preparation and sensitive analytical methods for rapid analysis of these polar small molecules in complex matrices. Some typical materials in sample preparation, including silica, polymer, carbon, boric acid and so on, are introduced in this paper. Meanwhile, the applications and developments of analytical methods of polar small molecules, such as reversed-phase liquid chromatography, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, etc., are also reviewed. PMID:26753274

  2. Measurement of the nuclear polarization of hydrogen and deuterium molecules using a Lamb-shift polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Engels, Ralf Gorski, Robert; Grigoryev, Kiril; Mikirtychyants, Maxim; Rathmann, Frank; Seyfarth, Hellmut; Ströher, Hans; Weiss, Philipp; Kochenda, Leonid; Kravtsov, Peter; Trofimov, Viktor; Tschernov, Nikolay; Vasilyev, Alexander; Vznuzdaev, Marat; Schieck, Hans Paetz gen.

    2014-10-15

    Lamb-shift polarimeters are used to measure the nuclear polarization of protons and deuterons at energies of a few keV. In combination with an ionizer, the polarization of hydrogen and deuterium atoms was determined after taking into account the loss of polarization during the ionization process. The present work shows that the nuclear polarization of hydrogen or deuterium molecules can be measured as well, by ionizing the molecules and injecting the H{sub 2}{sup +} (or D{sub 2}{sup +}) ions into the Lamb-shift polarimeter.

  3. Single photon detector with high polarization sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qi; Li, Hao; You, LiXing; Zhang, WeiJun; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Zhen; Xie, XiaoMing; Qi, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Polarization is one of the key parameters of light. Most optical detectors are intensity detectors that are insensitive to the polarization of light. A superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) is naturally sensitive to polarization due to its nanowire structure. Previous studies focused on producing a polarization-insensitive SNSPD. In this study, by adjusting the width and pitch of the nanowire, we systematically investigate the preparation of an SNSPD with high polarization sensitivity. Subsequently, an SNSPD with a system detection efficiency of 12% and a polarization extinction ratio of 22 was successfully prepared. PMID:25875225

  4. Small-molecule axon-polarization studies enabled by a shear-free microfluidic gradient generator

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hui; Ferreira, Meghaan M.

    2014-01-01

    A deep understanding of the mechanisms behind neurite polarization and axon path-finding is important for interpreting how the human body guides neurite growth during development and response to injury. Further, it is of great clinical importance to identify diffusible chemical cues that promote neurite regeneration for nervous tissue repair. Despite the fast development of various types of concentration gradient generators, it has been challenging to fabricate neuron friendly (i.e. shear-free and biocompatible for neuron growth and maturation) devices to create stable gradients, particularly for fast diffusing small molecules, which typically require high flow and shear rates. Here we present a finite element analysis for a polydimethylsiloxane/polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PDMS/PEG-DA) based gradient generator, describe the microfabrication process, and validate its use for neuronal axon polarization studies. This device provides a totally shear-free, biocompatible microenvironment with a linear and stable concentration gradient of small molecules such as forskolin. The gradient profile in this device can be customized by changing the composition or width of the PEG-DA barriers during direct UV photo-patterning within a permanently bonded PDMS device. Primary rat cortical neurons (embryonic E18) exposed to soluble forskolin gradients for 72 hr exhibited statistically significant polarization and guidance of their axons. This device provides a useful platform for both chemotaxis and directional guidance studies, particularly for shear sensitive and non-adhesive cell cultures, while allowing fast new device design prototyping at a low cost. PMID:24781157

  5. Polar-Molecule Electrorheological Pm-Er Fluids:. the Properties and Evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kunquan; Shen, Rong; Wang, Xuezhao; Wang, De; Sun, Gang

    In recent years, a new type ER fluids named as polar-molecule-dominated electrorheological (PM-ER) fluids have been developed, of which the yield stress can reach more than 100 kPa and behaves a linear dependence on the electric field. A brief description on the composition and synthesizing method for the materials is given. The main merits of PM-ER fluid are as follows: high yield stress, the shear stress increasing with shear rate up to more than 103 s-1, low current density, rapid electric response and anti-sedimentation. Some perspectives on PM-ER fluid and its applications are presented.

  6. Investigations of electron helicity in optically active molecules using polarized beams of electrons and positrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gidley, D. W.; Rich, A.; Van House, J. C.; Zitzewitz, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    A positronium-formation experiment with a high sensitivity to a possible relation between the helicity of beta particles emitted in nuclear beta decay and the optical asymmetry of biological molecules is presented. The experiment is based on a mechanism in which the electrons in optically active molecules possess a helicity of less than 0.001, too weak to detect in radiolysis experiments, the sign of which depends on the chirality of the isomer. A helicity-dependent asymmetry is sought in the formation of the triplet ground state of positronium when a low-energy beam of polarized positrons of reversible helicity interacts with an optically active substance coating a channel electron multiplier. Asymmetries between positronium decays observed at positive and negative helicities for the same substance can thus be determined with a sensitivity of 0.0001, which represents a factor of 100 improvement over previous positronium experiments.

  7. Polar molecules engaged in pendular states captured by molecular-beam scattering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncaratti, Luiz F.; Cappelletti, David; Candori, Pietro; Pirani, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate that when two polar molecules as those of water, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide encounter each other at a distance much larger than their dimensions they engage a synchronous motion that promotes the transformation of free rotations into coupled pendular states. This discovery has been prompted by high-resolution molecular beam scattering experiments presented here, addressed to the measure of the total integral cross section changes as a consequence of molecular rotation couplings. The experimental observations and the theoretical treatment developed to shed light on the details of the phenomenon suggest that the interplay among free rotations and pendular states depends on the relative velocity, on the rotational levels, and on the dipole moments of the interacting molecules. The features of this intriguing phenomenon may be crucial for the interpretation and the control of basic chemical and biological processes.

  8. Universalities in ultracold reactions of alkali-metal polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Quemener, Goulven; Bohn, John L.; Petrov, Alexander; Kotochigova, Svetlana

    2011-12-15

    We consider ultracold collisions of ground-state heteronuclear alkali-metal dimers that are susceptible to four-center chemical reactions 2AB{yields}A{sub 2}+B{sub 2} even at submicrokelvin temperatures. These reactions depend strongly on species, temperature, electric field, and confinement in an optical lattice. We calculate ab initio van der Waals coefficients for these interactions and use a quantum formalism to study the scattering properties of such molecules under an external electric field and optical lattice. We also apply a quantum threshold model to explore the dependence of reaction rates on the various parameters. We find that, among the heteronuclear alkali-metal fermionic species, LiNa is the least reactive, whereas LiCs is the most reactive. For the bosonic species, LiK is the most reactive in zero field, but all species considered, LiNa, LiK, LiRb, LiCs, and KRb, share a universal reaction rate once a sufficiently high electric field is applied. For indistinguishable bosons, the inelastic/reactive rate increases as d{sup 2} in the quantum regime, where d is the dipole moment induced by the electric field. This is a weaker power-law dependence than for indistinguishable fermions, for which the rate behaves as d{sup 6}.

  9. Optoelectrical Cooling of Polar Molecules to Submillikelvin Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prehn, Alexander; Ibrügger, Martin; Glöckner, Rosa; Rempe, Gerhard; Zeppenfeld, Martin

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate direct cooling of gaseous formaldehyde (H2 CO ) to the microkelvin regime. Our approach, optoelectrical Sisyphus cooling, provides a simple dissipative cooling method applicable to electrically trapped dipolar molecules. By reducing the temperature by 3 orders of magnitude and increasing the phase-space density by a factor of ˜104, we generate an ensemble of 3 ×105 molecules with a temperature of about 420 μ K , populating a single rotational state with more than 80% purity.

  10. Optoelectrical Cooling of Polar Molecules to Submillikelvin Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Prehn, Alexander; Ibrgger, Martin; Glckner, Rosa; Rempe, Gerhard; Zeppenfeld, Martin

    2016-02-12

    We demonstrate direct cooling of gaseous formaldehyde (H_{2}CO) to the microkelvin regime. Our approach, optoelectrical Sisyphus cooling, provides a simple dissipative cooling method applicable to electrically trapped dipolar molecules. By reducing the temperature by 3 orders of magnitude and increasing the phase-space density by a factor of ?10^{4}, we generate an ensemble of 310^{5} molecules with a temperature of about 420???K, populating a single rotational state with more than 80% purity. PMID:26918988

  11. Observation of dipolar spin-exchange interactions with lattice-confined polar molecules.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bo; Moses, Steven A; Gadway, Bryce; Covey, Jacob P; Hazzard, Kaden R A; Rey, Ana Maria; Jin, Deborah S; Ye, Jun

    2013-09-26

    With the production of polar molecules in the quantum regime, long-range dipolar interactions are expected to facilitate understanding of strongly interacting many-body quantum systems and to realize lattice spin models for exploring quantum magnetism. In ordinary atomic systems, where contact interactions require wavefunction overlap, effective spin interactions on a lattice can be mediated by tunnelling, through a process referred to as superexchange; however, the coupling is relatively weak and is limited to nearest-neighbour interactions. In contrast, dipolar interactions exist even in the absence of tunnelling and extend beyond nearest neighbours. This allows coherent spin dynamics to persist even for gases with relatively high entropy and low lattice filling. Measured effects of dipolar interactions in ultracold molecular gases have been limited to the modification of inelastic collisions and chemical reactions. Here we use dipolar interactions of polar molecules pinned in a three-dimensional optical lattice to realize a lattice spin model. Spin is encoded in rotational states of molecules that are prepared and probed by microwaves. Resonant exchange of rotational angular momentum between two molecules realizes a spin-exchange interaction. The dipolar interactions are apparent in the evolution of the spin coherence, which shows oscillations in addition to an overall decay of the coherence. The frequency of these oscillations, the strong dependence of the spin coherence time on the lattice filling factor and the effect of a multipulse sequence designed to reverse dynamics due to two-body exchange interactions all provide evidence of dipolar interactions. Furthermore, we demonstrate the suppression of loss in weak lattices due to a continuous quantum Zeno mechanism. Measurements of these tunnelling-induced losses allow us to determine the lattice filling factor independently. Our work constitutes an initial exploration of the behaviour of many-body spin models with direct, long-range spin interactions and lays the groundwork for future studies of many-body dynamics in spin lattices. PMID:24048478

  12. Two-electron exchange interaction between polar molecules and atomic ions — Asymptotic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbovanets, Oleksandr M.; Karbovanets, Myroslav I.; Khoma, Mykhaylo V.; Lazur, Volodymyr Yu.

    2015-05-01

    We have described the asymptotic approach for calculation of the two-electron exchange interaction between atomic ion and polar molecule responsible for direct double electron transfer processes. The closed analytic expression for matrix element of exchange interaction has been obtained in the framework of the semiclassical version of the asymptotic theory and point-dipole approximation for description of the polar molecule. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Elementary Processes with Atoms and Molecules in Isolated and Aggregated States", edited by Friedrich Aumayr, Bratislav Marinkovic, Štefan Matejčik, John Tanis and Kurt H. Becker.

  13. Nano-doped weakly polar versus highly polar liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Kamal Kumar; Misra, Abhishek Kumar; Manohar, Rajiv

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticles doped liquid crystal show changed dielectric properties in comparison to pure liquid crystals. These changes are strongly dependent on the inherent properties of guest and host particles. In the present work we have done comparative dielectric study of highly polar nematic liquid crystals 5CB and weakly polar liquid crystal D6AOB and its 1 % wt/wt concentration with zinc oxide nanoparticles (1 % Cu) doped. The relaxation modes in pure and nano doped samples are explained properly. We have also analyzed the dielectric anisotropy and relaxation frequency for all the samples.

  14. Effect of dipole polarizability on positron binding by strongly polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribakin, G. F.; Swann, A. R.

    2015-11-01

    A model for positron binding to polar molecules is considered by combining the dipole potential outside the molecule with a strongly repulsive core of a given radius. Using existing experimental data on binding energies leads to unphysically small core radii for all of the molecules studied. This suggests that electron-positron correlations neglected in the simple model play a large role in determining the binding energy. We account for these by including the polarization potential via perturbation theory and non-perturbatively. The perturbative model makes reliable predictions of binding energies for a range of polar organic molecules and hydrogen cyanide. The model also agrees with the linear dependence of the binding energies on the polarizability inferred from the experimental data (Danielson et al 2009 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42 235203). The effective core radii, however, remain unphysically small for most molecules. Treating molecular polarization non-perturbatively leads to physically meaningful core radii for all of the molecules studied and enables even more accurate predictions of binding energies to be made for nearly all of the molecules considered.

  15. Simple quantum model of ultracold polar molecule collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Idziaszek, Zbigniew; Quemener, Goulven; Bohn, John L.; Julienne, Paul S.

    2010-08-15

    We present a unified formalism for describing chemical reaction rates of trapped, ultracold molecules. This formalism reduces the scattering to its essential features, namely, a propagation of the reactant molecules through a gauntlet of long-range forces before they ultimately encounter one another, followed by a probability for the reaction to occur once they do. In this way, the electric-field dependence should be readily parametrized in terms of a pair of fitting parameters (along with a C{sub 6} coefficient) for each asymptotic value of partial-wave quantum numbers |L,M{sub L}>. From this, the electric-field dependence of the collision rates follows automatically. We present examples for reactive species, such as KRb, and nonreactive species, such as RbCs.

  16. A ratiometric solvent polarity sensing Schiff base molecule for estimating the interfacial polarity of versatile amphiphilic self-assemblies.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Rini; Sarkar, Yeasmin; Das, Sanju; Jewrajka, Suresh K; Ray, Ambarish; Parui, Partha Pratim

    2016-05-23

    A newly synthesised Schiff base molecule (PMP) existing in equilibrium between non-ionic and zwitterionic forms displays solvent polarity induced ratiometric interconversion from one form to another, such novelty being useful to detect the medium polarity. The specific interface localisation of PMP in versatile amphiphilic self-assembled systems has been exploited to monitor their interfacial polarity by evaluating such interconversion equilibrium with simple UV-Vis spectroscopy. In spite of the large differences in pH and/or viscosity between the bulk and interface, the unchanged equilibrium between the two molecular forms on varying the medium pH or viscosity provides a huge advantage for the exclusive detection of interfacial polarity. PMID:27174234

  17. Mitigation of charged impurity effects in graphene field-effect transistors with polar organic molecules (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Barrett C.; Kim, Seohee; Akinwande, Deji; Rossky, Peter J.; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2015-09-01

    Recent developments in monolayer graphene production allow its use as the active layer in field-effect transistor technology. Favorable electrical characteristics of monolayer graphene include high mobility, operating frequency, and good stability. These characteristics are governed by such key transport physical phenomena as electron-hole transport symmetry, Dirac point voltage, and charged impurity effects. Doping of graphene occurs during device fabrication, and is largely due to charged impurities located at or near the graphene/substrate interface. These impurities cause scattering of charge carriers, which lowers mobility. Such scattering is detrimental to graphene transistor performance, but our group has shown that coating with fluoropolymer thin films or exposure to polar organic vapors can restore favorable electrical characteristics to monolayer graphene. By partially neutralizing charged impurities and defects, we can improve the mobility by approximately a factor of 2, change the Dirac voltage by fairly large amounts, and reduce the residual carrier density significantly. We hypothesize that this phenomena results from screening of charged impurities by the polar molecules. To better understand such screening interactions, we performed computational chemistry experiments to observe interactions between polar organic molecules and monolayer graphene. The molecules interacted more strongly with defective graphene than with pristine graphene, and the electronic environment of graphene was altered. These computational observations correlate well with our experimental results to support our hypothesis that polar molecules can act to screen charged impurities on or near monolayer graphene. Such screening favorably mitigates charge scattering, improving graphene transistor performance.

  18. Ultracold gas of ground-state polar KRb molecules in 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyenhuis, B.; Wang, D.; de Miranda, M. H. G.; Chotia, A.; Ye, J.; Jin, D. S.

    2010-03-01

    We report on our ongoing studies of dipolar interactions in ground-state KRb molecules prepared in the quantum regime. At large dipole moment we see a dramatic increase in the inelastic scattering rate due to attractive head-to-tail interactions between molecules [1]. To suppress this inelastic loss we are preparing a gas of polar molecules in a 2D confined geometry provided by a one-dimensional optical lattice. We will explore the effect of the 2D confinement on the lifetime of the trapped molecule gas. [4pt] [1] K.-K. Ni, S. Ospelkaus, D. Wang, G. Quemener, B. Neyenhuis, M. H. G. de Miranda, J. L. Bohn, J. Ye, D. S. Jin, Dipolar collisions of polar molecules in the quantum regime. arXiv:1001.2809.

  19. Influence of magnetic fields on cold collisions of polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ticknor, Christopher; Bohn, John L.

    2005-02-01

    We consider cold collisions of OH molecules in the {sup 2}{pi}{sub 3/2} ground state, under the influence of a magnetic field. We find that modest fields of several thousand gauss can act to suppress inelastic collisions of weak-field-seeking states by two orders of magnitude. We attribute this suppression to two factors: (i) an indirect coupling of the entrance and the exit channel, in contrast to the effect of an applied electric field; and (ii) the relative shift of the entrance and exit scattering thresholds. In view of these results, magnetic trapping of OH may prove feasible.

  20. Supersolid Phase with Cold Polar Molecules on a Triangular Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Pollet, L.; Picon, J. D.; Buechler, H. P.; Troyer, M.

    2010-03-26

    We study a system of heteronuclear molecules on a triangular lattice and analyze the potential of this system for the experimental realization of a supersolid phase. The ground state phase diagram contains superfluid, solid, and supersolid phases. At finite temperatures and strong interactions there is an additional emulsion region, in contrast with similar models with short-range interactions. We derive the maximal critical temperature T{sub c} and the corresponding entropy S/N=0.04(1) for supersolidity and find feasible experimental conditions for its realization.

  1. Single Molecule Raman Spectroscopy Under High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuanxi; Dlott, Dana

    2014-06-01

    Pressure effects on surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of Rhdoamine 6G adsorbed on silver nanoparticle surfaces was studied using a confocal Raman microscope. Colloidal silver nanoparticles were treated with Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and its isotopically substituted partner, R6G-d4. Mixed isotopomers let us identify single-molecule spectra, since multiple-molecule spectra would show vibrational transitions from both species. The nanoparticles were embedded into a poly vinyl alcohol film, and loaded into a diamond anvil cell for the high-pressure Raman scattering measurement. Argon was the pressure medium. Ambient pressure Raman scattering spectra showed few single-molecule spectra. At moderately high pressure ( 1GPa), a surprising effect was observed. The number of sites with observable spectra decreased dramatically, and most of the spectra that could be observed were due to single molecules. The effects of high pressure suppressed the multiple-molecule Raman sites, leaving only the single-molecule sites to be observed.

  2. Microwave enhanced polarization in a carbon dioxide molecule.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Jai N; Roberts, James A; Anand, Aman

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the dielectric response of carbon dioxide measured using a loaded microwave cavity operating in the TE011, mode of a cylindrical cavity near the frequencies 8.8, 9.7 and 10.2 GHz. The temperature dependence of the dielectric response of gas phase CO2 over the range of 160 to 213 degrees K (-113 to -60 degrees C) was measured. Slater perturbation equations for loaded resonant cavities were used to relate the macroscopic parameters deltaf and delta(1/Q) to the real and imaginary parts, epsilon' and epsilon", respectively, hence to calculate the dielectric parameters at each temperature and frequency. Selected peaks in the dielectric response were identified to indicate the frequencies at which strong coupling between the microwave field and the CO2 molecules can be achieved. PMID:18161417

  3. Influence of intrinsic decoherence on tripartite entanglement and bipartite fidelity of polar molecules in pendular states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jia-Xing; Hu, Yuan; Jin, Yu; Zhang, Guo-Feng

    2016-04-01

    An array of ultracold polar molecules trapped in an external electric field is regarded as a promising carrier of quantum information. Under the action of this field, molecules are compelled to undergo pendular oscillations by the Stark effect. Particular attention has been paid to the influence of intrinsic decoherence on the model of linear polar molecular pendular states, thereby we evaluate the tripartite entanglement with negativity, as well as fidelity of bipartite quantum systems for input and output signals using electric dipole moments of polar molecules as qubits. According to this study, we consider three typical initial states for both systems, respectively, and investigate the temporal evolution with variable values of the external field intensity, the intrinsic decoherence factor, and the dipole-dipole interaction. Thus, we demonstrate the sound selection of these three main parameters to obtain the best entanglement degree and fidelity.

  4. Influence of intrinsic decoherence on tripartite entanglement and bipartite fidelity of polar molecules in pendular states.

    PubMed

    Han, Jia-Xing; Hu, Yuan; Jin, Yu; Zhang, Guo-Feng

    2016-04-01

    An array of ultracold polar molecules trapped in an external electric field is regarded as a promising carrier of quantum information. Under the action of this field, molecules are compelled to undergo pendular oscillations by the Stark effect. Particular attention has been paid to the influence of intrinsic decoherence on the model of linear polar molecular pendular states, thereby we evaluate the tripartite entanglement with negativity, as well as fidelity of bipartite quantum systems for input and output signals using electric dipole moments of polar molecules as qubits. According to this study, we consider three typical initial states for both systems, respectively, and investigate the temporal evolution with variable values of the external field intensity, the intrinsic decoherence factor, and the dipole-dipole interaction. Thus, we demonstrate the sound selection of these three main parameters to obtain the best entanglement degree and fidelity. PMID:27059571

  5. Switching surface polarization of atomic force microscopy probe utilizing photoisomerization of photochromic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Aburaya, Yoshihiro; Nomura, Hikaru; Kageshima, Masami; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Li, Yan Jun; Sugawara, Yasuhiro

    2011-03-15

    An attempt to develop an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe with optically switchable polarization is described. Modification with a single molecular layer of photochromic molecules was attempted onto a Si substrate that is a prototype for a probe surface. Polarization switching caused by alternate irradiation of UV and visible lights were detected using the electrostatic force?>spectroscopy (EFS) technique. Si substrates modified with spiropyran and azobenzene exhibited reversible polarization switching that caused changes in CPD of about 100 and 50 mV, respectively. Modification with spiropyran was also attempted onto a Si probe and resulted in a CPD change of about 100 mV. It was confirmed that modification of an AFM probe or substrate with a single molecular layer of photochromic molecules can generate surface polarization switching of a mechanically detectable level.

  6. High Energy Polarized e+e‑ Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatunov, Yu.; Koop, I.; Otboev, A.; Mane, S.

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the wide discussion about Higgs-factory design again returns to problem of high energy polarized electrons and positrons. It’s good known the radiative beam polarization at LEP-collider. It was obtained after spin resonance suppression at Z0 pick, but didn’t appear at energies above 70 GeV due to an enhancement of unavoidable depolarization effects. We examine in this paper various ideas for radiative polarization at TLEP/FCC-ee and formulate some estimates for the polarization buildup time and the asymptotic polarization. Using wigglers, a useful degree of polarization (for energy calibration), with a time constant of about 1 h, may be possible up to the threshold of W pair production. At higher energies such as the threshold of Higgs production, attaining a useful level of polarization may be difficult in a planar ring. With Siberian Snakes, wigglers and some imagination, polarization of reasonable magnitude, with a reasonable time constant (of not more than about 1 h), may be achievable at very high energies.

  7. High Energy Polarization - Historical Remarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the history and briefly outline the potential scientific impact of X-ray polarimetry and in particular studies of the Crab nebula and its pulsar. Despite major progress in X-ray imaging, spectroscopy, and timing, there have been only modest attempts at X-ray polarimetry. The last dedicated experiment, conducted by us over three decades ago, had such limited observing time and sensitivity that even a ten percent degree of polarization would not have been detected from some of the brightest X-ray sources in the sky, and statistically-significant X-ray polarization was detected in only the subject of this meeting, the Crab Nebula. Radio and optical astronomers use polarimetry extensively to probe the radiation physics and the geometry of sources. Sensitive X-ray polarimetry promises to reveal unique and crucial information about physical processes and structure of of all classes of X-ray sources. X-ray polarimetry remains the last undeveloped tool for the X-ray study of astronomical objects and needs to be properly exploited. We hope that this conference may mark the beginning of a new era for for this important scientific window.

  8. Collisional control of ground state polar molecules and universal dipolar scattering.

    PubMed

    Ticknor, Christopher

    2008-04-01

    We explore the impact of the short-range interaction on the scattering of ground state polar molecules and study the transition from a weak to strong dipolar scattering over an experimentally reasonable range of energies and electric field values. In the strong dipolar limit, the scattering scales with respect to a dimensionless quantity defined by mass, induced dipole moment, and collision energy. The scaling has implications for all quantum mechanical dipolar scattering. Furthermore the universal scattering regime will readily be achieved with polar molecules at ultracold temperatures. PMID:18517950

  9. Managing light polarization via plasmon-molecule interactions within an asymmetric metal nanoparticle trimer

    SciTech Connect

    Shegai, Timur; Li, Zhipeng; Zhang, Zhenyu; Xu, Hongxing; Haran, Gilad

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of light with metal nanoparticles leads to novel phenomena mediated by surface plasmon excitations. In this paper we use single molecules to characterize the interaction of surface plasmons with light, and show that such interaction can strongly modulate the polarization of the emitted light. The simplest nanostructures that enable such polarization modulation are asymmetric silver nanocrystal trimers, where individual Raman scattering molecules are located in the gap between two of the nanoparticles. The third particle breaks the dipolar symmetry of the two-particle junction, generating a wavelength-dependent polarization pattern. Indeed, the scattered light becomes elliptically polarized and its intensity pattern is rotated in the presence of the third particle. We use a combination of spectroscopic observations on single molecules, scanning electron microscope imaging, and generalized Mie theory calculations to provide a full picture of the effect of particles on the polarization of the emitted light. Furthermore, our theoretical analysis allows us to show that the observed phenomenon is very sensitive to the size of the trimer particles and their relative position, suggesting future means for precise control of light polarization on the nanoscale.

  10. Ionization of oriented carbonyl sulfide molecules by intense circularly polarized laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Abu-samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer; Filsinger, Frank; Meijer, Gerard; Kuepper, Jochen; Holmegaard, Lotte; Kalhoej, Line; Nielsen, Jens H.; Stapelfeldt, Henrik

    2011-02-15

    We present combined experimental and theoretical results on strong-field ionization of oriented carbonyl sulfide molecules by circularly polarized laser pulses. The obtained molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions show pronounced asymmetries perpendicular to the direction of the molecular electric dipole moment. These findings are explained by a tunneling model invoking the laser-induced Stark shifts associated with the dipoles and polarizabilities of the molecule and its unrelaxed cation. The focus of the present article is to understand the strong-field ionization of one-dimensionally-oriented polar molecules, in particular asymmetries in the emission direction of the photoelectrons. In the following article [Phys. Rev. A 83, 023406 (2011)] the focus is to understand strong-field ionization from three-dimensionally-oriented asymmetric top molecules, in particular the suppression of electron emission in nodal planes of molecular orbitals.

  11. Polarization properties of light scattered off solutions of chiral molecules in non-forward direction

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, Xavier Barbara, Alex F.; Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2015-11-23

    Measuring the optical activity from an ensemble of chiral molecules is a common tool to know their stereo-structure. These measurements are done in the same propagation direction of the probe beam of light, because that is the direction where most signal is emitted. We provide experimental and theoretical evidence that, even though other interesting information may be gathered when collecting light emitted in other directions, for most molecules, the phenomenon of optical activity is only present in the forward scattering direction. The fundamental reason behind this is that forward scattered light preserves the circular polarization states due to the cylindrical symmetry of the system, an essential requirement for optical activity. An important exemption happens in dual molecules, i.e., molecules which present the same response to electric and magnetic fields. We present a series of experiments measuring the optical activity and the scattering of chiral solutions in the forward and perpendicular directions. We experimentally show that these molecules present optical activity and preservation of circular polarization in the forward direction, while the polarization pattern in non-forward directions is much more complex and, in particular, does not preserve the circular polarization. Finally, we show that when probing the particle with different wavelengths, the scattering in non-forward directions presents some interesting structural features which are hidden in the forward measurements.

  12. Polarization properties of light scattered off solutions of chiral molecules in non-forward direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Xavier; Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Barbara, Alex F.; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Measuring the optical activity from an ensemble of chiral molecules is a common tool to know their stereo-structure. These measurements are done in the same propagation direction of the probe beam of light, because that is the direction where most signal is emitted. We provide experimental and theoretical evidence that, even though other interesting information may be gathered when collecting light emitted in other directions, for most molecules, the phenomenon of optical activity is only present in the forward scattering direction. The fundamental reason behind this is that forward scattered light preserves the circular polarization states due to the cylindrical symmetry of the system, an essential requirement for optical activity. An important exemption happens in dual molecules, i.e., molecules which present the same response to electric and magnetic fields. We present a series of experiments measuring the optical activity and the scattering of chiral solutions in the forward and perpendicular directions. We experimentally show that these molecules present optical activity and preservation of circular polarization in the forward direction, while the polarization pattern in non-forward directions is much more complex and, in particular, does not preserve the circular polarization. Finally, we show that when probing the particle with different wavelengths, the scattering in non-forward directions presents some interesting structural features which are hidden in the forward measurements.

  13. Spin polarization and spin separation realized in the double-helical molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hai-Na; Zhu, Yu-Lian; Sun, Xue; Gong, Wei-Jiang

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the electron transport through one double-helical molecule with four terminals, by considering one terminal to be the source and others to be the drains. It is found that notable spin polarizations simultaneously occur during the processes of intra-chain electron tunneling and inter-chain electron reflection. More importantly, in these two processes, the spin polarizations always show similar strengths and opposite directions. Based on these results, we consider that the spin polarization and spin separation can be co-realized in this system.

  14. Monitoring Nanoscale Deformations in a Drawn Polymer Melt with Single-Molecule Fluorescence Polarization Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Krause, Stefan; Neumann, Martin; Fröbe, Melanie; Magerle, Robert; von Borczyskowski, Christian

    2016-02-23

    Elongating a polymer melt causes polymer segments to align and polymer coils to deform along the drawing direction. Despite the importance of this molecular response for understanding the viscoelastic properties and relaxation behavior of polymeric materials, studies on the single-molecule level are rare and were not performed in real time. Here we use single-molecule fluorescence polarization microscopy for monitoring the position and orientation of single fluorescent perylene diimide molecules embedded in a free-standing thin film of a polymethyl acrylate (PMA) melt with a time resolution of 500 ms during the film drawing and the subsequent stress relaxation period. The orientation distribution of the perylene diimide molecules is quantitatively described with a model of rod-like objects embedded in a uniaxially elongated matrix. The orientation of the fluorescent probe molecules is directly coupled to the local deformation of the PMA melt, which we derive from the distances between individual dye molecules. In turn, the fluorescence polarization monitors the shape deformation of the polymer coils on a length scale of 5 nm. During stress relaxation, the coil shape relaxes four times more slowly than the mechanical stress. This shows that stress relaxation involves processes on length scales smaller than a polymer coil. Our work demonstrates how optical spectroscopy and microscopy can be used to study the coupling of individual fluorescent probe molecules to their embedding polymeric matrix and to an external mechanical stimulus on the single-molecule level. PMID:26831762

  15. Near-circularly polarized single attosecond pulse generation from nitrogen molecules in spatially inhomogeneous laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaofan; Li, Yang; Zhu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Qingbin; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang

    2016-01-01

    The generation of an attosecond pulse in nitrogen molecules using spatially inhomogeneous laser fields is investigated by numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. It is found that an isolated attosecond pulse with elliptical polarization can be generated using linearly polarized laser fields. By changing polarization direction with respect to the molecular axis, the ellipticity of the attosecond pulse can be easily controlled. At some specific angles, the intensities of the two mutually vertical harmonic components, parallel and perpendicular to the driving laser polarization direction, are comparable. Additionally, the relative phase between the two components is about π/2. As a result, it supports the generation of the isolated near-circularly polarized attosecond pulse with a duration of 155 as.

  16. Multielectron effects in high harmonic generation from molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka; Xia, Yuqing

    2013-05-01

    High-order harmonic generation (HHG) is a highly nonlinear process in which a system in an intense laser field emits coherent radiation at multiples of the driving frequency. A simplified semiclassical model of HHG process assumes that it is composed of three stages: ionization, acceleration in the laser field and recombination. It has been proposed that the polarization state of harmonic emission from molecules depends only on the recombination step - since in this simplified picture the ionization and acceleration steps are common for the parallel and perpendicular components of HHG with respect to the polarization of the driving laser. Additionally in most of the theories HHG spectra of molecules are considered within single active electron approximation. Present contribution is devoted to detailed studies of HHG process in molecules in their ground states, beyond single active electron approximation. Within time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) framework we study the influence of multielectron effects and competition of contributions from different molecular orbitals. Comparison with our calculations using SFA approximation allows us to investigate the assumption on recombination as major factor influencing ellipticity of harmonics. NSF TAMOP (PHY-1068706)

  17. High Energy Polarization of Blazars: Detection Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, N.; Pavlidou, V.; Fields, B. D.

    2015-01-01

    Emission from blazar jets in the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared is polarized. If these low-energy photons were inverse-Compton scattered, the upscattered high-energy photons retain a fraction of the polarization. Current and future X-ray and gamma-ray polarimeters such as INTEGRAL-SPI, PoGOLITE, X-Calibur, Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter, GEMS-like missions, ASTRO-H, and POLARIX have the potential to discover polarized X-rays and gamma-rays from blazar jets for the first time. Detection of such polarization will open a qualitatively new window into high-energy blazar emission; actual measurements of polarization degree and angle will quantitatively test theories of jet emission mechanisms. We examine the detection prospects of blazars by these polarimetry missions using examples of 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 454.3, bright sources with relatively high degrees of low-energy polarization. We conclude that while balloon polarimeters will be challenged to detect blazars within reasonable observational times (with X-Calibur offering the most promising prospects), space-based missions should detect the brightest blazars for polarization fractions down to a few percent. Typical flaring activity of blazars could boost the overall number of polarimetric detections by nearly a factor of five to six purely accounting for flux increase of the brightest of the comprehensive, all-sky, Fermi-LAT blazar distribution. The instantaneous increase in the number of detections is approximately a factor of two, assuming a duty cycle of 20% for every source. The detectability of particular blazars may be reduced if variations in the flux and polarization fraction are anticorrelated. Simultaneous use of variability and polarization trends could guide the selection of blazars for high-energy polarimetric observations.

  18. HIGH ENERGY POLARIZATION OF BLAZARS: DETECTION PROSPECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, N.; Pavlidou, V.; Fields, B. D.

    2015-01-01

    Emission from blazar jets in the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared is polarized. If these low-energy photons were inverse-Compton scattered, the upscattered high-energy photons retain a fraction of the polarization. Current and future X-ray and gamma-ray polarimeters such as INTEGRAL-SPI, PoGOLITE, X-Calibur, Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter, GEMS-like missions, ASTRO-H, and POLARIX have the potential to discover polarized X-rays and gamma-rays from blazar jets for the first time. Detection of such polarization will open a qualitatively new window into high-energy blazar emission; actual measurements of polarization degree and angle will quantitatively test theories of jet emission mechanisms. We examine the detection prospects of blazars by these polarimetry missions using examples of 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 454.3, bright sources with relatively high degrees of low-energy polarization. We conclude that while balloon polarimeters will be challenged to detect blazars within reasonable observational times (with X-Calibur offering the most promising prospects), space-based missions should detect the brightest blazars for polarization fractions down to a few percent. Typical flaring activity of blazars could boost the overall number of polarimetric detections by nearly a factor of five to six purely accounting for flux increase of the brightest of the comprehensive, all-sky, Fermi-LAT blazar distribution. The instantaneous increase in the number of detections is approximately a factor of two, assuming a duty cycle of 20% for every source. The detectability of particular blazars may be reduced if variations in the flux and polarization fraction are anticorrelated. Simultaneous use of variability and polarization trends could guide the selection of blazars for high-energy polarimetric observations.

  19. Student construction of small molecule models using Spartan Model to explore polarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Glenn Lamar

    2006-12-01

    This study compared the attitudes and the gains of knowledge concerning Lewis structures and polarity of molecules. The students performed a lab exercise in which they drew Lewis structures, constructed models of the molecules, determined the geometry of the molecules, and determined the polarity of the molecules. The control group students constructed models using physical ball-and-stick models. The treatment group students used Spartan Model to construct models. Students from a university and a community college participated in this study. Four lab classes at each school made up the treatment group. Five lab classes at the university and three lab classes at the community college made up the control group. The treatment group classes were selected based on available computer resources. All students in the study were given the Lab Pre Test, Lab Post Test, and the Lecture Post Test to assess the student's ability to answer questions pertaining to Lewis structures and polarity of molecules. An Attitudinal Survey assessed the attitudes of the students who participated in the study. Student interviews were performed to assess the student's attitudes towards the lab exercise. The interviews investigated attitudes about the modeling exercise, Lewis structures, and polarity of molecules. There were no significant differences in the performance of the treatment group when compared to the control group on the performance assessment instruments at the university or the community college. The treatment group students at the university had a more positive attitude about the lab activity. They believed that the lab activity helped them better understand the concepts of Lewis structure and molecular polarity. At the community college, the control group students had a more positive attitude about the lab activity. The students involved in the study believed that the lab activity helped them to understand the concepts of molecular geometry and polarity. The interviews of the treatment group students indicated that they strongly believed that the lab activity helped them better understand the concept of Lewis structures and of molecular polarity. As reflected in the interviews of the treatment group and the control group, the lab activity did not help the students be able to look at a Lewis structure and build a mental image of the molecule. The students believed the electrostatic potential plots generated by Spartan Model were very insightful into the concept of polarity. It gave them a visual representation of a difficult topic.

  20. High-frequency gratings as polarization elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferstl, Margit; Steingrueber, Ralf; Dias, Daniel; Stankovic, Svetomir; Haidner, Helmut

    1999-08-01

    Binary gratings with feature sizes smaller than the illumination wavelength were fabricated in quartz glass by means of microstructuring techniques. Using rigorous coupled wave analysis polarization elements like polarizing beam splitters and phase retardation plates were designed for operation in transmission at the wavelength of 650 nm. High frequency polarization gratings with feature sizes down to 140 nm and aspect ratios up to 7 were realized. For the polarization selective beam splitting elements we measured diffraction efficiencies of about 80% in the -1st order for TE polarization, and 90% in the 0th order for TM polarization. The values are in good agreement with the theoretical values. Furthermore we realized phase retarding elements e.g. (lambda) /8-plates which showed a phase difference of (Phi) equals 44.8 degree(s) ((Phi) theor. equals 45 degree(s)) between TE and TM polarized light. The design and the fabrication process as well as the optical properties of our high frequency binary phase gratings will be presented. Experimental results will be compared with theoretical values.

  1. Photoelectron angular distributions from polar molecules probed by intense femtosecond lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-samha, M.; Madsen, L. B.

    2010-10-15

    We present numerical calculations of molecular-frame photoelectron angular distributions in strong-field ionization of oriented polar HF and LiF molecules by linearly polarized laser pulses with durations of about 20 fs (seven cycles at 800 nm). The calculations are performed within the single-active-electron and frozen-nuclei approximations. Our analysis shows that for the HF and LiF molecules, anisotropies in the molecular potential and the probed orbital lead to enhanced ionization during laser half cycles with the field pointing antiparallel to the permanent dipole of the dipole term in a multipolar expansion of the anisotropic molecular potential. This is manifested as a strong asymmetry in the computed photoelectron angular distributions: The photoelectrons are preferentially detected opposite to the permanent dipole of the molecular potential. This phenomenon is very sensitive to the probed system (the probed orbital and the molecular potential) and the orientation angle between the molecular axis and the laser polarization.

  2. Photoassociative Production and Detection of Ultracold Polar RbCs Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Zhong-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Shan; Wu, Ji-Zhou; Yuan, Jin-Peng; Zhao, Yan-Ting; Ma, Jie; Wang, Li-Rong; Xiao, Lian-Tuan; Jia, Suo-Tang

    2011-08-01

    We have produced ultracold polar RbCs molecules via photoassociation starting from laser-cooled 85Rb and 133Cs atoms in a dual-species, forced dark magneto-optical trap. The formed electronically excited RbCs* molecules correlated to the Rb(5S1/2) + Cs(6P1/2) dissociation limit are observed by trap loss spectroscopy. Following the decay of these excited RbCs* molecules, the formed ground state molecules are directly ionized by a two-photon single-color pulse dye laser, which is a new ionization mechanism for ground state RbCs molecules and thence detected by time-of-flight mass spectroscopy.

  3. A Centrifuge Decelerator: Slowing down Continuous Beams of Polar Molecules by an Inertial Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervenkov, Sotir; Wu, Xing; Bayerl, Josef; Rohlfes, Andreas; Zeppenfeld, Martin; Rempe, Gerhard

    2013-05-01

    We present the concept of and show compelling experimental results from a novel and versatile decelerator for continuous beams of neutral polar molecules, which employs the centrifugal potential in a rotating frame. A beam of polar molecules is injected at the periphery and electrically guided to the center of the rotating frame along a spiral-shaped electrostatic quadrupole guide. Thus the molecules climb up the centrifugal potential hill and get decelerated as they propagate. In proof-of-principle experiments we demonstrate the deceleration of continuous beams of neutral CF3H, CH3F, and CF3CCH from a liquid-nitrogen cooled effusive source, yielding continuous output intensities exceeding 108 moleculesmm-2s-1 with velocities below 20 ms-1 .

  4. d-wave superfluidity in optical lattices of ultracold polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kuns, Kevin A.; Gorshkov, Alexey V.; Rey, Ana Maria

    2011-12-15

    Recent work on ultracold polar molecules, governed by a generalization of the t-J Hamiltonian, suggests that molecules may be better suited than atoms for studying d-wave superfluidity due to stronger interactions and larger tunability of the system. We compute the phase diagram for polar molecules in a checkerboard lattice consisting of weakly coupled square plaquettes. In the simplest experimentally realizable case where there is only tunneling and an XX-type spin-spin interaction, we identify the parameter regime where d-wave superfluidity occurs. We also find that the inclusion of a density-density interaction destroys the superfluid phase and that the inclusion of a spin-density or an Ising-type spin-spin interaction can enhance the superfluid phase. We also propose schemes for experimentally realizing the perturbative calculations exhibiting enhanced d-wave superfluidity.

  5. Prospects for quantum computing with an array of ultracold polar paramagnetic molecules.

    PubMed

    Karra, Mallikarjun; Sharma, Ketan; Friedrich, Bretislav; Kais, Sabre; Herschbach, Dudley

    2016-03-01

    Arrays of trapped ultracold molecules represent a promising platform for implementing a universal quantum computer. DeMille [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067901 (2002)] has detailed a prototype design based on Stark states of polar (1)Σ molecules as qubits. Herein, we consider an array of polar (2)Σ molecules which are, in addition, inherently paramagnetic and whose Hund's case (b) free-rotor pair-eigenstates are Bell states. We show that by subjecting the array to combinations of concurrent homogeneous and inhomogeneous electric and magnetic fields, the entanglement of the array's Stark and Zeeman states can be tuned and the qubit sites addressed. Two schemes for implementing an optically controlled CNOT gate are proposed and their feasibility discussed in the face of the broadening of spectral lines due to dipole-dipole coupling and the inhomogeneity of the electric and magnetic fields. PMID:26957163

  6. Prospects for quantum computing with an array of ultracold polar paramagnetic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karra, Mallikarjun; Sharma, Ketan; Friedrich, Bretislav; Kais, Sabre; Herschbach, Dudley

    2016-03-01

    Arrays of trapped ultracold molecules represent a promising platform for implementing a universal quantum computer. DeMille [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067901 (2002)] has detailed a prototype design based on Stark states of polarmolecules as qubits. Herein, we consider an array of polarmolecules which are, in addition, inherently paramagnetic and whose Hund's case (b) free-rotor pair-eigenstates are Bell states. We show that by subjecting the array to combinations of concurrent homogeneous and inhomogeneous electric and magnetic fields, the entanglement of the array's Stark and Zeeman states can be tuned and the qubit sites addressed. Two schemes for implementing an optically controlled CNOT gate are proposed and their feasibility discussed in the face of the broadening of spectral lines due to dipole-dipole coupling and the inhomogeneity of the electric and magnetic fields.

  7. Oxidized polyethylene films for orienting polar molecules for linear dichroism spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Razmkhah, Kasra; Chmel, Nikola Paul; Gibson, Matthew I; Rodger, Alison

    2014-03-21

    Stretched polyethylene (PE) films have been used to orient small molecules for decades by depositing solutions on their surface and allowing the solvent to evaporate leaving the analyte absorbed on the polymer film. However, the non-polar hydrophobic nature of PE is an obstacle to aligning polar molecules and biological samples. In this work PE film was treated with oxygen plasma in order to increase surface hydrophilicity. Different treatment conditions were evaluated using contact angle measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Treated PE (PE(OX)) films are shown to be able to align molecules of different polarities including progesterone, 1-pyrenecarboxaldehyde, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and anthracene. The degree of alignment of each molecule was studied by running series of linear dichroism (LD) experiments and the polarizations of electronic transition moments were determined. For the first time optimal conditions (such as stretching factor and concentration of the sample) for stretched film LD were determined. PE(OX) aligning ability was compared to that of normal PE films. Progesterone showed a slightly better alignment on PE(OX) than PE. 1-Pyrenecarboxaldehyde oriented differently on the two different films which enabled transition moment assignment for this low symmetry molecule. DAPI (which does not align on PE) aligned well on PE(OX) and enabled us to obtain better LD data than had previously been collected with polyvinyl alcohol. Anthracene alignment and formation of dimers and higher order structures were studied in much more detail than previously possible, showing a variety of assemblies on PE and PE(OX) films. PMID:24482800

  8. Critical binding and electron scattering by symmetric-top polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, W. R.

    2014-10-28

    Quantum treatments of electron interactions with polar symmetric-top rotor molecules show features not present in the treatment of the linear-polar-rotor model. For symmetric tops possessing non-zero angular momentum about the symmetry axis, a new critical dipole can be defined that guarantees an infinite set of dipole-bound states independent of the values of the components of the inertial tensor. Additionally, for this same class, the scattering cross section diverges for all nonzero values of dipole moments and inertial moments, similar to solutions for the fixed linear dipole. Additional predictions are presented for electron affinities and rotational resonances of these systems.

  9. Effects of High Pressure on Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemley, Russell J.

    2000-10-01

    Recent high-pressure studies reveal a wealth of new information about the behavior of molecular materials subjected to pressures well into the multimegabar range (several hundred gigapascal), corresponding to compressions in excess of an order of magnitude. Under such conditions, bonding patterns established for molecular systems near ambient conditions change dramatically, causing profound effects on numerous physical and chemical properties and leading to the formation of new classes of materials. Representative systems are examined to illustrate key phenomena, including the evolution of structure and bonding with compression; pressure-induced phase transitions and chemical reactions; pressure-tuning of vibrational dynamics, quantum effects, and excited electronic states; and novel states of electronic and magnetic order. Examples are taken from simple elemental molecules (e.g. homonuclear diatomics), simple heteronuclear species, hydrogen-bonded systems (including H2O), simple molecular mixtures, and selected larger, more complex molecules. There are many implications that span the sciences.

  10. Dynamical generation and detection of entangled quantum magnetic states in ultracold polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazzard, Kaden; Manmana, Salvatore; Gorshkov, Alexey; Rey, Ana Maria

    2012-02-01

    We show that existing ultracold polar molecule experiments in optical lattices may generate strongly correlated many-body states by mimicking far-from-equilibrium dynamics of models of quantum magnetism. Recent theory shows that molecules' rotational states can emulate quantum spins with strong (100-10,000Hz) ``spin-spin" interactions. Applying external fields generates a zoo of models: spin-1/2 and larger Heisenberg and XXZ models, and well beyond. We consider the dynamics of the easily prepared fully polarized initial state for the XXZ case predicted to be realized in current experiments. Our analytic and DMRG calculations show that the dynamics can: (i) verify and characterize the spin model (XXZ) description of the system, (ii) generate interesting, entangled states (e.g., cat states, GHZ), and (iii) explore behavior where no quantitative theory is presently possible.

  11. Molecule-modulated photoconductivity and gain-amplified selective gas sensing in polar GaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. S.; Lu, C. Y.; Chen, K. H.; Chen, L. C.

    2009-12-01

    We report the strong molecular effects on the surface-dominant photoconductivity with high-gain transport in the polar GaN nanowires. Both the transient and steady-state photocurrents are sensitive and selective to the adsorptions of oxygen and hydrogen. The surface band bending of GaN nanowires is proposed to be effectively reduced or enhanced by oxygen or hydrogen, respectively, as a donorlike or acceptorlike surface state. The molecular effect, corroborated with the high-gain photoresponse nature of GaN nanowires is found to amplify the molecule-selective photocurrent signal by near three orders of magnitude higher than its counterpart in dark current. The molecule-tunable photoconductivity, as demonstrated here, would benefit a variety of applications, ranging from the high-gain optoelectronic devices, photoelectric energy transducer, as well as gas and chemical sensors.

  12. Shaping interactions between polar molecules with far-off-resonant light

    SciTech Connect

    Lemeshko, Mikhail

    2011-05-15

    We show that dressing polar molecules with a far-off-resonant optical field leads to new types of intermolecular potentials, which undergo a crossover from the inverse power to oscillating behavior depending on the intermolecular distance, and whose parameters can be tuned by varying the laser intensity and wavelength. We present analytic expressions for the potential energy surfaces, thereby providing direct access to the parameters of an optical field required to design intermolecular interactions experimentally.

  13. Two-dimensional scattering and bound states of polar molecules in bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Klawunn, Michael; Pikovski, Alexander; Santos, Luis

    2010-10-15

    Low-energy two-dimensional scattering is particularly sensitive to the existence and the properties of weakly bound states. We show that interaction potentials V(r) with the vanishing zero-momentum Born approximation {integral}dr rV(r)=0 leads to an anomalously weak bound state that crucially modifies the two-dimensional scattering properties. This anomalous case is especially relevant in the context of polar molecules in bilayer arrangements.

  14. Highly Polarized Fluorescent Illumination Using Liquid Crystal Phase.

    PubMed

    Gim, Min-Jun; Turlapati, Srikanth; Debnath, Somen; Rao, Nandiraju V S; Yoon, Dong Ki

    2016-02-10

    Liquid crystal (LC) materials are currently the dominant electronic materials in display technology because of the ease of control of molecular orientation using an electric field. However, this technology requires the fabrication of two polarizers to create operational displays, reducing light transmission efficiency below 10%. It is therefore desirable to develop new technologies to enhance the light efficiency while maintaining or improving other properties such as the modulation speed of the molecular orientation. Here we report a uniaxial-oriented B7 smectic liquid crystalline film, using fluorescent bent-core LC molecules, a chemically modified substrate, and an in-plane electric field. A LC droplet under homeotropic boundary conditions of air/LC as well as LC/substrate exhibits large focal conic like optical textures. The in-plane electric field induced uniaxial orientation of the LC molecules, in which molecular polar directors are aligned in the direction of the electric field. This highly oriented LC film exhibits linearly polarized luminescence and microsecond time-scale modulation characteristics. The resultant device is both cheap and easy to fabricate and thus has great potential for electro-optic applications, including LC displays, bioimaging systems, and optical communications. PMID:26783766

  15. Ion-assisted ground-state cooling of a trapped polar molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Idziaszek, Zbigniew; Calarco, Tommaso; Zoller, Peter

    2011-05-15

    We propose and analyze a scheme for sympathetic cooling of the translational motion of polar molecules confined in the wells of a deep optical lattice and interacting one by one with laser-cooled ions in a radio-frequency trap. The energy gap between the excitation spectra of the particles in their respective trapping potentials is bridged by means of a parametric resonance, provided by the additional modulation of the rf field. We analyze two scenarios: simultaneous laser cooling and energy exchange between the ion and the molecule, and a scheme where these two processes take place separately. We calculate the lowest final energy of the molecule and the cooling rate depending on the amplitude of the parametric modulation. For small parametric modulation, the dynamics can be solved analytically within the rotating wave approximation.

  16. Controlling the Hyperfine State of Rovibronic Ground-State Polar Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ospelkaus, S.; Ni, K.-K.; Quemener, G.; Neyenhuis, B.; Wang, D.; Miranda, M. H. G. de; Bohn, J. L.; Ye, J.; Jin, D. S.

    2010-01-22

    We report the preparation of a rovibronic ground-state molecular quantum gas in a single hyperfine state and, in particular, the absolute lowest quantum state. This addresses the last internal degree of freedom remaining after the recent production of a near quantum degenerate gas of molecules in their rovibronic ground state, and provides a crucial step towards full control over molecular quantum gases. We demonstrate a scheme that is general for bialkali polar molecules and allows the preparation of molecules in a single hyperfine state or in an arbitrary coherent superposition of hyperfine states. The scheme relies on electric-dipole, two-photon microwave transitions through rotationally excited states and makes use of electric nuclear quadrupole interactions to transfer molecular population between different hyperfine states.

  17. Polarized fluorescence of polyatomic fragments produced through photodissociation of polyatomic molecules in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blokhin, A. P.; Gelin, M. F.; Kalosha, I. I.; Polubisok, S. A.; Tolkachev, V. A.

    1999-01-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental study is carried of the polarized emission of polyatomic products produced through photodissociation of polyatomic molecules. A general approach, based on the formalism of dissociation kernels and orientational correlation functions, is developed to predict anisotropy of the fluorescence of photoproducts. We consider the most general case of asymmetric top parent and product molecules. The rotational predissociation effect is taken into account. Various kinds of photoreactions are studied: those when fragments after dissociation are in the electronically excited states and those when fragments are in the ground electronic states so that additional laser pulse is necessary to excite their fluorescence. Particular attention is concentrated on those practically important extreme cases, when predissociation times and lifetimes of the electronically excited states of photoproducts are short or long as compared to the averaged period of free rotation. The steady state polarized fluorescence of radicals produced through dissociation of several disulfides into two identical radicals is measured. The results are interpreted in the framework of the free recoil model (FRM). In this model, photoproducts are assumed to experience no torque and fly apart freely, so that the only origin of the fragment rotation is rotation of the parent molecule. Predictions of the impulsive model (IM), in which fragments are supposed to suffer instantaneous torque due to the rupture of the chemical bonds of the parent molecule, are demonstrated to disagree strongly with our experimental data. This gives an additional confirmation of the validity of the FRM in describing dissociation of polyatomic molecules into polyatomic fragments. The FRM can therefore be invoked to estimate interrelation between the characteristic times, governing the processes of dissociation and emission, and the averaged period of free molecular rotation. Also, the FRM can be used for the determining orientations of the absorption and emission dipole moments in the reference frames of the parent and product molecules.

  18. Raising the metal-insulator transition temperature of VO2 thin films by surface adsorption of organic polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shioya, Hiroki; Shoji, Yoshiaki; Seiki, Noriya; Nakano, Masaki; Fukushima, Takanori; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2015-12-01

    We report a molecular adsorption effect on the first-order metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films. The phase transition temperature is shifted higher by the adsorption of particular polar and rigid tripodal molecules on the film surfaces. The shift becomes larger with increasing dipole moment magnitude, which ranges from 0 to 20 D. The orientation of polar molecules aligned on the surface is most likely responsible for the higher shift of the transition temperature. Coating the surfaces with polar molecules, as demonstrated in this work, might provide a unique way of controlling the phase transition of materials.

  19. Magnetic moment enhancement and spin polarization switch of the manganese phthalocyanine molecule on an IrMn(100) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, X.; Wang, B.; Pratt, A.; Yamauchi, Y.

    2014-07-21

    The geometric, electronic, and magnetic structures of a manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) molecule on an antiferromagnetic IrMn(100) surface are studied by density functional theory calculations. Two kinds of orientation of the adsorbed MnPc molecule are predicted to coexist due to molecular self-assembly on the surface—a top-site geometry with the Mn–N bonds aligned along the 〈100〉 direction, and a hollow-site orientation in which the Mn–N bonds are parallel to the 〈110〉 direction. The MnPc molecule is antiferromagnetically coupled to the substrate at the top site with a slight reduction in the magnetic moment of the Mn atom of the MnPc molecule (Mn{sub mol}). In contrast, the magnetic moment of the Mn{sub mol} is enhanced to 4.28 μB at the hollow site, a value larger than that in the free MnPc molecule (3.51 μB). Molecular distortion induced by adsorption is revealed to be responsible for the enhancement of the magnetic moment. Furthermore, the spin polarization of the Mn{sub mol} atom at around the Fermi level is found to change from negative to positive through an elongation of the Mn–N bonds of the MnPc. We propose that a reversible switch of the low/high magnetic moment and negative/positive spin polarization might be realized through some mechanical engineering methods.

  20. Anti-Lambda Polarization in High Energy pp Collisions withPolarized Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Qing-hua; Liang, Zuo-tang; Sichtermann, Ernst

    2005-11-06

    We study the polarization of the anti-Lambda particle in polarized high energy pp collisions at large transverse momenta. The anti-Lambda polarization is found to be sensitive to the polarization of the anti-strange sea of the nucleon. We make predictions using different parameterizations of the polarized quark distribution functions. The results show that the measurement of longitudinal anti-Lambda polarization can distinguish different parameterizations, and that similar measurements in the transversely polarized case can give some insights into the transversity distribution of the anti-strange sea of nucleon.

  1. Role of proton ordering in adsorption preference of polar molecule on ice surface

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhaoru; Pan, Ding; Xu, Limei; Wang, Enge

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption of polar monomers on ice surface, relevant to the physical/chemical reaction in ice clouds as well as growth of ice, remains an open issue partially due to the unusual surface characteristics with protons at the top layer of ice. Using first-principle calculations, we explore the adsorption properties of ice surface in terms of a surface proton order parameter, which characterizes the inhomogeneity of the dangling atoms on ice surface. We show that, due to an effective electric field created by dangling OH bonds and lone pairs of water molecules not only directly neighboring but also further away from the adsorbed polar molecule on the ice surface, the adsorption energy of polar monomer on ice surface exhibits large variance and a strong correlation with the proton order parameter of ice surface. Our results about the positive correlation between the inhomogeneity of ice surface and adsorption energies suggest that the physical/chemical reactions as well as the growth of ice may prefer to occur firstly on surfaces with larger proton order parameter. PMID:22837403

  2. Solvated Electrons in Very Small Clusters of Polar Molecules: (HF)(3)(-): art. no. 143001

    SciTech Connect

    Gutowski, Maciej S. ); Hall, C; Adamowicz, L; Hendricks, J.H.; De Clercq, Helen; Lyapustina, S.A.; Nilles, J.M.; Xu, S.J.; Bowen Jr., K.H.

    2001-12-01

    A cluster of polar molecules can host an excess electron in at least two ways. First, the excess electron can be tethered to the cluster by its interaction with the cluster?s dipole moment. , Second, the electron can localize inside the cluster, bulk analogs being the hydrated and ammoniated electrons. - While the structural reorganization of the cluster, due to attachment of an excess electron, is typically small for dipole-bound electrons (dbe), it is usually quite significant for''solvated electrons'' (se), since the solvation occurs at the expense of breaking of pre-existing hydrogen bonds. The se structures, however, provide more contact interactions between the polar molecules and the excess electron. For these reasons, it is often assumed that dbe's dominate for small polar clusters, whereas large clusters form se's. Here we show that dbe's and se's coexist in as small a cluster as (HF)3-. The stability of these anions with respect to the neutral cluster results not only from the excess electron binding energy but also from favorable entropic effects, which reflect the greater ''floppiness'' of the anionic structures.

  3. Prospects for measuring the electric dipole moment of the electron using electrically trapped polar molecules.

    PubMed

    Tarbutt, M R; Hudson, J J; Sauer, B E; Hinds, E A

    2009-01-01

    Heavy polar molecules can be used to measure the electric dipole moment of the electron, which is a sensitive probe of physics beyond the Standard Model. The value is determined by measuring the precession of the molecule's spin in a plane perpendicular to an applied electric field. The longer this precession evolves coherently, the higher the precision of the measurement. For molecules in a trap, this coherence time could be very long indeed. We evaluate the sensitivity of an experiment where neutral molecules are trapped electrically, and compare this to an equivalent measurement in a molecular beam. We consider the use of a Stark decelerator to load the trap from a supersonic source, and calculate the deceleration efficiency for YbF molecules in both strong-field seeking and weak-field seeking states. With a 1 s holding time in the trap, the statistical sensitivity could be ten times higher than it is in the beam experiment, and this could improve by a further factor of five if the trap can be loaded from a source of larger emittance. We study some effects due to field inhomogeneity in the trap and find that rotation of the electric field direction, leading to an inhomogeneous geometric phase shift, is the primary obstacle to a sensitive trap-based measurement. PMID:20151537

  4. Polarization effects on the electric properties of urea and thiourea molecules in solid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, O. L.; Fonseca, T. L.; Sabino, J. R.; Georg, H. C.; Castro, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present theoretical results for the dipole moment, linear polarizability, and first hyperpolarizability of the urea and thiourea molecules in solid phase. The in-crystal electric properties were determined by applying a supermolecule approach in combination with an iterative electrostatic scheme, in which the surrounding molecules are represented by point charges. It is found for both urea and thiourea molecules that the influence of the polarization effects is mild for the linear polarizability, but it is marked for the dipole moment and first hyperpolarizability. The replacement of oxygen atoms by sulfur atoms increases, in general, the electric responses. Our second-order Mller-Plesset perturbation theory based iterative scheme predicts for the in-crystal dipole moment of urea and thiourea the values of 7.54 and 9.19 D which are, respectively, increased by 61% and 58%, in comparison with the corresponding isolated values. The result for urea is in agreement with the available experimental result of 6.56 D. In addition, we present an estimate of macroscopic quantities considering explicit unit cells of urea and thiourea crystals including environment polarization effects. These supermolecule calculations take into account partially the exchange and dispersion effects. The results illustrate the role played by the electrostatic interactions on the static second-order nonlinear susceptibility of the urea crystal.

  5. Polarization effects on the electric properties of urea and thiourea molecules in solid phase.

    PubMed

    Santos, O L; Fonseca, T L; Sabino, J R; Georg, H C; Castro, M A

    2015-12-21

    We present theoretical results for the dipole moment, linear polarizability, and first hyperpolarizability of the urea and thiourea molecules in solid phase. The in-crystal electric properties were determined by applying a supermolecule approach in combination with an iterative electrostatic scheme, in which the surrounding molecules are represented by point charges. It is found for both urea and thiourea molecules that the influence of the polarization effects is mild for the linear polarizability, but it is marked for the dipole moment and first hyperpolarizability. The replacement of oxygen atoms by sulfur atoms increases, in general, the electric responses. Our second-order Mller-Plesset perturbation theory based iterative scheme predicts for the in-crystal dipole moment of urea and thiourea the values of 7.54 and 9.19 D which are, respectively, increased by 61% and 58%, in comparison with the corresponding isolated values. The result for urea is in agreement with the available experimental result of 6.56 D. In addition, we present an estimate of macroscopic quantities considering explicit unit cells of urea and thiourea crystals including environment polarization effects. These supermolecule calculations take into account partially the exchange and dispersion effects. The results illustrate the role played by the electrostatic interactions on the static second-order nonlinear susceptibility of the urea crystal. PMID:26696062

  6. Effective Ion-In Potentials for Non-Penetrating Rydberg States of Polar Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coy, Stephen; Grimes, David; Zhou, Yan; Field, Robert W.; Wong, Bryan M.

    2015-06-01

    Rydberg states of atoms or molecules for which the inner turning point of the Rydberg electron on the radial plus centrifugal potential lies outside the bulk of the ion core electron density are known as core-non-penetrating states. Interpretation of Rydberg spectroscopic data for polar molecules makes use of effective potentials that include ionic bonding and polarizability in order to represent electric properties of the ion core. We examine the accuracy and convergence properties of single-center polarization potentials and show that the center of charge representation, for which the core dipole moment is zero so that first-order l-mixing can be neglected, is excluded by the convergence sphere for use with l-states that can be treated by an expansion about the center or mass, the center of dipole or a newly-defined center of polarizability. The potential expansion converges only outside a sphere enclosing the charge distribution, and the sphere is much larger when the center of charge is used. For higher l-states of the rotating molecule (turning points defined in center of mass), the sphere required for convergence is much smaller for an origin within the charge distribution, so that lower l states are modeled correctly.

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance of laser-polarized noble gases in molecules, materials and organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Goodson, Boyd M.

    1999-12-01

    Conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are fundamentally challenged by the insensitivity that stems from the ordinarily low spin polarization achievable in even the strongest NMR magnets. However, by transferring angular momentum from laser light to electronic and nuclear spins, optical pumping methods can increase the nuclear spin polarization of noble gases by several orders of magnitude, thereby greatly enhancing their NMR sensitivity. This dissertation is primarily concerned with the principles and practice of optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance (OPNMR). The enormous sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping noble gases can be exploited to permit a variety of novel NMR experiments across many disciplines. Many such experiments are reviewed, including the void-space imaging of organisms and materials, NMR and MRI of living tissues, probing structure and dynamics of molecules in solution and on surfaces, and zero-field NMR and MRI.

  8. Dual-polarized microstrip array with high isolation and low cross-polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John

    1991-01-01

    A 2 x 2 dual-polarized microstrip array antenna with high isolation between the two input ports and low cross-polarization level has been developed. The technical background for this achievement and antenna performance results are presented.

  9. Long-range scattering resonances in strong-field-seeking states of polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ticknor, Christopher; Bohn, John L.

    2005-09-15

    We present first steps toward understanding the ultracold scattering properties of polar molecules in strong electric field-seeking states. We have found that the elastic cross section displays a quasiregular set of potential resonances as a function of the electric field, which potentially offers intimate details about the intermolecular interaction. We illustrate these resonances in a 'toy' model composed of pure dipoles, and in more physically realistic systems. To analyze these resonances, we use a simple WKB approximation to the eigenphase, which proves both reasonably accurate and meaningful. A general treatment of the Stark effect and dipolar interactions is also presented.

  10. An effective many-body theory for strongly interacting polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Daw-Wei

    2008-05-01

    We derive a general, effective many-body theory for bosonic polar molecules in the strong interaction regime, which cannot be correctly described by previous theories within the first Born approximation. The effective Hamiltonian has additional interaction terms, which surprisingly reduce the anisotropic features of the condensate profile near the shape resonance regime. In a two-dimensional (2D) system with the dipole moment perpendicular to the plane, we find that the phonon dispersion scales as \\sqrt{\\vert{\\bf p}\\vert} in the low-momentum (p) limit, showing the same low energy properties as a 2D charged Bose gas with Coulomb (1/r) interactions.

  11. Short axis contact in the chaining of ellipsoidal particles of polar molecule dominated electrorheological fluid.

    PubMed

    Bao, W; Zheng, J; Wu, X F; Cao, J G; Yang, Z J; Ren, N; Tang, Y; Gao, Y; Huang, J P; Zhou, L W

    2010-08-18

    We simulate the effect of the chaining direction of ellipsoidal particles of polar molecule dominated electrorheological (PM-ER) fluids using commercially available COMSOL Multiphysics® software for the distribution of electric field and the total electrostatic energy. It is proved that adding ferroelectric materials to the channels parallel to the short axis would make the short axis parallel to the field direction when the ellipsoidal particles are chained under an electric field. According to our simulation, while the concentration of the channels stays constant, the greater the dielectric constant of the inserted material, the stronger the maximum local electric field will be. PMID:21386481

  12. Short axis contact in the chaining of ellipsoidal particles of polar molecule dominated electrorheological fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, W.; Zheng, J.; Wu, X. F.; Cao, J. G.; Yang, Z. J.; Ren, N.; Tang, Y.; Gao, Y.; Huang, J. P.; Zhou, L. W.

    2010-08-01

    We simulate the effect of the chaining direction of ellipsoidal particles of polar molecule dominated electrorheological (PM-ER) fluids using commercially available COMSOL Multiphysics® software for the distribution of electric field and the total electrostatic energy. It is proved that adding ferroelectric materials to the channels parallel to the short axis would make the short axis parallel to the field direction when the ellipsoidal particles are chained under an electric field. According to our simulation, while the concentration of the channels stays constant, the greater the dielectric constant of the inserted material, the stronger the maximum local electric field will be.

  13. Spherical tensor analysis of polar liquid crystals with biaxial and chiral molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Zhong-can, Ou-Yang

    2012-11-01

    With the help of spherical tensor expression, an irreducible calculus of a Lth-rank macroscopic susceptibility χ for a polar liquid crystal (PLC) of biaxial and chiral molecules written as the average of molecular hyperpolarizability tensor β associated with their spherical orientational order parameters (0⩽l⩽L) is presented. Comprehensive formulas of L=1,2 have been obtained and the latter explains the optical activity and spontaneous splay texture observed in bent-core PLC. The expression of L=3 specifies for the molecules with D2 symmetry which can be applied to analyze the nonlinear optical second harmonic generation (SHG) observed in proteins, peptides, and double-stranded DNA at interfaces.

  14. Achieving ground-state polar molecular condensates by chainwise atom-molecule adiabatic passage

    SciTech Connect

    Qian Jing; Zhang Weiping; Ling, Hong Y.

    2010-01-15

    We generalize the idea of chainwise stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) [Kuznetsova et al., Phys. Rev. A 78, 021402(R) (2008)] to a photoassociation-based chainwise atom-molecule system, with the goal of directly converting two-species atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) into a ground polar molecular BEC. We pay particular attention to the intermediate Raman laser fields, a control knob inaccessible to the usual three-level model. We find that an appropriate exploration of both the intermediate laser fields and the stability property of the atom-molecule STIRAP can greatly reduce the power demand on the photoassociation laser, a key concern for STIRAPs starting from free atoms due to the small Franck-Condon factor in the free-bound transition.

  15. Solid phases and pairing in a mixture of polar molecules and atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Capogrosso-Sansone, B.

    2011-05-15

    We consider a mixture of hard-core bosonic polar molecules, interacting via repulsive dipole-dipole interaction, and one atomic bosonic species. The mixture is confined on a two-dimensional square lattice and, at low enough temperatures, can be described by the two-component Bose-Hubbard model. The latter displays an extremely rich phase diagram including solid, superfluid, and supersolid phases. Here, we mainly focus on the checkerboard molecular solid, stabilized by the long-range dipolar interaction, and study how the presence of atoms affects its robustness both at zero and finite temperatures. We find that, due to atom-molecule interactions, solid phases can be stabilized at both (much) lower strengths of dipolar interaction and higher temperatures, than when no atoms are present. As a byproduct, atoms also order in a solid phase with the same melting temperatures as for molecules. Finally, we find that for large enough interaction between atoms and molecules, a paired supersolid phase can be stabilized.

  16. Molecules in high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassetti, Matteo; Porciani, Cristiano; Romano-Diaz, Emilio; Ludlow, Aaron; Dekel, Avishai

    2015-08-01

    One of the biggest challenges in simulations of galaxy formation is properly modelling the means by which gas is converted into stars. The standard way to address the problem is to adopt a Schmidt-like law, often coupled to conditions of the local gas properties. However, there is a growing body of evidence that the local star formation rate correlates more tightly with the density of molecular hydrogen than with that of the total gas density. Motivated by this we have developed a sub-grid model for the non-equilibrium abundance of molecular hydrogen that accounts for the unresolved cloud structure by combining observational and numerical results on the properties of the turbulent interstellar medium. Using this model we studied the impact of molecule-regulated star formation on a Milky Way-sized galaxy at z=2. When compared to the standard prescription for star formation, our galaxy was considerably more gas-rich and formed fewer stars when star formation was linked directly to the H2 abundance, resulting in 30 per cent fewer luminous satellites. Molecular regulated star formation therefore acts as an effective non-ejective feedback mechanism that prevents gas from being converted into stars within small, metal-poor dark-matter haloes where the H2 formation timescales are long. We have now built a suite of templates of high-redshift galaxies with different stellar masses and metallicities and wish to present how these different properties affect H2 and star formation.

  17. Rotational Diffusion of a New Large Non Polar Dye Molecule in Alkanes.

    PubMed

    Goudar, Radha; Gupta, Ritu; Kulkarni, Giridhar U; Inamdar, Sanjeev R

    2015-11-01

    Rotational reorientation times of a newly synthesized 2,5-bis(phenylethynyl)1,4-bis(dodecyloxy) benzene (DDPE) are experimentally determined in series of n-alkanes by employing steady state and time resolved fluorescence depolarization technique with a view to understand rotational dynamics of large non-polar solute molecule in non-polar solvents and few general solvents of different sizes and varying viscosity. It is observed that rotational reorientation times vary linearly as function of viscosity. The hydrodynamic stick condition describes the experimental results at low viscosities while the results tend to deviate significantly from it at higher viscosities. This is attributed to the possibility of long chains in solvents hosting a variety of chain defects (end-gauche, double-gauche, all-trans, kink, etc.) thereby reducing the effective length of the molecule, leading to a slightly reduced friction. The experimental results are compared with the predictions of Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) hydrodynamic theory as well as the quasi-hydrodynamic theories of Gierer-Wirtz (GW) and Dote-Kivelson-Shwartz (DKS). The predictions from these theories underestimate τr in the solvents employed in the study. PMID:26384337

  18. Spin-polarization inversion at small organic molecule/Fe4N interfaces: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Mi, Wenbo

    2015-09-01

    We report the first-principles calculations on the electronic structure and simulation of the spin-polarized scan tunneling microscopy graphic of the small organic molecules (benzene, thiophene, and cyclopentadienyl)/Fe4N interfaces. It is found that the plane of benzene and thiophene keeps parallel to Fe4N surface, while that of cyclopentadienyl does not. For all the systems, the organic molecules bind strongly with Fe4N. Due to the hybridization between molecule pz orbitals and d orbitals of Fe, i.e., Zener interaction, all the three systems realize the spin-polarization inversion, whereas the spatial spin-polarization inversion distribution shows different intensities influenced by the competition between the spin polarization of C pz and Fe d states.

  19. Rotational movement of formins evaluated by using single-molecule fluorescence polarization.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Formin homology proteins (formins) are responsible for the formation of actin structures such as actin stress fibers, actin cables, and cytokinetic contractile rings. Formins are the major actin filament (F-actin) nucleators in the cell. Because formins remain bound to the barbed end after nucleating an actin filament, it was expected that formins might rotate along the double-helical structure of F-actin during processive actin elongation (helical rotation). Here, we describe a method to detect the rotational movement of F-actin elongating from immobilized formins using single-molecule fluorescence polarization (FLP). Tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) attached to Cys-374 of actin emits polarized fluorescence at ≈45° with respect to the filament axis. When the TMR-labeled F-actin laying at 45° in the visual field rotates, the vertical- and horizontal-polarized fluorescence (FLV and FLH, respectively) of TMR alternately become bright. This technique allowed us to demonstrate the helical rotation of mDia1, a mammalian formin. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis in actin subunits is not required for helical rotation; however, ATP appears to contribute to accelerating actin elongation by mDia1. When helical rotation is limited by trapping both mDia1 and the pointed-end side, the processive filament elongation is blocked. Thus, mDia1 faithfully rotates along the long-pitch helix of F-actin. In this chapter, we introduce the theoretical concept of single-molecule FLP, the optical setup, the preparation of adenosine diphosphate-bound actin, and the procedure to observe the rotational movement of F-actin elongating from immobilized formins. PMID:24630102

  20. Ground state of the polar alkali-metal-atom-strontium molecules: Potential energy curve and permanent dipole moment

    SciTech Connect

    Guerout, R.; Aymar, M.; Dulieu, O.

    2010-10-15

    In this study, we investigate the structure of the polar alkali-metal-atom-strontium diatomic molecules as possible candidates for the realization of samples of ultracold polar molecular species not yet investigated experimentally. Using a quantum chemistry approach based on effective core potentials and core polarization potentials, we model these systems as effective three-valence-electron systems, allowing for calculation of electronic properties with full configuration interaction. The potential curve and the permanent dipole moment of the {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +} ground state are determined as functions of the internuclear distance for LiSr, NaSr, KSr, RbSr, and CsSr molecules. These molecules are found to exhibit a significant permanent dipole moment, though smaller than those of the alkali-metal-atom-Rb molecules.

  1. Role of ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation by homonuclear diatomic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Odzak, S.; Milosevic, D. B.

    2010-08-15

    We present a theory of high-order harmonic generation by diatomic molecules exposed to an elliptically polarized laser field. This theory is based on the molecular strong-field approximation with the laser-field-dressed initial bound state and the undressed final state. The interference minima, observed for linear polarization, are blurred with the increase of the laser-field ellipticity. The nth harmonic emission rate has contributions of the components of the T-matrix element in the direction of the laser-field polarization and in the direction perpendicular to it. We analyze the destructive interference condition for this perpendicular component. Taking into account that the aligned molecules are an anisotropic medium for high-harmonic generation, we introduce elliptic dichroism as a measure of this anisotropy and discuss possibilities of its use for determining the molecular structure.

  2. High Performance Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bondyopadhyay, Probir K. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A microstrip antenna for radiating circularly polarized electromagnetic waves comprising a cluster array of at least four microstrip radiator elements, each of which is provided with dual orthogonal coplanar feeds in phase quadrature relation achieved by connection to an asymmetric T-junction power divider impedance notched at resonance. The dual fed circularly polarized reference element is positioned with its axis at a 45 deg angle with respect to the unit cell axis. The other three dual fed elements in the unit cell are positioned and fed with a coplanar feed structure with sequential rotation and phasing to enhance the axial ratio and impedance matching performance over a wide bandwidth. The centers of the radiator elements are disposed at the corners of a square with each side of a length d in the range of 0.7 to 0.9 times the free space wavelength of the antenna radiation and the radiator elements reside in a square unit cell area of sides equal to 2d and thereby permit the array to be used as a phased array antenna for electronic scanning and is realizable in a high temperature superconducting thin film material for high efficiency.

  3. Multielectron signatures in the polarization of high-order harmonic radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Zengxiu; Yuan Jianmin; Brabec, Thomas

    2007-09-15

    The polarization of high-order harmonic radiation emitted from N{sub 2} molecules interacting with a linearly polarized laser pulse is investigated theoretically. We find that the exchange effect between the recombining electron and the bound core electrons imprints a clear signature onto the high-order harmonic polarization and its dependence on the alignment angle between the molecular axis and driving laser electric field. Our analysis reveals an observable for the experimental investigation of many-electron dynamics in intense laser fields.

  4. On deflection fields, weak-focusing and strong-focusing storage rings for polar molecules.

    PubMed

    de Nijs, Adrian J; Bethlem, Hendrick L

    2011-11-14

    In this paper, we analyze electric deflection fields for polar molecules in terms of a multipole expansion and derive a simple but rather insightful expression for the force on the molecules. Ideally, a deflection field exerts a strong, constant force in one direction, while the force in the other directions is zero. We show how, by a proper choice of the expansion coefficients, this ideal can be best approximated. We present a design for a practical electrode geometry based on this analysis. By bending such a deflection field into a circle, a simple storage ring can be created; the direct analog of a weak-focusing cyclotron for charged particles. We show that for realistic parameters a weak-focusing ring is only stable for molecules with a very low velocity. A strong-focusing (alternating-gradient) storage ring can be created by arranging many straight deflection fields in a circle and by alternating the sign of the hexapole term between adjacent deflection fields. The acceptance of this ring is numerically calculated for realistic parameters. Such a storage ring might prove useful in experiments looking for an EDM of elementary particles. PMID:21979152

  5. Three-dimensional structural dynamics of myosin V by single-molecule fluorescence polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkey, Joseph N.; Quinlan, Margot E.; Alexander Shaw, M.; Corrie, John E. T.; Goldman, Yale E.

    2003-03-01

    The structural change that generates force and motion in actomyosin motility has been proposed to be tilting of the myosin light chain domain, which serves as a lever arm. Several experimental approaches have provided support for the lever arm hypothesis; however, the extent and timing of tilting motions are not well defined in the motor protein complex of functioning actomyosin. Here we report three-dimensional measurements of the structural dynamics of the light chain domain of brain myosin V using a single-molecule fluorescence polarization technique that determines the orientation of individual protein domains with 20-40-ms time resolution. Single fluorescent calmodulin light chains tilted back and forth between two well-defined angles as the myosin molecule processively translocated along actin. The results provide evidence for lever arm rotation of the calmodulin-binding domain in myosin V, and support a `hand-over-hand' mechanism for the translocation of double-headed myosin V molecules along actin filaments. The technique is applicable to the study of real-time structural changes in other biological systems.

  6. Highly tolerant tunable waveguide polarization rotator scheme.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Ramos, C; Halir, R; Ortega-Moñux, A; Cheben, P; Vivien, L; Molina-Fernández, I; Marris-Morini, D; Janz, S; Xu, D-X; Schmid, J

    2012-09-01

    Integrated polarization rotators are known to exhibit stringent fabrication tolerances, which severely handicap their practical application. Here we present a general polarization rotator scheme that enables both the compensation of fabrication errors and wavelength tunability. The scheme is described analytically, and a condition for perfect polarization conversion is established. Simulations of a silicon-on-insulator polarization rotator show polarization extinction ratios in excess of 40  dB even in the presence of large fabrication errors that in a conventional rotator configuration degrade the extinction ratio to below 5  dB. Additionally, wavelength tuning over ±30  nm is shown. PMID:22940940

  7. Integrated polarizers based on tapered highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Priscila; Biazoli, Claudecir R; Franco, Marcos A R; Cordeiro, Cristiano M B; de Matos, Christiano J S

    2014-07-28

    This paper proposes and demonstrates the creation of sections with a high polarization dependent loss (PDL) in a commercial highly birefringent (polarization maintaining) photonic crystal fiber (PCF), via tapering with pressure applied to the holes. The tapers had a 1-cm-long uniform section with a 66% scale reduction, in which the original microstructure aspect ratio was kept by the pressure application. The resulting waveguides show polarizing action across the entire tested wavelength range, 1510-1600 nm, with a peak PDL of 35.3 dB/cm (c.f. ~1 dB/cm for a typical commercial polarizing fiber). The resulting structure, as well as its production, is extremely simple, and enable a small section with a high PDL to be obtained in a polarization maintaining PCF, meaning that the polarization axes in the polarizing and polarization maintaining sections are automatically aligned. PMID:25089397

  8. Highly Polarized and Self-Waveguided Emission from Single-Crystalline Organic Nanobelts

    SciTech Connect

    Che, Yanke; Yang, Xiaomei; Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Zuo, Jianmin; Zang, Ling

    2009-09-15

    Well-defined single-crystalline nanobelts with strong fluorescence were fabricated from a perylene tetracarboxylic diimide molecule modified with specific side-chains that afford flip-flap stacking, rather than the common translated stacking, between the molecules along the long axis of the nanobelt. The nanobelts thus fabricated possess highly polarized, self-waveguided emission, making them ideal candidates for application in nanolasers and other angle-dependent optical nanodevices.

  9. Polar molecules with strong three-body repulsions on two-dimensional hexagonal lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnes, Lars; Büchler, Hanspeter; Wessel, Stefan

    2010-03-01

    Motivated by a recent proposal on using polar molecules in optical lattices driven by microwave fields to induce strong three-body interactions (H. P. B"uchler et al., Nature Physics 3, 726 (2007)), we analyze the quantum phase diagram of the hard-core boson Hubbard model with competing two- and three-body interactions. In particular, we consider the case of the honeycomb lattice. The rich phase diagram, which we access using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, shows a variety of complex valence bond crystal phases, emerging out of classical ground-states of extensive degeneracies. We obtain effective description of these phases in terms of local resonances and quantum dimer models. Cascading transitions result from the competition of the two types of interaction terms. Furthermore, we revisit the bose Hubbard model on the triangular lattice, and consider the nature and stability of its supersolid phases in the presence of three-body repulsions.

  10. Collectively Induced Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in Monolayers of Molecules Consisting of Polar Repeating Units

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The electronic structure of terpyrimidinethiols is investigated by means of density-functional theory calculations for isolated molecules and monolayers. In the transition from molecule to self-assembled monolayer (SAM), we observe that the band gap is substantially reduced, frontier states increasingly localize on opposite sides of the SAM, and this polarization in several instances is in the direction opposite to the polarization of the overall charge density. This behavior can be analyzed by analogy to inorganic semiconductor quantum-wells, which, as the SAMs studied here, can be regarded as semiperiodic systems. There, similar observations are made under the influence of a, typically external, electric field and are known as the quantum-confined Stark effect. Without any external perturbation, in oligopyrimidine SAMs one encounters an energy gradient that is generated by the dipole moments of the pyrimidine repeat units. It is particularly strong, reaching values of about 1.6 eV/nm, which corresponds to a substantial electric field of 1.6 × 107 V/cm. Close-lying σ- and π-states turn out to be a particular complication for a reliable description of the present systems, as their order is influenced not only by the docking groups and bonding to the metal, but also by the chosen computational approach. In the latter context we demonstrate that deliberately picking a hybrid functional allows avoiding pitfalls due to the infamous self-interaction error. Our results show that when aiming to build a monolayer with a specific electronic structure one can not only resort to the traditional technique of modifying the molecular structure of the constituents, but also try to exploit collective electronic effects. PMID:21955058

  11. Intracluster Ion Molecule Reactions Following the Generation of Mg+ Within Polar Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Alsharaeh, Edreese H.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we investigated the intracluster ion molecule reactions following the generation of Mg+ within the polar clusters (water, methanol, ether and acetonitrile), using time of flight mass spectrometry. In the case of Mg+/water and Mg+/methanol, dehydrogenation reactions are observed after the addition of five molecules. However, no dehydrogenation reactions are observed in the case of Mg+/ether or Mg+/acetonitrile clusters. This confirms the role of the H atom in (O–H) in the dehydrogenation reaction, and rules out any contribution from the H atom in the CH3 group. In addition, the magic numbers in the time of flight (TOF) mass spectra of the Mg+Xn clusters (X = H2O, CH3OH, CH3OCH3 and CH3CN) have been investigated. Finally, the role of ground electronic magnesium ion Mg+(2S1/2), and excited electronic magnesium ion Mg+(2P1/2) in the dehydrogenation reaction were investigated using Ion Mobility Mass spectrometry. The results offer direct evidence confirming the absence of the electronically excited, Mg+(2P1/2). PMID:22272121

  12. Fluorescence polarization based displacement assay for the determination of small molecules with aptamers.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Aguado, Jorge A; Penner, Gregory

    2008-11-15

    The conversion of an aptamer-target binding event into a detectable signal is an important step in the development of aptamer-based sensors. In this work, we show that the displacement of a fluorescently labeled oligo from the aptamer by the target can be detected by fluorescence polarization (FP). We used Ochratoxin A (OTA), a small organic molecule (MW = 403) as a case study. A detection limit of 5 nM OTA was achieved. The method presented here provides an advantage over fluorophore-quenching systems and other steady-state fluorescence approaches in that no modification of the aptamer or the target is required. Additionally, the signal is produced by the displacement event itself, so no further aggregation or conformational events have to be considered. This analytical method is particularly useful for small targets, as for large targets a direct measurement of the FP change of a labeled aptamer upon binding can be used to determine the concentration of the target. The results presented here demonstrate that aptamers and inexpensive labeled oligos can be used for rapid, sensitive, and specific determination of small molecules by means of FP. PMID:18947191

  13. The effect of a permanent dipole moment on the polar molecule cavity quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing-Yun, Zhao; Li-Guo, Qin; Xun-Ming, Cai; Qiang, Lin; Zhong-Yang, Wang

    2016-04-01

    A dressed-state perturbation theory beyond the rotating wave approximation (RWA) is presented to investigate the interaction between a two-level electronic transition of polar molecules and a quantized cavity field. Analytical expressions can be explicitly derived for both the ground- and excited-state-energy spectrums and wave functions of the system, where the contribution of permanent dipole moments (PDM) and the counter-rotating wave term (CRT) can be shown separately. The validity of these explicit results is discussed by comparison with the direct numerical simulation. Compared to the CRT coupling, PDM results in the coupling of more dressed states and the energy shift is proportional to the square of the normalized permanent dipole difference, and a greater Bloch–Siegert shift can be produced in the giant dipole molecule cavity QED. In addition, our method can also be extended to the solution of the two-level atom Rabi model Hamiltonian beyond the RWA. Project supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB01010200), the Hundred Talents Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. Y321311401), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61475139, 11347147, and 11247014), the National Basics Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB329501), and the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. LQ13A040006).

  14. Search for Asymmetric Interactions between Chiral Molecules and Spin-Polarized Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreiling, Joan; Litaker, Eric; Gay, Timothy

    2013-05-01

    We present our preliminary asymmetry results for the transmission of longitudinally spin-polarized electrons through a vapor of chirally-pure bromocamphor (C10H15BrO) molecules. We define the asymmetry for transmission as A = [(I ↑-I ↓) /(I ↑ + I ↓) ]R- [(I ↑-I ↓) /(I ↑ + I ↓) ]L, where I ↑ (I ↓) is the transmitted current measured for spin-up (spin-down) electrons and the ``L'' and ``R'' subscripts correspond to the left- and right-handed chirality of the molecules. At present, we have measured A at 1.5 eV electron scattering energy to be 5.4(2.5)*10-5 when the transmitted, magnetically collimated electron beam is attenuated to 10% of its initial value, corresponding to a pressure of a few millitorr in a cell of length 2.54 cm. This should be compared with the measurements of Mayer et al., where they report an asymmetry (by our definition) of about 3.4(0.2)*10-4 for the same incident energy and electron beam attenuation. We discuss possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  15. Electrostatic actuation based modulation of polar molecules and associated force interaction studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiao

    Seamless integration of artificial components with biological systems to form an elegant biotic-abiotic interface or smart surface has promising application potential in biomedical engineering. The specific aim of this study is to implement the actuation and modulation of binding behavior between biomolecules under electrostatic stimuli, and investigate the corresponding force interaction between the complementary pairs. The nanofabrication technology was utilized to establish the patterned binding pair of thrombin and DNA aptamer on gold substrate, and different electrical fields were applied on the system to evaluate electrostatic influence. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface imaging was then used to explicate the surface height change after the removal of the electrical fields. The height change of the surface showed that positive electrical fields can successfully break the bonds between thrombin and aptamer, while moderate negative electrical fields kept the integral structure. The experimental studies implement the idea of electrostatic actuation and modulation of the complementary pair. The force interaction between the pair was then investigated through AFM based dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS). The open circuit DFS experiment was conducted first to clarify the magnitude of single molecule level force interaction between thrombin and aptamer, and the linear dependence of rupture force on logarithmic loading rate was observed. A single energy barrier model was used to understand the binding physics and kinetics. By fitting the model with experiment data, we could acquire important kinetic parameters toff and xbeta. Then in-situ electrochemical atomic force microscopy (ECAFM) based DFS experiment was conducted to investigate the electrostatic influence upon molecular force interaction between thrombin and aptamer. The force interaction difference showed that positive electrical fields lowered the dissociation force between thrombin and aptamer, while negative electrical fields held similar force level with zero potential. The ECAFM experimental studies further support the conclusion of electrostatic actuation and modulation of the complementary pair. Besides, the root cause for the change of binding behavior and force interaction between the biomolecules under electrostatic fields is the conformational transition of the molecules, which might be illustrated by the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Therefore, a MD based computational study was performed on self-assembled monolayer (SAM) with polar end group under the application of electrical fields to clarify the conformational transition and associated friction change of the monomolecular thin films. The simulation results showed that positive electrical fields can generate larger conformational transition of the SAMs, which led to a greater frictional coefficient drop of the surface, while negative electrical fields kept similar conformational state and frictional response as the zero potential. The simulation result provides another explanation of the electrostatic actuation based modulation of polar molecule functionalized surface.

  16. Electric-field-dependent dynamic polarizability and state-insensitive conditions for optical trapping of diatomic polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kotochigova, Svetlana; DeMille, David

    2010-12-15

    Selection of state-insensitive or 'magic' trapping conditions with ultracold atoms or molecules, where pairs of internal states experience identical trapping potentials, brings substantial benefits to precision measurements and quantum computing schemes. Working at such conditions could ensure that the detrimental effects of inevitable inhomogeneities across an ultracold sample are significantly reduced. However, this aspect of confinement remains unexplored for ultracold polar molecules. Here, we present means to control the ac Stark shift of rotational states of ultracold diatomic polar molecules, when subjected to both trapping laser light and an external electric field. We show that both the strength and relative orientation of the two fields influence the trapping potential. In particular, we predict 'magic electric field strengths' and a 'magic angle', where the Stark shift is independent of the dc external field for certain rotational states of the molecule.

  17. Singlet and triplet Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer pairs in a gas of two-species fermionic polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, T.; Zhang, J.-N.; Sun, C.-P.; Yi, S.

    2010-09-15

    Taking into account the deformation of the Fermi surface, we investigate the spin-singlet and -triplet BCS pairings in a mixture of fermionic polar molecules with two different hyperfine states. In particular, we explore the relation between the critical temperatures and the Fock-exchange interaction. We also show that, by tuning short-range interaction between interspecies molecules, the singlet- and triplet-paired superfluids may coexist.

  18. Electron scattering by highly polar molecules. I - KI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudge, M. R. H.; Trajmar, S.; Williams, W.

    1976-01-01

    Electron-impact energy-loss spectra of KI were studied experimentally in the 15- to 130-deg angular range at impact energies of 6.7, 15.7, and 60 eV. The spectra reveal a number of excitation features which have not been detected previously and indicate that KI is a strong photon absorber in the vacuum-UV region. From the spectra, differential and integral electronically elastic and inelastic cross sections have been obtained by normalizing the experimental data to theoretical results at low scattering angles. Rotational excitation cross sections corresponding to delta j = 0, plus or minus 1, have been calculated using a dipole-plus-repulsive-core interaction potential and the distorted-wave approximation. For comparison, the rotational excitation cross sections have also been calculated in the Born point-dipole approximation.

  19. Electron scattering by highly polar molecules. II - LiF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vuskovic, L.; Srivastavas, S. K.; Trajmar, S.

    1978-01-01

    The crossed electron-beam - molecular-beam scattering technique has been used to measure relative values of differential 'elastic' scattering cross sections at electron impact energies of 5.4 and 20 eV for the angular range from 20 to 130 deg. The absolute values of these cross sections have been obtained by normalization to the classical perturbation theory of Dickinson (1977) at a scattering angle of 40 deg. These differential cross sections have then been used to calculate the integral and momentum-transfer cross sections. An energy-loss spectrum at 100 eV electron impact energy and 15 deg scattering angle has also been obtained. Two weak features at the energy losses of 6.74 and 8.82 eV appear. Their energy positions are compared with the recent calculations of Kahn et al. (1974).

  20. Electron scattering by highly polar molecules. III - CsCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vuskovic, L.; Srivastava, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    Utilizing a crossed electron-beam-molecular-beam scattering geometry, relative values of differential electron scattering cross sections for cesium chloride at 5 and 20 eV electron impact energies and at scattering angles between 10 and 120 deg have been measured. These relative cross sections have been normalized to the cross section at 15 deg scattering angle calculated by the hybrid S-matrix technique. In the angular range between 0 and 10 deg and between 120 and 180 deg extrapolations have been made to obtain integral and momentum transfer cross sections. An energy-loss spectrum is also presented which gives various spectral features lying between the 4 and 10 eV regions in CsCl.

  1. Polarity inversion in high Mg-doped In-polar InN epitaxial layers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xinqiang; Che, Song-Bek; Ishitani, Yoshihiro; Yoshikawa, Akihiko; Sasaki, Hirokazu; Shinagawa, Tatsuyuki; Yoshida, Seikoh

    2007-08-20

    To investigate the Mg-dopability in In-polar InN epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy, polarity inversion dependence on Mg-doping level is studied. A multiple-InN layer-structure sample with different Mg-doping levels is grown and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Formation of high density V-shaped inversion domains is observed for the Mg-doped InN with Mg concentration ([Mg]) of 2.9x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. These domains lead to polarity inversion from In to N polarity. Further study for Mg-doped InN epilayers shows that polarity inversion takes place when [Mg] increases above 1.6x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. It is also shown that the Mg-sticking coefficient is almost independent of the polarity.

  2. Probing the Axis Alignment of an Ultracold Spin-polarized Rb2 Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deiß, Markus; Drews, Björn; Deissler, Benjamin; Hecker Denschlag, Johannes

    2014-12-01

    We present a novel method for probing the alignment of the molecular axis of an ultracold, nonpolar dimer. These results are obtained using diatomic 87Rb2 molecules in the vibrational ground state of the lowest triplet potential a3Σu+ trapped in a 3D optical lattice. We measure the molecular polarizabilities, which are directly linked to the alignment, along each of the x , y , and z directions of the lab coordinate system. By preparing the molecules in various, precisely defined rotational quantum states we can control the degree of alignment of the molecular axis with high precision over a large range. Furthermore, we derive the dynamical polarizabilities for a laser wavelength of 1064.5 nm parallel and orthogonal to the molecular axis of the dimer, α∥=(8.9 ±0.9 )×1 03 a .u . and α⊥=(0.9 ±0.4 )×1 03 a .u . , respectively. Our findings highlight that the depth of an optical lattice strongly depends on the rotational state of the molecule, which has to be considered in collision experiments. The present work paves the way for reaction studies between aligned molecules in the ultracold temperature regime.

  3. Functional Fixedness and Functional Reduction as Common Sense Reasonings in Chemical Equilibrium and in Geometry and Polarity of Molecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furio, C.; Calatayud, M. L.; Barcenas, S. L.; Padilla, O. M.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on learning difficulties in procedural knowledge, and assesses the procedural difficulties of grade 12 and first- and third-year university students based on common sense reasoning in two areas of chemistry--chemical equilibrium and geometry, and polarity of molecules. (Contains 55 references.) (Author/YDS)

  4. High-Resolution South Polar Cap Mosaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The layered terrains of the polar regions of Mars are among the most exotic planetary landscapes in our Solar System. The layers exposed in the south polar residual cap, vividly shown in the top view, are thought to contain detailed records of Mars' climate history over the last 100 million years or so. The materials that comprise the south polar layers may include frozen carbon dioxide, water ice, and fine dust. The bottom picture shows complex erosional patterns that have developed on the south polar cap, perhaps by a combination of sublimation, wind erosion, and ground-collapse. Because the south polar terrains are so strange and new to human eyes, no one (yet) has entirely adequate explanations as to what is being seen.

    These images were acquired by the Mars Orbiter Camera aboard the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft during the southern spring season in October 1999. Each of these two pictures is a mosaic of many individual MOC images acquired at about 12 m/pixel scale that completely cover the highest latitude (87oS) visible to MOC on each orbital pass over the polar region. Both mosaics cover areas of about 10 x 4 kilometers (6.2 x 2.5 miles) near 87oS, 10oW in the central region of the permanent--or residual--south polar cap. They show features at the scale of a small house. Sunlight illuminates each scene from the left.'Gaps' at the upper and lower right of the second mosaic, above, are areas that were not covered by MOC in October 1999.

  5. High circular polarization in electroluminescence from MoSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onga, Masaru; Zhang, Yijin; Suzuki, Ryuji; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2016-02-01

    The coupling between the valley degree of freedom and the optical helicity is one of the unique phenomena in transition metal dichalcogenides. The significant valley polarization evaluated from circularly polarized photoluminescence (PL) has been reported in many transition metal dichalcogenides, except in MoSe2. This compound is an anomalous material showing ultra-fast relaxation of the valley polarized states, which causes negligible polarization in the PL. Meanwhile, circularly polarized electroluminescence (EL) has been recently reported in a WSe2 light-emitting transistor, providing another method for using the valley degree of freedom. Here, we report the EL properties of MoSe2, demonstrating electrical switching of the optical helicity. Importantly, we observed high circular polarization reaching 66%. The results imply that the dominant mechanism of circularly polarized EL is robust against intervalley scattering, in marked contrast to the PL.

  6. Polar molecules with three-body interactions on the honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnes, Lars; Büchler, Hanspeter; Wessel, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    We study the phase diagram of ultra-cold bosonic polar molecules loaded on a two-dimensional optical lattice of hexagonal symmetry controlled by external electric and microwave fields. Following a recent proposal in (Büchler et al 2007 Nat. Phys. 3 726), such a system is described by an extended Bose-Hubbard model of hard-core bosons that includes both extended two- and three-body repulsions. Using quantum Monte-Carlo simulations, exact finite cluster calculations and the tensor network renormalization group, we explore the rich phase diagram of this system, resulting from the strongly competing nature of the three-body repulsions on the honeycomb lattice. Already in the classical limit, they induce complex solid states with large unit cells and macroscopic ground-state degeneracies at different fractional lattice fillings. For the quantum regime, we obtain effective descriptions of the various phases in terms of emerging valence bond crystal states and quantum dimer models. Furthermore, we access the experimentally relevant parameter regime and determine the stability of the crystalline phases towards strong two-body interactions.

  7. Topological phases in atoms and molecules in spin-polarized electron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, James; Pravica, Luka; Samarin, Sergey; Kathi, Sudarshan; Guagliardo, Paul; CentreAtomic, Molecular; Surface Physics Team

    2013-05-01

    Observations of spin-polarized electron impact excitation of zinc atoms, ionization of helium atoms and dissociative excitation of molecules indicate a topological phase. The parallel transport of the spin vector gives rise to an effective `monopole' magnetic field and an apparent spin-orbit interaction. In excitation, the Stokes parameters of radiated photons show alignment and orientation. Excitation of a superposition of 2s and 2p states on atomic hydrogen in an external electric field show beats in Lyman alpha radiation as predicted for a circular vortex. Ionization of helium atoms show minima in (e,2e) angular and energy differential cross sections associated with a linear vortex (Macek, Feagin). Exchange dissociative excitation of methane shows radiated photons from a Jahn-Teller ``avoided crossing'' of potential energy curves (Mead and Truhlar). The observations are consistent with fundamental principles that a gauge-invariant quantity is potentially a physical observable and the topology of a ring indicates a magnetic-flux line enclosed by the ring is equivalent to a vortex line. Funding was received from the Australian Research Council and The University of Western Australia.

  8. Relaxation of rotational angular momentum of polar diatomic molecules in simple liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, A.; Perez, J.

    2007-03-15

    The relaxation processes of rotational angular momentum of polar diatomic molecules diluted in simple liquids are analyzed by applying a non-Markovian relaxation theory to the study of the binary time autocorrelation function of the angular momentum. This non-Markovian theory was previously applied to the study of the infrared and Raman spectroscopy, and also to the analysis of the rotational energy relaxation processes. We have obtained non-Markovian evolution equations for the two-time j-level angular momentum correlation components involved in the angular momentum correlation function. In these equations, the time-dependent angular momentum transfer rates and the pure orientational angular transfer rates are given in terms of the binary time autocorrelation function of the diatomic-solvent anisotropic interaction. The non-Markovian evolution equations converge to Markovian ones in the long time limit, reaching the angular momentum transfer rates in the usual time-independent form. Alternative time scales for the angular relaxation processes, relative to the individual rotational processes as well as to the global decay correlations, are introduced and analyzed. The theory is applied to the study of the angular momentum relaxation processes of HCl diluted in liquid SF{sub 6}, a system for which rotational energy relaxation and infrared and Raman spectroscopy was previously analyzed in the scope of the same theory.

  9. Polarized neutron reflectometry in high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, H.

    2005-11-01

    A simple method is described to maintain the polarization of a neutron beam on its way through the large magnetic stray fields produced by a vertical field of a cryomagnet with a split-coil geometry. The two key issues are the proper shielding of the neutron spin flippers and an additional radial field component in order to guide the neutron spin through the region of the null point (i.e., point of reversal for the vertical field component). Calculations of the neutron's spin rotation as well as polarized neutron reflectometry experiments on an ErFe2/DyFe2 multilayer show the perfect performance of the used setup. The recently commissioned cryomagnet M5 with a maximum vertical field of up to 7.2T in asymmetric mode for polarized neutrons and 9T in symmetric mode for unpolarized neutrons was used on the C5 spectrometer in reflectometry mode, at the NRU reactor in Chalk River, Canada.

  10. HIGHLY POLARIZED COUNTERPART OF THE DOUBLE HELIX NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuboi, Masato; Handa, Toshihiro

    2010-08-20

    We identified the double helix nebula (DHN) found by the Spitzer Space Telescopein the Galactic center region as a highly polarized feature at 10 GHz with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. The DHN is located near the north end of the polarized plumes. The position angles of Faraday rotation corrected B vectors in the DHN are presumably along the twisting IR filaments. The linear polarization degree of the DHN is as large as p = 10%, and reaches p = 15% {+-} 2% at the radio polarization peak of the DHN. This means that the DHN has highly ordered magnetic field with synchrotron-emitting relativistic electrons.

  11. Highly efficient generation of vector beams through polarization holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, U.; Pagliusi, P.; Provenzano, C.; Cipparrone, G.

    2013-04-01

    We report a highly efficient and flexible method to yield vector beams (VBs) with spatially variant amplitude, phase and polarization by means of two polarization holograms (PHs). Left- and right-hand circularly polarized scalar beams, generated by the first hologram, are collinearly recombined by the second one to produce the vector beams. By taking advantage of the diffraction properties, the high efficiency, and the intrinsic achromaticity of the polarization holograms, the method aims to overcome the limitations related to stability and efficiency, making it attractive for applications. Theoretical analysis, based on the Jones formalism, and experimental results are shown.

  12. Single-molecule imaging at high hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vass, Hugh; Lucas Black, S.; Flors, Cristina; Lloyd, Diarmuid; Bruce Ward, F.; Allen, Rosalind J.

    2013-04-01

    Direct microscopic fluorescence imaging of single molecules can provide a wealth of mechanistic information, but up to now, it has not been possible under high pressure conditions, due to limitations in microscope pressure cell design. We describe a pressure cell window design that makes it possible to image directly single molecules at high hydrostatic pressure. We demonstrate our design by imaging single molecules of Alexa Fluor 647 dye bound to DNA, at 120 and 210 bar, and following their fluorescence photodynamics. We further show that the failure pressure of this type of pressure cell window can be in excess of 1 kbar.

  13. Ionization of one- and three-dimensionally-oriented asymmetric-top molecules by intense circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Jonas L.; Holmegaard, Lotte; Kalhoej, Line; Kragh, Sofie Louise; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Filsinger, Frank; Meijer, Gerard; Kuepper, Jochen; Dimitrovski, Darko; Abu-samha, Mahmoud; Martiny, Christian Per Juul; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2011-02-15

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study on strong-field ionization of a three-dimensionally-oriented asymmetric top molecule, benzonitrile (C{sub 7}H{sub 5}N), by circularly polarized, nonresonant femtosecond laser pulses. Prior to the interaction with the strong field, the molecules are quantum-state selected using a deflector and three-dimensionally (3D) aligned and oriented adiabatically using an elliptically polarized laser pulse in combination with a static electric field. A characteristic splitting in the molecular frame photoelectron momentum distribution reveals the position of the nodal planes of the molecular orbitals from which ionization occurs. The experimental results are supported by a theoretical tunneling model that includes and quantifies the splitting in the momentum distribution. The focus of the present article is to understand strong-field ionization from 3D-oriented asymmetric top molecules, in particular the suppression of electron emission in nodal planes of molecular orbitals. In the preceding article [Dimitrovski et al., Phys. Rev. A 83, 023405 (2011)] the focus is to understand the strong-field ionization of one-dimensionally-oriented polar molecules, in particular asymmetries in the emission direction of the photoelectrons.

  14. Highly Polarized Ion Sources for Electron Ion Colliders (EIC)

    SciTech Connect

    V.G. Dudnikov, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, Y. Zhang

    2010-03-01

    The operation of the RHIC facility at BNL and the Electron Ion Colliders (EIC) under development at Jefferson Laboratory and BNL need high brightness ion beams with the highest polarization. Charge exchange injection into a storage ring or synchrotron and Siberian snakes have the potential to handle the needed polarized beam currents, but first the ion sources must create beams with the highest possible polarization to maximize collider productivity, which is proportional to a high power of the polarization. We are developing one universal H-/D- ion source design which will synthesize the most advanced developments in the field of polarized ion sources to provide high current, high brightness, ion beams with greater than 90% polarization, good lifetime, high reliability, and good power efficiency. The new source will be an advanced version of an atomic beam polarized ion source (ABPIS) with resonant charge exchange ionization by negative ions. An integrated ABPIS design will be prepared based on new materials and an optimized magnetic focusing system. Polarized atomic and ion beam formation, extraction, and transport for the new source will be computer simulated.

  15. High resolution electron crystallography of protein molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Glaeser, R.M. |; Downing, K.H.

    1993-06-01

    Electron diffraction data and high resolution images can now be used to obtain accurate, three-dimensional density maps of biological macromolecules. These density maps can be interpreted by building an atomic-resolution model of the structure into the experimental density. The Cowley-Moodie formalism of dynamical diffraction theory has been used to validate the use of kinematic diffraction theory, strictly the weak phase object approximation, in producing such 3-D density maps. Further improvements in the preparation of very flat specimens and in the retention of diffraction to a resolution of 0.2 nm or better could result in electron crystallography becoming as important a technique as x-ray crystallography currently is for the field of structural molecular biology.

  16. Polarized neutron reflectometry in high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Fritzsche, H.

    2005-11-15

    A simple method is described to maintain the polarization of a neutron beam on its way through the large magnetic stray fields produced by a vertical field of a cryomagnet with a split-coil geometry. The two key issues are the proper shielding of the neutron spin flippers and an additional radial field component in order to guide the neutron spin through the region of the null point (i.e., point of reversal for the vertical field component). Calculations of the neutron's spin rotation as well as polarized neutron reflectometry experiments on an ErFe{sub 2}/DyFe{sub 2} multilayer show the perfect performance of the used setup. The recently commissioned cryomagnet M5 with a maximum vertical field of up to 7.2 T in asymmetric mode for polarized neutrons and 9 T in symmetric mode for unpolarized neutrons was used on the C5 spectrometer in reflectometry mode, at the NRU reactor in Chalk River, Canada.

  17. Organic molecules in the polar ice: from chemical analysis to environmental proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbante, Carlo; Zennaro, Piero; Giorio, Chiara; Kehrwald, Natalie; Benton, Alisa K.; Wolff, Eric W.; Kalberer, Markus; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The molecular and isotopic compositions of organic matter buried in ice contains information that helps reconstruct past environmental conditions, evaluate histories of climate change, and assess impacts of humans on ecosystems. In recent years novel analytical techniques were developed to quantify molecular compounds in ice cores. As an example, biomass burning markers, including monosaccharide anhydrides, lightweight carboxylic acids, lignin and resin pyrolysis products, black carbon, and charcoal records help in reconstructing past fire activity across seasonal to millennial time scales. Terrestrial biomarkers, such as plant waxes (e.g. long-chain n-alkanes) are also a promising paleo vegetation proxy in ice core studies. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous pollutants recently detected in ice cores. These hydrocarbons primarily originate from incomplete combustion of organic matter and fossil fuels (e.g. diesel engines, domestic heating, industrial combustion) and therefore can be tracers of past combustion activities. In order to be suitable for paloeclimate purposes, organic molecular markers detected in ice cores should include the following important features. Markers have to be stable under oxidizing atmospheric conditions, and ideally should not react with hydroxyl radicals, during their transport to polar regions. Organic markers must be released in large amounts in order to be detected at remote distances from the sources. Proxies must be specific, in order to differentiate them from other markers with multiple sources. The extraction of glaciochemical information from ice cores is challenging due to the low concentrations of some impurities, thereby demanding rigorous control of external contamination sources and sensitive analytical techniques. Here, we review the analysis and use of organic molecules in ice as proxies of important environmental and climatic processes.

  18. Hybrid calculation of electron--polar-molecule scattering: Integrated andmomentum-transfer cross sections for LiF

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, J.; Dehmer, J.L.; Dill, D.

    1981-02-01

    We describe in detail a hybrid method for calculation of electron--polar-molecule scattering in which (1) low-l S-matrix elements are calculated in the body frame using a potential which incorporates a realistic representation of the molecular core; (2) intermediate-l elements are calculated in the body frame using an exact method with a point-dipole potential; and (3) high-l elements are calculated in the laboratory frame using the first Born approximation with a point-dipole potential. By taking into account the dominant interactions of each l range when choosing the coordinate frame, potential, and calculational method, this hybrid framework achieves an exceptionally high level of efficiency and economy of calculation without sacrifice of accuracy. Using this method, we have calculated integrated and momentum-transfer cross sections for e-LiF scattering from 1 to 20 eV (differential cross sections have been reported elsewhere). The integrated cross section is dominated (>99%) by the j=0..-->..j'=1 rotational transition, whereas the momentum-transfer cross section is composed of comparable contributions from transitions to final j'=0 through 3, owing to its deemphasis of small-angle scattering. Eigenphase sums show no sign of resonant activity in this energy range.

  19. Probing non polar interstellar molecules through their protonated form: Detection of protonated cyanogen (NCCNH+)★

    PubMed Central

    Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; de Vicente, P.; Marcelino, N.; Roueff, E.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Guélin, M.; Albo, C.; Barcia, A.; Barbas, L.; Bolaño, R.; Colomer, F.; Diez, M. C.; Gallego, J. D.; Gómez-González, J.; López-Fernández, I.; López-Fernández, J. A.; López-Pérez, J. A.; Malo, I.; Serna, J. M.; Tercero, F.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanogen (NCCN) is the simplest member of the series of dicyanopolyynes. It has been hypothesized that this family of molecules can be important constituents of interstellar and circumstellar media, although the lack of a permanent electric dipole moment prevents its detection through radioastronomical techniques. Here we present the first solid evidence of the presence of cyanogen in interstellar clouds through the detection of its protonated form toward the cold dark clouds TMC-1 and L483. Protonated cyanogen (NCCNH+) has been identified through the J = 5 – 4 and J = 10 – 9 rotational transitions using the 40m radiotelescope of Yebes and the IRAM 30m telescope. We derive beam averaged column densities for NCCNH+ of (8.6 ± 4.4) × 1010 cm−2 in TMC-1 and (3.9 ± 1.8) × 1010 cm−2 in L483, which translate to fairly low fractional abundances relative to H2, in the range (1-10) × 10−12. The chemistry of protonated molecules in dark clouds is discussed, and it is found that, in general terms, the abundance ratio between the protonated and non protonated forms of a molecule increases with increasing proton affinity. Our chemical model predicts an abundance ratio NCCNH+/NCCN of ~ 10−4, which implies that the abundance of cyanogen in dark clouds could be as high as (1-10) × 10−8 relative to H2, i.e., comparable to that of other abundant nitriles such as HCN, HNC, and HC3N. PMID:26543239

  20. Probing non-polar interstellar molecules through their protonated form: Detection of protonated cyanogen (NCCNH+)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; de Vicente, P.; Marcelino, N.; Roueff, E.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Guélin, M.; Albo, C.; Barcia, A.; Barbas, L.; Bolaño, R.; Colomer, F.; Diez, M. C.; Gallego, J. D.; Gómez-González, J.; López-Fernández, I.; López-Fernández, J. A.; López-Pérez, J. A.; Malo, I.; Serna, J. M.; Tercero, F.

    2015-07-01

    Cyanogen (NCCN) is the simplest member of the series of dicyanopolyynes. It has been hypothesized that this family of molecules can be important constituents of interstellar and circumstellar media, although the lack of a permanent electric dipole moment prevents its detection through radioastronomical techniques. Here we present the first solid evidence of the presence of cyanogen in interstellar clouds by detection of its protonated form toward the cold dark clouds TMC-1 and L483. Protonated cyanogen (NCCNH+) has been identified through the J = 5-4 and J = 10-9 rotational transitions using the 40 m radiotelescope of Yebes and the IRAM 30 m telescope. We derive beam-averaged column densities for NCCNH+ of (8.6 ± 4.4) × 1010 cm-2 in TMC-1 and (3.9 ± 1.8) × 1010 cm-2 in L483, which translate into fairly low fractional abundances relative to H2, in the range (1-10) × 10-12. The chemistry of protonated molecules in dark clouds is discussed, and it is found that, in general terms, the abundance ratio between the protonated and non-protonated forms of a molecule increases with increasing proton affinity. Our chemical model predicts an abundance ratio NCCNH+/NCCN of ~10-4, which implies that the abundance of cyanogen in dark clouds could be as high as (1-10) × 10-8 relative to H2, i.e., comparable to that of other abundant nitriles such as HCN, HNC, and HC3N. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope and the Yebes 40 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain). The 40 m radiotelescope at Yebes Observatory is operated by the Spanish National Geographic Institute (IGN, Ministerio de Fomento).

  1. Functional fixedness and functional reduction as common sense reasonings in chemical equilibrium and in geometry and polarity of molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furi, C.; Calatayud, M. L.; Brcenas, S. L.; Padilla, O. M.

    2000-09-01

    Many of the learning difficulties in the specific domain of chemistry are found not only in the ideas already possessed by students but in the strategic and procedural knowledge that is characteristic of everyday thinking. These defects in procedural knowledge have been described as functional fixedness and functional reduction. This article assesses the procedural difficulties of students (grade 12 and first and third year of university) based on common sense reasoning in two areas of chemistry: chemical equilibrium and geometry and polarity of molecules. In the first area, the theme of external factors affecting equilibria (temperature and concentration change) was selected because the explanations given by the students could be analyzed easily. The existence of a functional fixedness where Le Chatelier's principle was almost exclusively applied by rote could be observed, with this being the cause of the incorrect responses given to the proposed items. Functional fixedness of the Lewis structure also led to an incorrect prediction of molecular geometry. When molecular geometry was correctly determined by the students, it seemed that other methodological or procedural difficulties appeared when the task was to determine molecular polarity. The students showed a tendency, in many cases, to reduce the factors affecting molecular polarity in two possible ways: (a) assuming that polarity depends only on shape (geometric functional reduction) or (b) assuming that molecular polarity depends only on the polarity of bonds (bonding functional reduction).

  2. Highly Efficient Multichannel Spin-Polarization Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbe, M.; Lushchyk, P.; Petereit, B.; Elmers, H. J.; Schönhense, G.; Oelsner, A.; Tusche, C.; Kirschner, J.

    2011-11-01

    Since the original work by Mott, the low efficiency of electron spin polarimeters, remaining orders of magnitude behind optical polarimeters, has prohibited many fundamental experiments. Here we report a solution to this problem using a novel concept of multichannel spin-polarization analysis that provides a stunning increase in efficiency by 4 orders of magnitude. This improvement was demonstrated in a setup using a hemispherical electron energy analyzer. An imaging setup proved the principal capability of resolving more than 105 data points in parallel.

  3. Toward a 2-D magneto-optical trap for polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummon, Matthew; Stuhl, Benjamin; Yeo, Mark; Collopy, Alejandra; Ye, Jun

    2012-06-01

    The additional structure that arises from the rotational degree of freedom in diatomic molecules makes difficult the adaptation of a traditional atomic magneto-optical trap (MOT) for use with molecules. We describe progress toward development of a 2-D MOT for laser cooled yttrium monoxide molecules based on a resonant LC baseball coil geometry.

  4. Dispersion interactions with linear scaling DFT: a study of planar molecules on charged polar surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrinopoulos, Lampros; Hine, Nicholas; Haynes, Peter; Mostofi, Arash

    2010-03-01

    The placement of organic molecules such as CuPc (copper phthalocyanine) on wurtzite ZnO (zinc oxide) charged surfaces has been proposed as a way of creating photovoltaic solar cellsfootnotetextG.D. Sharma et al., Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 90, 933 (2006) ; optimising their performance may be aided by computational simulation. Electronic structure calculations provide high accuracy at modest computational cost but two challenges are encountered for such layered systems. First, the system size is at or beyond the limit of traditional cubic-scaling Density Functional Theory (DFT). Second, traditional exchange-correlation functionals do not account for van der Waals (vdW) interactions, crucial for determining the structure of weakly bonded systems. We present an implementation of recently developed approachesfootnotetextP.L. Silvestrelli, P.R.L. 100, 102 (2008) to include vdW in DFT within ONETEPfootnotetextC.-K. Skylaris, P.D. Haynes, A.A. Mostofi and M.C. Payne, J.C.P. 122, 084119 (2005) , a linear-scaling package for performing DFT calculations using a basis of localised functions. We have applied this methodology to simple planar organic molecules, such as benzene and pentacene, on ZnO surfaces.

  5. Single-molecule diodes with high rectification ratios through environmental control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzi, Brian; Xia, Jianlong; Adak, Olgun; Dell, Emma J.; Liu, Zhen-Fei; Taylor, Jeffrey C.; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Campos, Luis M.; Venkataraman, Latha

    2015-06-01

    Molecular electronics aims to miniaturize electronic devices by using subnanometre-scale active components. A single-molecule diode, a circuit element that directs current flow, was first proposed more than 40 years ago and consisted of an asymmetric molecule comprising a donor-bridge-acceptor architecture to mimic a semiconductor p-n junction. Several single-molecule diodes have since been realized in junctions featuring asymmetric molecular backbones, molecule-electrode linkers or electrode materials. Despite these advances, molecular diodes have had limited potential for applications due to their low conductance, low rectification ratios, extreme sensitivity to the junction structure and high operating voltages. Here, we demonstrate a powerful approach to induce current rectification in symmetric single-molecule junctions using two electrodes of the same metal, but breaking symmetry by exposing considerably different electrode areas to an ionic solution. This allows us to control the junction's electrostatic environment in an asymmetric fashion by simply changing the bias polarity. With this method, we reliably and reproducibly achieve rectification ratios in excess of 200 at voltages as low as 370 mV using a symmetric oligomer of thiophene-1,1-dioxide. By taking advantage of the changes in the junction environment induced by the presence of an ionic solution, this method provides a general route for tuning nonlinear nanoscale device phenomena, which could potentially be applied in systems beyond single-molecule junctions.

  6. Single-molecule diodes with high rectification ratios through environmental control.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, Brian; Xia, Jianlong; Adak, Olgun; Dell, Emma J; Liu, Zhen-Fei; Taylor, Jeffrey C; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Campos, Luis M; Venkataraman, Latha

    2015-06-01

    Molecular electronics aims to miniaturize electronic devices by using subnanometre-scale active components. A single-molecule diode, a circuit element that directs current flow, was first proposed more than 40 years ago and consisted of an asymmetric molecule comprising a donor-bridge-acceptor architecture to mimic a semiconductor p-n junction. Several single-molecule diodes have since been realized in junctions featuring asymmetric molecular backbones, molecule-electrode linkers or electrode materials. Despite these advances, molecular diodes have had limited potential for applications due to their low conductance, low rectification ratios, extreme sensitivity to the junction structure and high operating voltages. Here, we demonstrate a powerful approach to induce current rectification in symmetric single-molecule junctions using two electrodes of the same metal, but breaking symmetry by exposing considerably different electrode areas to an ionic solution. This allows us to control the junction's electrostatic environment in an asymmetric fashion by simply changing the bias polarity. With this method, we reliably and reproducibly achieve rectification ratios in excess of 200 at voltages as low as 370 mV using a symmetric oligomer of thiophene-1,1-dioxide. By taking advantage of the changes in the junction environment induced by the presence of an ionic solution, this method provides a general route for tuning nonlinear nanoscale device phenomena, which could potentially be applied in systems beyond single-molecule junctions. PMID:26005998

  7. Circularly polarized attosecond pulses from molecular high-order harmonic generation by ultrashort intense bichromatic circularly and linearly polarized laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, André D.

    2012-04-01

    We describe the generation of high-order elliptically and circularly polarized harmonic spectra in an aligned H+2 molecule ion by a combination of two-colour ultrashort intense laser fields from numerical solutions of the corresponding time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). In intense bichromatic circularly and linearly or circularly polarized laser pulses with intensity I0 and angular frequencies ω0 and 2ω0, it is found that maximum molecular high-order harmonic generation (MHOHG) energies are functions of the molecular internuclear distance. Based on a classical model of laser-induced electron collisions with neighbouring ions, the optimal values of the pulse relative carrier envelope phase phi, the molecular internuclear distance R and the angle thetav of molecular alignment to the laser polarization axis are obtained for efficiently producing MHOHG spectra with the maximum harmonic energy Ip + 13.5Up, where Ip is the ionization potential of the molecule and Up = I0/4meω20 is the ponderomotive energy of the continuum electron at intensity I0 and frequency ω0 of the laser pulse. The results have been confirmed from corresponding TDSE nonperturbative numerical simulations. The polarization property of the generated harmonics is also presented. The mechanism of MHOHG is further characterized with a Gabor time frequency analysis. It is confirmed that a single collision trajectory of the continuum electron with neighbouring ions dominates in the MHOHG processes. The high efficiency of the proposed MHOHG scheme provides a possible source for production of elliptically and/or circularly polarized attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses. Circularly polarized attosecond pulses can also be generated by using intense ultrashort circularly polarized laser pulses in combination with static electric fields of comparable intensity for H+2 at equilibrium. A time frequency analysis also confirms the role of single recollisions as the dominant mechanism of the generation of circularly polarized harmonics.

  8. Role of interspecies interactions in the preparation of a low-entropy gas of polar molecules in a lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safavi-Naini, A.; Wall, M. L.; Rey, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The preparation of a quantum degenerate gas of heteronuclear molecules has been an outstanding challenge. We use path-integral quantum Monte Carlo simulations to understand the role of interactions and finite temperature effects in the protocol currently employed to adiabatically prepare a low-entropy gas of polar molecules in a lattice starting from an ultracold Bose-Fermi mixture. We find that interspecies interactions affect the final temperature of the mixture after the adiabatic loading procedure and detrimentally limit the molecular peak filling. Our conclusions are in agreement with recent experimental measurements [Moses et al., Science 350, 659 (2015), 10.1126/science.aac6400] and therefore are of immediate relevance for the myriad experiments that aim to form molecules from dual-species atomic gases.

  9. Luminescent systems based on the isolation of conjugated PI systems and edge charge compensation with polar molecules on a charged nanostructured surface

    DOEpatents

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Zhao, Bin; Geohegan, David B.; Styers-Barnett, David J.; Hu, Hui

    2014-07-15

    A photoluminescent or electroluminescent system and method of making a non-luminescent nanostructured material into such a luminescent system is presented. The method of preparing the luminescent system, generally, comprises the steps of modifying the surface of a nanostructured material to create isolated regions to act as luminescent centers and to create a charge imbalance on the surface; applying more than one polar molecule to the charged surface of the nanostructured material; and orienting the polar molecules to compensate for the charge imbalance on the surface of the nanostructured material. The compensation of the surface charge imbalance by the polar molecules allows the isolated regions to exhibit luminescence.

  10. Probing the electronic structure of molecules with high harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, Jérôme; Itatani, Jiro; Zeidler, Dirk; Pépin, Henri; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Corkum, P. B.; Villeneuve, D. M.

    2006-01-01

    High harmonics produced in aligned molecules contain structural information of bound-state electronic states. Our recent work has shown that high harmonic generation in aligned molecules is dependent on the symmetry and structure of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) [ J. Itatani, D. Zeidler, J. Levesque, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 123902 (2005)]. We show that it is possible to reconstruct the shape of the HOMO by applying a computerized tomography algorithm to the harmonic spectra obtained at different molecular alignments [ J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, et al., Nature 432 867 (2004)]. In the present paper we review these findings and explain them using a simple but powerful analytical model.

  11. A slow source of molecules for high resolution spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Jansen, Paul; Wall, Thomas; Ubachs, Wim; Bethlem, Hendrick; Atomic Laser Physics Team

    2013-05-01

    We present experiments on decelerating and trapping ammonia molecules using a combination of a Stark decelerator and a traveling wave decelerator. In the traveling wave decelerator a moving potential is created by a series of ring-shaped electrodes to which oscillating high voltages are applied. By lowering the frequency of the applied voltages, the molecules confined in the moving trap are decelerated and brought to a standstill. As the molecules are confined in a true 3D well, this new kind of deceleration has practically no losses, resulting in a great improvement on the usual Stark deceleration techniques. The necessary voltages are generated by amplifying the output of an arbitrary wave generator using fast HV-amplifiers, giving us great control over the trapped molecules. We illustrate this by experiments in which we adiabatically cool trapped NH3 and ND3 molecules and resonantly excite their motion. Our main motivation for this research is the possibility to use the traveling wave decelerator as a source of cold molecules for a molecular fountain. Previous attempts to create a fountain using a Stark decelerator were unsuccessful due to losses at low velocities and a complex lens-system for cooling and collimating the slow beam. A traveling wave decelerator should solve both of these issues.

  12. A Slow Source of Molecules for High Resolution Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintero-Perez, Marina; Jansen, Paul; Wall, Thomas E.; Ubachs, Wim; Bethlem, Hendrick L.

    2013-06-01

    We present experiments on decelerating and trapping ammonia molecules using a combination of a Stark decelerator and a traveling wave decelerator. In the traveling wave decelerator a moving potential is created by a series of ring-shaped electrodes to which oscillating high voltages are applied. By lowering the frequency of the applied voltages, the molecules confined in the moving trap are decelerated and brought to a standstill. As the molecules are confined in a true 3D well, this new kind of deceleration has practically no losses, resulting in a great improvement on the traditional Stark deceleration techniques. The necessary voltages are generated by amplifying the output of an arbitrary wave generator using fast HV-amplifiers, giving us great control over the trapped molecules. We illustrate this by experiments in which we adiabatically cool trapped NH_3 and ND_3 molecules and resonantly excite their motion. Our main motivation for this research is the possibility to use the traveling wave decelerator as a source of cold molecules for a molecular fountain. Previous attempts to create a fountain using a Stark decelerator were unsuccessful due to losses at low velocities and a complex lens-system for cooling and collimating the slow beam. A traveling wave decelerator should solve both of these issues.

  13. Exchange and polarization effect in high-order harmonic imaging of molecular structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sukiasyan, Suren; Ivanov, Misha Yu.; Patchkovskii, Serguei; Smirnova, Olga; Brabec, Thomas

    2010-10-15

    We analyze the importance of exchange, polarization, and electron-electron correlation in high-order harmonic generation in molecules interacting with intense laser fields. We find that electron exchange can become particularly important for harmonic emission associated with intermediate excitations in the molecular ion. In particular, for orbitals associated with two-hole one-particle excitations, exchange effects can eliminate structure-related minima and maxima in the harmonic spectra. Laser-induced polarization of the neutral molecule may also have major effects on orbital structure-related minima and maxima in the harmonic spectra. Finally, we show how exchange terms in recombination can be viewed as a shakedownlike process induced by sudden electronic excitation in the ion.

  14. High-Altitude Observations of the Polar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Chappell, C. R.; Chandler, M. O.; Craven, P. D.; Giles, B. L.; Pollock, C. J.; Burch, J. L.; Young, D. T.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Nordholt, J. E.; Thomsen, M. F.; McComas, D. J.; Berthelier, J. J.; Williamson, W. S.; Robson, R.; Mozer, F. S.

    1997-01-01

    Plasma outflows, escaping from Earth through the high-altitude polar caps into the tail of the magnetosphere, have been observed with a xenon plasma source instrument to reduce the floating potential of the POLAR spacecraft. The largest component of H(+) flow, along the local magnetic field (30 to 60 kilometers per second), is faster than predicted by theory. The flows contain more O(+) than predicted by theories of thermal polar wind, but also have elevated ion temperatures. These plasma outflows contribute to the plasmas energized in the elongated nightside tail of the magnetosphere, creating auroras, substorms, and storms. They also constitute an appreciable loss of terrestrial water dissociation products into space.

  15. Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Gudiksen, M S; Duan, X; Cui, Y; Lieber, C M

    2001-08-24

    We have characterized the fundamental photoluminescence (PL) properties of individual, isolated indium phosphide (InP) nanowires to define their potential for optoelectronics. Polarization-sensitive measurements reveal a striking anisotropy in the PL intensity recorded parallel and perpendicular to the long axis of a nanowire. The order-of-magnitude polarization anisotropy was quantitatively explained in terms of the large dielectric contrast between these free-standing nanowires and surrounding environment, as opposed to quantum confinement effects. This intrinsic anisotropy was used to create polarization-sensitive nanoscale photodetectors that may prove useful in integrated photonic circuits, optical switches and interconnects, near-field imaging, and high-resolution detectors. PMID:11520977

  16. Next generation techniques in the high resolution spectroscopy of biologically relevant molecules.

    PubMed

    Neill, Justin L; Douglass, Kevin O; Pate, Brooks H; Pratt, David W

    2011-04-28

    Recent advances in the technology of test and measurement equipment driven by the computer and telecommunications industries have made possible the development of a new broadband, Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer that operates on principles similar to FTNMR. This technique uses a high sample-rate arbitrary waveform generator to construct a phase-locked chirped microwave pulse that gives a linear frequency sweep over a wide frequency range in 1 μs. The chirped pulse efficiently polarizes the molecular sample at all frequencies lying within this band. The subsequent free induction decay of this polarization is measured with a high-speed digitizer and then fast Fourier-transformed to yield a broadband, frequency-resolved rotational spectrum, spanning up to 11.5 GHz and containing lines that are as narrow as 100 kHz. This new technique is called chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectroscopy. The technique offers the potential to determine the structural and dynamical properties of very large molecules solely from fully resolved pure rotational spectra. FTMW double resonance techniques employing a low-resolution UV laser facilitate an easy assignment of overlapping spectra produced by different conformers in the sample. Of particular interest are the energy landscapes of conformationally flexible molecules of biological importance, including studies of their interaction with solvent and/or other weakly bound molecules. An example is provided from the authors' work on p-methoxyphenethylamine, a neurotransmitter, and its complexes with water. PMID:21394332

  17. On high-latitude interstellar polarization toward the local spiral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugin, A.; Teerikorpi, P.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: The interstellar polarization in the northern high-latitude sky is low and rather smooth in the local spiral (LS) longitude range 60° < l < 240°, except for an extension of aligned higher polarization within 120° < l < 180° up to b ≈ 50°. We compare this view with results from other indicators of interstellar matter. Methods: Some indicators of dust are sensitive to diffuse matter on large scales, others provide information on clumpy structures. We describe results that are mainly from surveys of dark and molecular clouds in the LS longitude range at high latitudes. Results: The structured feature in the polarization map for the LS region corresponds to known dark cloud complexes. These extensions to higher latitudes (and some other dust indicators) may signal the presence of more dust in some form (like compact cold clouds) than is suggested by regular low interstellar polarization.

  18. Bicircular High-Harmonic Spectroscopy Reveals Dynamical Symmetries of Atoms and Molecules.

    PubMed

    Baykusheva, Denitsa; Ahsan, Md Sabbir; Lin, Nan; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2016-03-25

    We introduce bicircular high-harmonic spectroscopy as a new method to probe dynamical symmetries of atoms and molecules and their evolution in time. Our approach is based on combining a circularly polarized femtosecond fundamental field of frequency ω with its counterrotating second harmonic 2ω. We demonstrate the ability of bicircular high-harmonic spectroscopy to characterize the orbital angular momentum symmetry of atomic orbitals. We further show that breaking the threefold rotational symmetry of the generating medium-at the level of either the ensemble or that of a single molecule-results in the emission of the otherwise parity-forbidden frequencies 3qω  (q∈N), which provide a background-free probe of dynamical molecular symmetries. PMID:27058077

  19. Control of the high harmonic generation spectra by changing the molecule-laser field relative orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Daniele, Rosalba; Castiglia, Giuseppe; Corso, Pietro Paolo; Orlando, Gianfranco; Fiordilino, Emilio; Morales, Francesca

    2010-04-15

    The time dependent Schroedinger equation of a homonuclear diatomic molecule in the presence of a linearly polarized laser field is numerically solved by means of a split-operator parallel code. The calculations are carried out by assuming a single active electron model with fixed nuclei; a simplified two-dimensional model of the system is used. The highly nonlinear response of the electron wave function to the laser electric field stimulates the molecule to emit electromagnetic radiation consisting of a wide plateau of odd harmonics of the laser field. It is shown that the emitted spectrum can be finely controlled by changing the angle between the laser electric field and the molecular axis; this can be used to achieve a tunable source of high frequency radiation.

  20. Polar Lows in Reanalyses and High Resolution Global Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffrey, Len; Zappa, Giuseppe; Hodges, Kevin; Vidale, Pier Luigi

    2015-04-01

    Polar lows are maritime meso-cyclones associated with intense surface wind speeds and oceanic heat fluxes at high latitudes. The ability of the ERA-Interim (ERAI) reanalysis to represent polar lows in the North Atlantic is assessed by comparing ERAI and the ECMWF operational analysis for the period 2008-2011. The operational analysis has vorticity structures that better resemble the observed cloud patterns and stronger surface wind speed intensities compared to those in ERAI. By applying objective identification criteria, about 55% of the satellite observed polar lows are identified and tracked in ERAI, while this fraction increases to about 70% in the operational analysis. Particularly in ERAI, the remaining observed polar lows are mainly not identified because they have too weak wind speed and vorticity intensity compared to the tested criteria. The implications of the tendency of ERAI to underestimate the polar low dynamical intensity for future studies of polar lows is discussed. The ability of the Met Office HadGEM3 global climate model at different horizontal resolutions (150km, 60km and 25km) to capture Polar Lows will also be discussed.

  1. Polar and high latitude substorms and solar wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despirak, I. V.; Lyubchich, A. A.; Kleimenova, N. G.

    2014-09-01

    All substorm disturbances observed in polar latitudes can be divided into two types: polar, which are observable at geomagnetic latitudes higher than 70° in the absence of substorms below 70°, and high latitude substorms, which travel from auroral (<70°) to polar (>70°) geomagnetic latitudes. The aim of this study is to compare conditions in the IMF and solar wind, under which these two types of substorms are observable on the basis of data from meridional chain of magnetometers IMAGE and OMNI database for 1995, 2000, and 2006-2011. In total, 105 polar and 55 high latitude substorms were studied. It is shown that polar substorms are observable at a low velocity of solar wind after propagation of a high-speed recurrent stream during the late recovery phase of a magnetic storm. High latitude substorms, in contrast, are observable with a high velocity of solar wind, increased values of the Bz component of the IMF, the Ey component of the electric field, and solar wind temperature and pressure, when a high-speed recurrent stream passes by the Earth.

  2. High throughput single molecule detection for monitoring biochemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Okagbare, Paul I; Soper, Steven A

    2009-01-01

    The design, performance and application of a novel optical system for high throughput single molecule detection (SMD) configured in a continuous flow format using microfluidics is reported. The system consisted of a microfabricated polymer-based multi-channel fluidic network situated within the optical path of a laser source (lambda(ex) = 660 nm) with photon transduction accomplished using an electron-multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) operated in a frame transfer mode that allowed tracking single molecules as they passed through a large field-of-view (FoV) illumination zone. The microfluidic device consisted of 30 microchannels possessing dimensions of 30 microm (width) x 20 microm (depth) with a 25 microm pitch. Individual molecules were electrokinetically driven through the fluidic network and excited within the wide-field illumination area with the resulting fluorescence collected via an objective and imaged onto the EMCCD camera. The detection system demonstrated sufficient sensitivity to detect single DNA molecules labeled with a fluorescent tag (AlexaFluor 660) identified through their characteristic emission wavelength and the burst of photons produced during their transit through the excitation volume. In its present configuration and fluidic architecture, the sample processing throughput was approximately 4.02 x 10(5) molecules s(-1), but could be increased dramatically through the use of narrower channels and a smaller pitch. The system was further evaluated using a single molecule-based fluorescence quenching assay for measuring the population differences between duplexed and single-stranded DNA molecules as a function of temperature for determining the duplex melting temperature, T(m). PMID:19082181

  3. High Brightness and high polarization electron source using transmission photocathode

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Naoto; Jin Xiuguang; Ujihara, Toru; Takeda, Yoshikazu; Mano, Atsushi; Nakagawa, Yasuhide; Nakanishi, Tsutomu; Okumi, Shoji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Konomi, Taro; Ohshima, Takashi; Saka, Takashi; Kato, Toshihiro; Horinaka, Hiromichi; Yasue, Tsuneo; Koshikawa, Takanori

    2009-08-04

    A transmission photocathode was fabricated based on GaAs-GaAsP strained superlattice layers on a GaP substrate and a 20 kV-gun was built to generate the polarized electron beams with the diameter of a few micro-meter. As the results, the reduced brightness of 1.3x10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2}/sr and the polarization of 90% were achieved.

  4. Polarization gating and circularly-polarized high harmonic generation using plasmonic enhancement in metal nanostructures.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Husakou A; Kelkensberg F; Herrmann J; Vrakking MJ

    2011-12-05

    We investigate possibilities to utilize field enhancement by specifically designed metal nanostructures for the generation of single attosecond pulses using the polarization gating technique. We predict the generation of isolated 59-attosecond-long pulses using 15-fs pump pulses with only a 0.6 TW/cm2 intensity. Our simulations also indicate the possibility to generate previously inaccessible high-harmonics with circular polarization by using an ensemble of vertically and horizontally orientated bow-tie structures. In the numerical simulation we used an extended Lewenstein model, which includes the spatial inhomogeneity in the hot spots and collisions of electrons with the metal surface.

  5. High-order-harmonic generation in homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules: Exploration of multiple orbital contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Heslar, John; Telnov, Dmitry; Chu, Shih-I

    2011-04-15

    We present a time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) approach with proper asymptotic long-range potential for nonperturbative treatment of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) of diatomic molecules with their molecular axis parallel to the laser field polarization. A time-dependent two-center generalized pseudospectral method in prolate spheroidal coordinate system is used for accurate and efficient treatment of the TDDFT equations in space and time. The theory is applied to a detailed all-electron nonperturbative investigation of HHG processes of homonuclear (N{sub 2} and F{sub 2}) and heteronuclear (CO, BF, and HF) molecules in intense ultrashort laser pulses with the emphasis on the role of multiple molecular orbitals (MOs). The results reveal intriguing and substantially different nonlinear optical response behaviors for homonuclear and heteronuclear molecules. In particular, we found that the HHG spectrum for homonuclear molecules features a destructive interference of MO contributions while heteronuclear molecules show mostly constructive interference of orbital contributions.

  6. Stochastic electrotransport selectively enhances the transport of highly electromobile molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Yon; Cho, Jae Hun; Murray, Evan; Bakh, Naveed; Choi, Heejin; Ohn, Kimberly; Ruelas, Luzdary; Hubbert, Austin; McCue, Meg; Vassallo, Sara L.; Keller, Philipp J.; Chung, Kwanghun

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive chemical processing of porous samples such as fixed biological tissues typically relies on molecular diffusion. Diffusion into a porous structure is a slow process that significantly delays completion of chemical processing. Here, we present a novel electrokinetic method termed stochastic electrotransport for rapid nondestructive processing of porous samples. This method uses a rotational electric field to selectively disperse highly electromobile molecules throughout a porous sample without displacing the low-electromobility molecules that constitute the sample. Using computational models, we show that stochastic electrotransport can rapidly disperse electromobile molecules in a porous medium. We apply this method to completely clear mouse organs within 1–3 days and to stain them with nuclear dyes, proteins, and antibodies within 1 day. Our results demonstrate the potential of stochastic electrotransport to process large and dense tissue samples that were previously infeasible in time when relying on diffusion. PMID:26578787

  7. Stochastic electrotransport selectively enhances the transport of highly electromobile molecules.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Yon; Cho, Jae Hun; Murray, Evan; Bakh, Naveed; Choi, Heejin; Ohn, Kimberly; Ruelas, Luzdary; Hubbert, Austin; McCue, Meg; Vassallo, Sara L; Keller, Philipp J; Chung, Kwanghun

    2015-11-17

    Nondestructive chemical processing of porous samples such as fixed biological tissues typically relies on molecular diffusion. Diffusion into a porous structure is a slow process that significantly delays completion of chemical processing. Here, we present a novel electrokinetic method termed stochastic electrotransport for rapid nondestructive processing of porous samples. This method uses a rotational electric field to selectively disperse highly electromobile molecules throughout a porous sample without displacing the low-electromobility molecules that constitute the sample. Using computational models, we show that stochastic electrotransport can rapidly disperse electromobile molecules in a porous medium. We apply this method to completely clear mouse organs within 1-3 days and to stain them with nuclear dyes, proteins, and antibodies within 1 day. Our results demonstrate the potential of stochastic electrotransport to process large and dense tissue samples that were previously infeasible in time when relying on diffusion. PMID:26578787

  8. Cross polarization and magic angle sample spinning NMR spectra of model organic compounds. 2. Molecules of low or remote protonation

    SciTech Connect

    Alemany, L.B.; Grant, D.M.; Pugmire, R.J.; Alger, T.D.; Zilm, K.W.

    1983-04-20

    Cross polarization/magic angle sample spinning (CP/MAS)/sup 13/C NMR spectra were obtained at various contact times on five solid organic compounds containing carbon atoms far from intramolecular protons or containing very few hydrogen atoms. Carbon atoms four or more bonds fromthe nearest intramolecular proton cannot be fully polarized before T/sub 1p/(H) effects begin to dominate the proton magnetization. Rapid molecular motion aggrevates the problem because of motional attenuation of the dipolar interaction. Computer-fitted T/sub CH/ and T/sub 1p/(H) parameters are consistent with these experimental results. The simple theories of cross polarization account for incomplete polarization in these cases. In 1,2:4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic dianhydride, C/sub 10/H/sub 2/O/sub 6/, the relative aromatic and carbonyl signal intensities are only 5% from the ideal values on the basis of atomic ratios, but absolute intensities can be seriously reduced. In general, CP/MAS NMR provides a convenient and useful quantitative method for studying diamagnetic, organic solids of low molecular weight that is competitive to other physical methods even for molecules of low or remote protonation.

  9. Prospects for the formation of ultracold polar ground state KCs molecules via an optical process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsalino, D.; Vexiau, R.; Aymar, M.; Luc-Koenig, E.; Dulieu, O.; Bouloufa-Maafa, N.

    2016-03-01

    Heteronuclear alkali-metal dimers represent the class of molecules of choice for creating samples of ultracold molecules exhibiting an intrinsic large permanent electric dipole moment. Among them, the KCs molecule, with a permanent dipole moment of 1.92 Debye still remains to be observed in ultracold conditions. Based on spectroscopic studies available in the literature completed by accurate quantum chemistry calculations, we propose several optical coherent schemes to create ultracold bosonic and fermionic KCs molecules in their absolute rovibrational ground level, starting from a weakly bound level of their electronic ground state manifold. The processes rely on the existence of convenient electronically excited states allowing an efficient stimulated Raman adiabatic transfer of the level population.

  10. Lipid Membrane Polarity Profiles by High-Field EPR

    PubMed Central

    Kurad, Dieter; Jeschke, Gunnar; Marsh, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Profiles of polarity across biological membranes are essential determinants of the cellular permeability barrier and of the stability of transmembrane proteins. High-field electron paramagnetic resonance of systematically spin-labeled lipid chains is used here to determine the polarity profiles of cholesterol-containing phospholipid membranes. The polarity dependence of the gxx-tensor element is opposite to the dependence on chain dynamics, and additionally has enhanced sensitivity to hydrogen bonding. Both features make high-field measurements superior to conventional determinations of local polarity from spin-label hyperfine couplings. The profile of gxx in dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine membranes with 5 or 40 mol% cholesterol is established with eleven positional isomers of phosphatidylcholine, spin labeled at positions n = 4–14 in the sn-2 chain. A sigmoidal barrier, centered about chain position no ≈ 8, mirrors the corresponding sigmoidal trough obtained from the spin-label hyperfine coupling, Azz. For the different positions, n, it is found that ∂gxx/∂Azz = −2.4 T−1, a high value that is characteristic of hydrogen-bonded spin labels. This demonstrates that the transmembrane polarity profile registered by spin labels corresponds to water penetration into the membrane. Inhomogeneous broadening of the gxx-spectral feature demonstrates heterogeneities of the water distribution in the regions of higher intramembrane polarity defined by n < 8. In the transition region between high- and low-polarity regions (n ≈ 8), the gxx-feature consists of two components characteristic of coexisting hydrated and nonhydrated states. PMID:12885649

  11. Novel function of the cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin as an inducer of cell surface polarity.

    PubMed

    McNeill, H; Ozawa, M; Kemler, R; Nelson, W J

    1990-07-27

    Na+,K(+)-ATPase has distinctly different distributions in mesenchymal cells, where it has an unrestricted distribution over the entire cell surface, compared with polarized epithelial cells, where it is restricted to the basal-lateral membrane domain. The generation of this restricted distribution is important in mesenchyme to epithelia conversion in development and the function of transporting epithelia, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. Here we show that expression of the epithelial CAM uvomorulin in transfected fibroblasts is sufficient to induce a redistribution of Na+,K(+)-ATPase to sites of uvomorulin-mediated cell-cell contacts, similar to that in polarized epithelial cells. This restricted distribution of Na+,K(+)-ATPase occurs in the absence of tight junctions but coincides with the reorganization of the membrane cytoskeleton. The results indicate a direct role for CAMs as inducers of cell surface polarity of selective cytoplasmic and membrane proteins. PMID:2164888

  12. Solvatochromic shifts of polar and non-polar molecules in ambient and supercritical water: A sequential quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics study including solute-solvent electron exchange-correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Haibo; Ma, Yingjin

    2012-12-01

    Polar and non-polar solutes (acetone and benzene) dissolved in ambient water and supercritical water are investigated theoretically using a sequential quantum mechanics (QM)/molecular mechanics (MM) method which combines classical molecular dynamics simulations and QM/MM calculations. From the detailed analysis of the dependence of the QM region size and point charge background region size as well as the different functionals, it is found that the inclusion of the solvent molecules within the first solvation shell into the QM region to account for the exchange-correlation between a solute and neighboring solvent molecules is important for the highly accurate spectral shift calculations, especially vital for the non-polar solutes whose interactions with the solvents are dominated by the quantum dispersions. At the same time, sufficiently large surrounding partial charge region (rcutoff ⩾15 Å) as well as the functional corrections to describe the long-range dispersion-corrections are also essential for the study of the electronic excited states in condensed phase. Our calculated solvatochromic shift values and their density dependencies at ambient and high temperature conditions are found to be in good agreements with experimental observations. This indicates that sound theoretical studies of solvatochromic shift can be achieved provided that a reasonable computational scheme with sufficiently large N^{QM}_{water} and rcutoff values is implemented. We also find both of aqueous acetone and aqueous benzene under high temperatures present three distinctive regions: low-density gas-like region, supercritical region, and high-density liquid-like region. The plateau behavior of solvatochromic shift in the supercritical region can be ascribed to the solvent clustering around the solute, which is a fundamental phenomenon of supercritical fluids (SCFs). The density dependence of our calculated coordination number of the first solvation shell nicely reproduces the trend of spectral shift and verifies the solvent clustering phenomenon of SCFs and its relationship with SCF's physicochemical properties.

  13. Direct observation of a highly spin-polarized organic spinterface at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Djeghloul, F.; Ibrahim, F.; Cantoni, M.; Bowen, M.; Joly, L.; Boukari, S.; Ohresser, P.; Bertran, F.; Le Fèvre, P.; Thakur, P.; Scheurer, F.; Miyamachi, T.; Mattana, R.; Seneor, P.; Jaafar, A.; Rinaldi, C.; Javaid, S.; Arabski, J.; Kappler, J. -P; Wulfhekel, W.; Brookes, N. B.; Bertacco, R.; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A.; Alouani, M.; Beaurepaire, E.; Weber, W.

    2013-01-01

    Organic semiconductors constitute promising candidates toward large-scale electronic circuits that are entirely spintronics-driven. Toward this goal, tunneling magnetoresistance values above 300% at low temperature suggested the presence of highly spin-polarized device interfaces. However, such spinterfaces have not been observed directly, let alone at room temperature. Thanks to experiments and theory on the model spinterface between phthalocyanine molecules and a Co single crystal surface, we clearly evidence a highly efficient spinterface. Spin-polarised direct and inverse photoemission experiments reveal a high degree of spin polarisation at room temperature at this interface. We measured a magnetic moment on the molecule's nitrogen π orbitals, which substantiates an ab-initio theoretical description of highly spin-polarised charge conduction across the interface due to differing spinterface formation mechanisms in each spin channel. We propose, through this example, a recipe to engineer simple organic-inorganic interfaces with remarkable spintronic properties that can endure well above room temperature. PMID:23412079

  14. Signatures of the molecular potential in the ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Sherratt, Paul A. J.; Ramakrishna, S.; Seideman, Tamar

    2011-05-15

    We explore the information content of the polarization of high-order harmonics emitted from aligned molecules driven by a linearly polarized field. The study builds upon our previous work [Ramakrishna et al., Phys. Rev. A 81, 021802(R) (2010)], which illustrated that the phase of the continuum electronic wave function, and hence the underlying molecular potential, is responsible, at least in part, for the ellipticity observed in harmonic spectra. We use a simple model potential and systematically vary the potential parameters to investigate the sense in which, and the degree to which, the shape of the molecular potential is imprinted onto the polarization of the emitted harmonics. Strong ellipticity is observed over a wide range of potential parameters, suggesting that the emission of elliptically polarized harmonics is a general phenomenon, yet qualitatively determined by the molecular properties. The sensitivity of the ellipticity to the model parameters invites the use of ellipticity measurements as a probe of the continuum wave function and the underlying molecular potential.

  15. Possibilities with pulsed polarized high density slow positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, A. P., Jr.

    2014-04-01

    A particularly bright and intense polarized slow positron beam could be formed from isotopically enriched 79Kr produced at a reactor. After moderation with solid Ne, accumulation, compression, and bunching, this type of positron beam would enable a number of experiments including: (1) Long term storage of a neutral polarized electron-positron plasma in a cold box; (2) Pulsed e+ ACAR with a pulsed magnet to measure Fermi surfaces of paramagnetic metals; (3) Single shot measurements of positron annihilation in laser-imploding plasmas; (4) Study of a spin-polarized positronium gas at a density around that of ordinary air to produce a Ps Bose-Einstein condensate at room temperature; (5) High energy polarized positron channelling experiments to study polarized electron spatial wave functions in ferromagnets; and (6) Study of supersonic free expansion spin polarized BEC Ps jets formed from, for example, 1011 m=1 triplet Ps atoms created within an open ended 1 μm diameter cylindrical cavity 100 μm in length.

  16. Polarization characteristics of nonlinear transmission in rigidly held saturable-dye molecules with random orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyanaga, S.; Sato, T.

    2015-04-01

    Polarization-dependent nonlinear transmissions are investigated by a pump-probe method in saturable-dye-doped films in which optically anisotropic saturable dyes are rigidly held with random orientations. The nonlinear transmissions measured by using uranine-doped poly(vinyl alcohol) films are compared with the theoretical predictions that are obtained by considering the effects of pump propagation and molecular orientation on the basis of a rate equation analysis for a four-energy-level model including an excited-state absorption. The measurements were conducted for the two cases of polarization states for which the polarization direction of the probe wave is either parallel or perpendicular to that of the pump wave; the experimental results considerably deviated from the theoretical ones for the probe wave perpendicularly polarized to the pump wave. It is shown that this is explained by modifying the energy level model to include the existence of a nearly-orthogonal component of the transition dipole moment associated with the ground-state absorption in uranine dyes.

  17. Biogeography of photoautotrophs in the high polar biome

    PubMed Central

    Pointing, Stephen B.; Burkhard Büdel; Convey, Peter; Gillman, Len N.; Körner, Christian; Leuzinger, Sebastian; Vincent, Warwick F.

    2015-01-01

    The global latitudinal gradient in biodiversity weakens in the high polar biome and so an alternative explanation for distribution of Arctic and Antarctic photoautotrophs is required. Here we identify how temporal, microclimate and evolutionary drivers of biogeography are important, rather than the macroclimate features that drive plant diversity patterns elsewhere. High polar ecosystems are biologically unique, with a more central role for bryophytes, lichens and microbial photoautotrophs over that of vascular plants. Constraints on vascular plants arise mainly due to stature and ontogenetic barriers. Conversely non-vascular plant and microbial photoautotroph distribution is correlated with favorable microclimates and the capacity for poikilohydric dormancy. Contemporary distribution also depends on evolutionary history, with adaptive and dispersal traits as well as legacy influencing biogeography. We highlight the relevance of these findings to predicting future impacts on diversity of polar photoautotrophs and to the current status of plants in Arctic and Antarctic conservation policy frameworks. PMID:26442009

  18. High resolution studies of atoms and small molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Bushaw, B.A.; Tonkyn, R.G.; Miller, R.J.

    1992-10-01

    High resolution, continuous wave lasers have been utilized successfully in studies of small molecules. Examples of two-photon excitation schemes and of multiple resonance excitation sequences will be discussed within the framework of the spectroscopy and dynamics of selected Rydberg states of nitric oxide. Initial results on the circular dichroism of angular distributions in photoelectron spectra of individual hyperfine states of cesium will also be discussed, but no data given.

  19. Circular polarization of synchrotron radiation in high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Búrca, D.; Shearer, A.

    2015-06-01

    The general model for incoherent synchrotron radiation has long been known, with the first theory being published by Westfold in 1959 and continued by Westfold and Legg in 1968. When this model was first developed, it was applied to radiation from Jupiter, with a magnetic field of ≈1G. Pulsars have a magnetic field of ≈1012 G. The Westfold and Legg model predict a circular polarization which is proportional to the square root of the magnetic field, and consequently predicts greater than 100 per cent circular polarization at high magnetic fields. Here a new model is derived based upon a more detailed analysis of the pitch angle distribution. This model is concerned with the frequency range f_{B_0}/γ ≪ f≲ f_{B_0}, noting that f_{B_0} = 2.7× 10^7B, which for a relatively high magnetic field (˜106-108 G) leaves emission in the optical range. This is much lower than the expected frequency peak for a mono-energetic particle of 0.293eB/4π m_e cγ ^2. We predict the circular polarization peaks around 107G in the optical regime with the radiation almost 15 per cent circularly polarized. The linear polarization changes from about 60 to 80 per cent in the same regime. We examine implications of this for pulsar studies.

  20. Students' Use of Three Different Visual Representations to Interpret Whether Molecules Are Polar or Nonpolar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Host, Gunnar E.; Schonborn, Konrad J.; Palmerius, Karljohan E. Lundin

    2012-01-01

    Visualizing molecular properties is often crucial for constructing conceptual understanding in chemistry. However, research has revealed numerous challenges surrounding students' meaningful interpretation of the relationship between the geometry and electrostatic properties of molecules. This study explored students' (n = 18) use of three visual…

  1. The microsporidian polar tube: A highly specialised invasion organelle

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanji; Weiss, Louis M.

    2011-01-01

    All of the members of the Microsporidia possess a unique, highly specialised structure, the polar tube. This article reviews the available data on the organisation, structure and function of this invasion organelle. It was over 100 years ago that Thelohan accurately described the microsporidian polar tube and the triggering of its discharge. In the spore, the polar tube is connected at the anterior end, and then coils around the sporoplasm. Upon appropriate environmental stimulation the polar tube rapidly discharges out of the spore pierces a cell membrane and serves as a conduit for sporoplasm passage into the new host cell. The mechanism of germination of spores, however, remains to be definitively determined. In addition, further studies on the characterisation of the early events in the rupture of the anterior attachment complex, eversion of the polar tube as well as the mechanism of host cell attachment and penetration are needed in order to clarify the function and assembly of this structure. The application of immunological and molecular techniques has resulted in the identification of three polar tube proteins referred to as PTP1, PTP2 and PTP3. The interactions of these identified proteins in the formation and function of the polar tube remain to be determined. Data suggest that PTP1 is an O-mannosylated glycoprotein, a post-translational modification that may be important for its function. With the availability of the Encephalitozoon cuniculi genome it is now possible to apply proteomic techniques to the characterisation of the components of the microsporidian spore and invasion organelle. PMID:16005007

  2. Single-molecule tracking of small GTPase Rac1 uncovers spatial regulation of membrane translocation and mechanism for polarized signaling

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sulagna; Yin, Taofei; Yang, Qingfen; Zhang, Jingqiao; Wu, Yi I.; Yu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Polarized Rac1 signaling is a hallmark of many cellular functions, including cell adhesion, motility, and cell division. The two steps of Rac1 activation are its translocation to the plasma membrane and the exchange of nucleotide from GDP to GTP. It is, however, unclear whether these two processes are regulated independent of each other and what their respective roles are in polarization of Rac1 signaling. We designed a single-particle tracking (SPT) method to quantitatively analyze the kinetics of Rac1 membrane translocation in living cells. We found that the rate of Rac1 translocation was significantly elevated in protrusions during cell spreading on collagen. Furthermore, combining FRET sensor imaging with SPT measurements in the same cell, the recruitment of Rac1 was found to be polarized to an extent similar to that of the nucleotide exchange process. Statistical analysis of single-molecule trajectories and optogenetic manipulation of membrane lipids revealed that Rac1 membrane translocation precedes nucleotide exchange, and is governed primarily by interactions with phospholipids, particularly PI(3,4,5)P3, instead of protein factors. Overall, the study highlights the significance of membrane translocation in spatial Rac1 signaling, which is in addition to the traditional view focusing primarily on GEF distribution and exchange reaction. PMID:25561548

  3. High-Resolution, Single-Molecule Measurements of Biomolecular Motion

    PubMed Central

    Greenleaf, William J.; Woodside, Michael T.; Block, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    Many biologically important macromolecules undergo motions that are essential to their function. Biophysical techniques can now resolve the motions of single molecules down to the nanometer scale or even below, providing new insights into the mechanisms that drive molecular movements. This review outlines the principal approaches that have been used for high-resolution measurements of single-molecule motion, including centroid tracking, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, magnetic tweezers, atomic force microscopy, and optical traps. For each technique, the principles of operation are outlined, the capabilities and typical applications are examined, and various practical issues for implementation are considered. Extensions to these methods are also discussed, with an eye toward future application to outstanding biological problems. PMID:17328679

  4. The theoretical study of the ground-state polar chromium-alkali-metal-atom molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Lijuan; Gou, Dezhi; Chai, Junshuai

    2016-04-01

    Potential energy curves and permanent dipole moments of the 6Σ+ and 8Σ+ ground state of CrX (X = Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs) are calculated by employing the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) and multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) methods. The spectroscopic constants for the 6Σ+ and 8Σ+ ground state of these molecules are calculated. Moreover, CrK, CrRb and CrCs molecules with large values of permanent dipole moment (CrK: 5.553 D, CrRb: 6.341 D and CrCs: 6.731 D) at the equilibrium bond distance are potentially interesting candidates for ultracold anisotropic long-range dipole-dipole interactions and many-body physics studies.

  5. Ultrafast solvation processes in polar liquids probed with large organic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, C.J.; Rosenthal, S.J.; Shank, C.V.

    1999-12-09

    Several optical techniques are used to characterize the ultrafast solvation dynamics of two structurally different molecules, LD690 and LDS750. Linear absorption, fluorescence, resonance Raman, and time-resolved four-wave mixing experiments have been performed on both molecules in a variety of solvents. The combination of different experiments is necessary to characterize the femtosecond dynamics. Both molecules exhibit very fast dephasing, due to sub-100 fs decays of the solvation correlation function M(t). The LD690 data is analyzed in depth, using a multimode oscillator model to treat both intramolecular vibrations and the solvent coordinates. The dynamics are solvent-dependent, but this dependence cannot be explained in a straightforward manner using quantities such as inertial solvent rotational motion or a simple dielectric continuum response. Various aspects of the spectroscopy, both linear and nonlinear, provide clues that the dynamics are influenced by molecular-level interactions that are not taken into account by theories that only consider bulk solvent properties.

  6. Long-range interactions between polar bialkali ground-state molecules in arbitrary vibrational levels

    SciTech Connect

    Vexiau, R.; Lepers, M. Aymar, M.; Bouloufa-Maafa, N.; Dulieu, O.

    2015-06-07

    We have calculated the isotropic C{sub 6} coefficients characterizing the long-range van der Waals interaction between two identical heteronuclear alkali-metal diatomic molecules in the same arbitrary vibrational level of their ground electronic state X{sup 1}Σ{sup +}. We consider the ten species made up of {sup 7}Li, {sup 23}Na, {sup 39}K, {sup 87}Rb, and {sup 133}Cs. Following our previous work [Lepers et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 032709 (2013)], we use the sum-over-state formula inherent to the second-order perturbation theory, composed of the contributions from the transitions within the ground state levels, from the transition between ground-state and excited state levels, and from a crossed term. These calculations involve a combination of experimental and quantum-chemical data for potential energy curves and transition dipole moments. We also investigate the case where the two molecules are in different vibrational levels and we show that the Moelwyn-Hughes approximation is valid provided that it is applied for each of the three contributions to the sum-over-state formula. Our results are particularly relevant in the context of inelastic and reactive collisions between ultracold bialkali molecules in deeply bound or in Feshbach levels.

  7. Semiclassical study of the collision of a highly excited Rydberg atom with the molecules HF and HCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, M.; Lane, N. F.

    1990-08-01

    The semiclassical impact-parameter method is applied to the processes of state changing and energy transfer in the collision of a highly excited Rydberg atom (n>=20) with the polar molecules HF and HCl. The relative motion of the molecule and atomic nucleus is taken to be rectilinear; the electron-molecule and ion core-molecule interactions are represented by cutoff dipole forms. Cross sections for transitions involving quantum numbers n and l of the atom and rotational quantum number j of the molecule are obtained for a range of collision energies and initial atomic and molecular states. Comparisons are made with the results of earlier classical studies and with the quantum-mechanical impulse approximation. Collision rates are calculated and compared with experimental values for l mixing and n and j changing. The agreement between experiment and theory is shown to be satisfactory, within the uncertainties of both the measurements and the theory. Cases of agreement and disagreement between various theories are examined. One finding of the present work is that the quantum-mechanical impulse approximation appears to significantly overestimate the values of various state-changing cross sections when the internal energy defect is small. The validity of the impulse approximation for collisions of Rydberg atoms with polar molecules is discussed.

  8. Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry using high frequency modulated light polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholupov, S. E.; Ganeyev, A. A.

    1995-09-01

    This paper reports the novel use of Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry using high frequency modulated light polarization (ZAAS-HFM), its theoretical basis and experimental validation. Due to the high frequency modulation of the analytical and reference signals, the temporal background correction error is reduced below 10 -5 absorbance units. In addition, the use of ZAAS-HFM enables the operator to increase the apparatus transmittance and therefore to reduce the detection limits and to broaden the dynamic range of the analytical curves.

  9. High Resolution Studies of Electron Attachment to Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, M.; Ruf, M.-W.; Hotop, H.; Fabrikant, I. I.

    2009-05-02

    In this paper, we survey recent progress in studies of anion formation via (dissociative) electron attachment (DEA) to simple molecules, as measured with the laser photoelectron attachment (LPA) method at high resolution. The limiting (E{yields}0) threshold behavior of the cross sections is elucidated for s-wave and p-wave attachment. Cusps at onsets for vibrational excitation (VE), due to interaction of the DEA channnel with the VE channel, are clearly detected, and vibrational Feshbach resonances just below vibrational onsets are observed for molecules with sufficiently strong long-range attraction between the electron and the molecule. From the LPA anion yields, absolute DEA cross sections (energy range typically E = 0.001-2 eV) are determined with reference to rate coefficients for thermal electron attachment at the appropriate gas temperature (normally T{sub G} = 300 K). The experimental data are compared with theoretical cross sections, calculated within the framework of an R-matrix or an Effective Range theory approach.

  10. Single-molecule high-resolution imaging with photobleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Matthew P.; Ha, Taekjip; Selvin, Paul R.

    2004-04-01

    Conventional light microscopy is limited in its resolving power by the Rayleigh limit to length scales on the order of 200 nm. On the other hand, spectroscopic techniques such as fluorescence resonance energy transfer cannot be used to measure distances >10 nm, leaving a "gap" in the ability of optical techniques to measure distances on the 10- to 100-nm scale. We have previously demonstrated the ability to localize single dye molecules to a precision of 1.5 nm with subsecond time resolution. Here we locate the position of two dyes and determine their separation with 5-nm precision, using the quantal photobleaching behavior of single fluorescent dye molecules. By fitting images both before and after photobleaching of one of the dyes, we may localize both dyes simultaneously and compute their separation. Hence, we have circumvented the Rayleigh limit and achieved nanometer-scale resolution. Specifically, we demonstrate the technique by measuring the distance between single fluorophores separated by 10-20 nm via attachment to the ends of double-stranded DNA molecules immobilized on a surface. In addition to bridging the gap in optical resolution, this technique may be useful for biophysical or genomic applications, including the generation of super-high-density maps of single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

  11. Single-Molecule High-Resolution Colocalization of Single Probes

    PubMed Central

    Churchman, L. Stirling; Spudich, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Colocalization of fluorescent probes is commonly used in cell biology to discern the proximity of two proteins in the cell. Considering that the resolution limit of optical microscopy is on the order of 250 nm, there has not been a need for high-resolution colocalization techniques. However, with the advent of higher resolution techniques for cell biology and single-molecule biophysics, colocalization must also improve. For diffraction-limited applications, a geometric transformation (i.e., translation, scaling, and rotation) is typically applied to one color channel to align it with the other; however, to achieve high-resolution colocalization, this is not sufficient. Single-molecule high-resolution colocalization (SHREC) of single probes uses the local weighted mean transformation to achieve a colocalization resolution of at least 10 nm. This protocol describes the acquisition of registration data and the analysis required to obtain a high-resolution mapping between imaging channels. The total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM) system described is designed to excite and image the fluorescent probes Cy3 and Cy5. Modifications may be required depending on the requirements of the individual study. PMID:22301661

  12. Strong Circularly Polarized Luminescence from Highly Emissive Terbium Complexes in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, Amanda; Lunkley, Jamie; Muller, Gilles; Raymond, Kenneth

    2010-03-15

    Two luminescent terbium(III) complexes have been prepared from chiral ligands containing 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) antenna chromophores and their non-polarized and circularly-polarized luminescence properties have been studied. These tetradentate ligands, which form 2:1 ligand/Tb{sup III} complexes, utilize diaminocyclohexane (cyLI) and diphenylethylenediamine (dpenLI) backbones, which we reasoned would impart conformational rigidity and result in Tb{sup III} complexes that display both large luminescence quantum yield ({phi}) values and strong circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) activities. Both Tb{sup III} complexes are highly emissive, with {phi} values of 0.32 (dpenLI-Tb) and 0.60 (cyLI-Tb). Luminescence lifetime measurements in H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O indicate that while cyLI-Tb exists as a single species in solution, dpenLI-Tb exists as two species: a monohydrate complex with one H{sub 2}O molecule directly bound to the Tb{sup III} ion and a complex with no water molecules in the inner coordination sphere. Both cyLI-Tb and dpenLI-Tb display increased CPL activity compared to previously reported Tb{sup III} complexes made with chiral IAM ligands. The CPL measurements also provide additional confirmation of the presence of a single emissive species in solution in the case of cyLI-Tb, and multiple emissive species in the case of dpenLI-Tb.

  13. High quality UV: NIR thin film interference polarizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novopashin, Vladimir V.; Shestakov, Alexsandr V.

    2014-09-01

    Interference polarizers can be successfully used in lasers and laser devices as independent optical element substituted crystal polarizers. Today, the use of crystal polarizers in some cases can lead to definite difficulties in accordance with peculiarities of laser cavity construction. The novel laser technologies and design of laser elements defined the new demands to optical coatings. In modern lasers interference polarizer can be considered as one of the main element that operates laser radiation. According to special optical outline and the requirements to optical characteristics of laser polarizers can be bryuster or mirror-type. The stable of spectral characteristic at a definite angle is one of the most important parameter. It was shown how optical thickness of each layer influence on angle stability. On the other hand high stable was achieved by using electron-beam ion assisted deposition. The coatings were deposited on the surface of optical glass BK-7 or quartz. Generally, refractory oxides were used. The achievement of the condensation layers structure was provided by active O2 + ions. It was shown, that smooth cleaning by neutral ions as before the evaporation definite separate layer, as after stabilized the optical properties of polarizer. Moreover, the using of ion source allowed increase laser damage threshold. It can be underline that some advantages of ion source revealed during evaporation materials in visible and especially ultra violet region. Also, laser strength was rather more at 1535 nm for ion-assisted deposited films. The average parameters were: minimum transmission efficiency TP < 97%, extinction ratio TP/TS <500, laser damage more than 10 J/cm2, 10 nanosecond pulse at 1064 nm in laser spot 200 μm.

  14. Predicting polarization performance of high-numerical aperture inspection lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahr, Stephan; Werschnik, Jan; Bening, Matthias; Uhlendorf, Kristina

    2015-09-01

    Along the course of increasing through-put and improving signal to noise ratio in optical wafer and mask inspection, demands on wave front aberrations and polarization characteristics are ever increasing. The system engineers and optical designers involved in the development of such optical systems will be responsible for specifying the quality of the optical material and the mechanical tolerances. Among optical designers it is well established how to estimate the wave front error of assembled and adjusted optical devices via sensitivity or Monte-Carlo analysis. However, when compared with the scalar problem of wave front estimation, the field of polarization control deems to pose a more complex problem due to its vectorial nature. Here we show our latest results in how to model polarization affecting aspects. In the realm of high numerical aperture (NA) inspection optics we will focus on the impact of coatings, stress induced birefringence due to non-perfect lens mounting, and finally the birefringence of the optical material. With all these tools at hand, we have a more complete understanding of the optical performance of our assembled optical systems. Moreover, we are able to coherently develop optical systems meeting demanding wave front criteria as well as high end polarization specifications.

  15. Quantitative polarized Raman spectroscopy in highly turbid bone tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Mekhala; Sahar, Nadder D.; Wilson, Robert H.; Mycek, Mary-Ann; Pleshko, Nancy; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.

    2010-05-01

    Polarized Raman spectroscopy allows measurement of molecular orientation and composition and is widely used in the study of polymer systems. Here, we extend the technique to the extraction of quantitative orientation information from bone tissue, which is optically thick and highly turbid. We discuss multiple scattering effects in tissue and show that repeated measurements using a series of objectives of differing numerical apertures can be employed to assess the contributions of sample turbidity and depth of field on polarized Raman measurements. A high numerical aperture objective minimizes the systematic errors introduced by multiple scattering. We test and validate the use of polarized Raman spectroscopy using wild-type and genetically modified (oim/oim model of osteogenesis imperfecta) murine bones. Mineral orientation distribution functions show that mineral crystallites are not as well aligned (p<0.05) in oim/oim bones (28+/-3 deg) compared to wild-type bones (22+/-3 deg), in agreement with small-angle X-ray scattering results. In wild-type mice, backbone carbonyl orientation is 76+/-2 deg and in oim/oim mice, it is 72+/-4 deg (p>0.05). We provide evidence that simultaneous quantitative measurements of mineral and collagen orientations on intact bone specimens are possible using polarized Raman spectroscopy.

  16. When is O+ Observed in the High Altitude Polar Cap?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, H. A.; Comfort, R. H.; Craven, P. D.; Chandler, M. O.; Moore, T. E.

    2000-01-01

    Solar wind and IMF properties are correlated with the properties of O+ and H+ in the polar cap at altitudes greater than 5.5 Re geocentric using the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) on the Polar satellite. O+ is of primary interest in this study because the fraction of O+ present in the magnetosphere is commonly used as a measure of the ionospheric contribution to the magnetosphere. O+ is observed to be most abundant at lower latitudes when the solar wind speed is low and across most of the polar cap at high solar winds speeds and Kp. As the solar wind dynamic pressures increases more O+ is present in the polar cap. The O+ density is also shown to be more highly correlated with the solar wind dynamic pressure when IMF Bz is positive. H+ was not as well correlated with solar wind and IMF parameters although some correlation with IMF By is observed. H+ is more plentiful when IMF By is negative than when it is positive. In this data set H+ is very dominate so that if this plasma makes it to the plasma sheet its contribution to the plasma sheet would have a very low O+ to H+ ratio.

  17. Altered intracellular region of MUC1 and disrupted correlation of polarity-related molecules in breast cancer subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Misato; Nakanishi, Yoko; Fuchinoue, Fumi; Maeda, Tetsuyo; Murakami, Eriko; Obana, Yukari; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Tani, Mayumi; Sakurai, Kenichi; Amano, Sadao; Masuda, Shinobu

    2015-01-01

    MUC1 glycoprotein is overexpressed and its intracellular localization altered during breast carcinoma tumorigenesis. The present study aimed to clarify the relationship of cytoplasmic localization of MUC1 with the breast cancer subtype and the correlation of 10 molecules associated with cell polarity in breast cancer subtypes. We immunostained 131 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast cancer specimens with an anti-MUC1 antibody (MUC1/CORE). For 48 of the 131 tumor specimens, laser-assisted microdissection and real-time quantitative RT-PCR were performed to analyze mRNA levels of MUC1 and 10 molecules, ?-catenin, E-cadherin, claudin3, claudin4, claudin7, RhoA, cdc42, Rac1, Par3 and Par6. Localization of MUC1 protein varied among breast cancer subtypes, that is, both the apical domain and cytoplasm in luminal A-like tumors (P<0.01) and both the cytoplasm and cell membrane in luminal B-like (growth factor receptor 2 [HER2]+) tumors (P<0.05), and no expression was found in triple negative tumors (P<0.001). Estrogen receptor (ER)+ breast cancers showed higher MUC1 mRNA levels than ER? breast cancers (P<0.01). The incidence of mutual correlations of expression levels between two of the 10 molecules (55 combinations) was 54.5% in normal breast tissue and 38.2% in luminal A-like specimens, 16.4% in luminal B-like (HER2+), 3.6% in HER2 and 18.2% in triple negative specimens. In conclusion, each breast cancer subtype has characteristic cytoplasmic localization patterns of MUC1 and different degrees of disrupted correlation of the expression levels between the 10 examined molecules in comparison with normal breast tissue. PMID:25556893

  18. Radio properties of the highly polarized, quiescent quasar OI 287

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulvestad, James S.; Antonucci, Robert R. J.

    1988-01-01

    The highly polarized, quiescent quasar OI 287 has been observed with high resolution at 2 cm and 6 cm in an effort to determine the origin of some of the object's peculiar properties. The results seem to rule out the classification of OI 287 as a blazar. Extrapolation of the radio core spectrum to midinfrared wavelengths fails to predict the infrared flux by at least an order of magnitude. This supports the conclusion that the infrared emission and the radio emission do not originate in the same synchrotron-emitting component. The high optical polarization could be related to possible broad absorption lines in the unobserved UV regime, or it could be caused by reflection into the line of sight by scattering agents distributed in a thin disk.

  19. Applications of highly spin-polarized xenon in NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Long, H.W. |

    1993-09-01

    The main goal of the work presented in this thesis is produce highly spin-polarized xenon to create much greater signal intensities (up to 54,000 times greater) so as to allow studies to be made on systems with low surface area and long spin-lattice relaxation times. The spin-exchange optical pumping technique used to create high nuclear spin polarization is described in detail in chapter two. This technique is initially applied to some multiple-pulse optically detected NMR experiments in low magnetic field (50G) that allow the study of quadrupoler interactions with a surface of only a few square centimeters. In chapter three the apparatus used to allow high field {sup 129}Xe NMR studies to be performed with extremely high sensitivity is described and applied to experiments on diamagnetic susceptibility effects in thin ({approximately}2000 layers) films of frozen xenon. Preliminary surface investigations of laser polarized {sup 129}Xe adsorbed an a variety of materials (salts, molecular crystals, amorphous carbon, graphite) are then discussed. A full detailed study of the surface of a particular polymer, poly(acrylic acid), is presented in chapter four which shows the kind of detailed information that can be obtained from this technique. Along with preliminary results for several similar polymers, a summary is given of xenon studies of a novel ultra-high surface area polymer, poly(triarylcarbinol). Finally in chapter five the exciting possibility of transferring the high spin order of the laser polarized xenon has been used to transfer nuclear spin order to {sup 13}CO{sub 2} in a xenon matrix and to protons on poly(triarylcarbinol).

  20. High contrast single molecule tracking in the pericellular coat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrimgeour, Jan; McLane, Louis T.; Curtis, Jennifer E.

    2014-03-01

    The pericellular coat is a robust, hydrated, polymer brush-like structure that can extend several micrometers into the extracellular space around living cells. By controlling access to the cell surface, acting as a filter and storage reservoir for proteins, and actively controlling tissue-immune system interactions, the cell coat performs many important functions at scales ranging from the single cell to whole tissues. The cell coat consists of a malleable backbone - the large polysaccharide hyaluronic acid (HA) - with its structure, material properties, and ultimately its bio-functionality tuned by a diverse set of HA binding proteins. These proteins add charge, cross-links and growth factor-like ligands to the coat To probe the dynamic behavior of this soft biomaterial we have used high contrast single molecule imaging, based on highly inclined laser illumination, to observe individual fluorescently labeled HA binding proteins within the cell coat. Our work focuses on the cell coat of living chondrocyte (cartilage) cells, and in particular the effect of the large, highly charged, protein aggrecan on the properties of the coat. Through single molecule imaging we observe that aggrecan is tightly tethered to HA, and plays an important role in cell coat extension and stiffening.

  1. Polarization conversion from highly conducting, asymmetric trapezoidal gratings.

    PubMed

    Depine, Ricardo A; Inchaussandague, Marina E

    2003-07-01

    The differences in the curves of the zeroth-order cross-polarization reflection coeffients (p --> s and s --> p) versus angle of incidence have remarkable potential for application in scatterometry because, if the differences are larger than the measurement error, they could contribute to a reliable nondestructive technique for detecting asymmetries in grating profiles. The cross-polarization efficiencies of highly conducting metallic gratings with asymmetric trapezoidal profiles are investigated theoretically by means of a rigorous electromagnetic code. The results show that the differences between p --> s and s --> p conversion tend to be undetectable for highly conducting materials, a fact that limits, in principle, the application of this potential detection technique. PMID:12868808

  2. High-fidelity linear optical quantum computing with polarization encoding

    SciTech Connect

    Spedalieri, Federico M.; Lee, Hwang; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-15

    We show that the KLM scheme [Knill, Laflamme, and Milburn, Nature 409, 46 (2001)] can be implemented using polarization encoding, thus reducing the number of path modes required by half. One of the main advantages of this new implementation is that it naturally incorporates a loss detection mechanism that makes the probability of a gate introducing a non-detected error, when non-ideal detectors are considered, dependent only on the detector dark-count rate and independent of its efficiency. Since very low dark-count rate detectors are currently available, a high-fidelity gate (probability of error of order 10{sup -6} conditional on the gate being successful) can be implemented using polarization encoding. The detector efficiency determines the overall success probability of the gate but does not affect its fidelity. This can be applied to the efficient construction of optical cluster states with very high fidelity for quantum computing.

  3. Bicircular High-Harmonic Spectroscopy Reveals Dynamical Symmetries of Atoms and Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baykusheva, Denitsa; Ahsan, Md Sabbir; Lin, Nan; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2016-03-01

    We introduce bicircular high-harmonic spectroscopy as a new method to probe dynamical symmetries of atoms and molecules and their evolution in time. Our approach is based on combining a circularly polarized femtosecond fundamental field of frequency ω with its counterrotating second harmonic 2 ω . We demonstrate the ability of bicircular high-harmonic spectroscopy to characterize the orbital angular momentum symmetry of atomic orbitals. We further show that breaking the threefold rotational symmetry of the generating medium—at the level of either the ensemble or that of a single molecule—results in the emission of the otherwise parity-forbidden frequencies 3 q ω (q ∈N ) , which provide a background-free probe of dynamical molecular symmetries.

  4. Overview of high energy physics with polarized particles

    SciTech Connect

    Soffer, J. . Centre de Physique Theorique Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY )

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this talk is to review spin effects in various areas of particle physics at high energy and by selecting the most interesting topics, to show the relevance of dealing with polarized particles. We will see that it provides crucial tests for the Standard Model and can give us clear signatures to uncover new interactions. We will also discuss some striking experimental facts recently observed in hadronic collisions and their implications for current theoretical ideas. 43 refs., 10 figs.

  5. High transmittance silicon terahertz polarizer using wafer bonding technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ting-Yang; Tsai, Hsin-Cheng; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Luo, Chih-Wei; Chen, Kuan-Neng

    2015-08-01

    Due to the difficulties faced in fabricating robust Terahertz (THz) optical components with low Fresnel reflection loss, the need to increase the efficiency of THz system with reduced cost is still considered as one of the most essential tasks. In this report, a new low cost THz polarizer with robust structure is proposed and demonstrated. This new THz wire grid polarizer was based on an anti-reflection (AR) layer fabricated with low temperature metal bonding and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). After patterning Cu wire gratings and the corresponding In/Sn solder ring on the individual silicon wafers, the inner gratings were sealed by wafer-level Cu to In/Sn guard ring bonding, providing the protection against humidity oxidation and corrosion. With the low eutectic melting point of In/Sn solder, wafers could be bonded face to face below 150°C. Two anti-reflection layers on both outward surfaces were fabricated by DRIE. With the mixing of empty holes and silicon, the effective refractive index was designed to be the square root of the silicon refractive index. The central frequency of the anti-reflection layers was designed between 0.5THz to 2THz with an approximate bandwidth of 0.5THz. The samples were measured with a commercial free-standing wire grid polarizer by a THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) from 0.2THz to 2.2THz. The power transmittance is close to 100% at central frequency. Extinction ratio of the polarizer is between 20dB to 40dB depending on the frequency. The advantages of this new polarizer include high transmittance, robust structure and low cost with no precision optical alignment required.

  6. Fine-tuning device performances of small molecule solar cells via the more polarized DPP-attached donor units.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianhua; Jia, Hui; Li, Liangjie; Lu, Zhenhuan; Zhang, Wenqing; He, Weiwei; Jiang, Bo; Tang, Ailing; Tan, Zhan'ao; Zhan, Chuanlang; Li, Yongfang; Yao, Jiannian

    2012-11-01

    Three solution-processable small molecules of DPPT, DPPSe and DPPTT were synthesized by Stille coupling through attaching donor units of thiophene (T), selenophene (Se) and thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (TT) to the diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) core, respectively. Replacement of the T donors with the more polarized Se units results in a balance between the a and b direction packing and an obvious increase of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 1.90% to 2.33% with the increase of the short-circuit current (I(sc)) from 5.59 to 5.81 mA cm(-2) and the open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) from 0.78 V to 0.86 under the small molecule/acceptor ratio of 3 : 1. However, introduction of the conjugation-enlarged TT groups (versus the T units) leads to a decrease of the PCE, down to 1.70%, with a significant decrease of the fill factor (FF) (38% versus 44%), due to its poor film-forming characteristics. PMID:22847595

  7. Manipulating the dipole layer of polar organic molecules on metal surfaces via different charge-transfer channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Meng-Kai; Nakayama, Yasuo; Zhuang, Ying-Jie; Wang, Chin-Yung; Pi, Tun-Wen; Ishii, Hisao; Tang, S.-J.

    The key properties of organic films such as energy level alignment (ELA), work functions, and injection barriers are closely linked to this dipole layer. Using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), we systemically investigate the coverage-dependent work functions and spectra line shapes of occupied molecular orbital states of a polar molecule, chloroaluminium phthalocyanine (ClAlPc), grown on Ag(111) to show that the orientations of the first ClAlPc layer can be manipulated via the molecule deposition rate and post annealing, causing ELA at organic-metal interface to differ for about 0.3 eV between Cl-up and Cl-down configuration. Moreover, by comparing the experimental results with the calculations based on both gas-phase model and realistic model of ClAlPc on Ag(111) , we evidence that the different orientations of ClAlPc dipole layers lead to different charge-transfer channels between ClAlPc and Ag, a key factor that controls the ELA at organic-metal interface.

  8. A 3D-Printed High Power Nuclear Spin Polarizer

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Coffey, Aaron M.; Walkup, Laura L.; Gust, Brogan M.; LaPierre, Cristen D.; Koehnemann, Edward; Barlow, Michael J.; Rosen, Matthew S.; Goodson, Boyd M.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional printing with high-temperature plastic is used to enable spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) and hyperpolarization of xenon-129 gas. The use of 3D printed structures increases the simplicity of integration of the following key components with a variable temperature SEOP probe: (i) in situ NMR circuit operating at 84 kHz (Larmor frequencies of 129Xe and 1H nuclear spins), (ii) <0.3 nm narrowed 200 W laser source, (iii) in situ high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy, (iv) thermoelectric temperature control, (v) retroreflection optics, and (vi) optomechanical alignment system. The rapid prototyping endowed by 3D printing dramatically reduces production time and expenses while allowing reproducibility and integration of “off-the-shelf” components and enables the concept of printing on demand. The utility of this SEOP setup is demonstrated here to obtain near-unity 129Xe polarization values in a 0.5 L optical pumping cell, including ~74 ± 7% at 1000 Torr xenon partial pressure, a record value at such high Xe density. Values for the 129Xe polarization exponential build-up rate [(3.63 ± 0.15) × 10−2 min−1] and in-cell 129Xe spin−lattice relaxation time (T1 = 2.19 ± 0.06 h) for 1000 Torr Xe were in excellent agreement with the ratio of the gas-phase polarizations for 129Xe and Rb (PRb ~ 96%). Hyperpolarization-enhanced 129Xe gas imaging was demonstrated with a spherical phantom following automated gas transfer from the polarizer. Taken together, these results support the development of a wide range of chemical, biochemical, material science, and biomedical applications. PMID:24400919

  9. A 3D-printed high power nuclear spin polarizer.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Coffey, Aaron M; Walkup, Laura L; Gust, Brogan M; LaPierre, Cristen D; Koehnemann, Edward; Barlow, Michael J; Rosen, Matthew S; Goodson, Boyd M; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-01-29

    Three-dimensional printing with high-temperature plastic is used to enable spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) and hyperpolarization of xenon-129 gas. The use of 3D printed structures increases the simplicity of integration of the following key components with a variable temperature SEOP probe: (i) in situ NMR circuit operating at 84 kHz (Larmor frequencies of (129)Xe and (1)H nuclear spins), (ii) <0.3 nm narrowed 200 W laser source, (iii) in situ high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy, (iv) thermoelectric temperature control, (v) retroreflection optics, and (vi) optomechanical alignment system. The rapid prototyping endowed by 3D printing dramatically reduces production time and expenses while allowing reproducibility and integration of "off-the-shelf" components and enables the concept of printing on demand. The utility of this SEOP setup is demonstrated here to obtain near-unity (129)Xe polarization values in a 0.5 L optical pumping cell, including ∼74 ± 7% at 1000 Torr xenon partial pressure, a record value at such high Xe density. Values for the (129)Xe polarization exponential build-up rate [(3.63 ± 0.15) × 10(-2) min(-1)] and in-cell (129)Xe spin-lattice relaxation time (T1 = 2.19 ± 0.06 h) for 1000 Torr Xe were in excellent agreement with the ratio of the gas-phase polarizations for (129)Xe and Rb (PRb ∼ 96%). Hyperpolarization-enhanced (129)Xe gas imaging was demonstrated with a spherical phantom following automated gas transfer from the polarizer. Taken together, these results support the development of a wide range of chemical, biochemical, material science, and biomedical applications. PMID:24400919

  10. Energy levels of a polarizable linear polar molecule in a dc electric field obtained by analogy with the nonrelativistic hydrogen atom

    SciTech Connect

    Sekatskii, S. K.

    2007-05-15

    We note that an equation governing the dynamics of a polarizable linear polar molecule in a dc electric field coincides with one of two equations describing a hydrogen atom in the prolate spheroidal coordinate system. Using this analogy, as well as the known algebra of the angular momentum and Runge-Lenz-Pauli operators for the case of a hydrogen atom, the energy levels of a polarizable linear polar molecule in a dc electric field are calculated. For some cases, these energy values are exact.

  11. Ultracold spin-polarized mixtures of {sup 2}{Sigma} molecules with S-state atoms: Collisional stability and implications for sympathetic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Tscherbul, T. V.; Klos, J.; Buchachenko, A. A.

    2011-10-15

    The prospects of sympathetic cooling of polar molecules with magnetically cotrapped alkali-metal atoms are generally considered poor due to strongly anisotropic atom-molecule interactions leading to large spin relaxation rates. Using rigorous quantum scattering calculations based on ab initio interaction potentials, we show that inelastic spin relaxation in low-temperature collisions of CaH({sup 2}{Sigma}) molecules with Li and Mg atoms occurs at a slow rate despite the strongly anisotropic interactions. This unexpected result, which we rationalize using multichannel quantum-defect theory, opens up the possibility of sympathetic cooling of polar {sup 2}{Sigma} molecules with alkali-metal atoms in a magnetic trap and with alkaline-earth-metal atoms in an optical dipole trap.

  12. Tomographic reconstruction of circularly polarized high-harmonic fields: 3D attosecond metrology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cong; Tao, Zhensheng; Hernández-García, Carlos; Matyba, Piotr; Carr, Adra; Knut, Ronny; Kfir, Ofer; Zusin, Dimitry; Gentry, Christian; Grychtol, Patrik; Cohen, Oren; Plaja, Luis; Becker, Andreas; Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Bright, circularly polarized, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray high-harmonic beams can now be produced using counter-rotating circularly polarized driving laser fields. Although the resulting circularly polarized harmonics consist of relatively simple pairs of peaks in the spectral domain, in the time domain, the field is predicted to emerge as a complex series of rotating linearly polarized bursts, varying rapidly in amplitude, frequency, and polarization. We extend attosecond metrology techniques to circularly polarized light by simultaneously irradiating a copper surface with circularly polarized high-harmonic and linearly polarized infrared laser fields. The resulting temporal modulation of the photoelectron spectra carries essential phase information about the EUV field. Utilizing the polarization selectivity of the solid surface and by rotating the circularly polarized EUV field in space, we fully retrieve the amplitude and phase of the circularly polarized harmonics, allowing us to reconstruct one of the most complex coherent light fields produced to date. PMID:26989782

  13. Tomographic reconstruction of circularly polarized high-harmonic fields: 3D attosecond metrology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cong; Tao, Zhensheng; Hernández-García, Carlos; Matyba, Piotr; Carr, Adra; Knut, Ronny; Kfir, Ofer; Zusin, Dimitry; Gentry, Christian; Grychtol, Patrik; Cohen, Oren; Plaja, Luis; Becker, Andreas; Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Bright, circularly polarized, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray high-harmonic beams can now be produced using counter-rotating circularly polarized driving laser fields. Although the resulting circularly polarized harmonics consist of relatively simple pairs of peaks in the spectral domain, in the time domain, the field is predicted to emerge as a complex series of rotating linearly polarized bursts, varying rapidly in amplitude, frequency, and polarization. We extend attosecond metrology techniques to circularly polarized light by simultaneously irradiating a copper surface with circularly polarized high-harmonic and linearly polarized infrared laser fields. The resulting temporal modulation of the photoelectron spectra carries essential phase information about the EUV field. Utilizing the polarization selectivity of the solid surface and by rotating the circularly polarized EUV field in space, we fully retrieve the amplitude and phase of the circularly polarized harmonics, allowing us to reconstruct one of the most complex coherent light fields produced to date. PMID:26989782

  14. Polarization interferometric nulling coronagraph for high-contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Naoshi; Yokochi, Kaito; Nishikawa, Jun; Tamura, Motohide; Kurokawa, Takashi; Takeda, Mitsuo; Baba, Naoshi

    2010-06-01

    We propose a novel, high-contrast imager called a polarization interferometric nulling coronagraph (PINC) for direct detection of extrasolar planets. The PINC uses achromatic half-wave plates (HWPs) installed in a fully symmetric beam combiner based on polarizing beam splitters. Jones calculus suggests that a stellar halo suppression level of 10(-10) can be achieved at 5 lambda/D for a broad wavelength range from 1.6 to 2.2 microm by using Fresnel-rhomb HWPs made of BK7. Laboratory experiments on the PINC used two laser light sources (wavelengths of lambda=532 and 671 nm), and we obtained a halo suppression level of approximately 10(-6) at 5 lambda/D for both wavelengths. PMID:20517351

  15. HCN ice in Titan's high-altitude southern polar cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kok, Remco J.; Teanby, Nicholas A.; Maltagliati, Luca; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Vinatier, Sandrine

    2014-10-01

    Titan's middle atmosphere is currently experiencing a rapid change of season after northern spring arrived in 2009 (refs 1, 2). A large cloud was observed for the first time above Titan's southern pole in May 2012, at an altitude of 300 kilometres. A temperature maximum was previously observed there, and condensation was not expected for any of Titan's atmospheric gases. Here we report that this cloud is composed of micrometre-sized particles of frozen hydrogen cyanide (HCN ice). The presence of HCN particles at this altitude, together with temperature determinations from mid-infrared observations, indicate a dramatic cooling of Titan's atmosphere inside the winter polar vortex in early 2012. Such cooling is in contrast to previously measured high-altitude warming in the polar vortex, and temperatures are a hundred degrees colder than predicted by circulation models. These results show that post-equinox cooling at the winter pole of Titan is much more efficient than previously thought.

  16. Identification of Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the HuR/RNA Interaction Using a Fluorescence Polarization Screening Assay Followed by NMR Validation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhonghua; Bhattacharya, Akash; Ivanov, Dmitri N.

    2015-01-01

    The human antigen R (HuR) stabilizes many mRNAs of proto-oncogene, transcription factors, cytokines and growth factors by recognizing AU-rich elements (AREs) presented in their 3’ or 5’ untranslated region (UTR). Multiple lines of experimental evidence suggest that this process plays a key role in cancer development. Thus, destabilizing HuR/RNA interaction by small molecules presents an opportunity for cancer treatment/prevention. Here we present an integrated approach to identify inhibitors of HuR/RNA interaction using a combination of fluorescence-based and NMR-based high throughput screening (HTS). The HTS assay with fluorescence polarization readout and Z’-score of 0.8 was used to perform a screen of the NCI diversity set V library in a 384 well plate format. An NMR-based assay with saturation transfer difference (STD) detection was used for hits validation. Protein NMR spectroscopy was used to demonstrate that some hit compounds disrupt formation of HuR oligomer, whereas others block RNA binding. Thus, our integrated high throughput approach provides a new avenue for identification of small molecules targeting HuR/RNA interaction. PMID:26390015

  17. Recoil-Proton Polarization in High-Energy Deuteron Photodisintegration with Circularly Polarized Photons

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, X.; Benmokhtar, F.; Glashauser, C.; McCormick, K.; Ransome, R. D.; Arrington, J.; Holt, R. J.; Reimer, P. E.; Schulte, E. C.; Wijesooriya, K.; Camsonne, A.

    2007-05-04

    We measured the angular dependence of the three recoil-proton polarization components in two-body photodisintegration of the deuteron at a photon energy of 2 GeV. These new data provide a benchmark for calculations based on quantum chromodynamics. Two of the five existing models have made predictions of polarization observables. Both explain the longitudinal polarization transfer satisfactorily. Transverse polarizations are not well described, but suggest isovector dominance.

  18. Self-assembly of disc-like molecules on polar surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Irma P.

    Solution-processable solar cells provide the potential to reduce the cost and increase the availability of solar electricity. Long-range molecular order in active media of solution-processable solar cells is essential for charge transfer, and self-assembly provides a simple and efficient process to achieve molecular order on a large scale. Obtaining spontaneous alignment of charge-transfer media that maximizes light-to-electricity conversion while minimizing energy waste is essential long-range molecular order development. Molecular order decreases the potential of hole and electron pair recombination and provides a direct path for the electron to reach the electrode and produce energy. Graphene quantum dots (GQD) are ideal for solution-processable solar cells due to the abundance of carbon and a large absorption cross-section in the visible light range. Hexabenzocoronene tri-acid (HBCTA) is a smaller system that has ideal properties for preliminary investigation of molecular order. In this study, we investigate the assembly of HBCTA and different GQDs on water and mica substrates with Langmuir techniques and atomic force microscopy (AFM). GQD of varying size and functionality, and HBCTA were observed to have isothermal compression behavior involving gas, liquid, and condensed phase transitions. We further characterized these molecular behaviors at particular pressures by Langmuir deposition to mica substrates. AFM imagining reveals monolayer assemblies of "face-on" orientation for larger quantum dots and "edge-on" orientation for smaller quantum dots. These assembly features are attributed to the numbers of carboxylic acid groups in the GQDs and their geometrical arrangement. HBCTA shows a concentration and pressure-dependent arrangement of molecules.

  19. Microbial Communities in a High Arctic Polar Desert Landscape

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Clare M.; Wade, Matthew J.; Gray, Neil D.; Roberts, Jennifer A.; Hubert, Casey R. J.; Graham, David W.

    2016-01-01

    The High Arctic is dominated by polar desert habitats whose microbial communities are poorly understood. In this study, we used next generation sequencing to describe the α- and β-diversity of microbial communities in polar desert soils from the Kongsfjorden region of Svalbard. Ten phyla dominated the soils and accounted for 95% of all sequences, with the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi being the major lineages. In contrast to previous investigations of Arctic soils, relative Acidobacterial abundances were found to be very low as were the Archaea throughout the Kongsfjorden polar desert landscape. Lower Acidobacterial abundances were attributed to characteristic circumneutral soil pHs in this region, which has resulted from the weathering of underlying carbonate bedrock. In addition, we compared previously measured geochemical conditions as possible controls on soil microbial communities. Phosphorus, pH, nitrogen, and calcium levels all significantly correlated with β-diversity, indicating landscape-scale lithological control of available nutrients, which in turn, significantly influenced soil community composition. In addition, soil phosphorus and pH significantly correlated with α-diversity, particularly with the Shannon diversity and Chao 1 richness indices. PMID:27065980

  20. Microbial Communities in a High Arctic Polar Desert Landscape.

    PubMed

    McCann, Clare M; Wade, Matthew J; Gray, Neil D; Roberts, Jennifer A; Hubert, Casey R J; Graham, David W

    2016-01-01

    The High Arctic is dominated by polar desert habitats whose microbial communities are poorly understood. In this study, we used next generation sequencing to describe the α- and β-diversity of microbial communities in polar desert soils from the Kongsfjorden region of Svalbard. Ten phyla dominated the soils and accounted for 95% of all sequences, with the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi being the major lineages. In contrast to previous investigations of Arctic soils, relative Acidobacterial abundances were found to be very low as were the Archaea throughout the Kongsfjorden polar desert landscape. Lower Acidobacterial abundances were attributed to characteristic circumneutral soil pHs in this region, which has resulted from the weathering of underlying carbonate bedrock. In addition, we compared previously measured geochemical conditions as possible controls on soil microbial communities. Phosphorus, pH, nitrogen, and calcium levels all significantly correlated with β-diversity, indicating landscape-scale lithological control of available nutrients, which in turn, significantly influenced soil community composition. In addition, soil phosphorus and pH significantly correlated with α-diversity, particularly with the Shannon diversity and Chao 1 richness indices. PMID:27065980

  1. Dynamic nuclear polarization of high- and low-crystallinity polyethylenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumada, Takayuki; Yohei, Noda; Hashimoto, Takeji; Koizumi, Satoshi

    2009-07-01

    We carried out a dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) study of high- and low-crystallinity polyethylene films defined as HPE and LPE, respectively, which were doped with TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piperidine-1-oxyl) by the same amount (1×1019 spins/cm3). The proton polarization of 32±3% was obtained for LPE and 23±4% for HPE at 3.35 T and 1.4 K. With increase in the concentration of TEMPO, the electron spin resonance (ESR) linewidth of TEMPO in HPE increased more steeply than that in LPE, indicating that TEMPO did not incorporated into the crystalline part, and was localized only at the amorphous part, hence the local concentration of TEMPO in the amorphous regions of HPE varied more steeply than that of LPE with the net amount of TEMPO fed into the film. We suggest that the smaller nuclear polarization for HPE is related to the localization of TEMPO in the smaller amorphous regions.

  2. High performance photovoltaic applications using solution-processed small molecules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongsheng; Wan, Xiangjian; Long, Guankui

    2013-11-19

    Energy remains a critical issue for the survival and prosperity of humancivilization. Many experts believe that the eventual solution for sustainable energy is the use of direct solar energy as the main energy source. Among the options for renewable energy, photovoltaic technologies that harness solar energy offer a way to harness an unlimited resource and minimum environment impact in contrast with other alternatives such as water, nuclear, and wind energy. Currently, almost all commercial photovoltaic technologies use Si-based technology, which has a number of disadvantages including high cost, lack of flexibility, and the serious environmental impact of the Si industry. Other technologies, such as organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells, can overcome some of these issues. Today, polymer-based OPV (P-OPV) devices have achieved power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) that exceed 9%. Compared with P-OPV, small molecules based OPV (SM-OPV) offers further advantages, including a defined structure for more reproducible performance, higher mobility and open circuit voltage, and easier synthetic control that leads to more diversified structures. Therefore, while largely undeveloped, SM-OPV is an important emerging technology with performance comparable to P-OPV. In this Account, we summarize our recent results on solution-processed SM-OPV. We believe that solution processing is essential for taking full advantage of OPV technologies. Our work started with the synthesis of oligothiophene derivatives with an acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) structure. Both the backbone conjugation length and electron withdrawing terminal groups play an important role in the light absorption, energy levels and performance of the devices. Among those molecules, devices using a 7-thiophene-unit backbone and a 3-ethylrhodanine (RD) terminal unit produced a 6.1% PCE. With the optimized conjugation length and terminal unit, we borrowed from the results with P-OPV devices to optimize the backbone. Thus we selected BDT (benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene) and DTS (dithienosilole) to replace the central thiophene unit, leading to a PCE of 8.12%. In addition to our molecules, Bazan and co-workers have developed another excellent system using DTS as the core unit that has also achieved a PCE greater than 8%. PMID:23902284

  3. Salting-out effect in aqueous NaCl solutions: trends with size and polarity of solute molecules.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoshi; Pfennigsdorff, Andrea; Goss, Kai-Uwe

    2012-02-01

    Salting-out in aqueous NaCl solutions is relevant for the environmental behavior of organic contaminants. In this study, Setschenow (or salting-out) coefficients (K(s) [M(-1)]) for 43 diverse neutral compounds in NaCl solutions were measured using a shared headspace passive dosing method and a negligible depletion solid phase microextraction technique. The results were used to calibrate and evaluate estimation models for K(s). The molar volume of the solute correlated only moderately with K(s) (R(2) = 0.49, SD = 0.052). The polyparameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER) model that uses five compound descriptors resulted in a more accurate fit to our data (R(2) = 0.83, SD = 0.031). The pp-LFER analysis revealed that Na(+) and Cl(-) in aqueous solutions increase the cavity formation energy cost and the polar interaction energies toward neutral organic solutes. Accordingly, the salting-out effect increases with the size and decreases with the polarity of the solute molecule. COSMO-RS, a quantum mechanics-based fully predictive model, generally overpredicted the experimental K(s), but the predicted values were moderately correlated with the experimental values (R(2) = 0.66, SD = 0.042). Literature data (n = 93) were predicted by the calibrated pp-LFER and COSMO-RS models with root mean squared errors of 0.047 and 0.050, respectively. This study offers prediction models to estimate K(s), allowing implementation of the salting-out effect in contaminant fate models, linkage of various partition coefficients (such as air-water, sediment-water, and extraction phase-water partition coefficients) measured for fresh water and seawater, and estimation of enhancement of extraction efficiency in analytical procedures. PMID:22191628

  4. Tomographic Reconstruction of Circularly Polarized High Harmonic Fields: 3D Attosecond Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cong; Tao, Zhensheng; Hernández-García, Carlos; Matyba, Piotr; Carr, Adra; Knut, Ronny; Kfir, Ofer; Zusin, Dimitry; Gentry, Christian; Grychtol, Patrick; Cohen, Oren; Plaja, Lius; Becker, Andreas; Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret

    Bright, circularly polarized, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray high harmonic beams can now be produced using counter-rotating circularly polarized driving laser fields. In the time domain, the field is predicted to emerge as a complex series of rotating linearly polarized bursts, varying rapidly in amplitude, frequency and polarization. Here, we extend attosecond metrology techniques to circularly polarized light for the first time by simultaneously irradiating a copper surface with circularly polarized high harmonic and linearly polarized infrared laser fields. The resulting temporal modulation of the photoelectron spectra carries essential phase information about the EUV field. Utilizing the polarization selectivity of the solid surface and by rotating the circularly polarized EUV field in space, we fully retrieve the amplitude and phase of the circularly polarized harmonics, allowing us to reconstruct one of the most complex coherent light fields produced to date.

  5. Origin of spontaneous polarization, tilt, and chiral structure of smectic liquid-crystal phases composed of bent-core molecules: A molecular model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emelyanenko, A. V.; Osipov, M. A.

    2004-08-01

    A simple molecular model is proposed for novel bent-core smectic phases that enables one to explain the origin of the experimentally observed chiral structure of the B2 phase composed of nonchiral banana-shaped molecules. It is shown that in the perfectly ordered smectic phase the distributed dispersion interaction between banana-shaped molecules stabilizes the spontaneous polarization and may be responsible for the tilt of the director. The orientation of the spontaneous polarization with respect to the tilt plane is determined by the balance between the dispersion and electrostatic dipole-dipole intermolecular interactions. In particular, sufficiently strong dipole-dipole interaction promotes the B2 phase where the polarization is normal to the tilt plane. The actual chiral structure of each smectic layer in the B2 phase appears as a result of the symmetry breaking. In the case of small molecular dipoles the nonchiral polar smectic phase is formed where the spontaneous polarization is parallel to the tilt plane. The role of the opening angle and of the axial ratio of banana-shaped molecules is also considered and a phase diagram is presented.

  6. Origin of spontaneous polarization, tilt, and chiral structure of smectic liquid-crystal phases composed of bent-core molecules: a molecular model.

    PubMed

    Emelyanenko, A V; Osipov, M A

    2004-08-01

    A simple molecular model is proposed for novel bent-core smectic phases that enables one to explain the origin of the experimentally observed chiral structure of the B2 phase composed of nonchiral banana-shaped molecules. It is shown that in the perfectly ordered smectic phase the distributed dispersion interaction between banana-shaped molecules stabilizes the spontaneous polarization and may be responsible for the tilt of the director. The orientation of the spontaneous polarization with respect to the tilt plane is determined by the balance between the dispersion and electrostatic dipole-dipole intermolecular interactions. In particular, sufficiently strong dipole-dipole interaction promotes the B2 phase where the polarization is normal to the tilt plane. The actual chiral structure of each smectic layer in the B2 phase appears as a result of the symmetry breaking. In the case of small molecular dipoles the nonchiral polar smectic phase is formed where the spontaneous polarization is parallel to the tilt plane. The role of the opening angle and of the axial ratio of banana-shaped molecules is also considered and a phase diagram is presented. PMID:15447506

  7. Small molecule semiconductors for high-efficiency organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuze; Li, Yongfang; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2012-06-01

    Organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) are a promising cost-effective alternative to silicon-based solar cells, and possess light-weight, low-cost, and flexibility advantages. Significant progress has been achieved in the development of novel photovoltaic materials and device structures in the last decade. Nowadays small molecular semiconductors for OPVs have attracted considerable attention, due to their advantages over their polymer counterparts, including well-defined molecular structure, definite molecular weight, and high purity without batch to batch variations. The highest power conversion efficiencies of OPVs based on small molecular donor/fullerene acceptors or polymeric donor/fullerene acceptors are up to 6.7% and 8.3%, respectively, and meanwhile nonfullerene acceptors have also exhibited some promising results. In this review we summarize the developments in small molecular donors, acceptors (fullerene derivatives and nonfullerene molecules), and donor-acceptor dyad systems for high-performance multilayer, bulk heterojunction, and single-component OPVs. We focus on correlations of molecular chemical structures with properties, such as absorption, energy levels, charge mobilities, and photovoltaic performances. This structure-property relationship analysis may guide rational structural design and evaluation of photovoltaic materials (253 references). PMID:22453295

  8. Antenna polarization diversity for high-speed polarization multiplexing wireless signal delivery at W-band.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan; Xiao, Jiangnan

    2014-03-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel architecture for a W-band integrated optical wireless system, which adopts a 2×2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless link based on antenna polarization diversity, and can realize 80 km single-mode fiber-28 transmission and 2 m wireless delivery for up to 39 Gbaud polarization-division-multiplexing quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PDM-QPSK) signal at 100 GHz. Classic constant-modulus-algorithm (CMA) equalization is adopted at the receiver to implement polarization demultiplexing. The 2×2 MIMO wireless link adopts one pair of horizontal-polarization (H-polarization) horn antennas (HAs) and one pair of vertical-polarization (V-polarization) HAs. Because the two pairs of HAs are fully isolated, the wireless cross talk can be effectively avoided. Thus, compared to the 2×2 MIMO wireless link at the same antenna polarization, the adoption of antenna polarization diversity cannot only make the HA adjustment easier but can also reduce the required CMA tap number. After removing 20% forward-error-correction overhead, the 39 Gbaud baud rate corresponds to a net bit rate of 130  Gb/s, which, to our best knowledge, is the highest bit rate per PDM channel demonstrated for wireless signal delivery up to now. PMID:24690698

  9. A method to polarize stored antiprotons to a high degree.

    PubMed

    Rathmann, F; Lenisa, P; Steffens, E; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; Kacharava, A; Lehrach, A; Lorentz, B; Maier, R; Prasuhn, D; Ströher, H

    2005-01-14

    Polarized antiprotons can be produced in a storage ring by spin-dependent interaction in a purely electron-polarized hydrogen gas target. The polarizing process is based on spin transfer from the polarized electrons of the target atoms to the orbiting antiprotons. After spin filtering for about two beam lifetimes at energies T approximately equal 40-170 MeV using a dedicated large acceptance ring, the antiproton beam polarization would reach P=0.2-0.4. Polarized antiprotons would open new and unique research opportunities for spin-physics experiments in p(-) p interactions. PMID:15698088

  10. Dipole polarizability of alkali-metal (Na, K, Rb)-alkaline-earth-metal (Ca, Sr) polar molecules: prospects for alignment.

    PubMed

    Gopakumar, Geetha; Abe, Minori; Hada, Masahiko; Kajita, Masatoshi

    2014-06-14

    Electronic open-shell ground-state properties of selected alkali-metal-alkaline-earth-metal polar molecules are investigated. We determine potential energy curves of the (2)?(+) ground state at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles with partial triples (CCSD(T)) level of electron correlation. Calculated spectroscopic constants for the isotopes ((23)Na, (39)K, (85)Rb)-((40)Ca, (88)Sr) are compared with available theoretical and experimental results. The variation of the permanent dipole moment (PDM), average dipole polarizability, and polarizability anisotropy with internuclear distance is determined using finite-field perturbation theory at the CCSD(T) level. Owing to moderate PDM (KCa: 1.67 D, RbCa: 1.75 D, KSr: 1.27 D, RbSr: 1.41 D) and large polarizability anisotropy (KCa: 566 a.u., RbCa: 604 a.u., KSr: 574 a.u., RbSr: 615 a.u.), KCa, RbCa, KSr, and RbSr are potential candidates for alignment and orientation in combined intense laser and external static electric fields. PMID:24929384

  11. Highly specialized microbial diversity in hyper-arid polar desert

    PubMed Central

    Pointing, Stephen B.; Chan, Yuki; Lacap, Donnabella C.; Lau, Maggie C. Y.; Jurgens, Joel A.; Farrell, Roberta L.

    2009-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica are a cold hyperarid polar desert that present extreme challenges to life. Here, we report a culture-independent survey of multidomain microbial biodiversity in McKelvey Valley, a pristine example of the coldest desert on Earth. We demonstrate that life has adapted to form highly-specialized communities in distinct lithic niches occurring concomitantly within this terrain. Endoliths and chasmoliths in sandstone displayed greatest diversity, whereas soil was relatively depauperate and lacked a significant photoautotrophic component, apart from isolated islands of hypolithic cyanobacterial colonization on quartz rocks in soil contact. Communities supported previously unreported polar bacteria and fungi, but archaea were absent from all niches. Lithic community structure did not vary significantly on a landscape scale and stochastic moisture input due to snowmelt resulted in increases in colonization frequency without significantly affecting diversity. The findings show that biodiversity near the cold-arid limit for life is more complex than previously appreciated, but communities lack variability probably due to the high selective pressures of this extreme environment. PMID:19850879

  12. High resolution polarization-independent high-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensor.

    PubMed

    Leandro, Daniel; Bravo, Mikel; Lopez-Amo, Manuel

    2015-11-30

    In this work, two all polarization-maintaining (PM) high-birefringence (Hi-Bi) fiber loop mirrors (FLM) which are immune to external polarization perturbations are validated both theoretically and experimentally. Simplified and stable versions of classical FLMs were attained using a PM-coupler and by fusing the different Hi-Bi fiber sections with an adequate rotation angle between them. Since the polarization states are fixed along the whole fiber loop, no polarization controllers are needed. This simplifies the operation and increases the stability of the systems, which were also validated as ultra-high resolution sensors, experimentally obtaining a resolution of 6.2∙10-4 °C without averaging. PMID:26698729

  13. On the dynamics of high Rydberg states of large molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jortner, Joshua; Bixon, M.

    1995-04-01

    In this paper we explore the level structure, the optical excitation modes and the dynamics of a mixed Stark manifold of very high Rydberg states (with principal quantum numbers n=80-250) of large molecules, e.g., 1,4 diaza bicyclo [2,2,2] octane (DABCO) and bis (benzene) chromium (BBC) [U. Even, R. D. Levine, and R. Bersohn, J. Phys. Chem. 98, 3472 (1994)] and of autoionizing Rydbergs of atoms [F. Merkt, J. Chem. Phys. 100, 2623 (1994)], interrogated by time-resolved zero-electron kinetic energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy. We pursue the formal analogy between the level structure, accessibility and decay of very high Rydbergs in an external weak (F≂0.1-1 V cm-1) electric field and intramolecular (interstate and intrastate) relaxation in a bound molecular level structure. The onset n=nM of the strong mixing (in an external field F and in the field exerted by static ions) of a doorway state, which is characterized by a low azimuthal quantum number l, a finite quantum defect δ, and a total nonradiative width Γs≂Γ0/n3, with the inactive high l manifold is specified by nM≂80.6δ1/5(F/V cm-1)-1/5. At n≥nM the level structure and dynamics are characterized by the product γρ, where ρ is the density of states and γ=ΓsD(n) is the average decay width of the eigenstates, with the dilution factor D(n)≊n-2 for (lml) mixing and D(n)≂n-1 for (l) mixing, whereupon γρ=(Γ0/4δR)(nM/n)5, being independent of D(n). The sparse level structure is realized for γρ≪1, while the dense level structure prevails for γρ≳1, resulting in two limiting situations; (a) a dense limit for n≥nM and a sparse limit for n≫nM, and (b) a sparse limit for all n≥nM. The experimental information currently available on the decay dynamics of molecular (DABCO and BBC) and atomic (Ar) Rydbergs for n≥nM corresponds to case (b). The time-resolved dynamics was characterized in terms of the excited state total population probability P(t) and the population probability I(t) of the doorway state. P(t), which is interrogated by time-resolved ZEKE spectroscopy, will exhibit for both the sparse and dense level structures and for all excitation conditions a superposition of exponential temporal decay terms with an average lifetime of ˜ℏ/γ. I(t) can be used to interrogate coherence effects, which in case (b) are manifested in quantum beats, while case (a) corresponds to a giant resonance with a molecular time characterized by the reciprocal energetic spread of the Stark manifold. The experimental data for the onset of strong mixing and for the diluted lifetimes [ℏ/ΓsD(n) with D(n)˜n-1] of the high Rydbergs (n˜100-200) of BBC and of DABCO are in accord with the predictions of the theory for the limit of strong (l) mixing. While strong mixing is realized for F¯=Fn5/3.4×109δ≳1, we expect that for the weak mixing regime (F¯<1) the dynamics of ultrahigh Rydbergs will be characterized by two distinct (˜ns and ˜μs) time scales. Finally, we emphasize the universality of the model, which provides a unified description of the level structure and dynamics of high Rydbergs of molecules and of autoionizing atoms.

  14. A Simple High Performance Beamline for Small Molecule Chemical Crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. C.; Padmore, H. A.; Oliver, A. G.; Teat, S. J.; Celestre, R. S.; Clark, S. M.; Domning, E. E.; Franck, K. D.; Morrison, G. Y.

    2004-05-01

    An innovative beamline for small molecule chemical crystallography has been built at the Advanced Light Source. The system permits the study of crystals as small as 10μm × 10μm × 10μm. The beamline produces a 7-17 keV x-ray beam focused to a 280μm × 90μm spot. A channel-cut Si<111> monochromator and a toroidal mirror are inside the synchrotron shield wall only 7m from the bending magnet source point. The monochromator is cooled with a small Joule-Thomson refrigerator to produce a very small beam motion with different heat loads. The experimental hutch contains a vertically mounted sample goniometer and a CCD detector. An on-axis visual alignment camera allows the small crystals to be accurately centered within the x-ray beam. Examples of the crystal structures solved with this system are given. The beamline is also used for high-pressure powder diffraction experiments using a diamond anvil cell that is mounted on a stage system that can be quickly installed and removed.

  15. High pressure chemistry of red phosphorus by photoactivated simple molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceppatelli, Matteo; Bini, Roberto; Fanetti, Samuele; Caporali, Maria; Peruzzini, Maurizio

    2013-06-01

    High pressure (HP) is very effective in reducing intermolecular distances and inducing unexpected chemical reactions. In particular the photoactivation of the reactants in HP conditions can lead to very efficient and selective processes. The chemistry of phosphorus is currently based on the white molecular form. The red polymeric allotrope, despite more stable and much less toxic, has not attracted much attention so far. However, switching from the white to the red form would benefit any industrial procedure, especially from an environmental point of view. On the other side, water and ethanol are renewable, environmental friendly and largely available molecules, usable as reactants and photoactivators in HP conditions. Here we report a study on the HP photoinduced reactivity of red phosphorus with water and ethanol, showing the possibility of very efficient and selective processes, leading to molecular hydrogen and valuable phosphorus compounds. The reactions have been studied by means of FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and pressure has been generated using DAC and SAC. HP reactivity has been activated by the two-photon absorption of near-UV wavelengths and occured in total absence of solvents, catalysts and radical initiators, at room T and mild pressure conditions (0.2-1.5 GPa).

  16. Information Content of High Harmonics Generated from Aligned Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishna, S.; Seideman, Tamar

    2007-09-01

    We derive an expression for the harmonic signal from nonadiabatically aligned molecules that accounts for both electronic and rotational motions. We identify a single approximation, which converts the expression into a physically transparent and computationally convenient form. Our analytical result gives explicitly the time dependence of the harmonic spectra, thus explaining the observations of a class of recent experiments. Moreover, it points to new opportunities for generating insights into the structure and dynamics of molecular systems through harmonic generation experiments from aligned molecules. This includes information regarding the rotational and electronic dynamics of isolated systems, as well as regarding the decoherence and relaxation in molecules subject to a dissipative environment.

  17. Highly polarized muonic He produced by collisions with laser optically pumped Rb

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, A.S.; Bogorad, P.; Cates, G.D.; Mabuchi, H.; Middleton, H.; Newbury, N.R. ); Holmes, R.; McCracken, J.; Souder, P.A.; Xu, J. ); Tupa, D. )

    1993-02-08

    We have formed highly polarized muonic helium by stopping unpolarized negative muons in a mixture of unpolarized gaseous He and laser polarized Rb vapor. The stopped muons form muonic He ions which are neutralized and polarized by collisions with Rb. Average polarizations for [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He of (26.8[plus minus]2.3)% and (44.2[plus minus]3.5)% were achieved, representing a tenfold increase over previous methods. Relevant cross sections were determined from the time evolution of the polarization. Highly polarized muonic He is valuable for measurements of the induced pseudoscalar coupling [ital g][sub [ital p

  18. Status of High Polarization DC High Voltage GaAs Photoguns

    SciTech Connect

    P. A. Adderley; J. Brittian; J. Clark; J. Grames; J. Hansknecht; J. McCarter; M. Poelker; M. L. Stutzman; R. Suleiman; K. E. L. Surles-Law

    2007-08-01

    This talk will review the state of the art of high polarization GaAs photoguns used worldwide. Subject matter will include drive laser technology, photocathode material, gun design, vacuum requirements and photocathode lifetime as a function of beam current. Recent results have demonstrated high current, 85% polarized beams with high reliability and long lifetime under operational conditions. Research initiatives for ensuring production of high average and peak current beams for future accelerator facilities such as ELIC and the ILC will be also discussed.

  19. High voltage processing of the SLC polarized electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Saez, P.; Clendenin, J.; Garden, C.; Hoyt, E.; Klaisner, L.; Prescott, C.; Schultz, D.; Tang, H.

    1993-04-01

    The SLC polarized electron gun operates at 120 kV with very low dark current to maintain the ultra high vacuum (UHV). This strict requirement protects the extremely sensitive photocathode from contaminants caused by high voltage (HV) activity. Thorough HV processing is thus required x-ray sensitive photographic film, a nanoammeter in series with gun power supply, a radiation meter, a sensitive residual gas analyzer and surface x-ray spectrometry were used to study areas in the gun where HV activity occurred. By reducing the electric field gradients, carefully preparing the HV surfaces and adhering to very strict clean assembly procedures, we found it possible to process the gun so as to reduce both the dark current at operating voltage and the probability of HV discharge. These HV preparation and processing techniques are described.

  20. High thermopower of mechanically stretched single-molecule junctions

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Morikawa, Takanori; He, Yuhui; Arima, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Metal-molecule-metal junction is a promising candidate for thermoelectric applications that utilizes quantum confinement effects in the chemically defined zero-dimensional atomic structure to achieve enhanced dimensionless figure of merit ZT. A key issue in this new class of thermoelectric nanomaterials is to clarify the sensitivity of thermoelectricity on the molecular junction configurations. Here we report simultaneous measurements of the thermoelectric voltage and conductance on Au-1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT)-Au junctions mechanically-stretched in-situ at sub-nanoscale. We obtained the average single-molecule conductance and thermopower of 0.01 G0 and 15 μV/K, respectively, suggesting charge transport through the highest occupied molecular orbital. Meanwhile, we found the single-molecule thermoelectric transport properties extremely-sensitive to the BDT bridge configurations, whereby manifesting the importance to design the electrode-molecule contact motifs for optimizing the thermoelectric performance of molecular junctions. PMID:26112999

  1. Pulse-to-pulse polarization-switching method for high-repetition-rate lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahne, Steffen; Johnston, Benjamin F.; Withford, Michael J.

    2007-02-01

    We report a method that enables dynamic switching of the pulse-to-pulse linear polarization orientation of a high-pulse-rate laser. The implications for laser micromachining, where polarization direction can be important, are also discussed.

  2. High efficiency polyethylene glycol diacrylate monoliths for reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Pankaj; Lawson, John S; Tolley, H Dennis; Lee, Milton L

    2014-10-17

    Highly cross-linked monolithic networks (i.e., polyethylene glycol diacrylate, PEGDA) synthesized from monomers containing varying ethylene oxide chain lengths were fabricated inside fused silica capillary columns for use in liquid chromatography (LC) of small molecules. Tergitol was used as a surfactant porogen in combination with other typical organic liquid porogens. Column performance was correlated with quantitative descriptors of the physical/chemical properties of the monomers and porogens using a statistical model. Solubility and viscosity values of the components were identified as important predictors of monolith morphology and efficiency. The chromatographic retention mechanism was determined to be principally reversed-phase (RP) with additional hydrogen bonding between the polar groups of the analytes and the ethylene oxide groups embedded in the monolith structure. The fabricated monolithic columns were evaluated under RPLC conditions using phenols, hydroxy benzoic acids, and alkyl parabens as test compounds. Isocratic elution of hydroxy benzoic acids at a linear velocity of 0.04 cm/s using a PEGDA-700 monolith gave chromatographic peaks with little tailing (i.e., tailing factor<1.28). The chromatographic efficiency measured for a non-retained compound (uracil) using this column was 186,000 plates/m when corrected for injector dead volume. High resolution gradient separations of selected pharmaceutical compounds and phenylurea herbicides were achieved in less than 18 min. Optimized monoliths synthesized from all four crosslinking monomers exhibited high permeability and demonstrated little swelling or shrinking in different polarity solvents. Column preparation was highly reproducible, with relative standard deviation (RSD) values less than 2.1%, based on retention times of the phenol standards (3 different columns). PMID:25193173

  3. NCTM of liquids at high temperatures using polarization techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, Shankar; Weber, J. K. Richard; Nordine, Paul C.; Schiffman, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    Temperature measurement and control is extremely important in any materials processing application. However, conventional techniques for non-contact temperature measurement (mainly optical pyrometry) are very uncertain because of unknown or varying surface emittance. Optical properties like other properties change during processing. A dynamic, in-situ measurement of optical properties including the emittance is required. Intersonics is developing new technologies using polarized laser light scattering to determine surface emittance of freely radiating bodies concurrent with conventional optical pyrometry. These are sufficient to determine the true surface temperature of the target. Intersonics is currently developing a system called DAPP, the Division of Amplitude Polarimetric Pyrometer, that uses polarization information to measure the true thermodynamic temperature of freely radiating objects. This instrument has potential use in materials processing applications in ground and space based equipment. Results of thermophysical and thermodynamic measurements using laser reflection as a temperature measuring tool are presented. The impact of these techniques on thermophysical property measurements at high temperature is discussed.

  4. Generation of wavelength-tunable soliton molecules in a 2-μm ultrafast all-fiber laser based on nonlinear polarization evolution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Bao, Chengying; Fu, Bo; Xiao, Xiaosheng; Grelu, Philippe; Yang, Changxi

    2016-05-15

    We report on the experimental observation of stable single solitons and soliton molecules in a 2-μm thulium-holmium-doped fiber laser mode-locked through the nonlinear polarization evolution technique within an anomalously dispersive cavity. Single 0.65 nJ solitons feature a 7.3 nm spectral FWHM and 540 fs temporal duration, yielding a time-bandwidth product close to the Fourier-transform limitation. Under the same pumping power of 740 mW, stable out-of-phase twin-soliton molecules, featuring a temporal separation of 2.5 ps between the two ∼700  fs pulses, are generated in a deterministic way, while the central wavelength of the soliton molecules can be tuned from 1920 to 1940 nm. Finally, we present strong experimental evidence of vibrating soliton molecules. PMID:27176976

  5. Anti-Hyperon polarization in high energy pp collisions withpolarized beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ye; Liang, Zuo-tang; Sichtermann, Ernst; Xu, Qing-hua; Zhou, Shan-shan

    2007-11-20

    We study the longitudinal polarization of the {bar {Sigma}}{sup -}, {bar {Sigma}}{sup +}, {bar {Xi}}{sup 0} and {bar {Xi}}{sup +} anti-hyperons in polarized high energy pp collisions at large transverse momenta, extending a recent study for the {bar {Lambda}} antihyperon. We make predictions by using different parameterizations of the polarized parton densities and models for the polarized fragmentation functions. Similar to the {bar {Lambda}} polarization, the {bar {Xi}}{sup 0} and {bar {Xi}}{sup +} polarizations are found to be sensitive to the polarized anti-strange sea, {Delta}{bar s}(x), in the nucleon. The {bar {Sigma}}{sup -} and {bar {Sigma}}{sup +} polarizations show sensitivity to the light sea quark polarizations, {Delta}{bar u}(x) and {Delta}{bar d}(x), and their asymmetry.

  6. Broadband circular polarizer based on high-contrast gratings.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Mehmet; Akosman, Ahmet E; Ozbay, Ekmel

    2012-06-01

    A circular polarizer, which is composed of periodic and two-dimensional dielectric high-contrast gratings, is designed theoretically such that a unity conversion efficiency is achieved at λ(0)=1.55 μm. The operation is obtained by the achievement of the simultaneous unity transmission of transverse magnetic and transverse electric waves with a phase difference of π/2, meaning that an optimized geometrical anisotropy is accomplished. By the utilization of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis and finite-difference time-domain methods, it is shown that a percent bandwidth of ∼50% can be achieved when the operation bandwidth is defined as the wavelengths for which the conversion efficiency exceeds 0.9. PMID:22660132

  7. Topical Developments in High-Field Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Kiesewetter, Matthew K.; Frantz, Derik K.; Walish, Joseph J.; Ravera, Enrico; Luchinat, Claudio; Swager, Timothy M.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    We report our recent efforts directed at improving high-field DNP experiments. We investigated a series of thiourea nitroxide radicals and the associated DNP enhancements ranging from ε = 25 to 82 that demonstrate the impact of molecular structure on performance. We directly polarized low-gamma nuclei including 13C, 2H, and 17O using trityl via the cross effect. We discuss a variety of sample preparation techniques for DNP with emphasis on the benefit of methods that do not use a glass-forming cryoprotecting matrix. Lastly, we describe a corrugated waveguide for use in a 700 MHz / 460 GHz DNP system that improves microwave delivery and increases enhancements up to 50%. PMID:25977588

  8. Dissociation energies of some high temperature molecules containing aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    The Knudsen cell mass spectrometric method has been used to investigate the gaseous molecules Al2, AlSi,AlSiO, AlC2, Al2C2, and AlAuC2. Special attention was given to the experimental considerations and techniques needed to identify and to measure ion intensities for very low abundance molecular species. Second- and third-law procedures were used to obtain reaction enthalpies for pressure calibration independent and isomolecular exchange reactions. Dissociation energies for the molecules were derived from the measured ion intensities, free-energy functions obtained from estimated molecular constants, and auxiliary thermodynamic data. The bonding and stability of these aluminum containing molecules are compared with other similar species.

  9. Highly polarized light emission by isotropic quantum dots integrated with magnetically aligned segmented nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Uran, Can; Erdem, Talha; Guzelturk, Burak; Perkgöz, Nihan Kosku; Jun, Shinae; Jang, Eunjoo; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2014-10-06

    In this work, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept system for generating highly polarized light from colloidal quantum dots (QDs) coupled with magnetically aligned segmented Au/Ni/Au nanowires (NWs). Optical characterizations reveal that the optimized QD-NW coupled structures emit highly polarized light with an s-to p-polarization (s/p) contrast as high as 15:1 corresponding to a degree of polarization of 0.88. These experimental results are supported by the finite-difference time-domain simulations, which demonstrate the interplay between the inter-NW distance and the degree of polarization.

  10. Spectroscopic and dynamical studies of highly energized small polyatomic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.W.; Silbey, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The formyl radical and the acetylene molecule were chosen for these studies. The visible and fluorescence spectra of the formyl radical were recorded, and the spectral results are used as a basis to explain the electronic structure. Optical-optical double resonance studies of acetylene were recorded, and the spectral results are interpreted. The results of Zeeman and Stark anticrossing and quantum beat studies of acetylene are reported, and they provide an unusually detailed view of both Intersystem Crossing and Internal Conversion in small polyatomic molecules. 22 references are cited as resulting from Department of Energy sponsorship of this project.

  11. Dynamic nuclear polarization of high-density atomic hydrogen in solid mixtures of molecular hydrogen isotopes.

    PubMed

    Sheludiakov, S; Ahokas, J; Järvinen, J; Zvezdov, D; Vainio, O; Lehtonen, L; Vasiliev, S; Mao, S; Khmelenko, V V; Lee, D M

    2014-12-31

    We report on magnetic resonance studies of high-density atomic hydrogen and deuterium in solid hydrogen matrices at temperatures below 1 K. Average concentrations of H atoms ≈3×10(19)  cm(-3) are obtained in chemical tunneling reactions of isotope exchange with D atoms. The products of these reactions are closely located pairs of H atoms near D2 molecules with strong exchange interactions. We discovered a dynamic nuclear polarization effect on H atoms created by pumping the center of the H electron spin resonance spectrum, similar to the Overhauser effect in metals. Our results indicate that H atoms may be arranged inside molecular matrices at separations equivalent to local concentrations of 2.6×10(21)  cm(-3). This opens up a way to build a metallic state of atomic hydrogen at zero pressure. PMID:25615349

  12. High-Fidelity, Weak-Light Polarization Gate Using Room-Temperature Atomic Vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, L.; Hagley, E. W.; Li, Runbing; Zhu, Chengjie

    2015-03-01

    Using a polarization-selective-Kerr-phase-shift technique we demonstrate a fast, all-optical, high-fidelity polarization gate in a room-temperature atomic medium. By writing a ?-phase shift to one selected circularly-polarized component of a linearly-polarized input signal field and by equalizing the gain of both circularly-polarized components we can maintain the original strength of the signal field and yet achieve a perfect 90 rotation of its linear polarization, demonstrating a fast, high-fidelity, dynamically-controlled polarization gate operation. The orthogonal linear polarization switching field intensity can be as low as 2 mW/cm2 using a warm rubidium vapor, which is equivalent to a 100-nanosecond pulse containing about 200 photons and confined in a typical commercial photonic hollow-core fiber with a 5-?m mode diameter.

  13. Observations of polar rain at low and high altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. N.; Bame, S. J.; Gosling, J. T.; Gussenhoven, M. S.

    1987-01-01

    Data from the low-altitude DMSP spacecraft were used to compare polar rain electron intensities, energy spectra, and time variations at low altitudes with concurrent bidirectional electron properties in the magnetotail measured by ISEE 3. The DMSP-measured polar rain phase space densities near the polar cap agreed well with the field-aligned magnetotail lobe electron phase space densities above about 200 eV. Below 100-200 eV, a thermal electron population was observed (by ISEE) in the distant tail which is absent at the DMSP altitudes. The results suggest that the suprathermal tail lobe electrons can move freely along field lines to form polar rain, whereas the thermal electrons are bound to the tailward flowing lobe ion population far down the tail and thus cannot reach the polar cap regions.

  14. High-resolution subsurface microscopy of CMOS integrated circuits using radially polarized light.

    PubMed

    Rutkauskas, M; Farrell, C; Dorrer, C; Marshall, K L; Lundquist, T R; Vedagarbha, P; Reid, D T

    2015-12-01

    Under high numerical aperture (NA) conditions, a linearly polarized plane wave focuses to a spot that is extended along the E-field vector, but radially polarized light is predicted to form a circular spot whose diameter equals the narrower dimension obtained with linear polarization. This effect provides an opportunity for improved resolution in high-NA microscopy, and here we present a performance study of subsurface two-photon optical-beam-induced current solid-immersion-lens microscopy of a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor integrated circuit, showing a resolution improvement by using radially polarized illumination. By comparing images of the same structural features we show that radial polarization achieves a resolution of 126 nm, while linear polarization achieves resolutions of 122 and 165 nm, depending on the E-field orientation. These results are consistent with the theoretically expected behavior and are supported by high-resolution images which show superior feature definition using radial polarization. PMID:26625036

  15. Submillimeterwave Spectroscopy of Highly Astrophysical Interest Molecule: Hydroxyacetonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margules, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2013-06-01

    Hydroxyacetonitrile is a simple derivative of methanol. This molecule has a strong astrophysical interest. In astrophysical environment, the formation of hydroxyacetonitrile (HOCH_2CN), has been shown to compete with aminomethanol (NH_2CH_2OH), a glycine precursor, through the Strecker synthesis, in addition its photochemistry leads to the formation of formylcyanide (CHOCN), ketenimine (CH_2CNH), formaldehyde (CH_2O), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), carbon monoxyde (CO). Its detection in the ISM will provide crucial hints in the formation process of complex organic molecules. The lack of data about this molecule, only studied up to 50 GHz, is mainly due to two reasons. First, this is not commercially available, the synthesis should be perform. Second, the most stable conformer is the gauche one. This exhibits large amplitude motion due to the two equivalent configurations possible. Due to tunneling effect, each level is split into 0^+ and 0^- substates. This makes the analysis of the spectra delicate. We will report here the very first results obtained. This work was supported by the CNES and the Action sur Projets de l'INSU, PCMI. Danger, G. et al.ApJ {756}, (2012) 11 Danger, G. et al.A&A {549}, (2012) A93 Cazzoli, G. et al.J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 2 {69}, (1973) 569

  16. Calamitic Smectic A-Polar Smectic APA Transition Observed in Bent Molecules with Large Bent-Angle Central Core of 4,6-Dichlorobenzene and Alkylthio Terminal Tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ha; Kang, Sungmin; Tokita, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Junji

    2011-07-01

    New homologs of bent molecules with a large bent-angle central core of 4,6-dichloro benzene and an alkylthio terminal tail have been synthesized. Although the corresponding alkoxy-tail homologs show only the calamitic phases because of its large bent angles around 160°, the new homologs with an alkylthio tail exhibit the antiferroelectric smectic APA (SmAPA) banana phase that is transformed on cooling from the calamitic smectic A (SmA) phase. The biaxial polar packing of bent molecules in the SmAPA phase is considered to arise from the hindered rotation around the molecular long axis due to the expansion of the mesophase temperatures to a lower temperature region. This study indicates that the bent molecules, even with a large bent angle, have the potential to form a switchable banana phase with a remarkable decrease in its phase temperature range to around 60 °C.

  17. Development of high-speed polarizing imaging system for operation in high pulsed magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Katakura, I; Tokunaga, M; Matsuo, A; Kawaguchi, K; Kindo, K; Hitomi, M; Akahoshi, D; Kuwahara, H

    2010-04-01

    A high-speed polarizing microscope system combined with a 37 T pulse magnet has been developed. This system was applied to successfully visualize the field-induced collapse of charge-orbital ordering in a layered manganite La(1/2)Sr(3/2)MnO(4). Quantitative analyses of the obtained polarizing microscope images provided clear evidence of this transition in contrast to rather moderate changes in magnetization and magnetoresistance. The ability of this system to carry out quantitative analysis was further tested through the observation of Faraday rotation in a Tb(3)Ga(5)O(12) crystal. The Verdet constant determined from the polarizing images is in reasonable agreement with that in literature. Local intensity analyses of the images indicate that we can investigate magneto-optical signals within an accuracy of 0.85% in an area of 9.6 x 9.6 microm(2). PMID:20441339

  18. Development of high-speed polarizing imaging system for operation in high pulsed magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katakura, I.; Tokunaga, M.; Matsuo, A.; Kawaguchi, K.; Kindo, K.; Hitomi, M.; Akahoshi, D.; Kuwahara, H.

    2010-04-01

    A high-speed polarizing microscope system combined with a 37 T pulse magnet has been developed. This system was applied to successfully visualize the field-induced collapse of charge-orbital ordering in a layered manganite La1/2Sr3/2MnO4. Quantitative analyses of the obtained polarizing microscope images provided clear evidence of this transition in contrast to rather moderate changes in magnetization and magnetoresistance. The ability of this system to carry out quantitative analysis was further tested through the observation of Faraday rotation in a Tb3Ga5O12 crystal. The Verdet constant determined from the polarizing images is in reasonable agreement with that in literature. Local intensity analyses of the images indicate that we can investigate magneto-optical signals within an accuracy of 0.85% in an area of 9.6×9.6 μm2.

  19. Enhancing the intestinal absorption of molecules containing the polar guanidino functionality: a double-targeted prodrug approach.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Dahan, Arik; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-01-28

    A prodrug strategy was applied to guanidino-containing analogues to increase oral absorption via hPEPT1 and hVACVase. l-Valine, l-isoleucine, and l-phenylalanine esters of [3-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl]guanidine (3-HPG) were synthesized and evaluated for transport and activation. In HeLa/hPEPT1 cells, Val-3-HPG and Ile-3-HPG exhibited high affinity to hPEPT1 (IC(50): 0.65 and 0.63 mM, respectively), and all three l-amino acid esters showed higher uptake (2.6- to 9-fold) than the parent compound 3-HPG. Val-3-HPG and Ile-3-HPG demonstrated remarkable Caco-2 permeability enhancement, and Val-3-HPG exhibited comparable permeability to valacyclovir. In rat perfusion studies, Val-3-HPG and Ile-3-HPG permeabilities were significantly higher than 3-HPG and exceeded/matched the high-permeability standard metoprolol, respectively. All the l-amino acid 3-HPG esters were effectively activated in HeLa and Caco-2 cell homogenates and were found to be good substrates of hVACVase (k(cat)/K(m) in mM(-1) x s(-1): Val-3-HPG, 3370; Ile-3-HPG, 1580; Phe-3-HPG, 1660). In conclusion, a prodrug strategy is effective at increasing the intestinal permeability of polar guanidino analogues via targeting hPEPT1 for transport and hVACVase for activation. PMID:19957998

  20. Polarization Transfer in Proton Compton Scattering at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, D.J.; Annand, J.R.M.; Mamyan, V.H.; Aniol, K.A.; Margaziotis, D.J.; Bertin, P.Y.; Camsonne, A.; Laveissiere, G.; Bosted, P.; Paschke, K.; Calarco, J.R.; Chang, G.C.; Horn, T.; Savvinov, N.; Chang, T.-H.; Danagoulian, A.; Nathan, A.M.; Roedelbronn, M.; Chen, J.-P.

    2005-06-24

    Compton scattering from the proton was investigated at s=6.9 GeV{sup 2} and t=-4.0 GeV{sup 2} via polarization transfer from circularly polarized incident photons. The longitudinal and transverse components of the recoil proton polarization were measured. The results are in disagreement with a prediction of perturbative QCD based on a two-gluon exchange mechanism, but agree well with a prediction based on a reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton.

  1. High-power-laser chemistry of adsorbed molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, Alexander P.; Varakin, Vladimir N.; Kabanov, S. P.

    1996-06-01

    Laser-induced desorption, dissociation and ionization of dimethylcadmium (DMCd) molecules adsorbed on various substrates have been studied using laser desorption mass spectrometry. These processes are controlled by resonant multiphoton absorption of UV radiation in adsorbate as well as photoelectronic or thermal excitation of substrates. Resonance-enhanced processes in DMCd physisorbed multilayers initiated by KrF laser have been examined. Attempts to realize a purely thermal desorption of this adsorbate due to heating of various substrates by lasers on XeCl, YAG:Nd3+, and CO2 have been undertaken.

  2. Spectroscopic and dynamical studies of highly energized small polyatomic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.W.; Silbey, R.J.

    1993-12-01

    The authors have initiated a program to perform spectroscopic and dynamic studies of small molecules. Large amplitude motions in excited acetylene were discussed along with plans to record the dispersed fluorescence (DF) and the stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectra. SEP spectra were reported for the formyl radical. A Fourier transform spectrometer was discussed with respect to its ability to probe the structure of radicals. This instrument is capable of performing studies using various techniques such as magnetic rotation spectroscopy and sub-Doppler sideband-OODR Zeman (SOODRZ) spectroscopy.

  3. Polar Kerr effect in high temperature cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewari, Sumanta; Sharma, Girish; Goswami, Pallab; Yakovenko, Victor; Chakravarty, Sudip

    A mechanism is proposed for the tantalizing evidence of polar Kerr effect in a class of high temperature superconductors-the signs of the Kerr angle from two opposite faces of the same sample are identical and magnetic field training is non-existent. The mechanism does not break global time reversal symmetry, as in an antiferromagnet, and results in zero Faraday effect. It is best understood in a phenomenological model of bilayer cuprates, such as YBCO, in which intra-bilayer tunneling nucleates a chiral d-density wave such that the individual layers have opposite chirality. Although the presentation is specific to the chiral d-density wave, the mechanism may be more general to any quasi-two-dimensional orbital antiferromagnet in which time reversal symmetry is broken in each plane, but not when averaged macroscopically. St and GS supported by AFOSR (FA9550-13-1-0045), PG supported by JQI-NSF-PFC, SC supported by NSF-DMR-1004520.

  4. Highly anisotropic metasurface: a polarized beam splitter and hologram

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jun; Ye, Zhi-Cheng; Sun, Nan-Ling; Zhang, Rui; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Shieh, Han-Ping D.; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional metasurface structures have recently been proposed to reduce the challenges of fabrication of traditional plasmonic metamaterials. However, complex designs and sophisticated fabrication procedures are still required. Here, we present a unique one-dimensional (1-D) metasurface based on bilayered metallic nanowire gratings, which behaves as an ideal polarized beam splitter, producing strong negative reflection for transverse-magnetic (TM) light and efficient reflection for transverse-electric (TE) light. The large anisotropy resulting from this TE-metal-like/TM-dielectric-like feature can be explained by the dispersion curve based on the Bloch theory of periodic metal-insulator-metal waveguides. The results indicate that this photon manipulation mechanism is fundamentally different from those previously proposed for 2-D or 3-D metastructures. Based on this new material platform, a novel form of metasurface holography is proposed and demonstrated, in which an image can only be reconstructed by using a TM light beam. By reducing the metamaterial structures to 1-D, our metasurface beam splitter exhibits the qualities of cost-efficient fabrication, robust performance, and high tunability, in addition to its applicability over a wide range of working wavelengths and incident angles. This development paves a foundation for metasurface structure designs towards practical metamaterial applications. PMID:25262791

  5. High deuteron polarization in trityl radical doped deuterated polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Berlin, A.; Doshita, N.; Herick, J.; Hess, C.; Iwata, T.; Kondo, K.; Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G.

    2013-11-01

    Deuterated polystyrene for polarized solid targets has been prepared by chemical doping with the trityl radical ‘Finland D36’ (AH 110 355 deutero acid form). Thin foils doped with various radical densities have been produced using tetrahydrofuran as solvent. Dynamic nuclear polarization technique has been applied to polarize deuterons in the samples (98%-D) at the temperature range of about 1 K and magnetic fields of 2.5 T and 5.0 T. A maximum deuteron polarization of -61.5% with a build-up time of 100 min has been achieved at 5.0 T and about 500 mK at a radical density of 1.16×1019 spins/g.

  6. High-Order Interference Effect Introduced by Polarization Mode Coupling in Polarization-Maintaining Fiber and Its Identification.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuang; Yang, Jun; Yu, Zhangjun; Yuan, Yonggui; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wu, Bing; Peng, Feng; Yuan, Libo

    2016-01-01

    The high-order interference (HOI)-The interferogram introduced by polarization mode couplings (PMC) of multiple perturbations-Will cause misjudgment of the realistic coupling points in polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF) which is tested with a white light interferometer (WLI) with large dynamic range. We present an optical path tracking (OPT) method for simplifying the analysis of HOI, and demonstrate the enhancement and suppression conditions for the HOIs. A strategy is proposed to readily identify HOI by altering the spliced angle between polarizers' pigtails and the PMF under test. Moreover, a PMF experiment with two perturbation points, for simplicity, is given as an example. As a result, all the characteristic interferograms including HOIs can be distinguished through just four measurements. Utilizing this identification method, we can estimate the realistic coupling points in PMFs and distinguish them from the interference signals including numerous HOIs. PMID:27011191

  7. High-power, efficient and azimuthally polarized ytterbium-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Zou, Lin; Yao, Yao; Li, Jianlang

    2015-01-15

    An ytterbium-doped fiber laser was demonstrated to emit azimuthally polarized light with high laser power and efficiency, in which a birefringent yttrium vanadate (YVO(4)) crystal was used as the intracavity polarization discriminator. The laser power reached 3.94 W with a slope efficiency of ∼71%. Our study proved that an efficient, high-power vector fiber laser would be realistic under the utilization of a simple and low-cost birefringent crystal as polarization discriminator. PMID:25679851

  8. Statistical properties of polarized radio sources at high frequency and their impact on cosmic microwave background polarization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battye, R. A.; Browne, I. W. A.; Peel, M. W.; Jackson, N. J.; Dickinson, C.

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the implications of high-sensitivity polarization measurements of objects from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) point source catalogue made using the Very Large Array (VLA) at 8.4, 22 and 43 GHz. The fractional polarization of sources is almost independent of frequency with a median of ≈2 per cent and an average, for detected sources, of ≈3.5 per cent. These values are also independent of the total intensity over the narrow range of intensity we sample. Using a contemporaneous sample of 105 sources detected at all three VLA frequencies, we have investigated the spectral behaviour as a function of frequency by means of a two-colour diagram. Most sources have power-law spectra in total intensity, as expected. On the other hand, they appear to be almost randomly distributed in the polarized intensity two-colour diagram. This is compatible with the polarized spectra being much less smooth than those in intensity and we speculate on the physical origins of this. We have performed an analysis of the correlations between the fractional polarization and spectral indices including computation of the principal components. We find that there is little correlation between the fractional polarization and the intensity spectral indices. This is also the case when we include polarization measurements at 1.4 GHz from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS). In addition we compute 45 rotation measures from polarization position angles which are compatible with a λ2 law. We use our results to predict the level of point source confusion noise that contaminates cosmic microwave background polarization measurements aimed at detecting primordial gravitational waves from inflation. We conclude that some level of source subtraction will be necessary to detect r˜ 0.1 below 100 GHz and at all frequencies to detect r˜ 0.01. We present estimates of the level of contamination expected and the number of sources which need to be subtracted as a function of the imposed cut flux density and frequency.

  9. High-Throughput Single-Molecule Studies of Protein-DNA Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Robison, Aaron D.; Finkelstein, Ilya J.

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence and force-based single-molecule studies of protein-nucleic acid interactions continue to shed critical insights into many aspects of DNA and RNA processing. As single-molecule assays are inherently low-throughput, obtaining statistically relevant datasets remains a major challenge. Additionally, most fluorescence-based single-molecule particle-tracking assays are limited to observing fluorescent proteins that are in the low-nanomolar range, as spurious background signals predominate at higher fluorophore concentrations. These technical limitations have traditionally limited the types of questions that could be addressed via single-molecule methods. In this review, we describe new approaches for high-throughput and high-concentration single-molecule biochemical studies. We conclude with a discussion of outstanding challenges for the single-molecule biologist and how these challenges can be tackled to further approach the biochemical complexity of the cell. PMID:24859086

  10. Polarization effects in low-energy electron scattering from silane molecules in an exact static-exchange model

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, A. )

    1991-07-01

    We have investigated the effects of various model polarization potentials in low-energy (below 15 eV) electron-SiH{sub 4} collisions in which electron-exchange correlation is treated exactly via an iterative procedure. Two models of the parameter-free polarization potential are employed; one, the {ital V}{sub pol}{sup JT} potential, introduced by Jain and Thompson (J. Phys. B 15, L631 (1982)), is based on the polarized-orbital theory; the other, the correlation-polarization potential {ital V}{sub pol}{sup CP}, first proposed by O'Connel and Lane (Phys. Rev. A 27, 1893 (1983)), is given as a density functional. In this low-energy region, the differential as well as integral cross sections are greatly influenced by such short-range-correlation and long-range-polarization interactions. We found that a local parameter-free model to mimic charge-distortion effects is quite successful if it is determined under the polarized-orbital-type approach rather than based on density-functional theory.

  11. Manipulation of dielectric Rayleigh particles using highly focused elliptically polarized vector fields.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bing; Xu, Danfeng; Rui, Guanghao; Lian, Meng; Cui, Yiping; Zhan, Qiwen

    2015-09-20

    Generation of vectorial optical fields with arbitrary polarization distribution is of great interest in areas where exotic optical fields are desired. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate the versatile generation of linearly polarized vector fields, elliptically polarized vector fields, and circularly polarized vortex beams through introducing attenuators in a common-path interferometer. By means of Richards-Wolf vectorial diffraction method, the characteristics of the highly focused elliptically polarized vector fields are studied. The optical force and torque on a dielectric Rayleigh particle produced by these tightly focused vector fields are calculated and exploited for the stable trapping of dielectric Rayleigh particles. It is shown that the additional degree of freedom provided by the elliptically polarized vector field allows one to control the spatial structure of polarization, to engineer the focusing field, and to tailor the optical force and torque on a dielectric Rayleigh particle. PMID:26406514

  12. Highly excited Rydberg electron as a spectator to an ion-molecule reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuzawa, Michio

    2010-11-15

    We have theoretically studied the conditions of the behavior of a high Rydberg electron as a spectator to an ion-molecule reaction in high Rydberg neutral collisions. Adoption of a circular high Rydberg atom in the initial channel of the high Rydberg neutral collisions ensures the behavior of the high Rydberg electron as the spectator to interaction between an ion core of the high Rydberg atom and an incoming neutral species; i.e., the ion-molecule reaction. This theoretical consideration leads to equivalence between the high Rydberg neutral collision and the ion-molecule reaction with high accuracy. This equivalence gives us a possibility of probing the ion-molecule reaction at low energies without space-charge effects encountered in ion-beam experiments.

  13. Highly stable polarization independent Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Mičuda, Michal Doláková, Ester; Straka, Ivo; Miková, Martina; Dušek, Miloslav; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Ježek, Miroslav

    2014-08-15

    We experimentally demonstrate optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer utilizing displaced Sagnac configuration to enhance its phase stability. The interferometer with footprint of 27×40 cm offers individually accessible paths and shows phase deviation less than 0.4° during a 250 s long measurement. The phase drift, evaluated by means of Allan deviation, stays below 3° or 7 nm for 1.5 h without any active stabilization. The polarization insensitive design is verified by measuring interference visibility as a function of input polarization. For both interferometer's output ports and all tested polarization states the visibility stays above 93%. The discrepancy in visibility for horizontal and vertical polarization about 3.5% is caused mainly by undesired polarization dependence of splitting ratio of the beam splitter used. The presented interferometer device is suitable for quantum-information and other sensitive applications where active stabilization is complicated and common-mode interferometer is not an option as both the interferometer arms have to be accessible individually.

  14. Highly stable polarization independent Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    PubMed

    Mičuda, Michal; Doláková, Ester; Straka, Ivo; Miková, Martina; Dušek, Miloslav; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Ježek, Miroslav

    2014-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrate optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer utilizing displaced Sagnac configuration to enhance its phase stability. The interferometer with footprint of 27×40 cm offers individually accessible paths and shows phase deviation less than 0.4° during a 250 s long measurement. The phase drift, evaluated by means of Allan deviation, stays below 3° or 7 nm for 1.5 h without any active stabilization. The polarization insensitive design is verified by measuring interference visibility as a function of input polarization. For both interferometer's output ports and all tested polarization states the visibility stays above 93%. The discrepancy in visibility for horizontal and vertical polarization about 3.5% is caused mainly by undesired polarization dependence of splitting ratio of the beam splitter used. The presented interferometer device is suitable for quantum-information and other sensitive applications where active stabilization is complicated and common-mode interferometer is not an option as both the interferometer arms have to be accessible individually. PMID:25173242

  15. Dual-band high-efficiency polarization converter using an anisotropic metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Baoqin; Wang, Buhong; Meng, Wen; Da, Xinyu; Li, Wei; Fang, Yingwu; Zhu, Zihang

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a dual-band and high-efficiency reflective cross-polarization converter based on an anisotropic metasurface for linearly polarized electromagnetic waves is proposed. Its unit cell is composed of an elliptical disk-ring mounted on grounded dielectric substrate, which is an anisotropic structure with a pair of mutually perpendicular symmetric axes u and v along ± 45 ° directions with respect to y-axis direction. Both the simulation and measured results show that the polarization converter can convert x- or y-polarized incident wave to its cross polarized wave in the two frequency bands (6.99-9.18 GHz, 11.66-20.40 GHz) with the conversion efficiency higher than 90%; moreover, the higher frequency band is an ultra-wide one with a relative bandwidth of 54.5% for multiple plasmon resonances. In addition, we present a detailed analysis for the polarization conversion of the polarization converter, and derive a formula to calculate the cross- and co-polarization reflections at y-polarized incidence according to the phase differences between the two reflected coefficients at u-polarized and v-polarized incidences. The simulated, calculated, and measured results are all in agreement with the entire frequency regions.

  16. Intrinsic Differences in the Inner Jets of High and Low Optically Polarized Radio Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lister, M.; Smith, P.

    2000-01-01

    We have conducted a high-resolution polarization study with the VLBA at 22 and 43 GHz to look for differences in the parsec-scale magnetic field structures of 18 high- and low-optically polarized, compact radio-loud quasars (HPQs and LPRQs, respectively).

  17. Polarization effects in a highly birefringent nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with two-zero dispersion wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Chick, Brendan J; Chon, James W M; Gu, Min

    2008-11-24

    A theoretical and experimental study is presented on polarized pulsed propagation from a highly birefringent nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with two-zero dispersion wavelengths. Experimental observations show that the input polarization state can maintain its linearity and that the fiber birefringence creates different spectral properties dependent on the input polarization orientation. The most extensive spectra are obtained for a coupling polarization angles aligned with the fast and slow axis, which is created by the high-order dispersion and Kerr nonlinearity. PMID:19030095

  18. High Energy Proton Ejection from Hydrocarbon Molecules Driven by Highly Efficient Field Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roither, S.; Xie, X.; Kartashov, D.; Zhang, L.; Schöffler, M.; Xu, H.; Iwasaki, A.; Okino, T.; Yamanouchi, K.; Baltuška, A.; Kitzler, M.

    We report on the ejection of protons with surprisingly high kinetic energies up to 60 eV from a series of polyatomic hydrocarbon molecules exposed to Titanium-Sapphire laser pulses with moderate laser peak intensities of a few 1014 W/cm2. Using multi-particle coincidence imaging we are able to decompose the observed proton energy spectra into the contributions of individual fragmentation channels. It is shown that the molecules can completely fragment into bare atomic ions already at relatively low peak intensities, and that the protons are ejected in a concerted Coulomb explosion from unexpectedly high charge states. We propose that a thus far undescribed process, namely that enhanced ionization (EI) taking place at all C-H bonds in parallel, is responsible for the high charge states and high proton energies. The proposition is successfully tested by using (stretched) few-cycle pulses with a bandwidth limited duration as short as 4.3 fs, for which the C-H nuclear motion is too slow to reach the critical internuclear distance for EI.

  19. Superior adsorption of pharmaceutical molecules by highly porous BN nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Lei, Weiwei; Qin, Si; Klika, Karel D; Chen, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Highly porous boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) were tested as a re-usable adsorbent for the removal of pharmaceuticals from aqueous solution. The BNNSs exhibit both unprecedentedly high adsorption capacities and excellent recyclability while maintaining their high adsorption capacity by a simple regeneration process. These advantages render BNNSs a promising material for water remediation applications. PMID:26618906

  20. Transient nonlinear dielectric relaxation and dynamic Kerr effect from sudden changes of a strong dc electric field: polar and polarizable molecules.

    PubMed

    Déjardin, J L; Déjardin, P M; Kalmykov, Y P; Titov, S V

    1999-08-01

    The nonlinear transient response of polar and polarizable particles (macromolecules) diluted in a nonpolar solvent to a sudden change both in magnitude and in direction of a strong external dc field is considered. By averaging the underlying Langevin equation, the infinite hierarchy of differential-recurrence equations for ensemble averages of the spherical harmonics is derived for an assembly of polar and anisotropically polarizable molecules pertaining to the noninertial rotational Brownian motion. On solving this hierarchy, the relaxation functions and relaxation times appropriate to the transient dynamic Kerr effect and nonlinear dielectric relaxation are calculated. The calculations are accomplished using the matrix continued fraction method, which allows us to express exactly the solution of the infinite hierarchy of differential-recurrence relations for the first- and second-order transient responses of the ensemble averages of the spherical harmonics (relaxation functions). The results are then compared with available experimental data and solutions previously obtained for various particular cases. PMID:11969906

  1. Investigation of parameter-free model polarization potentials for electron-molecule scattering calculations including the nuclear motion

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, M.A.; Saha, B.C.

    1986-10-01

    A correlation-polarization potential originally introduced by O'Connell and Lane (Phys. Rev. A 27, 1893 (1983)) is used in e-H/sub 2/ scattering calculations in which the vibrational motion of the target is taken into account. Eigenphase sums (as a function of internuclear separation) and cross sections for elastic scattering and for rovibrational excitations are compared to their counterparts calculated using the ab initio nonadiabatic model polarization potential of Gibson and Morrison (Phys. Rev. A 29, 2497 (1984)). At low energies, these scattering quantities are found to be quite sensitive to the treatment of polarization. To assess these model potentials, theoretical total, momentum transfer, and rotational- and vibrational-excitation cross sections are compared to experimental data.

  2. Investigation of parameter-free model polarization potentials for electron-molecule scattering calculations including the nuclear motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Michael A.; Saha, Bidhan C.

    1986-10-01

    A correlation-polarization potential originally introduced by O'Connell and Lane [Phys. Rev. A 27, 1893 (1983)] is used in e-H2 scattering calculations in which the vibrational motion of the target is taken into account. Eigenphase sums (as a function of internuclear separation) and cross sections for elastic scattering and for rovibrational excitations are compared to their counterparts calculated using the ab initio nonadiabatic model polarization potential of Gibson and Morrison [Phys. Rev. A 29, 2497 (1984)]. At low energies, these scattering quantities are found to be quite sensitive to the treatment of polarization. To assess these model potentials, theoretical total, momentum transfer, and rotational- and vibrational-excitation cross sections are compared to experimental data.

  3. A high extinction ratio THz polarizer fabricated by double-bilayer wire grid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bin; Wang, Haitao; Shen, Jun; Yang, Jun; Mao, Hongyan; Xia, Liangping; Zhang, Weiguo; Wang, Guodong; Peng, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Deqiang

    2016-02-01

    We designed a new style of broadband terahertz (THz) polarizer with double-bilayer wire grid structure by fabricating them on both sides of silicon substrate. This THz polarizer shows a high average extinction ratio of 60dB in 0.5 to 2.0 THz frequency range and the maximum of 87 dB at 1.06 THz, which is much higher than that of conventional monolayer wire grid polarizers and single-bilayer wire grid ones.

  4. Experimental study of polarization properties of highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Ritari, Tuomo; Ludvigsen, H; Wegmuller, M; Legré, M; Gisin, N; Folkenberg, J; Nielsen, M

    2004-11-29

    We analyze experimentally the polarization properties of highly nonlinear small-core photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with no intentional birefringence. The properties of recently emerged polarization maintaining PANDA PCFs are also investigated. The wavelength and temperature dependence of phase and group delay of these fibers are examined in the telecommunications wavelength range. Compared to a standard PANDA fiber, the polarization characteristics and temperature dependence are found to be qualitatively different for both types of fibers. PMID:19488234

  5. Fusion with highly spin polarized HD and D sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, A.

    1992-06-29

    This report discusses the following topics relating to inertial confinement with spin polarized hydrogen targets: low temperature implementation of mating a target to omega; dilution-refrigerator cold-entry and retrieval system; target shell tensile strength characterization at low temperatures; and proton and deuteron spin-lattice relaxation measurements in HD in the millikelvin temperature range. (LSP)

  6. Vibrational energy storage in high pressure mixtures of diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plnjes, Elke; Palm, Peter; Lee, Wonchul; Chidley, Matthew D.; Adamovich, Igor V.; Lempert, Walter R.; Rich, J. William

    2000-10-01

    CO/N 2, CO/Ar/O 2, and CO/N 2/O 2 gas mixtures are optically pumped using a continuous wave CO laser. Carbon monoxide molecules absorb the laser radiation and transfer energy to nitrogen and oxygen by vibration-vibration energy exchange. Infrared emission and spontaneous Raman spectroscopy are used for diagnostics of optically pumped gases. The experiments demonstrate that strong vibrational disequilibrium can be sustained in diatomic gas mixtures at pressures up to 1 atm, with only a few Watts laser power available. At these conditions, measured first level vibrational temperatures of diatomic species are in the range TV=1900-2300 K for N 2, TV=2600-3800 K for CO, and TV=2200-2800 K for O 2. The translational-rotational temperature of the gases does not exceed T=700 K. Line-of-sight averaged CO vibrational level populations up to v=40 are inferred from infrared emission spectra. Vibrational level populations of CO ( v=0-8), N 2 ( v=0-4), and O 2 ( v=0-8) near the axis of the focused CO laser beam are inferred from the Raman spectra of these species. The results demonstrate a possibility of sustaining stable nonequilibrium plasmas in atmospheric pressure air seeded with a few percent of carbon monoxide. The obtained experimental data are compared with modeling calculations that incorporate both major processes of molecular energy transfer and diffusion of vibrationally excited species across the spatially nonuniform excitation region, showing reasonably good agreement.

  7. Quantum coherent π-electron rotations in a non-planar chiral molecule induced by using a linearly polarized UV laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineo, Hirobumi; Fujimura, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    We propose an ultrafast quantum switching method of π-electron rotations, which are switched among four rotational patterns in a nonplanar chiral aromatic molecule (P)-2,2’- biphenol and perform the sequential switching among four rotational patterns which are performed by the overlapped pump-dump laser pulses. Coherent π-electron dynamics are generated by applying the linearly polarized UV pulse laser to create a pair of coherent quasidegenerated excited states. We also plot the time-dependent π-electron ring current, and discussed ring current transfer between two aromatic rings.

  8. Benchmarking Ground-State Geometries and Vertical Excitation Energies of a Selection of P-Type Semiconducting Molecules with Different Polarity.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Charlotte; Engels, Bernd

    2015-12-24

    A benchmark of TD-DFT, wave function-based and semiempiric methods was performed for the geometries and excitation energies of diverse molecular organic semiconductors with varying polarity. Geometries were benchmarked by means of RMSD (root-mean-square deviation) values and MAE (maximum absolute error) values of geometric parameters specific for the electronic structure of the respective molecule. MS-CASPT2 calculations were used to benchmark excitation energies with respect to a confidence interval around the values obtained with CASPT2. The effect of spin-component scaling (SCS) on several wave function-based methods was thoroughly evaluated. PMID:26625100

  9. High energy sources and materials: High-temperature molecules and molecular energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltner, W., Jr.

    1980-10-01

    The objective of this research was the characterization of molecular species which are important because of (a) their occurrence in high-temperature environments, as for example in the vapor over refractory solids, and in combustion, flames, and propellant burning; (b) their relevance to clarification and/or extension of the basic theory of molecular properties. The molecules studied were usually highly reactive or metastable and often inaccessible by the usual gas-phase spectroscopic methods. They were therefore trapped in a solid matrix, usually neon or orgon, at 4 K and investigated by optical and electron-spin-resonance (ESR) spectroscopies. This isolation procedure is known to produce only small perturbations and to yield information pertinent to the gas-phase species. The species studied included boron and bromine atoms, methylene radicals, diatomic boron, beryllium hydroxide, diatomic chlorine anion, carbonyl silene, diazasilene, the first-row transition-metal mono, di, and trifluorides and their corresponding hydrides and oxides, and a few rare-earth hydrides and fluorides. Vibrational frequencies, electronic transitions, g factors, spin-rotation constants, hyperfine coupling constants, zero-field-splittings, ground-state multiplicities, and perhaps some information about structure, were obtained. The molecules contained from one to seven unpaired electrons.

  10. Towards understanding hydrophobic recovery of plasma treated polymers: Storing in high polarity liquids suppresses hydrophobic recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormashenko, Edward; Chaniel, Gilad; Grynyov, Roman

    2013-05-01

    The phenomenon of hydrophobic recovery was studied for cold air plasma treated polyethylene films. Plasma-treated polymer films were immersed into liquids with very different polarities such as ethanol, acetone, carbon tetrachloride, benzene and carbon disulphide. Hydrophobic recovery was studied by measurement of contact angles. Immersion into high polarity liquids slows markedly the hydrophobic recovery. We relate this slowing to dipole-dipole interaction of polar groups of the polymer with those of the liquids. This kind of interaction becomes decisive when polar groups of polymer chains are at least partially spatially fixed.

  11. Development of the ZJU polarized near-infrared high spectral resolution lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Yang, Yongying; Cheng, Zhongtao; Huang, Hanlu; Zhang, Bo; Shen, Yibing

    2013-09-01

    Quantitative measurements of atmospheric aerosol optical properties are required for studies of the Earth's radiation budget and climate change. Taking advantage of the broad spectrum of the Cabannes-Brillouin scattering from atmospheric molecules, the high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) technique employs a narrow spectral filter to reject the aerosol Mie scattering component in the lidar return signals. Therefore, an HSRL can directly measure the extinction and backscatter coefficient as well as the lidar ratio. Since the backscattering signal is proportional to 1/λ4, it presents high requirements for the spectral filter to build a near-infrared HSRL. The atomic/molecular absorption filters are limited by the wavelength and it is also challenging for Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPI) due to their small field of view(FOV). The field-widened Michelson interferometer, which has a large FOV, is considered to be a good candidate for the spectral filter of near-infrared HSRL. A polarized near-infrared HSRL instrument, which employs a field-widened Michelson interferometer as the spectral filter, is under development at the Zhejiang University (ZJU), China. In this paper, the methodology and design process of the instrument will be described in detail. The capability of the HSRL in determining the properties of the atmosphere will be addressed. The retrieval of the aerosol optical properties, such as extinction-to-backscatter ratio and aerosol depolarization ratio, will be presented. Sensitivity of the aerosol retrieval to errors in characterizing the spectral filter will also be investigated.

  12. High-resolution observations of the polar magnetic fields of the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, H.; Varsik, J.; Zirin, H.

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution magnetograms of the solar polar region were used for the study of the polar magnetic field. In contrast to low-resolution magnetograph observations which measure the polar magnetic field averaged over a large area, we focused our efforts on the properties of the small magnetic elements in the polar region. Evolution of the filling factor (the ratio of the area occupied by the magnetic elements to the total area) of these magnetic elements, as well as the average magnetic field strength, were studied during the maximum and declining phase of solar cycle 22, from early 1991 to mid-1993. We found that during the sunspot maximum period, the polar regions were occupied by about equal numbers of positive and negative magnetic elements, with equal average field strength. As the solar cycle progresses toward sunspot minimum, the magnetic field elements in the polar region become predominantly of one polarity. The average magnetic field of the dominant polarity elements also increases with the filling factor. In the meanwhile, both the filling factor and the average field strength of the non-dominant polarity elements decrease. The combined effects of the changing filling factors and average field strength produce the observed evolution of the integrated polar flux over the solar cycle. We compared the evolutionary histories of both filling factor and average field strength, for regions of high (70-80 deg) and low (60-70 deg) latitudes. For the south pole, we found no significant evidence of difference in the time of reversal. However, the low-latitude region of the north pole did reverse polarity much earlier than the high-latitude region. It later showed an oscillatory behavior. We suggest this may be caused by the poleward migration of flux from a large active region in 1989 with highly imbalanced flux.

  13. Automated High Resolution Optical Mapping Using Arrayed, Fluid-Fixed DNA Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Junping; Reed, Jason; Huang, John; Hu, Xinghua; Clarke, Virginia; Edington, Joanne; Housman, Dan; Anantharaman, Thomas S.; Huff, Edward J.; Mishra, Bud; Porter, Brett; Shenker, Alexander; Wolfson, Estarose; Hiort, Catharina; Kantor, Ron; Aston, Christopher; Schwartz, David C.

    1998-07-01

    New mapping approaches construct ordered restriction maps from fluorescence microscope images of individual, endonuclease-digested DNA molecules. In optical mapping, molecules are elongated and fixed onto derivatized glass surfaces, preserving biochemical accessibility and fragment order after enzymatic digestion. Measurements of relative fluorescence intensity and apparent length determine the sizes of restriction fragments, enabling ordered map construction without electrophoretic analysis. The optical mapping system reported here is based on our physical characterization of an effect using fluid flows developed within tiny, evaporating droplets to elongate and fix DNA molecules onto derivatized surfaces. Such evaporation-driven molecular fixation produces well elongated molecules accessible to restriction endonucleases, and notably, DNA polymerase I. We then developed the robotic means to grid DNA spots in well defined arrays that are digested and analyzed in parallel. To effectively harness this effect for high-throughput genome mapping, we developed: (i) machine vision and automatic image acquisition techniques to work with fixed, digested molecules within gridded samples, and (ii) Bayesian inference approaches that are used to analyze machine vision data, automatically producing high-resolution restriction maps from images of individual DNA molecules. The aggregate significance of this work is the development of an integrated system for mapping small insert clones allowing biochemical data obtained from engineered ensembles of individual molecules to be automatically accumulated and analyzed for map construction. These approaches are sufficiently general for varied biochemical analyses of individual molecules using statistically meaningful population sizes.

  14. Automated high resolution optical mapping using arrayed, fluid-fixed DNA molecules

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Junping; Reed, Jason; Huang, John; Hu, Xinghua; Clarke, Virginia; Edington, Joanne; Housman, Dan; Anantharaman, Thomas S.; Huff, Edward J.; Mishra, Bud; Porter, Brett; Shenker, Alexander; Wolfson, Estarose; Hiort, Catharina; Kantor, Ron; Aston, Christopher; Schwartz, David C.

    1998-01-01

    New mapping approaches construct ordered restriction maps from fluorescence microscope images of individual, endonuclease-digested DNA molecules. In optical mapping, molecules are elongated and fixed onto derivatized glass surfaces, preserving biochemical accessibility and fragment order after enzymatic digestion. Measurements of relative fluorescence intensity and apparent length determine the sizes of restriction fragments, enabling ordered map construction without electrophoretic analysis. The optical mapping system reported here is based on our physical characterization of an effect using fluid flows developed within tiny, evaporating droplets to elongate and fix DNA molecules onto derivatized surfaces. Such evaporation-driven molecular fixation produces well elongated molecules accessible to restriction endonucleases, and notably, DNA polymerase I. We then developed the robotic means to grid DNA spots in well defined arrays that are digested and analyzed in parallel. To effectively harness this effect for high-throughput genome mapping, we developed: (i) machine vision and automatic image acquisition techniques to work with fixed, digested molecules within gridded samples, and (ii) Bayesian inference approaches that are used to analyze machine vision data, automatically producing high-resolution restriction maps from images of individual DNA molecules. The aggregate significance of this work is the development of an integrated system for mapping small insert clones allowing biochemical data obtained from engineered ensembles of individual molecules to be automatically accumulated and analyzed for map construction. These approaches are sufficiently general for varied biochemical analyses of individual molecules using statistically meaningful population sizes. PMID:9653137

  15. Superhard Coatings Synthesis Assisted by Pulsed Beams of High-Energy Gas Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metel, Alexander; Bolbukov, Vasily; Volosova, Marina; Grigoriev, Sergei; Melnik, Yury; Department of high-efficiency machining technologies Team

    2015-09-01

    For production of nanocomposite superhard (HV 5000) and fracture-tough coatings on dielectric substrates a source of metal atoms accompanied by pulsed beams of 30-keV neutral molecules was used. The source is equipped with two parallel equipotential grids placed between a magnetron target and a substrate. Negative high-voltage pulses applied to the high-transparency grids accelerate from the magnetron plasma ions, which are transformed into high-energy neutral molecules due to charge-exchange collisions with gas molecules between the grids. Mixing of the substrate and coating materials through bombardment by high-energy gas molecules results in an adequate compressive stress of the coating and interface width exceeding 1 μm, which allows deposition of 100- μm-thick coatings with a perfect adhesion. The work was supported by the Grant No. 14-29-00297 of the Russian Science Foundation.

  16. Highly Crystalline Films of Organic Small Molecules with Alkyl Chains Fabricated by Weak Epitaxy Growth.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yangjie; Chen, Weiping; Wang, Tong; Wang, Haibo; Wang, Yue; Yan, Donghang

    2016-05-12

    Because side-chain engineering of organic conjugated molecules has been widely utilized to tune organic solid-state optoelectronic properties, the achievement of their high-quality films is important for realizing high-performance devices. Here, highly crystalline films of an organic molecule with short alkyl chains, 5,8,15,18-tetrabutyl-5,8,15,18-tetrahydroindolo[3,2-a]indole[30,20:5,6]quinacridone (C4-IDQA), are fabricated by weak epitaxy growth, and highly oriented, large-area, and continuous films are obtained. Because of the soft matter properties, the C4-IDQA molecules can adjust themselves to realize commensurate epitaxy growth on the inducing layers and exhibited good lattice matching in the thin film phase. The crystalline phase is also observed in thicker C4-IDQA films. The growth behavior of C4-IDQA on the inducing layer is further investigated, including the strong dependence of film morphologies on substrate temperatures and deposition rates due to the poor diffusion ability of C4-IDQA molecules. Moreover, highly crystalline films and high electron field-effect mobility are also obtained for the small molecule N,N'-dioctyl-3,4:9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic diimide (C8-PTCDI), which demonstrate that the weak epitaxy growth method could be an effective way to fabricate highly crystalline films of organic small molecules with flexible side chains. PMID:27116036

  17. Single molecule investigations of DNA looping using the tethered particle method and translocation by acto-myosin using polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beausang, John F.

    Single molecule biophysics aims to understand biological processes by studying them at the single molecule level in real time. The proteins and nucleic acids under investigation typically exist in an aqueous environment within ˜ ten degrees of room temperature. These seemingly benign conditions are actually quite chaotic at the nanoscale, where single bio-molecules perform their function. As a result, sensitive experiments and statistical analyses are required to separate the weak single molecule signal from its background. Protein-DNA interactions were investigated by monitoring DNA looping events in tethered particle experiments. A new analysis technique, called the Diffusive hidden Markov method, was developed to extract kinetic rate constants from experimental data without any filtering of the raw data; a common step that improves the signal to noise ratio, but at the expense of lower time resolution. In the second system, translocation of the molecular motor myosin along its actin filament track was studied using polarized total internal reflection (polTIRF) microscopy, a technique that determines the orientation and wobble of a single fluorophore attached to the bio-molecule of interest. The range of resolvable angles was increased 4-fold to include a hemisphere of possible orientations. As a result, the handedness of actin filament twirling as it translocated along a myosin-coated surface was determined to be left-handed. The maximum time resolution of a polTIRF setup was increased 50-fold, in part by recording the arrival times and polarization state of single photons using a modified time-correlated single photon counting device. A new analysis, the Multiple Intensity Change Point algorithm, was developed to detect changes in molecular orientation and wobble using the raw time-stamped data with no user-defined bins or thresholds. The analysis objectively identified changes in the orientation of a bifunctional-rhodamine labeled calmodulin that was attached to a myosin V molecule translocating along an actin filament. Long intervals corresponding to stable positions between tilting motions of the lever arm during each step were routinely observed. Substeps in the cycle that preceded these long dwells were measured, but only occasionally most likely because of the low number of photons detected during these rapid events.

  18. The artificial control of enhanced optical processes in fluorescent molecules on high-emittance metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Masanobu; Choi, Bongseok; Miyazaki, Hideki T; Sugimoto, Yoshimasa

    2016-06-01

    Plasmon-enhanced optical processes in molecules have been extensively but individually explored for Raman scattering, fluorescence, and infrared light absorption. In contrast to recent progress in the interfacial control of hot electrons in plasmon-semiconductor hybrid systems, plasmon-molecule hybrid systems have remained to be a conventional scheme, mainly assuming electric-field enhancement. This was because it was difficult to control the plasmon-molecule interface in a well-controlled manner. We here experimentally substantiate an obvious change in artificially enhanced optical processes of fluorescence/Raman scattering in fluorescent molecules on high-emittance plasmo-photonic metasurfaces with/without a self-assembled monolayer of sub-nm thickness. These results indicate that the enhanced optical processes were successfully selected under artificial configurations without any additional chemical treatment that modifies the molecules themselves. Although Raman-scattering efficiency is generally weak in high-fluorescence-yield molecules, it was found that Raman scattering becomes prominent around the molecular fingerprint range on the metasurfaces, being enhanced by more than 2000 fold at the maximum for reference signals. In addition, the highly and uniformly enhancing metasurfaces are able to serve as two-way functional, reproducible, and wavelength-tunable platforms to detect molecules at very low densities, being distinct from other platforms reported so far. The change in the enhanced signals suggests that energy diagrams in fluorescent molecules are changed in the configuration that includes the metal-molecule interface, meaning that plasmon-molecule hybrid systems are rich in the phenomena beyond the conventional scheme. PMID:27227964

  19. High-frequency modulation of continuous-wave laser beams by maximally coherent molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Yavuz, D. D.

    2007-07-15

    We suggest a technique where a molecular Raman transition is prepared near a maximally coherent state with continuous-wave (CW) laser beams. The key idea is to put the molecules inside a high-finesse cavity and to drive the molecular transition with two lasers whose frequency difference is slightly detuned from the Raman resonance. In this regime, the molecules become very efficient CW modulators with a modulation frequency that can be as high as 100 THz.

  20. All-fiber single polarized Yb-doped fiber laser with a high extinction ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Dong; El-Damak, Angie R.; Gu, Xijia

    2010-03-01

    We present an all-fiber design for a single polarization Yb-doped fiber laser with all-fiber connections spliced. Single polarization with a high extinction ratio was achieved by the design of a laser cavity consisting of a fiber Bragg grating inscribed on a single-polarization fiber as a high reflective mirror and a piece of end-cleaved single-polarization fiber as an output coupler. The fiber laser operates at 1063.25 nm with an output power of 1.7 W, an optical signal- to-noise ratio of 70 dB and a narrow bandwidth of 54 pm. The laser output has a polarization extinction ratio of 700:1 or 28 dB, and a very stable power output.

  1. Non-collinear generation of angularly isolated circularly polarized high harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickstein, Daniel D.; Dollar, Franklin J.; Grychtol, Patrik; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Shaw, Justin M.; Fan, Tingting; Dorney, Kevin M.; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.; Durfee, Charles G.

    2015-11-01

    We generate angularly isolated beams of circularly polarized extreme ultraviolet light through the first implementation of non-collinear high harmonic generation with circularly polarized driving lasers. This non-collinear technique offers numerous advantages over previous methods, including the generation of higher photon energies, the separation of the harmonics from the pump beam, the production of both left and right circularly polarized harmonics at the same wavelength and the capability of separating the harmonics without using a spectrometer. To confirm the circular polarization of the beams and to demonstrate the practicality of this new light source, we measure the magnetic circular dichroism of a 20 nm iron film. Furthermore, we explain the mechanisms of non-collinear high harmonic generation using analytical descriptions in both the photon and wave models. Advanced numerical simulations indicate that this non-collinear mixing enables the generation of isolated attosecond pulses with circular polarization.

  2. Can ferroelectric polarization explain the high performance of hybrid halide perovskite solar cells?

    PubMed

    Sherkar, Tejas S; Koster, L Jan Anton

    2016-01-01

    The power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells based on the use of hybrid halide perovskites, CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I), now exceeds 20%. Recently, it was suggested that this high performance originates from the presence of ferroelectricity in the perovskite, which is hypothesized to lower charge recombination in the device. Here, we investigate and quantify the influence of mesoscale ferroelectric polarization on the device performance of perovskite solar cells. We implement a 3D drift diffusion model to describe the solar cell operation. To account for the mesoscale ferroelectricity, we incorporate domains defined by polarization strength, P, in 3D space, forming different polarization landscapes or microstructures. Study of microstructures with highly-ordered polarized domains shows that charge transport and recombination in the solar cell depends significantly on the polarization landscape viz. the orientation of domain boundaries and the size of domains. In the case of the microstructure with random correlated polarization, a realistic scenario, we find indication of the existence of channels for efficient charge transport in the device which leads to lowering of charge recombination, as evidenced by the high fill factor (FF). However, the high open-circuit voltage (VOC), which is typical of high performance perovskite solar cells, is unlikely to be explained by the presence of ferroelectric polarization in the perovskite. PMID:26612111

  3. Lossless compression of high resolution mass spectra of small molecules

    PubMed Central

    Blanckenburg, Bo; van der Burgt, Yuri E. M.; Deelder, Andr M.

    2010-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) provides the highest resolving power of any commercially available mass spectrometer. This advantage is most significant for species of low mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), such as metabolites. Unfortunately, FTICR spectra contain a very large number of data points, most of which are noise. This is most pronounced at the low m/z end of spectra, where data point density is the highest but peak density low. We therefore developed a filter that offers lossless compression of FTICR mass spectra from singly charged metabolites. The filter relies on the high resolving power and mass measurement precision of FTICR and removes only those m/z channels that cannot contain signal from singly charged organic species. The resulting pseudospectra still contain the same signal as the original spectra but less uninformative background. The filter does not affect the outcome of standard downstream chemometric analysis methods, such as principal component analysis, but use of the filter significantly reduces memory requirements and CPU time for such analyses. We demonstrate the utility of the filter for urinary metabolite profiling using direct infusion electrospray ionization and a 15 tesla FTICR mass spectrometer. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-010-0202-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20676216

  4. High-order-harmonic generation in molecular sequential double ionization by intense circularly polarized laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Lu, Huizhong; Bandrauk, André D.

    2015-08-01

    We present effects of electron energy transfer by electron collisions on high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) in molecular sequential double ionization by intense circularly polarized laser pulses. Results from numerical solutions of time-dependent Schrödinger equations for extended (large internuclear distance) H2 where electrons are entangled and hence delocalized by exchange show that HHG with cutoff energy up to Ip+24 Up can be obtained, where Ip is the molecule ionization potential and Up=I0/4 ω02 (in atomic units) is the ponderomotive energy for pulse intensity I0 and frequency ω0. A time-frequency analysis is employed to identify electron collisions for the generation of harmonics. Extended HHG arises from electron energy exchange, which agrees well with the prediction of a classical two electron collision model. Results for nonsymmetric HHe+ where initially electrons are localized on He are also compared and confirm the role of initial electron delocalization via entanglement for obtaining extended HHG plateaus.

  5. Reexamining the high-order harmonic generation of HD molecule in non-Born-Oppenheimer approximation.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongchuan; Yue, Shengjun; Wang, Huiqiao; Wu, Hongmei; Hu, Bitao

    2016-03-21

    The high-order harmonic generation of the HD molecule is studied in non-Born-Oppenheimer approximation. It is found that there are only the odd harmonics in the harmonic spectrum of the HD molecule though the generation of even harmonics is possible in principle. Theoretical analysis [T. Kreibich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 103901 (2001)] reveals that the nuclear dipole moment can contribute to the generation of the even harmonics, but the acceleration of the nucleus is about three orders of magnitude less than that of the electron. Hence, the even harmonics cannot be observed in the harmonic spectrum of the HD molecule. PMID:27004877

  6. Reexamining the high-order harmonic generation of HD molecule in non-Born-Oppenheimer approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hongchuan; Yue, Shengjun; Wang, Huiqiao; Wu, Hongmei; Hu, Bitao

    2016-03-01

    The high-order harmonic generation of the HD molecule is studied in non-Born-Oppenheimer approximation. It is found that there are only the odd harmonics in the harmonic spectrum of the HD molecule though the generation of even harmonics is possible in principle. Theoretical analysis [T. Kreibich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 103901 (2001)] reveals that the nuclear dipole moment can contribute to the generation of the even harmonics, but the acceleration of the nucleus is about three orders of magnitude less than that of the electron. Hence, the even harmonics cannot be observed in the harmonic spectrum of the HD molecule.

  7. Ultra high-throughput single molecule spectroscopy with a 1024 pixel SPAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colyer, Ryan A.; Scalia, Giuseppe; Villa, Federica A.; Guerrieri, Fabrizio; Tisa, Simone; Zappa, Franco; Cova, Sergio; Weiss, Shimon; Michalet, Xavier

    2011-03-01

    Single-molecule spectroscopy is a powerful approach to measuring molecular properties such as size, brightness, conformation, and binding constants. Due to the low concentrations in the single-molecule regime, measurements with good statistical accuracy require long acquisition times. Previously we showed a factor of 8 improvement in acquisition speed using a custom-CMOS 8x1 SPAD array. Here we present preliminary results with a 64X improvement in throughput obtained using a liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator (LCOS-SLM) and a novel standard CMOS 1024 pixel SPAD array, opening the way to truly high-throughput single-molecule spectroscopy.

  8. A new family of four-ring bent-core nematic liquid crystals with highly polar transverse and end groups

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Kalpana; Gude, Venkatesh; Mohiuddin, Golam

    2013-01-01

    Summary Non-symmetrically substituted four-ring achiral bent-core compounds with polar substituents, i.e.., chloro in the bent or transverse direction in the central core and cyano in the lateral direction at one terminal end of the molecule, are designed and synthesized. These molecules possess an alkoxy chain attached at only one end of the bent-core molecule. The molecular structure characterization is consistent with data from elemental and spectroscopic analysis. The materials thermal behaviour and phase characterization have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and polarizing microscopy. All the compounds exhibit a wide-ranging monotropic nematic phase. PMID:23400045

  9. Effects of atomic hydrogen and deuterium exposure on high polarization GaAs photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    M. Baylac; P. Adderley; J. Brittian; J. Clark; T. Day; J. Grames; J. Hansknecht; M. Poelker; M. Stutzman; A. T. Wu; A. S. Terekhov

    2005-12-01

    Strained-layer GaAs and strained-superlattice GaAs photocathodes are used at Jefferson Laboratory to create high average current beams of highly spin-polarized electrons. High electron yield, or quantum efficiency (QE), is obtained only when the photocathode surface is atomically clean. For years, exposure to atomic hydrogen or deuterium has been the photocathode cleaning technique employed at Jefferson Laboratory. This work demonstrates that atomic hydrogen cleaning is not necessary when precautions are taken to ensure that clean photocathode material from the vendor is not inadvertently dirtied while samples are prepared for installation inside photoemission guns. Moreover, this work demonstrates that QE and beam polarization can be significantly reduced when clean high-polarization photocathode material is exposed to atomic hydrogen from an rf dissociator-style atomic hydrogen source. Surface analysis provides some insight into the mechanisms that degrade QE and polarization due to atomic hydrogen cleaning.

  10. Polarization and correlation studies on the electron capture into highly-charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, S.; Surzhykov, A.; Sthlker, Th.

    2003-12-01

    The recent progress in studying the electron capture into bare, high-Z ions is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the polarization of the emitted radiation and the angle-angle correlations as could be observed in coincidence experiments.

  11. Exchange Coupling Inversion in a High-Spin Organic Triradical Molecule.

    PubMed

    Gaudenzi, R; Burzurí, E; Reta, D; Moreira, I de P R; Bromley, S T; Rovira, C; Veciana, J; van der Zant, H S J

    2016-03-01

    The magnetic properties of a nanoscale system are inextricably linked to its local environment. In adatoms on surfaces and inorganic layered structures, the exchange interactions result from the relative lattice positions, layer thicknesses, and other environmental parameters. Here, we report on a sample-dependent sign inversion of the magnetic exchange coupling between the three unpaired spins of an organic triradical molecule embedded in a three-terminal device. This ferro-to-antiferromagnetic transition is due to structural distortions and results in a high-to-low spin ground-state change in a molecule traditionally considered to be a robust high-spin quartet. Moreover, the flexibility of the molecule yields an in situ electric tunability of the exchange coupling via the gate electrode. These findings open a route to the controlled reversal of the magnetic states in organic molecule-based nanodevices by mechanical means, electrical gating, or chemical tailoring. PMID:26862681

  12. Carbon molecules for intense high-order harmonics from laser-ablated graphite plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fareed, M. A.; Mondal, S.; Pertot, Y.; Ozaki, T.

    2016-02-01

    We present the simultaneous study of laser-induced plasma emission spectroscopy and high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from laser-ablated graphite plume. Time resolved evolution of carbon species in the ablation plume is investigated, revealing a clear abundance of C2 molecules under conditions optimal for graphite HHG. We also compare the high-order harmonic spectra with the photoionization cross-section of C2 molecules, which shows good agreement between the two. Our observations provide strong evidence that C2 molecules contribute to intense graphite HHG. Furthermore, properties of C2 molecules are investigated at different time periods of plasma evolution, and we identify the laser-ablation conditions for optimum harmonics yield.

  13. Dynamics of the Serine Chemoreceptor in the Escherichia coli Inner Membrane: A High-Speed Single-Molecule Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dongmyung; Yu, Yang; Lee, Hochan; Wanner, Barry L.; Ritchie, Ken

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the mobility of the polar localized serine chemoreceptor, Tsr, labeled by the fluorescent protein Venus in the inner membrane of live Escherichia coli cells at observation rates up to 1000 Hz. A fraction (7%) of all Tsr molecules shows free diffusion over the entire cell surface with an average diffusion coefficient of 0.40 ± 0.01 μm2 s−1. The remaining molecules were found to be ultimately confined in compartments of size 290 ± 15 nm and showed restricted diffusion at an inner barrier found at 170 ± 10 nm. At the shortest length-scales (<170 nm), all Tsr molecules diffuse equally. Disruption of the cytoskeleton and rounding of the cells resulted in an increase in the mobile fraction of Tsr molecules and a fragmenting of the previously polar cluster of Tsr consistent with a curvature-based mechanism of Tsr cluster maintenance. PMID:24411246

  14. Comparison of the polarization properties in the retinas of different rodents using high resolution polarization sensitive OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fialová, Stanislava; Augustin, Marco; Plasenzotti, Roberto; Rauscher, Sabine; Gröger, Marion; Pircher, Michael; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Baumann, Bernhard

    2015-07-01

    Animal models play an important role for understanding the pathophysiology of glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. With these models, longitudinal studies can be performed and therefore there is need for non-invasive evaluation of disease progress. For that purpose optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used. Since tissues with different polarization properties are important in these diseases, polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) could be a valuable tool in preclinical research. In this work a high resolution PS-OCT (HR-PS-OCT) system was used in-vivo for rodent retinal imaging. A super luminescent diode with a bandwidth of 100 nm was used as a light source that yielded an axial resolution of 5.1 μm in air (3.8 μm in tissue). The A-scan rate was 83 kHz, a whole 3D dataset was acquired in a few seconds (1536x1024x200 pixels in 3.5 s) which reduced motion artifacts. Rats (Sprague-Dawley, Long-Evans and Brown Norway) as well as mice (C57BL/6) were imaged. High resolution reflectivity images showed all retinal layers in all animals. From acquired data also phase retardation, fast axis orientation and degree of polarization uniformity (DOPU) images were calculated. On phase retardation images sclera was identified as birefringent and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid as depolarizing tissues. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the system for high speed/resolution imaging in follow up studies on rodents.

  15. Tracing the structure of asymmetric molecules from high-order harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yanjun; Zhang, Bing

    2011-11-15

    We investigate high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from asymmetric molecules exposed to intense laser fields. We show that the emissions of odd and even harmonics depend differently on the orientation angle, the internuclear distance, as well as the effective charge. This difference mainly comes from different roles of intramolecular interference in the HHG of odd and even harmonics. These roles map the structure of the asymmetric molecule to the odd vs even HHG spectra.

  16. High-resolution mass spectrometry of small molecules bound to membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Gault, Joseph; Donlan, Joseph A C; Liko, Idlir; Hopper, Jonathan T S; Gupta, Kallol; Housden, Nicholas G; Struwe, Weston B; Marty, Michael T; Mize, Todd; Bechara, Cherine; Zhu, Ya; Wu, Beili; Kleanthous, Colin; Belov, Mikhail; Damoc, Eugen; Makarov, Alexander; Robinson, Carol V

    2016-04-01

    Small molecules are known to stabilize membrane proteins and to modulate their function and oligomeric state, but such interactions are often hard to precisely define. Here we develop and apply a high-resolution, Orbitrap mass spectrometry-based method for analyzing intact membrane protein-ligand complexes. Using this platform, we resolve the complexity of multiple binding events, quantify small molecule binding and reveal selectivity for endogenous lipids that differ only in acyl chain length. PMID:26901650

  17. Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission.

    PubMed

    Arbabi, Amir; Horie, Yu; Bagheri, Mahmood; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-11-01

    Metasurfaces are planar structures that locally modify the polarization, phase and amplitude of light in reflection or transmission, thus enabling lithographically patterned flat optical components with functionalities controlled by design. Transmissive metasurfaces are especially important, as most optical systems used in practice operate in transmission. Several types of transmissive metasurface have been realized, but with either low transmission efficiencies or limited control over polarization and phase. Here, we show a metasurface platform based on high-contrast dielectric elliptical nanoposts that provides complete control of polarization and phase with subwavelength spatial resolution and an experimentally measured efficiency ranging from 72% to 97%, depending on the exact design. Such complete control enables the realization of most free-space transmissive optical elements such as lenses, phase plates, wave plates, polarizers, beamsplitters, as well as polarization-switchable phase holograms and arbitrary vector beam generators using the same metamaterial platform. PMID:26322944

  18. Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbabi, Amir; Horie, Yu; Bagheri, Mahmood; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-11-01

    Metasurfaces are planar structures that locally modify the polarization, phase and amplitude of light in reflection or transmission, thus enabling lithographically patterned flat optical components with functionalities controlled by design. Transmissive metasurfaces are especially important, as most optical systems used in practice operate in transmission. Several types of transmissive metasurface have been realized, but with either low transmission efficiencies or limited control over polarization and phase. Here, we show a metasurface platform based on high-contrast dielectric elliptical nanoposts that provides complete control of polarization and phase with subwavelength spatial resolution and an experimentally measured efficiency ranging from 72% to 97%, depending on the exact design. Such complete control enables the realization of most free-space transmissive optical elements such as lenses, phase plates, wave plates, polarizers, beamsplitters, as well as polarization-switchable phase holograms and arbitrary vector beam generators using the same metamaterial platform.

  19. High-efficiency generation of circularly polarized light via symmetry-induced anomalous reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shang-Chi; Xiong, Xiang; Hu, Yuan-Sheng; Jiang, Sheng-Wei; Hu, Yu-Hui; Xu, Di-Hu; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2015-03-01

    Great efforts have been devoted to control the polarization state, the transmission direction, and the phase of light within a very confined space in recent decades. Here, we present a two-dimensional metastructure made of an array of unisized split rings with different opening orientations on the surface of a Si O2 -silver bilayer. This structure possesses an unexpectedly high polarization conversion ratio and generates significantly strong anomalous reflection beams (over 70% of incident light intensity) over a broad frequency range (1100-1750 nm). Functionally, it is able to turn either a linearly polarized incident light or natural light into two perfect circularly polarized beams with the same amplitude yet different handedness to different directions. These features demonstrate a clear example of momentum conservation and can be applied to detect/manipulate the propagation of circularly polarized light.

  20. High Field Dynamic Nuclear Polarization NMR with Surfactant Sheltered Biradicals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We illustrate the ability to place a water-insoluble biradical, bTbk, into a glycerol/water matrix with the assistance of a surfactant, sodium octyl sulfate (SOS). This surfactant approach enables a previously water insoluble biradical, bTbk, with favorable electron–electron dipolar coupling to be used for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments in frozen, glassy, aqueous media. Nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) and paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) experiments are conducted to determine the distribution of urea and several biradicals within the SOS macromolecular assembly. We also demonstrate that SOS assemblies are an effective approach by which mixed biradicals are created through an assembly process. PMID:24506193

  1. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J; Mancuso, Christopher A; Hogle, Craig W; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L; Dorney, Kevin M; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G; Fullerton, Eric E; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M; Milošević, Dejan B; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C

    2015-11-17

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform. PMID:26534992

  2. Gamma-ray polarization of the synchrotron self-compton process from a highly relativistic jet

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Zhe; Lin, Hai-Nan

    2014-11-01

    The high polarization observed in the prompt phase of some gamma-ray bursts invites extensive study of the emission mechanism. In this paper, we investigate the polarization properties of the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) process from a highly relativistic jet. A magnetic-dominated, baryon-loaded jet ejected from the central engine travels with a large Lorentz factor. Shells with slightly different velocities collide with each other and produce shocks. The shocks accelerate electrons to a power-law distribution and, at the same time, magnify the magnetic field. Electrons move in the magnetic field and produce synchrotron photons. Synchrotron photons suffer from the Compton scattering (CS) process and then are detected by an observer located slightly off-axis. We analytically derive the formulae of photon polarization in the SSC process in two magnetic configurations: a magnetic field in the shock plane and perpendicular to the shock plane. We show that photons induced by the SSC process can be highly polarized, with the maximum polarization Π ∼ 24% in the energy band [0.5, 5] MeV. The polarization depends on the viewing angles, peaking in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. In the energy band [0.05, 0.5] MeV, in which most γ-ray polarimeters are active, the polarization is about twice that in the Thomson limit, reaching Π ∼ 20%. This implies that the Klein-Nishina effect, which is often neglected in the literature, should be carefully considered.

  3. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J.; Mancuso, Christopher A.; Hogle, Craig W.; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Dorney, Kevin M.; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G.; Fullerton, Eric E.; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Milošević, Dejan B.; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A.; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform. PMID:26534992

  4. The Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (PolarVPRM): a parsimonious, satellite data-driven model of high-latitude CO2 exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luus, K. A.; Lin, J. C.

    2015-02-01

    We introduce the Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (PolarVPRM), a remote-sensing based approach for generating accurate, high resolution (≥1 km2, three-hourly) estimates of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). PolarVPRM simulates NEE using polar-specific vegetation classes, and by representing high-latitude influences on NEE. We present a description, validation, and error analysis (first-order Taylor expansion) of PolarVPRM, followed by an examination of per-pixel trends (2001-2012) in model output for the North American terrestrial region north of 55° N. PolarVPRM was validated against eddy covariance observations from nine North American sites, of which three were used in model calibration. PolarVPRM performed well over all sites. Model intercomparisons indicated that PolarVPRM showed slightly better agreement with eddy covariance observations relative to existing models. Trend analysis (2001-2012) indicated that warming air temperatures and drought stress in forests increased growing season rates of respiration, and decreased rates of net carbon uptake by vegetation when air temperatures exceeded optimal temperatures for photosynthesis. Concurrent increases in growing season length at Arctic tundra sites allowed increases in photosynthetic uptake over time by tundra vegetation. PolarVPRM estimated that the North American high-latitude region changed from a carbon source (2001-2004) to sink (2005-2010) to source (2011-2012) in response to changing environmental conditions.

  5. Single-Molecule Diodes with High On/Off Ratios Through Environmental Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzi, Brian; Xia, Jianlong; Dell, Emma; Adak, Olgun; Liu, Zhen-Fei; Neaton, Jeffrey; Campos, Luis; Venkataraman, Latha

    2015-03-01

    Single-Molecule diodes were first proposed with an asymmetric molecule comprising a donor-bridge-acceptor architecture to mimic a semiconductor p-n junction. Progress in molecular electronics has led to the realization of several single-molecule diodes; these have relied on asymmetric molecular backbones, asymmetric molecule-electrode linkers, or asymmetric electrode materials. Despite these advances, molecular diodes have had limited potential for functional applications due to several pitfalls, including low rectification ratios (``on''/``off'' current ratios <10). Here, we introduce a powerful approach for inducing rectification in conventionally symmetric single-molecule junctions, taking advantage of environmental factors about the junction. By utilizing an asymmetric environment instead of an asymmetric molecule, we reproducibly achieve high rectification ratios at low operating voltages for molecular junctions based on a family of symmetric small-gap molecules. This technique serves as an unconventional approach for developing functional molecular-scale devices and probing their charge transport characteristics. Furthermore, this technique should be applicable to other nanoscale devices, providing a general route for tuning device properties.

  6. Strong-field-approximation theory of high-order harmonic generation by polyatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odžak, S.; Hasović, E.; Milošević, D. B.

    2016-04-01

    A theory of high-order harmonic generation by arbitrary polyatomic molecules is introduced. A polyatomic molecule is modeled by an (N +1 ) -particle system, which consists of N heavy atomic (ionic) centers and an electron. After the separation of the center-of-mass coordinate, the dynamics of this system is reduced to the relative electronic and nuclear coordinates. Various versions (with or without the dressing of the initial and/or final molecular state) of the molecular strong-field approximation are introduced. For neutral polyatomic molecules the derived expression for the T -matrix element takes a simple form. The interference minima in the harmonic spectrum are explained as a multiple-slit type of interference. This is illustrated by numerical examples for the ozone (O3) and carbon dioxide (CO2) molecules.

  7. Single-molecule detection at high concentrations with optical aperture nanoantennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Md Shah; Karim, Farzia; Zhao, Chenglong

    2016-05-01

    Single-molecule detection has become an indispensable technology in life science, and medical research. In order to get meaningful information on many biological processes, single-molecule analysis is required in micro-molar concentrations. At such high concentrations, it is very challenging to isolate a single molecule with conventional diffraction-limited optics. Recently, optical aperture nanoantennas (OANs) have emerged as a powerful tool to enhance the single-molecule detection under a physiological environment. The OANs, which consist of nano-scale apertures on a metallic film, have the following unique properties: (1) nanoscale light confinement; (2) enhanced fluorescence emission; (3) tunable radiation pattern; (4) reduced background noise; and (5) massive parallel detection. This review presents the fundamentals, recent developments and future perspectives in this emerging field.

  8. Single-molecule detection at high concentrations with optical aperture nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Shah; Karim, Farzia; Zhao, Chenglong

    2016-05-14

    Single-molecule detection has become an indispensable technology in life science, and medical research. In order to get meaningful information on many biological processes, single-molecule analysis is required in micro-molar concentrations. At such high concentrations, it is very challenging to isolate a single molecule with conventional diffraction-limited optics. Recently, optical aperture nanoantennas (OANs) have emerged as a powerful tool to enhance the single-molecule detection under a physiological environment. The OANs, which consist of nano-scale apertures on a metallic film, have the following unique properties: (1) nanoscale light confinement; (2) enhanced fluorescence emission; (3) tunable radiation pattern; (4) reduced background noise; and (5) massive parallel detection. This review presents the fundamentals, recent developments and future perspectives in this emerging field. PMID:27120086

  9. In situ Formation of Highly Conducting Covalent Au-C Contacts for Single-Molecule Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Z.L.; Hybertsen, M.; Skouta, R.; Vazquez, H.; Widawsky, J.R.; Schneebeli, S.; Chen, W.; Breslow, R.; Venkataraman, L.

    2011-06-01

    Charge transport across metal-molecule interfaces has an important role in organic electronics. Typically, chemical link groups such as thiols or amines are used to bind organic molecules to metal electrodes in single-molecule circuits, with these groups controlling both the physical structure and the electronic coupling at the interface. Direct metal-carbon coupling has been shown through C60, benzene and {pi}-stacked benzene but ideally the carbon backbone of the molecule should be covalently bonded to the electrode without intervening link groups. Here, we demonstrate a method to create junctions with such contacts. Trimethyl tin (SnMe{sub 3})-terminated polymethylene chains are used to form single-molecule junctions with a break-junction technique. Gold atoms at the electrode displace the SnMe{sub 3} linkers, leading to the formation of direct Au-C bonded single-molecule junctions with a conductance that is {approx}100 times larger than analogous alkanes with most other terminations. The conductance of these Au-C bonded alkanes decreases exponentially with molecular length, with a decay constant of 0.97 per methylene, consistent with a non-resonant transport mechanism. Control experiments and ab initio calculations show that high conductances are achieved because a covalent Au-C sigma ({sigma}) bond is formed. This offers a new method for making reproducible and highly conducting metal-organic contacts.

  10. Production of highly spin-polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium by spin-exchange optical pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Redsun, S.G.; Knize, R.J.; Cates, G.D.; Happer, W. )

    1990-08-01

    We have produced highly spin-polarized atomic hydrogen by spin-exchange optical pumping. A tunable ring dye laser is used to polarize rubidium atoms by optical pumping. The cell containing the rubidium vapor is coated with paraffin in order to reduce spin relaxation due to wall collisions. Hydrogen gas is dissociated in an inductive discharge and flows continuously through the cell, in which the hydrogen atoms are polarized by spin-exchange collisions with the polarized rubidium atoms. Atomic-hydrogen polarization as high as 2{l angle}{ital J}{sub {ital z}}{r angle}{sub H}=0.72(6) has been observed, which is the highest polarization yet produced by this method. However, the rubidium polarization may be limited to this value due to radiation trapping at higher rubidium densities. The spin-relaxation rate of atomic hydrogen on a paraffin-coated cell is also measured and corresponds to about 7600 wall bounces between wall relaxation.

  11. High-Field Dynamic Nuclear Polarization for Solid and Solution Biological NMR

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, A.B.; Paëpe, G. De; van der Wel, P.C.A.; Hu, K.-N.; Joo, C.-G.; Bajaj, V.S.; Mak-Jurkauskas, M.L.; Sirigiri, J.R.; Herzfeld, J.; Temkin, R.J.; Griffin, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) results in a substantial nuclear polarization enhancement through a transfer of the magnetization from electrons to nuclei. Recent years have seen considerable progress in the development of DNP experiments directed towards enhancing sensitivity in biological nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). This review covers the applications, hardware, polarizing agents, and theoretical descriptions that were developed at the Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology for high-field DNP experiments. In frozen dielectrics, the enhanced nuclear polarization developed in the vicinity of the polarizing agent can be efficiently dispersed to the bulk of the sample via 1H spin diffusion. This strategy has been proven effective in polarizing biologically interesting systems, such as nanocrystalline peptides and membrane proteins, without leading to paramagnetic broadening of the NMR signals. Gyrotrons have been used as a source of high-power (5–10 W) microwaves up to 460 GHz as required for the DNP experiments. Other hardware has also been developed allowing in situ microwave irradiation integrated with cryogenic magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR. Advances in the quantum mechanical treatment are successful in describing the mechanism by which new biradical polarizing agents yield larger enhancements at higher magnetic fields. Finally, pulsed methods and solution experiments should play a prominent role in the future of DNP. PMID:19194532

  12. All-reflective, highly accurate polarization rotator for high-power short-pulse laser systems.

    PubMed

    Keppler, S; Hornung, M; Bödefeld, R; Kahle, M; Hein, J; Kaluza, M C

    2012-08-27

    We present the setup of a polarization rotating device and its adaption for high-power short-pulse laser systems. Compared to conventional halfwave plates, the all-reflective principle using three zero-phase shift mirrors provides a higher accuracy and a higher damage threshold. Since plan-parallel plates, e.g. these halfwave plates, generate postpulses, which could lead to the generation of prepulses during the subsequent laser chain, the presented device avoids parasitic pulses and is therefore the preferable alternative for high-contrast applications. Moreover the device is easily scalable for large beam diameters and its spectral reflectivity can be adjusted by an appropriate mirror coating to be well suited for ultra-short laser pulses. PMID:23037123

  13. MCSCF wave functions for excited states of polar molecules - Application to BeO. [Multi-Configuration Self-Consistent Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Yarkony, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    A previously reported multi-configuration self-consistent field (MCSCF) algorithm based on the generalized Brillouin theorem is extended in order to treat the excited states of polar molecules. In particular, the algorithm takes into account the proper treatment of nonorthogonality in the space of single excitations and invokes, when necessary, a constrained optimization procedure to prevent the variational collapse of excited states. In addition, a configuration selection scheme (suitable for use in conjunction with extended configuration interaction methods) is proposed for the MCSCF procedure. The algorithm is used to study the low-lying singlet states of BeO, a system which has not previously been studied using an MCSCF procedure. MCSCF wave functions are obtained for three 1 Sigma + and two 1 Pi states. The 1 Sigma + results are juxtaposed with comparable results for MgO in order to assess the generality of the description presented here.

  14. Radial dose calculation due to the irradiation of a heavy ion: Role of composite electric field formed from the polarization of molecules and molecular ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moribayashi, Kengo

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses the role of composite electric field on radial doses through simulations due to the irradiation of a heavy ion. This composition electric field is formed from molecular ions, the polarization of molecules, and free electrons. Free electrons as well as these molecular ions are produced from the impact ionization of an incident ion or the other free electrons. The motions of the free electrons are simulated using a simulation model shown by Moribayashi, 2011. Phys. Rev. A. 84, 012702-1-012702-7 and Moribayashi, 2013a. Rad. Phys. Chem. 85, 36-41. This simulation model employs an isolated atom model that additionally may be able to treat the advantage of the free electron gas model. Some free electrons are trapped near the track of this incident ion and form plasma. The results obtained here show that this plasma plays a role of bringing about higher radial doses with increasing impact ionization cross sections of incident ions.

  15. Highly Effective Polarized Electron Sources Based on Strained Semiconductor Superlattice with Distributed Bragg Reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Gerchikov, L. G.; Kuz'michev, V. V.; Mamaev, Yu. A.; Vasiliev, D. A.; Yashin, Yu. P.; Aulenbacher, K.; Clendenin, J. E.; Maruyama, T.; Mikhrin, V. S.; Ustinov, V. M.; Vasiliev, A. P.; Zhukov, A. E.; Roberts, J. S.

    2008-02-06

    Resonance enhancement of the quantum efficiency of new polarized electron photocathodes based on a short-period strained superlattice structures is reported. The superlattice is a part of an integrated Fabry-Perot optical cavity. We demonstrate that the Fabry-Perot resonator enhances the quantum efficiency by the order of magnitude in the wavelength region of the main polarization maximum. The high structural quality implied by these results points to the very promising application of these photocathodes for spin-polarized electron sources.

  16. Highly Effective Polarized Electron Sources Based on Strained Semiconductor Superlattice with Distributed Bragg Reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Gerchikov, L.G.; Aulenbacher, K.; Clendenin, J.E.; Kuz'michev, V.V.; Mamaev, Yu.A.; Maruyama, T.; Mikhrin, V.S.; Roberts, J.S.; Utstinov, V.M.; Vasiliev, D.A.; Vasiliev, A.P.; Yashin, Yu.P.; Zhukov, A.E.; /St. Petersburg Polytechnic Inst. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /SLAC /Ioffe Phys. Tech. Inst. /Sheffield U.

    2007-11-28

    Resonance enhancement of the quantum efficiency of new polarized electron photocathodes based on a short-period strained superlattice structures is reported. The superlattice is a part of an integrated Fabry-Perot optical cavity. We demonstrate that the Fabry-Perot resonator enhances the quantum efficiency by the order of magnitude in the wavelength region of the main polarization maximum. The high structural quality implied by these results points to the very promising application of these photocathodes for spin-polarized electron sources.

  17. High Efficacy Green LEDs by Polarization Controlled MOVPE

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, Christian

    2013-03-31

    Amazing performance in GaInN/GaN based LEDs has become possible by advanced epitaxial growth on a wide variety of substrates over the last decade. An immediate push towards product development and worldwide competition for market share have effectively reduced production cost and generated substantial primary energy savings on a worldwide scale. At all times of the development, this economic pressure forced very fundamental decisions that would shape huge industrial investment. One of those major aspects is the choice of epitaxial growth substrate. The natural questions are to what extend a decision for a certain substrate will limit the ultimate performance and to what extent, the choice of a currently more expensive substrate such as native GaN could overcome any of the remaining performance limitations. Therefore, this project has set out to explore what performance characteristic could be achieved under the utilization of bulk GaN substrate. Our work was guided by the hypotheses that line defects such as threading dislocations in the active region should be avoided and the huge piezoelectric polarization needs to be attenuated – if not turned off – for higher performing LEDs, particularly in the longer wavelength green and deep green portions of the visible spectrum. At their relatively lower performance level, deep green LEDs are a stronger indicator of relative performance improvements and seem particular sensitive to the challenges at hand.

  18. High precision fabrication of polarization insensitive resonant grating filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boye, R. R.; Peters, D. W.; Wendt, J. R.; Samora, S.; Stevens, J.; Shul, R. J.; Hunker, J.; Kellogg, R. A.; Kemme, S. A.

    2012-03-01

    Resonant subwavelength gratings have been designed and fabricated as wavelength-specific reflectors for application as a rotary position encoder utilizing ebeam based photolithography. The first grating design used a two-dimensional layout to provide polarization insensitivity with separate layers for the grating and waveguide. The resulting devices had excellent pattern fidelity and the resonance peaks and widths closely matched the expected results. Unfortunately, the gratings were particularly angle sensitive and etch depth errors led to shifts in the center wavelength of the resonances. A second design iteration resulted in a double grating period to reduce the angle sensitivity as well as different materials and geometry; the grating and waveguide being the same layer. The inclusion of etch stop layers provided more accurate etch depths; however, the tolerance to changes in the grating duty cycle was much tighter. Results from these devices show the effects of small errors in the pattern fidelity. The fabrication process flows for both iterations of devices will be reviewed as well as the performance of the fabricated devices. A discussion of the relative merits of the various design choices provides insight into the importance of fabrication considerations during the design stage.

  19. Time Resolved Spectroscopy of High Field Polars (FUSE 00)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The following work has been accomplished: 1) The emission lines of O VI1 and He II were used to produce Doppler tomograms of the plasma emission. 2) An improved interstellar absorption model is being developed for the CIAO spectral fitting program, Sherpa. Use of the earlier version of this model showed it to be inadequate for its purpose. Once this model is working, we intend to complete our analysis of V884 Her and those of other FUSE programs. In addition to the above work, this grant has helped support the following related work: 1) The publication of the paper "Periodicities in the X-ray intensity variations of TV Columbae: an Intermediate Polar" by Rana, V. R., Singh, K. P., Schlegel, E. M., & Barrett, P. 2004, AJ, 126,489, and 2) FUSE data of a possible nova-like variable Ret 1 has been analyzed and shown to contain a hot (37000 deg) white dwarf (WD 0334-6400). The FUV spectrum shows strong absorption lines of C III.

  20. Bombardment of gas molecules on single graphene layer at high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Murugesan, Ramki; Park, Jae Hyun; Ha, Dong Sung

    2014-12-09

    Graphite is widely used as a material for rocket-nozzle inserts due to its excellent thermo-physical properties as well as low density. During the operation of rockets, the surface of the graphite nozzle is subjected to very high heat fluxes and the undesirable erosion of the surface occurs due to the bombardment of gas molecules with high kinetic energy, which causes a significant reduction of nozzle performance. However, the understanding and quantification of such bombardment is not satisfactory due to its complexity: The bond breaking-forming happens simultaneously for the carbon atoms of graphene, some gas molecules penetrate through the surface, some of them are reflected from the surface, etc. In the present study, we perform extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the bombardment phenomena in high temperature environment (several thousand Kelvin). Advanced from the previous studies that have focused on the bombardment by light molecules (e.g., H{sub 2}), we will concentrate on the impact by realistic molecules (e.g., CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O). LAMMPS is employed for the MD simulations with NVE ensemble and AIREBO potential for graphene. The molecular understanding of the interaction between graphene and highly energetic gas molecules will enable us to design an efficient thermo-mechanical protection system.

  1. High-intensity, high-brightness polarized and unpolarized beam production in charge-exchange collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenski, A.; Ritter, J.; Zubets, V.; Steski, D.; Atoian, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.

    2011-03-28

    Basic limitations on the high-intensity H{sup -} ion beam production were experimentally studied in charge-exchange collisions of the neutral atomic hydrogen beam in the Na-vapour jet ionizer cell. These studies are the part of the polarized source upgrade (to 10 mA peak current and 85% polarization) project for RHIC. In the source the atomic hydrogen beam of a 5-10 keV energy and total (equivalent) current up to 5 A is produced by neutralization of proton beam in pulsed hydrogen gas target. Formation of the proton beam (from the surface of the plasma emitter with a low transverse ion temperature {approx}0.2 eV) is produced by four-electrode spherical multi-aperture ion-optical system with geometrical focusing. The hydrogen atomic beam intensity up to 1.0 A/cm{sup 2} (equivalent) was obtained in the Na-jet ionizer aperture of a 2.0 cm diameter. At the first stage of the experiment H-beam with 36 mA current, 5 keV energy and {approx}1.0 cm {center_dot} mrad normalized emittance was obtained using the flat grids and magnetic focusing.

  2. ABSOLUTE MEASUREMENT OF THE POLARIZATION OF HIGH ENERGY PROTON BEAMS AT RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    MAKDISI,Y.; BRAVAR, A. BUNCE, G. GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    The spin physics program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) requires knowledge of the beam polarization to better than 5%. Such a goal is made the more difficult by the lack of knowledge of the analyzing power of high energy nuclear physics processes. To overcome this, a polarized hydrogen jet target was constructed and installed at one intersection region in RHIC where it intersects both beams and utilizes the precise knowledge of the jet atomic hydrogen beam polarization to measure the analyzing power in proton-proton elastic scattering in the Nuclear Coulomb Interference (CNI) region at the prescribed RHIC proton beam energy. The reverse reaction is used to assess the absolute beam polarization. Simultaneous measurements taken with fast high statistics polarimeters that measure the p-Carbon elastic scattering process also in the CNI region use the jet results to calibrate the latter.

  3. Transport spin polarization of high Curie temperature MnBi films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharel, P.; Thapa, P.; Lukashev, P.; Sabirianov, R. F.; Tsymbal, E. Y.; Sellmyer, D. J.; Nadgorny, B.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the study of the structural, magnetic, and transport properties of highly textured MnBi films with the Curie temperature of 628 K. In addition to detailed measurements of resistivity and magnetization, we measure transport spin polarization of MnBi by Andreev reflection spectroscopy and perform fully relativistic band-structure calculations of MnBi. A spin polarization from 51% ± 1% to 63% ± 1% is observed, consistent with the calculations and with an observation of a large magnetoresistance in MnBi contacts. The band-structure calculations indicate that in spite of almost identical densities of states at the Fermi energy, the large disparity in the Fermi velocities leads to high transport spin polarization of MnBi. The correlation between the values of magnetization and spin polarization is discussed.

  4. Transport Spin Polarization of High-Curie Temperature MnBi Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, Pushkal; Kharel, Parashu; Lukashev, Pavel; Sabirianov, Renat; Tsymbal, Evgeny; Sellmyer, David; Nadgorny, Boris

    2011-03-01

    We report on the study of the structural, magnetic and transport properties of highly textured MnBi films with the Curie temperature of 628 K. In addition to detailed measurements of resistivity and magnetization, we measure transport spin polarization of MnBi by Andreev reflection spectroscopy and perform first-principles electronic structure calculations. A transport spin polarization of up to 63% is observed, consistent with the calculations and with a recent observation of a large magnetoresistance in MnBi contacts. The band structure calculations indicate that, in spite of almost identical densities of states at the Fermi energy, the large disparity in the Fermi velocities leads to high transport spin polarization of MnBi. The correlation between the values of magnetization and spin polarization observed in MnBi will be discussed.

  5. High-contrast coherent population trapping based on crossed polarizers method.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yuichiro; Goka, Shigeyoshi

    2014-12-01

    A method based on crossed polarizers to observe high-contrast coherent population trapping (CPT) resonance has been developed. Because crossed polarizers have a simple optical system, our method is suitable for chip-scale atomic clocks (CSACs). In CPT, the Faraday rotation in a linearly polarized light field (lin||lin) was calculated using two pairs of Λ-system models; the spectrum of the Faraday rotation is also estimated. After measuring the contrast and linewidth with the crossed-polarizer method, a comparison of the theoretical model and experimental data showed they were in good agreement. Moreover, the experimental results showed that a high contrast (88.4%) and narrow linewidth (1.15 kHz) resonance could be observed using a Cs gas cell and D1-line verticalcavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). PMID:25474771

  6. Polarization measurement of dielectronic recombination transitions in highly charged krypton ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Chintan; Jörg, Holger; Bernitt, Sven; Dobrodey, Stepan; Steinbrügge, René; Beilmann, Christian; Amaro, Pedro; Hu, Zhimin; Weber, Sebastian; Fritzsche, Stephan; Surzhykov, Andrey; Crespo López-Urrutia, José R.; Tashenov, Stanislav

    2015-10-01

    We report linear polarization measurements of x rays emitted due to dielectronic recombination into highly charged krypton ions. The ions in the He-like through O-like charge states were populated in an electron-beam ion trap with the electron-beam energy adjusted to recombination resonances in order to produce K α x rays. The x rays were detected with a newly developed Compton polarimeter using a beryllium scattering target and 12 silicon x-ray detector diodes sampling the azimuthal distribution of the scattered x rays. The extracted degrees of linear polarization of several dielectronic recombination transitions agree with results of relativistic distorted-wave calculations. We also demonstrate a high sensitivity of the polarization to the Breit interaction, which is remarkable for a medium-Z element like krypton. The experimental results can be used for polarization diagnostics of hot astrophysical and laboratory fusion plasmas.

  7. Relativistic Effects and Polarization in Three High-Energy Pulsar Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyks, J.; Harding, Alice K.; Rudak, B.

    2004-01-01

    We present the influence of the special relativistic effects of aberration and light travel time delay on pulsar high-energy lightcurves and polarization characteristics predicted by three models: the two-pole caustic model, the outer gap model, and the polar cap model. Position angle curves and degree of polarization are calculated for the models and compared with the optical data on the Crab pulsar. The relative positions of peaks in gamma-ray and radio lightcurves are discussed in detail for the models. We find that the two-pole caustic model can reproduce qualitatively the optical polarization characteristics of the Crab pulsar - fast swings of the position angle and minima in polarization degree associated with both peaks. The anticorrelation between the observed flux and the polarization degree (observed in the optical band also for B0656+14) naturally results from the caustic nature of the peaks which are produced in the model due to the superposition of radiation from many different altitudes, ie. polarized at different angles. The two-pole caustic model also provides an acceptable interpretation of the main features in the Crab's radio profile. Neither the outer gap model nor the polar cap model are able to reproduce the optical polarization data on the Crab. Although the outer gap model is very successful in reproducing the relative positions of gamma-ray and radio peaks in pulse profiles, it can reproduce the high-energy lightcurves only when photon emission from regions very close to the light cylinder is included.

  8. High-speed polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography for the investigation of tissue birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulsen, Gultekin; Nalcioglu, Orhan

    2005-04-01

    Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) is an optical imaging modality that is sensitive to the birefringence properties of tissues. Birefringence is related to various biological components and therefore, polarization can provide novel contrast mechanisms for imaging. In this work, we will describe the design of a high-speed polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography system. A broadband source centered at 1310nm with 35nm bandwidth was utilized as the light source. The output power of the source and the resolution of the system were around 20mW and ~20 micrometers, respectively. To achieve high-speed scan, a rapid scan optical delay line (RSOD) was utilized in the reference arm. It provided depth scanning up to 1000 A-scan/s and controlled the carrier frequency of the interference of fridge pattern. Two galvo-mounted mirrors were used for lateral scanning of the beam. The polarization state of the incident light was altered between horizontal and vertical states by using a fast polarization rotator. The combined light from the reference and the sample arms was split into two orthogonal polarization components by a polarizing beam splitter and coupled into two single-mode optical fibers that are connected to the photodiodes. The roundtrip Jones matrix of the sample arm was measured and used to calibrate the measurements of polarization properties of the sample. The elements of the Jones matrix of the sample were calculated by the using the output Jones vectors for the incident polarization states. The performance of the system was evaluated with standard samples such as a quarter-wave plate. The animal studies are currently undertaken to assess the performance of the system in-vivo.

  9. High-speed all-optical terahertz polarization switching by a transient plasma phase modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Wen Haidan; Daranciang, Dan; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

    2010-04-19

    We demonstrate high-speed all-optical polarization switching of broadband terahertz frequency electromagnetic fields with subpicosecond switch-on time. This is achieved through the use of a two-plasma configuration in an orthogonal geometry in which one plasma modulates the relative phase of a two-color optical pump field, enabling rapid terahertz polarization modulation at rates limited by the repetition-rate of the control pulse.

  10. High-Throughput Universal DNA Curtain Arrays for Single-Molecule Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo, Ignacio F.; Pasupathy, Praveenkumar; Brown, Maxwell; Manhart, Carol M.; Neikirk, Dean P.; Alani, Eric; Finkelstein, Ilya J.

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule studies of protein–DNA interactions have shed critical insights into the molecular mechanisms of nearly every aspect of DNA metabolism. The development of DNA curtains—a method for organizing arrays of DNA molecules on a fluid lipid bilayer—has greatly facilitated these studies by increasing the number of reactions that can be observed in a single experiment. However, the utility of DNA curtains is limited by the challenges associated with depositing nanometer-scale lipid diffusion barriers onto quartz microscope slides. Here, we describe a UV lithography-based method for large-scale fabrication of chromium (Cr) features and organization of DNA molecules at these features for high-throughput single-molecule studies. We demonstrate this approach by assembling 792 independent DNA arrays (containing >900 000 DNA molecules) within a single microfluidic flowcell. As a first proof of principle, we track the diffusion of Mlh1-Mlh3—a heterodimeric complex that participates in DNA mismatch repair and meiotic recombination. To further highlight the utility of this approach, we demonstrate a two-lane flowcell that facilitates concurrent experiments on different DNA substrates. Our technique greatly reduces the challenges associated with assembling DNA curtains and paves the way for the rapid acquisition of large statistical data sets from individual single-molecule experiments. PMID:26325477

  11. Quantifying and optimizing single-molecule switching nanoscopy at high speeds.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu; Long, Jane J; Huang, Fang; Duim, Whitney C; Kirschbaum, Stefanie; Zhang, Yongdeng; Schroeder, Lena K; Rebane, Aleksander A; Velasco, Mary Grace M; Virrueta, Alejandro; Moonan, Daniel W; Jiao, Junyi; Hernandez, Sandy Y; Zhang, Yongli; Bewersdorf, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule switching nanoscopy overcomes the diffraction limit of light by stochastically switching single fluorescent molecules on and off, and then localizing their positions individually. Recent advances in this technique have greatly accelerated the data acquisition speed and improved the temporal resolution of super-resolution imaging. However, it has not been quantified whether this speed increase comes at the cost of compromised image quality. The spatial and temporal resolution depends on many factors, among which laser intensity and camera speed are the two most critical parameters. Here we quantitatively compare the image quality achieved when imaging Alexa Fluor 647-immunolabeled microtubules over an extended range of laser intensities and camera speeds using three criteria - localization precision, density of localized molecules, and resolution of reconstructed images based on Fourier Ring Correlation. We found that, with optimized parameters, single-molecule switching nanoscopy at high speeds can achieve the same image quality as imaging at conventional speeds in a 5-25 times shorter time period. Furthermore, we measured the photoswitching kinetics of Alexa Fluor 647 from single-molecule experiments, and, based on this kinetic data, we developed algorithms to simulate single-molecule switching nanoscopy images. We used this software tool to demonstrate how laser intensity and camera speed affect the density of active fluorophores and influence the achievable resolution. Our study provides guidelines for choosing appropriate laser intensities for imaging Alexa Fluor 647 at different speeds and a quantification protocol for future evaluations of other probes and imaging parameters. PMID:26011109

  12. Quantifying and Optimizing Single-Molecule Switching Nanoscopy at High Speeds

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu; Long, Jane J.; Huang, Fang; Duim, Whitney C.; Kirschbaum, Stefanie; Zhang, Yongdeng; Schroeder, Lena K.; Rebane, Aleksander A.; Velasco, Mary Grace M.; Virrueta, Alejandro; Moonan, Daniel W.; Jiao, Junyi; Hernandez, Sandy Y.; Zhang, Yongli; Bewersdorf, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule switching nanoscopy overcomes the diffraction limit of light by stochastically switching single fluorescent molecules on and off, and then localizing their positions individually. Recent advances in this technique have greatly accelerated the data acquisition speed and improved the temporal resolution of super-resolution imaging. However, it has not been quantified whether this speed increase comes at the cost of compromised image quality. The spatial and temporal resolution depends on many factors, among which laser intensity and camera speed are the two most critical parameters. Here we quantitatively compare the image quality achieved when imaging Alexa Fluor 647-immunolabeled microtubules over an extended range of laser intensities and camera speeds using three criteria – localization precision, density of localized molecules, and resolution of reconstructed images based on Fourier Ring Correlation. We found that, with optimized parameters, single-molecule switching nanoscopy at high speeds can achieve the same image quality as imaging at conventional speeds in a 5–25 times shorter time period. Furthermore, we measured the photoswitching kinetics of Alexa Fluor 647 from single-molecule experiments, and, based on this kinetic data, we developed algorithms to simulate single-molecule switching nanoscopy images. We used this software tool to demonstrate how laser intensity and camera speed affect the density of active fluorophores and influence the achievable resolution. Our study provides guidelines for choosing appropriate laser intensities for imaging Alexa Fluor 647 at different speeds and a quantification protocol for future evaluations of other probes and imaging parameters. PMID:26011109

  13. RHIC: The World's First High-Energy, Polarized-Proton Collider (423rd Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Mei

    2007-03-28

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL has been colliding polarized proton at a beam energy of 100 billion electron volts (GeV) since 2001. In addition to reporting upon the progress of RHIC polarized-proton program, this talk will focus upon the mechanisms that cause the beam to depolarize and the strategies developed to overcome this. As the world first polarized-proton collider, RHIC is designed to collide polarized protons up to an energy of 250 GeV, thereby providing an unique opportunity to measure the contribution made by the gluon to a proton's spin and to study the spin structure of proton. Unlike other high-energy proton colliders, however, the challenge for RHIC is to overcome the mechanisms that cause partial or total loss of beam polarization, which is due to the interaction of the spin vector with the magnetic fields. In RHIC, two Siberian snakes have been used to avoid these spin depolarizing resonances, which are driven by vertical closed-orbit distortion and vertical betatron oscillations. As a result, polarized-proton beams have been accelerated to 100 GeV without polarization loss, although depolarization has been observed during acceleration from 100 GeV to 205 GeV.

  14. High resolution measures of polarization and color of selected lunar areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, L. A.; Hall, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    High resolution observations of intensity, color (UBV) and polarization were obtained with scanning techniques for a number of lunar areas of special interest, including boundaries of some of the brightest and darkest lunar regions, certain Apollo landing sites and prominent craters. Two dimensional raster scans of colors were obtained for Alphonsus, Aristarchus, and Herodotus. The degree of polarization for any given phase angle appears to be roughly indicative of age. The darker younger mare surface are more highly polarized than the lighter and older mare surfaces, which appear to be more contaminated by lighter material from the highlands or by ray material thrown out from fresh craters. All mare surfaces are more highly polarized than the still older and lighter terra regions surrounding the maria. The very oldest craters are either dark-floored and show polarization characteristics similar to those of the mare surfaces, or if located in the highlands, they are less and less distinguishable from the highland background with greater age, and show the general highland polarization characteristics.

  15. Compact high extinction ratio asymmetric polarization beam splitter of periodic rods waveguide.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jin; Wang, Linzhi; Yang, Chunyong; Wang, Bing; Chen, Shaoping

    2015-12-01

    A compact high extinction ratio polarization beam splitter based on an asymmetric directional coupler was proposed and theoretically investigated. The asymmetric directional coupler consists of a silicon wire waveguide and a 1D periodic silicon rods waveguide, which results in an ultracompact polarization splitting length. By using the plane wave expansion method, a minimum coupling length of 3.43 μm was obtained, and the length was then confirmed by finite-difference time-domain simulation. Moreover, for 1550 nm wavelength, high extinction ratios of about 28 and 18 dB were also observed for TE and TM polarizations, respectively. The ultrahigh extinction ratio for TE polarization is mainly arising from the appearance of TM bandgap in the periodic rods waveguide. In addition, for both polarizations, the extinction ratios are all above 10 dB covering a 180 nm bandwidth, and it was also demonstrated that the device has a high transmission for TM polarization. PMID:26836688

  16. Theoretical study on the ground state of the polar alkali-metal-barium molecules: Potential energy curve and permanent dipole moment

    SciTech Connect

    Gou, Dezhi; Kuang, Xiaoyu Gao, Yufeng; Huo, Dongming

    2015-01-21

    In this paper, we systematically investigate the electronic structure for the {sup 2}Σ{sup +} ground state of the polar alkali-metal-alkaline-earth-metal molecules BaAlk (Alk = Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs). Potential energy curves and permanent dipole moments (PDMs) are determined using power quantum chemistry complete active space self-consistent field and multi-reference configuration interaction methods. Basic spectroscopic constants are derived from ro-vibrational bound state calculation. From the calculations, it is shown that BaK, BaRb, and BaCs molecules have moderate values of PDM at the equilibrium bond distance (BaK:1.62 D, BaRb:3.32 D, and BaCs:4.02 D). Besides, the equilibrium bond length (4.93 Å and 5.19 Å) and dissociation energy (0.1825 eV and 0.1817 eV) for the BaRb and BaCs are also obtained.

  17. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald

    2007-02-01

    Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  18. Signatures of symmetry and electronic structure in high-order harmonic generation in polyatomic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M. C. H.; Brichta, J.-P.; Bhardwaj, V. R.

    2010-06-15

    We report detailed measurements of high-order harmonic generation in chloromethane molecules (CCl{sub 4}, CHCl{sub 3}, and CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to show that fingerprints of symmetry and electronic structure can be decoded from high-order harmonic generation even in complex randomly oriented molecules. In our measurements, orbital symmetries of these molecules are manifested as both extended harmonic cutoffs and a local minimum in the ellipticity dependence of the cut-off harmonics, suggesting the occurrence of quantum interferences during ionization. The harmonic spectra exhibit distinct interference minima at {approx}42 and {approx}60 eV. We attribute the former to the Cooper minimum in the photoionization cross section and the latter to intramolecular interference during the recombination process.

  19. Permeation of protons, potassium ions, and small polar molecules through phospholipid bilayers as a function of membrane thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paula, S.; Volkov, A. G.; Van Hoek, A. N.; Haines, T. H.; Deamer, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for solute permeation of lipid bilayers. Partitioning into the hydrophobic phase of the bilayer, followed by diffusion, is accepted by many for the permeation of water and other small neutral solutes, but transient pores have also been proposed to account for both water and ionic solute permeation. These two mechanisms make distinctively different predictions about the permeability coefficient as a function of bilayer thickness. Whereas the solubility-diffusion mechanism predicts only a modest variation related to bilayer thickness, the pore model predicts an exponential relationship. To test these models, we measured the permeability of phospholipid bilayers to protons, potassium ions, water, urea, and glycerol. Bilayers were prepared as liposomes, and thickness was varied systematically by using unsaturated lipids with chain lengths ranging from 14 to 24 carbon atoms. The permeability coefficient of water and neutral polar solutes displayed a modest dependence on bilayer thickness, with an approximately linear fivefold decrease as the carbon number varied from 14 to 24 atoms. In contrast, the permeability to protons and potassium ions decreased sharply by two orders of magnitude between 14 and 18 carbon atoms, and leveled off, when the chain length was further extended to 24 carbon atoms. The results for water and the neutral permeating solutes are best explained by the solubility-diffusion mechanism. The results for protons and potassium ions in shorter-chain lipids are consistent with the transient pore model, but better fit the theoretical line predicted by the solubility-diffusion model at longer chain lengths.

  20. Permeation of protons, potassium ions, and small polar molecules through phospholipid bilayers as a function of membrane thickness.

    PubMed Central

    Paula, S; Volkov, A G; Van Hoek, A N; Haines, T H; Deamer, D W

    1996-01-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for solute permeation of lipid bilayers. Partitioning into the hydrophobic phase of the bilayer, followed by diffusion, is accepted by many for the permeation of water and other small neutral solutes, but transient pores have also been proposed to account for both water and ionic solute permeation. These two mechanisms make distinctively different predictions about the permeability coefficient as a function of bilayer thickness. Whereas the solubility-diffusion mechanism predicts only a modest variation related to bilayer thickness, the pore model predicts an exponential relationship. To test these models, we measured the permeability of phospholipid bilayers to protons, potassium ions, water, urea, and glycerol. Bilayers were prepared as liposomes, and thickness was varied systematically by using unsaturated lipids with chain lengths ranging from 14 to 24 carbon atoms. The permeability coefficient of water and neutral polar solutes displayed a modest dependence on bilayer thickness, with an approximately linear fivefold decrease as the carbon number varied from 14 to 24 atoms. In contrast, the permeability to protons and potassium ions decreased sharply by two orders of magnitude between 14 and 18 carbon atoms, and leveled off, when the chain length was further extended to 24 carbon atoms. The results for water and the neutral permeating solutes are best explained by the solubility-diffusion mechanism. The results for protons and potassium ions in shorter-chain lipids are consistent with the transient pore model, but better fit the theoretical line predicted by the solubility-diffusion model at longer chain lengths. PMID:8770210

  1. A novel small molecule target in human airway smooth muscle for potential treatment of obstructive lung diseases: a staged high-throughput biophysical screening

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A newly identified mechanism of smooth muscle relaxation is the interaction between the small heat shock protein 20 (HSP20) and 14-3-3 proteins. Focusing upon this class of interactions, we describe here a novel drug target screening approach for treating airflow obstruction in asthma. Methods Using a high-throughput fluorescence polarization (FP) assay, we screened a library of compounds that could act as small molecule modulators of HSP20 signals. We then applied two quantitative, cell-based biophysical methods to assess the functional efficacy of these molecules and rank-ordered their abilities to relax isolated human airway smooth muscle (ASM). Scaling up to the level of an intact tissue, we confirmed in a concentration-responsive manner the potency of the cell-based hit compounds. Results Among 58,019 compound tested, 268 compounds caused 20% or more reduction of the polarized emission in the FP assay. A small subset of these primary screen hits, belonging to two scaffolds, caused relaxation of isolated ASM cell in vitro and attenuated active force development of intact tissue ex vivo. Conclusions This staged biophysical screening paradigm provides proof-of-principle for high-throughput and cost-effective discovery of new small molecule therapeutic agents for obstructive lung diseases. PMID:21232113

  2. Modification of a single-molecule AFM probe with highly defined surface functionality

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Summary Single-molecule force spectroscopy with an atomic force microscope has been widely used to study inter- and intramolecular interactions. To obtain data consistent with single molecular events, a well-defined method is critical to limit the number of molecules at the apex of an AFM probe to one or to a few. In this paper, we demonstrate an easy method for single-molecule probe modification by using the Cu-catalyzed alkyne–azide cycloaddition reaction. Excess terminal alkynes were covalently attached to the probe, and a bi-functional molecule containing an azide at one end and a carboxylic acid at the other was dissolved in the reaction solution. By simply contacting the probe and the Cu substrate, controlled carboxylation on the probe apex could be achieved, since the ‘click’ reaction requires the co-exist of alkyne, azide and Cu(I). The finite contact area would result in a highly defined surface functionality of the probe down to single molecule level with high reproducibility. PMID:25551040

  3. Tackling the bottleneck in bacterial signal transduction research: high-throughput identification of signal molecules.

    PubMed

    Krell, Tino

    2015-05-01

    Signal transduction processes are typically initiated by the interaction of signal molecules with sensor domains. The current lack of information on the signal molecules that feed into regulatory circuits forms a major bottleneck that hampers the understanding of regulatory processes. McKellar et al. report a high-throughput approach for the identification of signal molecules, which is based on thermal shift assays of recombinant sensor domains in the absence and presence of compounds from commercially available ligand collections. Initial binding studies with the sensor domain of the PctA chemoreceptor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed a close match between thermal shift assay results and microcalorimetric studies reported previously. Using thermal shift assays the authors then identify signals that bind to three chemoreceptors of the kiwifruit pathogen P. syringae pv. Actinidiae NZ-V13. Microcalorimetric binding studies and chemotaxis assays have validated the relevance of these ligands. The power of this technique lies in the combination of a high-throughput analytical tool with commercially available compound collections. The approach reported is universal since it can be employed to identify signal molecules to any type of sensor domain. There is no doubt that this technique will facilitate the identification of many signal molecules in future years. PMID:25708679

  4. Photonic generation of triangular pulses based on nonlinear polarization rotation in a highly nonlinear fiber.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Wei Yu; Sun, Wen Hui; Wang, Wen Ting; Liu, Jian Guo; Zhu, Ning Hua

    2014-08-15

    We propose a novel method to generate triangular pulses based on the nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) effect in a highly nonlinear fiber. A continuous wave probe beam is polarization-rotated by an intensity-modulated control beam via the NPR effect. A polarization-division-multiplexing emulator is exploited to split the probe beam into two orthogonally polarized states with imbalanced time delay. After detection by a photodetector, a 90° microwave phase shifter is used to compensate the phases of the fundamental and the third-order harmonic components in order to generate triangular pulses. Triangular pulses at 5 and 6 GHz with full duty cycles are experimentally generated. The root mean square errors between the generated and the simulated waveforms are 3.6e-4 and 1e-4 for triangular pulses at 5 and 6 GHz, respectively. PMID:25121867

  5. Frequency tuning of polarization oscillations: Toward high-speed spin-lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemann, Markus; Pusch, Tobias; Michalzik, Rainer; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Spin-controlled vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (spin-VCSELs) offer a high potential to overcome several limitations of conventional purely charged-based laser devices. Presumably, the highest potential of spin-VCSELs lies in their ultrafast spin and polarization dynamics, which can be significantly faster than the intensity dynamics in conventional devices. Here, we experimentally demonstrate polarization oscillations in spin-VCSELs with frequencies up to 44 GHz. The results show that the oscillation frequency mainly depends on the cavity birefringence, which can be tuned by applying mechanical strain to the VCSEL structure. A tuning range of about 34 GHz is demonstrated. By measuring the polarization oscillation frequency and the birefringence governed mode splitting as a function of the applied strain simultaneously, we are able to investigate the correlation between birefringence and polarization oscillations in detail. The experimental findings are compared to numerical calculations based on the spin-flip model.

  6. Design of a polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detector with high detection efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fan; Xu, Ruiying; Zhu, Guanghao; Jin, Biaobing; Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) deliver superior performance over their competitors in the near-infrared regime. However, these detectors have an intrinsic polarization dependence on the incident wave because of their one-dimensional meander structure. In this paper, we propose an approach to eliminate the polarization sensitivity of SNSPDs by using near-field optics to increase the absorption of SNSPDs under transverse magnetic (TM) illumination. In addition, an optical cavity is added to our SNSPD to obtain nearly perfect absorption of the incident wave. Numerical simulations show that the maximum absorption of a designed SNSPD can reach 96% at 1550 nm, and indicate that the absorption difference between transverse electric (TE) and TM polarization is less than 0.5% across a wavelength window of 300 nm. Our work provides the first demonstration of the possibility of designing a polarization-insensitive and highly efficient SNSPD without performing device symmetry improvements. PMID:26948672

  7. Design of a polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detector with high detection efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fan; Xu, Ruiying; Zhu, Guanghao; Jin, Biaobing; Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) deliver superior performance over their competitors in the near-infrared regime. However, these detectors have an intrinsic polarization dependence on the incident wave because of their one-dimensional meander structure. In this paper, we propose an approach to eliminate the polarization sensitivity of SNSPDs by using near-field optics to increase the absorption of SNSPDs under transverse magnetic (TM) illumination. In addition, an optical cavity is added to our SNSPD to obtain nearly perfect absorption of the incident wave. Numerical simulations show that the maximum absorption of a designed SNSPD can reach 96% at 1550 nm, and indicate that the absorption difference between transverse electric (TE) and TM polarization is less than 0.5% across a wavelength window of 300 nm. Our work provides the first demonstration of the possibility of designing a polarization-insensitive and highly efficient SNSPD without performing device symmetry improvements. PMID:26948672

  8. Generation of circularly polarized high harmonic radiation using a transmission multilayer quarter waveplate.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jürgen; Guggenmos, Alexander; Hofstetter, Michael; Chew, Soo Hoon; Kleineberg, Ulf

    2015-12-28

    High harmonic radiation is meanwhile nearly extensively used for the spectroscopic investigation of electron dynamics with ultimate time resolution. The majority of high harmonic beamlines provide linearly polarized radiation created in a gas target. However, circular polarization greatly extends the spectroscopic possibilities for high harmonics, especially in the analysis of samples with chirality or prominent spin polarization. We produced a free-standing multilayer foil as a transmission EUV quarter waveplate and applied it for the first time to high harmonic radiation. We measured a broadband (4.6 eV FWHM) ellipticity of 75% at 66 eV photon energy with a transmission efficiency of 5%. The helicity is switchable and the ellipticity can be adjusted to lower values by angle tuning. As a single element it can be easily integrated in any existing harmonic beamline without major changes. PMID:26832020

  9. Highly polarized muonic helium produced by collisions with optically pumped Rb

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    Highly polarized muonic helium has been formed by stopping unpolarized negative muons in a mixture of unpolarized gaseous He and laser optically pumped Rb vapor. The stopped muons form muonic He ions which are neutralized and polarized by collisions with Rb. Average polarizations for [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He of 26.8 [+-] 2.3% and 44.2 [+-] 3.5% were achieved, representing a tenfold increase over previous methods. Fitting the time dependent polarization to equations for spin exchange and polarized dissociative charge exchange derived through the use of spherical basis tensors, cross sections for both interactions were computed. The cross section for spin exchange was found to be [sigma][sub SE] = (1.36 [+-] 0.17 [+-] 0.25) x 10[sup [minus]14]cm[sup [minus]2], while the cross section for dissociative charge exchange was measured as [sigma][sub CE] = (4.47 [+-] 0.67 [+-] 0.82) x 10[sup [minus]14]cm[sup 2]. Highly polarized muonic He is valuable for measurements of the induced pseudoscalar coupling g[sub P] in nuclear muon capture.

  10. Polarization-insensitive optical gain characteristics of highly stacked InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Kita, Takashi; Suwa, Masaya; Kaizu, Toshiyuki; Harada, Yukihiro

    2014-06-21

    The polarized optical gain characteristics of highly stacked InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) with a thin spacer layer fabricated on an n{sup +}-GaAs (001) substrate were studied in the sub-threshold gain region. Using a 4.0-nm-thick spacer layer, we realized an electronically coupled QD superlattice structure along the stacking direction, which enabled the enhancement of the optical gain of the [001] transverse-magnetic (TM) polarization component. We systematically studied the polarized electroluminescence properties of laser devices containing 30 and 40 stacked InAs/GaAs QDs. The net modal gain was analyzed using the Hakki-Paoli method. Owing to the in-plane shape anisotropy of QDs, the polarization sensitivity of the gain depends on the waveguide direction. The gain showing polarization isotropy between the TM and transverse-electric polarization components is high for the [110] waveguide structure, which occurs for higher amounts of stacked QDs. Conversely, the isotropy of the [−110] waveguide is easily achieved even if the stacking is relatively low, although the gain is small.

  11. High Latitude Meridional Flow on the Sun May Explain North-South Polar Field Asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosak, Katie; Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David

    2012-01-01

    We measured the flows of magnetic elements on the Sun at very high latitudes by analyzing magnetic images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission. Magnetic maps constructed using a fixed, and north-south symmetric, meridional flow profile give weaker than observed polar fields in the North and stronger than observed polar fields in the South during the decline of Cycle 23 and rise of Cycle 24. Our measurements of the meridional flow at high latitudes indicate systematic north-south differences. In the fall of 2010 (when the North Pole was most visible), there was a strong flow in the North while in the spring of 2011 (when the South Pole was most visible) the flow there was weaker. With these results, we have a possible solution to this polar field asymmetry. The weaker flow in the South should keep the polar fields from becoming too strong while the stronger flow in the North should strengthen the field there. In order to gain a better understanding of the Solar Cycle and magnetic flux transport on the Sun, we need further observations and analyses of the Sun s polar regions in general and the polar meridional flow in particular.

  12. High Latitude Meridional Flow on the Sun May Explain North-South Polar Field Asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosak, Katie; Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David

    2012-01-01

    We measured the flows of magnetic elements on the Sun at very high latitudes by analyzing magnetic images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission. Magnetic maps constructed using a fixed, and north-south symmetric, meridional flow profile give weaker than observed polar fields in the North and stronger than observed polar fields in the South during the decline of Cycle 23 and rise of Cycle 24. Our measurements of the meridional flow at high latitudes indicate systematic north-south differences. There was a strong flow in the North while the flow in the South was weaker. With these results, we have a possible solution to the polar field asymmetry. The weaker flow in the South should keep the polar fields from becoming too strong while the stronger flow in the North should strengthen the field there. In order to gain a better understanding of the Solar Cycle and magnetic flux transport on the Sun, we need further observations and analyses of the Sun's polar regions in general and the polar meridonal flow in particular.

  13. High Latitude Meridional Flow on the Sun May Explain North-South Polar Field Asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosak, Katie; Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David

    2012-01-01

    We measured the flows of magnetic elements on the Sun at very high latitudes by analyzing magnetic images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission. Magnetic maps constructed using a fixed, and north ]south symmetric, meridional flow profile give weaker than observed polar fields in the North and stronger than observed polar fields in the South during the decline of Cycle 23 and rise of Cycle 24. Our measurements of the meridional flow at high latitudes indicate systematic north ]south differences. There was a strong flow in the North while the flow in the South was weaker. With these results, we have a possible solution to the polar field asymmetry. The weaker flow in the South should keep the polar fields from becoming too strong while the stronger flow in the North should strengthen the field there. In order to gain a better understanding of the Solar Cycle and magnetic flux transport on the Sun, we need further observations and analyses of the Sun fs polar regions in general and the polar meridional flow in particular

  14. Update on High-Resolution Geodetically Controlled LROC Polar Mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archinal, B.; Lee, E.; Weller, L.; Richie, J.; Edmundson, K.; Laura, J.; Robinson, M.; Speyerer, E.; Boyd, A.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Wagner, R.; Nefian, A.

    2015-10-01

    We describe progress on high-resolution (1 m/pixel) geodetically controlled LROC mosaics of the lunar poles, which can be used for locating illumination resources (for solar power or cold traps) or landing site and surface operations planning.

  15. Separation Technique for the Determination of Highly Polar Metabolites in Biological Samples

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Yusuke; Sawada, Takahiro; Hatayama, Kentaro; Ohyagi, Akihito; Tsukuda, Yuri; Namekawa, Kyohei; Ito, Rie; Saito, Koichi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Metabolomics is a new approach that is based on the systematic study of the full complement of metabolites in a biological sample. Metabolomics has the potential to fundamentally change clinical chemistry and, by extension, the fields of nutrition, toxicology, and medicine. However, it can be difficult to separate highly polar compounds. Mass spectrometry (MS), in combination with capillary electrophoresis (CE), gas chromatography (GC), or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the key analytical technique on which emerging "omics" technologies, namely, proteomics, metabolomics, and lipidomics, are based. In this review, we introduce various methods for the separation of highly polar metabolites. PMID:24957644

  16. High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing of small-molecule organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kukjoo; Kim, Gyeomuk; Lee, Bo Ram; Ji, Sangyoon; Kim, So-Yun; An, Byeong Wan; Song, Myoung Hoon; Park, Jang-Ung

    2015-08-01

    The development of alternative organic light-emitting diode (OLED) fabrication technologies for high-definition and low-cost displays is an important research topic as conventional fine metal mask-assisted vacuum evaporation has reached its limit to reduce pixel sizes and manufacturing costs. Here, we report an electrohydrodynamic jet (e-jet) printing method to fabricate small-molecule OLED pixels with high resolution (pixel width of 5 μm), which significantly exceeds the resolutions of conventional inkjet or commercial OLED display pixels. In addition, we print small-molecule emitting materials which provide a significant advantage in terms of device efficiency and lifetime compared to those with polymers.The development of alternative organic light-emitting diode (OLED) fabrication technologies for high-definition and low-cost displays is an important research topic as conventional fine metal mask-assisted vacuum evaporation has reached its limit to reduce pixel sizes and manufacturing costs. Here, we report an electrohydrodynamic jet (e-jet) printing method to fabricate small-molecule OLED pixels with high resolution (pixel width of 5 μm), which significantly exceeds the resolutions of conventional inkjet or commercial OLED display pixels. In addition, we print small-molecule emitting materials which provide a significant advantage in terms of device efficiency and lifetime compared to those with polymers. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03034j

  17. Rigid DNA beams for high-resolution single-molecule mechanics.

    PubMed

    Pfitzner, Emanuel; Wachauf, Christian; Kilchherr, Fabian; Pelz, Benjamin; Shih, William M; Rief, Matthias; Dietz, Hendrik

    2013-07-22

    Bridging the gap: Rigid DNA linkers (blue, see picture) between microspheres (green) for high-resolution single-molecule mechanical experiments were constructed using DNA origami. The resulting DNA helical bundles greatly reduce the noise generated in studies of conformation changes using optical tweezers and were applied to study small DNA secondary structures. PMID:23794413

  18. Enhanced Electron Attachment to Highly-Excited Molecules and Its Applications in Pulsed Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, W.X.; Ma, C.Y.; McCorkle, D.L.; Pinnaduwage, L.A.

    1999-06-27

    Studies conducted over the past several years have shown that electron attachment to highly-excited states of molecules have extremely large cross sections. We will discuss the implications of this for pulsed discharges used for H- generation, material processing, and plasma remediation.

  19. Highly efficient broadband polarization retarders and tunable polarization filters made of composite stacks of ordinary wave plates.

    PubMed

    Dimova, E St; Ivanov, S S; Popkirov, G St; Vitanov, N V

    2014-05-01

    By using the formal analogy between the evolution of the state vector in quantum mechanics and the Jones vector in polarization optics, we construct and demonstrate experimentally efficient broadband half-wave polarization retarders and tunable narrowband polarization filters. Both the broadband retarders and the filters are constructed by the same set of stacked standard multiorder optical wave plates (WPs) rotated at different angles with respect to their fast polarization axes: for a certain set of angles this device behaves as a broadband polarization retarder, while for another set of angles it turns into a narrowband polarization filter. We demonstrate that the transmission profile of our filter can be centered around any desired wavelength in a certain vicinity of the design wavelength of the WPs solely by selecting appropriate rotation angles. PMID:24979626

  20. Generating Polarized High-Brightness Muon Beams With High-Energy Gammas

    SciTech Connect

    Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2009-01-22

    Hadron colliders are impractical at very high energies as effective interaction energy is a fraction of the energies of the beams and luminosity must rise as energy squared. Further, the prevailing gluon-gluon background radiation makes it difficult to sort out events. e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders, on other hand, are constrained at TeV energies by beamstrahlung radiation and also by cost as long linacs are required to avoid synchrotron radiation in the rings. A muon collider will have the same advantages in energy reach as an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, but without prohibitive beamstrahlung- and synchrotron- radiation. Generation of the high-brightness polarized muon ({mu}{sup -}{mu}{sup +}) beams through gamma conversion into pairs in the nuclei field is considered in this paper. The dominant effect in the interaction of the high-energy photons with the solid target will be the production of electron-positron pairs. The low-phase space of the resulting muon beams adequately compensates for the small probability of generating a {mu}{sup -}{mu}{sup +} pair.

  1. Small-Molecule High-Throughput Screening Utilizing Xenopus Egg Extract

    PubMed Central

    Broadus, Matthew R.; Yew, P. Renee; Hann, Stephen R.; Lee, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Screens for small-molecule modulators of biological pathways typically utilize cultured cell lines, purified proteins, or, recently, model organisms (e.g., zebrafish, Drosophila, C. elegans). Herein, we describe a method for using Xenopus laevis egg extract, a biologically active and highly tractable cell-free system that recapitulates a legion of complex chemical reactions found in intact cells. Specifically, we focus on the use of a luciferase-based fusion system to identify small-molecule modulators that affect protein turnover. PMID:25618336

  2. Charge-sharing in fragmentation of nitrogen molecules in collision with highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, J.; Tezuka, H.; Shiromaru, H.

    2015-01-01

    An apparatus for low-energy collision of highly charged ions with molecules, comprising a position sensitive time-of-flight measurement devise for recoil ions and a charge state analyser for the scattered projectile, was newly constructed at a beam line of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. Collision experiments of 120 keV Ar8+ with the target of nitrogen molecules were conducted as a test run of this apparatus. Focusing on the dissociation channels with asymmetric sharing of the charges by fragmentation, correlation between Auger electron emission of the projectile and Coulomb explosion of the target is discussed.

  3. Coulomb excitation of highly charged projectile ions in relativistic collisions with diatomic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Artemyev, A. N.; McConnell, S. R.; Surzhykov, A.; Najjari, B.; Voitkiv, A. B.

    2011-10-15

    We investigate the Coulomb excitation of highly charged ions colliding with diatomic molecules. In this process, the coherent interaction between the projectile electron and two molecular centers may cause clear interference patterns in the (collision) energy dependencies of the total cross sections and alignment parameters. We discuss such a Young-type interference for the particular case of the K{yields}L excitation of hydrogen- and helium-like projectile ions. Calculations, performed for the scattering of these ions on nitrogen molecules, indicate that the interference effects are extremely sensitive to the collisional geometry and are pronounced only if the molecular axis is aligned almost parallel to the incident beam trajectory.

  4. High-speed endless optical polarization stabilization using calibrated waveplates and field-programmable gate array-based digital controller.

    PubMed

    Hidayat, Ariya; Koch, Benjamin; Zhang, Hongbin; Mirvoda, Vitali; Lichtinger, Manfred; Sandel, David; No, Reinhold

    2008-11-10

    A truly endless polarization stabilization experiment with a tracking speed of 15 krad/s is presented. The high-speed polarization tracking is realized by using calibrated lithium niobate linear retardation waveplates as the polarization transformers combined with a very fast digital controller running on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). PMID:19581991

  5. Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Götzinger, Erich; Pircher, Michael; Baumann, Bernhard; Schmoll, Tilman; Sattmann, Harald; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2015-01-01

    We present a high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography system based on polarization maintaining fibers and two high speed CMOS line scan cameras capable of retinal imaging with up to 128 k A-lines/s. This high imaging speed strongly reduces motion artifacts and therefore averaging of several B-scans is possible, which strongly reduces speckle noise and improves image quality. We present several methods for averaging retardation and optic axis orientation, the best one providing a 5 fold noise reduction. Furthermore, a novel scheme of calculating images of degree of polarization uniformity is presented. We quantitatively compare the noise reduction depending on the number of averaged frames and discuss the limits of frame numbers that can usefully be averaged. PMID:21934820

  6. Polarization measurements through space-to-ground atmospheric propagation paths by using a highly polarized laser source in space.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Morio; Takenaka, Hideki; Shoji, Yozo; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Koyama, Yoshisada; Kunimori, Hiroo

    2009-12-01

    The polarization characteristics of an artificial laser source in space were measured through space-to-ground atmospheric transmission paths. An existing Japanese laser communication satellite and optical ground station were used to measure Stokes parameters and the degree of polarization of the laser beam transmitted from the satellite. As a result, the polarization was preserved within an rms error of 1.6 degrees, and the degree of polarization was 99.4+/-4.4% through the space-to-ground atmosphere. These results contribute to the link estimation for quantum key distribution via space and provide the potential for enhancements in quantum cryptography worldwide in the future. PMID:20052156

  7. Optical attosecond mapping by polarization selective detection

    SciTech Connect

    Kitzler, Markus; Xie Xinhua; Scrinzi, Armin; Baltuska, Andrius

    2007-07-15

    We propose a general concept to use the spatial information encoded in the time-dependent polarization of high-order harmonic radiation generated by orthogonally polarized two-color laser fields. Based on polarization selective detection, we present two examples of applications: (i) a method for isolating a single attosecond pulse from an attosecond pulse train which is more efficient than the cutoff selection method and (ii) a technique for orbital tomography of molecules with attosecond resolution.

  8. Spin Torque Oscillators with Highly Spin-Polarized Heusler Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Takanashi, Koki

    2015-03-01

    An intriguing spin torque device is the spin torque oscillator (STO). An important issue for STOs from the viewpoint of practical use is to enhance the rf output power (Pout). Since Pout is roughly proportional to the square of the magnetoresistance (MR) ratio, a ferromagnetic material showing a large MR effect is a candidate for high-performance STO. In this study, we have developed high-power all-metal STOs with a full Heusler Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si (CFMS) showing a large MR effect. The present STOs consist of current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) giant magnetoresistance (GMR) stacks of CFMS |Ag |CFMS. A pillar-shaped STO showed clear auto-oscillation. The large Pout of 23.7 nW was obtained owing to its out-of-plane magnetization precession. Simultaneously, the oscillation linewidth showed the minimum value of 10 MHz. On the other hand, a point-contact-type STO showed auto-oscillation even at zero external magnetic field, and the oscillation mode was drastically changed as the bias current was increased. The large Pout for both STOs indicates the CPP-GMR devices with CFMS layers are promising for high performance STO.

  9. Identification of novel small molecule inhibitors of adenovirus gene transfer using a high throughput screening approach.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Margaret R; Parker, Alan L; Kalkman, Eric R; White, Katie; Kovalskyy, Dmytro; Kelly, Sharon M; Baker, Andrew H

    2013-08-28

    Due to many favourable attributes adenoviruses (Ads) are the most extensively used vectors for clinical gene therapy applications. However, following intravascular administration, the safety and efficacy of Ad vectors are hampered by the strong hepatic tropism and induction of a potent immune response. Such effects are determined by a range of complex interactions including those with neutralising antibodies, blood cells and factors, as well as binding to native cellular receptors (coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR), integrins). Once in the bloodstream, coagulation factor X (FX) has a pivotal role in determining Ad liver transduction and viral immune recognition. Due to difficulties in generating a vector devoid of multiple receptor binding motifs, we hypothesised that a small molecule inhibitor would be of value. Here, a pharmacological approach was implemented to block adenovirus transduction pathways. We developed a high throughput screening (HTS) platform to identify small molecule inhibitors of FX-mediated Ad5 gene transfer. Using an in vitro fluorescence and cell-based HTS, we evaluated 10,240 small molecules. Following sequential rounds of screening, three compounds, T5424837, T5550585 and T5660138 were identified that ablated FX-mediated Ad5 transduction with low micromolar potency. The candidate molecules possessed common structural features and formed part of the one pharmacophore model. Focused, mini-libraries were generated with structurally related molecules and in vitro screening revealed novel hits with similar or improved efficacy. The compounds did not interfere with Ad5:FX engagement but acted at a subsequent step by blocking efficient intracellular transport of the virus. In vivo, T5660138 and its closely related analogue T5660136 significantly reduced Ad5 liver transgene expression at 48 h post-intravenous administration of a high viral dose (1×10¹¹ vp/mouse). Therefore, this study identifies novel and potent small molecule inhibitors of the Ad5 transduction which may have applications in the Ad gene therapy setting. PMID:23702233

  10. Generation of bright phase-matched circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kfir, Ofer; Grychtol, Patrik; Turgut, Emrah; Knut, Ronny; Zusin, Dmitriy; Popmintchev, Dimitar; Popmintchev, Tenio; Nembach, Hans; Shaw, Justin M.; Fleischer, Avner; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret; Cohen, Oren

    2015-02-01

    Circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet and X-ray radiation is useful for analysing the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of materials. To date, such radiation has only been available at large-scale X-ray facilities such as synchrotrons. Here, we demonstrate the first bright, phase-matched, extreme ultraviolet circularly-polarized high harmonics source. The harmonics are emitted when bi-chromatic counter-rotating circularly-polarized laser pulses field-ionize a gas in a hollow-core waveguide. We use this new light source for magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the M-shell absorption edges of Co. We show that phase-matching of circularly-polarized harmonics is unique and robust, producing a photon flux comparable to linearly polarized high harmonic sources. This work represents a critical advance towards the development of table-top systems for element-specific imaging and spectroscopy of multiple elements simultaneously in magnetic and other chiral media with very high spatial and temporal resolution.

  11. A theoretical study of resonance Raman scattering from molecules: High pressure effect

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Y.; Lin, S. H.; Eyring, H.

    1980-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper has been to study the high pressure effect on the resonance Raman scattering (RRS) of molecules in a dense medium. In deriving the RRS cross section under high pressure, a different approach from that presented in the previous papers has been used, and the resulting expression for the RRS cross section can be used to treat both pressure and temperature effects. PMID:16592869

  12. Detection of high and variable Optical Polarization in Blazar S5 0716+71 from MIRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baliyan, Ks; Ganesh, S.; Chandra, S.; Joshi, Uc

    2009-12-01

    Blazar S5 0716+714 (PKS 0716+71) is highly variable at short and long term timescales in all energy regimes. We monitored it for linear Optical Polarization using 1.2m Telescope at Mt Abu IR Observatory, India, mounted with two-channel PRL Polarimeter. It was found to have high and variable polarization during Dec 12-13, 2009. The source has been reported to be undergoing flaring activity at sub-mm (ATEL #2342) and a multifrequency campaign is already on.

  13. Colloidal lenses allow high-temperature single-molecule imaging and improve fluorophore photostability

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jerrod J.; Stavrakis, Stavros; Quake, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Although single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy was first demonstrated at near-absolute zero temperatures (1.8 K)1, the field has since advanced to include room-temperature observations2, largely owing to the use of objective lenses with high numerical aperture, brighter fluorophores and more sensitive detectors. This has opened the door for many chemical and biological systems to be studied at native temperatures at the single-molecule level both in vitro3–4 and in vivo5–6. However, it is difficult to study systems and phenomena at temperatures above 37 °C, because the index-matching fluids used with high-numerical-aperture objective lenses can conduct heat from the sample to the lens, and sustained exposure to high temperatures can cause the lens to fail. Here, we report that TiO2 colloids with diameters of 2 μm and a high refractive index can act as lenses that are capable of single-molecule imaging at 70 °C when placed in immediate proximity to an emitting molecule. The optical system is completed by a low-numerical-aperture optic that can have a long working distance and an air interface, which allows the sample to be independently heated. Colloidal lenses were used for parallel imaging of surface-immobilized single fluorophores and for real-time single-molecule measurements of mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes at 70 °C. Fluorophores in close proximity to TiO2 also showed a 40% increase in photostability due to a reduction of the excited-state lifetime. PMID:20023643

  14. Slowing and cooling of heavy or light (even with a tiny electric dipole moment) polar molecules using a novel, versatile electrostatic Stark decelerator.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Hou, Shunyong; Xu, Liang; Yin, Jianping

    2016-02-21

    To meet some demands for realizing precise measurements of an electric dipole moment of electron (eEDM) and examining cold collisions or cold chemical physics, we have proposed a novel, versatile electrostatic Stark decelerator with an array of true 3D electric potential wells, which are created by a series of horizontally-oriented, U-shaped electrodes with time-sequence controlling high voltages (±HV) and two guiding electrodes with a constant voltage. We have calculated the 2D electric field distribution, the Stark shifts of the four lowest rotational sub-levels of PbF molecules in the X1(2)Π1/2(v = 0) electronic and vibrational ground states as well as the population in the different rotational levels. We have discussed the 2D longitudinal and transverse phase-space acceptances of PbF molecules in our decelerator. Subsequently, we have simulated the dynamic processes of the decelerated PbF molecules using the 3D Monte-Carlo method, and have found that a supersonic PbF beam with a velocity of 300 m s(-1) can be efficiently slowed to about 5 m s(-1), which will greatly enhance the sensitivities to research a parity violation and measure an eEDM. In addition, we have investigated the dependences of the longitudinal velocity spread, longitudinal temperature and bunching efficiency on both the number of guiding stages and high voltages, and found that after bunching, a cold packet of PbF molecules in the J = 7/2, MΩ = -7/4 state with a longitudinal velocity spread of 0.69 m s(-1) (corresponding to a longitudinal temperature of 2.35 mK) will be produced by our high-efficient decelerator, which will generate a high energy-resolution molecular beam for studying cold collision physics. Finally, our novel decelerator can also be used to efficiently slow NO molecules with a tiny electric dipole moment (EDM) of 0.16 D from 315 m s(-1) to 28 m s(-1). It is clear that our proposed new decelerator has a good slowing performance and experimental feasibility as well as wide applications in the field of precise measurements and cold molecule physics. PMID:26823151

  15. Response to ``Comment on `Solvatochromic shifts of polar and non-polar molecules in ambient and supercritical water: A sequential quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics study including solute-solvent electron exchange-correlation''' [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 217101 (2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Haibo; Ma, Yingjin

    2013-06-01

    In this response to Schwabe's recent comment [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 217101 (2013), 10.1063/1.4807839], we discuss the validity of Schwabe's interpretation of why a large quantum mechanics (QM) region is needed to converge the quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) results for aqueous benzene, which he ascribed to our insufficient electrostatic potential or neglect of polarization effect. It is shown that improving the electrostatic potential with ground-state polarizable effective fragment potential and fragment molecular orbital methods instead of simple point charge embedding still deviates much from the experimental determinations for aqueous benzene, and solvent polarization in response to the solute excitation for such a system is also very small. We then resuggest enlarging the QM region size or incorporating new exchange repulsion potentials in QM/MM calculations to account for exchange interaction between a solute and its nearby solvents for the highly accurate electronic spectral shift calculations of non-polar solutes dissolved in water.

  16. High Resolution Continuous Flow Analysis System for Polar Ice Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmayr, Remi; Azuma, Kumiko; Yamada, Hironobu; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Vallelonga, Paul; Azuma, Nobuhiko; Takata, Morimasa

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades, Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) technology for ice core analyses has been developed to reconstruct the past changes of the climate system 1), 2). Compared with traditional analyses of discrete samples, a CFA system offers much faster and higher depth resolution analyses. It also generates a decontaminated sample stream without time-consuming sample processing procedure by using the inner area of an ice-core sample.. The CFA system that we have been developing is currently able to continuously measure stable water isotopes 3) and electrolytic conductivity, as well as to collect discrete samples for the both inner and outer areas with variable depth resolutions. Chemistry analyses4) and methane-gas analysis 5) are planned to be added using the continuous water stream system 5). In order to optimize the resolution of the current system with minimal sample volumes necessary for different analyses, our CFA system typically melts an ice core at 1.6 cm/min. Instead of using a wire position encoder with typical 1mm positioning resolution 6), we decided to use a high-accuracy CCD Laser displacement sensor (LKG-G505, Keyence). At the 1.6 cm/min melt rate, the positioning resolution was increased to 0.27mm. Also, the mixing volume that occurs in our open split debubbler is regulated using its weight. The overflow pumping rate is smoothly PID controlled to maintain the weight as low as possible, while keeping a safety buffer of water to avoid air bubbles downstream. To evaluate the system's depth-resolution, we will present the preliminary data of electrolytic conductivity obtained by melting 12 bags of the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core. The samples correspond to different climate intervals (Greenland Stadial 21, 22, Greenland Stadial 5, Greenland Interstadial 5, Greenland Interstadial 7, Greenland Stadial 8). We will present results for the Greenland Stadial -8, whose depths and ages are between 1723.7 and 1724.8 meters, and 35.520 to 35.636 kyr b2k 7), respectively. The results show the conductivity measured upstream and downstream of the debubbler. We will calculate the depth resolution of our system and compare it with earlier studies. 1) Bigler at al, "Optimization of High-Resolution Continuous Flow Analysis For Transient Climate Signals in Ice Cores". Environ. Sci. Technol. 2011, 45, 4483-4489 2) Kaufmann et al, "An Improved Continuous Flow Analysis System for High Resolution Field Measurements on Ice Cores". Environmental Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 8044-8050 3) Gkinis, V., T. J. Popp, S. J. Johnsen and T, Blunier, 2010: A continuous stream flash evaporator for the calibration of an IR cavity ring down spectrometer for the isotopic analysis of water. Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies, 46(4), 463-475. 4) McConnell et al, "Continuous ice-core chemical analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2002, 36, 7-11 5) Rhodes et al, "Continuous methane measurements from a late Holocene Greenland ice core : Atmospheric and in-situ signals" Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 2013, 368, 9-19 6) Breton et al, "Quantifying Signal Dispersion in a Hybrid Ice Core Melting System". Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46, 11922-11928 7) Rasmussen et al, " A first chronology for the NEEM ice core". Climate of the Past. 2013, 9, 2967--3013

  17. Polarizing grating color filters with large acceptance angle and high transmittance.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhenyue; Zhang, Guiju; Zhu, Ruidong; Gao, Yating; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2016-01-01

    We design and simulate a polarizing color filter with a sub-wavelength metal-dielectric grating. It manifests several advantages: a large acceptance angle (up to ±50°), high transmittance (74.3%-92.7%), low absorption loss (∼3.3%), and a high extinction ratio. This polarizing color filter can be integrated into a liquid-crystal display (LCD) backlight system to simultaneously recycle the light according to its color and polarization. In combination with a specially designed directional backlight, this newly proposed LCD system can theoretically improve optical efficiency up to ∼2.5×, and also provides a large ambient contrast ratio and a wide view. Our approach enables an ultra-low-power LCD without using the complicated field-sequential-color technique. PMID:26835623

  18. High resolution spectroscopy of methyltrioxorhenium: towards the observation of parity violation in chiral molecules.

    PubMed

    Stoeffler, Clara; Darquié, Benoît; Shelkovnikov, Alexander; Daussy, Christophe; Amy-Klein, Anne; Chardonnet, Christian; Guy, Laure; Crassous, Jeanne; Huet, Thérèse R; Soulard, Pascale; Asselin, Pierre

    2011-01-21

    Originating from the weak interaction, parity violation in chiral molecules has been considered as a possible origin of biohomochirality. We have proposed the observation of molecular parity violation using the two-photon Ramsey fringes technique on a supersonic beam. As a first step in this direction, a detailed spectroscopic study of methyltrioxorhenium (MTO) has been undertaken. It is an ideal test molecule as the achiral parent molecule of chiral candidates for a parity violation experiment. For the (187)Re MTO isotopologue, a combined analysis of Fourier transform microwave and infrared spectra as well as ultra-high resolution CO(2) laser absorption spectra enabled the assignment of 28 rotational lines and 71 rovibrational lines, some of them with a resolved hyperfine structure. A set of spectroscopic parameters in the ground and first excited state, including hyperfine structure constants, was obtained for the ν(as) antisymmetric Re=O stretching mode of this molecule. This result validates the experimental approach to be followed once a chiral derivative of MTO is synthesized, and shows the benefit of the combination of several spectroscopic techniques in different spectral regions, with different set-ups and resolutions. The first high resolution spectra of jet-cooled MTO, obtained on a set-up being developed for the observation of molecular parity violation, are shown, which constitutes a major step towards the targeted objective. PMID:21120236

  19. Coronal origin of the polarization of the high-energy emission of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, G. E.; Vieyro, F. L.; Chaty, S.

    2014-02-01

    Context. Cygnus X-1 is the candidate with the highest probability of containing a black hole among the X-ray binary systems in the Galaxy. It is also by far the most often studied of these objects. Recently, the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory Imager on board the Integral satellite (INTEGRAL/IBIS) detected strong polarization in the high-energy radiation of this source, between 400 keV and 2 MeV. This radiation has been attributed to a jet launched by the black hole. Aims: We consider whether the corona around the black hole might be the site of production of the polarized emission instead of the jet. Methods: We studied self-consistently the injection of nonthermal particles in the hot, magnetized plasma around the black hole. Results: We show that both the high-energy spectrum and polarization of Cygnus X-1 in the low-hard state can originate in the corona, without needing to invoke a jet. We estimate the degree of polarization in the intermediate state, where there is no jet, to provide a tool to test our model. Conclusions: Contrary to the commonly accepted view, the jet might not be the source of the MeV polarized tail in the spectrum of Cygnus X-1.

  20. A High Throughput Screening Assay System for the Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of gsp

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Nisan; Hu, Xin; Chen, Catherine Z.; Mathews Griner, Lesley A.; Zheng, Wei; Inglese, James; Austin, Christopher P.; Marugan, Juan J.; Southall, Noel; Neumann, Susanne; Northup, John K.; Ferrer, Marc; Collins, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Mis-sense mutations in the α-subunit of the G-protein, Gsα, cause fibrous dysplasia of bone/McCune-Albright syndrome. The biochemical outcome of these mutations is constitutively active Gsα and increased levels of cAMP. The aim of this study was to develop an assay system that would allow the identification of small molecule inhibitors specific for the mutant Gsα protein, the so-called gsp oncogene. Commercially available Chinese hamster ovary cells were stably transfected with either wild-type (WT) or mutant Gsα proteins (R201C and R201H). Stable cell lines with equivalent transfected Gsα protein expression that had relatively lower (WT) or higher (R201C and R201H) cAMP levels were generated. These cell lines were used to develop a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)–based cAMP assay in 1536-well microplate format for high throughput screening of small molecule libraries. A small molecule library of 343,768 compounds was screened to identify modulators of gsp activity. A total of 1,356 compounds with inhibitory activity were initially identified and reconfirmed when tested in concentration dose responses. Six hundred eighty-six molecules were selected for further analysis after removing cytotoxic compounds and those that were active in forskolin-induced WT cells. These molecules were grouped by potency, efficacy, and structural similarities to yield 22 clusters with more than 5 of structurally similar members and 144 singleton molecules. Seven chemotypes of the major clusters were identified for further testing and analyses. PMID:24667240

  1. Physiological Ecology of Mesozoic Polar Forests in a High CO2 Environment

    PubMed Central

    BEERLING, D. J.; OSBORNE, C. P.

    2002-01-01

    Fossils show that coniferous forests extended into polar regions during the Mesozoic, a time when models and independent palaeo‐CO2 indicators suggest that the atmospheric CO2 concentration was at least double that of the present day. Consequently, such polar forests would have experienced high CO2 interacting with an extreme variation in light. Here we describe an experiment investigating this plant–environment interaction for extant tree species that were important components of polar forests, and give results from the first year of treatment. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that growth in elevated CO2 (1) stimulates photosynthesis; (2) reduces photoinhibition during the polar summer; and (3) reduces respiration of above‐ and below‐ground plant organs. Our results indicate that CO2 fertilization generally does not affect photosynthesis under continuous daylight characteristic of the polar summer but does increase it when the period of illumination is shorter. Growth in elevated CO2 did not alter the potential for photoinhibition. CO2 enrichment significantly reduced leaf and root respiration rates by 50 and 25 %, respectively, in a range of evergreen taxa. Incorporating these observed CO2 effects into numerical simulations using a process‐based model of coniferous forest growth indicates that a high palaeo‐CO2 concentration would have increased the productivity of Cretaceous conifer forests in northern Alaska. This results from decreased respiratory costs that more than compensate for the absence of high CO2–high temperature interactions during the polar summer. The longer‐term effects of CO2 enrichment on seasonal changes in the above‐ and below‐ground carbon balance of trees are discussed. PMID:12096745

  2. High-Contrast NIR Polarization Imaging of MWC480

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElwain, M. W.; Kusakabe, N.; Hashimoto, J.; Kudo, T.; Kandori, R.; Miyama, S.; Morino, J.-I.; Suto, H.; Suzuki, R.; Tamura, M.; Grady, C. A.; Sitko, M. L.; Werren, C.; Day, A. N.; Beerman, C.; Iye, M.; Lynch, D. K.; Russell, R. W.; Brafford, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the key predictions of modeling from the IR excess of Herbig Ae stars is that for protoplanetary disks, where significant grain growth and settling has occurred, the dust disk has flattened to the point that it can be partially or largely shadowed by the innermost material at or near the dust sublimation radius. When the self-shadowing has already started, the outer disk is expected to be detected in scattered light only in the exceptional cases that the scale height of the dust disk at the sublimation radius is smaller than usual. High-contrast imaging combined with the IR spectral energy distribution allow us to measure the degree of flattening of the disk, as well as to determine the properties of the outer disk. We present polarimetric differential imaging in H band obtained with Subaru/HiCIAO of one such system, MWC 480. The HiCIAO data were obtained at a historic minimum of the NIR excess. The disk is detected in scattered light from 0".2-1"0 (27.4-137 AU). Together with the marginal detection of the disk from 1998 February 24 by HST / NICMOS, our data constrain the opening half angle for the disk to lie between 1.3 <= Theta <=2.2 deg. When compared with similar measures in CO for the gas disk from the literature, the dust disk subtends only approx 30% of the gas disk scale height (H/R approx 0. 03). Such a dust disk is a factor of 5-7 flatter than transitional disks, which have structural signatures that giant planets have formed.

  3. A high-power microwave circular polarizer and its application on phase shifter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Hao; Hu, Yongmei; Chang, Chao; Guo, Letian

    2016-04-01

    A high-power waveguide dual circular polarizer was theoretically designed and proof-of-principle was experimentally tested. It consists of two incident rectangular waveguides with a perpendicular H-plane junction, one circular waveguide with a pair of trapezoidal grooves coupled in E-plane at the top, a spherical crown located at the bottom, and an iris at the perpendicular junction of two rectangular waveguides. When wave incidents at one of the two separated rectangular waveguides, it, respectively, generates a left-hand circular polarized wave or a right-hand circular polarized wave in the circular waveguide. By adding a dumbbell-like metal plug driven with a high speed servomotor, a movable short circuit is formed along the circular waveguide to adjust the output RF phase of the rectangular port, realizing a high-speed high-power phase shifter. The C-band high power microwave (HPM) experiments were carried out, and the power capacity of the HPM polarizer and phase shifter was demonstrated to reach gigawatt level.

  4. Polarized light imaging of birefringence and diattenuation at high resolution and high sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Shalin B.; Shribak, Michael; Oldenbourg, Rudolf

    2013-09-01

    Polarized light microscopy provides unique opportunities for analyzing the molecular order in man-made and natural materials, including biological structures inside living cells, tissues, and whole organisms. 20 years ago, the LC-PolScope was introduced as a modern version of the traditional polarizing microscope enhanced by liquid crystal devices for the control of polarization, and by electronic imaging and digital image processing for fast and comprehensive image acquisition and analysis. The LC-PolScope is commonly used for birefringence imaging, analyzing the spatial and temporal variations of the differential phase delay in ordered and transparent materials. Here we describe an alternative use of the LC-PolScope for imaging the polarization dependent transmittance of dichroic materials. We explain the minor changes needed to convert the instrument between the two imaging modes, discuss the relationship between the quantities measured with each instrument, and touch on the physical connection between refractive index, birefringence, transmittance, diattenuation, and dichroism.

  5. Recoil Polarization Measurements of the Proton Electromagnetic Form Factor Ratio to High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Puckett

    2010-02-01

    The electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon characterize the effect of its internal structure on its response to an electromagnetic probe as studied in elastic electronnucleon scattering. These form factors are functions of the squared four-momentum transfer Q2 between the electron and the proton. The two main classes of observables of this reaction are the scattering cross section and polarization asymmetries, both of which are sensitive to the form factors in different ways. When considering large f momentum transfers, double-polarization observables offer superior sensitivity to the electric form factor. This thesis reports the results of a new measurement of the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton at high momentum transfer using the recoil polarization technique. A polarized electron beam was scattered from a liquid hydrogen target, transferring polarization to the recoiling protons. These protons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer which was used to reconstruct their kinematics, including their scattering angles and momenta, and the position of the interaction vertex. A proton polarimeter measured the polarization of the recoiling protons by measuring the azimuthal asymmetry in the angular distribution of protons scattered in CH2 analyzers. The scattered electron was detected in a large acceptance electromagnetic calorimeter in order to suppress inelastic backgrounds. The measured ratio of the transverse and longitudinal polarization components of the scattered proton is directly proportional to the ratio of form factors GpE=GpM. The measurements reported in this thesis took place at Q2 =5.2, 6.7, and 8.5 GeV2, and represent the most accurate measurements of GpE in this Q2 region to date.

  6. X-Ray Polarization from High-mass X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallman, T.; Dorodnitsyn, A.; Blondin, J.

    2015-12-01

    X-ray astronomy allows study of objects that may be associated with compact objects, i.e., neutron stars or black holes, and also may contain strong magnetic fields. Such objects are categorically nonspherical, and likely noncircular when projected on the sky. Polarization allows study of such geometric effects, and X-ray polarimetry is likely to become feasible for a significant number of sources in the future. Potential targets for future X-ray polarization observations are the high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), which consist of a compact object in orbit with an early-type star. In this paper we show that X-ray polarization from HMXBs has a distinct signature that depends on the source inclination and orbital phase. The presence of the X-ray source displaced from the star creates linear polarization even if the primary wind is spherically symmetric whenever the system is viewed away from conjunction. Direct X-rays dilute this polarization whenever the X-ray source is not eclipsed; at mid-eclipse the net polarization is expected to be small or zero if the wind is circularly symmetric around the line of centers. Resonance line scattering increases the scattering fraction, often by large factors, over the energy band spanned by resonance lines. Real winds are not expected to be spherically symmetric, or circularly symmetric around the line of centers, owing to the combined effects of the compact object gravity and ionization on the wind hydrodynamics. A sample calculation shows that this creates polarization fractions ranging up to tens of percent at mid-eclipse.

  7. Development of high-performance alkali-hybrid polarized 3He targets for electron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jaideep T.; Dolph, P. A. M.; Tobias, W. A.; Averett, T. D.; Kelleher, A.; Mooney, K. E.; Nelyubin, V. V.; Wang, Yunxiao; Zheng, Yuan; Cates, G. D.

    2015-05-01

    Background: Polarized 3He targets have been used as effective polarized neutron targets for electron scattering experiments for over twenty years. Over the last ten years, the effective luminosity of polarized 3He targets based on spin-exchange optical pumping has increased by over an order of magnitude. This has come about because of improvements in commercially-available lasers and an improved understanding of the physics behind the polarization process. Purpose: We present the development of high-performance polarized 3He targets for use in electron scattering experiments. Improvements in the performance of polarized 3He targets, target properties, and operating parameters are documented. Methods: We utilize the technique of alkali-hybrid spin-exchange optical pumping to polarize the 3He targets. Spectrally narrowed diode lasers used for the optical pumping greatly improved the performance. A simulation of the alkali-hybrid spin-exchange optical pumping process was developed to provide guidance in the design of the targets. Data was collected during the characterization of 24 separate glass target cells, each of which was constructed while preparing for one of four experiments at Jefferson Laboratory in Newport News, Virginia. Results: From the data obtained we made determinations of the so-called X -factors that quantify a temperature-dependent and as-yet poorly understood spin-relaxation mechanism that limits the maximum achievable 3He polarization to well under 100%. The presence of the X -factor spin-relaxation mechanism was clearly evident in our data. Good agreement between the simulation and the actual target performance was obtained by including details such as off-resonant optical pumping. Included in our results is a measurement of the K -3He spin-exchange rate coefficient kseK=(7.46 ±0.62 ) ×10-20cm3/s over the temperature range 503 K to 563 K. Conclusions: In order to achieve high performance under the operating conditions described in this paper, the K to Rb alkali vapor density ratio should be about 5 ±2 and the line width of the optical pumping lasers should be no more than 0.3 nm. Our measurements of the X -factors under these conditions seem to indicate the 3He polarization is limited to ≈90 %. The simulation results, now benchmarked against experimental data, are useful for the design of future targets. Further work is required to better understand the temperature dependence of the X -factor spin-relaxation mechanism and the limitations of our optical pumping simulation.

  8. Density ordering instabilities of quasi-two-dimensional fermionic polar molecules in single-layer and multilayer configurations: Exact treatment of exchange interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babadi, Mehrtash; Demler, Eugene

    2011-12-01

    We study the in-plane and out-of-plane density ordering instabilities of quasi-two-dimensional fermionic polar molecules in single-layer and multilayer configurations. We locate the soft modes by evaluating linear response functions within the conserving time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) approximation. The short-range exchange effects are taken into account by solving the Bethe-Salpeter integral equation numerically. An instability phase diagram is calculated for both single-layer and multilayer systems and the unstable wave vector is indicated. In all cases, the in-plane density wave instability is found to precede the out-of-plane instability. The unstable wave vector is found to be approximately twice the Fermi wave vector of one of the subbands at a time and can change discontinuously as a function of density and dipolar interaction strength. In multilayer configurations, we find a large enhancement of density-wave instability driven by dilute quasiparticles in the first excited subband. Finally, we provide a simple qualitative description of the phase diagrams using an RPA-like approach. Compared to previous works done within the RPA approximation, we find that inclusion of exchange interactions stabilize the normal liquid phase further and increase the critical dipolar interaction strength corresponding to the onset of density-wave instability by over a factor of two.

  9. Dipole polarizability of alkali-metal (Na, K, Rb)–alkaline-earth-metal (Ca, Sr) polar molecules: Prospects for alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Gopakumar, Geetha Abe, Minori; Hada, Masahiko; Kajita, Masatoshi

    2014-06-14

    Electronic open-shell ground-state properties of selected alkali-metal–alkaline-earth-metal polar molecules are investigated. We determine potential energy curves of the {sup 2}Σ{sup +} ground state at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles with partial triples (CCSD(T)) level of electron correlation. Calculated spectroscopic constants for the isotopes ({sup 23}Na, {sup 39}K, {sup 85}Rb)–({sup 40}Ca, {sup 88}Sr) are compared with available theoretical and experimental results. The variation of the permanent dipole moment (PDM), average dipole polarizability, and polarizability anisotropy with internuclear distance is determined using finite-field perturbation theory at the CCSD(T) level. Owing to moderate PDM (KCa: 1.67 D, RbCa: 1.75 D, KSr: 1.27 D, RbSr: 1.41 D) and large polarizability anisotropy (KCa: 566 a.u., RbCa: 604 a.u., KSr: 574 a.u., RbSr: 615 a.u.), KCa, RbCa, KSr, and RbSr are potential candidates for alignment and orientation in combined intense laser and external static electric fields.

  10. A microporous metal-organic framework with polarized trifluoromethyl groups for high methane storage.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ganggang; Li, Bin; Wang, Hailong; Bao, Zongbi; Yildirim, Taner; Yao, Zizhu; Xiang, Shengchang; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Banglin

    2015-10-11

    A novel NbO-type metal-organic framework UTSA-88a with polarized trifluoromethyl groups exhibits a notably high methane storage capacity of 248 cm(3) (STP) cm(-3) (at room temperature and 65 bar) and a working capacity of 185 cm(3) (STP) cm(-3). PMID:26300179

  11. High intensity induced photocurrent polarity switching in lead sulfide nanowire field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yiming; Peng, Xingyue; Yu, Dong

    2014-05-01

    We report an optoelectronic investigation of lead sulfide nanowires (NWs) by scanning photocurrent microscopy. The photocurrent in p-type lead sulfide NW field effect transistors has demonstrated unusually nonlinear dependence on the intensity of local excitation. Surprisingly, the photocurrent polarity can be reversed under high illumination intensity on the order of 100 W cm-2. The origin of this photocurrent polarity switching is that the photo-injected carriers flip the direction of the electric field near the contact. These observations shed light on the nonlinear optoelectronic characteristics in semiconductor nanostructures and may provide an innovative method for optically tailoring local band structures.

  12. Angular Correlation and Polarization Studies for Radiative Electron Capture into High-Z Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sthlker, Th.; Banas, D.; Fritzsche, S.; Gumberidze, A.; Kozhuharov, C.; Ma, X.; Orsic-Muthig, A.; Spillmann, U.; Sierpowski, D.; Surzhykov, A.; Tachenov, S.; Warczak, A.

    Recent photon correlation studies for Radiative Electron Capture into high-Z projectiles are reviewed. Emphasis is given to the investigation of polarization phenomena which are now accessible due to recent developments in position sensitive solid-states detectors. It is shown, that REC may provide a tool for the diagnostics and detection of the spin–polarization of particles involved in atomic collisions. Also the impact of REC studies for atomic structure studies is outlined. Here the strong alignment of excited states induced by REC allowed us to observe an interference between competing decay branches for the case of the Lyman-α1 transition in hydrogen-like ions.

  13. Software for processing of experimental data on polarization laser sensing of high-level clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samokhvalov, I. V.; Volkov, S. N.; Bryukhanov, I. D.; Konoshonkin, A. V.; Zhivotenyuk, I. V.; Stykon, A. P.

    2015-11-01

    Methodology for determination of the optical and geometric characteristics of clouds is described. Problems of processing data obtained in experiments on polarization laser sensing of the atmosphere are discussed. Technique for reduction of the phase matrices of cirrus obtained with the high-altitude polarization lidar developed at National Research Tomsk State University to the symmetry plane affixed to the preferred orientation of ice crystals in cirrus is described. The experimental data are compared with the data of numerical modeling of phase matrices in the physical optics approximation and meteorological conditions over the lidar at cirrus altitudes.

  14. Possibilities of polarized protons in Sp anti p S and other high energy hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Courant, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements for collisions with polarized protons in hadron colliders above 200 GeV are listed and briefly discussed. Particular attention is given to the use of the ''Siberan snake'' to eliminate depolarizing resonances, which occur when the spin precession frequency equals a frequency contained in the spectrum of the field seen by the beam. The Siberian snake is a device which makes the spin precession frequency essentially constant by using spin rotators, which precess the spin by 180/sup 0/ about either the longitudinal or transverse horizontal axis. It is concluded that operation with polarized protons should be possible at all the high energy hadron colliders. (LEW)

  15. High intensity induced photocurrent polarity switching in lead sulfide nanowire field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yiming; Peng, Xingyue; Yu, Dong

    2014-05-16

    We report an optoelectronic investigation of lead sulfide nanowires (NWs) by scanning photocurrent microscopy. The photocurrent in p-type lead sulfide NW field effect transistors has demonstrated unusually nonlinear dependence on the intensity of local excitation. Surprisingly, the photocurrent polarity can be reversed under high illumination intensity on the order of 100 W cm(-2). The origin of this photocurrent polarity switching is that the photo-injected carriers flip the direction of the electric field near the contact. These observations shed light on the nonlinear optoelectronic characteristics in semiconductor nanostructures and may provide an innovative method for optically tailoring local band structures. PMID:24763392

  16. Highly Ordered Surface Self-Assembly of Fe₄ Single Molecule Magnets.

    PubMed

    Erler, Philipp; Schmitt, Peter; Barth, Nicole; Irmler, Andreas; Bouvron, Samuel; Huhn, Thomas; Groth, Ulrich; Pauly, Fabian; Gragnaniello, Luca; Fonin, Mikhail

    2015-07-01

    Single molecule magnets (SMMs) have attracted considerable attention due to low-temperature magnetic hysteresis and fascinating quantum effects. The investigation of these properties requires the possibility to deposit well-defined monolayers or spatially isolated molecules within a well-controlled adsorption geometry. Here we present a successful fabrication of self-organized arrays of Fe4 SMMs on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) on Rh(111) as template. Using a rational design of the ligand shell optimized for surface assembly and electrospray as a gentle deposition method, we demonstrate how to obtain ordered arrays of molecules forming perfect hexagonal superlattices of tunable size, from small islands to an almost perfect monolayer. High-resolution low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) reveals that the Fe4 molecule adsorbs on the substrate in a flat geometry, meaning that its magnetic easy axis is perpendicular to the surface. By scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we infer that the majority- and minority-spin components of the spin-split lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) can be addressed separately on a submolecular level. PMID:26086677

  17. Massively Parallel Haplotyping on Microscopic Beads for the High-Throughput Phase Analysis of Single Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Tiemann-Boege, Irene

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the many advances in haplotyping methods, it is still very difficult to characterize rare haplotypes in tissues and different environmental samples or to accurately assess the haplotype diversity in large mixtures. This would require a haplotyping method capable of analyzing the phase of single molecules with an unprecedented throughput. Here we describe such a haplotyping method capable of analyzing in parallel hundreds of thousands single molecules in one experiment. In this method, multiple PCR reactions amplify different polymorphic regions of a single DNA molecule on a magnetic bead compartmentalized in an emulsion drop. The allelic states of the amplified polymorphisms are identified with fluorescently labeled probes that are then decoded from images taken of the arrayed beads by a microscope. This method can evaluate the phase of up to 3 polymorphisms separated by up to 5 kilobases in hundreds of thousands single molecules. We tested the sensitivity of the method by measuring the number of mutant haplotypes synthesized by four different commercially available enzymes: Phusion, Platinum Taq, Titanium Taq, and Phire. The digital nature of the method makes it highly sensitive to detecting haplotype ratios of less than 1∶10,000. We also accurately quantified chimera formation during the exponential phase of PCR by different DNA polymerases. PMID:22558329

  18. Selecting, Acquiring, and Using Small Molecule Libraries for High-Throughput Screening

    PubMed Central

    Dandapani, Sivaraman; Rosse, Gerard; Southall, Noel; Salvino, Joseph M.; Thomas, Craig J.

    2015-01-01

    The selection, acquisition and use of high quality small molecule libraries for screening is an essential aspect of drug discovery and chemical biology programs. Screening libraries continue to evolve as researchers gain a greater appreciation of the suitability of small molecules for specific biological targets, processes and environments. The decisions surrounding the make-up of any given small molecule library is informed by a multitude of variables and opinions vary on best-practices. The fitness of any collection relies upon upfront filtering to avoiding problematic compounds, assess appropriate physicochemical properties, install the ideal level of structural uniqueness and determine the desired extent of molecular complexity. These criteria are under constant evaluation and revision as academic and industrial organizations seek out collections that yield ever improving results from their screening portfolios. Practical questions including cost, compound management, screening sophistication and assay objective also play a significant role in the choice of library composition. This overview attempts to offer advice to all organizations engaged in small molecule screening based upon current best practices and theoretical considerations in library selection and acquisition. PMID:26705509

  19. High Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Molecules of Terrestrial and Planetary Interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Richard S.

    2001-01-01

    In collaboration with the laboratory spectroscopy group of the Ames Atmospheric Physics Research Branch (SGP), high resolution infrared spectra of molecules that are of importance for the dynamics of the earth's and other planets' atmospheres were acquired using the SGP high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer and gas handling apparatus. That data, along with data acquired using similar instrumentation at the Kitt Peak National Observatory was analyzed to determine the spectral parameters for each of the rotationally resolved transitions for each molecule. Those parameters were incorporated into existing international databases (e.g. HITRANS and GEISA) so that field measurements could be converted into quantitative information regarding the physical and chemical structures of earth and planetary atmospheres.

  20. High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing of small-molecule organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kukjoo; Kim, Gyeomuk; Lee, Bo Ram; Ji, Sangyoon; Kim, So-Yun; An, Byeong Wan; Song, Myoung Hoon; Park, Jang-Ung

    2015-08-28

    The development of alternative organic light-emitting diode (OLED) fabrication technologies for high-definition and low-cost displays is an important research topic as conventional fine metal mask-assisted vacuum evaporation has reached its limit to reduce pixel sizes and manufacturing costs. Here, we report an electrohydrodynamic jet (e-jet) printing method to fabricate small-molecule OLED pixels with high resolution (pixel width of 5 μm), which significantly exceeds the resolutions of conventional inkjet or commercial OLED display pixels. In addition, we print small-molecule emitting materials which provide a significant advantage in terms of device efficiency and lifetime compared to those with polymers. PMID:26214140

  1. High-order polarization mode crosstalk effect: a calibration scheme of white light-based optical coherence domain polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bing; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Jianzhong; Liang, Shuai; Yu, Zhangjun; Yuan, Yonggui; Peng, Feng; Zhou, Ai; Zhang, Yu; Yuan, Libo

    2015-09-01

    We propose a calibration scheme of the white light interferometer based optical coherence domain polarimetry (OCDP), which could be used to measure the ultra-weak polarization mode crosstalk (PMC) or the ultra-high polarization extinction ratio (PER) of different polarization optical devices. The calibration depends on the first and second order PMC effect of different polarization devices in series. The first and second PMCs between 0 and -90dB, established by five pieces of polarization maintaining fiber (PMF) and a Y-waveguide, is used to prove its feasibility.

  2. High-order-harmonic generation in benzene with linearly and circularly polarized laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardlow, Abigail; Dundas, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    High-order-harmonic generation in benzene is studied using a mixed quantum-classical approach in which the electrons are described using time-dependent density-functional theory while the ions move classically. The interaction with both linearly and circularly polarized infrared (λ =800 nm) laser pulses of duration of ten cycles (26.7 fs) is considered. The effect of allowing the ions to move is investigated as is the effect of including self-interaction corrections to the exchange-correlation functional. Our results for circularly polarized pulses are compared with previous calculations in which the ions were kept fixed and self-interaction corrections were not included, while our results for linearly polarized pulses are compared with both previous calculations and experiment. We find that even for the short-duration pulses considered here, the ionic motion greatly influences the harmonic spectra. While ionization and ionic displacements are greatest when linearly polarized pulses are used, the response to circularly polarized pulses is almost comparable, in agreement with previous experimental results.

  3. Characterization of highly scattering media by measurement of diffusely backscattered polarized light

    DOEpatents

    Hielscher, Andreas H.; Mourant, Judith R.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for recording spatially dependent intensity patterns of polarized light that is diffusely backscattered from highly scattering media are described. These intensity patterns can be used to differentiate different turbid media, such as polystyrene-sphere and biological-cell suspensions. Polarized light from a He-Ne laser (.lambda.=543 nm) is focused onto the surface of the scattering medium, and a surface area of approximately 4.times.4 cm centered on the light input point is imaged through polarization analysis optics onto a CCD camera. A variety of intensity patterns may be observed by varying the polarization state of the incident laser light and changing the analyzer configuration to detect different polarization components of the backscattered light. Experimental results for polystyrene-sphere and Intralipid suspensions demonstrate that the radial and azimuthal variations of the observed pattern depend on the concentration, size, and anisotropy factor, g, of the particles constituting the scattering medium. Measurements performed on biological cell suspensions show that intensity patterns can be used to differentiate between suspensions of cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Introduction of the Mueller-matrix for diffusely backscattered light, permits the selection of a subset of measurements which comprehensively describes the optical properties of backscattering media.

  4. Compartmentalized microchannel array for high-throughput analysis of single cell polarized growth and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Tao; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Szymanski, Craig J.; Liu, Bingwen; Baker, Scott E.; Orr, Galya; Evans, James E.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2015-11-04

    Here, interrogating polarized growth is technologically challenging due to extensive cellular branching and uncontrollable environmental conditions in conventional assays. Here we present a robust and high-performance microfluidic system that enables observations of polarized growth with enhanced temporal and spatial control over prolonged periods. The system has built-in tunability and versatility to accommodate a variety of science applications requiring precisely controlled environments. Using the model filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa, this microfluidic system enabled direct visualization and analysis of cellular heterogeneity in a clonal fungal cell population, nuclear distribution and dynamics at the subhyphal level, and quantitative dynamics of gene expression with single hyphal compartment resolution in response to carbon source starvation and exchange experiments. Although the microfluidic device is demonstrated on filamentous fungi, our technology is immediately extensible to a wide array of other biosystems that exhibit similar polarized cell growth with applications ranging from bioenergy production to human health.

  5. High spin polarization in CoFeMnGe equiatomic quaternary Heusler alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Bainsla, Lakhan; Suresh, K. G.; Nigam, A. K.; Manivel Raja, M.; Varaprasad, B. S. D. Ch. S.; Takahashi, Y. K.; Hono, K.

    2014-11-28

    We report the structure, magnetic property, and spin polarization of CoFeMnGe equiatomic quaternary Heusler alloy. The alloy was found to crystallize in the cubic Heusler structure (prototype LiMgPdSn) with considerable amount of DO{sub 3} disorder. Thermal analysis result indicated the Curie temperature is about 750 K without any other phase transformation up to melting temperature. The magnetization value was close to that predicted by the Slater-Pauling curve. Current spin polarization of P = 0.70 ± 0.01 was deduced using point contact andreev reflection measurements. The temperature dependence of electrical resistivity has been fitted in the temperature range of 5–300 K in order to check for the half metallic behavior. Considering the high spin polarization and Curie temperature, this material appears to be promising for spintronic applications.

  6. Compartmentalized microchannel array for high-throughput analysis of single cell polarized growth and dynamics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Geng, Tao; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Szymanski, Craig J.; Liu, Bingwen; Baker, Scott E.; Orr, Galya; Evans, James E.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2015-11-04

    Here, interrogating polarized growth is technologically challenging due to extensive cellular branching and uncontrollable environmental conditions in conventional assays. Here we present a robust and high-performance microfluidic system that enables observations of polarized growth with enhanced temporal and spatial control over prolonged periods. The system has built-in tunability and versatility to accommodate a variety of science applications requiring precisely controlled environments. Using the model filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa, this microfluidic system enabled direct visualization and analysis of cellular heterogeneity in a clonal fungal cell population, nuclear distribution and dynamics at the subhyphal level, and quantitative dynamics of gene expression withmore » single hyphal compartment resolution in response to carbon source starvation and exchange experiments. Although the microfluidic device is demonstrated on filamentous fungi, our technology is immediately extensible to a wide array of other biosystems that exhibit similar polarized cell growth with applications ranging from bioenergy production to human health.« less

  7. Compartmentalized microchannel array for high-throughput analysis of single cell polarized growth and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Tao; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Szymanski, Craig J.; Liu, Bingwen; Baker, Scott E.; Orr, Galya; Evans, James E.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2015-11-04

    Interrogating polarized growth is technologically challenging due to extensive cellular branching and uncontrollable environmental conditions in conventional assays. Here we present a robust and high-performance microfluidic system that enables observations of polarized growth with enhanced temporal and spatial control over prolonged periods. The system has built-in tunability and versatility to accommodate a variety of science applications requiring precisely controlled environments. Using the model filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa, this microfluidic system enabled direct visualization and analysis of cellular heterogeneity in a clonal fungal cell population, nuclear distribution and dynamics at the subhyphal level, and quantitative dynamics of gene expression with single hyphal compartment resolution in response to carbon source starvation and exchange experiments. Although the microfluidic device is demonstrated on filamentous fungi, our technology is immediately extensible to a wide array of other biosystems that exhibit similar polarized cell growth with applications ranging from bioenergy production to human health.

  8. High repetition rate Q-switched radially polarized laser with a graphene-based output coupler

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lifei; Jin, Chenjie; Qi, Mei; Chen, Xiaoming; Ren, Zhaoyu E-mail: rzy@nwu.edu.cn; Zheng, Xinliang E-mail: rzy@nwu.edu.cn; Bai, Jintao; Sun, Zhipei

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate a Q-switched radially polarized all-solid-state laser by transferring a graphene film directly onto an output coupler. The laser generates Q-switched radially polarized beam (QRPB) with a pulse width of 192 ns and 2.7 W average output power. The corresponding single pulse energy is up to 16.2 μJ with a high repetition rate of 167 kHz. The M{sup 2} factor and the polarization purity are ∼2.1 and 96%, respectively. Our QRPB source is a simple and low-cost source for a variety of applications, such as industrial material processing, optical trapping, and microscopy.

  9. Compartmentalized microchannel array for high-throughput analysis of single cell polarized growth and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Tao; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Szymanski, Craig J.; Liu, Bingwen; Baker, Scott E.; Orr, Galya; Evans, James E.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2015-01-01

    Interrogating polarized growth is technologically challenging due to extensive cellular branching and uncontrollable environmental conditions in conventional assays. Here we present a robust and high-performance microfluidic system that enables observations of polarized growth with enhanced temporal and spatial control over prolonged periods. The system has built-in tunability and versatility to accommodate a variety of scientific applications requiring precisely controlled environments. Using the model filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa, our microfluidic system enabled direct visualization and analysis of cellular heterogeneity in a clonal fungal cell population, nuclear distribution and dynamics at the subhyphal level, and quantitative dynamics of gene expression with single hyphal compartment resolution in response to carbon source starvation and exchange. Although the microfluidic device is demonstrated on filamentous fungi, the technology is immediately extensible to a wide array of other biosystems that exhibit similar polarized cell growth, with applications ranging from bioenergy production to human health. PMID:26530004

  10. High-fidelity transmission of quantum polarization states through birefringent optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Ozeki, Takeshi

    2006-08-15

    High fidelity transmission of quantum polarization states is essential for realizing quantum networks. The degenerate {psi}{sup -} state is an eigenstate of a transmission fiber. In this paper we propose a method for preparing the degenerate {psi}{sup -} state using spontaneous four wave mixing (SFWM) in a fiber Sagnac loop excited by two orthogonally polarized pump waves. This configuration includes a 45 degree sign Faraday rotator, which creates a relative phase of {pi} between the two counterpropagating entangled photon pairs with indistinguishability both in frequencies and generation paths. We confirm that only the amplitude is degraded in the output wave form of nonlinear sum frequency generation in the Bell state analyzer after propagation through the fiber due to the polarization mode dispersion.

  11. High-fidelity transmission of quantum polarization states through birefringent optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeki, Takeshi

    2006-08-01

    High fidelity transmission of quantum polarization states is essential for realizing quantum networks. The degenerate Ψ- state is an eigenstate of a transmission fiber. In this paper we propose a method for preparing the degenerate Ψ- state using spontaneous four wave mixing (SFWM) in a fiber Sagnac loop excited by two orthogonally polarized pump waves. This configuration includes a 45° Faraday rotator, which creates a relative phase of π between the two counterpropagating entangled photon pairs with indistinguishability both in frequencies and generation paths. We confirm that only the amplitude is degraded in the output wave form of nonlinear sum frequency generation in the Bell state analyzer after propagation through the fiber due to the polarization mode dispersion.

  12. Ab initio potential energy surface for the highly nonlinear dynamics of the KCN molecule.

    PubMed

    Párraga, H; Arranz, F J; Benito, R M; Borondo, F

    2013-11-21

    An accurate ab initio quantum chemistry study at level of quadratic configuration interaction method of the electronic ground state of the KCN molecule is presented. A fitting of the results to an analytical series expansion was performed to obtain a global potential energy surface suitable for the study of the associated vibrational dynamics. Additionally, classical Poincaré surfaces of section for different energies and quantum eigenstates were calculated, showing the highly nonlinear behavior of this system. PMID:24320323

  13. Ab initio potential energy surface for the highly nonlinear dynamics of the KCN molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Párraga, H.; Arranz, F. J.; Benito, R. M.; Borondo, F.

    2013-11-01

    An accurate ab initio quantum chemistry study at level of quadratic configuration interaction method of the electronic ground state of the KCN molecule is presented. A fitting of the results to an analytical series expansion was performed to obtain a global potential energy surface suitable for the study of the associated vibrational dynamics. Additionally, classical Poincaré surfaces of section for different energies and quantum eigenstates were calculated, showing the highly nonlinear behavior of this system.

  14. Extraction of Fixed-in-Space photoionization cross section and phase with high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh-Thu

    2010-03-01

    It has been known for over two decades that high-order harmonic generation (HHG) process occurs when an electron released earlier from an atom/molecule by an intense laser field returns to recombine with the parent ion. This relation between photo-recombination (or its time-reverse, photoionization process) and HHG has been firmly established on the quantitative level recently by the quantitative rescattering theory (QRS) [1]. According to the QRS, HHG signal can be expressed as a product of a returning electron wave packet and the laser-free photo-recombination differential cross section. The QRS has been carefully tested against available exact numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. Here we report comparisons with recent experimental data for magnitude, phase, polarization state, and ellipticity of the emitted harmonics for aligned molecules, from which the molecular frame photoionization cross sections and phases can be probed in great details [2]. We also address the issue about the contribution from inner molecular orbitals [3,4]. Finally, we will discuss the possibility for future dynamic chemical imaging with femto-second temporal resolution on an example of probing molecular dynamics of vibrationally excited N2O4 [5]. In collaboration with C.D. Lin, R.R. Lucchese, T. Morishita, C. Jin.[4pt] [1] A.T. Le et al, Phys. Rev. A. 80, 013401 (2009).[0pt] [2] X. Zhou et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).[0pt] [3] B.K. McFarland et al, Science 322, 1232 (2008).[0pt] [4] O. Smirnova et al, Nature 460, 972 (2009).[0pt] [5] W. Li et al, Science 322, 1207 (2008).

  15. Origin of High-Resolution IETS-STM Images of Organic Molecules with Functionalized Tips.

    PubMed

    Hapala, Prokop; Temirov, Ruslan; Tautz, F Stefan; Jelínek, Pavel

    2014-11-28

    Recently, the family of high-resolution scanning probe imaging techniques using decorated tips has been complemented by a method based on inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). The new technique resolves the inner structure of organic molecules by mapping the vibrational energy of a single carbon monoxide (CO) molecule positioned at the apex of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip. Here, we explain high-resolution IETS imaging by extending a model developed earlier for STM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging with decorated tips. In particular, we show that the tip decorated with CO acts as a nanoscale sensor that changes the energy of its frustrated translation mode in response to changes of the local curvature of the surface potential. In addition, we show that high resolution AFM, STM, and IETS-STM images can deliver information about the charge distribution within molecules deposited on a surface. To demonstrate this, we extend our mechanical model by taking into account electrostatic forces acting on the decorated tip in the surface Hartree potential. PMID:25494078

  16. Origin of High-Resolution IETS-STM Images of Organic Molecules with Functionalized Tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapala, Prokop; Temirov, Ruslan; Tautz, F. Stefan; Jelínek, Pavel

    2014-11-01

    Recently, the family of high-resolution scanning probe imaging techniques using decorated tips has been complemented by a method based on inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). The new technique resolves the inner structure of organic molecules by mapping the vibrational energy of a single carbon monoxide (CO) molecule positioned at the apex of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip. Here, we explain high-resolution IETS imaging by extending a model developed earlier for STM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging with decorated tips. In particular, we show that the tip decorated with CO acts as a nanoscale sensor that changes the energy of its frustrated translation mode in response to changes of the local curvature of the surface potential. In addition, we show that high resolution AFM, STM, and IETS-STM images can deliver information about the charge distribution within molecules deposited on a surface. To demonstrate this, we extend our mechanical model by taking into account electrostatic forces acting on the decorated tip in the surface Hartree potential.

  17. Long term observation of low altitude atmosphere by high precision polarization lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiina, Tatsuo; Noguchi, Kazuo; Fukuchi, Tetsuo

    2011-11-01

    Prediction of weather disaster such as heavy rain and light strike is an earnest desire. Successive monitoring of the low altitude atmosphere is important to predict it. The weather disaster often befalls with a steep change in a local area. It is hard for usual meteorological equipments to capture and alert it speedily. We have been developed the near range lidar to capture and analyze the low altitude atmosphere. In this study, high precision polarization lidar was developed to observe the low altitude atmosphere. This lidar has the high extinction ratio of polarization of >30dB to detect the small polarization change of the atmosphere. The change of the polarization in the atmosphere leads to the detection of the depolarization effect and the Faraday effect, which are caused by ice-crystals and lightning discharge, respectively. As the lidar optics is "inline" type, which means common use of optics for transmitter and receiver, it can observe the near range echo with the narrow field of view. The long-term observation was accomplished at low elevation angle. It aims to monitor the low altitude atmosphere under the cloud base and capture its spatial distribution and convection process. In the viewpoint of polarization, the ice-crystals' flow and concentration change of the aerosols are monitored. The observation has been continued in the cloudy and rainy days. The thunder cloud is also a target. In this report, the system specification is explained to clear the potential and the aims. The several observation data including the long-term observation will be shown with the consideration of polarization analysis.

  18. The last polar dinosaurs: high diversity of latest Cretaceous arctic dinosaurs in Russia.

    PubMed

    Godefroit, Pascal; Golovneva, Lina; Shchepetov, Sergei; Garcia, Géraldine; Alekseev, Pavel

    2009-04-01

    A latest Cretaceous (68 to 65 million years ago) vertebrate microfossil assemblage discovered at Kakanaut in northeastern Russia reveals that dinosaurs were still highly diversified in Arctic regions just before the Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction event. Dinosaur eggshell fragments, belonging to hadrosaurids and non-avian theropods, indicate that at least several latest Cretaceous dinosaur taxa could reproduce in polar region and were probably year-round residents of high latitudes. Palaeobotanical data suggest that these polar dinosaurs lived in a temperate climate (mean annual temperature about 10 degrees C), but the climate was apparently too cold for amphibians and ectothermic reptiles. The high diversity of Late Maastrichtian dinosaurs in high latitudes, where ectotherms are absent, strongly questions hypotheses according to which dinosaur extinction was a result of temperature decline, caused or not by the Chicxulub impact. PMID:19089398

  19. The last polar dinosaurs: high diversity of latest Cretaceous arctic dinosaurs in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godefroit, Pascal; Golovneva, Lina; Shchepetov, Sergei; Garcia, Géraldine; Alekseev, Pavel

    2009-04-01

    A latest Cretaceous (68 to 65 million years ago) vertebrate microfossil assemblage discovered at Kakanaut in northeastern Russia reveals that dinosaurs were still highly diversified in Arctic regions just before the Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction event. Dinosaur eggshell fragments, belonging to hadrosaurids and non-avian theropods, indicate that at least several latest Cretaceous dinosaur taxa could reproduce in polar region and were probably year-round residents of high latitudes. Palaeobotanical data suggest that these polar dinosaurs lived in a temperate climate (mean annual temperature about 10°C), but the climate was apparently too cold for amphibians and ectothermic reptiles. The high diversity of Late Maastrichtian dinosaurs in high latitudes, where ectotherms are absent, strongly questions hypotheses according to which dinosaur extinction was a result of temperature decline, caused or not by the Chicxulub impact.

  20. The 20 GHz circularly polarized, high temperature superconducting microstrip antenna array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, Jarrett D.; Williams, Jeffery T.; Long, Stuart A.; Wolfe, John C.

    1994-01-01

    The primary goal was to design and characterize a four-element, 20 GHz, circularly polarized microstrip patch antenna fabricated from YBa2Cu3O(x) superconductor. The purpose is to support a high temperature superconductivity flight communications experiment between the space shuttle orbiter and the ACTS satellite. This study is intended to provide information into the design, construction, and feasibility of a circularly polarized superconducting 20 GHz downlink or cross-link antenna. We have demonstrated that significant gain improvements can be realized by using superconducting materials for large corporate fed array antennas. In addition, we have shown that when constructed from superconducting materials, the efficiency, and therefore the gain, of microstrip patches increases if the substrate is not so thick that the dominant loss mechanism for the patch is radiation into the surface waves of the conductor-backed substrate. We have considered two design configurations for a superconducting 20 GHz four-element circularly polarized microstrip antenna array. The first is the Huang array that uses properly oriented and phased linearly polarized microstrip patch elements to realize a circularly polarized pattern. The second is a gap-coupled array of circularly polarized elements. In this study we determined that although the Huang array operates well on low dielectric constant substrates, its performance becomes extremely sensitive to mismatches, interelement coupling, and design imperfections for substrates with high dielectric constants. For the gap-coupled microstrip array, we were able to fabricate and test circularly polarized elements and four-element arrays on LaAlO3 using sputtered copper films. These antennas were found to perform well, with relatively good circular polarization. In addition, we realized a four-element YBa2Cu3O(x) array of the same design and measured its pattern and gain relative to a room temperature copper array. The patterns were essentially the same as that for the copper array. The measured gain of the YBCO antenna was greater than that for the room temperature copper design at temperatures below 82K, reaching a value of 3.4 dB at the lowest temperatures.

  1. High resolution mass spectrometry method and system for analysis of whole proteins and other large molecules

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN; Harris, William A. [Naperville, IL

    2010-03-02

    A matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) method and related system for analyzing high molecular weight analytes includes the steps of providing at least one matrix-containing particle inside an ion trap, wherein at least one high molecular weight analyte molecule is provided within the matrix-containing particle, and MALDI on the high molecular weight particle while within the ion trap. A laser power used for ionization is sufficient to completely vaporize the particle and form at least one high molecular weight analyte ion, but is low enough to avoid fragmenting the high molecular weight analyte ion. The high molecular weight analyte ion is extracted out from the ion trap, and is then analyzed using a detector. The detector is preferably a pyrolyzing and ionizing detector.

  2. Highly Charged Ion -- Molecule Collisions: a probe and a tool for studying complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adoui, L.; Rousseau, P.; Capron, M.; Maisonny, R.; Lawicki, A.; Domaracka, A.; Manil, B.; Mery, A.; Poully, J.-C.; Rangama, J.; Huber, B. A.; Lattouf, E.; Zettergren, H.; Johansson, H. A. B.; Seitz, F.; Rosen, S.; Schmidt, H. T.; Holm, A. I. S.; Cederquist, H.; Bari, S.; Hoekstra, R.; Schlatholter, T.; Alvarado, F.; Postma, J.

    2011-05-01

    It has already been demonstrated that collision with low energy Highly Charged Ions (HCI) provide a soft and efficient way to study the stability of complex systems. Indeed, such ions are known to remove electrons at large impact parameters resulting in a fast and gentle ionisation. We will present at this conference the different applications of these ions as: - they can be used to enlighten collision mechanisms viacompleteexperiments on fragmentation dynamics of small molecules; - they can act as a probe of the stability of the resulting charged species. We will illustrate this feature in the case of molecular clusters (for example in the case of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons); - they can also be used, in a less conventional way, as a tool to form new bonds and induce the formation of even more complex molecules. Perspectives of this work will be discussed at the conference.

  3. Diamond nanowires for highly sensitive matrix-free mass spectrometry analysis of small molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffinier, Yannick; Szunerits, Sabine; Drobecq, Hervé; Melnyk, Oleg; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2011-12-01

    This paper reports on the use of boron-doped diamond nanowires (BDD NWs) as an inorganic substrate for matrix-free laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) analysis of small molecules. The diamond nanowires are prepared by reactive ion etching (RIE) with oxygen plasma of highly boron-doped (the boron level is 1019 B cm-3) or undoped nanocrystalline diamond substrates. The resulting diamond nanowires are coated with a thin silicon oxide layer that confers a superhydrophilic character to the surface. To minimize droplet spreading, the nanowires were chemically functionalized with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) and then UV/ozone treated to reach a final water contact angle of 120°. The sub-bandgap absorption under UV laser irradiation and the heat confinement inside the nanowires allowed desorption/ionization, most likely via a thermal mechanism, and mass spectrometry analysis of small molecules. A detection limit of 200 zeptomole for verapamil was demonstrated.

  4. A study on high NA and evanescent imaging with polarized illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seung-Hune

    Simulation techniques are developed for high NA polarized microscopy with Babinet's principle, partial coherence and vector diffraction for non-periodic geometries. A mathematical model for the Babinet approach is developed and interpreted. Simulation results of the Babinet's principle approach are compared with those of Rigorous Coupled Wave Theory (RCWT) for periodic structures to investigate the accuracy of this approach and its limitations. A microscope system using a special solid immersion lens (SIL) is introduced to image Blu-Ray (BD) optical disc samples without removing the protective cover layer. Aberration caused by the cover layer is minimized with a truncated SIL. Sub-surface imaging simulation is achieved by RCWT, partial coherence, vector diffraction and Babinet's Principle. Simulated results are compared with experimental images and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurement. A technique for obtaining native and induced using a significant amount of evanescent energy is described for a solid immersion lens (SIL) microscope. Characteristics of native and induced polarization images for different object structures and materials are studied in detail. Experiments are conducted with a NA = 1.48 at lambda = 550nm microscope. Near-field images are simulated and analyzed with an RCWT approach. Contrast curve versus object spatial frequency calculations are compared with experimental measurements. Dependencies of contrast versus source polarization angles and air gap for native and induced polarization image profiles are evaluated. By using the relationship between induced polarization and topographical structure, an induced polarization image of an alternating phase shift mask (PSM) is converted into a topographical image, which shows very good agreement with AFM measurement. Images of other material structures include a dielectric grating, chrome-on-glass grating, silicon CPU structure, BD-R and BD-ROM.

  5. Polarity and Excursion Transitions: Can they be Adequately Recorded in High-Sedimentation-Rate Marine Sediments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channell, J. E. T.

    2014-12-01

    Polarity transitions and magnetic excursions have durations of a few thousand years, or less. Transition/excursion records in volcanic sequences are, at best, partial snap-shots of the transition/excursion field. Records from high-sedimentation-rate marine sediments may be more continuous but they are always smoothed by progressive acquisition of detrital remanent magnetization (DRM), and by sampling/measurement limitations. North Atlantic records of the Matuyama-Brunhes (M-B) polarity transition are compared with records of the Iceland Basin excursion (190 ka). Virtual geomagnetic polar (VGP) paths are used to map characteristic magnetization directions during the transition/excursion. Relative paleointensity (RPI) proxies indicate partial recovery of field intensity during the transition/excursion, with RPI minima coinciding with abrupt VGP shifts at the onset and end of the transition/excursion. Discrepancies in VGP paths among holes at the same site, among sites, and a comparison of u-channel and discrete sample measurements, reveal limitations in resolution of the transition/excursion fields. During the M-B polarity transition, VGP clusters appear in the NW Pacific, NE Asia and in the South Atlantic. Similarities in VGP clustering for the M-B boundary and the Iceland Basin excursion imply that the polarity transition and excursion fields had common characteristics. Similarities with the modern non-axial dipole (NAD) field imply that polarity transitions and excursions involve the demise of the Earth's axial dipole relative to the NAD field, and that the NAD field has long-lasting features locked in place by the lowermost mantle.

  6. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the High Altitude Cusp: Polar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Guan; Blanco-Cano, X.; Russell, C. T.; Zhou, X.-W.; Mozer, F.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic field data from the Polar Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE) show that narrow band waves at frequencies approximately 0.2 to 3 Hz are a permanent feature in the vicinity of the polar cusp. The waves have been found in the magnetosphere adjacent to the cusp (both poleward and equatorward of the cusp) and in the cusp itself. The occurrence of waves is coincident with depression of magnetic field strength associated with enhanced plasma density, indicating the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp region. The wave frequencies are generally scaled by the local proton cyclotron frequency, and vary between 0.2 and 1.7 times local proton cyclotron frequency. This suggests that the waves are generated in the cusp region by the precipitating magnetosheath plasma. The properties of the waves are highly variable. The waves exhibit both lefthanded and right-handed polarization in the spacecraft frame. The propagation angles vary from nearly parallel to nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. We find no correlation among wave frequency, propagation angle and polarization. Combined magnetic field and electric field data for the waves indicate that the energy flux of the waves is guided by the background magnetic field and points downward toward the ionosphere.

  7. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the High-Altitude Cusp: Polar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, G.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Russell, C. T.; Zhou, X.-W.; Mozer, F.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic field data from the Polar Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE) show that narrow-band waves at frequencies approx. 0.2-3 Hz are a permanent feature in the vicinity of the polar cusp. The waves have been found in the magnetosphere adjacent to the cusp (both poleward and equatorward of the cusp) and in the cusp itself. The occurrence of waves is coincident with depression of magnetic field strength associated with enhanced plasma density, indicating the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp region. The wave frequencies are generally scaled by the local proton cyclotron frequency and vary between 0.2 and 1.7 times local proton cyclotron frequency. This suggests that the waves are generated in the cusp region by the precipitating magnetosheath plasma. The properties of the waves are highly variable. The waves exhibit both left-handed and right-handed polarization in the spacecraft frame. The propagation angles vary from nearly parallel to nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. We find no correlation among wave frequency, propagation angle, and polarization. Combined magnetic field and electric field data for the waves indicate that the energy flux of the waves is guided by the background magnetic field and points downward toward the ionosphere.

  8. Performance of GAASP/GAAS Superlattice Photocathodes in High Energy Experiments using Polarized Electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Brachmann, A.; Clendenin, J.E.; Maruyama, T.; Garwin, E.L.; Ioakemidi, K.; Prescott, C.Y.; Turner, J.L.; Prepost, R.; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2006-02-27

    The GaAsP/GaAs strained superlattice photocathode structure has proven to be a significant advance for polarized electron sources operating with high peak currents per microbunch and relatively low duty factor. This is the characteristic type of operation for SLAC and is also planned for the ILC. This superlattice structure was studied at SLAC [1], and an optimum variation was chosen for the final stage of E-158, a high-energy parity violating experiment at SLAC. Following E-158, the polarized source was maintained on standby with the cathode being re-cesiated about once a week while a thermionic gun, which is installed in parallel with the polarized gun, supplied the linac electron beams. However, in the summer of 2005, while the thermionic gun was disabled, the polarized electron source was again used to provide electron beams for the linac. The performance of the photocathode 24 months after its only activation is described and factors making this possible are discussed.

  9. Topological Defect Structure and Annihilation in High-Polarization Freely Suspended Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chenhui; Pattanaporkratana, Apichart; Maclennan, Joseph; Clark, Noel

    2007-03-01

    The texture of freely suspended liquid crystal SmC* films of a high polarization material C7 [4-(3-methyl-2-chloropentanoyloxy)-4'-heptyloxybiphenyl] is studied using polarized light microscopy. In particular, we focus on c-director defects with topological strength --1 found in the chessboard texture. Due to the competition between the elastic energy and the electrostatic energy of polarization splay, the c-director field near the defect core consists of four domains with homogenous orientation of the c-director inside each domain. The boundaries between domains are sharp and the c-director orientation jumps by 90 degrees at each boundary. We will present experimental and theoretical studies of the structure of these polarization-stabilized discontinuities. We will also present studies of the annihilation dynamics of +1 and --1 pairs of defects on this high-P material film and compare them to those on low-P material films. [1] E. Demikhov, Europhys. Lett. 25 (4), 259 (1994). [2] E. Demikhov and H. Stegemeyer, Liq. Cry. 18, 37 (1995). [3] Ch. Bahr and G. Heppke, Phys. Chem. 91, 925 (1987). [4] D. R. Link, N. Chattham, J.E. Maclennan, and N.A. Clark, Phys. Rev. E 71, 021704 (2005). This work is supported by NSF MRSEC Grant DMR0213918.

  10. Ultra high resolution molecular beam cars spectroscopy with application to planetary atmospheric molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of high resolution pulsed and continuous wave (CW) coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurements in pulsed and steady state supersonic expansions were demonstrated. Pulsed molecular beam sources were characterized, and saturation of a Raman transition and, for the first time, the Raman spectrum of a complex molecular cluster were observed. The observation of CW CARS spectra in a molecular expansion and the effects of transit time broadening is described. Supersonic expansion is established as a viable technique for high resolution Raman spectroscopy of cold molecules with resolutions of 100 MH2.

  11. Time and Space Resolved High Harmonic Imaging of Electron Tunnelling from Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, O.

    2009-05-01

    High harmonic generation in intense laser fields carries the promise of combining sub-Angstrom spatial and attosecond temporal resolution of electronic structures and dynamics in molecules, see e.g. [1-3]. High harmonic emission occurs when an electron detached from a molecule by an intense laser field recombines with the parent ion [4]. Similar to Young's double-slit experiment, recombination to several ``lobes'' of the same molecular orbital can produce interference minima and maxima in harmonic intensities [1]. These minima (maxima) carry structural information -- they occur when the de-Broglie wavelength of the recombining electron matches distances between the centers. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that amplitude minima (maxima) in the harmonic spectra can also have dynamical origin, reflecting multi-electron dynamics in the molecule. We use high harmonic spectra to record this dynamics and reconstruct the position of the hole left in the molecule after ionization. Experimental data are consistent with the hole starting in different places as the ionization dynamics changes from tunnelling to the multi-photon regime. Importantly, hole localization and subsequent attosecond dynamics are induced even in the tunnelling limit. Thus, even ``static'' tunnelling induced by a tip of a tunnelling microscope will generate similar attosecond dynamics in a sample. We anticipate that our approach will become standard in disentangling spatial and temporal information from high harmonic spectra of molecules.[4pt] In collaboration with Serguei Patchkovskii, National Research Council, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6, Canada; Yann Mairesse, NRC Canada and CELIA, Universit'e Bordeaux I, UMR 5107 (CNRS, Bordeaux 1, CEA), 351 Cours de la Lib'eration, 33405 Talence Cedex, France; Nirit Dudovich, NRC Canada and Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel; David Villeneuve, Paul Corkum, NRC Canada; and Misha Yu. Ivanov, NRC Canada and Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London SW7 2BW, United Kingdom. [4pt] [1] Lein, M., et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183903 (2002).[0pt] [2] Itatani, J. et al. Nature 432, 834 (2004).[0pt] [3] Baker, S. et al Science 312, 424 (2006).[0pt] [4] Corkum, P. B.Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).

  12. COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES AT HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION TOWARD ORION-KL. I. SPATIAL SCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.; Friedel, Douglas N. E-mail: friedel@astro.illinois.edu

    2012-08-01

    Here we present high spatial resolution (<1'') observations of molecular emission in Orion-KL conducted using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. This work was motivated by recent millimeter continuum imaging studies of this region conducted at a similarly high spatial resolution, which revealed that the bulk of the emission arises from numerous compact sources, rather than the larger-scale extended structures typically associated with the Orion Hot Core and Compact Ridge. Given that the spatial extent of molecular emission greatly affects the determination of molecular abundances, it is important to determine the true spatial scale for complex molecules in this region. Additionally, it has recently been suggested that the relative spatial distributions of complex molecules in a source might give insight into the chemical mechanisms that drive complex chemistry in star-forming regions. In order to begin to address these issues, this study seeks to determine the spatial distributions of ethyl cyanide [C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN], dimethyl ether [(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}O], methyl formate [HCOOCH{sub 3}], formic acid [HCOOH], acetone [(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CO], SiO, methanol [CH{sub 3}OH], and methyl cyanide [CH{sub 3}CN] in Orion-KL at {lambda} = 3 mm. We find that for all observed molecules, the molecular emission arises from multiple components of the cloud that include a range of spatial scales and physical conditions. Here, we present the results of these observations and discuss the implications for studies of complex molecules in star-forming regions.

  13. Design of High Throughput Screening Assays and Identification of a SUMO1-Specific Small Molecule Chemotype Targeting the SUMO-Interacting Motif-Binding Surface

    PubMed Central

    Alontaga, Aileen Y.; Li, Yifei; Chen, Chih-Hong; Ma, Chen-Ting; Malany, Siobhan; Key, Danielle E.; Sergienko, Eduard; Sun, Qing; Whipple, David A.; Matharu, Daljit S.; Li, Baozong; Vega, Ramir; Li, Yi-Jia; Schoenen, Frank J.; Blagg, Brian S. J.; Chung, Thomas D.Y.; Chen, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are generally challenging to target by small molecules. To address the challenge, we have used a multi-disciplinary approach to identify small-molecule disruptors of protein-protein interactions that are mediated by SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier) proteins. SUMO modifications have emerged as a target with importance in treating cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and viral infections. It has been shown that inhibiting SUMO-mediated protein-protein interactions can sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy and radiation. We have developed highly sensitive assays using time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) and fluorescence polarization (FP) that were used for high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify inhibitors for SUMO-dependent protein-protein interactions. Using these assays, we have identified a non-peptidomimetic small molecule chemotype that binds to SUMO1 but not SUMO2 or 3. NMR chemical shift perturbation studies have shown that the compounds of this chemotype bind to the SUMO1 surface required for protein-protein interaction, despite the high sequence similarity of SUMO1 and SUMO2 and 3 at this surface. PMID:25719760

  14. Introducing a high gravity field to enhance infiltration of small molecules into polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolin; Zhao, Kun; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Yue; Shao, Lei; Zhang, Yajun; Shi, Feng

    2015-07-28

    Loading functional small molecules into nano-thin films is fundamental to various research fields such as membrane separation, molecular imprinting, interfacial reaction, drug delivery etc. Currently, a general demand for enhancing the loading rate without affecting the film structures exists in most infiltration phenomena. To handle this issue, we have introduced a process intensification method of a high gravity technique, which is a versatile energy form of mechanical field well-established in industry, into the investigations on diffusion/infiltration at the molecular level. By taking a polyelectrolyte multilayer as a model thin film and a photo-reactive molecule, 4,4'-diazostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid disodium salt (DAS), as a model small functional molecule, we have demonstrated remarkably accelerated adsorption/infiltration of DAS into a poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) multilayer by as high as 20-fold; meanwhile, both the film property of the multilayer and photoresponsive-crosslinking function of DAS were not disturbed. Furthermore, the infiltration of DAS and the surface morphology of the multilayer could be tuned based on their high dependence on the intensity of the high gravity field regarding different rotating speeds. The mechanism of the accelerated adsorption/infiltration under the high gravity field was interpreted by the increased turbulence of the diffusing layer with the thinned laminar boundary layer and the stepwise delivery of the local concentration gradient from the solution to the interior of the multilayer. The introduction of mechanical field provides a simple and versatile strategy to address the paradox of the contradictory loading amount and loading rate, and thus to promote applications of various membrane processes. PMID:26086776

  15. Significantly elevated dielectric permittivity of Si-based semiconductor/polymer 2-2 composites induced by high polarity polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yefeng; Gong, Honghong; Xie, Yunchuan; Wei, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Zhicheng

    2016-02-01

    To disclose the essential influence of polymer polarity on dielectric properties of polymer composites filled with semiconductive fillers, a series of Si-based semiconductor/polymer 2-2 composites in a series model was fabricated. The dielectric permittivity of composites is highly dependant on the polarity of polymer layers as well as the electron mobility in Si-based semiconductive sheets. The huge dielectric permittivity achieved in Si-based semiconductive sheets after being coated with high polarity polymer layers is inferred to originate from the strong induction of high polarity polymers. The increased mobility of the electrons in Si-based semiconductive sheets coated by high polarity polymer layers should be responsible for the significantly enhanced dielectric properties of composites. This could be facilely achieved by either increasing the polarity of polymer layers or reducing the percolative electric field of Si-based semiconductive sheets. The most promising 2-2 dielectric composite was found to be made of α-SiC with strong electron mobility and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with high polarity, and its highest permittivity was obtained as 372 at 100 Hz although the permittivity of α-SiC and PVA is 3-5 and 15, respectively. This work may help in the fabrication of high dielectric constant (high-k) composites by tailoring the induction effect of high polarity polymers to semiconductors.

  16. High efficiency pure blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence molecules having 10H-phenoxaborin and acridan units.

    PubMed

    Numata, Masaki; Yasuda, Takuma; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-06-11

    Highly efficient blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence molecules having 10H-phenoxaborin and acridan units were reported. Pure blue emission peaking at around 450 nm with a high external electroluminescence quantum efficiency of around 20% was demonstrated. PMID:25959457

  17. Spin-polarized photoemission from AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction: A convenient highly polarized electron source

    SciTech Connect

    Ciccacci, F.; Drouhin, H.; Hermann, C.; Houdre, R.; Lampel, G.

    1989-02-13

    We analyze the operation of a spin-polarized electron source, consisting of a 100 A GaAs cap on top of Al/sub 0.3/Ga/sub 0.7/As, excited at 300 or 120 K by a He-Ne laser. The cap allows easy activation to negative electron affinity while the alloy permits gap matching to the light source, and thus large electron spin polarization (30% at 300 K, 36% at 120 K). We compare yield curves, energy distribution curves, and polarized energy distribution curves obtained on samples with 100 and 1000 A caps and on bulk GaAs. The X conduction minimum position in the alloy is also determined.

  18. Pressure-induced penetration of guest molecules in high-silica zeolites: the case of mordenite.

    PubMed

    Arletti, R; Leardini, L; Vezzalini, G; Quartieri, S; Gigli, L; Santoro, M; Haines, J; Rouquette, J; Konczewicz, L

    2015-10-01

    A synthetic high-silica mordenite (HS-MOR) has been compressed in both non-penetrating (silicone oil, s.o.) and penetrating [methanol : ethanol : water (16 : 3 : 1) (m.e.w.), water : ethanol (3 : 1) (w.e.), and ethylene glycol (e.gl.)] pressure transmitting media (PTM). In situ high-pressure (HP) synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) experiments allowed the unit cell parameters to be followed up to 1.6, 1.8, 8.4, and 6.7 GPa in s.o., w.e., m.e.w., and e.gl., respectively. Moreover, e.gl. was also used as a PTM in in situ HP Raman and ex situ IR experiments. The structural refinement of HS-MOR compressed in e.gl. at 0.1 GPa - the lowest investigated pressure - revealed the presence of 3.5 ethylene glycol molecules per unit cell. The infrared spectrum of the recovered sample, after compression to 1 GPa, is consistent with the insertion of ethylene glycol molecules in the pores. XRPD and Raman spectroscopy experiments performed under pressure indicated the insertion of a small number of guest molecules. Ethylene glycol is partially retained inside mordenite upon pressure release. A symmetry lowering was observed in s.o. above 0.8 GPa, while above 1.6 GPa the patterns indicated a rapid loss of long range order. From ambient pressure (Pamb) to 1.6 GPa, a high cell volume contraction (ΔV = -9.5%) was determined. The patterns collected with penetrating PTM suggested the penetration of guest molecules into the porous host matrix, starting from a very low P regime. The entrapment of PTM molecules inside micropores contributes to the stiffening of the structure and, as a consequence, to the decrease of the compressibility with respect to that measured in s.o. From the structural point of view, HS-MOR reacts to compression and to the penetration of different guest species with appropriate framework deformations. Interestingly, ethylene glycol is partially retained inside mordenite upon pressure release, which is of importance for potential application of this composite material. PMID:26325490

  19. Enhancement of Small Molecule Delivery by Pulsed High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound: A Parameter Exploration.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yufeng; Wang, Yak-Nam; Farr, Navid; Zia, Jasmine; Chen, Hong; Ko, Bong Min; Khokhlova, Tatiana; Li, Tong; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapeutic drug delivery is often ineffective within solid tumors, but increasing the drug dose would result in systemic toxicity. The use of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has the potential to enhance penetration of small molecules. However, operation parameters need to be optimized before the use of chemotherapeutic drugs in vivo and translation to clinical trials. In this study, the effects of pulsed HIFU (pHIFU) parameters (spatial-average pulse-average intensity, duty factor and pulse repetition frequency) on the penetration as well as content of small molecules were evaluated in ex vivo porcine kidneys. Specific HIFU parameters resulted in more than 40 times greater Evans blue content and 3.5 times the penetration depth compared with untreated samples. When selected parameters were applied to porcine kidneys in vivo, a 2.3-fold increase in concentration was obtained after a 2-min exposure to pHIFU. Pulsed HIFU has been found to be an effective modality to enhance both the concentration and penetration depth of small molecules in tissue using the optimized HIFU parameters. Although, performed in normal tissue, this study has the promise of translation into tumor tissue. PMID:26803389

  20. Highly sensitive immunoassay of protein molecules based on single nanoparticle fluorescence detection in a nanowell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jin-Hee; Kim, Hee-Joo; Lakshmana, Sudheendra; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kennedy, Ian M.

    2011-03-01

    A nanoarray based-single molecule detection system was developed for detecting proteins with extremely high sensitivity. The nanoarray was able to effectively trap nanoparticles conjugated with biological sample into nanowells by integrating with an electrophoretic particle entrapment system (EPES). The nanoarray/EPES is superior to other biosensor using immunoassays in terms of saving the amounts of biological solution and enhancing kinetics of antibody binding due to reduced steric hindrance from the neighboring biological molecules. The nanoarray patterned onto a layer of PMMA and LOL on conductive and transparent indium tin oxide (ITO)-glass slide by using e-beam lithography. The suspension of 500 nm-fluorescent (green emission)-carboxylated polystyrene (PS) particles coated with protein-A followed by BDE 47 polyclonal antibody was added to the chip that was connected to the positive voltage. The droplet was covered by another ITO-coated-glass slide and connected to a ground terminal. After trapping the particles into the nanowells, the solution of different concentrations of anti-rabbit- IgG labeled with Alexa 532 was added for an immunoassay. A single molecule detection system could quantify the anti-rabbit IgG down to atto-mole level by counting photons emitted from the fluorescent dye bound to a single nanoparticle in a nanowell.