Science.gov

Sample records for highly polar molecules

  1. Tilting and wobble of myosin V by high-speed single-molecule polarized fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Beausang, John F; Shroder, Deborah Y; Nelson, Philip C; Goldman, Yale E

    2013-03-19

    Myosin V is biomolecular motor with two actin-binding domains (heads) that take multiple steps along actin by a hand-over-hand mechanism. We used high-speed polarized total internal reflection fluorescence (polTIRF) microscopy to study the structural dynamics of single myosin V molecules that had been labeled with bifunctional rhodamine linked to one of the calmodulins along the lever arm. With the use of time-correlated single-photon counting technology, the temporal resolution of the polTIRF microscope was improved ~50-fold relative to earlier studies, and a maximum-likelihood, multitrace change-point algorithm was used to objectively determine the times when structural changes occurred. Short-lived substeps that displayed an abrupt increase in rotational mobility were detected during stepping, likely corresponding to random thermal fluctuations of the stepping head while it searched for its next actin-binding site. Thus, myosin V harnesses its fluctuating environment to extend its reach. Additional, less frequent angle changes, probably not directly associated with steps, were detected in both leading and trailing heads. The high-speed polTIRF method and change-point analysis may be applicable to single-molecule studies of other biological systems. PMID:23528086

  2. Tilting and Wobble of Myosin V by High-Speed Single-Molecule Polarized Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Beausang, JohnF.; Shroder, DeborahY.; Nelson, PhilipC.; Goldman, YaleE.

    2013-01-01

    Myosin V is biomolecular motor with two actin-binding domains (heads) that take multiple steps along actin by a hand-over-hand mechanism. We used high-speed polarized total internal reflection fluorescence (polTIRF) microscopy to study the structural dynamics of single myosin V molecules that had been labeled with bifunctional rhodamine linked to one of the calmodulins along the lever arm. With the use of time-correlated single-photon counting technology, the temporal resolution of the polTIRF microscope was improved ?50-fold relative to earlier studies, and a maximum-likelihood, multitrace change-point algorithm was used to objectively determine the times when structural changes occurred. Short-lived substeps that displayed an abrupt increase in rotational mobility were detected during stepping, likely corresponding to random thermal fluctuations of the stepping head while it searched for its next actin-binding site. Thus, myosin V harnesses its fluctuating environment to extend its reach. Additional, less frequent angle changes, probably not directly associated with steps, were detected in both leading and trailing heads. The high-speed polTIRF method and change-point analysis may be applicable to single-molecule studies of other biological systems. PMID:23528086

  3. Interplay of Polarization Geometry and Rotational Dynamics in High-Order Harmonic Generation from Coherently Rotating Linear Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Faisal, F. H. M.; Abdurrouf, A.

    2008-03-28

    Recent reports on intense-field pump-probe experiments for high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from coherently rotating linear molecules have revealed remarkable characteristic effects of the simultaneous variation of the polarization geometry and the time delay on the high-order harmonic signals. We analyze the effects and give a unified theoretical account of the experimental observations. Furthermore, characteristic behavior at critical polarization angles are found that can help to identify the molecular orbital symmetry in connection with the problem of molecular imaging from the HHG data.

  4. Probing the origin of elliptical high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules in linearly polarized laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Sang-Kil; Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, Shih-I.

    2010-10-15

    A recent experiment [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009)] has demonstrated that elliptically polarized high-order harmonic generation can be produced from linearly polarized driving fields for aligned molecular systems. In order to reveal the underlying physical mechanisms of elliptical harmonics, we present fully ab initio and high-precision calculations and analyses of the amplitude, phase, and polarization state of the harmonic radiation from molecular hydrogen ions with arbitrary orientation. We find that high ellipticity arises from molecular orbital symmetry and two-center interference effects. Our ab initio exploration and findings lead to a general rule that the ellipticity becomes high for molecular orbitals represented by a symmetric combination of atomic orbitals, whereas it becomes low for molecular orbitals represented by an antisymmetric combination. This finding also applies to the general case of aligned linear molecules.

  5. Polarization of hydrogen molecules HD, D 2 and DT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, M.; Agliozzo, S.; Bassan, M.; Commeaux, C.; Didelez, J. P.; Honig, A.; Rouill, G.; Sandorfi, A.; Schaerf, C.; Whisnant, S.; Bellini, V.; Capogni, M.; Castoldi, M.; D'Angelo, A.; Di Salvo, R.; Gervino, G.; Ghio, F.; Girolami, B.; Levi Sandri, P.; Moricciani, D.; Zucchiatti, A.

    Highly polarized Hydrogen molecules in the solid phase are of primary interest as "polarized targets" for Nuclear Physics and "polarized fuel" for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). We are developing new techniques to polarize Hydrogen molecules. There are 2 objectives: production of polarized HD targets by static polarization, in order to perform nuclear physics experiments; and investigation of dynamic polarization processes for HD, D 2 and DT, for fusion research. These approaches are described and the results already obtained for the static polarization of HD are given. The possibility to investigate dynamic polarization methods for HD and apply them to DT in order to produce polarized DT fuel for fusion is discussed.

  6. Electron interactions with polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    A description is given of a number of the features of discrete and continuous spectra of electrons interacting with polar molecules. Attention is focused on the extent to which theoretical predictions concerning cross sections, resonances, and bound states are strongly influenced by the various approximations that are so ubiquitous in the treatment of such problems. Similarly, threshold scattering and photodetachment processes are examined for the case of weakly bound dipole states whose higher members overlap the continuum.

  7. Decelerating and Trapping Larger Polar Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, David

    2015-05-01

    Manipulating the motion of larger polyatomic molecules presents significant challenges compared to manipulation of diatomic molecules. In particular, extending Stark deceleration and electrostatic trapping to such species remains challenging. Although molecules as large as CH3F have been trapped and cooled, no general technique for trapping such molecules has been demonstrated, and cold molecules larger than 5 atoms have not been trapped. The combination of recently demonstrated continuous, high flux, slow, cold, buffer gas cooled beams of closed-shell volatile molecules, and a novel ``asymmetric stretched state'' Stark decelerator (proposed here), promise to realize a general system for decelerating and trapping samples of a broad range of volatile neutral polar prolate asymmetric top molecules; the technique is applicable to most stable molecules in the 100-500 AMU range. The trapped samples would initially be in a single rotational state, at a motional temperature of 100s of mK. Such samples would immediately allow for spectroscopy of unprecedented resolution, and straightforward extensions would allow for further cooling, direct observation of slow intra-molecular processes such as vibrational relaxation and Hz-level tunneling dynamics. Further applications include high precision tests of fundamental symmetries, such as searches for nuclear or electronic permanent electric dipole moments and predicted but not yet observed CP violation in spectra of chiral molecules. A proposed experimental design to realize trapped samples of Benzonitrile and Aminobenzonitrile is presented

  8. Production and Trapping of Ultracold Polar Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    David, DeMille

    2015-04-21

    We report a set of experiments aimed at the production and trapping of ultracold polar molecules. We begin with samples of laser-cooled and trapped Rb and Cs atoms, and bind them together to form polar RbCs molecules. The binding is accomplished via photoassociation, which uses a laser to catalyze the sticking process. We report results from investigation of a new pathway for photoassociation that can produce molecules in their absolute ground state of vibrational and rotational motion. We also report preliminary observations of collisions between these ground-state molecules and co-trapped atoms.

  9. Trapping polar molecules in an ac trap

    SciTech Connect

    Bethlem, Hendrick L.; Veldhoven, Jacqueline van; Schnell, Melanie; Meijer, Gerard

    2006-12-15

    Polar molecules in high-field seeking states cannot be trapped in static traps as Maxwell's equations do not allow a maximum of the electric field in free space. It is possible to generate an electric field that has a saddle point by superposing an inhomogeneous electric field to an homogeneous electric field. In such a field, molecules are focused along one direction, while being defocused along the other. By reversing the direction of the inhomogeneous electric field the focusing and defocusing directions are reversed. When the fields are being switched back and forth at the appropriate rate, this leads to a net focusing force in all directions. We describe possible electrode geometries for creating the desired fields and discuss their merits. Trapping of {sup 15}ND{sub 3} ammonia molecules in a cylindrically symmetric ac trap is demonstrated. We present measurements of the spatial distribution of the trapped cloud as a function of the settings of the trap and compare these to both a simple model assuming a linear force and to full three-dimensional simulations of the experiment. With the optimal settings, molecules within a phase-space volume of 270 mm{sup 3} (m/s){sup 3} remain trapped. This corresponds to a trap depth of about 5 mK and a trap volume of about 20 mm{sup 3}.

  10. Production of ultracold polar molecules via photoassociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demille, David

    2003-05-01

    The ability to produce samples of ultracold, polar molecules could be of great interest for many types of experiments. Such molecules can be strongly polarized in an electric field, inducing electric dipole-dipole interactions between the particles. These interactions are tunable, extremely strong, long-range, and anisotropic; they could be of great interest for studying a variety of many-body effects such as BCS pairing, novel quantum phase transitions, and even quantum computation. The strong polarizability of polar molecules also enhances parity-violating effects, such as those due to the electron electric dipole moment and nuclear anapole moments. The long coherence times associated with ultracold molecules could lead to dramatic increases in the sensitivity of experiments measuring such effects. We have recently succeeded in producing a large number of ultracold polar molecules. RbCs molecules are formed by photoassociation (PA) from a dual dark-spot magneto-optic trap (MOT). We observe trap loss accompanying PA, by a reduction in fluorescence from the MOT. With the PA laser detuned 20 cm-1 below the Cs 6p_1/2 resonance, we have observed Rb trap loss of up to 50production of 10^6 molecules/s at typical MOT temperatures. Because these heteronuclear PA resonances occur at much shorter range than the well-known homonuclear PA resonances, a substantial fraction of the molecules thus formed should decay to bound levels of the molecular ground state. Finally, we have also seen clear evidence for the large Stark shifts and broadenings expected for a polar molecule. We will report on further progress towards classifying features in the PA spectrum and determining the distribution of stable ground-state molecules formed in our trap. This work is supported by NSF grant EIA-0081332 and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation.

  11. Fluorescence Polarization Assays in Small Molecule Screening

    PubMed Central

    Lea, Wendy A.; Simeonov, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Importance of the field Fluorescence polarization (FP) is a homogeneous method that allows rapid and quantitative analysis of diverse molecular interactions and enzyme activities. This technique has been widely utilized in clinical and biomedical settings, including the diagnosis of certain diseases and monitoring therapeutic drug levels in body fluids. Recent developments in the field has been symbolized by the facile adoption of FP in high-throughput screening (HTS) and small molecule drug discovery of an increasing range of target classes. Areas covered in this review The article provides a brief overview on the theoretical foundation of FP, followed by updates on recent advancements in its application for various drug target classes, including G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), enzymes and protein-protein interactions (PPIs). The strengths and weaknesses of this method, practical considerations in assay design, novel applications, and future directions are also discussed. What the reader will gain The reader will be informed of the most recent advancements and future directions of FP application to small molecule screening. Take home message In addition to its continued utilization in high-throughput screening, FP has expanded into new disease and target areas and has been marked by increased use of labeled small molecule ligands for receptor binding studies. PMID:22328899

  12. Lithium as a refrigerant for polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, A.; Tokunaga, S. K.; Hendricks, R. J.; Hinds, E. A.; Tarbutt, M. R.

    2013-03-01

    Gases of ultracold polar molecules offer exciting new possibilities in many areas, including precision measurements, simulations of many-body quantum systems, and quantum information processing. We aim to cool polar molecules by sympathetic cooling with ultracold atoms inside a suitable trap. This poster presents our work on the production and transportation of a dense ultracold cloud of lithium for use as a refrigerant in sympathetic cooling. Up to 1010 lithium atoms are loaded from a Zeeman slower into a magneto-optical trap. Using a moving magnetic trap the atoms are transported to a separate chamber where they will later be co-trapped with molecules. We present the design of our setup and our recent results on transport. We also explore the possibility of electrically polarizing the lithium so that dipole-dipole interactions become important in the gas.

  13. Novel electrostatic trap for cold polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xue-Yan; Ma, Hui; Yin, Jian-Ping

    2007-12-01

    We propose a novel scheme in which cold polar molecules are trapped by an electrostatic field generated by the combination of a pair of parallel transparent electrodes (i.e., two infinite transparent plates) and a ring electrode (i.e., a ring wire). The spatial distributions of the electrostatic fields from the above charged wire and the charged plates and the corresponding Stark potentials for cold CO molecules are calculated; the dependences of the trap centre position on the geometric parameters of the electrode are analysed. We also discuss the loading process of cold molecules from a cold molecular beam into our trap. This study shows that the proposed scheme is not only simple and convenient to trap, manipulate and control cold polar molecules in weak-field-seeking states, but also provides an opportunity to study cold collisions and collective quantum effects in a variety of cold molecular systems, etc.

  14. Spinor Bose-Einstein condensates of rotating polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y.; Yi, S.

    2015-09-01

    We propose a scheme to realize a pseudospin-1 /2 model of the 1? (v =0 ) bialkali polar molecules with the spin states corresponding to two sublevels of the first excited rotational level. We show that the effective dipole-dipole interaction between two spin-1 /2 molecules couples the rotational and orbital angular momenta and is highly tunable via a microwave field. We also investigate the ground-state properties of a spin-1 /2 molecular condensate. A variety of nontrivial quantum phases, including the doubly quantized vortex states, are discovered. Our scheme can also be used to create spin-1 model of polar molecules. Thus we show that the ultracold gases of bialkali polar molecules provide a unique platform for studying the spinor condensates of rotating molecules.

  15. Strong-field approximation for ionization of a diatomic molecule by a strong laser field. III. High-order above-threshold ionization by an elliptically polarized field

    SciTech Connect

    Busuladzic, M.; Gazibegovic-Busuladzic, A.; Milosevic, D. B.

    2009-07-15

    We investigate high-order above-threshold ionization (HATI) of diatomic molecules having different symmetries by an elliptically polarized laser field using the modified molecular strong-field approximation. The yields of high-energy electrons contributing to the plateau region of the photoelectron spectra strongly depend on the employed ellipticity. This is more pronounced if the major axis of the polarization ellipse is parallel or perpendicular to the molecular axis and at the end of the high-energy plateau. For the O{sub 2} molecule (characterized by {pi}{sub g} symmetry) the maximum yield is observed for some value of the ellipticity {epsilon} different from zero. On the other hand, in the same circumstances, the N{sub 2} molecule ({sigma}{sub g}) behaves as an atom, i.e., the yield is maximum for {epsilon}=0. These characteristics of the photoelectron spectra remain valid in a wide region of the molecular orientations and laser peak intensities. The symmetry properties of the molecular HATI spectra are considered in detail: by changing the molecular orientation one or other type of the symmetry emerges or disappears. Presenting differential ionization spectra in the ionized electron energy-emission angle plane we have observed similar interference effects as in the HATI spectra governed by a linearly polarized field.

  16. Spin polarization effect for Fe2 molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shi-Ying; Zhu, Zheng-He

    2006-07-01

    This paper uses the density functional theory (DFT)(B3p86) of Gaussian03 to optimize the structure of Fe2 molecule. The result shows that the ground state for Fe2 molecule is a 9-multiple state, which shows spin polarization effect of Fe2 molecule of transition metal elements for the first time. Meanwhile, we have not found any spin pollution because the wavefunction of the ground state does not mingle with wavefunctions with higher energy states. So, that the ground state for Fe2 molecule is a 9-multiple state is indicative of the spin polarization effect of Fe2 molecule of transition metal elements. That is, there exist 8 parallel spin electrons. The non-conjugated electron is greatest in number. These electrons occupy different spacious tracks, so that the energy of the Fe2 molecule is minimized. It can be concluded that the effect of parallel spin of the Fe2 molecule is larger than the effect of the conjugated molecule, which is obviously related to the effect of electron d delocalization. In addition, the Murrell-Sorbie potential functions with the parameters for the ground state and other states of Fe2 molecule are derived. Dissociation energy De for the ground state of Fe2 molecule is 2.8586ev, equilibrium bond length Re is 0.2124nm, vibration frequency ?e is 336.38 cm-1. Its force constants f2, f3, and f4 are 1.8615aJ.nm-2, -8.6704aJ.nm-3, 29.1676aJ.nm-4 respectively. The other spectroscopic data for the ground state of Fe2 molecule ?e?e,Be, ?e are 1.5461 cm-1, 0.1339 cm-1, 7.342810-4 cm-1 respectively.

  17. Orientation detection of a single molecule using pupil filter with electrically controllable polarization pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Mamoru; Yoshiki, Keisuke; Kurihara, Makoto; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a system for measuring the orientation of single molecules using a conventional wide-field fluorescence microscope with a polarization filter consisting of a polarizer and a compact polarization mode converter. The polarization filter electrically controls the pattern of polarization filtering. Since the polarization of the fluorescence from a single molecule highly depends on the angle between the observation direction and the molecular direction, polarization pattern filtering at the pupil plane of the objective lens allows the orientation of a single molecule to be visualized. Using this system, we demonstrated the orientation detection of single molecules.

  18. Optical Production of Ultracold Polar Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Sage, Jeremy M.; Sainis, Sunil; DeMille, David; Bergeman, Thomas

    2005-05-27

    We demonstrate the production of ultracold polar RbCs molecules in their vibronic ground state, via photoassociation of laser-cooled atoms followed by a laser-stimulated state transfer process. The resulting sample of X{sup 1}{sigma}{sup +}(v=0) molecules has a translational temperature of {approx}100 {mu}K and a narrow distribution of rotational states. With the method described here it should be possible to produce samples even colder in all degrees of freedom, as well as other bialkali species.

  19. Tunable Holstein model with cold polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Felipe; Krems, Roman V.

    2011-11-15

    We show that an ensemble of polar molecules trapped in an optical lattice can be considered as a controllable open quantum system. The coupling between collective rotational excitations and the motion of the molecules in the lattice potential can be controlled by varying the strength and orientation of an external dc electric field as well as the intensity of the trapping laser. The system can be described by a generalized Holstein Hamiltonian with tunable parameters and can be used as a quantum simulator of excitation energy transfer and polaron phenomena. We show that the character of excitation energy transfer can be modified by tuning experimental parameters.

  20. Dipolar collisions of polar molecules in the quantum regime.

    PubMed

    Ni, K-K; Ospelkaus, S; Wang, D; Qumner, G; Neyenhuis, B; de Miranda, M H G; Bohn, J L; Ye, J; Jin, D S

    2010-04-29

    Ultracold polar molecules offer the possibility of exploring quantum gases with interparticle interactions that are strong, long-range and spatially anisotropic. This is in stark contrast to the much studied dilute gases of ultracold atoms, which have isotropic and extremely short-range (or 'contact') interactions. Furthermore, the large electric dipole moment of polar molecules can be tuned using an external electric field; this has a range of applications such as the control of ultracold chemical reactions, the design of a platform for quantum information processing and the realization of novel quantum many-body systems. Despite intense experimental efforts aimed at observing the influence of dipoles on ultracold molecules, only recently have sufficiently high densities been achieved. Here we report the experimental observation of dipolar collisions in an ultracold molecular gas prepared close to quantum degeneracy. For modest values of an applied electric field, we observe a pronounced increase in the loss rate of fermionic potassium-rubidium molecules due to ultracold chemical reactions. We find that the loss rate has a steep power-law dependence on the induced electric dipole moment, and we show that this dependence can be understood in a relatively simple model based on quantum threshold laws for the scattering of fermionic polar molecules. In addition, we directly observe the spatial anisotropy of the dipolar interaction through measurements of the thermodynamics of the dipolar gas. These results demonstrate how the long-range dipolar interaction can be used for electric-field control of chemical reaction rates in an ultracold gas of polar molecules. Furthermore, the large loss rates in an applied electric field suggest that creating a long-lived ensemble of ultracold polar molecules may require confinement in a two-dimensional trap geometry to suppress the influence of the attractive, 'head-to-tail', dipolar interactions. PMID:20428166

  1. Multichannel quantum defect theory for polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfimov, Sergei V.; Dorofeev, Dmitrii L.; Zon, Boris A.

    2014-02-01

    Our work is devoted to developing a general approach for nonpenetrating Rydberg states of polar molecules. We propose a method to estimate the accuracy of calculation of their wave functions and quantum defects. Basing on this method we estimate the accuracy of Born-Oppenheimer (BO) and inverse Born-Oppenheimer (IBO) approximations for these states. This estimation enables us to determine the space and energy regions where BO and IBO approximations are valid. It depends on the interplay between l coupling (due to dipole potential of the core) and l uncoupling (due to rotation the core). Next we consider the intermediate region where both BO and IBO are not valid. For this intermediate region we propose a modification of Fano's multichannel quantum defect theory to match BO and IBO wave functions and show that it gives more reliable results. They are demonstrated on the example of SO molecule.

  2. Aspects of Quantum Computing with Polar Paramagnetic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karra, Mallikarjun; Friedrich, Bretislav

    2015-05-01

    Since the original proposal by DeMille, arrays of optically trapped ultracold polar molecules have been considered among the most promising prototype platforms for the implementation of a quantum computer. The qubit of a molecular array is realized by a single dipolar molecule entangled via its dipole-dipole interaction with the rest of the array's molecules. A superimposed inhomogeneous electric field precludes the quenching of the body-fixed dipole moments by rotation and a time dependent external field controls the qubits to perform gate operations. Much like our previous work in which we considered the simplest cases of a polar 1 ? and a symmetric top molecule, here we consider a X2?3 / 2 polar molecule (exemplified by the OH radical) which, by virtue of its nonzero electronic spin and orbital angular momenta, is, in addition, paramagnetic. We demonstrate entanglement tuning by evaluating the concurrence (and the requisite frequencies needed for gate operations) between two such molecules in the presence of varying electric and magnetic fields. Finally, we discuss the conditions required for achieving qubit addressability (transition frequency difference, ?? , as compared with the concomitant Stark and Zeeman broadening) and high fidelity. International Max Planck Research School - Functional Interfaces in Physics and Chemistry.

  3. Electric field control of ultracold polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, John

    2003-05-01

    Recent work in ultracold collisions has emphasized new opportunities for artificially controlling the interactions between atoms and molecules. The most familiar example of this is a class of magnetic-field Feshbach resonances, present in certain alkali atoms, that enable experimenters to manipulate the sign and magnitude of mean-field interactions, as well as to create molecular states. In this talk I will examine instead the impact of electric fields on the interactions between ground-state polar molecules at ultralow temperatures. Electric fields have a decisive influence, and are in fact capable of changing the qualitative nature of the effective intermolecular potential. Moreover, the competition between the forces the molecules apply to each other, and the forces applied by an electric field, generates a new class of weakly-bound molecular states (avd). These ``field-linked'' states may be of great importance in interpreting and controlling cold molecular collisions, including, perhaps, chemical reactions. A. V. Avdeenkov and J. L. Bohn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 043006 (2003).

  4. Towards a low entropy gas of fermionic polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadway, Bryce; Moses, Steven; Yan, Bo; Covey, Jacob; Jin, Deborah; Ye, Jun

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, ultracold gases of polar molecules have garnered much attention, owing in part to their prospects for emulating condensed matter systems with long-range interactions. To enable the observation of long-range dipolar interactions, which has so far been precluded by insufficient molecular densities, we aim to create a high-filling-fraction sample of ground state polar KRb molecules in a three-dimensional optical lattice. This can be accomplished by disposing an initial Bose-Fermi lattice mixture towards the formation of preformed pairs - one boson and one fermion per lattice site - via control over the interspecies interactions, followed by efficient conversion to deeply bound ground state molecules. To characterize the entropy in our system, we shall study two-body losses due to reactive collisions occurring in molecular rotational-state mixtures.

  5. Toroidal nanotraps for cold polar molecules

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Salhi, Marouane; Passian, Ali; Siopsis, George

    2015-09-14

    Electronic excitations in metallic nanoparticles in the optical regime that have been of great importance in surface-enhanced spectroscopy and emerging applications of molecular plasmonics, due to control and confinement of electromagnetic energy, may also be of potential to control the motion of nanoparticles and molecules. Here, we propose a concept for trapping polarizable particles and molecules using toroidal metallic nanoparticles. Specifically, gold nanorings are investigated for their scattering properties and field distribution to computationally show that the response of these optically resonant particles to incident photons permit the formation of a nanoscale trap when proper aspect ratio, photon wavelength, andmore » polarization are considered. However, interestingly the resonant plasmonic response of the nanoring is shown to be detrimental to the trap formation. The results are in good agreement with analytic calculations in the quasistatic limit within the first-order perturbation of the scalar electric potential. The possibility of extending the single nanoring trapping properties to two-dimensional arrays of nanorings is suggested by obtaining the field distribution of nanoring dimers and trimers.« less

  6. Toroidal nanotraps for cold polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Salhi, Marouane; Passian, Ali; Siopsis, George

    2015-09-14

    Electronic excitations in metallic nanoparticles in the optical regime that have been of great importance in surface-enhanced spectroscopy and emerging applications of molecular plasmonics, due to control and confinement of electromagnetic energy, may also be of potential to control the motion of nanoparticles and molecules. Here, we propose a concept for trapping polarizable particles and molecules using toroidal metallic nanoparticles. Specifically, gold nanorings are investigated for their scattering properties and field distribution to computationally show that the response of these optically resonant particles to incident photons permit the formation of a nanoscale trap when proper aspect ratio, photon wavelength, and polarization are considered. However, interestingly the resonant plasmonic response of the nanoring is shown to be detrimental to the trap formation. The results are in good agreement with analytic calculations in the quasistatic limit within the first-order perturbation of the scalar electric potential. The possibility of extending the single nanoring trapping properties to two-dimensional arrays of nanorings is suggested by obtaining the field distribution of nanoring dimers and trimers.

  7. Ultracold polar molecules as a quantum simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Steven; Yan, Bo; Gadway, Bryce; Covey, Jacob; Hazzard, Kaden; Rey, Ana Maria; Jin, Deborah; Ye, Jun

    2014-05-01

    One of the main goals of quantum simulation is to experimentally realize tunable quantum systems as a way to gain insight into strongly correlated many-body phenomena. We have taken the first steps toward this goal in our system of ultracold polar KRb molecules. By encoding spin in rotational states, we have observed spin exchanges of molecules confined in a deep three-dimensional optical lattice. The interactions manifest as a density dependent decay of the spin coherence of the system. In addition, the spin contrast oscillates, with frequency components consistent with the dipolar interaction energies. We vary the interaction strength by using two different pairs of rotational states, and find the decay and oscillations to be roughly twice as fast in the case of stronger interactions. Our experiments are developing in tandem with new theory techniques to describe far-from-equilibrium, long-range interacting systems. In this way, our experiments have led to the development of improved theoretical tools which can be applied to other systems and motivate further experiments on strongly correlated quantum systems. For example, higher lattice fillings in our experiment could enable the study of transport of excitations in an out-of-equilibrium, long-range interacting system. We acknowledge funding from NIST, NSF, DOE, AFOSR-MURI, DARPA, and the NDSEG Graduate Fellowship.

  8. A new apparatus for the manipulation of polar KRb molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, Jacob; Yan, Bo; Moses, Steven; Gadway, Bryce; Jin, Deborah; Ye, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Long-range dipolar interactions can facilitate understanding of strongly interacting many-body quantum systems with phenomena such as quantum magnetism. While we have used polar molecules pinned in a three-dimensional optical lattice to realize a spin-exchange model, the absence of an external electric field precluded the study of the full spin-1/2 Hamiltonian that includes the Ising interaction. Moreover, manipulation of dipolar properties of a bulk molecular gas is also desired. We report on progress towards the second generation of our KRb polar molecule apparatus that will allow for large electric fields with the flexibility to apply gradients of the field in arbitrary directions. The same electrodes that supply large DC electric fields can also provide AC fields for driving rotational transitions to encode spin, where the relative angle between the AC and DC fields can be tuned to control the polarization of the microwave field. Moreover, the geometry of the system is amenable to high resolution optical detection of the molecules. We plan to implement these tools to perform dipolar evaporative cooling of our spin-polarized fermionic molecular gas.

  9. Continuous centrifuge decelerator for polar molecules.

    PubMed

    Chervenkov, S; Wu, X; Bayerl, J; Rohlfes, A; Gantner, T; Zeppenfeld, M; Rempe, G

    2014-01-10

    Producing large samples of slow molecules from thermal-velocity ensembles is a formidable challenge. Here we employ a centrifugal force to produce a continuous molecular beam with a high flux at near-zero velocities. We demonstrate deceleration of three electrically guided molecular species, CH3F, CF3H, and CF3CCH, with input velocities of up to 200  m s(-1) to obtain beams with velocities below 15  m s(-1) and intensities of several 10(9)  mm(-2) s(-1). The centrifuge decelerator is easy to operate and can, in principle, slow down any guidable particle. It has the potential to become a standard technique for continuous deceleration of molecules. PMID:24483892

  10. High-Throughput Screening for Small Molecule Inhibitors of LARG-Stimulated RhoA Nucleotide Binding via a Novel Fluorescence Polarization Assay

    PubMed Central

    Evelyn, Chris R.; Ferng, Timothy; Rojas, Rafael J.; Larsen, Martha J.; Sondek, John; Neubig, Richard R.

    2009-01-01

    Guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) stimulate guanine nucleotide exchange and the subsequent activation of Rho-family proteins in response to extracellular stimuli acting upon cytokine, tyrosine kinase, adhesion, integrin, and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Upon Rho activation, several downstream events occur, such as morphological and cytokskeletal changes, motility, growth, survival, and gene transcription. The RhoGEF Leukemia-Associated RhoGEF (LARG) is a member of the Regulators of G-protein Signaling Homology Domain (RH) family of GEFs originally identified as a result of chromosomal translocation in acute myeloid leukemia. Using a novel fluorescence polarization guanine nucleotide binding assay utilizing BODIPY-Texas Red-GTP?S (BODIPY-TR-GTP?S), we performed a ten-thousand compound high-throughput screen for inhibitors of LARG-stimulated RhoA nucleotide binding. Five compounds identified from the high-throughput screen were confirmed in a non-fluorescent radioactive guanine nucleotide binding assay measuring LARG-stimulated [35S] GTP?S binding to RhoA, thus ruling out non-specific fluorescent effects. All five compounds selectively inhibited LARG-stimulated RhoA [35S] GTP?S binding, but had little to no effect upon RhoA or G?o [35S] GTP?S binding. Therefore, these five compounds should serve as promising starting points for the development of small molecule inhibitors of LARG-mediated nucleotide exchange as both pharmacological tools and therapeutics. In addition, the fluorescence polarization guanine nucleotide binding assay described here should serve as a useful approach for both high-throughput screening and general biological applications. PMID:19196702

  11. Many-body spin systems with ultracold polar KRb molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, Jacob; Gadway, Bryce; Yan, Bo; Moses, Steven; Jin, Deborah; Ye, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Long-range dipolar interactions are expected to facilitate understanding of strongly correlated many-body quantum systems such as quantum magnetism. We have used dipolar interactions of polar molecules pinned in a three-dimensional optical lattice to realize a lattice spin model where spin is encoded in rotational states of molecules that are prepared and probed by microwaves. The many-body dipolar interactions are apparent in the evolution of the spin coherence, which shows oscillations in addition to an overall decay of the coherence. The frequency of these oscillations depends on the strength of the dipolar interaction, which we can vary, and agrees quantitatively with a dipolar spin-exchange model. However, the absence of an external electric field precludes the study of the full spin-1/2 Hamiltonian that includes the Ising interaction. We are now building a novel apparatus that will allow us to reach large electric fields with full tunability of the relative strength of the Ising and exchange terms. Moreover, we anticipate imaging our sample with a high-NA microscope objective, allowing microscopic studies of a many-body spin system of polar molecules.

  12. Molecular polarizability in quantum defect theory: polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Akindinova, E. V.; Chernov, V. E.; Kretinin, I. Yu.; Zon, B. A.

    2010-04-15

    The reduced-added Green's function technique in the quantum defect theory combines the advantages of analytical and ab initio methods in calculating frequency-dependent (dynamic) polarizabilities of atoms and molecules, providing an exact account for the high-excited and continuum electronic states. In the present paper this technique is modified to take into account the long-range dipole potential of a polar molecule core. The method developed is applied to calculation of the dynamic polarizability tensors of alkali-metal hydrides LiH and NaH as well as to some fluorides (CaF and BF) in the frequency range up to the first resonances. The results are in good agreement with ab initio calculations available for some frequencies.

  13. Adsorption of polar molecules on krypton clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, A.; Pokapanich, W.; hrwall, G.; Svensson, S.; Bjrneholm, O.; Tchaplyguine, M.

    2007-08-01

    The formation process of binary clusters has been studied using synchrotron based core level photoelectron spectroscopy. Free neutral krypton clusters have been produced by adiabatic expansion and doped with chloromethane molecules using the pickup technique. The comparison between the integrated intensities, linewidths, and level shifts of the cluster features of pure krypton and of chloromethane-krypton clusters has been used to obtain information about the cluster geometry. We have shown that most of the chloromethane molecules remain on the surface of the clusters.

  14. Quantum phase gate and controlled entanglement with polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Charron, Eric; Keller, Arne; Atabek, Osman; Milman, Perola

    2007-03-15

    We propose an alternative scenario for the generation of entanglement between rotational quantum states of two polar molecules. This entanglement arises from dipole-dipole interaction, and is controlled by a sequence of laser pulses simultaneously exciting both molecules. We study the efficiency of the process, and discuss possible experimental implementations with cold molecules trapped in optical lattices or in solid matrices. Finally, various entanglement detection procedures are presented, and their suitability for these two physical situations is analyzed.

  15. Polarization shaping for unidirectional rotational motion of molecules.

    PubMed

    Karras, G; Ndong, M; Hertz, E; Sugny, D; Billard, F; Lavorel, B; Faucher, O

    2015-03-13

    Control of the orientation of the angular momentum of linear molecules is demonstrated by means of laser polarization shaping. For this purpose, we combine two orthogonally polarized and partially time-overlapped femtosecond laser pulses so as to produce a spinning linear polarization which in turn induces unidirectional rotation of N2 molecules. The evolution of the rotational response is probed by a third laser beam that can be either linearly or circularly polarized. The physical observable is the frequency shift imparted to the probe beam as a manifestation of the angular Doppler effect. Our experimental results are confirmed by theoretical computations, which allow one to gain a deep physical insight into the laser-molecule interaction. PMID:25815926

  16. Reactive collisions of ultracold polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makrides, Constantinos; Kotochigova, Svetlana; Petrov, Alexander

    2013-05-01

    There has been a recent increase in the number of experimental and theoretical efforts in describing and controlling ultra cold chemistry. A number of groups have been able to create and trap a number of cold molecules and are now looking to move into controlling more exotic molecular systems. Critical to this movement is understanding the various interactions between the atoms and molecules in the trap. We offer here a study of the these interactions using Li + LiYb as a test system of interest. Using ab initio calculations we are able to obtain the long range interactions for the current system and connect to the short range interactions to provide a description of the interaction landscape. With this information, chemical reactions such as the exchange reaction (Li + LiYb --> Yb + Li2) can be practically approached in scattering calculations. We acknowledge funding from the ARO MURI on quantum control of chemical reactions and the National Science Foundation.

  17. Polarization of excitation light influences molecule counting in single-molecule localization microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ye; Lin, Han; Ludford-Menting, Mandy J; Clayton, Andrew H; Gu, Min; Russell, Sarah M

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule localization microscopy has been widely applied to count the number of biological molecules within a certain structure. The percentage of molecules that are detected significantly affects the interpretation of data. Among many factors that affect this percentage, the polarization state of the excitation light is often neglected or at least unstated in publications. We demonstrate by simulation and experiment that the number of molecules detected can be different from -40 up to 100% when using circularly or linearly polarized excitation light. This is determined mainly by the number of photons emitted by single fluorescent molecule, namely the choice of fluorescence proteins, and the background noise in the system, namely the illumination scheme. This difference can be further exaggerated or mitigated by various fixation methods, magnification, and camera settings We conclude that the final choice between circularly or linearly polarized excitation light should be made experimentally, based on the signal to noise ratio of the system. PMID:25182934

  18. Giant molecules composed of polar molecules and atoms in mixed dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ran; Tan, Shina

    2014-05-01

    Two or three polar molecules, confined to one or two dimensions, can form stable bound states with a single atom living in three dimensions, if the molecule and the atom can interact resonantly such that their mixed dimensional scattering length is large. We call these bound states ``giant molecules'' since it's a molecule composed of smaller molecules and atoms. We study their properties using techniques including exact numerical solution, exact qunatum diffusion Monte Carlo (QMC), Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA), and semiclassical approximation. These bound states have a hierarchical structure reminiscent of the celestial systems.

  19. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Optical polarization of diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auzin'sh, M. P.; Ferber, R. S.

    1990-10-01

    Originally, he says, man was round, his back and sides forming a circle. Hermann Weyl, "Symmetry" (on Plato's Dialogue "Symposium"). The evolution of polarization (alignment and orientation) of angular momenta of diatomic molecules both in the ground and excited states upon absorption of light is examined. The effect of external factorsmagnetic field and collisionson this polarization is investigated. Interference effects (level crossing, quantum beats, beat resonance) and the possibilities of employing them to determine magnetic and relaxation characteristics of individual vibration-rotation levels are analyzed. A classical description of phenomena is given in terms of distribution of angular momenta, including the use of isometric projections of the distribution being formed. Equations are given that describe the interaction of intense laser radiation with an ensemble of molecules in the gas phase. Other mechanisms are presented for the evolution of angular momenta for the ground electron state of diatomic molecules.

  20. Controlling cold collisions of polar molecules with external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticknor, Christopher Carl

    2005-11-01

    In this thesis we explore how external fields can be used to control collisions of ultracold polar molecules. First we review the Stark and Zeeman effects for polar molecules and two body multi-channel scattering theory. A general treatment of the Stark effect and dipolar interactions is also presented. We consider cold collisions of OH molecules in the 2pi 3/2 ground state under the influence of a magnetic field. We find that modest fields of several thousand Gauss can act to suppress inelastic collisions of weak-field-seeking states by two orders of magnitude. We attribute this suppression to two factors: (i) an indirect coupling of the entrance and the exit channel, in contrast to the effect of an applied electric field and (ii) the relative shift of the entrance and exit scattering thresholds. In view of these results, magnetic trapping of OH may prove experimentally feasible. We also present first steps toward understanding the ultracold scattering properties of polar molecules in strong electric field-seeking states. We have found that the elastic cross section displays a quasi-regular set of potential resonances as a function of the electric field, which potentially offers intimate details about the intermolecular interaction. We illustrate these resonances using a "toy" model composed of pure dipoles and a more physically realistic system. To analyze these resonances, we use a simple WKB approximation to the eigenphase, which proves both reasonably accurate and meaningful.

  1. Universal Matchgate Quantum Computing With Cold Polar Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Felipe

    2015-03-01

    Polar molecules in optical lattices are attractive for quantum simulation and computation due to the ability to implement a variety of spin-lattice models using static, microwave and optical fields to engineer the long-range dipolar interaction between molecular qubits. Quantum simulation of spin models requires global control over the molecular ensemble, while quantum computation requires control of individual molecules with sub-wavelength resolution. In this talk, we describe the implementation of a matchgate quantum processor with an ensemble of polar molecules in an optical lattice. The scheme uses few-body qubit encoding and sequential control of two-body dipolar interactions over small plaquetes on a square lattice to perform universal quantum computing without single-site addressing. Effective spin-spin interactions with matchgate symmetry between open-shell polar molecules (e.g., SrF, OH) are driven by two infrared control pulses in the absence of static electric fields. The resulting matchgates are robust with respect to realistic imperfections in the driving fields and lattice trapping. Applications of the architecture for the simulation of interacting fermions in quantum chemistry are discussed, considering an imperfect lattice filling.

  2. Three-dimensional optical polarization tomography of single molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prummer, Michael; Sick, Beate; Hecht, Bert; Wild, Urs P.

    2003-06-01

    We apply the concept of tomography to polarization-sensitive optical microscopy of single fluorophores to determine the three-dimensional orientation of molecular absorption dipoles with isotropic sensitivity. Wide-field microscopy provides the opportunity to monitor simultaneously three-dimensional rotation and two-dimensional translation of many molecules in parallel. For orientation determination the molecules are illuminated from different directions of incidence with linearly polarized light. In each exposure the excitation along a particular projection of the absorption dipole on the electric field leads to a distinct fluorescence intensity. Five exposures are sufficient to determine the full orientation of the fluorophores. To demonstrate the potential of the method we determine the orientation and position of individual immobilized lipid membrane markers. The shot-noise-limited isotropic angular resolution is 2. For time-resolved studies the bandwidth can be expanded up to 200 Hz.

  3. Ferroelectric quantum phase transition with cold polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinsmann, Markus; Peter, David; Büchler, Hans Peter

    2015-08-01

    We analyze a system of polar molecules in a one-dimensional optical lattice. By controlling the internal structure of the polar molecules with static electric and microwave fields, we demonstrate the appearance of a quantum phase transition into a ferroelectric phase via spontaneous breaking of a U(1) symmetry. The phase diagram is first analyzed within mean-field theory, while in a second step the results are verified by a mapping onto the Bose-Hubbard model for hard-core bosons. The latter is studied within the well-established bosonization procedure. We find that the ferroelectric phase is characterized by (quasi) long-range order for the electric dipole moments.

  4. Measuring dipolar spin exchanges in ultracold polar KRb molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Steven; Yan, Bo; Gadway, Bryce; Covey, Jacob; Hazzard, Kaden; Rey, Ana Maria; Jin, Deborah; Ye, Jun

    2014-03-01

    By encoding spin in rotational states, we have observed spin exchanges of ultracold polar KRb molecules that are confined in a deep three dimensional optical lattice [Yan et al., Nature 501, 521 (2013)]. The interactions manifest as a density dependent decay of the spin coherence of the system, which is probed via Ramsey spectroscopy. In addition to decaying, there are oscillations in the contrast, with frequency components that are consistent with the dipolar interaction energies. By adding additional pulses, we can suppress pairwise dipolar interactions. We have studied these spin exchanges for two different pairs of rotational states, which differ by a factor of two in interaction strength, and find the decay and oscillations to be roughly twice as fast in the case of stronger interactions. This work lays the foundation for future studies of quantum magnetism with polar molecules in optical lattices. We acknowledge funding from NIST, NSF, DOE, AFOSR-MURI, DARPA, and the NDSEG Graduate Fellowship.

  5. Spectromicroscopy Study of the Organic Molecules Utilizing Polarized Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Y.J.; Wei, D.H.; Yin, G.C.; Chung, S.C.; Hu, W.S.; Tao, Y.T.

    2004-05-12

    Spectromicroscopy combined with polarized synchrotron radiation is a powerful tool for imaging and characterizing the molecular properties on surface. In this work we utilized the photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) with linear polarized radiation provided by an elliptically polarized undulator to investigate the molecular orientations of pentacene on self-assembled monolayer (SAMs) modified gold surface and to observe the cluster domain of mixed monolayers after reorganization on silver. Varying the electric vector parallel or perpendicular to the surface, the relative intensity of {pi}* and {sigma}* transition in carbon K-edge can be used to determine the orientation of the planar-shaped pentacene molecule or long carbon chain of carboxylic acids which are important for organic semiconductor.

  6. Formation of ultracold polar molecules in a single quantum state

    SciTech Connect

    Cote, Robin; Juarros, Elizabeth; Kirby, Kate

    2010-06-15

    We compute the formation rate of a polar molecule, LiH, into the lowest triplet electronic state, a {sup 3{Sigma}+}, via population of the intermediate excited electronic state, b {sup 3{Pi}}, followed by radiative decay. We find large formation rates into the single rovibrational bound state (v=0,J=0) of the a {sup 3{Sigma}+}, which can be explained by the unusually large overlap of its wave function with those of the two upper-most bound levels of the b {sup 3{Pi}}. With conservative parameters, we estimate that over 10{sup 4} molecules/s could be produced in the single rovibrational level of the a {sup 3{Sigma}+} state. We also discuss scattering properties of LiH triplet molecules and their relevance to ultracold chemical reactions.

  7. Fermi liquid of two-dimensional polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhen-Kai; Shlyapnikov, G. V.

    2012-02-01

    We study Fermi-liquid properties of a weakly interacting two-dimensional gas of single-component fermionic polar molecules with dipole moments d oriented perpendicularly to the plane of their translational motion. This geometry allows the minimization of inelastic losses due to chemical reactions for reactive molecules and, at the same time, provides a possibility of a clear description of many-body (beyond mean-field) effects. The long-range character of the dipole-dipole repulsive interaction between the molecules, which scales as 1/r3 at large distances r, makes the problem drastically different from the well-known problem of the two-species Fermi gas with repulsive contact interspecies interaction. We solve the low-energy scattering problem and develop a many-body perturbation theory beyond the mean field. The theory relies on the presence of a small parameter kFr*, where kF is the Fermi momentum and r*=md2/?2 is the dipole-dipole length, with m being the molecule mass. We obtain thermodynamic quantities as a series of expansion up to the second order in kFr* and argue that many-body corrections to the ground-state energy can be identified in experiments with ultracold molecules, as it has been recently done for ultracold fermionic atoms. Moreover, we show that only many-body effects provide the existence of zero sound and calculate the sound velocity.

  8. Tunable disorder in a crystal of cold polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Felipe; Krems, Roman V.; Litinskaya, Marina

    2010-09-15

    We show that a two-species mixture of polar molecules trapped on an optical lattice gives rise to a system of rotational excitons in the presence of tunable impurities. The exciton-impurity interactions can be controlled by an external electric field, which can be exploited for quantum simulation of localization phenomena in disordered media. We demonstrate that an external electric field can be used to induce resonant enhancement of the exciton-impurity scattering cross sections and delocalization of excitonic states in a correlated one-dimensional disorder potential.

  9. Single-photon nonlinearities using arrays of cold polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Rajapakse, R. M.; Bragdon, T.; Rey, A. M.; Calarco, T.; Yelin, S. F.

    2009-07-15

    We model single-photon nonlinearities resulting from the dipole-dipole interactions of cold polar molecules. We propose utilizing 'dark state polaritons' to effectively couple photon and molecular states; through this framework, coherent control of the nonlinearity can be expressed and potentially used in an optical quantum computation architecture. Due to the dipole-dipole interaction the photons pick up a measurable nonlinear phase even in the single-photon regime. A manifold of protected symmetric eigenstates is used as basis. Depending on the implementation, major sources of decoherence result from nonsymmetric interactions and phonon dispersion. We discuss the strength of the nonlinearity per photon and the feasibility of this system.

  10. Precision Spectroscopy of Polarized Molecules in an Ion Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornell, Eric

    2014-05-01

    To realize the advantages that molecules offer to a measurement of the electron's electric dipole moment (eEDM), one must apply an electric field large enough to polarize the molecule in the lab frame. We show that via the use of a rotating bias field, this can be accomplished for trapped molecular ions. We observe coherence times in excess of 150 ms on the science transition in trapped ionic hafnium fluoride. We characterize some of effects limiting the realization of still longer coherence times. We discuss the implications for an improved eEDM measurement. The work was done in collaboration with Will Cairncross, Kevin Cosell, Dan Gresh, Matt Grau, Huanqian Loh, Ed Meyer, Kang-Kuen Ni, Yiqi Ni, John Bohn and Jun Ye. This work was supported by NSF, NIST, and the Marsico Foundation.

  11. Spin-orbital dynamics in a system of polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syzranov, Sergey; Wall, Michael; Gurarie, Victor; Rey, Ana Maria

    2015-05-01

    We consider the dynamics of a two-dimensional system of ultracold polar molecules weakly perturbed from a stationary state. We demonstrate that dipole-dipole interactions in such a system generate chiral excitations with a non-trivial Berry phase 2 ? . These excitations, which we call chirons, resemble low-energy quasiparticles in bilayer graphene and emerge regardless of the quantum statistics and for arbitrary ratios of kinetic to interaction energies. Chirons manifest themselves in the dynamics of the spin density profile, spin currents, and spin coherences, even for molecules pinned in a deep optical lattice. We derive the kinetic equation that describes chiron dynamics and calculate the distributions of physical observables for experimentally realisable initial conditions. This work was supported by NIST: JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PIF-1211914, NSF-PHY11-25915, ARO, ARO-DARPA-OLE, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI; NSF: DMR-1001240, PHY-1125844, and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

  12. Topological phases in ultracold polar-molecule quantum magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manmana, Salvatore R.; Stoudenmire, E. M.; Hazzard, Kaden R. A.; Rey, Ana Maria; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    2013-02-01

    We show how to use polar molecules in an optical lattice to engineer quantum spin models with arbitrary spin S≥1/2 and with interactions featuring a direction-dependent spin anisotropy. This is achieved by encoding the effective spin degrees of freedom in microwave-dressed rotational states of the molecules and by coupling the spins through dipolar interactions. We demonstrate how one of the experimentally most accessible anisotropies stabilizes symmetry protected topological phases in spin ladders. Using the numerically exact density matrix renormalization group method, we find that these interacting phases—previously studied only in the nearest-neighbor case—survive in the presence of long-range dipolar interactions. We also show how to use our approach to realize the bilinear-biquadratic spin-1 and the Kitaev honeycomb models. Experimental detection schemes and imperfections are discussed.

  13. Ultracold polar molecules in a 3D optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Ultracold polar molecules, with their long-range electric dipolar interactions, offer new opportunities for studying quantum magnetism and many-body physics. KRb molecules loaded into a three-dimensional (3D) optical lattice allow one to study such a spin-lattice system in a stable environment without losses arising from chemical reactions. In the case with strong lattice confinement along two directions and a weak lattice potential along the third, we find the loss rate is suppressed by the quantum Zeno effect. In a deep 3D lattice with no tunneling, we observe evidences for spin exchange interactions. We use Ramsey spectroscopy to investigate the spin dynamics. By choosing the appropriate lattice polarizations and implementing a spin echo sequence, the single particle dephasing is largely suppressed, leaving the dipolar exchange interactions as the dominant contribution to the observed dynamics. This is supported by many-body theoretical calculations. While this initial demonstration was done with low lattice fillings, our current experimental efforts are focused on increasing the lattice filling fraction. This will greatly benefit the study of complex many-body dynamics with long-range interactions, such as transport of excitations in an out-of-equilibrium system and spin-orbit coupling in a lattice.

  14. High Frequency Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Qing Zhe; Daviso, Eugenio; Can, Thach V.; Markhasin, Evgeny; Jawla, Sudheer K.; Swager, Timothy M.; Temkin, Richard J.; Herzfeld, Judith; Griffin, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Conspectus During the three decades 19802010, magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR developed into the method of choice to examine many chemical, physical and biological problems. In particular, a variety of dipolar recoupling methods to measure distances and torsion angles can now constrain molecular structures to high resolution. However, applications are often limited by the low sensitivity of the experiments, due in large part to the necessity of observing spectra of low-? nuclei such as the I = species 13C or 15N. The difficulty is still greater when quadrupolar nuclei, like 17O or 27Al, are involved. This problem has stimulated efforts to increase the sensitivity of MAS experiments. A particularly powerful approach is dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) which takes advantage of the higher equilibrium polarization of electrons (which conventionally manifests in the great sensitivity advantage of EPR over NMR). In DNP, the sample is doped with a stable paramagnetic polarizing agent and irradiated with microwaves to transfer the high polarization in the electron spin reservoir to the nuclei of interest. The idea was first explored by Overhauser and Slichter in 1953. However, these experiments were carried out on static samples, at magnetic fields that are low by current standards. To be implemented in contemporary MAS NMR experiments, DNP requires microwave sources operating in the subterahertz regime roughly 150660 GHz and cryogenic MAS probes. In addition, improvements were required in the polarizing agents, because the high concentrations of conventional radicals that are required to produce significant enhancements compromise spectral resolution. In the last two decades scientific and technical advances have addressed these problems and brought DNP to the point where it is achieving wide applicability. These advances include the development of high frequency gyrotron microwave sources operating in the subterahertz frequency range. In addition, low temperature MAS probes were developed that permit in-situ microwave irradiation of the samples. And, finally, biradical polarizing agents were developed that increased the efficiency of DNP experiments by factors of ~4 at considerably lower paramagnet concentrations. Collectively these developments have made it possible to apply DNP on a routine basis to a number of different scientific endeavors, most prominently in the biological and material sciences. This Account reviews these developments, including the primary mechanisms used to transfer polarization in high frequency DNP, and the current choice of microwave sources and biradical polarizing agents. In addition, we illustrate the utility of the technique with a description of applications to membrane and amyloid proteins that emphasizes the unique structural information that is available in these two cases. PMID:23597038

  15. High Intensity Polarized Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Redwine, Robert P.

    2012-07-31

    The goal of the project was to investigate the possibility of building a very high intensity polarized electron gun for the Electron-Ion Collider. This development is crucial for the eRHIC project. The gun implements a large area cathode, ring-shaped laser beam and active cathode cooling. A polarized electron gun chamber with a large area cathode and active cathode cooling has been built and tested. A preparation chamber for cathode activation has been built and initial tests have been performed. Major parts for a load-lock chamber, where cathodes are loaded into the vacuum system, have been manufactured.

  16. Dynamic nuclear polarization at high magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Maly, Thorsten; Debelouchina, Galia T.; Bajaj, Vikram S.; Hu, Kan-Nian; Joo, Chan-Gyu; MakJurkauskas, Melody L.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; van der Wel, Patrick C. A.; Herzfeld, Judith; Temkin, Richard J.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a method that permits NMR signal intensities of solids and liquids to be enhanced significantly, and is therefore potentially an important tool in structural and mechanistic studies of biologically relevant molecules. During a DNP experiment, the large polarization of an exogeneous or endogeneous unpaired electron is transferred to the nuclei of interest (I) by microwave (?w) irradiation of the sample. The maximum theoretical enhancement achievable is given by the gyromagnetic ratios (?e/?l), being ?660 for protons. In the early 1950s, the DNP phenomenon was demonstrated experimentally, and intensively investigated in the following four decades, primarily at low magnetic fields. This review focuses on recent developments in the field of DNP with a special emphasis on work done at high magnetic fields (?5 T), the regime where contemporary NMR experiments are performed. After a brief historical survey, we present a review of the classical continuous wave (cw) DNP mechanismsthe Overhauser effect, the solid effect, the cross effect, and thermal mixing. A special section is devoted to the theory of coherent polarization transfer mechanisms, since they are potentially more efficient at high fields than classical polarization schemes. The implementation of DNP at high magnetic fields has required the development and improvement of new and existing instrumentation. Therefore, we also review some recent developments in ?w and probe technology, followed by an overview of DNP applications in biological solids and liquids. Finally, we outline some possible areas for future developments. PMID:18266416

  17. Interaction of a polar molecule with an ion channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levadny, V.; Aguilella, V. M.; Aguilella-Arzo, M.; Belaya, M.

    2004-10-01

    The binding of a polar macromolecule to a large ion channel is studied theoretically, paying special attention to the influence of external conditions (applied voltage and ion strength of solution). The molecule behavior in bound state is considered as random thermal fluctuations within a limited fraction of its phase space. The mean duration of molecule binding (residence time ?r ) is represented as the mean first passage time to reach the boundary of that restricted domain. By invoking the adiabatic approximation we reduce the problem to one dimension with the angle between macromolecule dipole and channel axes being the key variable of the problem. The model accounts for experimental measurements of ?r for the antibiotic Ampicillin within the bacterial porin OmpF of Escherichia coli. By assuming that the electrical interaction between Ampicillin dipole and OmpF ionizable groups affects the fluctuations, we find that the biased residence time-voltage dependence observed in experiments is the result of the strong transversal electric field in OmpF constriction with a tilt 30 aside the cis side.

  18. Interaction of a polar molecule with an ion channel

    SciTech Connect

    Levadny, V.; Aguilella, V.M.; Aguilella-Arzo, M.; Belaya, M.

    2004-10-01

    The binding of a polar macromolecule to a large ion channel is studied theoretically, paying special attention to the influence of external conditions (applied voltage and ion strength of solution). The molecule behavior in bound state is considered as random thermal fluctuations within a limited fraction of its phase space. The mean duration of molecule binding (residence time {tau}{sub r}) is represented as the mean first passage time to reach the boundary of that restricted domain. By invoking the adiabatic approximation we reduce the problem to one dimension with the angle between macromolecule dipole and channel axes being the key variable of the problem. The model accounts for experimental measurements of {tau}{sub r} for the antibiotic Ampicillin within the bacterial porin OmpF of Escherichia coli. By assuming that the electrical interaction between Ampicillin dipole and OmpF ionizable groups affects the fluctuations, we find that the biased residence time-voltage dependence observed in experiments is the result of the strong transversal electric field in OmpF constriction with a tilt {approx}30 deg. aside the cis side.

  19. Creation of a low-entropy quantum gas of polar molecules in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Steven A.; Covey, Jacob P.; Miecnikowski, Matthew T.; Yan, Bo; Gadway, Bryce; Ye, Jun; Jin, Deborah S.

    2015-11-01

    Ultracold polar molecules, with their long-range electric dipolar interactions, offer a unique platform for studying correlated quantum many-body phenomena. However, realizing a highly degenerate quantum gas of molecules with a low entropy per particle is challenging. We report the synthesis of a low-entropy quantum gas of potassium-rubidium molecules (KRb) in a three-dimensional optical lattice. We simultaneously load into the optical lattice a Mott insulator of bosonic Rb atoms and a single-band insulator of fermionic K atoms. Then, using magnetoassociation and optical state transfer, we efficiently produce ground-state molecules in the lattice at those sites that contain one Rb and one K atom. The achieved filling fraction of 25% should enable future studies of transport and entanglement propagation in a many-body system with long-range dipolar interactions.

  20. Creation of a low-entropy quantum gas of polar molecules in an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Moses, Steven A; Covey, Jacob P; Miecnikowski, Matthew T; Yan, Bo; Gadway, Bryce; Ye, Jun; Jin, Deborah S

    2015-11-01

    Ultracold polar molecules, with their long-range electric dipolar interactions, offer a unique platform for studying correlated quantum many-body phenomena. However, realizing a highly degenerate quantum gas of molecules with a low entropy per particle is challenging. We report the synthesis of a low-entropy quantum gas of potassium-rubidium molecules (KRb) in a three-dimensional optical lattice. We simultaneously load into the optical lattice a Mott insulator of bosonic Rb atoms and a single-band insulator of fermionic K atoms. Then, using magnetoassociation and optical state transfer, we efficiently produce ground-state molecules in the lattice at those sites that contain one Rb and one K atom. The achieved filling fraction of 25% should enable future studies of transport and entanglement propagation in a many-body system with long-range dipolar interactions. PMID:26542566

  1. Deterministically Polarized Fluorescence from Single Dye Molecules Aligned in Liquid Crystal Host

    SciTech Connect

    Lukishova, S.G.; Schmid, A.W.; Knox, R.; Freivald, P.; Boyd, R. W.; Stroud, Jr., C. R.; Marshall, K.L.

    2005-09-30

    We demonstrated for the first time to our konwledge deterministically polarized fluorescence from single dye molecules. Planar aligned nematic liquid crystal hosts provide deterministic alignment of single dye molecules in a preferred direction.

  2. A microwave trap for sympathetic cooling of polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunseith, Devin; Truppe, Stefan; Hendricks, Richard; Sauer, Ben; Hinds, Edward; Tarbutt, Michael

    2015-03-01

    We have been developing techniques to cool molecules into the microkelvin regime. One method is to use sympathetic cooling, using ultracold atoms as a refrigerant to cool molecules. Previous work has suggested that atoms and molecules can be trapped in the antinode of a Fabry-Prot microwave cavity. We couple microwave power into this cavity from a rectangular waveguide via a small hole in one mirror. We have developed an analytical model that helps us understand this coupling, and gives us an idea of how the size of the hole affects the cavity's coupling and finesse. We carried out finite-difference time-domain simulations and performed experiments on a prototype cavity to verify this model. We have now designed and built this trap for operation under ultrahigh vacuum, with the ability to cool the mirrors to 77 K and couple in up to 2 kW of microwave power. This will allow us to trap molecules with a moderate dipole moment at temperatures of hundreds of millikelvin, as well as atoms at a few millikelvin. We will present our work in creating and understanding the microwave trap, as well as our first results demonstrating trapping of lithium atoms in the microwave trap. The authors would like to thank EPSRC for supporting this work.

  3. Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lein, M.; Hay, N.; Velotta, R.; Marangos, J. P.; Knight, P. L.

    2002-08-01

    We study high-order harmonic generation for H+2 and H2 model molecules in linearly polarized laser pulses by numerical solution of the Schrdinger equation. Maxima and minima due to intramolecular interference are found in the dependence of the harmonic intensities on the internuclear distance and on the orientation of the molecules. These extrema can be approximately predicted by regarding them as the result of interference between two radiating point sources located at the positions of the nuclei.

  4. Field-Linked States of Ultracold Polar Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdeenkov, Alexander V.; Bortolotti, Daniele C. E.; Bohn, John L.

    2003-05-01

    Previously, we have predicted the existence of a novel set of long- range bound states (termed "Field-Linked" states) of a pair of polar OH molecules in the presence of an electrostatic field [1]. The properties of these states are strongly dependent on the value of the field [2], hence provide a new handle for controlling ultracold matter. Here we report a more detailed study of the field-linked states aimed at classifying them by a set of approximate quantum numbers. Because their properties are strongly defined by anisotropic dipolar and Stark interactions, we construct adiabatic potential energy surfaces that depend on both the intermolecular distance R, and the angle ? between the intermolecular axis and the direction of the field. Within an adiabatic approximation we solve the 2-D Schrodinger equation in (R, ?). Analysis of the resulting wave functions suggests that the FL states can be useuflly classified by mean values of quantum numbers in the body frame of the molecular pair. This work was supported by the NSF and the ONR. [1] A. V. Avdeenkov and J. L. Bohn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 043006 (2003) [2] A. V. Avdeenkov and J. L. Bohn, Phys. Rev. A 66, 052718 (2002)

  5. A switched ring Stark decelerator for both light and heavy polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Shunyong; Wang, Qin; Deng, Lianzhong; Yin, Jianping

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing interest in cold heavy polar molecular species for their applications in fundamental physics, such as the tests of the electron’s electric dipole moment. Here we propose a switched ring Stark decelerator suitable for slowing both light and heavy polar molecules. Two typical polar molecular species, ND3 and 205TlF, are employed to test the feasibility of our scheme with the help of trajectory calculation. Our proposed scheme is found to share many advantages with the state-of-the-art traveling wave decelerator, yet with relatively simple electronics and flexible operation modes. Sub-millikelvin molecular samples can be conveniently obtained in our decelerator using a combined operation mode. These monochromatic beams are ideal starting points for precise studies of molecular collision, cold chemistry and high-resolution spectroscopy.

  6. The transition from single molecule to ensemble revealed by fluorescence polarization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Toby D. M.; Clayton, Andrew H. A.

    2015-02-01

    Fluorescence polarization measurements in the condensed phase provide rich information on rotational dynamics and interactions between macromolecules. An important parameter in these studies is the limiting polarization or po which is the emission polarization in the absence of molecular rotation. Here we explore how molecular number averaging affects the observed value of po. Using a simple mathematical model we show that for a collection of fluorescent dipoles (1-50 molecules) the fluorescence polarization (p) increases with the number of molecules (N) due to the progressive onset of photo-selection with a relation of the form p = po(1 - N-?). This concept is demonstrated experimentally using single molecule polarization measurements of perylene diimide dye molecules in a rigid polymer matrix where it is shown that the average emission polarization increases significantly when the number of molecules per averaging window is increased from 1 to 10 molecules. These results suggest that the definition of limiting polarization needs to be refined in the quasi-single molecule regime. Moreover, these results pave a new way for measuring clustering of molecules from single cluster polarization histograms.

  7. The transition from single molecule to ensemble revealed by fluorescence polarization.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Toby D. M.; Clayton, Andrew H. A.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence polarization measurements in the condensed phase provide rich information on rotational dynamics and interactions between macromolecules. An important parameter in these studies is the limiting polarization or po which is the emission polarization in the absence of molecular rotation. Here we explore how molecular number averaging affects the observed value of po. Using a simple mathematical model we show that for a collection of fluorescent dipoles (1–50 molecules) the fluorescence polarization (p) increases with the number of molecules (N) due to the progressive onset of photo-selection with a relation of the form p = po(1 − N−β). This concept is demonstrated experimentally using single molecule polarization measurements of perylene diimide dye molecules in a rigid polymer matrix where it is shown that the average emission polarization increases significantly when the number of molecules per averaging window is increased from 1 to 10 molecules. These results suggest that the definition of limiting polarization needs to be refined in the quasi-single molecule regime. Moreover, these results pave a new way for measuring clustering of molecules from single cluster polarization histograms. PMID:25640875

  8. Suppression of inelastic collisions of polar {sup 1}{sigma} state molecules in an electrostatic field

    SciTech Connect

    Avdeenkov, Alexander V.; Kajita, Masatoshi; Bohn, John L.

    2006-02-15

    Collisions of polar {sup 1}{sigma} state molecules at ultralow energies are considered, within a model that accounts for long-range dipole-dipole interactions, plus rotation of the molecules. We predict a substantial suppression of dipole-driven inelastic collisions at high values of the applied electric field, namely, field values of several times B{sub 0}/{mu}. Here B{sub 0} is the rotational constant, and {mu} is the electric dipole moment of molecules. The sudden large drop in the inelastic cross section is attributed to the onset of degeneracy between molecular rotational levels, which dramatically alters the scattering Hamiltonian. This capability could, in principle, be used to stabilize ultracold gases against collisional losses.

  9. Toward scalable information processing with ultracold polar molecules in an electric field: A numerical investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Bomble, Laeetitia; Pellegrini, Philippe; Ghesquiere, Pierre; Desouter-Lecomte, Michele

    2010-12-15

    We numerically investigate the possibilities of driving quantum algorithms with laser pulses in a register of ultracold NaCs polar molecules in a static electric field. We focus on the possibilities of performing scalable logical operations by considering circuits that involve intermolecular gates (implemented on adjacent interacting molecules) to enable the transfer of information from one molecule to another during conditional laser-driven population inversions. We study the implementation of an arithmetic operation (the addition of 0 or 1 on a binary digit and a carry in) which requires population inversions only and the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm which requires a control of the phases. Under typical experimental conditions, our simulations show that high-fidelity logical operations involving several qubits can be performed in a time scale of a few hundreds of microseconds, opening promising perspectives for the manipulation of a large number of qubits in these systems.

  10. High Power Polarized Positron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailichenko, Alexander

    2009-09-01

    We discuss the basics of polarized positron production by low energy polarized electrons. Efficiency of conversion 0.1-1% might be interesting for the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and the International Linear Collider (ILC).

  11. Single photon detector with high polarization sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qi; Li, Hao; You, LiXing; Zhang, WeiJun; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Zhen; Xie, XiaoMing; Qi, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Polarization is one of the key parameters of light. Most optical detectors are intensity detectors that are insensitive to the polarization of light. A superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) is naturally sensitive to polarization due to its nanowire structure. Previous studies focused on producing a polarization-insensitive SNSPD. In this study, by adjusting the width and pitch of the nanowire, we systematically investigate the preparation of an SNSPD with high polarization sensitivity. Subsequently, an SNSPD with a system detection efficiency of 12% and a polarization extinction ratio of 22 was successfully prepared. PMID:25875225

  12. Topological p{sub x}+ip{sub y} superfluid phase of fermionic polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Levinsen, J.; Cooper, N. R.; Shlyapnikov, G. V.

    2011-07-15

    We discuss the topological p{sub x}+ip{sub y} superfluid phase in a two-dimensional (2D) gas of single-component fermionic polar molecules dressed by a circularly polarized microwave field. This phase emerges because the molecules may interact with each other via a potential V{sub 0}(r) that has an attractive dipole-dipole 1/r{sup 3} tail, which provides p-wave superfluid pairing at fairly high temperatures. We calculate the amplitude of elastic p-wave scattering in the potential V{sub 0}(r) taking into account both the anomalous scattering due to the dipole-dipole tail and the short-range contribution. This amplitude is then used for the analytical and numerical solution of the renormalized BCS gap equation which includes the second-order Gor'kov-Melik-Barkhudarov corrections and the correction related to the effective mass of the quasiparticles. We find that the critical temperature T{sub c} can be varied within a few orders of magnitude by modifying the short-range part of the potential V{sub 0}(r). The decay of the system via collisional relaxation of molecules to dressed states with lower energies is rather slow due to the necessity of a large momentum transfer. The presence of a constant transverse electric field reduces the inelastic rate, and the lifetime of the system can be of the order of seconds even at 2D densities {approx}10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}. This leads to T{sub c} of up to a few tens of nanokelvins and makes it realistic to obtain the topological p{sub x}+ip{sub y} phase in experiments with ultracold polar molecules.

  13. [Progress in sample preparation and analytical methods for trace polar small molecules in complex samples].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianchun; Luo, Xialin; Li, Gongke; Xiao, Xiaohua

    2015-09-01

    Small polar molecules such as nucleosides, amines, amino acids are important analytes in biological, food, environmental, and other fields. It is necessary to develop efficient sample preparation and sensitive analytical methods for rapid analysis of these polar small molecules in complex matrices. Some typical materials in sample preparation, including silica, polymer, carbon, boric acid and so on, are introduced in this paper. Meanwhile, the applications and developments of analytical methods of polar small molecules, such as reversed-phase liquid chromatography, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, etc., are also reviewed. PMID:26753274

  14. Measurement of the nuclear polarization of hydrogen and deuterium molecules using a Lamb-shift polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Engels, Ralf Gorski, Robert; Grigoryev, Kiril; Mikirtychyants, Maxim; Rathmann, Frank; Seyfarth, Hellmut; Ströher, Hans; Weiss, Philipp; Kochenda, Leonid; Kravtsov, Peter; Trofimov, Viktor; Tschernov, Nikolay; Vasilyev, Alexander; Vznuzdaev, Marat; Schieck, Hans Paetz gen.

    2014-10-15

    Lamb-shift polarimeters are used to measure the nuclear polarization of protons and deuterons at energies of a few keV. In combination with an ionizer, the polarization of hydrogen and deuterium atoms was determined after taking into account the loss of polarization during the ionization process. The present work shows that the nuclear polarization of hydrogen or deuterium molecules can be measured as well, by ionizing the molecules and injecting the H{sub 2}{sup +} (or D{sub 2}{sup +}) ions into the Lamb-shift polarimeter.

  15. Small-molecule axon-polarization studies enabled by a shear-free microfluidic gradient generator

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hui; Ferreira, Meghaan M.

    2014-01-01

    A deep understanding of the mechanisms behind neurite polarization and axon path-finding is important for interpreting how the human body guides neurite growth during development and response to injury. Further, it is of great clinical importance to identify diffusible chemical cues that promote neurite regeneration for nervous tissue repair. Despite the fast development of various types of concentration gradient generators, it has been challenging to fabricate neuron friendly (i.e. shear-free and biocompatible for neuron growth and maturation) devices to create stable gradients, particularly for fast diffusing small molecules, which typically require high flow and shear rates. Here we present a finite element analysis for a polydimethylsiloxane/polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PDMS/PEG-DA) based gradient generator, describe the microfabrication process, and validate its use for neuronal axon polarization studies. This device provides a totally shear-free, biocompatible microenvironment with a linear and stable concentration gradient of small molecules such as forskolin. The gradient profile in this device can be customized by changing the composition or width of the PEG-DA barriers during direct UV photo-patterning within a permanently bonded PDMS device. Primary rat cortical neurons (embryonic E18) exposed to soluble forskolin gradients for 72 hr exhibited statistically significant polarization and guidance of their axons. This device provides a useful platform for both chemotaxis and directional guidance studies, particularly for shear sensitive and non-adhesive cell cultures, while allowing fast new device design prototyping at a low cost. PMID:24781157

  16. Improving Memory Performances by Adjusting the Symmetry and Polarity of O-Fluoroazobenzene-Based Molecules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan; Dong, Huilong; Li, Youyong; Li, Hua; Chen, Dongyun; Wang, Lihua; Xu, Qingfeng; Lu, Jianmei

    2016-02-01

    Three O-fluoroazobenzene-based molecules were chosen as memory-active molecules: FAZO-1 with a D-A2-D symmetric structure, FAZO-2 with an A1-A2-A1 symmetric structure, and FAZO-3 with a D-A2-A1 asymmetric structure. Both FAZO-1 and FAZO-2 had a lower molecular polarity, whereas FAZO-3 had a higher polarity. The fabricated indium-tin oxide (ITO)/FAZO-1/Al (Au) and ITO/FAZO-2/Al (Au) memory devices both exhibited volatile static random access memory (SRAM) behavior, whereas the ITO/FAZO-3/Al (Au) device showed nonvolatile ternary write-once-read-many-times (WORM) behavior. It should be noted that the reproducibility of these devices was considerably high, which is significant for practical application in memory devices. In addition, the different memory performances of the three active materials were determined to be attributable to the stability of electric-field-induced charge-transfer complexes. Therefore, the switching memory behavior could be tuned by adjusting the molecular polarity. PMID:26530289

  17. Small-molecule axon-polarization studies enabled by a shear-free microfluidic gradient generator.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Ferreira, Meghaan M; Heilshorn, Sarah C

    2014-06-21

    A deep understanding of the mechanisms behind neurite polarization and axon path-finding is important for interpreting how the human body guides neurite growth during development and response to injury. Further, it is of great clinical importance to identify diffusible chemical cues that promote neurite regeneration for nervous tissue repair. Despite the fast development of various types of concentration gradient generators, it has been challenging to fabricate neuron-friendly (i.e. shear-free and biocompatible for neuron growth and maturation) devices to create stable gradients, particularly for fast diffusing small molecules, which typically require high flow and shear rates. Here we present a finite element analysis for a polydimethylsiloxane/polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PDMS/PEG-DA) based gradient generator, describe the microfabrication process, and validate its use for neuronal axon polarization studies. This device provides a totally shear-free, biocompatible microenvironment with a linear and stable concentration gradient of small molecules such as forskolin. The gradient profile in this device can be customized by changing the composition or width of the PEG-DA barriers during direct UV photo-patterning within a permanently bonded PDMS device. Primary rat cortical neurons (embryonic E18) exposed to soluble forskolin gradients for 72 h exhibited statistically significant polarization and guidance of their axons. This device provides a useful platform for both chemotaxis and directional guidance studies, particularly for shear sensitive and non-adhesive cell cultures, while allowing fast new device design prototyping at a low cost. PMID:24781157

  18. A quasi-analytic model of a linear Stark accelerator/decelerator for polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, B.

    2004-11-01

    This article describes a quasi-analytic model of a linear Stark accelerator/decelerator for polar molecules in both their low- and high-field seeking states, and examines the dynamics of the acceleration/deceleration process and its phase stability. The requisite time-dependent inhomogeneous Stark fields, used in current experiments, are Fourier-analyzed and found to consist of a superposition of partial waves with well-defined phase velocities. The kinematics of the interaction of molecules with the partial waves is discussed and the notion of a phase of a molecule in a travelling field is introduced. Next, the net potential and the net force that act on the molecules are derived. A special case, the first-harmonic accelerator/decelerator, is introduced. This represents a model system many of whose properties can be obtained analytically. The first-harmonic accelerator/decelerator dynamics is presented and discussed along with that of the isomorphic biased-pendulum problem. Finally, the general properties of the velocity of the molecules in a phase-stable accelerator/decelerator are examined.

  19. Spin-Polarized Electron Induced Asymmetric Reactions in Chiral Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Richard A.

    Understanding the origin of chirality in nature has been an active area of research since the time of Pasteur. In this chapter we examine one possible route by which this asymmetry could have arisen, namely chiral-specific chemistry induced by spin-polarized electrons. The various sources of spin-polarized electrons (parity violation, photoemission, and secondary processes) are discussed. Experiments aimed at exploring these interactions are reviewed starting with those based on the Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis through recent studies of spin polarized secondary electrons from a magnetic substrate. We will conclude with a discussion of possible new avenues of research that could impact this area.

  20. Investigations of electron helicity in optically active molecules using polarized beams of electrons and positrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gidley, D. W.; Rich, A.; Van House, J. C.; Zitzewitz, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    A positronium-formation experiment with a high sensitivity to a possible relation between the helicity of beta particles emitted in nuclear beta decay and the optical asymmetry of biological molecules is presented. The experiment is based on a mechanism in which the electrons in optically active molecules possess a helicity of less than 0.001, too weak to detect in radiolysis experiments, the sign of which depends on the chirality of the isomer. A helicity-dependent asymmetry is sought in the formation of the triplet ground state of positronium when a low-energy beam of polarized positrons of reversible helicity interacts with an optically active substance coating a channel electron multiplier. Asymmetries between positronium decays observed at positive and negative helicities for the same substance can thus be determined with a sensitivity of 0.0001, which represents a factor of 100 improvement over previous positronium experiments.

  1. Universalities in ultracold reactions of alkali-metal polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Quemener, Goulven; Bohn, John L.; Petrov, Alexander; Kotochigova, Svetlana

    2011-12-15

    We consider ultracold collisions of ground-state heteronuclear alkali-metal dimers that are susceptible to four-center chemical reactions 2AB{yields}A{sub 2}+B{sub 2} even at submicrokelvin temperatures. These reactions depend strongly on species, temperature, electric field, and confinement in an optical lattice. We calculate ab initio van der Waals coefficients for these interactions and use a quantum formalism to study the scattering properties of such molecules under an external electric field and optical lattice. We also apply a quantum threshold model to explore the dependence of reaction rates on the various parameters. We find that, among the heteronuclear alkali-metal fermionic species, LiNa is the least reactive, whereas LiCs is the most reactive. For the bosonic species, LiK is the most reactive in zero field, but all species considered, LiNa, LiK, LiRb, LiCs, and KRb, share a universal reaction rate once a sufficiently high electric field is applied. For indistinguishable bosons, the inelastic/reactive rate increases as d{sup 2} in the quantum regime, where d is the dipole moment induced by the electric field. This is a weaker power-law dependence than for indistinguishable fermions, for which the rate behaves as d{sup 6}.

  2. Dipole-dipole interaction-induced spin-orbit coupling of polar molecules in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, M. L.; Syzranov, S. V.; Rey, A. M.

    2014-05-01

    Long-range dipole-dipole interactions between polar molecules in an optical lattice enable rotational excitations to move through the lattice even when the molecules themselves cannot, as has been directly observed in recent experiments [Yan et al., Nature 501, 521-525 (2013)]. We study the dynamics of rotational excitations in a 2D lattice of (bosonic or fermionic) polar molecules in the presence of electric dipole-dipole interactions which exchange rotational ``spin'' angular momentum projection with orbital angular momentum, forming a cold molecule analog of the Einstein-de Haas effect. In particular, we present analytic results for the statics and dynamics of a dilute gas of rotational excitations in a unit-filed lattice. Prospects for observing such processes in near-term polar molecule experiments are discussed.

  3. Optoelectrical Cooling of Polar Molecules to Submillikelvin Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Prehn, Alexander; Ibrgger, Martin; Glckner, Rosa; Rempe, Gerhard; Zeppenfeld, Martin

    2016-02-12

    We demonstrate direct cooling of gaseous formaldehyde (H_{2}CO) to the microkelvin regime. Our approach, optoelectrical Sisyphus cooling, provides a simple dissipative cooling method applicable to electrically trapped dipolar molecules. By reducing the temperature by 3 orders of magnitude and increasing the phase-space density by a factor of ?10^{4}, we generate an ensemble of 310^{5} molecules with a temperature of about 420???K, populating a single rotational state with more than 80% purity. PMID:26918988

  4. Controllable binding of polar molecules and metastability of one-dimensional gases with attractive dipole forces.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Jason N; Montgomery, John A; Ct, Robin

    2012-08-24

    We explore one-dimensional samples of ultracold polar molecules with attractive dipole-dipole interactions and show the existence of a repulsive barrier caused by a strong quadrupole interaction between molecules. This barrier can stabilize a gas of ultracold KRb molecules and even lead to long-range wells supporting bound states between the molecules. The properties of these wells can be controlled by external electric fields, allowing the formation of long polymerlike chains of KRb and studies of quantum phase transitions by varying the effective interaction between molecules. We discuss the generalization of those results to other systems. PMID:23002744

  5. Nano-doped weakly polar versus highly polar liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Kamal Kumar; Misra, Abhishek Kumar; Manohar, Rajiv

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticles doped liquid crystal show changed dielectric properties in comparison to pure liquid crystals. These changes are strongly dependent on the inherent properties of guest and host particles. In the present work we have done comparative dielectric study of highly polar nematic liquid crystals 5CB and weakly polar liquid crystal D6AOB and its 1 % wt/wt concentration with zinc oxide nanoparticles (1 % Cu) doped. The relaxation modes in pure and nano doped samples are explained properly. We have also analyzed the dielectric anisotropy and relaxation frequency for all the samples.

  6. Lipases That Activate at High Solvent Polarities.

    PubMed

    Skjold-Jrgensen, Jakob; Vind, Jesper; Svendsen, Allan; Bjerrum, Morten J

    2016-01-12

    Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TlL) and related lipases become activated in low-polarity environments that exist at the water-lipid interface where a structural change of the "lid" region occurs. In this work, we have investigated the activation of TlL (Lipase_W89) and certain lid mutants, containing either a single positive charge mutation, E87K (Lipase_K87_W89), within the lid region or a lid residue composition of both lipase and esterase character (Hybrid_W89) as a function of solvent polarity. Activation differences between the variants and TlL were studied by a combination of biophysical and theoretical methods. To investigate the structural changes taking place in the lid region upon lipase activation, we used a fluorescence-based method measuring the efficiency of Trp89 in the lid to quench the fluorescence of a bimane molecule attached in front (C255) and behind (C61) the lid. These structural changes were compared to the enzymatic activity of each variant at the water-substrate interface and to theoretical calculations of the energies associated with lid opening as a function of the dielectric constant (?) of the environment. Our results show that the lid in Lipase_K87_W89 undergoes a pronounced structural transition toward an open conformation around ? = 50, whereas only small changes are detected for Lipase_W89 ascribed to the stabilizing effect of the positive charge mutation on the open lid conformation. Interestingly, Hybrid_W89, with the same charge as Lipase_W89, shows a stabilization of the open lid even more pronounced at high solvent polarities than that of Lipase_K87_W89, allowing activation at ? < 80. This is further indicated by measurement of the lipase activity for each variant showing that Hybrid_W89 is more quickly activated at the water-lipid interface of a true, natural substrate. Combined, we show that a correlation exists between structural changes and enzymatic activities detected on one hand and theoretical calculations on lid opening energies on the other. These results highlight the key role that the lid plays in determining the polarity-dependent activation of lipases. PMID:26645098

  7. Two-electron exchange interaction between polar molecules and atomic ions Asymptotic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbovanets, Oleksandr M.; Karbovanets, Myroslav I.; Khoma, Mykhaylo V.; Lazur, Volodymyr Yu.

    2015-05-01

    We have described the asymptotic approach for calculation of the two-electron exchange interaction between atomic ion and polar molecule responsible for direct double electron transfer processes. The closed analytic expression for matrix element of exchange interaction has been obtained in the framework of the semiclassical version of the asymptotic theory and point-dipole approximation for description of the polar molecule. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Elementary Processes with Atoms and Molecules in Isolated and Aggregated States", edited by Friedrich Aumayr, Bratislav Marinkovic, tefan Matej?ik, John Tanis and Kurt H. Becker.

  8. Changepoint Analysis for Single-Molecule Polarized Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Beausang, John F.; Goldman, Yale E.; Nelson, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    The experimental study of individual macromolecules has opened a door to determining the details of their mechanochemical operation. Motor enzymes such as the myosin family have been particularly attractive targets for such study, in part because some of them are highly processive and their product is spatial motion. But single-molecule resolution comes with its own costs and limitations. Often, the observations rest on single fluorescent dye molecules, which emit a limited number of photons before photobleaching and are subject to complex internal dynamics. Thus, it is important to develop methods that extract the maximum useful information from a finite set of detected photons. We have extended an experimental technique, multiple polarization illumination in total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (polTIRF), to record the arrival time and polarization state of each individual detected photon. We also extended an analysis technique, previously applied to FRET experiments, that optimally determines times of changes in photon emission rates. Combining these improvements allows us to identify the structural dynamics of a molecular motor (myosin V) with unprecedented detail and temporal resolution. PMID:21187234

  9. Effect of dipole polarizability on positron binding by strongly polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribakin, G. F.; Swann, A. R.

    2015-11-01

    A model for positron binding to polar molecules is considered by combining the dipole potential outside the molecule with a strongly repulsive core of a given radius. Using existing experimental data on binding energies leads to unphysically small core radii for all of the molecules studied. This suggests that electron-positron correlations neglected in the simple model play a large role in determining the binding energy. We account for these by including the polarization potential via perturbation theory and non-perturbatively. The perturbative model makes reliable predictions of binding energies for a range of polar organic molecules and hydrogen cyanide. The model also agrees with the linear dependence of the binding energies on the polarizability inferred from the experimental data (Danielson et al 2009 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42 235203). The effective core radii, however, remain unphysically small for most molecules. Treating molecular polarization non-perturbatively leads to physically meaningful core radii for all of the molecules studied and enables even more accurate predictions of binding energies to be made for nearly all of the molecules considered.

  10. Simple quantum model of ultracold polar molecule collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Idziaszek, Zbigniew; Quemener, Goulven; Bohn, John L.; Julienne, Paul S.

    2010-08-15

    We present a unified formalism for describing chemical reaction rates of trapped, ultracold molecules. This formalism reduces the scattering to its essential features, namely, a propagation of the reactant molecules through a gauntlet of long-range forces before they ultimately encounter one another, followed by a probability for the reaction to occur once they do. In this way, the electric-field dependence should be readily parametrized in terms of a pair of fitting parameters (along with a C{sub 6} coefficient) for each asymptotic value of partial-wave quantum numbers |L,M{sub L}>. From this, the electric-field dependence of the collision rates follows automatically. We present examples for reactive species, such as KRb, and nonreactive species, such as RbCs.

  11. Mitigation of charged impurity effects in graphene field-effect transistors with polar organic molecules (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Barrett C.; Kim, Seohee; Akinwande, Deji; Rossky, Peter J.; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2015-09-01

    Recent developments in monolayer graphene production allow its use as the active layer in field-effect transistor technology. Favorable electrical characteristics of monolayer graphene include high mobility, operating frequency, and good stability. These characteristics are governed by such key transport physical phenomena as electron-hole transport symmetry, Dirac point voltage, and charged impurity effects. Doping of graphene occurs during device fabrication, and is largely due to charged impurities located at or near the graphene/substrate interface. These impurities cause scattering of charge carriers, which lowers mobility. Such scattering is detrimental to graphene transistor performance, but our group has shown that coating with fluoropolymer thin films or exposure to polar organic vapors can restore favorable electrical characteristics to monolayer graphene. By partially neutralizing charged impurities and defects, we can improve the mobility by approximately a factor of 2, change the Dirac voltage by fairly large amounts, and reduce the residual carrier density significantly. We hypothesize that this phenomena results from screening of charged impurities by the polar molecules. To better understand such screening interactions, we performed computational chemistry experiments to observe interactions between polar organic molecules and monolayer graphene. The molecules interacted more strongly with defective graphene than with pristine graphene, and the electronic environment of graphene was altered. These computational observations correlate well with our experimental results to support our hypothesis that polar molecules can act to screen charged impurities on or near monolayer graphene. Such screening favorably mitigates charge scattering, improving graphene transistor performance.

  12. Ultracold gas of ground-state polar KRb molecules in 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyenhuis, B.; Wang, D.; de Miranda, M. H. G.; Chotia, A.; Ye, J.; Jin, D. S.

    2010-03-01

    We report on our ongoing studies of dipolar interactions in ground-state KRb molecules prepared in the quantum regime. At large dipole moment we see a dramatic increase in the inelastic scattering rate due to attractive head-to-tail interactions between molecules [1]. To suppress this inelastic loss we are preparing a gas of polar molecules in a 2D confined geometry provided by a one-dimensional optical lattice. We will explore the effect of the 2D confinement on the lifetime of the trapped molecule gas. [4pt] [1] K.-K. Ni, S. Ospelkaus, D. Wang, G. Quemener, B. Neyenhuis, M. H. G. de Miranda, J. L. Bohn, J. Ye, D. S. Jin, Dipolar collisions of polar molecules in the quantum regime. arXiv:1001.2809.

  13. Supersolid Phase with Cold Polar Molecules on a Triangular Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Pollet, L.; Picon, J. D.; Buechler, H. P.; Troyer, M.

    2010-03-26

    We study a system of heteronuclear molecules on a triangular lattice and analyze the potential of this system for the experimental realization of a supersolid phase. The ground state phase diagram contains superfluid, solid, and supersolid phases. At finite temperatures and strong interactions there is an additional emulsion region, in contrast with similar models with short-range interactions. We derive the maximal critical temperature T{sub c} and the corresponding entropy S/N=0.04(1) for supersolidity and find feasible experimental conditions for its realization.

  14. Influence of magnetic fields on cold collisions of polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ticknor, Christopher; Bohn, John L.

    2005-02-01

    We consider cold collisions of OH molecules in the {sup 2}{pi}{sub 3/2} ground state, under the influence of a magnetic field. We find that modest fields of several thousand gauss can act to suppress inelastic collisions of weak-field-seeking states by two orders of magnitude. We attribute this suppression to two factors: (i) an indirect coupling of the entrance and the exit channel, in contrast to the effect of an applied electric field; and (ii) the relative shift of the entrance and exit scattering thresholds. In view of these results, magnetic trapping of OH may prove feasible.

  15. Single Molecule Raman Spectroscopy Under High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuanxi; Dlott, Dana

    2014-06-01

    Pressure effects on surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of Rhdoamine 6G adsorbed on silver nanoparticle surfaces was studied using a confocal Raman microscope. Colloidal silver nanoparticles were treated with Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and its isotopically substituted partner, R6G-d4. Mixed isotopomers let us identify single-molecule spectra, since multiple-molecule spectra would show vibrational transitions from both species. The nanoparticles were embedded into a poly vinyl alcohol film, and loaded into a diamond anvil cell for the high-pressure Raman scattering measurement. Argon was the pressure medium. Ambient pressure Raman scattering spectra showed few single-molecule spectra. At moderately high pressure ( 1GPa), a surprising effect was observed. The number of sites with observable spectra decreased dramatically, and most of the spectra that could be observed were due to single molecules. The effects of high pressure suppressed the multiple-molecule Raman sites, leaving only the single-molecule sites to be observed.

  16. High Energy Polarized e+e‑ Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatunov, Yu.; Koop, I.; Otboev, A.; Mane, S.

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the wide discussion about Higgs-factory design again returns to problem of high energy polarized electrons and positrons. It’s good known the radiative beam polarization at LEP-collider. It was obtained after spin resonance suppression at Z0 pick, but didn’t appear at energies above 70 GeV due to an enhancement of unavoidable depolarization effects. We examine in this paper various ideas for radiative polarization at TLEP/FCC-ee and formulate some estimates for the polarization buildup time and the asymptotic polarization. Using wigglers, a useful degree of polarization (for energy calibration), with a time constant of about 1 h, may be possible up to the threshold of W pair production. At higher energies such as the threshold of Higgs production, attaining a useful level of polarization may be difficult in a planar ring. With Siberian Snakes, wigglers and some imagination, polarization of reasonable magnitude, with a reasonable time constant (of not more than about 1 h), may be achievable at very high energies.

  17. Microwave enhanced polarization in a carbon dioxide molecule.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Jai N; Roberts, James A; Anand, Aman

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the dielectric response of carbon dioxide measured using a loaded microwave cavity operating in the TE011, mode of a cylindrical cavity near the frequencies 8.8, 9.7 and 10.2 GHz. The temperature dependence of the dielectric response of gas phase CO2 over the range of 160 to 213 degrees K (-113 to -60 degrees C) was measured. Slater perturbation equations for loaded resonant cavities were used to relate the macroscopic parameters deltaf and delta(1/Q) to the real and imaginary parts, epsilon' and epsilon", respectively, hence to calculate the dielectric parameters at each temperature and frequency. Selected peaks in the dielectric response were identified to indicate the frequencies at which strong coupling between the microwave field and the CO2 molecules can be achieved. PMID:18161417

  18. Switching surface polarization of atomic force microscopy probe utilizing photoisomerization of photochromic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Aburaya, Yoshihiro; Nomura, Hikaru; Kageshima, Masami; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Li, Yan Jun; Sugawara, Yasuhiro

    2011-03-15

    An attempt to develop an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe with optically switchable polarization is described. Modification with a single molecular layer of photochromic molecules was attempted onto a Si substrate that is a prototype for a probe surface. Polarization switching caused by alternate irradiation of UV and visible lights were detected using the electrostatic force?>spectroscopy (EFS) technique. Si substrates modified with spiropyran and azobenzene exhibited reversible polarization switching that caused changes in CPD of about 100 and 50 mV, respectively. Modification with spiropyran was also attempted onto a Si probe and resulted in a CPD change of about 100 mV. It was confirmed that modification of an AFM probe or substrate with a single molecular layer of photochromic molecules can generate surface polarization switching of a mechanically detectable level.

  19. Collisional control of ground state polar molecules and universal dipolar scattering.

    PubMed

    Ticknor, Christopher

    2008-04-01

    We explore the impact of the short-range interaction on the scattering of ground state polar molecules and study the transition from a weak to strong dipolar scattering over an experimentally reasonable range of energies and electric field values. In the strong dipolar limit, the scattering scales with respect to a dimensionless quantity defined by mass, induced dipole moment, and collision energy. The scaling has implications for all quantum mechanical dipolar scattering. Furthermore the universal scattering regime will readily be achieved with polar molecules at ultracold temperatures. PMID:18517950

  20. Managing light polarization via plasmon-molecule interactions within an asymmetric metal nanoparticle trimer

    SciTech Connect

    Shegai, Timur; Li, Zhipeng; Zhang, Zhenyu; Xu, Hongxing; Haran, Gilad

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of light with metal nanoparticles leads to novel phenomena mediated by surface plasmon excitations. In this paper we use single molecules to characterize the interaction of surface plasmons with light, and show that such interaction can strongly modulate the polarization of the emitted light. The simplest nanostructures that enable such polarization modulation are asymmetric silver nanocrystal trimers, where individual Raman scattering molecules are located in the gap between two of the nanoparticles. The third particle breaks the dipolar symmetry of the two-particle junction, generating a wavelength-dependent polarization pattern. Indeed, the scattered light becomes elliptically polarized and its intensity pattern is rotated in the presence of the third particle. We use a combination of spectroscopic observations on single molecules, scanning electron microscope imaging, and generalized Mie theory calculations to provide a full picture of the effect of particles on the polarization of the emitted light. Furthermore, our theoretical analysis allows us to show that the observed phenomenon is very sensitive to the size of the trimer particles and their relative position, suggesting future means for precise control of light polarization on the nanoscale.

  1. HIGH ENERGY POLARIZATION OF BLAZARS: DETECTION PROSPECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, N.; Pavlidou, V.; Fields, B. D.

    2015-01-01

    Emission from blazar jets in the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared is polarized. If these low-energy photons were inverse-Compton scattered, the upscattered high-energy photons retain a fraction of the polarization. Current and future X-ray and gamma-ray polarimeters such as INTEGRAL-SPI, PoGOLITE, X-Calibur, Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter, GEMS-like missions, ASTRO-H, and POLARIX have the potential to discover polarized X-rays and gamma-rays from blazar jets for the first time. Detection of such polarization will open a qualitatively new window into high-energy blazar emission; actual measurements of polarization degree and angle will quantitatively test theories of jet emission mechanisms. We examine the detection prospects of blazars by these polarimetry missions using examples of 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 454.3, bright sources with relatively high degrees of low-energy polarization. We conclude that while balloon polarimeters will be challenged to detect blazars within reasonable observational times (with X-Calibur offering the most promising prospects), space-based missions should detect the brightest blazars for polarization fractions down to a few percent. Typical flaring activity of blazars could boost the overall number of polarimetric detections by nearly a factor of five to six purely accounting for flux increase of the brightest of the comprehensive, all-sky, Fermi-LAT blazar distribution. The instantaneous increase in the number of detections is approximately a factor of two, assuming a duty cycle of 20% for every source. The detectability of particular blazars may be reduced if variations in the flux and polarization fraction are anticorrelated. Simultaneous use of variability and polarization trends could guide the selection of blazars for high-energy polarimetric observations.

  2. High Energy Polarization of Blazars: Detection Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, N.; Pavlidou, V.; Fields, B. D.

    2015-01-01

    Emission from blazar jets in the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared is polarized. If these low-energy photons were inverse-Compton scattered, the upscattered high-energy photons retain a fraction of the polarization. Current and future X-ray and gamma-ray polarimeters such as INTEGRAL-SPI, PoGOLITE, X-Calibur, Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter, GEMS-like missions, ASTRO-H, and POLARIX have the potential to discover polarized X-rays and gamma-rays from blazar jets for the first time. Detection of such polarization will open a qualitatively new window into high-energy blazar emission; actual measurements of polarization degree and angle will quantitatively test theories of jet emission mechanisms. We examine the detection prospects of blazars by these polarimetry missions using examples of 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 454.3, bright sources with relatively high degrees of low-energy polarization. We conclude that while balloon polarimeters will be challenged to detect blazars within reasonable observational times (with X-Calibur offering the most promising prospects), space-based missions should detect the brightest blazars for polarization fractions down to a few percent. Typical flaring activity of blazars could boost the overall number of polarimetric detections by nearly a factor of five to six purely accounting for flux increase of the brightest of the comprehensive, all-sky, Fermi-LAT blazar distribution. The instantaneous increase in the number of detections is approximately a factor of two, assuming a duty cycle of 20% for every source. The detectability of particular blazars may be reduced if variations in the flux and polarization fraction are anticorrelated. Simultaneous use of variability and polarization trends could guide the selection of blazars for high-energy polarimetric observations.

  3. Polarization properties of light scattered off solutions of chiral molecules in non-forward direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Xavier; Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Barbara, Alex F.; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Measuring the optical activity from an ensemble of chiral molecules is a common tool to know their stereo-structure. These measurements are done in the same propagation direction of the probe beam of light, because that is the direction where most signal is emitted. We provide experimental and theoretical evidence that, even though other interesting information may be gathered when collecting light emitted in other directions, for most molecules, the phenomenon of optical activity is only present in the forward scattering direction. The fundamental reason behind this is that forward scattered light preserves the circular polarization states due to the cylindrical symmetry of the system, an essential requirement for optical activity. An important exemption happens in dual molecules, i.e., molecules which present the same response to electric and magnetic fields. We present a series of experiments measuring the optical activity and the scattering of chiral solutions in the forward and perpendicular directions. We experimentally show that these molecules present optical activity and preservation of circular polarization in the forward direction, while the polarization pattern in non-forward directions is much more complex and, in particular, does not preserve the circular polarization. Finally, we show that when probing the particle with different wavelengths, the scattering in non-forward directions presents some interesting structural features which are hidden in the forward measurements.

  4. Ionization of oriented carbonyl sulfide molecules by intense circularly polarized laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Abu-samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer; Filsinger, Frank; Meijer, Gerard; Kuepper, Jochen; Holmegaard, Lotte; Kalhoej, Line; Nielsen, Jens H.; Stapelfeldt, Henrik

    2011-02-15

    We present combined experimental and theoretical results on strong-field ionization of oriented carbonyl sulfide molecules by circularly polarized laser pulses. The obtained molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions show pronounced asymmetries perpendicular to the direction of the molecular electric dipole moment. These findings are explained by a tunneling model invoking the laser-induced Stark shifts associated with the dipoles and polarizabilities of the molecule and its unrelaxed cation. The focus of the present article is to understand the strong-field ionization of one-dimensionally-oriented polar molecules, in particular asymmetries in the emission direction of the photoelectrons. In the following article [Phys. Rev. A 83, 023406 (2011)] the focus is to understand strong-field ionization from three-dimensionally-oriented asymmetric top molecules, in particular the suppression of electron emission in nodal planes of molecular orbitals.

  5. Molecule-electrode bonding design for high single-molecule conductance.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Kazumichi; Taniguchi, Masateru; Tsutsui, Makusu; Kawai, Tomoji

    2010-12-15

    We report the application of an intermolecular interaction design for organic conductor crystals with a high conductance to a molecule-electrode design for a high single-molecule conductance by using dithiol and diselenol terthiophenes. We found that dithiol and diselenol single-molecule junctions show the highest single-molecule conductance among single-molecule junctions with Au-S and Au-Se bonds, and that diselenol single-molecule junctions have a higher single-molecule conductance than dithiol ones. We demonstrate that replacing S atoms with Se atoms is a promising molecule-electrode bonding design for a high single-molecule conductance. PMID:21086990

  6. Solvent tuned single molecule dual emission in protic solvents: effect of polarity and H-bonding.

    PubMed

    Chevreux, S; Allain, C; Wilbraham, L; Nakatani, K; Jacques, P; Ciofini, I; Lemercier, G

    2015-12-22

    has recently been proposed as a promising new molecule displaying solvent-tuned dual emission, highlighting an original and newly-described charge transfer model. The study of the photophysical behaviour of this molecule was extended to include protic solvents. The effects of polarity and hydrogen bonding lead to an even more evident dual emission associated with a large multi-emission band in some solvents like methanol, highlighting as a promising candidate for white light emission. PMID:26411633

  7. Spin polarization and spin separation realized in the double-helical molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hai-Na; Zhu, Yu-Lian; Sun, Xue; Gong, Wei-Jiang

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the electron transport through one double-helical molecule with four terminals, by considering one terminal to be the source and others to be the drains. It is found that notable spin polarizations simultaneously occur during the processes of intra-chain electron tunneling and inter-chain electron reflection. More importantly, in these two processes, the spin polarizations always show similar strengths and opposite directions. Based on these results, we consider that the spin polarization and spin separation can be co-realized in this system.

  8. Monitoring Nanoscale Deformations in a Drawn Polymer Melt with Single-Molecule Fluorescence Polarization Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Krause, Stefan; Neumann, Martin; Frbe, Melanie; Magerle, Robert; von Borczyskowski, Christian

    2016-02-23

    Elongating a polymer melt causes polymer segments to align and polymer coils to deform along the drawing direction. Despite the importance of this molecular response for understanding the viscoelastic properties and relaxation behavior of polymeric materials, studies on the single-molecule level are rare and were not performed in real time. Here we use single-molecule fluorescence polarization microscopy for monitoring the position and orientation of single fluorescent perylene diimide molecules embedded in a free-standing thin film of a polymethyl acrylate (PMA) melt with a time resolution of 500 ms during the film drawing and the subsequent stress relaxation period. The orientation distribution of the perylene diimide molecules is quantitatively described with a model of rod-like objects embedded in a uniaxially elongated matrix. The orientation of the fluorescent probe molecules is directly coupled to the local deformation of the PMA melt, which we derive from the distances between individual dye molecules. In turn, the fluorescence polarization monitors the shape deformation of the polymer coils on a length scale of 5 nm. During stress relaxation, the coil shape relaxes four times more slowly than the mechanical stress. This shows that stress relaxation involves processes on length scales smaller than a polymer coil. Our work demonstrates how optical spectroscopy and microscopy can be used to study the coupling of individual fluorescent probe molecules to their embedding polymeric matrix and to an external mechanical stimulus on the single-molecule level. PMID:26831762

  9. Near-circularly polarized single attosecond pulse generation from nitrogen molecules in spatially inhomogeneous laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaofan; Li, Yang; Zhu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Qingbin; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang

    2016-01-01

    The generation of an attosecond pulse in nitrogen molecules using spatially inhomogeneous laser fields is investigated by numerically solving the time-dependent Schrdinger equation. It is found that an isolated attosecond pulse with elliptical polarization can be generated using linearly polarized laser fields. By changing polarization direction with respect to the molecular axis, the ellipticity of the attosecond pulse can be easily controlled. At some specific angles, the intensities of the two mutually vertical harmonic components, parallel and perpendicular to the driving laser polarization direction, are comparable. Additionally, the relative phase between the two components is about ?/2. As a result, it supports the generation of the isolated near-circularly polarized attosecond pulse with a duration of 155 as.

  10. Copper Keplerates: High-Symmetry Magnetic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Maria A; Moreno Pineda, Eufemio; Sanz, Sergio; Inglis, Ross; Pitak, Mateusz B; Coles, Simon J; Evangelisti, Marco; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Heesing, Christian; Brechin, Euan K; Schnack, Jrgen; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2016-01-01

    Keplerates are molecules that contain metal polyhedra that describe both Platonic and Archimedean solids; new copper keplerates are reported, with physical studies indicating that even where very high molecular symmetry is found, the low-temperature physics does not necessarily reflect this symmetry. PMID:26530901

  11. Metastable feshbach molecules in high rotational states.

    PubMed

    Knoop, S; Mark, M; Ferlaino, F; Danzl, J G; Kraemer, T; Ngerl, H-C; Grimm, R

    2008-02-29

    We experimentally demonstrate Cs2 Feshbach molecules well above the dissociation threshold, which are stable against spontaneous decay on the time scale of 1 s. An optically trapped sample of ultracold dimers is prepared in a high rotational state and magnetically tuned into a region with a negative binding energy. The metastable character of these molecules arises from the large centrifugal barrier in combination with negligible coupling to states with low rotational angular momentum. A sharp onset of dissociation with increasing magnetic field is mediated by a crossing with a lower rotational dimer state and facilitates dissociation on demand with a well-defined energy. PMID:18352621

  12. Photoelectron angular distributions from polar molecules probed by intense femtosecond lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-samha, M.; Madsen, L. B.

    2010-10-15

    We present numerical calculations of molecular-frame photoelectron angular distributions in strong-field ionization of oriented polar HF and LiF molecules by linearly polarized laser pulses with durations of about 20 fs (seven cycles at 800 nm). The calculations are performed within the single-active-electron and frozen-nuclei approximations. Our analysis shows that for the HF and LiF molecules, anisotropies in the molecular potential and the probed orbital lead to enhanced ionization during laser half cycles with the field pointing antiparallel to the permanent dipole of the dipole term in a multipolar expansion of the anisotropic molecular potential. This is manifested as a strong asymmetry in the computed photoelectron angular distributions: The photoelectrons are preferentially detected opposite to the permanent dipole of the molecular potential. This phenomenon is very sensitive to the probed system (the probed orbital and the molecular potential) and the orientation angle between the molecular axis and the laser polarization.

  13. Radiative transitions between Rydberg states of polar diatomic molecule. Part I: Linearly polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfimov, Sergei V.; Dorofeev, Dmitrii L.; Zon, Boris A.

    2015-11-01

    With the help of a simple semi-analytical procedure the dipole matrix elements for Rydberg electron-rotational transitions in the SO molecule are calculated with account for dipole moment of rotating core. It results in non-zero matrix elements even for some transitions which are forbidden in conventional models of molecular Rydberg states.

  14. Prospects for quantum computing with an array of ultracold polar paramagnetic molecules.

    PubMed

    Karra, Mallikarjun; Sharma, Ketan; Friedrich, Bretislav; Kais, Sabre; Herschbach, Dudley

    2016-03-01

    Arrays of trapped ultracold molecules represent a promising platform for implementing a universal quantum computer. DeMille [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067901 (2002)] has detailed a prototype design based on Stark states of polar (1)Σ molecules as qubits. Herein, we consider an array of polar (2)Σ molecules which are, in addition, inherently paramagnetic and whose Hund's case (b) free-rotor pair-eigenstates are Bell states. We show that by subjecting the array to combinations of concurrent homogeneous and inhomogeneous electric and magnetic fields, the entanglement of the array's Stark and Zeeman states can be tuned and the qubit sites addressed. Two schemes for implementing an optically controlled CNOT gate are proposed and their feasibility discussed in the face of the broadening of spectral lines due to dipole-dipole coupling and the inhomogeneity of the electric and magnetic fields. PMID:26957163

  15. A Centrifuge Decelerator: Slowing down Continuous Beams of Polar Molecules by an Inertial Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervenkov, Sotir; Wu, Xing; Bayerl, Josef; Rohlfes, Andreas; Zeppenfeld, Martin; Rempe, Gerhard

    2013-05-01

    We present the concept of and show compelling experimental results from a novel and versatile decelerator for continuous beams of neutral polar molecules, which employs the centrifugal potential in a rotating frame. A beam of polar molecules is injected at the periphery and electrically guided to the center of the rotating frame along a spiral-shaped electrostatic quadrupole guide. Thus the molecules climb up the centrifugal potential hill and get decelerated as they propagate. In proof-of-principle experiments we demonstrate the deceleration of continuous beams of neutral CF3H, CH3F, and CF3CCH from a liquid-nitrogen cooled effusive source, yielding continuous output intensities exceeding 108 moleculesmm-2s-1 with velocities below 20 ms-1 .

  16. Prospects for quantum computing with an array of ultracold polar paramagnetic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karra, Mallikarjun; Sharma, Ketan; Friedrich, Bretislav; Kais, Sabre; Herschbach, Dudley

    2016-03-01

    Arrays of trapped ultracold molecules represent a promising platform for implementing a universal quantum computer. DeMille [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067901 (2002)] has detailed a prototype design based on Stark states of polarmolecules as qubits. Herein, we consider an array of polarmolecules which are, in addition, inherently paramagnetic and whose Hund's case (b) free-rotor pair-eigenstates are Bell states. We show that by subjecting the array to combinations of concurrent homogeneous and inhomogeneous electric and magnetic fields, the entanglement of the array's Stark and Zeeman states can be tuned and the qubit sites addressed. Two schemes for implementing an optically controlled CNOT gate are proposed and their feasibility discussed in the face of the broadening of spectral lines due to dipole-dipole coupling and the inhomogeneity of the electric and magnetic fields.

  17. Origin and implication of ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishna, S.; Sherratt, Paul A. J.; Dutoi, Anthony D.; Seideman, Tamar

    2010-02-15

    We address theoretically and numerically the possibility of observing ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from aligned molecules driven by linearly polarized fields--a subject of controversy in the recent literature with significant implications. To that end we develop a numerical method for solution of the electronic dynamics and extend a recently developed theory of HHG from aligned molecules. Our numerical results are in good agreement with recent experimental data. The theory explains analytically several observations of polarization experiments. We note the conditions under which ellipticity can be observed and the information content of elliptically polarized harmonics regarding the molecular system.

  18. Oxidized polyethylene films for orienting polar molecules for linear dichroism spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Razmkhah, Kasra; Chmel, Nikola Paul; Gibson, Matthew I; Rodger, Alison

    2014-03-21

    Stretched polyethylene (PE) films have been used to orient small molecules for decades by depositing solutions on their surface and allowing the solvent to evaporate leaving the analyte absorbed on the polymer film. However, the non-polar hydrophobic nature of PE is an obstacle to aligning polar molecules and biological samples. In this work PE film was treated with oxygen plasma in order to increase surface hydrophilicity. Different treatment conditions were evaluated using contact angle measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Treated PE (PE(OX)) films are shown to be able to align molecules of different polarities including progesterone, 1-pyrenecarboxaldehyde, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and anthracene. The degree of alignment of each molecule was studied by running series of linear dichroism (LD) experiments and the polarizations of electronic transition moments were determined. For the first time optimal conditions (such as stretching factor and concentration of the sample) for stretched film LD were determined. PE(OX) aligning ability was compared to that of normal PE films. Progesterone showed a slightly better alignment on PE(OX) than PE. 1-Pyrenecarboxaldehyde oriented differently on the two different films which enabled transition moment assignment for this low symmetry molecule. DAPI (which does not align on PE) aligned well on PE(OX) and enabled us to obtain better LD data than had previously been collected with polyvinyl alcohol. Anthracene alignment and formation of dimers and higher order structures were studied in much more detail than previously possible, showing a variety of assemblies on PE and PE(OX) films. PMID:24482800

  19. Critical binding and electron scattering by symmetric-top polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, W. R.

    2014-10-28

    Quantum treatments of electron interactions with polar symmetric-top rotor molecules show features not present in the treatment of the linear-polar-rotor model. For symmetric tops possessing non-zero angular momentum about the symmetry axis, a new critical dipole can be defined that guarantees an infinite set of dipole-bound states independent of the values of the components of the inertial tensor. Additionally, for this same class, the scattering cross section diverges for all nonzero values of dipole moments and inertial moments, similar to solutions for the fixed linear dipole. Additional predictions are presented for electron affinities and rotational resonances of these systems.

  20. Critical binding and electron scattering by symmetric-top polar molecules.

    PubMed

    Garrett, W R

    2014-10-28

    Quantum treatments of electron interactions with polar symmetric-top rotor molecules show features not present in the treatment of the linear-polar-rotor model. For symmetric tops possessing non-zero angular momentum about the symmetry axis, a new critical dipole can be defined that guarantees an infinite set of dipole-bound states independent of the values of the components of the inertial tensor. Additionally, for this same class, the scattering cross section diverges for all nonzero values of dipole moments and inertial moments, similar to solutions for the fixed linear dipole. Additional predictions are presented for electron affinities and rotational resonances of these systems. PMID:25362310

  1. Wavelength-dependent ionization suppression of diatomic molecules in intense circularly polarized laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, HuiPeng; Lin, ZhiYang; Xu, SongPo; Wang, ChuanLiang; Quan, Wei; Lai, XuanYang; Liu, XiaoJun; Jia, XinYan; Hao, XiaoLei; Chen, Jing; Chu, Wei; Yao, JinPing; Zeng, Bin; Cheng, Ya; Xu, ZhiZhan

    2014-12-01

    We perform an experimental study on comparison between the ionization of homonuclear diatomic molecules (O2 and N2) and their companion atoms (Xe and Ar) radiated by circularly polarized intense laser fields. We find that the ionization of O2 shows suppression with respect to its companion atom Xe, which exhibits a clear wavelength and intensity dependence similar to that in linearly polarized laser field, while the ionization of N2 behaves like its companion atom Ar. With the help of S -matrix theoretical analysis, our observations can be attributed to both the molecular orbital and the two-center interference effect in molecular ionization process.

  2. Pulse train induced rotational excitation and orientation of a polar molecule.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Ashish; Arya, Urvashi; Vidhani, Bhavna; Prasad, Vinod

    2014-08-14

    We investigate theoretically the rotational excitation and field free molecular orientation of polar HBr molecule, interacting with train of ultrashort laser pulses. By adjusting the number of pulses, pulse period and the intensity of the pulse, one can suppress a population while simultaneously enhancing the desired population in particular rotational state. We have used train of laser pulses of different shaped pulse envelopes. The dynamics and orientation of molecules in the presence of pulse train of different shapes is studied and explained. PMID:24747844

  3. Shaping interactions between polar molecules with far-off-resonant light

    SciTech Connect

    Lemeshko, Mikhail

    2011-05-15

    We show that dressing polar molecules with a far-off-resonant optical field leads to new types of intermolecular potentials, which undergo a crossover from the inverse power to oscillating behavior depending on the intermolecular distance, and whose parameters can be tuned by varying the laser intensity and wavelength. We present analytic expressions for the potential energy surfaces, thereby providing direct access to the parameters of an optical field required to design intermolecular interactions experimentally.

  4. Highly Polarized Fluorescent Illumination Using Liquid Crystal Phase.

    PubMed

    Gim, Min-Jun; Turlapati, Srikanth; Debnath, Somen; Rao, Nandiraju V S; Yoon, Dong Ki

    2016-02-10

    Liquid crystal (LC) materials are currently the dominant electronic materials in display technology because of the ease of control of molecular orientation using an electric field. However, this technology requires the fabrication of two polarizers to create operational displays, reducing light transmission efficiency below 10%. It is therefore desirable to develop new technologies to enhance the light efficiency while maintaining or improving other properties such as the modulation speed of the molecular orientation. Here we report a uniaxial-oriented B7 smectic liquid crystalline film, using fluorescent bent-core LC molecules, a chemically modified substrate, and an in-plane electric field. A LC droplet under homeotropic boundary conditions of air/LC as well as LC/substrate exhibits large focal conic like optical textures. The in-plane electric field induced uniaxial orientation of the LC molecules, in which molecular polar directors are aligned in the direction of the electric field. This highly oriented LC film exhibits linearly polarized luminescence and microsecond time-scale modulation characteristics. The resultant device is both cheap and easy to fabricate and thus has great potential for electro-optic applications, including LC displays, bioimaging systems, and optical communications. PMID:26783766

  5. Field-free orientation of diatomic molecule via the linearly polarized resonant pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Su-Yu; Guo, Fu-Ming; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yu-Jun; Jin, Ming-Xing

    2015-10-01

    We propose a scheme to coherently control the field-free orientation of NO molecule whose rotational temperature is above 0 K. It is found that the maximum molecular orientation is affected by two factors: one is the sum of the population of M = 0 rotational states and the other is their distribution, however, their distribution plays a much more significant role in molecular orientation than the sum of their population. By adopting a series of linearly polarized pulses resonant with the rotational states, the distribution of M = 0 rotational states is well rearranged. Though the number of pulses used is small, a relatively high orientation degree can be obtained. This scheme provides a promising approach to the achievement of a good orientation effect. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB922200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11034003, 11474129, 11274141, and 11304116), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130061110021), and the Graduate Innovation Fund of Jilin University (Grant No. 2015091).

  6. Enzymatic cleavage and mass amplification strategy for small molecule detection using aptamer-based fluorescence polarization biosensor.

    PubMed

    Kang, Liping; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Xiaobing; Cui, Liang; Meng, Hongmin; Mei, Lei; Wu, Cuichen; Ren, Songlei; Tan, Weihong

    2015-06-16

    Fluorescence polarization (FP) assays incorporated with fluorophore-labeled aptamers have attracted great interest in recent years. However, detecting small molecules through the use of FP assays still remains a challenge because small-molecule binding only results in negligible changes in the molecular weight of the fluorophore-labeled aptamer. To address this issue, we herein report a fluorescence polarization (FP) aptamer assay that incorporates a novel signal amplification strategy for highly sensitive detection of small molecules. In the absence of adenosine, our model target, free FAM-labeled aptamer can be digested by nuclease, resulting in the release of FAM-labeled nucleotide segments from the dT-biotin/streptavidin complex with weak background signal. However, in the presence of target, the FAM-labeled aptamer-target complex protects the FAM-labeled aptamer from nuclease cleavage, allowing streptavidin to act as a molar mass amplifier. The resulting increase in molecular mass and FP intensity of the aptamer-target complex provides improved sensitivity for concentration measurement. The probe could detect adenosine from 0.5 ?M to 1000 ?M, with a detection limit of 500 nM, showing that the sensitivity of the probe is superior to aptamer-based FP approaches previously reported for adenosine. Importantly, FP could resist environmental interferences, making it useful for complex biological samples without any tedious sample pretreatments. Our results demonstrate that this dual-amplified, aptamer-based strategy can be used to design fluorescence polarization probes for rapid, sensitive, and selective measurement of small molecules in complicated biological environment. PMID:26002482

  7. Controlling the Hyperfine State of Rovibronic Ground-State Polar Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ospelkaus, S.; Ni, K.-K.; Quemener, G.; Neyenhuis, B.; Wang, D.; Miranda, M. H. G. de; Bohn, J. L.; Ye, J.; Jin, D. S.

    2010-01-22

    We report the preparation of a rovibronic ground-state molecular quantum gas in a single hyperfine state and, in particular, the absolute lowest quantum state. This addresses the last internal degree of freedom remaining after the recent production of a near quantum degenerate gas of molecules in their rovibronic ground state, and provides a crucial step towards full control over molecular quantum gases. We demonstrate a scheme that is general for bialkali polar molecules and allows the preparation of molecules in a single hyperfine state or in an arbitrary coherent superposition of hyperfine states. The scheme relies on electric-dipole, two-photon microwave transitions through rotationally excited states and makes use of electric nuclear quadrupole interactions to transfer molecular population between different hyperfine states.

  8. Raising the metalinsulator transition temperature of VO2 thin films by surface adsorption of organic polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shioya, Hiroki; Shoji, Yoshiaki; Seiki, Noriya; Nakano, Masaki; Fukushima, Takanori; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2015-12-01

    We report a molecular adsorption effect on the first-order metalinsulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films. The phase transition temperature is shifted higher by the adsorption of particular polar and rigid tripodal molecules on the film surfaces. The shift becomes larger with increasing dipole moment magnitude, which ranges from 0 to 20 D. The orientation of polar molecules aligned on the surface is most likely responsible for the higher shift of the transition temperature. Coating the surfaces with polar molecules, as demonstrated in this work, might provide a unique way of controlling the phase transition of materials.

  9. Anti-Lambda Polarization in High Energy pp Collisions withPolarized Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Qing-hua; Liang, Zuo-tang; Sichtermann, Ernst

    2005-11-06

    We study the polarization of the anti-Lambda particle in polarized high energy pp collisions at large transverse momenta. The anti-Lambda polarization is found to be sensitive to the polarization of the anti-strange sea of the nucleon. We make predictions using different parameterizations of the polarized quark distribution functions. The results show that the measurement of longitudinal anti-Lambda polarization can distinguish different parameterizations, and that similar measurements in the transversely polarized case can give some insights into the transversity distribution of the anti-strange sea of nucleon.

  10. Magnetic moment enhancement and spin polarization switch of the manganese phthalocyanine molecule on an IrMn(100) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, X.; Wang, B.; Pratt, A.; Yamauchi, Y.

    2014-07-21

    The geometric, electronic, and magnetic structures of a manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) molecule on an antiferromagnetic IrMn(100) surface are studied by density functional theory calculations. Two kinds of orientation of the adsorbed MnPc molecule are predicted to coexist due to molecular self-assembly on the surface—a top-site geometry with the Mn–N bonds aligned along the 〈100〉 direction, and a hollow-site orientation in which the Mn–N bonds are parallel to the 〈110〉 direction. The MnPc molecule is antiferromagnetically coupled to the substrate at the top site with a slight reduction in the magnetic moment of the Mn atom of the MnPc molecule (Mn{sub mol}). In contrast, the magnetic moment of the Mn{sub mol} is enhanced to 4.28 μB at the hollow site, a value larger than that in the free MnPc molecule (3.51 μB). Molecular distortion induced by adsorption is revealed to be responsible for the enhancement of the magnetic moment. Furthermore, the spin polarization of the Mn{sub mol} atom at around the Fermi level is found to change from negative to positive through an elongation of the Mn–N bonds of the MnPc. We propose that a reversible switch of the low/high magnetic moment and negative/positive spin polarization might be realized through some mechanical engineering methods.

  11. Role of proton ordering in adsorption preference of polar molecule on ice surface

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhaoru; Pan, Ding; Xu, Limei; Wang, Enge

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption of polar monomers on ice surface, relevant to the physical/chemical reaction in ice clouds as well as growth of ice, remains an open issue partially due to the unusual surface characteristics with protons at the top layer of ice. Using first-principle calculations, we explore the adsorption properties of ice surface in terms of a surface proton order parameter, which characterizes the inhomogeneity of the dangling atoms on ice surface. We show that, due to an effective electric field created by dangling OH bonds and lone pairs of water molecules not only directly neighboring but also further away from the adsorbed polar molecule on the ice surface, the adsorption energy of polar monomer on ice surface exhibits large variance and a strong correlation with the proton order parameter of ice surface. Our results about the positive correlation between the inhomogeneity of ice surface and adsorption energies suggest that the physical/chemical reactions as well as the growth of ice may prefer to occur firstly on surfaces with larger proton order parameter. PMID:22837403

  12. Polarization effects on the electric properties of urea and thiourea molecules in solid phase.

    PubMed

    Santos, O L; Fonseca, T L; Sabino, J R; Georg, H C; Castro, M A

    2015-12-21

    We present theoretical results for the dipole moment, linear polarizability, and first hyperpolarizability of the urea and thiourea molecules in solid phase. The in-crystal electric properties were determined by applying a supermolecule approach in combination with an iterative electrostatic scheme, in which the surrounding molecules are represented by point charges. It is found for both urea and thiourea molecules that the influence of the polarization effects is mild for the linear polarizability, but it is marked for the dipole moment and first hyperpolarizability. The replacement of oxygen atoms by sulfur atoms increases, in general, the electric responses. Our second-order Mller-Plesset perturbation theory based iterative scheme predicts for the in-crystal dipole moment of urea and thiourea the values of 7.54 and 9.19 D which are, respectively, increased by 61% and 58%, in comparison with the corresponding isolated values. The result for urea is in agreement with the available experimental result of 6.56 D. In addition, we present an estimate of macroscopic quantities considering explicit unit cells of urea and thiourea crystals including environment polarization effects. These supermolecule calculations take into account partially the exchange and dispersion effects. The results illustrate the role played by the electrostatic interactions on the static second-order nonlinear susceptibility of the urea crystal. PMID:26696062

  13. Polarization effects on the electric properties of urea and thiourea molecules in solid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, O. L.; Fonseca, T. L.; Sabino, J. R.; Georg, H. C.; Castro, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present theoretical results for the dipole moment, linear polarizability, and first hyperpolarizability of the urea and thiourea molecules in solid phase. The in-crystal electric properties were determined by applying a supermolecule approach in combination with an iterative electrostatic scheme, in which the surrounding molecules are represented by point charges. It is found for both urea and thiourea molecules that the influence of the polarization effects is mild for the linear polarizability, but it is marked for the dipole moment and first hyperpolarizability. The replacement of oxygen atoms by sulfur atoms increases, in general, the electric responses. Our second-order Mller-Plesset perturbation theory based iterative scheme predicts for the in-crystal dipole moment of urea and thiourea the values of 7.54 and 9.19 D which are, respectively, increased by 61% and 58%, in comparison with the corresponding isolated values. The result for urea is in agreement with the available experimental result of 6.56 D. In addition, we present an estimate of macroscopic quantities considering explicit unit cells of urea and thiourea crystals including environment polarization effects. These supermolecule calculations take into account partially the exchange and dispersion effects. The results illustrate the role played by the electrostatic interactions on the static second-order nonlinear susceptibility of the urea crystal.

  14. Enhancement of metallic silver monomer evaporation by the adhesion of polar molecules to silver nanocluster ions

    SciTech Connect

    Fagerquist, C.K.; Sensharma, D.K.; El-Sayed, M.A.; Rubio, A.; Cohen, M.L. |

    1995-05-11

    We have compared the metallic evaporation channels from metastable [Ag{sub X=5,7,11}(AgI){sub Y=1-4}]{sup +} clusters in the first field free region of a double focusing mass spectrometer with that of the corresponding pure metallic clusters, [Ag{sub X=5,7,11}]{sup +}. It is found that the presence of the polar AgI molecules increases the rate of silver monomer evaporation relative to that of silver dimer evaporation. Using thermodynamic expressions for the heat of evaporation of the different evaporation processes and assuming the absence of reverse activation energies, an expression for the difference between the activation energy of silver monomer and dimer evaporation is derived. It is shown that dipole/induced-dipole forces resulting from the presence of AgI polar molecules lead to an enhancement of silver monomer evaporation if the polarizability of the pure metallic cluster ions increases with the number of Jellium electrons. Our theoretical calculations of the static polarizabilities of [Ag{sub x}]{sup +}, using time dependent density functional theory within the local density approximation, shows a smooth increase in the polarizabilities with the number of the Jellium electrons in these clusters. Finally, we observe that the enhancement of Ag monomer evaporation per AgI needed is smaller for clusters with an even number of AgI molecules than with an odd number of them. 46 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Strongly Correlated 2D Quantum Phases with Cold Polar Molecules: Controlling the Shape of the Interaction Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Buechler, H. P.; Micheli, A.; Pupillo, G.; Zoller, P.; Demler, E.; Lukin, M.; Prokof'ev, N.

    2007-02-09

    We discuss techniques to tune and shape the long-range part of the interaction potentials in quantum gases of bosonic polar molecules by dressing rotational excitations with static and microwave fields. This provides a novel tool towards engineering strongly correlated quantum phases in combination with low-dimensional trapping geometries. As an illustration, we discuss the 2D superfluid-crystal quantum phase transition for polar molecules interacting via an electric-field-induced dipole-dipole potential.

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance of laser-polarized noble gases in molecules, materials and organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Goodson, Boyd M.

    1999-12-01

    Conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are fundamentally challenged by the insensitivity that stems from the ordinarily low spin polarization achievable in even the strongest NMR magnets. However, by transferring angular momentum from laser light to electronic and nuclear spins, optical pumping methods can increase the nuclear spin polarization of noble gases by several orders of magnitude, thereby greatly enhancing their NMR sensitivity. This dissertation is primarily concerned with the principles and practice of optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance (OPNMR). The enormous sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping noble gases can be exploited to permit a variety of novel NMR experiments across many disciplines. Many such experiments are reviewed, including the void-space imaging of organisms and materials, NMR and MRI of living tissues, probing structure and dynamics of molecules in solution and on surfaces, and zero-field NMR and MRI.

  17. Electron scattering cross section calculations for polar molecules over a broad energy range.

    PubMed

    Sanz, A G; Fuss, M C; Blanco, F; Man, Zden?k; Gorfinkiel, Jimena D; Carelli, F; Sebastianelli, F; Gianturco, F A; Garca, G

    2014-01-01

    We report computational integral and differential cross sections for electron scattering by two different polar molecules, HCN and pyrimidine, over a broad energy range. We employ, for low energies, either the single-centre expansion (ePOLYSCAT) or the R-matrix method, while for the higher energies we select a corrected form of the independent-atom representation (IAM-SCAR). We provide complete sets of integral electron scattering cross sections from low energies up to 10,000 eV. Our present calculated data agree well with prior experimental results. PMID:23434441

  18. Long-range scattering resonances in strong-field-seeking states of polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ticknor, Christopher; Bohn, John L.

    2005-09-15

    We present first steps toward understanding the ultracold scattering properties of polar molecules in strong electric field-seeking states. We have found that the elastic cross section displays a quasiregular set of potential resonances as a function of the electric field, which potentially offers intimate details about the intermolecular interaction. We illustrate these resonances in a 'toy' model composed of pure dipoles, and in more physically realistic systems. To analyze these resonances, we use a simple WKB approximation to the eigenphase, which proves both reasonably accurate and meaningful. A general treatment of the Stark effect and dipolar interactions is also presented.

  19. Azimuthal polarization filtering for accurate, precise, and robust single-molecule localization microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lew, Matthew D; Moerner, W E

    2014-11-12

    Many single nanoemitters such as fluorescent molecules produce dipole radiation that leads to systematic position errors in both particle tracking and super-resolution microscopy. Via vectorial diffraction equations and simulations, we show that imaging only azimuthally polarized light in the microscope naturally avoids emission from the z-component of the transition dipole moment, resulting in negligible localization errors for all emitter orientations and degrees of objective lens misfocus. Furthermore, localization accuracy is maintained even in the presence of aberrations resulting from imaging in mismatched media. PMID:25272093

  20. An effective many-body theory for strongly interacting polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Daw-Wei

    2008-05-01

    We derive a general, effective many-body theory for bosonic polar molecules in the strong interaction regime, which cannot be correctly described by previous theories within the first Born approximation. The effective Hamiltonian has additional interaction terms, which surprisingly reduce the anisotropic features of the condensate profile near the shape resonance regime. In a two-dimensional (2D) system with the dipole moment perpendicular to the plane, we find that the phonon dispersion scales as \\sqrt{\\vert{\\bf p}\\vert} in the low-momentum (p) limit, showing the same low energy properties as a 2D charged Bose gas with Coulomb (1/r) interactions.

  1. Spherical tensor analysis of polar liquid crystals with biaxial and chiral molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Zhong-can, Ou-Yang

    2012-11-01

    With the help of spherical tensor expression, an irreducible calculus of a Lth-rank macroscopic susceptibility χ for a polar liquid crystal (PLC) of biaxial and chiral molecules written as the average of molecular hyperpolarizability tensor β associated with their spherical orientational order parameters (0⩽l⩽L) is presented. Comprehensive formulas of L=1,2 have been obtained and the latter explains the optical activity and spontaneous splay texture observed in bent-core PLC. The expression of L=3 specifies for the molecules with D2 symmetry which can be applied to analyze the nonlinear optical second harmonic generation (SHG) observed in proteins, peptides, and double-stranded DNA at interfaces.

  2. Long-range and frustrated spin-spin interactions in crystals of cold polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y. L.; Ortner, M.; Rabl, P.

    2011-11-15

    We describe a simple scheme for the implementation and control of effective spin-spin interactions in self-assembled crystals of cold polar molecules. In our scheme, spin states are encoded in two long-lived rotational states of the molecules and coupled via state-dependent dipole-dipole forces to the lattice vibrations. We show that, by choosing an appropriate time-dependent modulation of the induced dipole moments, the resulting phonon-mediated interactions compete with the direct dipole-dipole coupling and lead to long-range and tunable spin-spin interaction patterns. We illustrate how this technique can be used for the generation of multiparticle entangled spin states and the implementation of spin models with long-range and frustrated interactions, which exhibit nontrivial phases of magnetic ordering.

  3. Polarized Protein-Specific Charges from Atoms-in-Molecule Electron Density Partitioning

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Atomic partial charges for use in traditional force fields for biomolecular simulation are often fit to the electrostatic potentials of small molecules and, hence, neglect large-scale electronic polarization. On the other hand, recent advances in atoms-in-molecule charge derivation schemes show promise for use in flexible force fields but are limited in size by the underlying quantum mechanical calculation of the electron density. Here, we implement the density derived electrostatic and chemical charges method in the linear-scaling density functional theory code ONETEP. Our implementation allows the straightforward derivation of partial atomic charges for systems comprising thousands of atoms, including entire proteins. We demonstrate that the derived charges are chemically intuitive, reproduce ab initio electrostatic potentials of proteins and are transferable between closely related systems. Simulated NMR data derived from molecular dynamics of three proteins using force fields based on the ONETEP charges are in good agreement with experiment. PMID:23894231

  4. Two-center minima in harmonic spectra from aligned polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Etches, Adam; Gaarde, Mette B.; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2011-08-15

    We extend a model of two-center interference to include the superposition of opposite orientations in aligned polar molecules. We show that the position of the minimum in the harmonic spectrum from both aligned and oriented CO depends strongly on the relative recombination strength at different atoms, not just the relative phase. We reinterpret the minimum in aligned CO as an interference between opposite orientations, and obtain good agreement with numerical calculations. Inclusion of the first-order Stark effect shifts the position of the interference minimum in aligned CO even though aligned molecules do not posses total permanent dipoles. We explain the shift in terms of the phase that the electron of oriented CO accumulates due to the Stark effect.

  5. High Performance Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bondyopadhyay, Probir K. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A microstrip antenna for radiating circularly polarized electromagnetic waves comprising a cluster array of at least four microstrip radiator elements, each of which is provided with dual orthogonal coplanar feeds in phase quadrature relation achieved by connection to an asymmetric T-junction power divider impedance notched at resonance. The dual fed circularly polarized reference element is positioned with its axis at a 45 deg angle with respect to the unit cell axis. The other three dual fed elements in the unit cell are positioned and fed with a coplanar feed structure with sequential rotation and phasing to enhance the axial ratio and impedance matching performance over a wide bandwidth. The centers of the radiator elements are disposed at the corners of a square with each side of a length d in the range of 0.7 to 0.9 times the free space wavelength of the antenna radiation and the radiator elements reside in a square unit cell area of sides equal to 2d and thereby permit the array to be used as a phased array antenna for electronic scanning and is realizable in a high temperature superconducting thin film material for high efficiency.

  6. Molecules in high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassetti, Matteo; Porciani, Cristiano; Romano-Diaz, Emilio; Ludlow, Aaron; Dekel, Avishai

    2015-08-01

    One of the biggest challenges in simulations of galaxy formation is properly modelling the means by which gas is converted into stars. The standard way to address the problem is to adopt a Schmidt-like law, often coupled to conditions of the local gas properties. However, there is a growing body of evidence that the local star formation rate correlates more tightly with the density of molecular hydrogen than with that of the total gas density. Motivated by this we have developed a sub-grid model for the non-equilibrium abundance of molecular hydrogen that accounts for the unresolved cloud structure by combining observational and numerical results on the properties of the turbulent interstellar medium. Using this model we studied the impact of molecule-regulated star formation on a Milky Way-sized galaxy at z=2. When compared to the standard prescription for star formation, our galaxy was considerably more gas-rich and formed fewer stars when star formation was linked directly to the H2 abundance, resulting in 30 per cent fewer luminous satellites. Molecular regulated star formation therefore acts as an effective non-ejective feedback mechanism that prevents gas from being converted into stars within small, metal-poor dark-matter haloes where the H2 formation timescales are long. We have now built a suite of templates of high-redshift galaxies with different stellar masses and metallicities and wish to present how these different properties affect H2 and star formation.

  7. Rotational Diffusion of a New Large Non Polar Dye Molecule in Alkanes.

    PubMed

    Goudar, Radha; Gupta, Ritu; Kulkarni, Giridhar U; Inamdar, Sanjeev R

    2015-11-01

    Rotational reorientation times of a newly synthesized 2,5-bis(phenylethynyl)1,4-bis(dodecyloxy) benzene (DDPE) are experimentally determined in series of n-alkanes by employing steady state and time resolved fluorescence depolarization technique with a view to understand rotational dynamics of large non-polar solute molecule in non-polar solvents and few general solvents of different sizes and varying viscosity. It is observed that rotational reorientation times vary linearly as function of viscosity. The hydrodynamic stick condition describes the experimental results at low viscosities while the results tend to deviate significantly from it at higher viscosities. This is attributed to the possibility of long chains in solvents hosting a variety of chain defects (end-gauche, double-gauche, all-trans, kink, etc.) thereby reducing the effective length of the molecule, leading to a slightly reduced friction. The experimental results are compared with the predictions of Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) hydrodynamic theory as well as the quasi-hydrodynamic theories of Gierer-Wirtz (GW) and Dote-Kivelson-Shwartz (DKS). The predictions from these theories underestimate ?r in the solvents employed in the study. PMID:26384337

  8. Multielectron signatures in the polarization of high-order harmonic radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Zengxiu; Yuan Jianmin; Brabec, Thomas

    2007-09-15

    The polarization of high-order harmonic radiation emitted from N{sub 2} molecules interacting with a linearly polarized laser pulse is investigated theoretically. We find that the exchange effect between the recombining electron and the bound core electrons imprints a clear signature onto the high-order harmonic polarization and its dependence on the alignment angle between the molecular axis and driving laser electric field. Our analysis reveals an observable for the experimental investigation of many-electron dynamics in intense laser fields.

  9. Ground state of the polar alkali-metal-atom-strontium molecules: Potential energy curve and permanent dipole moment

    SciTech Connect

    Guerout, R.; Aymar, M.; Dulieu, O.

    2010-10-15

    In this study, we investigate the structure of the polar alkali-metal-atom-strontium diatomic molecules as possible candidates for the realization of samples of ultracold polar molecular species not yet investigated experimentally. Using a quantum chemistry approach based on effective core potentials and core polarization potentials, we model these systems as effective three-valence-electron systems, allowing for calculation of electronic properties with full configuration interaction. The potential curve and the permanent dipole moment of the {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +} ground state are determined as functions of the internuclear distance for LiSr, NaSr, KSr, RbSr, and CsSr molecules. These molecules are found to exhibit a significant permanent dipole moment, though smaller than those of the alkali-metal-atom-Rb molecules.

  10. Role of ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation by homonuclear diatomic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Odzak, S.; Milosevic, D. B.

    2010-08-15

    We present a theory of high-order harmonic generation by diatomic molecules exposed to an elliptically polarized laser field. This theory is based on the molecular strong-field approximation with the laser-field-dressed initial bound state and the undressed final state. The interference minima, observed for linear polarization, are blurred with the increase of the laser-field ellipticity. The nth harmonic emission rate has contributions of the components of the T-matrix element in the direction of the laser-field polarization and in the direction perpendicular to it. We analyze the destructive interference condition for this perpendicular component. Taking into account that the aligned molecules are an anisotropic medium for high-harmonic generation, we introduce elliptic dichroism as a measure of this anisotropy and discuss possibilities of its use for determining the molecular structure.

  11. Highly tolerant tunable waveguide polarization rotator scheme.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Ramos, C; Halir, R; Ortega-Moñux, A; Cheben, P; Vivien, L; Molina-Fernández, I; Marris-Morini, D; Janz, S; Xu, D-X; Schmid, J

    2012-09-01

    Integrated polarization rotators are known to exhibit stringent fabrication tolerances, which severely handicap their practical application. Here we present a general polarization rotator scheme that enables both the compensation of fabrication errors and wavelength tunability. The scheme is described analytically, and a condition for perfect polarization conversion is established. Simulations of a silicon-on-insulator polarization rotator show polarization extinction ratios in excess of 40  dB even in the presence of large fabrication errors that in a conventional rotator configuration degrade the extinction ratio to below 5  dB. Additionally, wavelength tuning over ±30  nm is shown. PMID:22940940

  12. Cold ion-polar-molecule reactions studied with a combined Stark-velocity-filter-ion-trap apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Kunihiro; Suganuma, Takuya; Furukawa, Takahiro; Takayanagi, Toshinobu; Wada, Michiharu; Schuessler, Hans A.

    2013-04-01

    We have developed a combined Stark-velocity-filter-ion-trap apparatus for the purpose of reaction-rate measurements between cold trapped ions and slow polar molecules under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The prerequisite steps such as the characterization of velocity-selected polar molecules (PM), namely ND3, H2CO, and CH3CN, were performed using time-of-flight (TOF) measurements. We confirmed the generation of slow ND3, H2CO, and CH3CN molecules having thermal energies of a few Kelvin. Additionally, the number densities of the slow velocity-filtered polar molecules were determined to be in the range of n=104 to 106 cm-3 by calibrating the TOF signals. In a first experiment, the Stark velocity filter was connected to a cryogenic linear Paul trap and reaction-rate measurements between laser-cooled Ca+ Coulomb crystals and velocity-selected polar molecules were carried out. The observed reaction rates are of the order of 10-5 s-1, which are much slower than typical reaction rates of molecular ion-polar-molecule reactions at low temperatures. The present results confirm that reaction-rate measurements between velocity-selected polar molecules and sympathetically cooled molecular ions cooled by a laser-cooled Ca+ Coulomb crystal can be performed. Next we measured the reaction rates between sympathetically cooled nonfluorescent stored ion molecules namely N2H+ ions and velocity-selected CH3CN molecules at the average reaction energy of about 3 K. The measured reaction rate of 2.0(2)10-3 s-1 is much faster than those of the Ca++PM reactions. This is strong evidence that the velocity-selected polar molecules undergo reactive collisions. We also confirmed that the present reaction-rate constant of CH3CN+N2H+ ? CH3CNH++N2 is consistent with the estimated values from the room temperature results and the trajectory-scaling formula of Su In the future, the present velocity-filter combined cryogenic trap apparatus will enable us to perform systematic measurements of cold ion-polar-molecule reactions, which are important problems from a fundamental viewpoint and also contribute to astrochemistry.

  13. On deflection fields, weak-focusing and strong-focusing storage rings for polar molecules.

    PubMed

    de Nijs, Adrian J; Bethlem, Hendrick L

    2011-11-14

    In this paper, we analyze electric deflection fields for polar molecules in terms of a multipole expansion and derive a simple but rather insightful expression for the force on the molecules. Ideally, a deflection field exerts a strong, constant force in one direction, while the force in the other directions is zero. We show how, by a proper choice of the expansion coefficients, this ideal can be best approximated. We present a design for a practical electrode geometry based on this analysis. By bending such a deflection field into a circle, a simple storage ring can be created; the direct analog of a weak-focusing cyclotron for charged particles. We show that for realistic parameters a weak-focusing ring is only stable for molecules with a very low velocity. A strong-focusing (alternating-gradient) storage ring can be created by arranging many straight deflection fields in a circle and by alternating the sign of the hexapole term between adjacent deflection fields. The acceptance of this ring is numerically calculated for realistic parameters. Such a storage ring might prove useful in experiments looking for an EDM of elementary particles. PMID:21979152

  14. Three-dimensional structural dynamics of myosin V by single-molecule fluorescence polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkey, Joseph N.; Quinlan, Margot E.; Alexander Shaw, M.; Corrie, John E. T.; Goldman, Yale E.

    2003-03-01

    The structural change that generates force and motion in actomyosin motility has been proposed to be tilting of the myosin light chain domain, which serves as a lever arm. Several experimental approaches have provided support for the lever arm hypothesis; however, the extent and timing of tilting motions are not well defined in the motor protein complex of functioning actomyosin. Here we report three-dimensional measurements of the structural dynamics of the light chain domain of brain myosin V using a single-molecule fluorescence polarization technique that determines the orientation of individual protein domains with 20-40-ms time resolution. Single fluorescent calmodulin light chains tilted back and forth between two well-defined angles as the myosin molecule processively translocated along actin. The results provide evidence for lever arm rotation of the calmodulin-binding domain in myosin V, and support a `hand-over-hand' mechanism for the translocation of double-headed myosin V molecules along actin filaments. The technique is applicable to the study of real-time structural changes in other biological systems.

  15. Integrated polarizers based on tapered highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Priscila; Biazoli, Claudecir R; Franco, Marcos A R; Cordeiro, Cristiano M B; de Matos, Christiano J S

    2014-07-28

    This paper proposes and demonstrates the creation of sections with a high polarization dependent loss (PDL) in a commercial highly birefringent (polarization maintaining) photonic crystal fiber (PCF), via tapering with pressure applied to the holes. The tapers had a 1-cm-long uniform section with a 66% scale reduction, in which the original microstructure aspect ratio was kept by the pressure application. The resulting waveguides show polarizing action across the entire tested wavelength range, 1510-1600 nm, with a peak PDL of 35.3 dB/cm (c.f. ~1 dB/cm for a typical commercial polarizing fiber). The resulting structure, as well as its production, is extremely simple, and enable a small section with a high PDL to be obtained in a polarization maintaining PCF, meaning that the polarization axes in the polarizing and polarization maintaining sections are automatically aligned. PMID:25089397

  16. Collectively Induced Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in Monolayers of Molecules Consisting of Polar Repeating Units

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The electronic structure of terpyrimidinethiols is investigated by means of density-functional theory calculations for isolated molecules and monolayers. In the transition from molecule to self-assembled monolayer (SAM), we observe that the band gap is substantially reduced, frontier states increasingly localize on opposite sides of the SAM, and this polarization in several instances is in the direction opposite to the polarization of the overall charge density. This behavior can be analyzed by analogy to inorganic semiconductor quantum-wells, which, as the SAMs studied here, can be regarded as semiperiodic systems. There, similar observations are made under the influence of a, typically external, electric field and are known as the quantum-confined Stark effect. Without any external perturbation, in oligopyrimidine SAMs one encounters an energy gradient that is generated by the dipole moments of the pyrimidine repeat units. It is particularly strong, reaching values of about 1.6 eV/nm, which corresponds to a substantial electric field of 1.6 107 V/cm. Close-lying ?- and ?-states turn out to be a particular complication for a reliable description of the present systems, as their order is influenced not only by the docking groups and bonding to the metal, but also by the chosen computational approach. In the latter context we demonstrate that deliberately picking a hybrid functional allows avoiding pitfalls due to the infamous self-interaction error. Our results show that when aiming to build a monolayer with a specific electronic structure one can not only resort to the traditional technique of modifying the molecular structure of the constituents, but also try to exploit collective electronic effects. PMID:21955058

  17. Intracluster Ion Molecule Reactions Following the Generation of Mg+ Within Polar Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Alsharaeh, Edreese H.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we investigated the intracluster ion molecule reactions following the generation of Mg+ within the polar clusters (water, methanol, ether and acetonitrile), using time of flight mass spectrometry. In the case of Mg+/water and Mg+/methanol, dehydrogenation reactions are observed after the addition of five molecules. However, no dehydrogenation reactions are observed in the case of Mg+/ether or Mg+/acetonitrile clusters. This confirms the role of the H atom in (O–H) in the dehydrogenation reaction, and rules out any contribution from the H atom in the CH3 group. In addition, the magic numbers in the time of flight (TOF) mass spectra of the Mg+Xn clusters (X = H2O, CH3OH, CH3OCH3 and CH3CN) have been investigated. Finally, the role of ground electronic magnesium ion Mg+(2S1/2), and excited electronic magnesium ion Mg+(2P1/2) in the dehydrogenation reaction were investigated using Ion Mobility Mass spectrometry. The results offer direct evidence confirming the absence of the electronically excited, Mg+(2P1/2). PMID:22272121

  18. Role of orbital symmetry in high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalda, R. De; Heesel, E.; Lein, M.; Hay, N.; Velotta, R.; Springate, E.; Castillejo, M.; Marangos, J. P.

    2004-03-01

    High-order harmonic generation has been explored theoretically and experimentally in CO2 , a linear molecule characterized by doubly antisymmetric highest-occupied molecular orbitals. For the first time to our knowledge, the high-harmonic yield is studied as a function of the angle between the molecular axis and the polarization direction. A minimum yield is found at 0 for all harmonics, which constitutes evidence for destructively interfering terms in the ionization probability amplitude playing an important role in strong-field phenomena in molecules. The maximum yield is always found at intermediate angles, but the detailed behavior is harmonic specific. Numerical simulations reproduce the main features observed in the experiment.

  19. Ultracold spin-polarized mixtures of 2? molecules with S-state atoms: Collisional stability and implications for sympathetic cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tscherbul, T. V.; K?os, J.; Buchachenko, A. A.

    2011-10-01

    The prospects of sympathetic cooling of polar molecules with magnetically cotrapped alkali-metal atoms are generally considered poor due to strongly anisotropic atom-molecule interactions leading to large spin relaxation rates. Using rigorous quantum scattering calculations based on ab initio interaction potentials, we show that inelastic spin relaxation in low-temperature collisions of CaH(2?) molecules with Li and Mg atoms occurs at a slow rate despite the strongly anisotropic interactions. This unexpected result, which we rationalize using multichannel quantum-defect theory, opens up the possibility of sympathetic cooling of polar 2? molecules with alkali-metal atoms in a magnetic trap and with alkaline-earth-metal atoms in an optical dipole trap.

  20. Polarity inversion in high Mg-doped In-polar InN epitaxial layers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xinqiang; Che, Song-Bek; Ishitani, Yoshihiro; Yoshikawa, Akihiko; Sasaki, Hirokazu; Shinagawa, Tatsuyuki; Yoshida, Seikoh

    2007-08-20

    To investigate the Mg-dopability in In-polar InN epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy, polarity inversion dependence on Mg-doping level is studied. A multiple-InN layer-structure sample with different Mg-doping levels is grown and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Formation of high density V-shaped inversion domains is observed for the Mg-doped InN with Mg concentration ([Mg]) of 2.9x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. These domains lead to polarity inversion from In to N polarity. Further study for Mg-doped InN epilayers shows that polarity inversion takes place when [Mg] increases above 1.6x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. It is also shown that the Mg-sticking coefficient is almost independent of the polarity.

  1. Polarization of focal spot for high numerical aperture radially polarized beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yun; Zhang, Yunhai; Chang, Jian; Wei, Tongda

    2015-04-01

    According to Wolf and Richards vectorial diffraction theory, an electric field intensity model of focal spot for high numerical aperture radially polarized beam is established to analyze the intensity distributions of the focal spot and the polarization components of the electric field along the x, y and z axis, separately. In the reflection-mode confocal of imaging system, the intensity distributions of focal spot is obtained utilizing the gold nanoparticles, and the intensity distributions of the polarization components of the electric field along the x, y and z axis are obtained utilizing the gold nanorods. In the incident light, the polarization component along the z axis is nonexistent in front of the objective. But there is the polarization component along the z axis, which is relative to the numerical aperture, in the focal spot behind the objective. When the numerical aperture increases from 0.8 to 1.4, the ratio of the polarization component maximum along the z axis to that along the x axis or y axis increases from 0.57 to 3.16. The results show that the focal spot of radially polarized beam through high numerical aperture objective have the polarization component along the x, y and z axis, separately, and polarization component along z axis is much more than the other.

  2. Electron scattering by highly polar molecules. I - KI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudge, M. R. H.; Trajmar, S.; Williams, W.

    1976-01-01

    Electron-impact energy-loss spectra of KI were studied experimentally in the 15- to 130-deg angular range at impact energies of 6.7, 15.7, and 60 eV. The spectra reveal a number of excitation features which have not been detected previously and indicate that KI is a strong photon absorber in the vacuum-UV region. From the spectra, differential and integral electronically elastic and inelastic cross sections have been obtained by normalizing the experimental data to theoretical results at low scattering angles. Rotational excitation cross sections corresponding to delta j = 0, plus or minus 1, have been calculated using a dipole-plus-repulsive-core interaction potential and the distorted-wave approximation. For comparison, the rotational excitation cross sections have also been calculated in the Born point-dipole approximation.

  3. High-Resolution South Polar Cap Mosaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The layered terrains of the polar regions of Mars are among the most exotic planetary landscapes in our Solar System. The layers exposed in the south polar residual cap, vividly shown in the top view, are thought to contain detailed records of Mars' climate history over the last 100 million years or so. The materials that comprise the south polar layers may include frozen carbon dioxide, water ice, and fine dust. The bottom picture shows complex erosional patterns that have developed on the south polar cap, perhaps by a combination of sublimation, wind erosion, and ground-collapse. Because the south polar terrains are so strange and new to human eyes, no one (yet) has entirely adequate explanations as to what is being seen.

    These images were acquired by the Mars Orbiter Camera aboard the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft during the southern spring season in October 1999. Each of these two pictures is a mosaic of many individual MOC images acquired at about 12 m/pixel scale that completely cover the highest latitude (87oS) visible to MOC on each orbital pass over the polar region. Both mosaics cover areas of about 10 x 4 kilometers (6.2 x 2.5 miles) near 87oS, 10oW in the central region of the permanent--or residual--south polar cap. They show features at the scale of a small house. Sunlight illuminates each scene from the left.'Gaps' at the upper and lower right of the second mosaic, above, are areas that were not covered by MOC in October 1999.

  4. Probing the Axis Alignment of an Ultracold Spin-polarized Rb2 Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deiß, Markus; Drews, Björn; Deissler, Benjamin; Hecker Denschlag, Johannes

    2014-12-01

    We present a novel method for probing the alignment of the molecular axis of an ultracold, nonpolar dimer. These results are obtained using diatomic 87Rb2 molecules in the vibrational ground state of the lowest triplet potential a3Σu+ trapped in a 3D optical lattice. We measure the molecular polarizabilities, which are directly linked to the alignment, along each of the x , y , and z directions of the lab coordinate system. By preparing the molecules in various, precisely defined rotational quantum states we can control the degree of alignment of the molecular axis with high precision over a large range. Furthermore, we derive the dynamical polarizabilities for a laser wavelength of 1064.5 nm parallel and orthogonal to the molecular axis of the dimer, α∥=(8.9 ±0.9 )×1 03 a .u . and α⊥=(0.9 ±0.4 )×1 03 a .u . , respectively. Our findings highlight that the depth of an optical lattice strongly depends on the rotational state of the molecule, which has to be considered in collision experiments. The present work paves the way for reaction studies between aligned molecules in the ultracold temperature regime.

  5. Functional Fixedness and Functional Reduction as Common Sense Reasonings in Chemical Equilibrium and in Geometry and Polarity of Molecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furio, C.; Calatayud, M. L.; Barcenas, S. L.; Padilla, O. M.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on learning difficulties in procedural knowledge, and assesses the procedural difficulties of grade 12 and first- and third-year university students based on common sense reasoning in two areas of chemistry--chemical equilibrium and geometry, and polarity of molecules. (Contains 55 references.) (Author/YDS)

  6. Chirality induction using circularly polarized light into a branched oligofluorene derivative in the presence of an achiral aid molecule.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Kanibolotsky, Alexander L; Skabara, Peter J; Nakano, Tamaki

    2016-01-21

    Chirality induction into a uniform, star-shaped fluorene oligomer with a central truxene moiety (T3) was achieved using circularly polarized light in the presence of achiral fluorene or phenanthrene. Induction into T3 alone was difficult, suggesting that close chain packing realized through interactions of T3 with small molecules plays a role in chirality induction. PMID:26678932

  7. Fluorescence Polarization Screening Assays for Small Molecule Allosteric Modulators of ABL Kinase Function

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Prerna; Shi, Haibin; Baumgartner, Matthew; Camacho, Carlos J.; Smithgall, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    The ABL protein-tyrosine kinase regulates intracellular signaling pathways controlling diverse cellular processes and contributes to several forms of cancer. The kinase activity of ABL is repressed by intramolecular interactions involving its regulatory Ncap, SH3 and SH2 domains. Small molecules that allosterically regulate ABL kinase activity through its non-catalytic domains may represent selective probes of ABL function. Here we report a screening assay for chemical modulators of ABL kinase activity that target the regulatory interaction of the SH3 domain with the SH2-kinase linker. This fluorescence polarization (FP) assay is based on a purified recombinant ABL protein consisting of the N-cap, SH3 and SH2 domains plus the SH2-kinase linker (N32L protein) and a short fluorescein-labeled probe peptide that binds to the SH3 domain. In assay development experiments, we found that the probe peptide binds to the recombinant ABL N32L protein in vitro, producing a robust FP signal that can be competed with an excess of unlabeled peptide. The FP signal is not observed with control N32L proteins bearing either an inactivating mutation in the SH3 domain or enhanced SH3:linker interaction. A pilot screen of 1200 FDA-approved drugs identified four compounds that specifically reduced the FP signal by at least three standard deviations from the untreated controls. Secondary assays showed that one of these hit compounds, the antithrombotic drug dipyridamole, enhances ABL kinase activity in vitro to a greater extent than the previously described ABL agonist, DPH. Docking studies predicted that this compound binds to a pocket formed at the interface of the SH3 domain and the linker, suggesting that it activates ABL by disrupting this regulatory interaction. These results show that screening assays based on the non-catalytic domains of ABL can identify allosteric small molecule regulators of kinase function, providing a new approach to selective drug discovery for this important kinase system. PMID:26222440

  8. HIGHLY POLARIZED COUNTERPART OF THE DOUBLE HELIX NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuboi, Masato; Handa, Toshihiro

    2010-08-20

    We identified the double helix nebula (DHN) found by the Spitzer Space Telescopein the Galactic center region as a highly polarized feature at 10 GHz with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. The DHN is located near the north end of the polarized plumes. The position angles of Faraday rotation corrected B vectors in the DHN are presumably along the twisting IR filaments. The linear polarization degree of the DHN is as large as p = 10%, and reaches p = 15% {+-} 2% at the radio polarization peak of the DHN. This means that the DHN has highly ordered magnetic field with synchrotron-emitting relativistic electrons.

  9. Highly efficient generation of vector beams through polarization holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, U.; Pagliusi, P.; Provenzano, C.; Cipparrone, G.

    2013-04-01

    We report a highly efficient and flexible method to yield vector beams (VBs) with spatially variant amplitude, phase and polarization by means of two polarization holograms (PHs). Left- and right-hand circularly polarized scalar beams, generated by the first hologram, are collinearly recombined by the second one to produce the vector beams. By taking advantage of the diffraction properties, the high efficiency, and the intrinsic achromaticity of the polarization holograms, the method aims to overcome the limitations related to stability and efficiency, making it attractive for applications. Theoretical analysis, based on the Jones formalism, and experimental results are shown.

  10. Stark-potential evaporative cooling of polar molecules in a novel optical-access opened electrostatic trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hui; Wang, Zhen-Xia; Wang, Qin; Li, Xing-Jia; Liu, Jian-Ping; Yin, Jian-Ping

    2015-11-01

    We propose a novel optical-access opened electrostatic trap to study the Stark-potential evaporative cooling of polar molecules by using two charged disk electrodes with a central hole of radius r0 =1.5 mm, and derive a set of new analytical equations to calculate the spatial distributions of the electrostatic field in the above charged-disk layout. Afterwards, we calculate the electric-field distributions of our electrostatic trap and the Stark potential for cold ND3 molecules, and analyze the dependences of both the electric field and the Stark potential on the geometric parameters of our charged-disk scheme, and find an optimal condition to form a desirable trap with the same trap depth in the x, y, and z directions. Also, we propose a desirable scheme to realize an efficient loading of cold polar molecules in the weak-field-seeking states, and investigate the dependences of the loading efficiency on both the initial forward velocity of the incident molecular beam and the loading time by Monte Carlo simulations. Our study shows that the maximal loading efficiency of our trap scheme can reach about 95%, and the corresponding temperature of the trapped cold molecules is about 28.8 mK. Finally, we study the Stark-potential evaporative cooling for cold polar molecules in our trap by the Monte Carlo method, and find that our simulated evaporative cooling results are consistent with our developed analytical model based on trapping-potential evaporative cooling.

  11. Spectroscopy, reaction, and photodissociation in highly vibrationally excited molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Highly vibrationally excited molecules often control the course of chemical reactions in the atmosphere, combustion, plasmas, and many other environments. The research described in this Progress Report uses laser excitation and interrogation techniques to study and control the dynamics of highly vibrationally excited molecules. In particular, they show that it is possible to unravel the details and influence the course of photodissociation and bimolecular reaction. The experiments use laser excitation of overtone vibrations to prepare highly vibrationally excited molecules, frequently with single quantum state resolution, and laser spectroscopy to monitor the subsequent behavior of the excited molecule. We have studied the vibrationally mediated photodissociation and the bond- and state-selected bimolecular reaction of highly vibrationally excited molecules. In the first process, one photon creates a highly excited molecule, a second photon from another laser dissociates it, and light from a third laser detects the population of individual product quantum states. This approach allows us to explore otherwise inaccessible regions of the ground and excited state potential energy surface and, by exciting to the proper regions of the surface, to control the breaking of a selected chemical bond. In the second process, the highly vibrationally excited molecule reacts with an atom formed either in a microwave discharge or by photolysis and another laser interrogates the products. We have used this approach to demonstrate mode- and bond-selected bimolecular reactions in which the initial excitation controls the subsequent chemistry. 30 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Relaxation of rotational angular momentum of polar diatomic molecules in simple liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, A.; Perez, J.

    2007-03-15

    The relaxation processes of rotational angular momentum of polar diatomic molecules diluted in simple liquids are analyzed by applying a non-Markovian relaxation theory to the study of the binary time autocorrelation function of the angular momentum. This non-Markovian theory was previously applied to the study of the infrared and Raman spectroscopy, and also to the analysis of the rotational energy relaxation processes. We have obtained non-Markovian evolution equations for the two-time j-level angular momentum correlation components involved in the angular momentum correlation function. In these equations, the time-dependent angular momentum transfer rates and the pure orientational angular transfer rates are given in terms of the binary time autocorrelation function of the diatomic-solvent anisotropic interaction. The non-Markovian evolution equations converge to Markovian ones in the long time limit, reaching the angular momentum transfer rates in the usual time-independent form. Alternative time scales for the angular relaxation processes, relative to the individual rotational processes as well as to the global decay correlations, are introduced and analyzed. The theory is applied to the study of the angular momentum relaxation processes of HCl diluted in liquid SF{sub 6}, a system for which rotational energy relaxation and infrared and Raman spectroscopy was previously analyzed in the scope of the same theory.

  13. Generation of even below-threshold harmonics by stretched H 2 + molecules in intense elliptically polarized laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiri Avanaki, K.; Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, Shih-I.

    2015-05-01

    We study the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) of H2+molecular ions in intense near-infrared elliptically polarized laser fields solving the time-dependent Schrdinger equation by means of the time-dependent generalized pseudo spectral method in prolate spheroidal coordinates. While the yield of above-threshold harmonics for nonzero ellipticity is generally reduced as compared with linearly polarized fields, below-threshold harmonics still appear quite strong except when the polarization plane is perpendicular to the molecular axis. Weak even harmonics are detected in the HHG spectra of stretched molecules, with the internuclear separations 7 to 9 a.u. This effect can be explained by the broken inversion symmetry due to dynamic localization of the electron density near one of the nuclei. Influence of the multiphoton resonances and two-center interference on the HHG spectra is also analyzed. This work is partially supported by DOE.

  14. The Influence of Non Polar and Polar Molecules in Mouse Motile Cells Membranes and Pure Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Sierra-Valdez, Francisco J.; Forero-Quintero, Linda S.; Zapata-Morin, Patricio A.; Costas, Miguel; Chavez-Reyes, Arturo; Ruiz-Surez, Jess C.

    2013-01-01

    We report an experimental study of mouse sperm motility that shows chief aspects characteristic of neurons: the anesthetic (produced by tetracaine) and excitatory (produced by either caffeine or calcium) effects and their antagonic action. While tetracaine inhibits sperm motility and caffeine has an excitatory action, the combination of these two substances balance the effects, producing a motility quite similar to that of control cells. We also study the effects of these agents (anesthetic and excitatory) on the melting points of pure lipid liposomes constituted by 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (DPPA). Tetracaine induces a large fluidization of the membrane, shifting the liposomes melting transition temperature to much lower values. The effect of caffeine is null, but its addition to tetracaine-doped liposomes greatly screen the fluidization effect. A high calcium concentration stiffens pure lipid membranes and strongly reduces the effect of tetracaine. Molecular Dynamics Simulations are performed to further understand our experimental findings at the molecular level. We find a strong correlation between the effect of antagonic molecules that could explain how the mechanical properties suitable for normal cell functioning are affected and recovered. PMID:23565149

  15. Highly Polarized Ion Sources for Electron Ion Colliders (EIC)

    SciTech Connect

    V.G. Dudnikov, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, Y. Zhang

    2010-03-01

    The operation of the RHIC facility at BNL and the Electron Ion Colliders (EIC) under development at Jefferson Laboratory and BNL need high brightness ion beams with the highest polarization. Charge exchange injection into a storage ring or synchrotron and Siberian snakes have the potential to handle the needed polarized beam currents, but first the ion sources must create beams with the highest possible polarization to maximize collider productivity, which is proportional to a high power of the polarization. We are developing one universal H-/D- ion source design which will synthesize the most advanced developments in the field of polarized ion sources to provide high current, high brightness, ion beams with greater than 90% polarization, good lifetime, high reliability, and good power efficiency. The new source will be an advanced version of an atomic beam polarized ion source (ABPIS) with resonant charge exchange ionization by negative ions. An integrated ABPIS design will be prepared based on new materials and an optimized magnetic focusing system. Polarized atomic and ion beam formation, extraction, and transport for the new source will be computer simulated.

  16. Polarized neutron reflectometry in high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Fritzsche, H.

    2005-11-15

    A simple method is described to maintain the polarization of a neutron beam on its way through the large magnetic stray fields produced by a vertical field of a cryomagnet with a split-coil geometry. The two key issues are the proper shielding of the neutron spin flippers and an additional radial field component in order to guide the neutron spin through the region of the null point (i.e., point of reversal for the vertical field component). Calculations of the neutron's spin rotation as well as polarized neutron reflectometry experiments on an ErFe{sub 2}/DyFe{sub 2} multilayer show the perfect performance of the used setup. The recently commissioned cryomagnet M5 with a maximum vertical field of up to 7.2 T in asymmetric mode for polarized neutrons and 9 T in symmetric mode for unpolarized neutrons was used on the C5 spectrometer in reflectometry mode, at the NRU reactor in Chalk River, Canada.

  17. Ionization of one- and three-dimensionally-oriented asymmetric-top molecules by intense circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Jonas L.; Holmegaard, Lotte; Kalhoej, Line; Kragh, Sofie Louise; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Filsinger, Frank; Meijer, Gerard; Kuepper, Jochen; Dimitrovski, Darko; Abu-samha, Mahmoud; Martiny, Christian Per Juul; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2011-02-15

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study on strong-field ionization of a three-dimensionally-oriented asymmetric top molecule, benzonitrile (C{sub 7}H{sub 5}N), by circularly polarized, nonresonant femtosecond laser pulses. Prior to the interaction with the strong field, the molecules are quantum-state selected using a deflector and three-dimensionally (3D) aligned and oriented adiabatically using an elliptically polarized laser pulse in combination with a static electric field. A characteristic splitting in the molecular frame photoelectron momentum distribution reveals the position of the nodal planes of the molecular orbitals from which ionization occurs. The experimental results are supported by a theoretical tunneling model that includes and quantifies the splitting in the momentum distribution. The focus of the present article is to understand strong-field ionization from 3D-oriented asymmetric top molecules, in particular the suppression of electron emission in nodal planes of molecular orbitals. In the preceding article [Dimitrovski et al., Phys. Rev. A 83, 023405 (2011)] the focus is to understand the strong-field ionization of one-dimensionally-oriented polar molecules, in particular asymmetries in the emission direction of the photoelectrons.

  18. Single DNA Molecule Patterning for High-Throughput Epigenetic Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Cerf, Aline; Cipriany, Benjamin R.; Bentez, Jaime J.; Craighead, Harold G.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for profiling the 5-methyl cytosine distribution on single DNA molecules. Our method combines soft-lithography and molecular elongation to form ordered arrays of more than 250,000 individual DNA molecules immobilized on a solid substrate. The methylation state of the DNA is detected and mapped by binding of fluorescently labeled methyl-CpG binding domain peptides to the elongated dsDNA molecules and imaging of their distribution. The stretched molecules are fixed in their extended configuration by adsorption onto the substrate so analysis can be performed with high spatial resolution and signal averaging. We further prove this technique allows imaging of DNA molecules with different methylation states. PMID:21981444

  19. High-sensitivity and high-spatial-resolution imaging of self-assembled monolayer on platinum using radially polarized beam excited second-harmonic-generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Mamoru; Niioka, Hirohiko; Ashida, Koichiro; Yoshiki, Keisuke; Araki, Tsutomu

    2015-11-01

    High-sensitivity, high-spatial-resolution imaging of organic monolayers on platinum with second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy using radially polarized beam excitation is investigated. A tightly focused, radially polarized beam forms a longitudinal electric field at the focus. The longitudinal field is enhanced at a metal surface and increases the intensity of SHG from the molecules on the metal surface. The SHG signal from a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on a platinum surface excited by a radially polarized beam is approximately 3.7 times higher than that obtained with a linearly polarized beam. Improved spatial resolution is also demonstrated using a SAM patterned by electron beam lithography.

  20. High resolution electron crystallography of protein molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Glaeser, R.M. |; Downing, K.H.

    1993-06-01

    Electron diffraction data and high resolution images can now be used to obtain accurate, three-dimensional density maps of biological macromolecules. These density maps can be interpreted by building an atomic-resolution model of the structure into the experimental density. The Cowley-Moodie formalism of dynamical diffraction theory has been used to validate the use of kinematic diffraction theory, strictly the weak phase object approximation, in producing such 3-D density maps. Further improvements in the preparation of very flat specimens and in the retention of diffraction to a resolution of 0.2 nm or better could result in electron crystallography becoming as important a technique as x-ray crystallography currently is for the field of structural molecular biology.

  1. Highly Parallel Translation of DNA Sequences into Small Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Weisinger, Rebecca M.; Wrenn, S. Jarrett; Harbury, Pehr B.

    2012-01-01

    A large body of in vitro evolution work establishes the utility of biopolymer libraries comprising 1010 to 1015 distinct molecules for the discovery of nanomolar-affinity ligands to proteins.[1], [2], [3], [4], [5] Small-molecule libraries of comparable complexity will likely provide nanomolar-affinity small-molecule ligands.[6], [7] Unlike biopolymers, small molecules can offer the advantages of cell permeability, low immunogenicity, metabolic stability, rapid diffusion and inexpensive mass production. It is thought that such desirable in vivo behavior is correlated with the physical properties of small molecules, specifically a limited number of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, a defined range of hydrophobicity, and most importantly, molecular weights less than 500 Daltons.[8] Creating a collection of 1010 to 1015 small molecules that meet these criteria requires the use of hundreds to thousands of diversity elements per step in a combinatorial synthesis of three to five steps. With this goal in mind, we have reported a set of mesofluidic devices that enable DNA-programmed combinatorial chemistry in a highly parallel 384-well plate format. Here, we demonstrate that these devices can translate DNA genes encoding 384 diversity elements per coding position into corresponding small-molecule gene products. This robust and efficient procedure yields small molecule-DNA conjugates suitable for in vitro evolution experiments. PMID:22479303

  2. Organic molecules in the polar ice: from chemical analysis to environmental proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbante, Carlo; Zennaro, Piero; Giorio, Chiara; Kehrwald, Natalie; Benton, Alisa K.; Wolff, Eric W.; Kalberer, Markus; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The molecular and isotopic compositions of organic matter buried in ice contains information that helps reconstruct past environmental conditions, evaluate histories of climate change, and assess impacts of humans on ecosystems. In recent years novel analytical techniques were developed to quantify molecular compounds in ice cores. As an example, biomass burning markers, including monosaccharide anhydrides, lightweight carboxylic acids, lignin and resin pyrolysis products, black carbon, and charcoal records help in reconstructing past fire activity across seasonal to millennial time scales. Terrestrial biomarkers, such as plant waxes (e.g. long-chain n-alkanes) are also a promising paleo vegetation proxy in ice core studies. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous pollutants recently detected in ice cores. These hydrocarbons primarily originate from incomplete combustion of organic matter and fossil fuels (e.g. diesel engines, domestic heating, industrial combustion) and therefore can be tracers of past combustion activities. In order to be suitable for paloeclimate purposes, organic molecular markers detected in ice cores should include the following important features. Markers have to be stable under oxidizing atmospheric conditions, and ideally should not react with hydroxyl radicals, during their transport to polar regions. Organic markers must be released in large amounts in order to be detected at remote distances from the sources. Proxies must be specific, in order to differentiate them from other markers with multiple sources. The extraction of glaciochemical information from ice cores is challenging due to the low concentrations of some impurities, thereby demanding rigorous control of external contamination sources and sensitive analytical techniques. Here, we review the analysis and use of organic molecules in ice as proxies of important environmental and climatic processes.

  3. Cold polar molecules in two-dimensional traps: Tailoring interactions with external fields for novel quantum phases

    SciTech Connect

    Micheli, A.; Pupillo, G.; Buechler, H. P.; Zoller, P.

    2007-10-15

    We discuss techniques to engineer effective long-range interactions between polar molecules using external static electric and microwave fields. We consider a setup where molecules are trapped in a two-dimensional pancake geometry by a far-off-resonance optical trap, which ensures the stability of the dipolar collisions. We detail how to modify the shape and the strength of the long-range part of interaction potentials, which can be utilized to realize interesting quantum phases in the context of cold molecular gases.

  4. High Precision Assembly Line Synthesis for Molecules with Tailored Shapes

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Matthew; Essafi, Stephanie; Bame, Jessica R.; Bull, Stephanie P.; Webster, Matthew P.; Balieu, Sebastien; Dale, James W.; Butts, Craig P.; Harvey, Jeremy N.; Aggarwal, Varinder K.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular assembly lines, where molecules undergo iterative processes involving chain elongation and functional group manipulation are hallmarks of many processes found in Nature. We have sought to emulate Nature in the development of our own molecular assembly line through iterative homologations of boronic esters. Here we report a reagent (?-lithioethyl triispopropylbenzoate) which inserts into carbon-boron bonds with exceptionally high fidelity and stereocontrol. Through repeated iteration we have converted a simple boronic ester into a complex molecule (a carbon chain with ten contiguous methyl groups) with remarkably high precision over its length, its stereochemistry and therefore its shape. Different stereoisomers were targeted and it was found that they adopted different shapes (helical/linear) according to their stereochemistry. This work should now enable scientists to rationally design and create molecules with predictable shape, which could have an impact in all areas of molecular sciences where bespoke molecules are required. PMID:25209797

  5. Functional fixedness and functional reduction as common sense reasonings in chemical equilibrium and in geometry and polarity of molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furi, C.; Calatayud, M. L.; Brcenas, S. L.; Padilla, O. M.

    2000-09-01

    Many of the learning difficulties in the specific domain of chemistry are found not only in the ideas already possessed by students but in the strategic and procedural knowledge that is characteristic of everyday thinking. These defects in procedural knowledge have been described as functional fixedness and functional reduction. This article assesses the procedural difficulties of students (grade 12 and first and third year of university) based on common sense reasoning in two areas of chemistry: chemical equilibrium and geometry and polarity of molecules. In the first area, the theme of external factors affecting equilibria (temperature and concentration change) was selected because the explanations given by the students could be analyzed easily. The existence of a functional fixedness where Le Chatelier's principle was almost exclusively applied by rote could be observed, with this being the cause of the incorrect responses given to the proposed items. Functional fixedness of the Lewis structure also led to an incorrect prediction of molecular geometry. When molecular geometry was correctly determined by the students, it seemed that other methodological or procedural difficulties appeared when the task was to determine molecular polarity. The students showed a tendency, in many cases, to reduce the factors affecting molecular polarity in two possible ways: (a) assuming that polarity depends only on shape (geometric functional reduction) or (b) assuming that molecular polarity depends only on the polarity of bonds (bonding functional reduction).

  6. Probing non-polar interstellar molecules through their protonated form: Detection of protonated cyanogen (NCCNH+)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; de Vicente, P.; Marcelino, N.; Roueff, E.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Gulin, M.; Albo, C.; Barcia, A.; Barbas, L.; Bolao, R.; Colomer, F.; Diez, M. C.; Gallego, J. D.; Gmez-Gonzlez, J.; Lpez-Fernndez, I.; Lpez-Fernndez, J. A.; Lpez-Prez, J. A.; Malo, I.; Serna, J. M.; Tercero, F.

    2015-07-01

    Cyanogen (NCCN) is the simplest member of the series of dicyanopolyynes. It has been hypothesized that this family of molecules can be important constituents of interstellar and circumstellar media, although the lack of a permanent electric dipole moment prevents its detection through radioastronomical techniques. Here we present the first solid evidence of the presence of cyanogen in interstellar clouds by detection of its protonated form toward the cold dark clouds TMC-1 and L483. Protonated cyanogen (NCCNH+) has been identified through the J = 5-4 and J = 10-9 rotational transitions using the 40 m radiotelescope of Yebes and the IRAM 30 m telescope. We derive beam-averaged column densities for NCCNH+ of (8.6 4.4) 1010 cm-2 in TMC-1 and (3.9 1.8) 1010 cm-2 in L483, which translate into fairly low fractional abundances relative to H2, in the range (1-10) 10-12. The chemistry of protonated molecules in dark clouds is discussed, and it is found that, in general terms, the abundance ratio between the protonated and non-protonated forms of a molecule increases with increasing proton affinity. Our chemical model predicts an abundance ratio NCCNH+/NCCN of ~10-4, which implies that the abundance of cyanogen in dark clouds could be as high as (1-10) 10-8 relative to H2, i.e., comparable to that of other abundant nitriles such as HCN, HNC, and HC3N. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope and the Yebes 40 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain). The 40 m radiotelescope at Yebes Observatory is operated by the Spanish National Geographic Institute (IGN, Ministerio de Fomento).

  7. Probing non polar interstellar molecules through their protonated form: Detection of protonated cyanogen (NCCNH+)★

    PubMed Central

    Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; de Vicente, P.; Marcelino, N.; Roueff, E.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Guélin, M.; Albo, C.; Barcia, A.; Barbas, L.; Bolaño, R.; Colomer, F.; Diez, M. C.; Gallego, J. D.; Gómez-González, J.; López-Fernández, I.; López-Fernández, J. A.; López-Pérez, J. A.; Malo, I.; Serna, J. M.; Tercero, F.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanogen (NCCN) is the simplest member of the series of dicyanopolyynes. It has been hypothesized that this family of molecules can be important constituents of interstellar and circumstellar media, although the lack of a permanent electric dipole moment prevents its detection through radioastronomical techniques. Here we present the first solid evidence of the presence of cyanogen in interstellar clouds through the detection of its protonated form toward the cold dark clouds TMC-1 and L483. Protonated cyanogen (NCCNH+) has been identified through the J = 5 – 4 and J = 10 – 9 rotational transitions using the 40m radiotelescope of Yebes and the IRAM 30m telescope. We derive beam averaged column densities for NCCNH+ of (8.6 ± 4.4) × 1010 cm−2 in TMC-1 and (3.9 ± 1.8) × 1010 cm−2 in L483, which translate to fairly low fractional abundances relative to H2, in the range (1-10) × 10−12. The chemistry of protonated molecules in dark clouds is discussed, and it is found that, in general terms, the abundance ratio between the protonated and non protonated forms of a molecule increases with increasing proton affinity. Our chemical model predicts an abundance ratio NCCNH+/NCCN of ~ 10−4, which implies that the abundance of cyanogen in dark clouds could be as high as (1-10) × 10−8 relative to H2, i.e., comparable to that of other abundant nitriles such as HCN, HNC, and HC3N. PMID:26543239

  8. High-order harmonic generation in laser-aligned molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, N.; Velotta, R.; Lein, M.; de Nalda, R.; Heesel, E.; Castillejo, M.; Marangos, J. P.

    2002-05-01

    We demonstrate high-order harmonic generation in high-density vapors of laser-aligned molecules. Ensembles of aligned CS2 and N2 are formed in the focus of a 300 ps duration laser pulse with sufficient density (~1017 molecules cm-3) to enable efficient high-order harmonic generation by a second, 70-fs, high-intensity laser pulse. We are able to modulate and significantly enhance the harmonic intensity in aligned molecules compared to the randomly oriented case. Our results are explained by considering the influence of an anisotropic dipole phase. Strong support for this interpretation is provided by theoretical results for high-order harmonic generation in the aligned H+2 model system.

  9. Toward a 2-D magneto-optical trap for polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummon, Matthew; Stuhl, Benjamin; Yeo, Mark; Collopy, Alejandra; Ye, Jun

    2012-06-01

    The additional structure that arises from the rotational degree of freedom in diatomic molecules makes difficult the adaptation of a traditional atomic magneto-optical trap (MOT) for use with molecules. We describe progress toward development of a 2-D MOT for laser cooled yttrium monoxide molecules based on a resonant LC baseball coil geometry.

  10. Dispersion interactions with linear scaling DFT: a study of planar molecules on charged polar surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrinopoulos, Lampros; Hine, Nicholas; Haynes, Peter; Mostofi, Arash

    2010-03-01

    The placement of organic molecules such as CuPc (copper phthalocyanine) on wurtzite ZnO (zinc oxide) charged surfaces has been proposed as a way of creating photovoltaic solar cellsfootnotetextG.D. Sharma et al., Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 90, 933 (2006) ; optimising their performance may be aided by computational simulation. Electronic structure calculations provide high accuracy at modest computational cost but two challenges are encountered for such layered systems. First, the system size is at or beyond the limit of traditional cubic-scaling Density Functional Theory (DFT). Second, traditional exchange-correlation functionals do not account for van der Waals (vdW) interactions, crucial for determining the structure of weakly bonded systems. We present an implementation of recently developed approachesfootnotetextP.L. Silvestrelli, P.R.L. 100, 102 (2008) to include vdW in DFT within ONETEPfootnotetextC.-K. Skylaris, P.D. Haynes, A.A. Mostofi and M.C. Payne, J.C.P. 122, 084119 (2005) , a linear-scaling package for performing DFT calculations using a basis of localised functions. We have applied this methodology to simple planar organic molecules, such as benzene and pentacene, on ZnO surfaces.

  11. Single-molecule diodes with high rectification ratios through environmental control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzi, Brian; Xia, Jianlong; Adak, Olgun; Dell, Emma J.; Liu, Zhen-Fei; Taylor, Jeffrey C.; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Campos, Luis M.; Venkataraman, Latha

    2015-06-01

    Molecular electronics aims to miniaturize electronic devices by using subnanometre-scale active components. A single-molecule diode, a circuit element that directs current flow, was first proposed more than 40 years ago and consisted of an asymmetric molecule comprising a donor-bridge-acceptor architecture to mimic a semiconductor p-n junction. Several single-molecule diodes have since been realized in junctions featuring asymmetric molecular backbones, molecule-electrode linkers or electrode materials. Despite these advances, molecular diodes have had limited potential for applications due to their low conductance, low rectification ratios, extreme sensitivity to the junction structure and high operating voltages. Here, we demonstrate a powerful approach to induce current rectification in symmetric single-molecule junctions using two electrodes of the same metal, but breaking symmetry by exposing considerably different electrode areas to an ionic solution. This allows us to control the junction's electrostatic environment in an asymmetric fashion by simply changing the bias polarity. With this method, we reliably and reproducibly achieve rectification ratios in excess of 200 at voltages as low as 370 mV using a symmetric oligomer of thiophene-1,1-dioxide. By taking advantage of the changes in the junction environment induced by the presence of an ionic solution, this method provides a general route for tuning nonlinear nanoscale device phenomena, which could potentially be applied in systems beyond single-molecule junctions.

  12. Single-molecule diodes with high rectification ratios through environmental control.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, Brian; Xia, Jianlong; Adak, Olgun; Dell, Emma J; Liu, Zhen-Fei; Taylor, Jeffrey C; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Campos, Luis M; Venkataraman, Latha

    2015-06-01

    Molecular electronics aims to miniaturize electronic devices by using subnanometre-scale active components. A single-molecule diode, a circuit element that directs current flow, was first proposed more than 40 years ago and consisted of an asymmetric molecule comprising a donor-bridge-acceptor architecture to mimic a semiconductor p-n junction. Several single-molecule diodes have since been realized in junctions featuring asymmetric molecular backbones, molecule-electrode linkers or electrode materials. Despite these advances, molecular diodes have had limited potential for applications due to their low conductance, low rectification ratios, extreme sensitivity to the junction structure and high operating voltages. Here, we demonstrate a powerful approach to induce current rectification in symmetric single-molecule junctions using two electrodes of the same metal, but breaking symmetry by exposing considerably different electrode areas to an ionic solution. This allows us to control the junction's electrostatic environment in an asymmetric fashion by simply changing the bias polarity. With this method, we reliably and reproducibly achieve rectification ratios in excess of 200 at voltages as low as 370 mV using a symmetric oligomer of thiophene-1,1-dioxide. By taking advantage of the changes in the junction environment induced by the presence of an ionic solution, this method provides a general route for tuning nonlinear nanoscale device phenomena, which could potentially be applied in systems beyond single-molecule junctions. PMID:26005998

  13. Role of interspecies interactions in the preparation of a low-entropy gas of polar molecules in a lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safavi-Naini, A.; Wall, M. L.; Rey, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The preparation of a quantum degenerate gas of heteronuclear molecules has been an outstanding challenge. We use path-integral quantum Monte Carlo simulations to understand the role of interactions and finite temperature effects in the protocol currently employed to adiabatically prepare a low-entropy gas of polar molecules in a lattice starting from an ultracold Bose-Fermi mixture. We find that interspecies interactions affect the final temperature of the mixture after the adiabatic loading procedure and detrimentally limit the molecular peak filling. Our conclusions are in agreement with recent experimental measurements [Moses et al., Science 350, 659 (2015), 10.1126/science.aac6400] and therefore are of immediate relevance for the myriad experiments that aim to form molecules from dual-species atomic gases.

  14. Measurement of electronic structure from high harmonic generation in non-adiabatically aligned polyatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajumba, N.; Torres, R.; Underwood, Jonathan G.; Robinson, J. S.; Baker, S.; Tisch, J. W. G.; de Nalda, R.; Bryan, W. A.; Velotta, R.; Altucci, C.; Procino, I.; Turcu, I. C. E.; Marangos, J. P.

    2008-02-01

    We have explored the use of laser driven high-order harmonic generation to probe the electronic structure and symmetry of conjugated polyatomic molecular systems. We have investigated non-adiabatically aligned samples of linear symmetric top, nonlinear symmetric top and asymmetric top molecules, and we have observed signatures of their highest occupied molecular orbitals in the dependence of harmonic yields on the angle between the molecular axis and the polarization of the driving field. A good quantitative agreement between the measured orientation dependence of high harmonic generation and calculations employing the strong field approximation has been found. These measurements support the extension of molecular imaging techniques to larger systems.

  15. Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Gudiksen, M S; Duan, X; Cui, Y; Lieber, C M

    2001-08-24

    We have characterized the fundamental photoluminescence (PL) properties of individual, isolated indium phosphide (InP) nanowires to define their potential for optoelectronics. Polarization-sensitive measurements reveal a striking anisotropy in the PL intensity recorded parallel and perpendicular to the long axis of a nanowire. The order-of-magnitude polarization anisotropy was quantitatively explained in terms of the large dielectric contrast between these free-standing nanowires and surrounding environment, as opposed to quantum confinement effects. This intrinsic anisotropy was used to create polarization-sensitive nanoscale photodetectors that may prove useful in integrated photonic circuits, optical switches and interconnects, near-field imaging, and high-resolution detectors. PMID:11520977

  16. Highly polarized 3He by spin exchange with potassium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guodong; Shao, Wenjin; Hughes, Emlyn W.

    2003-12-01

    We report on measurements of the polarization for 3He using optically pumped potassium vapor. We achieve a 3He polarization greater than 40% in a mid-sized double-chamber glass target cell filled with 3He gas using a single Ti:sapphire laser. Applied to the production of polarized 3He as an atomic beam source for colliders, these developments could have significant impact on future studies of neutron spin structure. The results also motivate the development of high power diode lasers tuned to the appropriate potassium wavelengths.

  17. High-Altitude Observations of the Polar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Chappell, C. R.; Chandler, M. O.; Craven, P. D.; Giles, B. L.; Pollock, C. J.; Burch, J. L.; Young, D. T.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Nordholt, J. E.; Thomsen, M. F.; McComas, D. J.; Berthelier, J. J.; Williamson, W. S.; Robson, R.; Mozer, F. S.

    1997-01-01

    Plasma outflows, escaping from Earth through the high-altitude polar caps into the tail of the magnetosphere, have been observed with a xenon plasma source instrument to reduce the floating potential of the POLAR spacecraft. The largest component of H(+) flow, along the local magnetic field (30 to 60 kilometers per second), is faster than predicted by theory. The flows contain more O(+) than predicted by theories of thermal polar wind, but also have elevated ion temperatures. These plasma outflows contribute to the plasmas energized in the elongated nightside tail of the magnetosphere, creating auroras, substorms, and storms. They also constitute an appreciable loss of terrestrial water dissociation products into space.

  18. Exchange and polarization effect in high-order harmonic imaging of molecular structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sukiasyan, Suren; Ivanov, Misha Yu.; Patchkovskii, Serguei; Smirnova, Olga; Brabec, Thomas

    2010-10-15

    We analyze the importance of exchange, polarization, and electron-electron correlation in high-order harmonic generation in molecules interacting with intense laser fields. We find that electron exchange can become particularly important for harmonic emission associated with intermediate excitations in the molecular ion. In particular, for orbitals associated with two-hole one-particle excitations, exchange effects can eliminate structure-related minima and maxima in the harmonic spectra. Laser-induced polarization of the neutral molecule may also have major effects on orbital structure-related minima and maxima in the harmonic spectra. Finally, we show how exchange terms in recombination can be viewed as a shakedownlike process induced by sudden electronic excitation in the ion.

  19. Enhancement of metallic silver monomer evaporation by the adhesion of polar molecules to silver nanocluster ions. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Fagerquist, C.; Sensharma, D.K.; Rubio, A.; Cohen, M.L.; El-Sayed, M.A.

    1994-09-21

    The authors have compared the metallic evaporation channels from metastable Ag(X=5,7,11)(AgI)(Y=1-4)(+) clusters in the 1st FFR of a double focussing mass spectrometer with that of the corresponding pure metallic clusters, Ag(X=5,7,11)(+). It is found that the presence of the polar AgI molecules increases the rate of silver monomer evaporation relative to that of silver dimer evaporation. Using thermodynamic expressions for the heat of evaporation of the different evaporation processes and assuming the absence of reverse activation energies, an expression for the difference between the activation energy of silver monomer and dimer evaporation is derived. It is shown that dipole/induced-dipole forces resulting from the presence of AgI polar molecules lead to an enhancement of silver monomer evaporation if the polarizability of the pure metallic cluster ions increases with the number of Jellium electrons. The authors theoretical calculations of the static polarizabilities of (Ag(x))(+) using time dependent density functional theory within the local density approximation, shows a smooth increase in the polarizabilities with the number of the Jellium electrons in these clusters. Finally, the authors observe that the enhancement of Ag monomer evaporation per AgI added is smaller for clusters with even number of AgI molecules than with odd numbers. This was proposed to result from the contribution of configurations with dipole 'pairing' of the AgI molecules in clusters with even number of AgI molecules. Dipole pairing would decrease the average dipole/induced-dipole interaction between the AgI molecules and the metallic part of these 'mixed' clusters.

  20. Luminescent systems based on the isolation of conjugated PI systems and edge charge compensation with polar molecules on a charged nanostructured surface

    DOEpatents

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Zhao, Bin; Geohegan, David B.; Styers-Barnett, David J.; Hu, Hui

    2014-07-15

    A photoluminescent or electroluminescent system and method of making a non-luminescent nanostructured material into such a luminescent system is presented. The method of preparing the luminescent system, generally, comprises the steps of modifying the surface of a nanostructured material to create isolated regions to act as luminescent centers and to create a charge imbalance on the surface; applying more than one polar molecule to the charged surface of the nanostructured material; and orienting the polar molecules to compensate for the charge imbalance on the surface of the nanostructured material. The compensation of the surface charge imbalance by the polar molecules allows the isolated regions to exhibit luminescence.

  1. On high-latitude interstellar polarization toward the local spiral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugin, A.; Teerikorpi, P.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: The interstellar polarization in the northern high-latitude sky is low and rather smooth in the local spiral (LS) longitude range 60° < l < 240°, except for an extension of aligned higher polarization within 120° < l < 180° up to b ≈ 50°. We compare this view with results from other indicators of interstellar matter. Methods: Some indicators of dust are sensitive to diffuse matter on large scales, others provide information on clumpy structures. We describe results that are mainly from surveys of dark and molecular clouds in the LS longitude range at high latitudes. Results: The structured feature in the polarization map for the LS region corresponds to known dark cloud complexes. These extensions to higher latitudes (and some other dust indicators) may signal the presence of more dust in some form (like compact cold clouds) than is suggested by regular low interstellar polarization.

  2. High-Order Harmonic Generation in Aligned Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velotta, R.; Hay, N.; Mason, M. B.; Castillejo, M.; Marangos, J. P.

    2001-10-01

    We demonstrate alignment control in high density vapors of CS 2, hexane, and N 2 (~1017 molecules cm -3) using the electric field of a 300 ps duration laser pulse. This was sufficient to study for the first time the molecular orientation dependence of high-order harmonic generation using a second, 70 fs duration laser pulse of intensity ~51014 W cm -2. We were able to modulate and significantly enhance the harmonic intensity in aligned molecules compared to the randomly oriented case. Our results are consistent with the existence of an anisotropic dipole phase.

  3. Structural polarization-rocking filters in highly birefringent microfibers.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wa; Xuan, Haifeng; Jin, Wei

    2014-06-15

    We report the first fabrication, to our knowledge, of polarization-rocking filters in highly birefringent elliptical microfibers. A rocking filter was made by periodically heating/twisting a microfiber with an ellipticity of ?0.7 and a diameter of ?2.8???m along its major axis. Strong input polarization suppression of ?20??dB was achieved at a resonant wavelength of ?1556.4??nm with a device length of ?3??mm. PMID:24978486

  4. High Brightness and high polarization electron source using transmission photocathode

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Naoto; Jin Xiuguang; Ujihara, Toru; Takeda, Yoshikazu; Mano, Atsushi; Nakagawa, Yasuhide; Nakanishi, Tsutomu; Okumi, Shoji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Konomi, Taro; Ohshima, Takashi; Saka, Takashi; Kato, Toshihiro; Horinaka, Hiromichi; Yasue, Tsuneo; Koshikawa, Takanori

    2009-08-04

    A transmission photocathode was fabricated based on GaAs-GaAsP strained superlattice layers on a GaP substrate and a 20 kV-gun was built to generate the polarized electron beams with the diameter of a few micro-meter. As the results, the reduced brightness of 1.3x10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2}/sr and the polarization of 90% were achieved.

  5. Control of the high harmonic generation spectra by changing the molecule-laser field relative orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Daniele, Rosalba; Castiglia, Giuseppe; Corso, Pietro Paolo; Orlando, Gianfranco; Fiordilino, Emilio; Morales, Francesca

    2010-04-15

    The time dependent Schroedinger equation of a homonuclear diatomic molecule in the presence of a linearly polarized laser field is numerically solved by means of a split-operator parallel code. The calculations are carried out by assuming a single active electron model with fixed nuclei; a simplified two-dimensional model of the system is used. The highly nonlinear response of the electron wave function to the laser electric field stimulates the molecule to emit electromagnetic radiation consisting of a wide plateau of odd harmonics of the laser field. It is shown that the emitted spectrum can be finely controlled by changing the angle between the laser electric field and the molecular axis; this can be used to achieve a tunable source of high frequency radiation.

  6. High throughput single molecule detection for monitoring biochemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Okagbare, Paul I; Soper, Steven A

    2009-01-01

    The design, performance and application of a novel optical system for high throughput single molecule detection (SMD) configured in a continuous flow format using microfluidics is reported. The system consisted of a microfabricated polymer-based multi-channel fluidic network situated within the optical path of a laser source (lambda(ex) = 660 nm) with photon transduction accomplished using an electron-multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) operated in a frame transfer mode that allowed tracking single molecules as they passed through a large field-of-view (FoV) illumination zone. The microfluidic device consisted of 30 microchannels possessing dimensions of 30 microm (width) x 20 microm (depth) with a 25 microm pitch. Individual molecules were electrokinetically driven through the fluidic network and excited within the wide-field illumination area with the resulting fluorescence collected via an objective and imaged onto the EMCCD camera. The detection system demonstrated sufficient sensitivity to detect single DNA molecules labeled with a fluorescent tag (AlexaFluor 660) identified through their characteristic emission wavelength and the burst of photons produced during their transit through the excitation volume. In its present configuration and fluidic architecture, the sample processing throughput was approximately 4.02 x 10(5) molecules s(-1), but could be increased dramatically through the use of narrower channels and a smaller pitch. The system was further evaluated using a single molecule-based fluorescence quenching assay for measuring the population differences between duplexed and single-stranded DNA molecules as a function of temperature for determining the duplex melting temperature, T(m). PMID:19082181

  7. Fusion with highly spin polarized HD and D sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, A. . Dept. of Physics); Kremens, R.; Skupsky, S. . Lab. for Laser Energetics)

    1991-05-05

    During the course of this grant, we succeeded in overcoming essentially all of the obstacles on the route to carrying out ICF shots with polarized deuteron fuel in plastic target shells. ICF with polarized deuterons is expected to answer the question of survival of polarization in the high temperature plasma prior to fusion, as well as to give quantitative information on anisotropic particle emissions and possible suppression of particular fusion reactions. The techniques previously developed for high D polarization in large solid HD samples have been adapted to polystyrene target shells which are cooled conductively via very thin metal wire supports. An independent NMR experiment on a normal-D{sub 2}-filled glass target shell with 2 {mu}m copper-coated spider silk supports affirmed the thermal conduction adequacy by registering very low sample temperatures in the presence of the generation of considerable D{sub 2} conversion heat. In a permeation experiment employing very pure ortho-D{sub 2}, it was demonstrated that hydrogens diffuse into polystyrene shells at room temperature without molecular dissociation, a requirement for preservation of the composition of our HD samples used for polarization. An advanced version of the permeation apparatus was designed and constructed which permits preparation of target shells loaded with very high density HD or D{sub 2} fuels. That system includes provision for cryocondensation and cold-transfer either to the dilution refrigerator for polarization or to the OMEGA fusion chamber for ICF experiments with denser unpolarized fuel targets than were heretofore realizable in plastic target shells. a major effort resulted in improvements of cold-transfer inter-apparatus mating procedures which minimize the temperature rise of the target shells over that of the helium reservoir temperature. High D polarization in solid pure 0-D{sub 2} was shown to be retained into the liquid state after rapid melting.

  8. High-order-harmonic generation in homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules: Exploration of multiple orbital contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Heslar, John; Telnov, Dmitry; Chu, Shih-I

    2011-04-15

    We present a time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) approach with proper asymptotic long-range potential for nonperturbative treatment of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) of diatomic molecules with their molecular axis parallel to the laser field polarization. A time-dependent two-center generalized pseudospectral method in prolate spheroidal coordinate system is used for accurate and efficient treatment of the TDDFT equations in space and time. The theory is applied to a detailed all-electron nonperturbative investigation of HHG processes of homonuclear (N{sub 2} and F{sub 2}) and heteronuclear (CO, BF, and HF) molecules in intense ultrashort laser pulses with the emphasis on the role of multiple molecular orbitals (MOs). The results reveal intriguing and substantially different nonlinear optical response behaviors for homonuclear and heteronuclear molecules. In particular, we found that the HHG spectrum for homonuclear molecules features a destructive interference of MO contributions while heteronuclear molecules show mostly constructive interference of orbital contributions.

  9. Stochastic electrotransport selectively enhances the transport of highly electromobile molecules.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Yon; Cho, Jae Hun; Murray, Evan; Bakh, Naveed; Choi, Heejin; Ohn, Kimberly; Ruelas, Luzdary; Hubbert, Austin; McCue, Meg; Vassallo, Sara L; Keller, Philipp J; Chung, Kwanghun

    2015-11-17

    Nondestructive chemical processing of porous samples such as fixed biological tissues typically relies on molecular diffusion. Diffusion into a porous structure is a slow process that significantly delays completion of chemical processing. Here, we present a novel electrokinetic method termed stochastic electrotransport for rapid nondestructive processing of porous samples. This method uses a rotational electric field to selectively disperse highly electromobile molecules throughout a porous sample without displacing the low-electromobility molecules that constitute the sample. Using computational models, we show that stochastic electrotransport can rapidly disperse electromobile molecules in a porous medium. We apply this method to completely clear mouse organs within 1-3 days and to stain them with nuclear dyes, proteins, and antibodies within 1 day. Our results demonstrate the potential of stochastic electrotransport to process large and dense tissue samples that were previously infeasible in time when relying on diffusion. PMID:26578787

  10. Probing Orbital Structure of Polyatomic Molecules by High-Order Harmonic Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, R.; Kajumba, N.; Underwood, Jonathan G.; Robinson, J. S.; Baker, S.; Tisch, J. W. G.; de Nalda, R.; Bryan, W. A.; Velotta, R.; Altucci, C.; Turcu, I. C. E.; Marangos, J. P.

    2007-05-01

    The effects of electronic structure and symmetry are observed in laser driven high-order harmonic generation for laser aligned conjugated polyatomic molecular systems. The dependence of the harmonic yield on the angle between the molecular axis and the polarization of the driving laser field is seen to contain the fingerprint of the highest occupied molecular orbitals in acetylene and allene, a good quantitative agreement with calculations employing the strong field approximation was found. These measurements support the extension of the recently proposed molecular orbital imaging techniques beyond simple diatomic molecules to larger molecular systems.

  11. Probing orbital structure of polyatomic molecules by high-order harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Torres, R; Kajumba, N; Underwood, Jonathan G; Robinson, J S; Baker, S; Tisch, J W G; de Nalda, R; Bryan, W A; Velotta, R; Altucci, C; Turcu, I C E; Marangos, J P

    2007-05-18

    The effects of electronic structure and symmetry are observed in laser driven high-order harmonic generation for laser aligned conjugated polyatomic molecular systems. The dependence of the harmonic yield on the angle between the molecular axis and the polarization of the driving laser field is seen to contain the fingerprint of the highest occupied molecular orbitals in acetylene and allene, a good quantitative agreement with calculations employing the strong field approximation was found. These measurements support the extension of the recently proposed molecular orbital imaging techniques beyond simple diatomic molecules to larger molecular systems. PMID:17677693

  12. Prospects for the formation of ultracold polar ground state KCs molecules via an optical process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsalino, D.; Vexiau, R.; Aymar, M.; Luc-Koenig, E.; Dulieu, O.; Bouloufa-Maafa, N.

    2016-03-01

    Heteronuclear alkali-metal dimers represent the class of molecules of choice for creating samples of ultracold molecules exhibiting an intrinsic large permanent electric dipole moment. Among them, the KCs molecule, with a permanent dipole moment of 1.92 Debye still remains to be observed in ultracold conditions. Based on spectroscopic studies available in the literature completed by accurate quantum chemistry calculations, we propose several optical coherent schemes to create ultracold bosonic and fermionic KCs molecules in their absolute rovibrational ground level, starting from a weakly bound level of their electronic ground state manifold. The processes rely on the existence of convenient electronically excited states allowing an efficient stimulated Raman adiabatic transfer of the level population.

  13. Intrinsic instrumental polarization and high-precision pulsar timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, G.; Karastergiou, A.; Paulin, R.; Carozzi, T. D.; Johnston, S.; van Straten, W.

    2015-10-01

    Radio telescopes are used to accurately measure the time of arrival (ToA) of radio pulses in pulsar timing experiments that target mostly millisecond pulsars (MSPs) due to their high rotational stability. This allows for detailed study of MSPs and forms the basis of experiments to detect gravitational waves. Apart from intrinsic and propagation effects, such as pulse-to-pulse jitter and dispersion variations in the interstellar medium, timing precision is limited in part by the following: polarization purity of the telescope's orthogonally polarized receptors, the signal-to-noise ratio of the pulsar profile, and the polarization fidelity of the system. Using simulations, we present how fundamental limitations in recovering the true polarization reduce the precision of ToA measurements. Any real system will respond differently to each source observed depending on the unique pulsar polarization profile. Using the profiles of known MSPs, we quantify the limits of observing system specifications that yield satisfactory ToA measurements, and we place a practical design limit beyond which improvement of the system results in diminishing returns. Our aim is to justify limits for the front-end polarization characteristics of next-generation radio telescopes, leading to the Square Kilometre Array.

  14. Spin angular momentum and tunable polarization in high-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischer, Avner; Kfir, Ofer; Diskin, Tzvi; Sidorenko, Pavel; Cohen, Oren

    2014-07-01

    The roles of energy, momentum and orbital angular momentum conservation in high-harmonic generation were studied in the past. Here, we explore the role of spin angular momentum in high-harmonic generation by experimentally generating high harmonics of bichromatic elliptically polarized pump beams that interact with isotropic media. We explain qualitatively many observed intricate selection rules with a model that includes spin conservation in the conversion of many pump photons into a single photon. However, we also observe unequivocal deviations from this model, indicating that emission of an elliptically polarized high-energy photon is accompanied by an additional excitation (radiative or electronic). The presented results are also important for applications, because our system exhibits full control over the polarization of the harmonics, from circular through elliptical to linear polarization, without compromising the efficiency of the process. This work paves the way for a broad range of applications with high-harmonic generation, including ultrafast circular dichroism of molecules and magnetic materials.

  15. Influences of DMI on spin-polarized current through a single-molecule magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Bo; Liu, Juan; Yao, Kai-Lun

    2013-11-01

    We theoretically investigate the influences of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) on the spin-polarized transport through a single-molecular magnets, which is weakly coupled to ferromagnetic lead-L(pL) and nonmagnetic lead-R. The spin current is obtained by means of the rate-equation approach in the sequential-tunneling region. Due to the coherent superposition of the molecular state |1 induced by the DMI, we can observe the continuous pure spin current and negative differential conductance (NDC) under the full polarization pL=1 condition and polarization reversal of spin-current in the case of 0

  16. Novel function of the cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin as an inducer of cell surface polarity.

    PubMed

    McNeill, H; Ozawa, M; Kemler, R; Nelson, W J

    1990-07-27

    Na+,K(+)-ATPase has distinctly different distributions in mesenchymal cells, where it has an unrestricted distribution over the entire cell surface, compared with polarized epithelial cells, where it is restricted to the basal-lateral membrane domain. The generation of this restricted distribution is important in mesenchyme to epithelia conversion in development and the function of transporting epithelia, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. Here we show that expression of the epithelial CAM uvomorulin in transfected fibroblasts is sufficient to induce a redistribution of Na+,K(+)-ATPase to sites of uvomorulin-mediated cell-cell contacts, similar to that in polarized epithelial cells. This restricted distribution of Na+,K(+)-ATPase occurs in the absence of tight junctions but coincides with the reorganization of the membrane cytoskeleton. The results indicate a direct role for CAMs as inducers of cell surface polarity of selective cytoplasmic and membrane proteins. PMID:2164888

  17. Direct observation of a highly spin-polarized organic spinterface at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Djeghloul, F.; Ibrahim, F.; Cantoni, M.; Bowen, M.; Joly, L.; Boukari, S.; Ohresser, P.; Bertran, F.; Le Fvre, P.; Thakur, P.; Scheurer, F.; Miyamachi, T.; Mattana, R.; Seneor, P.; Jaafar, A.; Rinaldi, C.; Javaid, S.; Arabski, J.; Kappler, J. -P; Wulfhekel, W.; Brookes, N. B.; Bertacco, R.; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A.; Alouani, M.; Beaurepaire, E.; Weber, W.

    2013-01-01

    Organic semiconductors constitute promising candidates toward large-scale electronic circuits that are entirely spintronics-driven. Toward this goal, tunneling magnetoresistance values above 300% at low temperature suggested the presence of highly spin-polarized device interfaces. However, such spinterfaces have not been observed directly, let alone at room temperature. Thanks to experiments and theory on the model spinterface between phthalocyanine molecules and a Co single crystal surface, we clearly evidence a highly efficient spinterface. Spin-polarised direct and inverse photoemission experiments reveal a high degree of spin polarisation at room temperature at this interface. We measured a magnetic moment on the molecule's nitrogen ? orbitals, which substantiates an ab-initio theoretical description of highly spin-polarised charge conduction across the interface due to differing spinterface formation mechanisms in each spin channel. We propose, through this example, a recipe to engineer simple organic-inorganic interfaces with remarkable spintronic properties that can endure well above room temperature. PMID:23412079

  18. Signatures of the molecular potential in the ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherratt, Paul A. J.; Ramakrishna, S.; Seideman, Tamar

    2011-05-01

    We explore the information content of the polarization of high-order harmonics emitted from aligned molecules driven by a linearly polarized field. The study builds upon our previous work [Ramakrishna , Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.81.021802 81, 021802(R) (2010)], which illustrated that the phase of the continuum electronic wave function, and hence the underlying molecular potential, is responsible, at least in part, for the ellipticity observed in harmonic spectra. We use a simple model potential and systematically vary the potential parameters to investigate the sense in which, and the degree to which, the shape of the molecular potential is imprinted onto the polarization of the emitted harmonics. Strong ellipticity is observed over a wide range of potential parameters, suggesting that the emission of elliptically polarized harmonics is a general phenomenon, yet qualitatively determined by the molecular properties. The sensitivity of the ellipticity to the model parameters invites the use of ellipticity measurements as a probe of the continuum wave function and the underlying molecular potential.

  19. Signatures of the molecular potential in the ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Sherratt, Paul A. J.; Ramakrishna, S.; Seideman, Tamar

    2011-05-15

    We explore the information content of the polarization of high-order harmonics emitted from aligned molecules driven by a linearly polarized field. The study builds upon our previous work [Ramakrishna et al., Phys. Rev. A 81, 021802(R) (2010)], which illustrated that the phase of the continuum electronic wave function, and hence the underlying molecular potential, is responsible, at least in part, for the ellipticity observed in harmonic spectra. We use a simple model potential and systematically vary the potential parameters to investigate the sense in which, and the degree to which, the shape of the molecular potential is imprinted onto the polarization of the emitted harmonics. Strong ellipticity is observed over a wide range of potential parameters, suggesting that the emission of elliptically polarized harmonics is a general phenomenon, yet qualitatively determined by the molecular properties. The sensitivity of the ellipticity to the model parameters invites the use of ellipticity measurements as a probe of the continuum wave function and the underlying molecular potential.

  20. Biogeography of photoautotrophs in the high polar biome.

    PubMed

    Pointing, Stephen B; Burkhard Bdel; Convey, Peter; Gillman, Len N; Krner, Christian; Leuzinger, Sebastian; Vincent, Warwick F

    2015-01-01

    The global latitudinal gradient in biodiversity weakens in the high polar biome and so an alternative explanation for distribution of Arctic and Antarctic photoautotrophs is required. Here we identify how temporal, microclimate and evolutionary drivers of biogeography are important, rather than the macroclimate features that drive plant diversity patterns elsewhere. High polar ecosystems are biologically unique, with a more central role for bryophytes, lichens and microbial photoautotrophs over that of vascular plants. Constraints on vascular plants arise mainly due to stature and ontogenetic barriers. Conversely non-vascular plant and microbial photoautotroph distribution is correlated with favorable microclimates and the capacity for poikilohydric dormancy. Contemporary distribution also depends on evolutionary history, with adaptive and dispersal traits as well as legacy influencing biogeography. We highlight the relevance of these findings to predicting future impacts on diversity of polar photoautotrophs and to the current status of plants in Arctic and Antarctic conservation policy frameworks. PMID:26442009

  1. Biogeography of photoautotrophs in the high polar biome

    PubMed Central

    Pointing, Stephen B.; Burkhard Büdel; Convey, Peter; Gillman, Len N.; Körner, Christian; Leuzinger, Sebastian; Vincent, Warwick F.

    2015-01-01

    The global latitudinal gradient in biodiversity weakens in the high polar biome and so an alternative explanation for distribution of Arctic and Antarctic photoautotrophs is required. Here we identify how temporal, microclimate and evolutionary drivers of biogeography are important, rather than the macroclimate features that drive plant diversity patterns elsewhere. High polar ecosystems are biologically unique, with a more central role for bryophytes, lichens and microbial photoautotrophs over that of vascular plants. Constraints on vascular plants arise mainly due to stature and ontogenetic barriers. Conversely non-vascular plant and microbial photoautotroph distribution is correlated with favorable microclimates and the capacity for poikilohydric dormancy. Contemporary distribution also depends on evolutionary history, with adaptive and dispersal traits as well as legacy influencing biogeography. We highlight the relevance of these findings to predicting future impacts on diversity of polar photoautotrophs and to the current status of plants in Arctic and Antarctic conservation policy frameworks. PMID:26442009

  2. The effect of spin polarization on zero field splitting parameters in paramagnetic ?-electron molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gastel, Maurice

    2009-09-01

    Spin polarization effects play an important role in the theory of isotropic hyperfine interactions for aromatic protons. The spin polarization gives rise to significant isotropic proton hyperfine interactionsspin-dependent one-electron propertiessmaller than 0 MHz and the effect has been theoretically described [H. M. McConnell and D. B. J. Chesnut, Chem. Phys. 28, 107 (1958)]. The influence of spin polarization on the zero field splitting parameters, which are spin-dependent two-electron properties, has not been clearly identified yet. A phenomenological equation is proposed here for the contribution of spin polarization to the zero field splitting parameter D in analogy to McConnell's equation for hyperfine interactions. The presence of the effect is demonstrated in a series of calculations on polyacenes in the triplet state and turns out to be responsible for up to 50% of the D parameter in the case of naphthalene! It is found that spin-unrestricted single-determinant methods, including the widely used density functional theory methods, do not accurately reproduce the two-electron reduced electron density required for the evaluation of two-electron spin-dependent properties. For the accurate calculation of zero field splitting parameters by quantum chemical methods, it thus seems necessary to resort to correlated ab initio methods which do not give rise to spin contamination and which do provide an accurate description of the two-electron reduced electron density.

  3. Electron exchange between a dipole-bound anion and a polar molecule and dimer formation in dipole-bound anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, V. E.; Danilyan, A. V.; Zon, B. A.

    2009-08-01

    We consider collision between a dipole-bound molecular anion and a neutral polar molecule and show that the excess electron can bind two neutral molecules into a dimer. Using a variational approach similar to the Heitler-London model of H2+ ion, we obtain the energy terms of such a dimer. Their difference determines the cross section of electron transfer from the anion to the neutral molecule in quasiclassical near-resonant Born-Oppenheimer approximation. We obtain for the cross section an analytical expression containing the weak (logarithmic) factor depending on the molecular dipole moment and the collision velocity. With the prelogarithmic factor proportional to inverse binding energy of the electron in the molecular anion, such weak dependence on the collision velocity is somewhat similar to the expressions appearing in the hard-sphere collision model. However the large logarithmic factor connected with long-range dipole-dipole interaction between the colliding molecules contradict to the hard-sphere approximation even for qualitative description of the charge transfer. Our analytical calculations are in a good accordance with the results of a recent experiment [Y. Liu, M. Cannon, L. Suess, F. B. Dunning, V. E. Chernov, and B. A. Zon, Chem. Phys. Lett. 433, 1 (2006)].

  4. Circular polarization of synchrotron radiation in high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Búrca, D.; Shearer, A.

    2015-06-01

    The general model for incoherent synchrotron radiation has long been known, with the first theory being published by Westfold in 1959 and continued by Westfold and Legg in 1968. When this model was first developed, it was applied to radiation from Jupiter, with a magnetic field of ≈1G. Pulsars have a magnetic field of ≈1012 G. The Westfold and Legg model predict a circular polarization which is proportional to the square root of the magnetic field, and consequently predicts greater than 100 per cent circular polarization at high magnetic fields. Here a new model is derived based upon a more detailed analysis of the pitch angle distribution. This model is concerned with the frequency range f_{B_0}/γ ≪ f≲ f_{B_0}, noting that f_{B_0} = 2.7× 10^7B, which for a relatively high magnetic field (˜106-108 G) leaves emission in the optical range. This is much lower than the expected frequency peak for a mono-energetic particle of 0.293eB/4π m_e cγ ^2. We predict the circular polarization peaks around 107G in the optical regime with the radiation almost 15 per cent circularly polarized. The linear polarization changes from about 60 to 80 per cent in the same regime. We examine implications of this for pulsar studies.

  5. The microsporidian polar tube: A highly specialised invasion organelle

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanji; Weiss, Louis M.

    2011-01-01

    All of the members of the Microsporidia possess a unique, highly specialised structure, the polar tube. This article reviews the available data on the organisation, structure and function of this invasion organelle. It was over 100 years ago that Thelohan accurately described the microsporidian polar tube and the triggering of its discharge. In the spore, the polar tube is connected at the anterior end, and then coils around the sporoplasm. Upon appropriate environmental stimulation the polar tube rapidly discharges out of the spore pierces a cell membrane and serves as a conduit for sporoplasm passage into the new host cell. The mechanism of germination of spores, however, remains to be definitively determined. In addition, further studies on the characterisation of the early events in the rupture of the anterior attachment complex, eversion of the polar tube as well as the mechanism of host cell attachment and penetration are needed in order to clarify the function and assembly of this structure. The application of immunological and molecular techniques has resulted in the identification of three polar tube proteins referred to as PTP1, PTP2 and PTP3. The interactions of these identified proteins in the formation and function of the polar tube remain to be determined. Data suggest that PTP1 is an O-mannosylated glycoprotein, a post-translational modification that may be important for its function. With the availability of the Encephalitozoon cuniculi genome it is now possible to apply proteomic techniques to the characterisation of the components of the microsporidian spore and invasion organelle. PMID:16005007

  6. Direct process for meso molecule formation at high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, A.M.

    1988-12-27

    There has been recent interest in the subject of meso-molecule (dt..mu..) formation at high temperature (1 eV), and a number of complex three-body mechanisms have been examined. We point out that, at 1 eV, simple two-body dissociation (t..mu..)+D/sub 2/..-->..((dt..mu..)e+(de) is the dominant process with rate approx. = 6.4 x 10/sup 9/ s/sup -1/ at liquid hydrogen density.

  7. High resolution studies of atoms and small molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Bushaw, B.A.; Tonkyn, R.G.; Miller, R.J.

    1992-10-01

    High resolution, continuous wave lasers have been utilized successfully in studies of small molecules. Examples of two-photon excitation schemes and of multiple resonance excitation sequences will be discussed within the framework of the spectroscopy and dynamics of selected Rydberg states of nitric oxide. Initial results on the circular dichroism of angular distributions in photoelectron spectra of individual hyperfine states of cesium will also be discussed, but no data given.

  8. Collective phenomena in a quasi-two-dimensional system of fermionic polar molecules: Band renormalization and excitons

    SciTech Connect

    Babadi, Mehrtash; Demler, Eugene

    2011-09-15

    We theoretically analyze a quasi-two-dimensional system of fermionic polar molecules trapped in a harmonic transverse confining potential. The renormalized energy bands are calculated by solving the Hartree-Fock equation numerically for various trap and dipolar interaction strengths. The intersubband excitations of the system are studied in the conserving time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) approximation from the perspective of lattice modulation spectroscopy experiments. We find that the excitation spectrum consists of both intersubband particle-hole excitation continua and antibound excitons whose antibinding behavior is associated to the anisotropic nature of dipolar interactions. The excitonic modes are shown to capture the majority of the spectral weight. We evaluate the intersubband transition rates in order to investigate the nature of the excitonic modes and find that they are antibound states formed from particle-hole excitations arising from several subbands. We discuss the sum rules in the context of lattice modulation spectroscopy experiments and utilize them to check the consistency of the obtained results. Our results indicate that the excitonic effects persist for interaction strengths and temperatures accessible in the current experiments with polar molecules.

  9. Students' Use of Three Different Visual Representations to Interpret Whether Molecules Are Polar or Nonpolar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Host, Gunnar E.; Schonborn, Konrad J.; Palmerius, Karljohan E. Lundin

    2012-01-01

    Visualizing molecular properties is often crucial for constructing conceptual understanding in chemistry. However, research has revealed numerous challenges surrounding students' meaningful interpretation of the relationship between the geometry and electrostatic properties of molecules. This study explored students' (n = 18) use of three visual…

  10. Students' Use of Three Different Visual Representations to Interpret Whether Molecules Are Polar or Nonpolar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Host, Gunnar E.; Schonborn, Konrad J.; Palmerius, Karljohan E. Lundin

    2012-01-01

    Visualizing molecular properties is often crucial for constructing conceptual understanding in chemistry. However, research has revealed numerous challenges surrounding students' meaningful interpretation of the relationship between the geometry and electrostatic properties of molecules. This study explored students' (n = 18) use of three visual

  11. Propagation of Optical Pulses in Polarization Maintaining Highly Birefringent Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiva, Ariel; Olivares, Ricardo

    2008-04-01

    The propagation of Gaussian optical pulses through optical PM-HiBi (Polarization Maintaining Highly Birefringent) fibers is analyzed and simulated. Based upon a model of propagation as described by Marcuse, et al., [1] and Sunnerud, et al., [2], and the use of PMD (Polarization Mode Dispersion) compensators and emulators used by Kogelnik, et al. [2], [3] and Lima, et al. [4], we construct a simple model that allows graphical representation of the distortion experienced by optical pulses when propagating in a PM-HiBi fiber for different initial polarizations. The results of our analysis have the benefit of being identical to the more elaborate models of [1], [2], while also providing the additional advantage of simple graphical representation.

  12. Single-molecule tracking of small GTPase Rac1 uncovers spatial regulation of membrane translocation and mechanism for polarized signaling

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sulagna; Yin, Taofei; Yang, Qingfen; Zhang, Jingqiao; Wu, Yi I.; Yu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Polarized Rac1 signaling is a hallmark of many cellular functions, including cell adhesion, motility, and cell division. The two steps of Rac1 activation are its translocation to the plasma membrane and the exchange of nucleotide from GDP to GTP. It is, however, unclear whether these two processes are regulated independent of each other and what their respective roles are in polarization of Rac1 signaling. We designed a single-particle tracking (SPT) method to quantitatively analyze the kinetics of Rac1 membrane translocation in living cells. We found that the rate of Rac1 translocation was significantly elevated in protrusions during cell spreading on collagen. Furthermore, combining FRET sensor imaging with SPT measurements in the same cell, the recruitment of Rac1 was found to be polarized to an extent similar to that of the nucleotide exchange process. Statistical analysis of single-molecule trajectories and optogenetic manipulation of membrane lipids revealed that Rac1 membrane translocation precedes nucleotide exchange, and is governed primarily by interactions with phospholipids, particularly PI(3,4,5)P3, instead of protein factors. Overall, the study highlights the significance of membrane translocation in spatial Rac1 signaling, which is in addition to the traditional view focusing primarily on GEF distribution and exchange reaction. PMID:25561548

  13. High-Resolution, Single-Molecule Measurements of Biomolecular Motion

    PubMed Central

    Greenleaf, William J.; Woodside, Michael T.; Block, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    Many biologically important macromolecules undergo motions that are essential to their function. Biophysical techniques can now resolve the motions of single molecules down to the nanometer scale or even below, providing new insights into the mechanisms that drive molecular movements. This review outlines the principal approaches that have been used for high-resolution measurements of single-molecule motion, including centroid tracking, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, magnetic tweezers, atomic force microscopy, and optical traps. For each technique, the principles of operation are outlined, the capabilities and typical applications are examined, and various practical issues for implementation are considered. Extensions to these methods are also discussed, with an eye toward future application to outstanding biological problems. PMID:17328679

  14. Long-range interactions between polar bialkali ground-state molecules in arbitrary vibrational levels

    SciTech Connect

    Vexiau, R.; Lepers, M. Aymar, M.; Bouloufa-Maafa, N.; Dulieu, O.

    2015-06-07

    We have calculated the isotropic C{sub 6} coefficients characterizing the long-range van der Waals interaction between two identical heteronuclear alkali-metal diatomic molecules in the same arbitrary vibrational level of their ground electronic state X{sup 1}Σ{sup +}. We consider the ten species made up of {sup 7}Li, {sup 23}Na, {sup 39}K, {sup 87}Rb, and {sup 133}Cs. Following our previous work [Lepers et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 032709 (2013)], we use the sum-over-state formula inherent to the second-order perturbation theory, composed of the contributions from the transitions within the ground state levels, from the transition between ground-state and excited state levels, and from a crossed term. These calculations involve a combination of experimental and quantum-chemical data for potential energy curves and transition dipole moments. We also investigate the case where the two molecules are in different vibrational levels and we show that the Moelwyn-Hughes approximation is valid provided that it is applied for each of the three contributions to the sum-over-state formula. Our results are particularly relevant in the context of inelastic and reactive collisions between ultracold bialkali molecules in deeply bound or in Feshbach levels.

  15. Semiclassical study of the collision of a highly excited Rydberg atom with the molecules HF and HCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, M.; Lane, N. F.

    1990-08-01

    The semiclassical impact-parameter method is applied to the processes of state changing and energy transfer in the collision of a highly excited Rydberg atom (n>=20) with the polar molecules HF and HCl. The relative motion of the molecule and atomic nucleus is taken to be rectilinear; the electron-molecule and ion core-molecule interactions are represented by cutoff dipole forms. Cross sections for transitions involving quantum numbers n and l of the atom and rotational quantum number j of the molecule are obtained for a range of collision energies and initial atomic and molecular states. Comparisons are made with the results of earlier classical studies and with the quantum-mechanical impulse approximation. Collision rates are calculated and compared with experimental values for l mixing and n and j changing. The agreement between experiment and theory is shown to be satisfactory, within the uncertainties of both the measurements and the theory. Cases of agreement and disagreement between various theories are examined. One finding of the present work is that the quantum-mechanical impulse approximation appears to significantly overestimate the values of various state-changing cross sections when the internal energy defect is small. The validity of the impulse approximation for collisions of Rydberg atoms with polar molecules is discussed.

  16. High quality UV: NIR thin film interference polarizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novopashin, Vladimir V.; Shestakov, Alexsandr V.

    2014-09-01

    Interference polarizers can be successfully used in lasers and laser devices as independent optical element substituted crystal polarizers. Today, the use of crystal polarizers in some cases can lead to definite difficulties in accordance with peculiarities of laser cavity construction. The novel laser technologies and design of laser elements defined the new demands to optical coatings. In modern lasers interference polarizer can be considered as one of the main element that operates laser radiation. According to special optical outline and the requirements to optical characteristics of laser polarizers can be bryuster or mirror-type. The stable of spectral characteristic at a definite angle is one of the most important parameter. It was shown how optical thickness of each layer influence on angle stability. On the other hand high stable was achieved by using electron-beam ion assisted deposition. The coatings were deposited on the surface of optical glass BK-7 or quartz. Generally, refractory oxides were used. The achievement of the condensation layers structure was provided by active O2 + ions. It was shown, that smooth cleaning by neutral ions as before the evaporation definite separate layer, as after stabilized the optical properties of polarizer. Moreover, the using of ion source allowed increase laser damage threshold. It can be underline that some advantages of ion source revealed during evaporation materials in visible and especially ultra violet region. Also, laser strength was rather more at 1535 nm for ion-assisted deposited films. The average parameters were: minimum transmission efficiency TP < 97%, extinction ratio TP/TS <500, laser damage more than 10 J/cm2, 10 nanosecond pulse at 1064 nm in laser spot 200 μm.

  17. Quantitative polarized Raman spectroscopy in highly turbid bone tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Mekhala; Sahar, Nadder D.; Wilson, Robert H.; Mycek, Mary-Ann; Pleshko, Nancy; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.

    2010-05-01

    Polarized Raman spectroscopy allows measurement of molecular orientation and composition and is widely used in the study of polymer systems. Here, we extend the technique to the extraction of quantitative orientation information from bone tissue, which is optically thick and highly turbid. We discuss multiple scattering effects in tissue and show that repeated measurements using a series of objectives of differing numerical apertures can be employed to assess the contributions of sample turbidity and depth of field on polarized Raman measurements. A high numerical aperture objective minimizes the systematic errors introduced by multiple scattering. We test and validate the use of polarized Raman spectroscopy using wild-type and genetically modified (oim/oim model of osteogenesis imperfecta) murine bones. Mineral orientation distribution functions show that mineral crystallites are not as well aligned (p<0.05) in oim/oim bones (28+/-3 deg) compared to wild-type bones (22+/-3 deg), in agreement with small-angle X-ray scattering results. In wild-type mice, backbone carbonyl orientation is 76+/-2 deg and in oim/oim mice, it is 72+/-4 deg (p>0.05). We provide evidence that simultaneous quantitative measurements of mineral and collagen orientations on intact bone specimens are possible using polarized Raman spectroscopy.

  18. Predicting polarization performance of high-numerical aperture inspection lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahr, Stephan; Werschnik, Jan; Bening, Matthias; Uhlendorf, Kristina

    2015-09-01

    Along the course of increasing through-put and improving signal to noise ratio in optical wafer and mask inspection, demands on wave front aberrations and polarization characteristics are ever increasing. The system engineers and optical designers involved in the development of such optical systems will be responsible for specifying the quality of the optical material and the mechanical tolerances. Among optical designers it is well established how to estimate the wave front error of assembled and adjusted optical devices via sensitivity or Monte-Carlo analysis. However, when compared with the scalar problem of wave front estimation, the field of polarization control deems to pose a more complex problem due to its vectorial nature. Here we show our latest results in how to model polarization affecting aspects. In the realm of high numerical aperture (NA) inspection optics we will focus on the impact of coatings, stress induced birefringence due to non-perfect lens mounting, and finally the birefringence of the optical material. With all these tools at hand, we have a more complete understanding of the optical performance of our assembled optical systems. Moreover, we are able to coherently develop optical systems meeting demanding wave front criteria as well as high end polarization specifications.

  19. When is O+ Observed in the High Altitude Polar Cap?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, H. A.; Comfort, R. H.; Craven, P. D.; Chandler, M. O.; Moore, T. E.

    2000-01-01

    Solar wind and IMF properties are correlated with the properties of O+ and H+ in the polar cap at altitudes greater than 5.5 Re geocentric using the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) on the Polar satellite. O+ is of primary interest in this study because the fraction of O+ present in the magnetosphere is commonly used as a measure of the ionospheric contribution to the magnetosphere. O+ is observed to be most abundant at lower latitudes when the solar wind speed is low and across most of the polar cap at high solar winds speeds and Kp. As the solar wind dynamic pressures increases more O+ is present in the polar cap. The O+ density is also shown to be more highly correlated with the solar wind dynamic pressure when IMF Bz is positive. H+ was not as well correlated with solar wind and IMF parameters although some correlation with IMF By is observed. H+ is more plentiful when IMF By is negative than when it is positive. In this data set H+ is very dominate so that if this plasma makes it to the plasma sheet its contribution to the plasma sheet would have a very low O+ to H+ ratio.

  20. Quantitative polarized Raman spectroscopy in highly turbid bone tissue

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Mekhala; Sahar, Nadder D.; Wilson, Robert H.; Mycek, Mary-Ann; Pleshko, Nancy; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Polarized Raman spectroscopy allows measurement of molecular orientation and composition and is widely used in the study of polymer systems. Here, we extend the technique to the extraction of quantitative orientation information from bone tissue, which is optically thick and highly turbid. We discuss multiple scattering effects in tissue and show that repeated measurements using a series of objectives of differing numerical apertures can be employed to assess the contributions of sample turbidity and depth of field on polarized Raman measurements. A high numerical aperture objective minimizes the systematic errors introduced by multiple scattering. We test and validate the use of polarized Raman spectroscopy using wild-type and genetically modified (oim?oim model of osteogenesis imperfecta) murine bones. Mineral orientation distribution functions show that mineral crystallites are not as well aligned (p<0.05) in oim?oim bones (283 deg) compared to wild-type bones (223 deg), in agreement with small-angle X-ray scattering results. In wild-type mice, backbone carbonyl orientation is 762 deg and in oim?oim mice, it is 724 deg (p>0.05). We provide evidence that simultaneous quantitative measurements of mineral and collagen orientations on intact bone specimens are possible using polarized Raman spectroscopy. PMID:20615030

  1. Strong Circularly Polarized Luminescence from Highly Emissive Terbium Complexes in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, Amanda; Lunkley, Jamie; Muller, Gilles; Raymond, Kenneth

    2010-03-15

    Two luminescent terbium(III) complexes have been prepared from chiral ligands containing 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) antenna chromophores and their non-polarized and circularly-polarized luminescence properties have been studied. These tetradentate ligands, which form 2:1 ligand/Tb{sup III} complexes, utilize diaminocyclohexane (cyLI) and diphenylethylenediamine (dpenLI) backbones, which we reasoned would impart conformational rigidity and result in Tb{sup III} complexes that display both large luminescence quantum yield ({phi}) values and strong circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) activities. Both Tb{sup III} complexes are highly emissive, with {phi} values of 0.32 (dpenLI-Tb) and 0.60 (cyLI-Tb). Luminescence lifetime measurements in H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O indicate that while cyLI-Tb exists as a single species in solution, dpenLI-Tb exists as two species: a monohydrate complex with one H{sub 2}O molecule directly bound to the Tb{sup III} ion and a complex with no water molecules in the inner coordination sphere. Both cyLI-Tb and dpenLI-Tb display increased CPL activity compared to previously reported Tb{sup III} complexes made with chiral IAM ligands. The CPL measurements also provide additional confirmation of the presence of a single emissive species in solution in the case of cyLI-Tb, and multiple emissive species in the case of dpenLI-Tb.

  2. Magnetic accretion in high-accretion rate polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwope, Axel

    2013-10-01

    The spectral components of polars -- strongly magnetic CVs -- are barely disentangled without sufficient spectral coverage. XMM-Newton plus NuSTAR can solve the riddle but the frequent low states of the brightest members prevented systematic studies of high-accretion rate polars (HARPs). We thus began TOO-like XMM-Newton observations of the brightest systems in their high states and propose to continue in AO13 with one further trigger. We will investigate the physics of the hard X-ray emitting shock, the heated accretion pole cap, the atmosphere of the white dwarf, the absorption in the shock and in the flow, the lines in the accretion flow and the reflection from the white dwarf by phase-resolved X-ray spectroscopy and high-speed OM-photometry.

  3. Single-molecule high-resolution imaging with photobleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Matthew P.; Ha, Taekjip; Selvin, Paul R.

    2004-04-01

    Conventional light microscopy is limited in its resolving power by the Rayleigh limit to length scales on the order of 200 nm. On the other hand, spectroscopic techniques such as fluorescence resonance energy transfer cannot be used to measure distances >10 nm, leaving a "gap" in the ability of optical techniques to measure distances on the 10- to 100-nm scale. We have previously demonstrated the ability to localize single dye molecules to a precision of 1.5 nm with subsecond time resolution. Here we locate the position of two dyes and determine their separation with 5-nm precision, using the quantal photobleaching behavior of single fluorescent dye molecules. By fitting images both before and after photobleaching of one of the dyes, we may localize both dyes simultaneously and compute their separation. Hence, we have circumvented the Rayleigh limit and achieved nanometer-scale resolution. Specifically, we demonstrate the technique by measuring the distance between single fluorophores separated by 10-20 nm via attachment to the ends of double-stranded DNA molecules immobilized on a surface. In addition to bridging the gap in optical resolution, this technique may be useful for biophysical or genomic applications, including the generation of super-high-density maps of single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

  4. Applications of highly spin-polarized xenon in NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Long, H.W. |

    1993-09-01

    The main goal of the work presented in this thesis is produce highly spin-polarized xenon to create much greater signal intensities (up to 54,000 times greater) so as to allow studies to be made on systems with low surface area and long spin-lattice relaxation times. The spin-exchange optical pumping technique used to create high nuclear spin polarization is described in detail in chapter two. This technique is initially applied to some multiple-pulse optically detected NMR experiments in low magnetic field (50G) that allow the study of quadrupoler interactions with a surface of only a few square centimeters. In chapter three the apparatus used to allow high field {sup 129}Xe NMR studies to be performed with extremely high sensitivity is described and applied to experiments on diamagnetic susceptibility effects in thin ({approximately}2000 layers) films of frozen xenon. Preliminary surface investigations of laser polarized {sup 129}Xe adsorbed an a variety of materials (salts, molecular crystals, amorphous carbon, graphite) are then discussed. A full detailed study of the surface of a particular polymer, poly(acrylic acid), is presented in chapter four which shows the kind of detailed information that can be obtained from this technique. Along with preliminary results for several similar polymers, a summary is given of xenon studies of a novel ultra-high surface area polymer, poly(triarylcarbinol). Finally in chapter five the exciting possibility of transferring the high spin order of the laser polarized xenon has been used to transfer nuclear spin order to {sup 13}CO{sub 2} in a xenon matrix and to protons on poly(triarylcarbinol).

  5. Single-Molecule High-Resolution Colocalization of Single Probes

    PubMed Central

    Churchman, L. Stirling; Spudich, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Colocalization of fluorescent probes is commonly used in cell biology to discern the proximity of two proteins in the cell. Considering that the resolution limit of optical microscopy is on the order of 250 nm, there has not been a need for high-resolution colocalization techniques. However, with the advent of higher resolution techniques for cell biology and single-molecule biophysics, colocalization must also improve. For diffraction-limited applications, a geometric transformation (i.e., translation, scaling, and rotation) is typically applied to one color channel to align it with the other; however, to achieve high-resolution colocalization, this is not sufficient. Single-molecule high-resolution colocalization (SHREC) of single probes uses the local weighted mean transformation to achieve a colocalization resolution of at least 10 nm. This protocol describes the acquisition of registration data and the analysis required to obtain a high-resolution mapping between imaging channels. The total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM) system described is designed to excite and image the fluorescent probes Cy3 and Cy5. Modifications may be required depending on the requirements of the individual study. PMID:22301661

  6. Ab initio properties of the ground-state polar and paramagnetic europium-alkali-metal-atom and europium-alkaline-earth-metal-atom molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomza, Micha?

    2014-08-01

    The properties of the electronic ground state of the polar and paramagnetic europium-S-state-atom molecules have been investigated. Ab initio techniques have been applied to compute the potential energy curves for the europium-alkali-metal-atom, EuX(X=Li,Na,K,Rb,Cs), europium-alkaline-earth-metal-atom, EuY(Y=Be,Mg,Ca,Sr,Ba), and europium-ytterbium, EuYb, molecules in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation for the high-spin electronic ground state. The spin restricted open-shell coupled cluster method restricted to single, double, and noniterative triple excitations, RCCSD(T), was employed and the scalar relativistic effects within the small-core energy-consistent pseudopotentials were included. The permanent electric dipole moments and static electric dipole polarizabilities were computed. The leading long-range coefficients describing the dispersion interaction between atoms at large internuclear distances C6 are also reported. The EuK, EuRb, and EuCs molecules are examples of species possessing both large electric and magnetic dipole moments making them potentially interesting candidates for ultracold many-body quantum simulations when confined in an optical lattice in combined electric and magnetic fields.

  7. Altered intracellular region of MUC1 and disrupted correlation of polarity-related molecules in breast cancer subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Misato; Nakanishi, Yoko; Fuchinoue, Fumi; Maeda, Tetsuyo; Murakami, Eriko; Obana, Yukari; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Tani, Mayumi; Sakurai, Kenichi; Amano, Sadao; Masuda, Shinobu

    2015-01-01

    MUC1 glycoprotein is overexpressed and its intracellular localization altered during breast carcinoma tumorigenesis. The present study aimed to clarify the relationship of cytoplasmic localization of MUC1 with the breast cancer subtype and the correlation of 10 molecules associated with cell polarity in breast cancer subtypes. We immunostained 131 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast cancer specimens with an anti-MUC1 antibody (MUC1/CORE). For 48 of the 131 tumor specimens, laser-assisted microdissection and real-time quantitative RT-PCR were performed to analyze mRNA levels of MUC1 and 10 molecules, ?-catenin, E-cadherin, claudin3, claudin4, claudin7, RhoA, cdc42, Rac1, Par3 and Par6. Localization of MUC1 protein varied among breast cancer subtypes, that is, both the apical domain and cytoplasm in luminal A-like tumors (P<0.01) and both the cytoplasm and cell membrane in luminal B-like (growth factor receptor 2 [HER2]+) tumors (P<0.05), and no expression was found in triple negative tumors (P<0.001). Estrogen receptor (ER)+ breast cancers showed higher MUC1 mRNA levels than ER? breast cancers (P<0.01). The incidence of mutual correlations of expression levels between two of the 10 molecules (55 combinations) was 54.5% in normal breast tissue and 38.2% in luminal A-like specimens, 16.4% in luminal B-like (HER2+), 3.6% in HER2 and 18.2% in triple negative specimens. In conclusion, each breast cancer subtype has characteristic cytoplasmic localization patterns of MUC1 and different degrees of disrupted correlation of the expression levels between the 10 examined molecules in comparison with normal breast tissue. PMID:25556893

  8. High contrast single molecule tracking in the pericellular coat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrimgeour, Jan; McLane, Louis T.; Curtis, Jennifer E.

    2014-03-01

    The pericellular coat is a robust, hydrated, polymer brush-like structure that can extend several micrometers into the extracellular space around living cells. By controlling access to the cell surface, acting as a filter and storage reservoir for proteins, and actively controlling tissue-immune system interactions, the cell coat performs many important functions at scales ranging from the single cell to whole tissues. The cell coat consists of a malleable backbone - the large polysaccharide hyaluronic acid (HA) - with its structure, material properties, and ultimately its bio-functionality tuned by a diverse set of HA binding proteins. These proteins add charge, cross-links and growth factor-like ligands to the coat To probe the dynamic behavior of this soft biomaterial we have used high contrast single molecule imaging, based on highly inclined laser illumination, to observe individual fluorescently labeled HA binding proteins within the cell coat. Our work focuses on the cell coat of living chondrocyte (cartilage) cells, and in particular the effect of the large, highly charged, protein aggrecan on the properties of the coat. Through single molecule imaging we observe that aggrecan is tightly tethered to HA, and plays an important role in cell coat extension and stiffening.

  9. High-fidelity linear optical quantum computing with polarization encoding

    SciTech Connect

    Spedalieri, Federico M.; Lee, Hwang; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-15

    We show that the KLM scheme [Knill, Laflamme, and Milburn, Nature 409, 46 (2001)] can be implemented using polarization encoding, thus reducing the number of path modes required by half. One of the main advantages of this new implementation is that it naturally incorporates a loss detection mechanism that makes the probability of a gate introducing a non-detected error, when non-ideal detectors are considered, dependent only on the detector dark-count rate and independent of its efficiency. Since very low dark-count rate detectors are currently available, a high-fidelity gate (probability of error of order 10{sup -6} conditional on the gate being successful) can be implemented using polarization encoding. The detector efficiency determines the overall success probability of the gate but does not affect its fidelity. This can be applied to the efficient construction of optical cluster states with very high fidelity for quantum computing.

  10. Overview of high energy physics with polarized particles

    SciTech Connect

    Soffer, J. . Centre de Physique Theorique Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY )

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this talk is to review spin effects in various areas of particle physics at high energy and by selecting the most interesting topics, to show the relevance of dealing with polarized particles. We will see that it provides crucial tests for the Standard Model and can give us clear signatures to uncover new interactions. We will also discuss some striking experimental facts recently observed in hadronic collisions and their implications for current theoretical ideas. 43 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Fluorescence polarization for the evaluation of small-molecule inhibitors of PCAF?BRD/Tat-AcK50 association.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Wang, Xinghui; Zhang, Baiqun; Zhang, Shuai; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    A fluorescence polarization competitive assay was developed to efficiently screen and evaluate inhibitors of PCAF bromodomain/Tat-AcK50 protein-peptide interaction. A series of pyridine 1-oxide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated. Some of the novel compounds, 2-(3-aminopropylamino) pyridine 1-oxide derivatives, could be effective inhibitors of PCAF bromodomain/Tat-AcK50 association. Specifically, 2-(3-aminopropylamino)-5-(hydroxymethyl)pyridine 1-oxide hydrochloride (15) and the 5-((3-aminopropylamino)methyl) derivative (20) were found to be effective ligands for the PCAF?BRD pocket. First preliminary cellular studies indicate that these small-molecule inhibitors have lower cytotoxicities and are potential leads for the anti-HIV/AIDS therapeutic strategy by targeting host-cell protein PCAF?BRD to block HIV replication. PMID:24474698

  12. High transmittance silicon terahertz polarizer using wafer bonding technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ting-Yang; Tsai, Hsin-Cheng; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Luo, Chih-Wei; Chen, Kuan-Neng

    2015-08-01

    Due to the difficulties faced in fabricating robust Terahertz (THz) optical components with low Fresnel reflection loss, the need to increase the efficiency of THz system with reduced cost is still considered as one of the most essential tasks. In this report, a new low cost THz polarizer with robust structure is proposed and demonstrated. This new THz wire grid polarizer was based on an anti-reflection (AR) layer fabricated with low temperature metal bonding and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). After patterning Cu wire gratings and the corresponding In/Sn solder ring on the individual silicon wafers, the inner gratings were sealed by wafer-level Cu to In/Sn guard ring bonding, providing the protection against humidity oxidation and corrosion. With the low eutectic melting point of In/Sn solder, wafers could be bonded face to face below 150°C. Two anti-reflection layers on both outward surfaces were fabricated by DRIE. With the mixing of empty holes and silicon, the effective refractive index was designed to be the square root of the silicon refractive index. The central frequency of the anti-reflection layers was designed between 0.5THz to 2THz with an approximate bandwidth of 0.5THz. The samples were measured with a commercial free-standing wire grid polarizer by a THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) from 0.2THz to 2.2THz. The power transmittance is close to 100% at central frequency. Extinction ratio of the polarizer is between 20dB to 40dB depending on the frequency. The advantages of this new polarizer include high transmittance, robust structure and low cost with no precision optical alignment required.

  13. Polarization mode beating techniques for high-sensitivity intracavity sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales-Garcia, Andrea

    Several industries, including semiconductor, space, defense, medical, chemical and homeland security, demand precise and accurate measurements in the nanometer and sub-nanometer scale. Optical interferometers have been widely investigated due to its dynamic-range, non-contact and high-precision features. Although commercially available interferometers can have sub-nanometer resolution, the practical accuracy exceeds the nanometer range. The fast development of nanotechnology requires more sensitive, reliable, compact and lower cost alternatives than those in existence. This work demonstrates a compact, versatile, accurate and cost-effective fiber laser sensor based on intracavity polarization mode beating (PMB) techniques for monitoring intracavity phase changes with very high sensitivity. Fiber resonators support two orthogonal polarization modes that can behave as two independent lasing channels within the cavity. The fiber laser incorporates an intracavity polarizing beamsplitter that allows for adjusting independently the polarization modes. The heterodyne detection of the laser output produces a beating (PMB) signal, whose frequency is a function of the phase difference between the polarization modes. The optical phase difference is transferred from the optical frequency to a much lower frequency and thus electronic methods can be used to obtain very precise measurements. Upon changing the pathlength of one mode, changes iu the PMB frequency can be effectively measured. Furthermore, since the polarization nodes share the same cavity, the PMB technique provides a simple means to achieve suppression of common mode noise and laser source instabilities. Frequency changes of the PMB signal are evaluated as a function of displacement, intracavity pressure and air density. Refractive index changes of 10 -9 and sub-nanometer displacement measurements are readily attained. Increased refractive index sensitivity and sub-picometer displacement can be reached owing to the high finesse and resolution of the system. Experimental changes in the refractive index of air as a function of pressure are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. An alternative fiber laser configuration, which incorporates non-reciprocal elements, allows measuring the optical activity of enantiomeric mixtures using PMB techniques. The sensitivity attained through PMB techniques demonstrates a potential method for ultra-sensitive biochemical sensing and explosive detection.

  14. A 3D-printed high power nuclear spin polarizer.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Coffey, Aaron M; Walkup, Laura L; Gust, Brogan M; LaPierre, Cristen D; Koehnemann, Edward; Barlow, Michael J; Rosen, Matthew S; Goodson, Boyd M; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-01-29

    Three-dimensional printing with high-temperature plastic is used to enable spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) and hyperpolarization of xenon-129 gas. The use of 3D printed structures increases the simplicity of integration of the following key components with a variable temperature SEOP probe: (i) in situ NMR circuit operating at 84 kHz (Larmor frequencies of (129)Xe and (1)H nuclear spins), (ii) <0.3 nm narrowed 200 W laser source, (iii) in situ high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy, (iv) thermoelectric temperature control, (v) retroreflection optics, and (vi) optomechanical alignment system. The rapid prototyping endowed by 3D printing dramatically reduces production time and expenses while allowing reproducibility and integration of "off-the-shelf" components and enables the concept of printing on demand. The utility of this SEOP setup is demonstrated here to obtain near-unity (129)Xe polarization values in a 0.5 L optical pumping cell, including ?74 7% at 1000 Torr xenon partial pressure, a record value at such high Xe density. Values for the (129)Xe polarization exponential build-up rate [(3.63 0.15) 10(-2) min(-1)] and in-cell (129)Xe spin-lattice relaxation time (T1 = 2.19 0.06 h) for 1000 Torr Xe were in excellent agreement with the ratio of the gas-phase polarizations for (129)Xe and Rb (PRb ? 96%). Hyperpolarization-enhanced (129)Xe gas imaging was demonstrated with a spherical phantom following automated gas transfer from the polarizer. Taken together, these results support the development of a wide range of chemical, biochemical, material science, and biomedical applications. PMID:24400919

  15. A 3D-Printed High Power Nuclear Spin Polarizer

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Coffey, Aaron M.; Walkup, Laura L.; Gust, Brogan M.; LaPierre, Cristen D.; Koehnemann, Edward; Barlow, Michael J.; Rosen, Matthew S.; Goodson, Boyd M.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional printing with high-temperature plastic is used to enable spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) and hyperpolarization of xenon-129 gas. The use of 3D printed structures increases the simplicity of integration of the following key components with a variable temperature SEOP probe: (i) in situ NMR circuit operating at 84 kHz (Larmor frequencies of 129Xe and 1H nuclear spins), (ii) <0.3 nm narrowed 200 W laser source, (iii) in situ high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy, (iv) thermoelectric temperature control, (v) retroreflection optics, and (vi) optomechanical alignment system. The rapid prototyping endowed by 3D printing dramatically reduces production time and expenses while allowing reproducibility and integration of “off-the-shelf” components and enables the concept of printing on demand. The utility of this SEOP setup is demonstrated here to obtain near-unity 129Xe polarization values in a 0.5 L optical pumping cell, including ~74 ± 7% at 1000 Torr xenon partial pressure, a record value at such high Xe density. Values for the 129Xe polarization exponential build-up rate [(3.63 ± 0.15) × 10−2 min−1] and in-cell 129Xe spin−lattice relaxation time (T1 = 2.19 ± 0.06 h) for 1000 Torr Xe were in excellent agreement with the ratio of the gas-phase polarizations for 129Xe and Rb (PRb ~ 96%). Hyperpolarization-enhanced 129Xe gas imaging was demonstrated with a spherical phantom following automated gas transfer from the polarizer. Taken together, these results support the development of a wide range of chemical, biochemical, material science, and biomedical applications. PMID:24400919

  16. Tomographic reconstruction of circularly polarized high-harmonic fields: 3D attosecond metrology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cong; Tao, Zhensheng; Hernández-García, Carlos; Matyba, Piotr; Carr, Adra; Knut, Ronny; Kfir, Ofer; Zusin, Dimitry; Gentry, Christian; Grychtol, Patrik; Cohen, Oren; Plaja, Luis; Becker, Andreas; Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Bright, circularly polarized, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray high-harmonic beams can now be produced using counter-rotating circularly polarized driving laser fields. Although the resulting circularly polarized harmonics consist of relatively simple pairs of peaks in the spectral domain, in the time domain, the field is predicted to emerge as a complex series of rotating linearly polarized bursts, varying rapidly in amplitude, frequency, and polarization. We extend attosecond metrology techniques to circularly polarized light by simultaneously irradiating a copper surface with circularly polarized high-harmonic and linearly polarized infrared laser fields. The resulting temporal modulation of the photoelectron spectra carries essential phase information about the EUV field. Utilizing the polarization selectivity of the solid surface and by rotating the circularly polarized EUV field in space, we fully retrieve the amplitude and phase of the circularly polarized harmonics, allowing us to reconstruct one of the most complex coherent light fields produced to date. PMID:26989782

  17. Bioluminescence in the high Arctic during the polar night.

    PubMed

    Berge, J; Btnes, A S; Johnsen, G; Blackwell, S M; Moline, M A

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the composition and activity of the planktonic community during the polar night in the high Arctic Kongsfjord, Svalbard. Our results are the first published evidence of bioluminescence among zooplankton during the Arctic polar night. The observations were collected by a bathyphotometer detecting bioluminescence, integrated into an autonomous underwater vehicle, to determine the concentration and intensity of bioluminescent flashes as a function of time of day and depth. To further understand community dynamics and composition, plankton nets were used to collect organisms passing through the bathyphotometer along with traditional vertical net tows. Additionally, using a moored bathyphotometer closed to the sampling site, the bioluminescence potential itself was shown not to have a diurnal or circadian rhythm. Rather, our results provide evidence for a diel vertical migration of bioluminescent zooplankton that does not correspond to any externally detectable changes in illumination. PMID:24489409

  18. Evidence for accretion disks in highly polarized quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul S.; Elston, Richard; Berriman, Graham; Allen, Richard G.; Balonek, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a search for thermal components in 11 highly polarized quasars (HPQs) using UVBRI polarimetry and photometry are reported. The 2000-2500 A luminosities of the thermal components are calculated and the estimated luminosities of the broad-line region (BLR) are given in the same wavelength for comparison. The observed optical continua are modeled as a combination of polarized synchrotron emission, unpolarized emission from the BLR, and an unpolarized flat spectral component that may be optically thick thermal emission from an accretion disk. Evidence for thermal emission components is found in three HPQs: PKS 0420-014, B2 1156+295, and 3C 454.3, with marginal evidence in another two, PKS 1510-089 and PKS 2345-167.

  19. HCN ice in Titan's high-altitude southern polar cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kok, Remco J.; Teanby, Nicholas A.; Maltagliati, Luca; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Vinatier, Sandrine

    2014-10-01

    Titan's middle atmosphere is currently experiencing a rapid change of season after northern spring arrived in 2009 (refs 1, 2). A large cloud was observed for the first time above Titan's southern pole in May 2012, at an altitude of 300 kilometres. A temperature maximum was previously observed there, and condensation was not expected for any of Titan's atmospheric gases. Here we report that this cloud is composed of micrometre-sized particles of frozen hydrogen cyanide (HCN ice). The presence of HCN particles at this altitude, together with temperature determinations from mid-infrared observations, indicate a dramatic cooling of Titan's atmosphere inside the winter polar vortex in early 2012. Such cooling is in contrast to previously measured high-altitude warming in the polar vortex, and temperatures are a hundred degrees colder than predicted by circulation models. These results show that post-equinox cooling at the winter pole of Titan is much more efficient than previously thought.

  20. Polarization interferometric nulling coronagraph for high-contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Naoshi; Yokochi, Kaito; Nishikawa, Jun; Tamura, Motohide; Kurokawa, Takashi; Takeda, Mitsuo; Baba, Naoshi

    2010-06-01

    We propose a novel, high-contrast imager called a polarization interferometric nulling coronagraph (PINC) for direct detection of extrasolar planets. The PINC uses achromatic half-wave plates (HWPs) installed in a fully symmetric beam combiner based on polarizing beam splitters. Jones calculus suggests that a stellar halo suppression level of 10(-10) can be achieved at 5 lambda/D for a broad wavelength range from 1.6 to 2.2 microm by using Fresnel-rhomb HWPs made of BK7. Laboratory experiments on the PINC used two laser light sources (wavelengths of lambda=532 and 671 nm), and we obtained a halo suppression level of approximately 10(-6) at 5 lambda/D for both wavelengths. PMID:20517351

  1. Fine-tuning device performances of small molecule solar cells via the more polarized DPP-attached donor units.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianhua; Jia, Hui; Li, Liangjie; Lu, Zhenhuan; Zhang, Wenqing; He, Weiwei; Jiang, Bo; Tang, Ailing; Tan, Zhan'ao; Zhan, Chuanlang; Li, Yongfang; Yao, Jiannian

    2012-11-01

    Three solution-processable small molecules of DPPT, DPPSe and DPPTT were synthesized by Stille coupling through attaching donor units of thiophene (T), selenophene (Se) and thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (TT) to the diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) core, respectively. Replacement of the T donors with the more polarized Se units results in a balance between the a and b direction packing and an obvious increase of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 1.90% to 2.33% with the increase of the short-circuit current (I(sc)) from 5.59 to 5.81 mA cm(-2) and the open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) from 0.78 V to 0.86 under the small molecule/acceptor ratio of 3 : 1. However, introduction of the conjugation-enlarged TT groups (versus the T units) leads to a decrease of the PCE, down to 1.70%, with a significant decrease of the fill factor (FF) (38% versus 44%), due to its poor film-forming characteristics. PMID:22847595

  2. Recoil-Proton Polarization in High-Energy Deuteron Photodisintegration with Circularly Polarized Photons

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, X.; Benmokhtar, F.; Glashauser, C.; McCormick, K.; Ransome, R. D.; Arrington, J.; Holt, R. J.; Reimer, P. E.; Schulte, E. C.; Wijesooriya, K.; Camsonne, A.

    2007-05-04

    We measured the angular dependence of the three recoil-proton polarization components in two-body photodisintegration of the deuteron at a photon energy of 2 GeV. These new data provide a benchmark for calculations based on quantum chromodynamics. Two of the five existing models have made predictions of polarization observables. Both explain the longitudinal polarization transfer satisfactorily. Transverse polarizations are not well described, but suggest isovector dominance.

  3. Recoil-Proton Polarization in High-Energy Deuteron Photodisintegration with Circularly Polarized Photons

    SciTech Connect

    X. Jiang; J. Arrington; F. Benmokhtar; A. Camsonne; J. P. Chen; S. Choi; E. Chudakov; F. Cusanno; A. Deur; D. Dutta; F. Garibaldi; D. Gaskell; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; C. Glashauser; D. Hamilton; O. Hansen; D. W. Higinbotham; R. J. Holt; C. W. de Jager; M. K. Jones; L. J. Kaufman; E. R. Kinney; K. Kramer; L. Lagamba; R. de Leo; J. Lerose; D. Lhuillier; R. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; K. McCormick; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Mof?t; P. Monaghan; S. Nanda; K. D. Paschke; C. F. Perdrisat; V. Punjabi; I. A. Qattan; R. D. Ransome; P. E. Reimer; B. Reitz; A. Saha; E. C. Schulte; R. Sheyor; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; V. Sulkosky; G. M. Urciuoli; E. Voutier; K. Wang; K. Wijesooriya; B. Wojtsekhowski; and L. Zhu

    2007-05-01

    We measured the angular dependence of the three recoil-proton polarization components in two-body photodisintegration of the deuteron at a photon energy of 2 GeV. These new data provide a benchmark for calculations based on quantum chromodynamics. Two of the five existing models have made predictions of polarization observables. Both explain the longitudinal polarization transfer satisfactorily. Transverse polarizations are not well described, but suggest isovector dominance.

  4. Energy levels of a polarizable linear polar molecule in a dc electric field obtained by analogy with the nonrelativistic hydrogen atom

    SciTech Connect

    Sekatskii, S. K.

    2007-05-15

    We note that an equation governing the dynamics of a polarizable linear polar molecule in a dc electric field coincides with one of two equations describing a hydrogen atom in the prolate spheroidal coordinate system. Using this analogy, as well as the known algebra of the angular momentum and Runge-Lenz-Pauli operators for the case of a hydrogen atom, the energy levels of a polarizable linear polar molecule in a dc electric field are calculated. For some cases, these energy values are exact.

  5. Ultracold spin-polarized mixtures of {sup 2}{Sigma} molecules with S-state atoms: Collisional stability and implications for sympathetic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Tscherbul, T. V.; Klos, J.; Buchachenko, A. A.

    2011-10-15

    The prospects of sympathetic cooling of polar molecules with magnetically cotrapped alkali-metal atoms are generally considered poor due to strongly anisotropic atom-molecule interactions leading to large spin relaxation rates. Using rigorous quantum scattering calculations based on ab initio interaction potentials, we show that inelastic spin relaxation in low-temperature collisions of CaH({sup 2}{Sigma}) molecules with Li and Mg atoms occurs at a slow rate despite the strongly anisotropic interactions. This unexpected result, which we rationalize using multichannel quantum-defect theory, opens up the possibility of sympathetic cooling of polar {sup 2}{Sigma} molecules with alkali-metal atoms in a magnetic trap and with alkaline-earth-metal atoms in an optical dipole trap.

  6. Identification of Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the HuR/RNA Interaction Using a Fluorescence Polarization Screening Assay Followed by NMR Validation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhonghua; Bhattacharya, Akash; Ivanov, Dmitri N.

    2015-01-01

    The human antigen R (HuR) stabilizes many mRNAs of proto-oncogene, transcription factors, cytokines and growth factors by recognizing AU-rich elements (AREs) presented in their 3 or 5 untranslated region (UTR). Multiple lines of experimental evidence suggest that this process plays a key role in cancer development. Thus, destabilizing HuR/RNA interaction by small molecules presents an opportunity for cancer treatment/prevention. Here we present an integrated approach to identify inhibitors of HuR/RNA interaction using a combination of fluorescence-based and NMR-based high throughput screening (HTS). The HTS assay with fluorescence polarization readout and Z-score of 0.8 was used to perform a screen of the NCI diversity set V library in a 384 well plate format. An NMR-based assay with saturation transfer difference (STD) detection was used for hits validation. Protein NMR spectroscopy was used to demonstrate that some hit compounds disrupt formation of HuR oligomer, whereas others block RNA binding. Thus, our integrated high throughput approach provides a new avenue for identification of small molecules targeting HuR/RNA interaction. PMID:26390015

  7. Highly Polar Spiro-Isoxazolines from the Sponge Aplysina fulva

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Evan W.; Molinski, Tadeusz F.

    2008-01-01

    Two new highly polar brominated spiroisoxazolines, araplysillin N9-sulfamate (1) and an N-[5S,10R)-7,9-dibromo-10-hydroxy-8-methoxy-1-oxa-2-azaspiro[4.5]deca-2,6,8-triene-3-carboxy]-4-aminobutanoic acid (2), were isolated from a sample of Aplysina fulva collected in the Florida Keys. The absolute stereostructures of the new compounds were determined from analysis of MS, 1H and 13C NMR and CD spectroscopy. Compound 2 provides a structural clue that may unify the biosynthesis of brominated spiroisoxazolines. PMID:17579462

  8. High performance photovoltaic applications using solution-processed small molecules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongsheng; Wan, Xiangjian; Long, Guankui

    2013-11-19

    Energy remains a critical issue for the survival and prosperity of humancivilization. Many experts believe that the eventual solution for sustainable energy is the use of direct solar energy as the main energy source. Among the options for renewable energy, photovoltaic technologies that harness solar energy offer a way to harness an unlimited resource and minimum environment impact in contrast with other alternatives such as water, nuclear, and wind energy. Currently, almost all commercial photovoltaic technologies use Si-based technology, which has a number of disadvantages including high cost, lack of flexibility, and the serious environmental impact of the Si industry. Other technologies, such as organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells, can overcome some of these issues. Today, polymer-based OPV (P-OPV) devices have achieved power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) that exceed 9%. Compared with P-OPV, small molecules based OPV (SM-OPV) offers further advantages, including a defined structure for more reproducible performance, higher mobility and open circuit voltage, and easier synthetic control that leads to more diversified structures. Therefore, while largely undeveloped, SM-OPV is an important emerging technology with performance comparable to P-OPV. In this Account, we summarize our recent results on solution-processed SM-OPV. We believe that solution processing is essential for taking full advantage of OPV technologies. Our work started with the synthesis of oligothiophene derivatives with an acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) structure. Both the backbone conjugation length and electron withdrawing terminal groups play an important role in the light absorption, energy levels and performance of the devices. Among those molecules, devices using a 7-thiophene-unit backbone and a 3-ethylrhodanine (RD) terminal unit produced a 6.1% PCE. With the optimized conjugation length and terminal unit, we borrowed from the results with P-OPV devices to optimize the backbone. Thus we selected BDT (benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene) and DTS (dithienosilole) to replace the central thiophene unit, leading to a PCE of 8.12%. In addition to our molecules, Bazan and co-workers have developed another excellent system using DTS as the core unit that has also achieved a PCE greater than 8%. PMID:23902284

  9. Salting-out effect in aqueous NaCl solutions: trends with size and polarity of solute molecules.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoshi; Pfennigsdorff, Andrea; Goss, Kai-Uwe

    2012-02-01

    Salting-out in aqueous NaCl solutions is relevant for the environmental behavior of organic contaminants. In this study, Setschenow (or salting-out) coefficients (K(s) [M(-1)]) for 43 diverse neutral compounds in NaCl solutions were measured using a shared headspace passive dosing method and a negligible depletion solid phase microextraction technique. The results were used to calibrate and evaluate estimation models for K(s). The molar volume of the solute correlated only moderately with K(s) (R(2) = 0.49, SD = 0.052). The polyparameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER) model that uses five compound descriptors resulted in a more accurate fit to our data (R(2) = 0.83, SD = 0.031). The pp-LFER analysis revealed that Na(+) and Cl(-) in aqueous solutions increase the cavity formation energy cost and the polar interaction energies toward neutral organic solutes. Accordingly, the salting-out effect increases with the size and decreases with the polarity of the solute molecule. COSMO-RS, a quantum mechanics-based fully predictive model, generally overpredicted the experimental K(s), but the predicted values were moderately correlated with the experimental values (R(2) = 0.66, SD = 0.042). Literature data (n = 93) were predicted by the calibrated pp-LFER and COSMO-RS models with root mean squared errors of 0.047 and 0.050, respectively. This study offers prediction models to estimate K(s), allowing implementation of the salting-out effect in contaminant fate models, linkage of various partition coefficients (such as air-water, sediment-water, and extraction phase-water partition coefficients) measured for fresh water and seawater, and estimation of enhancement of extraction efficiency in analytical procedures. PMID:22191628

  10. Quantum Drude oscillator model of atoms and molecules: Many-body polarization and dispersion interactions for atomistic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Andrew P.; Crain, Jason; Sokhan, Vlad P.; Whitfield, Troy W.; Martyna, Glenn J.

    2013-04-01

    Treating both many-body polarization and dispersion interactions is now recognized as a key element in achieving the level of atomistic modeling required to reveal novel physics in complex systems. The quantum Drude oscillator (QDO), a Gaussian-based, coarse grained electronic structure model, captures both many-body polarization and dispersion and has linear scale computational complexity with system size, hence it is a leading candidate next-generation simulation method. Here, we investigate the extent to which the QDO treatment reproduces the desired long-range atomic and molecular properties. We present closed form expressions for leading order polarizabilities and dispersion coefficients and derive invariant (parameter-free) scaling relationships among multipole polarizability and many-body dispersion coefficients that arise due to the Gaussian nature of the model. We show that these combining rules hold to within a few percent for noble gas atoms, alkali metals, and simple (first-row hydride) molecules such as water; this is consistent with the surprising success that models with underlying Gaussian statistics often exhibit in physics. We present a diagrammatic Jastrow-type perturbation theory tailored to the QDO model that serves to illustrate the rich types of responses that the QDO approach engenders. QDO models for neon, argon, krypton, and xenon, designed to reproduce gas phase properties, are constructed and their condensed phase properties explored via linear scale diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) and path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) simulations. Good agreement with experimental data for structure, cohesive energy, and bulk modulus is found, demonstrating a degree of transferability that cannot be achieved using current empirical models or fully ab initio descriptions.

  11. Origin of spontaneous polarization, tilt, and chiral structure of smectic liquid-crystal phases composed of bent-core molecules: A molecular model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emelyanenko, A. V.; Osipov, M. A.

    2004-08-01

    A simple molecular model is proposed for novel bent-core smectic phases that enables one to explain the origin of the experimentally observed chiral structure of the B2 phase composed of nonchiral banana-shaped molecules. It is shown that in the perfectly ordered smectic phase the distributed dispersion interaction between banana-shaped molecules stabilizes the spontaneous polarization and may be responsible for the tilt of the director. The orientation of the spontaneous polarization with respect to the tilt plane is determined by the balance between the dispersion and electrostatic dipole-dipole intermolecular interactions. In particular, sufficiently strong dipole-dipole interaction promotes the B2 phase where the polarization is normal to the tilt plane. The actual chiral structure of each smectic layer in the B2 phase appears as a result of the symmetry breaking. In the case of small molecular dipoles the nonchiral polar smectic phase is formed where the spontaneous polarization is parallel to the tilt plane. The role of the opening angle and of the axial ratio of banana-shaped molecules is also considered and a phase diagram is presented.

  12. Origin of spontaneous polarization, tilt, and chiral structure of smectic liquid-crystal phases composed of bent-core molecules: a molecular model.

    PubMed

    Emelyanenko, A V; Osipov, M A

    2004-08-01

    A simple molecular model is proposed for novel bent-core smectic phases that enables one to explain the origin of the experimentally observed chiral structure of the B2 phase composed of nonchiral banana-shaped molecules. It is shown that in the perfectly ordered smectic phase the distributed dispersion interaction between banana-shaped molecules stabilizes the spontaneous polarization and may be responsible for the tilt of the director. The orientation of the spontaneous polarization with respect to the tilt plane is determined by the balance between the dispersion and electrostatic dipole-dipole intermolecular interactions. In particular, sufficiently strong dipole-dipole interaction promotes the B2 phase where the polarization is normal to the tilt plane. The actual chiral structure of each smectic layer in the B2 phase appears as a result of the symmetry breaking. In the case of small molecular dipoles the nonchiral polar smectic phase is formed where the spontaneous polarization is parallel to the tilt plane. The role of the opening angle and of the axial ratio of banana-shaped molecules is also considered and a phase diagram is presented. PMID:15447506

  13. PVDF shock sensors: applications to polar materials and high explosives.

    PubMed

    Bauer, F

    2000-01-01

    Ferroelectric polymers (PVDF) with well-defined and precisely known electrical properties are now routinely available from commercial sources. Electrical processing with the Bauer cyclic poling method can produce individual films with well-defined remanent polarization up to 9 /spl mu/C/cm/sup 2/. These polymers provide an unusual opportunity to study the structure and physical properties of materials subjected to shock loading. The behavior of PVDF has been studied over a wide range of pressures using high-pressure shock loading and has yielded well-behaved, reproducible data up to 25 GPa in inert materials. The application of PVDF gauges for recording shock waves induced in polar materials such as Kel-F, PMMA, or in reactive materials is hampered by observations of anomalous responses due to shock-induced polarization or an electrical charge released inside a shock-compressed explosive. A solution using an appropriate electrical shielding has been identified and applied to PVDF for shock measurement studies of Kel-F, and for Hugoniot measurements of high explosives (PH). Furthermore, shock pressure profiles obtained with in situ PVDF gauges in porous HE (Formex) in a detonation regime have been achieved. Typical results of shock pressure profile versus time show a fast superpressure of a few nanoseconds followed by a pressure release down to a plateau level and then by a pressure decay. More accurate measurements are reported with electrically improved PVDF gauges as well as with 0.25 mm/sup 2/ active area PVDF gauges. PMID:18238691

  14. Antenna polarization diversity for high-speed polarization multiplexing wireless signal delivery at W-band.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan; Xiao, Jiangnan

    2014-03-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel architecture for a W-band integrated optical wireless system, which adopts a 2×2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless link based on antenna polarization diversity, and can realize 80 km single-mode fiber-28 transmission and 2 m wireless delivery for up to 39 Gbaud polarization-division-multiplexing quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PDM-QPSK) signal at 100 GHz. Classic constant-modulus-algorithm (CMA) equalization is adopted at the receiver to implement polarization demultiplexing. The 2×2 MIMO wireless link adopts one pair of horizontal-polarization (H-polarization) horn antennas (HAs) and one pair of vertical-polarization (V-polarization) HAs. Because the two pairs of HAs are fully isolated, the wireless cross talk can be effectively avoided. Thus, compared to the 2×2 MIMO wireless link at the same antenna polarization, the adoption of antenna polarization diversity cannot only make the HA adjustment easier but can also reduce the required CMA tap number. After removing 20% forward-error-correction overhead, the 39 Gbaud baud rate corresponds to a net bit rate of 130  Gb/s, which, to our best knowledge, is the highest bit rate per PDM channel demonstrated for wireless signal delivery up to now. PMID:24690698

  15. High-performance organic small-molecule panchromatic photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Su, Zisheng; Hou, Fuhua; Wang, Xing; Gao, Yuan; Jin, Fangming; Zhang, Guang; Li, Yantao; Zhang, Ligong; Chu, Bei; Li, Wenlian

    2015-02-01

    High-performance panchromatic organic photodetectors (OPDs) containing small molecules lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) and C70 fullerene as donor and acceptor, respectively, were demonstrated. The OPDs had either a PbPc/C70 planar heterojunction (PHJ) or a PbPc/PbPc:C70/C70 hybrid planar-mixed molecular heterojunction (PM-HJ) structure. Both the PHJ and the PM-HJ devices showed a broad-band response that covered wavelengths from 300 to 1100 nm. An external quantum efficiency (EQE) higher than 10% and detectivity on the order of 10(12) Jones were obtained in the wavelength region from 400 to 900 nm for the PHJ device. The EQE in the near-infrared region was enhanced by using the PM-HJ device structure, and a maximum EQE of 30.2% at 890 nm was observed for the optimized device with a 5% PbPc-doped C70 layer. Such an EQE is the highest at this wavelength of reported OPDs. The detectivity of the PM-HJ devices was also higher than that of the PHJ one, which is attributed to the increased efficiency of exciton dissociation in bulk heterojunction structure, increased absorption efficiency caused by formation of triclinic PbPc in the PbPc:C70 mixed film when it was deposited on a pristine PbPc layer, and high hole mobility of the PbPc-doped C70 layer. PMID:25591117

  16. Small molecule semiconductors for high-efficiency organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuze; Li, Yongfang; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2012-06-01

    Organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) are a promising cost-effective alternative to silicon-based solar cells, and possess light-weight, low-cost, and flexibility advantages. Significant progress has been achieved in the development of novel photovoltaic materials and device structures in the last decade. Nowadays small molecular semiconductors for OPVs have attracted considerable attention, due to their advantages over their polymer counterparts, including well-defined molecular structure, definite molecular weight, and high purity without batch to batch variations. The highest power conversion efficiencies of OPVs based on small molecular donor/fullerene acceptors or polymeric donor/fullerene acceptors are up to 6.7% and 8.3%, respectively, and meanwhile nonfullerene acceptors have also exhibited some promising results. In this review we summarize the developments in small molecular donors, acceptors (fullerene derivatives and nonfullerene molecules), and donor-acceptor dyad systems for high-performance multilayer, bulk heterojunction, and single-component OPVs. We focus on correlations of molecular chemical structures with properties, such as absorption, energy levels, charge mobilities, and photovoltaic performances. This structure-property relationship analysis may guide rational structural design and evaluation of photovoltaic materials (253 references). PMID:22453295

  17. Highly specialized microbial diversity in hyper-arid polar desert

    PubMed Central

    Pointing, Stephen B.; Chan, Yuki; Lacap, Donnabella C.; Lau, Maggie C. Y.; Jurgens, Joel A.; Farrell, Roberta L.

    2009-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica are a cold hyperarid polar desert that present extreme challenges to life. Here, we report a culture-independent survey of multidomain microbial biodiversity in McKelvey Valley, a pristine example of the coldest desert on Earth. We demonstrate that life has adapted to form highly-specialized communities in distinct lithic niches occurring concomitantly within this terrain. Endoliths and chasmoliths in sandstone displayed greatest diversity, whereas soil was relatively depauperate and lacked a significant photoautotrophic component, apart from isolated islands of hypolithic cyanobacterial colonization on quartz rocks in soil contact. Communities supported previously unreported polar bacteria and fungi, but archaea were absent from all niches. Lithic community structure did not vary significantly on a landscape scale and stochastic moisture input due to snowmelt resulted in increases in colonization frequency without significantly affecting diversity. The findings show that biodiversity near the cold-arid limit for life is more complex than previously appreciated, but communities lack variability probably due to the high selective pressures of this extreme environment. PMID:19850879

  18. Global dust storms and highly polarizing clouds on Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupishko, D.; Kaydash, V.; Shkuratov, Yu

    The paper reviews our results about photometric ground-based observations of Mars during its great opposition of 1971 and near-perihelion oppositions of 1973 and 1975, as well as polarimetric observations of Mars with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) at the time ofthe great opposition of 2003. The photometric observations cover long-term (1-3 months) disk-integrated and disk-resolved photometry of Mars during three global dust storms in 1971, 1973 and 1975, including the stages of development, maximum, and attenuation of the dust storms. Using data which showed anomalous changes of Martian brightness, the parameters of dust particles and dust storm as a whole were determined. These include the mean radius and single-scattering albedo of particles, the optical thickness of atmosphere in the maximum of a dust storm and the total mass of dust lifted up in atmosphere, and the temperature pulldown of Martian surface caused by dust storm. Polarimetric observations of Mars with HST revealed for the first time optically thin clouds made of highly polarizing scatterers in UV (330 nm). Analysis of HST data and their comparison with theoretical models allowed us to conclude that the Martian highly polarizing clouds can be formed in the very beginning of the nucleation of H2O ice crystals on submicron dust. Measurements of cloud dynamics has suggested the clouds to be located at 30-40 km above the Martian surface and migrate with velocity of 40-100 m/s.

  19. Molybdenum disulfide as a highly efficient adsorbent for non-polar gases.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ningning; Wang, Lu; Li, Min; Sun, Xiaotian; Hou, Tingjun; Li, Youyong

    2015-05-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a kind of graphene-like, two-dimensional material, has attracted great interest because of its unique properties and potential applications in electronics and sensors. In this paper, first-principle calculations and grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations are performed and used to show that the MoS2 layer is efficient at absorbing non-polar gases. Compared with the popular gas sorbents (metal organic frameworks and carbon-based materials), MoS2 has additional advantages, including large surface to volume ratio and tunable properties. The non-polar gas [carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4)] adsorption on the MoS2 layer with and without vacancies has been systematically studied. The perfect MoS2 shows little or no adsorption for CO2 and CH4 molecules, but the MoS2 with a single S vacancy and double S vacancies exhibits an excellent adsorption ability for CO2 and CH4 gases. The adsorption energies were 65 kJ mol(-1) for CO2 and 47 kJ mol(-1) for CH4 (van der Waals-D2), respectively. An orbital coupling between the p orbital of the CO2 (or CH4) molecule and the d orbital of the Mo atom was observed. GCMC simulation results show that MoS2 with a single S vacancy could absorb 42.1 wt% of CO2 and 37.6 wt% of CH4 under a pressure of 80 bar at room temperature. The results given in this paper indicate that monolayer MoS2 with defects is a highly efficient absorbent for non-polar gases. PMID:25865455

  20. Highly polarized muonic He produced by collisions with laser optically pumped Rb

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, A.S.; Bogorad, P.; Cates, G.D.; Mabuchi, H.; Middleton, H.; Newbury, N.R. ); Holmes, R.; McCracken, J.; Souder, P.A.; Xu, J. ); Tupa, D. )

    1993-02-08

    We have formed highly polarized muonic helium by stopping unpolarized negative muons in a mixture of unpolarized gaseous He and laser polarized Rb vapor. The stopped muons form muonic He ions which are neutralized and polarized by collisions with Rb. Average polarizations for [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He of (26.8[plus minus]2.3)% and (44.2[plus minus]3.5)% were achieved, representing a tenfold increase over previous methods. Relevant cross sections were determined from the time evolution of the polarization. Highly polarized muonic He is valuable for measurements of the induced pseudoscalar coupling [ital g][sub [ital p

  1. Dipole polarizability of alkali-metal (Na, K, Rb)-alkaline-earth-metal (Ca, Sr) polar molecules: prospects for alignment.

    PubMed

    Gopakumar, Geetha; Abe, Minori; Hada, Masahiko; Kajita, Masatoshi

    2014-06-14

    Electronic open-shell ground-state properties of selected alkali-metal-alkaline-earth-metal polar molecules are investigated. We determine potential energy curves of the (2)?(+) ground state at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles with partial triples (CCSD(T)) level of electron correlation. Calculated spectroscopic constants for the isotopes ((23)Na, (39)K, (85)Rb)-((40)Ca, (88)Sr) are compared with available theoretical and experimental results. The variation of the permanent dipole moment (PDM), average dipole polarizability, and polarizability anisotropy with internuclear distance is determined using finite-field perturbation theory at the CCSD(T) level. Owing to moderate PDM (KCa: 1.67 D, RbCa: 1.75 D, KSr: 1.27 D, RbSr: 1.41 D) and large polarizability anisotropy (KCa: 566 a.u., RbCa: 604 a.u., KSr: 574 a.u., RbSr: 615 a.u.), KCa, RbCa, KSr, and RbSr are potential candidates for alignment and orientation in combined intense laser and external static electric fields. PMID:24929384

  2. A Simple High Performance Beamline for Small Molecule Chemical Crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. C.; Padmore, H. A.; Oliver, A. G.; Teat, S. J.; Celestre, R. S.; Clark, S. M.; Domning, E. E.; Franck, K. D.; Morrison, G. Y.

    2004-05-01

    An innovative beamline for small molecule chemical crystallography has been built at the Advanced Light Source. The system permits the study of crystals as small as 10μm × 10μm × 10μm. The beamline produces a 7-17 keV x-ray beam focused to a 280μm × 90μm spot. A channel-cut Si<111> monochromator and a toroidal mirror are inside the synchrotron shield wall only 7m from the bending magnet source point. The monochromator is cooled with a small Joule-Thomson refrigerator to produce a very small beam motion with different heat loads. The experimental hutch contains a vertically mounted sample goniometer and a CCD detector. An on-axis visual alignment camera allows the small crystals to be accurately centered within the x-ray beam. Examples of the crystal structures solved with this system are given. The beamline is also used for high-pressure powder diffraction experiments using a diamond anvil cell that is mounted on a stage system that can be quickly installed and removed.

  3. NCTM of liquids at high temperatures using polarization techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, Shankar; Weber, J. K. Richard; Nordine, Paul C.; Schiffman, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    Temperature measurement and control is extremely important in any materials processing application. However, conventional techniques for non-contact temperature measurement (mainly optical pyrometry) are very uncertain because of unknown or varying surface emittance. Optical properties like other properties change during processing. A dynamic, in-situ measurement of optical properties including the emittance is required. Intersonics is developing new technologies using polarized laser light scattering to determine surface emittance of freely radiating bodies concurrent with conventional optical pyrometry. These are sufficient to determine the true surface temperature of the target. Intersonics is currently developing a system called DAPP, the Division of Amplitude Polarimetric Pyrometer, that uses polarization information to measure the true thermodynamic temperature of freely radiating objects. This instrument has potential use in materials processing applications in ground and space based equipment. Results of thermophysical and thermodynamic measurements using laser reflection as a temperature measuring tool are presented. The impact of these techniques on thermophysical property measurements at high temperature is discussed.

  4. High efficiency polyethylene glycol diacrylate monoliths for reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Pankaj; Lawson, John S; Tolley, H Dennis; Lee, Milton L

    2014-10-17

    Highly cross-linked monolithic networks (i.e., polyethylene glycol diacrylate, PEGDA) synthesized from monomers containing varying ethylene oxide chain lengths were fabricated inside fused silica capillary columns for use in liquid chromatography (LC) of small molecules. Tergitol was used as a surfactant porogen in combination with other typical organic liquid porogens. Column performance was correlated with quantitative descriptors of the physical/chemical properties of the monomers and porogens using a statistical model. Solubility and viscosity values of the components were identified as important predictors of monolith morphology and efficiency. The chromatographic retention mechanism was determined to be principally reversed-phase (RP) with additional hydrogen bonding between the polar groups of the analytes and the ethylene oxide groups embedded in the monolith structure. The fabricated monolithic columns were evaluated under RPLC conditions using phenols, hydroxy benzoic acids, and alkyl parabens as test compounds. Isocratic elution of hydroxy benzoic acids at a linear velocity of 0.04 cm/s using a PEGDA-700 monolith gave chromatographic peaks with little tailing (i.e., tailing factor<1.28). The chromatographic efficiency measured for a non-retained compound (uracil) using this column was 186,000 plates/m when corrected for injector dead volume. High resolution gradient separations of selected pharmaceutical compounds and phenylurea herbicides were achieved in less than 18 min. Optimized monoliths synthesized from all four crosslinking monomers exhibited high permeability and demonstrated little swelling or shrinking in different polarity solvents. Column preparation was highly reproducible, with relative standard deviation (RSD) values less than 2.1%, based on retention times of the phenol standards (3 different columns). PMID:25193173

  5. High thermopower of mechanically stretched single-molecule junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Morikawa, Takanori; He, Yuhui; Arima, Akihide; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2015-06-01

    Metal-molecule-metal junction is a promising candidate for thermoelectric applications that utilizes quantum confinement effects in the chemically defined zero-dimensional atomic structure to achieve enhanced dimensionless figure of merit ZT. A key issue in this new class of thermoelectric nanomaterials is to clarify the sensitivity of thermoelectricity on the molecular junction configurations. Here we report simultaneous measurements of the thermoelectric voltage and conductance on Au-1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT)-Au junctions mechanically-stretched in-situ at sub-nanoscale. We obtained the average single-molecule conductance and thermopower of 0.01 G0 and 15??V/K, respectively, suggesting charge transport through the highest occupied molecular orbital. Meanwhile, we found the single-molecule thermoelectric transport properties extremely-sensitive to the BDT bridge configurations, whereby manifesting the importance to design the electrode-molecule contact motifs for optimizing the thermoelectric performance of molecular junctions.

  6. High thermopower of mechanically stretched single-molecule junctions

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Morikawa, Takanori; He, Yuhui; Arima, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Metal-molecule-metal junction is a promising candidate for thermoelectric applications that utilizes quantum confinement effects in the chemically defined zero-dimensional atomic structure to achieve enhanced dimensionless figure of merit ZT. A key issue in this new class of thermoelectric nanomaterials is to clarify the sensitivity of thermoelectricity on the molecular junction configurations. Here we report simultaneous measurements of the thermoelectric voltage and conductance on Au-1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT)-Au junctions mechanically-stretched in-situ at sub-nanoscale. We obtained the average single-molecule conductance and thermopower of 0.01 G0 and 15 μV/K, respectively, suggesting charge transport through the highest occupied molecular orbital. Meanwhile, we found the single-molecule thermoelectric transport properties extremely-sensitive to the BDT bridge configurations, whereby manifesting the importance to design the electrode-molecule contact motifs for optimizing the thermoelectric performance of molecular junctions. PMID:26112999

  7. High-Resolution Waveguide THz Spectroscopy of Biological Molecules?

    PubMed Central

    Laman, N.; Harsha, S. Sree; Grischkowsky, D.; Melinger, Joseph S.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Low-frequency vibrational modes of biological molecules consist of intramolecular modes, which are dependent on the molecule as a whole, as well as intermolecular modes, which arise from hydrogen-bonding interactions and van der Waals forces. Vibrational modes thus contain important information about conformation dynamics of biological molecules, and can also be used for identification purposes. However, conventional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) often result in broad, overlapping features that are difficult to distinguish. The technique of waveguide THz-TDS has been recently developed, resulting in sharper features. For this technique, an ordered polycrystalline film of the molecule is formed on a metal sample plate. This plate is incorporated into a metal parallel-plate waveguide and probed via waveguide THz-TDS. The planar order of the film reduces the inhomogeneous broadening, and cooling of the samples to 77K reduces the homogenous broadening. This combination results in the line-narrowing of THz vibrational modes, in some cases to an unprecedented degree. Here, this technique has been demonstrated with seven small biological molecules, thymine, deoxycytidine, adenosine, D-glucose, tryptophan, glycine, and L-alanine. The successful demonstration of this technique shows the possibilities and promise for future studies of internal vibrational modes of large biological molecules. PMID:17933879

  8. Anti-Hyperon polarization in high energy pp collisions withpolarized beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ye; Liang, Zuo-tang; Sichtermann, Ernst; Xu, Qing-hua; Zhou, Shan-shan

    2007-11-20

    We study the longitudinal polarization of the {bar {Sigma}}{sup -}, {bar {Sigma}}{sup +}, {bar {Xi}}{sup 0} and {bar {Xi}}{sup +} anti-hyperons in polarized high energy pp collisions at large transverse momenta, extending a recent study for the {bar {Lambda}} antihyperon. We make predictions by using different parameterizations of the polarized parton densities and models for the polarized fragmentation functions. Similar to the {bar {Lambda}} polarization, the {bar {Xi}}{sup 0} and {bar {Xi}}{sup +} polarizations are found to be sensitive to the polarized anti-strange sea, {Delta}{bar s}(x), in the nucleon. The {bar {Sigma}}{sup -} and {bar {Sigma}}{sup +} polarizations show sensitivity to the light sea quark polarizations, {Delta}{bar u}(x) and {Delta}{bar d}(x), and their asymmetry.

  9. Topical Developments in High-Field Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Kiesewetter, Matthew K.; Frantz, Derik K.; Walish, Joseph J.; Ravera, Enrico; Luchinat, Claudio; Swager, Timothy M.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    We report our recent efforts directed at improving high-field DNP experiments. We investigated a series of thiourea nitroxide radicals and the associated DNP enhancements ranging from ε = 25 to 82 that demonstrate the impact of molecular structure on performance. We directly polarized low-gamma nuclei including 13C, 2H, and 17O using trityl via the cross effect. We discuss a variety of sample preparation techniques for DNP with emphasis on the benefit of methods that do not use a glass-forming cryoprotecting matrix. Lastly, we describe a corrugated waveguide for use in a 700 MHz / 460 GHz DNP system that improves microwave delivery and increases enhancements up to 50%. PMID:25977588

  10. Highly polarized light emission by isotropic quantum dots integrated with magnetically aligned segmented nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Uran, Can; Erdem, Talha; Guzelturk, Burak; Perkgöz, Nihan Kosku; Jun, Shinae; Jang, Eunjoo; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2014-10-06

    In this work, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept system for generating highly polarized light from colloidal quantum dots (QDs) coupled with magnetically aligned segmented Au/Ni/Au nanowires (NWs). Optical characterizations reveal that the optimized QD-NW coupled structures emit highly polarized light with an s-to p-polarization (s/p) contrast as high as 15:1 corresponding to a degree of polarization of 0.88. These experimental results are supported by the finite-difference time-domain simulations, which demonstrate the interplay between the inter-NW distance and the degree of polarization.

  11. POLARIZED ION SOURCES FOR HIGH ENERGY ACCELERATORS AND COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    ZELENSKI,A.N.

    2000-10-16

    The recent progress in polarized ion source development is reviewed. In dc operation a 1.0 mA polarized H{sup -} ion current is now available from the Optically-Pumped Polarized Ion Source (OPPIS). In pulsed operation a 10 mA polarized H{sup -} ion current was demonstrated at the TRIUMF pulsed OPPIS test bench and a 3.5 mA peak current was obtained from an Atomic Beam Source (ABS) at the INR Moscow test bench. The possibilities for future improvements with both techniques are discussed. A new OPPIS for RHIC spin physics is described. The OPPIS reliably delivered polarized beam for the polarized run at RHIC. The results obtained with a new pulsed ABS injector for the IUCF Cooler Ring are also discussed.

  12. POLARIZED ION SOURCES FOR HIGH ENERGY ACCELERATORS AND COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    ZELENSKI,A.N.

    2000-10-16

    The recent progress in polarized ion source development is reviewed. In dc operation a 1.0 mA polarized H{sup -} ion current is now available from the Optically-Pumped Polarized Ion Source (OPPIS) . In pulsed operation a 10 mA polarized H{sup -} ion current was demonstrated at the TRIUMF pulsed OPPIS test bench and a 3.5 mA peak current was obtained from an Atomic Beam Source (ABS) at the INR Moscow test bench. The possibilities for future improvements with both techniques are discussed. A new OPPIS for RHIC spin physics is described. The OPPIS reliably delivered polarized beam for the polarized run at RHIC. The results obtained with a new pulsed ABS injector for the IUCF Cooler Ring are also discussed.

  13. Dynamic nuclear polarization of high-density atomic hydrogen in solid mixtures of molecular hydrogen isotopes.

    PubMed

    Sheludiakov, S; Ahokas, J; Järvinen, J; Zvezdov, D; Vainio, O; Lehtonen, L; Vasiliev, S; Mao, S; Khmelenko, V V; Lee, D M

    2014-12-31

    We report on magnetic resonance studies of high-density atomic hydrogen and deuterium in solid hydrogen matrices at temperatures below 1 K. Average concentrations of H atoms ≈3×10(19)  cm(-3) are obtained in chemical tunneling reactions of isotope exchange with D atoms. The products of these reactions are closely located pairs of H atoms near D2 molecules with strong exchange interactions. We discovered a dynamic nuclear polarization effect on H atoms created by pumping the center of the H electron spin resonance spectrum, similar to the Overhauser effect in metals. Our results indicate that H atoms may be arranged inside molecular matrices at separations equivalent to local concentrations of 2.6×10(21)  cm(-3). This opens up a way to build a metallic state of atomic hydrogen at zero pressure. PMID:25615349

  14. High-order-harmonic generation in molecular sequential double ionization by intense circularly polarized laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Lu, Huizhong; Bandrauk, Andr D.

    2015-08-01

    We present effects of electron energy transfer by electron collisions on high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) in molecular sequential double ionization by intense circularly polarized laser pulses. Results from numerical solutions of time-dependent Schrdinger equations for extended (large internuclear distance) H2 where electrons are entangled and hence delocalized by exchange show that HHG with cutoff energy up to Ip+24 Up can be obtained, where Ip is the molecule ionization potential and Up=I0/4 ?02 (in atomic units) is the ponderomotive energy for pulse intensity I0 and frequency ?0. A time-frequency analysis is employed to identify electron collisions for the generation of harmonics. Extended HHG arises from electron energy exchange, which agrees well with the prediction of a classical two electron collision model. Results for nonsymmetric HHe+ where initially electrons are localized on He are also compared and confirm the role of initial electron delocalization via entanglement for obtaining extended HHG plateaus.

  15. High-Fidelity, Weak-Light Polarization Gate Using Room-Temperature Atomic Vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, L.; Hagley, E. W.; Li, Runbing; Zhu, Chengjie

    2015-03-01

    Using a polarization-selective-Kerr-phase-shift technique we demonstrate a fast, all-optical, high-fidelity polarization gate in a room-temperature atomic medium. By writing a ?-phase shift to one selected circularly-polarized component of a linearly-polarized input signal field and by equalizing the gain of both circularly-polarized components we can maintain the original strength of the signal field and yet achieve a perfect 90 rotation of its linear polarization, demonstrating a fast, high-fidelity, dynamically-controlled polarization gate operation. The orthogonal linear polarization switching field intensity can be as low as 2 mW/cm2 using a warm rubidium vapor, which is equivalent to a 100-nanosecond pulse containing about 200 photons and confined in a typical commercial photonic hollow-core fiber with a 5-?m mode diameter.

  16. Dissociation energies of some high temperature molecules containing aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    The Knudsen cell mass spectrometric method has been used to investigate the gaseous molecules Al2, AlSi,AlSiO, AlC2, Al2C2, and AlAuC2. Special attention was given to the experimental considerations and techniques needed to identify and to measure ion intensities for very low abundance molecular species. Second- and third-law procedures were used to obtain reaction enthalpies for pressure calibration independent and isomolecular exchange reactions. Dissociation energies for the molecules were derived from the measured ion intensities, free-energy functions obtained from estimated molecular constants, and auxiliary thermodynamic data. The bonding and stability of these aluminum containing molecules are compared with other similar species.

  17. The integrated spintronic functionalities of an individual high-spin state spin-crossover molecule between graphene nanoribbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L; Zou, F; Gao, J H; Fu, Y S; Gao, G Y; Fu, H H; Wu, M H; L, J T; Yao, K L

    2015-08-01

    The spin-polarized transport properties of a high-spin-state spin-crossover molecular junction with zigzag-edge graphene nanoribbon electrodes have been studied using density functional theory combined with the nonequilibrium Green's-function formalism. The molecular junction presents integrated spintronic functionalities such as negative differential resistance behavior, spin filter and the spin rectifying effect, associated with the giant magnetoresistance effect by tuning the external magnetic field. Furthermore, the transport properties are almost unaffected by the electrode temperature. The microscopic mechanism of these functionalities is discussed. These results represent a step toward multifunctional molecular spintronic devices on the level of the individual spin-crossover molecule. PMID:26180074

  18. The infrared polarizations of high-redshift radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyshon, Gareth

    1999-10-01

    This thesis reports the K-band polarizations of a representative sample of nine radio galaxies: seven 3C objects at 0.7 < z < 1.3, and two other distinctive sources. Careful consideration is given to the accurate measurement and `debiasing' of faint polarizations, with recommendations for the function of polarimetric software. 3C 22 and 3C 41 both have 3% polarization perpendicular to their radio structures, consistent with suggestions that they may be obscured quasars. 3C 54 is polarized at 6%, parallel to its radio structure. 3C 65 and 3C 356 are faint: the noisy measurements give no firm evidence for polarization. MRC 0156-252 at z~2 is found to be unpolarized in K. 3C 114 has a complex structure of four bright knots, one offset from the radio structure and three along the axis. There is strong evidence for polarization in the source as a whole (12%) and the brightest knot (5%). 3C 441 lies in a rich field; one of its companions appears to be 18% polarized. The identification of the knot containing the active nucleus has been disputed, and is discussed. LBDS 53W091 was controversially reported to have a 40% H-band polarization. No firm evidence is found for non-zero K-band polarization in 53W091, though there is some evidence for its companion being polarized. The object is discussed in the context of other radio-weak galaxies. Simple spectral and spatial models for polarization in radio galaxies are discussed and used to interpret the measurements. The important cosmological question of the fraction of K-band light arising in radio galaxy nuclei is considered: in particular, the contribution of scattered nuclear light to the total K-band emission is estimated to be of order 7% in 3C 22 and 3C 41, 26% in 3C 114, and tentatively 25% or more in 3C 356.

  19. High-resolution subsurface microscopy of CMOS integrated circuits using radially polarized light.

    PubMed

    Rutkauskas, M; Farrell, C; Dorrer, C; Marshall, K L; Lundquist, T R; Vedagarbha, P; Reid, D T

    2015-12-01

    Under high numerical aperture (NA) conditions, a linearly polarized plane wave focuses to a spot that is extended along the E-field vector, but radially polarized light is predicted to form a circular spot whose diameter equals the narrower dimension obtained with linear polarization. This effect provides an opportunity for improved resolution in high-NA microscopy, and here we present a performance study of subsurface two-photon optical-beam-induced current solid-immersion-lens microscopy of a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor integrated circuit, showing a resolution improvement by using radially polarized illumination. By comparing images of the same structural features we show that radial polarization achieves a resolution of 126 nm, while linear polarization achieves resolutions of 122 and 165 nm, depending on the E-field orientation. These results are consistent with the theoretically expected behavior and are supported by high-resolution images which show superior feature definition using radial polarization. PMID:26625036

  20. High Intensity Electrodeless Lamps Excited by Circularly Polarized Microwave Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Joong; Won, Dong Ho; Ko, Jung Tae; Kim, Jeong Won

    2003-10-01

    We report on the demonstration of high intensity electrodeless lamps using rotating microwave discharges of molecular vapors at 100-400 kPa with no external magnetic fields, including sulfur and indium-monobromide. We place in a cylindrical waveguide a quartz ball of 3-cm-diam filled with 10 Torr of argon gas and a few mg of a molecular fill. The waveguide system generates circularly polarized microwaves and propagates the TE11 mode as the dominant mode at 2.45 GHz. Unlike conventional high-pressure electrodeless discharge lamps, the bulb in our system is stationary and the microwaves rotate in a TE11 mode in the waveguide at 2.45 GHz with an input power of up to 1.2 kW. When the vapor in the lamp breaks down by microwaves, the discharge zone is observed to rotate at a frequency of 3-10 Hz. We offer an explanation of the lethargic rotation of the plasma discharges based on local field argument and collision frequency. The rotating plasma discharges generate white light plasmoids of a luminance of up to 7E7 cd/m2. The emission spectra are no different from those observed in conventional lamps. A movie will be shown to demonstrate the rotating plasma discharges.

  1. Polarization Transfer in Proton Compton Scattering at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, D.J.; Annand, J.R.M.; Mamyan, V.H.; Aniol, K.A.; Margaziotis, D.J.; Bertin, P.Y.; Camsonne, A.; Laveissiere, G.; Bosted, P.; Paschke, K.; Calarco, J.R.; Chang, G.C.; Horn, T.; Savvinov, N.; Chang, T.-H.; Danagoulian, A.; Nathan, A.M.; Roedelbronn, M.; Chen, J.-P.

    2005-06-24

    Compton scattering from the proton was investigated at s=6.9 GeV{sup 2} and t=-4.0 GeV{sup 2} via polarization transfer from circularly polarized incident photons. The longitudinal and transverse components of the recoil proton polarization were measured. The results are in disagreement with a prediction of perturbative QCD based on a two-gluon exchange mechanism, but agree well with a prediction based on a reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton.

  2. Submillimeterwave Spectroscopy of Highly Astrophysical Interest Molecule: Hydroxyacetonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margules, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2013-06-01

    Hydroxyacetonitrile is a simple derivative of methanol. This molecule has a strong astrophysical interest. In astrophysical environment, the formation of hydroxyacetonitrile (HOCH_2CN), has been shown to compete with aminomethanol (NH_2CH_2OH), a glycine precursor, through the Strecker synthesis, in addition its photochemistry leads to the formation of formylcyanide (CHOCN), ketenimine (CH_2CNH), formaldehyde (CH_2O), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), carbon monoxyde (CO). Its detection in the ISM will provide crucial hints in the formation process of complex organic molecules. The lack of data about this molecule, only studied up to 50 GHz, is mainly due to two reasons. First, this is not commercially available, the synthesis should be perform. Second, the most stable conformer is the gauche one. This exhibits large amplitude motion due to the two equivalent configurations possible. Due to tunneling effect, each level is split into 0^+ and 0^- substates. This makes the analysis of the spectra delicate. We will report here the very first results obtained. This work was supported by the CNES and the Action sur Projets de l'INSU, PCMI. Danger, G. et al.ApJ {756}, (2012) 11 Danger, G. et al.A&A {549}, (2012) A93 Cazzoli, G. et al.J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 2 {69}, (1973) 569

  3. Highly anisotropic metasurface: a polarized beam splitter and hologram

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jun; Ye, Zhi-Cheng; Sun, Nan-Ling; Zhang, Rui; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Shieh, Han-Ping D.; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional metasurface structures have recently been proposed to reduce the challenges of fabrication of traditional plasmonic metamaterials. However, complex designs and sophisticated fabrication procedures are still required. Here, we present a unique one-dimensional (1-D) metasurface based on bilayered metallic nanowire gratings, which behaves as an ideal polarized beam splitter, producing strong negative reflection for transverse-magnetic (TM) light and efficient reflection for transverse-electric (TE) light. The large anisotropy resulting from this TE-metal-like/TM-dielectric-like feature can be explained by the dispersion curve based on the Bloch theory of periodic metal-insulator-metal waveguides. The results indicate that this photon manipulation mechanism is fundamentally different from those previously proposed for 2-D or 3-D metastructures. Based on this new material platform, a novel form of metasurface holography is proposed and demonstrated, in which an image can only be reconstructed by using a TM light beam. By reducing the metamaterial structures to 1-D, our metasurface beam splitter exhibits the qualities of cost-efficient fabrication, robust performance, and high tunability, in addition to its applicability over a wide range of working wavelengths and incident angles. This development paves a foundation for metasurface structure designs towards practical metamaterial applications. PMID:25262791

  4. Unique High-Resolution Stratospheric Observations of Polar Mesospheric Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A.; Araujo, D.; Chapman, D.; Didier, J.; Fritts, D. C.; Jones, G.; Kjellstrand, B.; Limon, M.; Lizancos, A.; Luu, T. V.; Macioce, T.; Tucker, G.; Vinokurov, J.

    2014-12-01

    We present a unique data set consisting of high-resolution optical images of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs), observed serendipitously from a stratospheric balloon platform in January of 2013. Complex morphological structures in the PMC brightness distribution provide observable consequences of the deposition of energy and momentum by atmospheric gravity waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. This data set represents the highest resolution set of optical images of this phenomenon to date, and therefore provides a unique window into the poorly understood instability and turbulent dynamics on the smallest scales (between roughly a meter and a few km). Through this analysis, morphological features identified in individual images will be compared with those predicted in numerical models in order to identify key dynamical features present in the data on these small scales. Multiple spatially-overlapping sequential images will be analyzed together in order to extract cloud velocities and to measure timescales for feature permanence. These image compilations will also be used to place the observed small-scale features in a broader context by using multiple images to re-construct larger features, as well as to compare to features simultaneously observed on much larger scales by the CIPS instrument flying on the AIM satellite.

  5. Highly circularly polarized electroluminescence from a chiral europium complex.

    PubMed

    Zinna, Francesco; Giovanella, Umberto; Di Bari, Lorenzo

    2015-03-11

    The first circularly polarized OLED (CP-OLED) based on a chiral lanthanide complex is developed. With a simple architecture, this proof-of-concept device attains the highest polarization reported so far and additionally presents the first example of a Ln-based OLED that can be turned into a CP-OLED, fully retaining the special features of Ln-based OLEDs. PMID:25604886

  6. High-Order Interference Effect Introduced by Polarization Mode Coupling in Polarization-Maintaining Fiber and Its Identification.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuang; Yang, Jun; Yu, Zhangjun; Yuan, Yonggui; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wu, Bing; Peng, Feng; Yuan, Libo

    2016-01-01

    The high-order interference (HOI)-The interferogram introduced by polarization mode couplings (PMC) of multiple perturbations-Will cause misjudgment of the realistic coupling points in polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF) which is tested with a white light interferometer (WLI) with large dynamic range. We present an optical path tracking (OPT) method for simplifying the analysis of HOI, and demonstrate the enhancement and suppression conditions for the HOIs. A strategy is proposed to readily identify HOI by altering the spliced angle between polarizers' pigtails and the PMF under test. Moreover, a PMF experiment with two perturbation points, for simplicity, is given as an example. As a result, all the characteristic interferograms including HOIs can be distinguished through just four measurements. Utilizing this identification method, we can estimate the realistic coupling points in PMFs and distinguish them from the interference signals including numerous HOIs. PMID:27011191

  7. Effectiveness of organic molecules for spin filtering in an organic spin valve: Reaction-induced spin polarization for Co atop Alq 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Tu-Ngoc; Lai, Yu-Ling; Chen, Chih-Han; Chen, Po-Hung; Chan, Yuet-Loy; Wei, Der-Hsin; Lin, Hong-Ji; Chen, C. T.; Wang, Jeng-Han; Sheu, Jeng-Tzong; Hsu, Yao-Jane

    2015-01-01

    The spin polarization of organic-ferromagnetic interfaces in an organic spin valve critically affects the efficiency of spin injection or detection. We examined the chemical and electronic properties of ferromagnetic Co deposited on organic Al q3 and the interfacial spin-polarized capability of the electronic states. Our x-ray photoemission spectra and calculations with density-functional theory indicate a sequential and unequal distribution of charge from Co clusters to N and then to O atoms in Al q3 . The preferential orbital hybridization at specific functional sites produces efficient spin polarization of organic molecules. Element-specific measurements of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism demonstrate the preferential spin polarization in the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital state of N atoms at the complex interface for Co atop Al q3 , which agrees satisfactorily with calculation. Our results indicate that an induced interfacial spin polarization on engineering the dominant reaction of Co with mainly N and O atoms in Al q3 might pave a way for effective spin filtering in organic spintronics.

  8. Spectroscopic and dynamical studies of highly energized small polyatomic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.W.; Silbey, R.J.

    1993-12-01

    The authors have initiated a program to perform spectroscopic and dynamic studies of small molecules. Large amplitude motions in excited acetylene were discussed along with plans to record the dispersed fluorescence (DF) and the stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectra. SEP spectra were reported for the formyl radical. A Fourier transform spectrometer was discussed with respect to its ability to probe the structure of radicals. This instrument is capable of performing studies using various techniques such as magnetic rotation spectroscopy and sub-Doppler sideband-OODR Zeman (SOODRZ) spectroscopy.

  9. High-power, efficient and azimuthally polarized ytterbium-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Zou, Lin; Yao, Yao; Li, Jianlang

    2015-01-15

    An ytterbium-doped fiber laser was demonstrated to emit azimuthally polarized light with high laser power and efficiency, in which a birefringent yttrium vanadate (YVO(4)) crystal was used as the intracavity polarization discriminator. The laser power reached 3.94 W with a slope efficiency of ?71%. Our study proved that an efficient, high-power vector fiber laser would be realistic under the utilization of a simple and low-cost birefringent crystal as polarization discriminator. PMID:25679851

  10. A highly selective, biofunctional surface for molecule/cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Caiazzo, Marialuisa; Alessandrini, Andrea; Facci, Paolo

    2009-02-01

    We report in this paper an approach to the effective capture of IgM antibodies from antisera and solutions based on the formation of a carpet of molecules exposing thiols off a surface. Surfaces of different nature, such as OH-exposing (glass, SiO(2), metal oxides, etc.) and noble metal ones (Au, Ag, etc.), have been first functionalized in the liquid phase by suitable chemistry [3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane or 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol]. The resulting exposed SH moieties have been further used for binding anti-A, -B, and -D IgM molecules from goat sera via a thiol exchange reaction involving the J chain and other disulfide bonds present in the IgM molecular structure. Antibodies preserve their functional activity at the surface and appear to be able to bind specifically erythrocytes of the proper group in a fast and reliable way. These results can be generalized to the use of any kind of IgM antibody and can be valuable in surface biofunctionalization in the fields of biosensors and immunoassays. PMID:20353244

  11. Compact high extinction ratio asymmetric polarization beam splitter of periodic rods waveguide.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jin; Wang, Linzhi; Yang, Chunyong; Wang, Bing; Chen, Shaoping

    2015-12-01

    A compact high extinction ratio polarization beam splitter based on an asymmetric directional coupler was proposed and theoretically investigated. The asymmetric directional coupler consists of a silicon wire waveguide and a 1D periodic silicon rods waveguide, which results in an ultracompact polarization splitting length. By using the plane wave expansion method, a minimum coupling length of 3.43?m was obtained, and the length was then confirmed by finite-difference time-domain simulation. Moreover, for 1550nm wavelength, high extinction ratios of about 28 and 18dB were also observed for TE and TM polarizations, respectively. The ultrahigh extinction ratio for TE polarization is mainly arising from the appearance of TM bandgap in the periodic rods waveguide. In addition, for both polarizations, the extinction ratios are all above 10dB covering a 180nm bandwidth, and it was also demonstrated that the device has a high transmission for TM polarization. PMID:26836688

  12. Highly stable polarization independent Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Mičuda, Michal Doláková, Ester; Straka, Ivo; Miková, Martina; Dušek, Miloslav; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Ježek, Miroslav

    2014-08-15

    We experimentally demonstrate optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer utilizing displaced Sagnac configuration to enhance its phase stability. The interferometer with footprint of 27×40 cm offers individually accessible paths and shows phase deviation less than 0.4° during a 250 s long measurement. The phase drift, evaluated by means of Allan deviation, stays below 3° or 7 nm for 1.5 h without any active stabilization. The polarization insensitive design is verified by measuring interference visibility as a function of input polarization. For both interferometer's output ports and all tested polarization states the visibility stays above 93%. The discrepancy in visibility for horizontal and vertical polarization about 3.5% is caused mainly by undesired polarization dependence of splitting ratio of the beam splitter used. The presented interferometer device is suitable for quantum-information and other sensitive applications where active stabilization is complicated and common-mode interferometer is not an option as both the interferometer arms have to be accessible individually.

  13. High-Throughput Single-Molecule Studies of Protein-DNA Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Robison, Aaron D.; Finkelstein, Ilya J.

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence and force-based single-molecule studies of protein-nucleic acid interactions continue to shed critical insights into many aspects of DNA and RNA processing. As single-molecule assays are inherently low-throughput, obtaining statistically relevant datasets remains a major challenge. Additionally, most fluorescence-based single-molecule particle-tracking assays are limited to observing fluorescent proteins that are in the low-nanomolar range, as spurious background signals predominate at higher fluorophore concentrations. These technical limitations have traditionally limited the types of questions that could be addressed via single-molecule methods. In this review, we describe new approaches for high-throughput and high-concentration single-molecule biochemical studies. We conclude with a discussion of outstanding challenges for the single-molecule biologist and how these challenges can be tackled to further approach the biochemical complexity of the cell. PMID:24859086

  14. Highly excited Rydberg electron as a spectator to an ion-molecule reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuzawa, Michio

    2010-11-15

    We have theoretically studied the conditions of the behavior of a high Rydberg electron as a spectator to an ion-molecule reaction in high Rydberg neutral collisions. Adoption of a circular high Rydberg atom in the initial channel of the high Rydberg neutral collisions ensures the behavior of the high Rydberg electron as the spectator to interaction between an ion core of the high Rydberg atom and an incoming neutral species; i.e., the ion-molecule reaction. This theoretical consideration leads to equivalence between the high Rydberg neutral collision and the ion-molecule reaction with high accuracy. This equivalence gives us a possibility of probing the ion-molecule reaction at low energies without space-charge effects encountered in ion-beam experiments.

  15. Fusion with highly spin polarized HD and D sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, A.

    1992-06-29

    This report discusses the following topics relating to inertial confinement with spin polarized hydrogen targets: low temperature implementation of mating a target to omega; dilution-refrigerator cold-entry and retrieval system; target shell tensile strength characterization at low temperatures; and proton and deuteron spin-lattice relaxation measurements in HD in the millikelvin temperature range. (LSP)

  16. Superior adsorption of pharmaceutical molecules by highly porous BN nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Lei, Weiwei; Qin, Si; Klika, Karel D; Chen, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Highly porous boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) were tested as a re-usable adsorbent for the removal of pharmaceuticals from aqueous solution. The BNNSs exhibit both unprecedentedly high adsorption capacities and excellent recyclability while maintaining their high adsorption capacity by a simple regeneration process. These advantages render BNNSs a promising material for water remediation applications. PMID:26618906

  17. Polarization-independent optical circulator for high accuracy Faraday depolarization lidar.

    PubMed

    Shiina, Tatsuo; Noguchi, Kazuo; Fukuchi, Tetsuo

    2012-03-01

    A high precision, polarization-independent optical circulator was developed for high accuracy Faraday depolarization lidar. Glan laser prisms and other novel optics were utilized in the circulator optics, resulting in a high extinction ratio of polarization of >30 dB. High accuracy is needed to detect a small rotation angle in the polarization plane of the propagating beam. It is generated by the Faraday effect due to the lightning discharge. The developed circulator delivered high performance of insertion loss and isolation as laser transmitter and echo receiver in the inline lidar optics. PMID:22410893

  18. High-throughput single-molecule screen for small-molecule perturbation of splicing and transcription kinetics.

    PubMed

    Day, Christopher R; Chen, Huimin; Coulon, Antoine; Meier, Jordan L; Larson, Daniel R

    2016-03-01

    In eukaryotes, mRNA synthesis is catalyzed by RNA polymerase II and involves several distinct steps, including transcript initiation, elongation, cleavage, and transcript release. Splicing of RNA can occur during (co-transcriptional) or after (post-transcriptional) RNA synthesis. Thus, RNA synthesis and processing occurs through the concerted activity of dozens of enzymes, each of which is potentially susceptible to perturbation by small molecules. However, there are few, if any, high-throughput screening strategies for identifying drugs which perturb a specific step in RNA synthesis and processing. Here we have developed a high-throughput fluorescence microscopy approach in single cells to screen for inhibitors of specific enzymatic steps in RNA synthesis and processing. By utilizing the high affinity interaction between bacteriophage capsid proteins (MS2, PP7) and RNA stem loops, we are able to fluorescently label the intron and exon of a ?-globin reporter gene in human cells. This approach allows one to measure the kinetics of transcription, splicing and release in both fixed and living cells using a tractable, genetically encoded assay in a stable cell line. We tested this reagent in a targeted screen of molecules that target chromatin readers and writers and identified three compounds that slow transcription elongation without changing transcription initiation. PMID:26655523

  19. Transient nonlinear dielectric relaxation and dynamic Kerr effect from sudden changes of a strong dc electric field: polar and polarizable molecules.

    PubMed

    Déjardin, J L; Déjardin, P M; Kalmykov, Y P; Titov, S V

    1999-08-01

    The nonlinear transient response of polar and polarizable particles (macromolecules) diluted in a nonpolar solvent to a sudden change both in magnitude and in direction of a strong external dc field is considered. By averaging the underlying Langevin equation, the infinite hierarchy of differential-recurrence equations for ensemble averages of the spherical harmonics is derived for an assembly of polar and anisotropically polarizable molecules pertaining to the noninertial rotational Brownian motion. On solving this hierarchy, the relaxation functions and relaxation times appropriate to the transient dynamic Kerr effect and nonlinear dielectric relaxation are calculated. The calculations are accomplished using the matrix continued fraction method, which allows us to express exactly the solution of the infinite hierarchy of differential-recurrence relations for the first- and second-order transient responses of the ensemble averages of the spherical harmonics (relaxation functions). The results are then compared with available experimental data and solutions previously obtained for various particular cases. PMID:11969906

  20. Extracting an electron's angle of return from shifted interference patterns in macroscopic high-order-harmonic spectra of diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, T.; Augstein, B. B.; Figueira de Morisson Faria, C.; Chipperfield, L. E.; Hoffmann, D. J.; Marangos, J. P.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate high-order-harmonic spectra from aligned diatomic molecules in intense driving fields whose components have orthogonal polarizations. We focus on how the driving-field ellipticity influences structural interference patterns in a macroscopic medium. In a previous publication [Phys. Rev. A 88, 023404 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.023404] we have shown that the nonvanishing ellipticity introduces an effective dynamic shift in the angle for which the two-center interference maxima and minima occur, with regard to the existing condition for linearly polarized fields. In this work we show through simulation that it is still possible to observe this shift in harmonic spectra that have undergone macroscopic propagation, and discuss the parameter range for doing so. These features are investigated for H2 in a bichromatic field composed of two orthogonally polarized waves. The shift is visible both in the near- and in the far-field regime, so that, in principle, it can be observed in experiments.

  1. Investigation of parameter-free model polarization potentials for electron-molecule scattering calculations including the nuclear motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Michael A.; Saha, Bidhan C.

    1986-10-01

    A correlation-polarization potential originally introduced by O'Connell and Lane [Phys. Rev. A 27, 1893 (1983)] is used in e-H2 scattering calculations in which the vibrational motion of the target is taken into account. Eigenphase sums (as a function of internuclear separation) and cross sections for elastic scattering and for rovibrational excitations are compared to their counterparts calculated using the ab initio nonadiabatic model polarization potential of Gibson and Morrison [Phys. Rev. A 29, 2497 (1984)]. At low energies, these scattering quantities are found to be quite sensitive to the treatment of polarization. To assess these model potentials, theoretical total, momentum transfer, and rotational- and vibrational-excitation cross sections are compared to experimental data.

  2. Vibrational energy storage in high pressure mixtures of diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plnjes, Elke; Palm, Peter; Lee, Wonchul; Chidley, Matthew D.; Adamovich, Igor V.; Lempert, Walter R.; Rich, J. William

    2000-10-01

    CO/N 2, CO/Ar/O 2, and CO/N 2/O 2 gas mixtures are optically pumped using a continuous wave CO laser. Carbon monoxide molecules absorb the laser radiation and transfer energy to nitrogen and oxygen by vibration-vibration energy exchange. Infrared emission and spontaneous Raman spectroscopy are used for diagnostics of optically pumped gases. The experiments demonstrate that strong vibrational disequilibrium can be sustained in diatomic gas mixtures at pressures up to 1 atm, with only a few Watts laser power available. At these conditions, measured first level vibrational temperatures of diatomic species are in the range TV=1900-2300 K for N 2, TV=2600-3800 K for CO, and TV=2200-2800 K for O 2. The translational-rotational temperature of the gases does not exceed T=700 K. Line-of-sight averaged CO vibrational level populations up to v=40 are inferred from infrared emission spectra. Vibrational level populations of CO ( v=0-8), N 2 ( v=0-4), and O 2 ( v=0-8) near the axis of the focused CO laser beam are inferred from the Raman spectra of these species. The results demonstrate a possibility of sustaining stable nonequilibrium plasmas in atmospheric pressure air seeded with a few percent of carbon monoxide. The obtained experimental data are compared with modeling calculations that incorporate both major processes of molecular energy transfer and diffusion of vibrationally excited species across the spatially nonuniform excitation region, showing reasonably good agreement.

  3. High-Throughput Screening of Small Molecules Identifies Hepcidin Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Eileen; Sugianto, Priscilla; Hsu, Jason; Damoiseaux, Robert; Ganz, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Anemia of inflammation (AI) is common in patients with infection, autoimmune diseases, cancer, and chronic kidney disease. Unless the underlying condition can be reversed, treatment options are limited to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents with or without intravenous iron therapy, modalities that are not always effective and can cause serious adverse effects. Hepcidin, the iron regulatory hormone, has been identified as a pathogenic factor in the development of AI. To explore new therapeutic options for AI and other iron-related disorders caused by hepcidin excess, we developed a cell-based screen to identify hepcidin antagonists. Of the 70,000 small molecules in the library, we identified 14 compounds that antagonized the hepcidin effect on ferroportin. One of these was fursultiamine, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)approved thiamine derivative. Fursultiamine directly interfered with hepcidin binding to its receptor, ferroportin, by blocking ferroportin C326 thiol residue essential for hepcidin binding. Consequently, fursultiamine prevented hepcidin-induced ferroportin ubiquitination, endocytosis, and degradation in vitro and allowed continuous cellular iron export despite the presence of hepcidin, with IC50 in the submicromolar range. Thiamine, the fursultiamine metabolite, and benfotiamine, another thiamine derivative, did not interfere with the effect of hepcidin on ferroportin. Other FDA-approved thiol-reactive compounds were at least 1000-fold less potent than fursultiamine in antagonizing hepcidin. In vivo, fursultiamine did not reproducibly antagonize the effect of hepcidin on serum iron, likely because of its rapid conversion to inactive metabolites. Fursultiamine is a unique antagonist of hepcidin in vitro that could serve as a template for the development of drug candidates that inhibit the hepcidin-ferroportin interaction. PMID:23292796

  4. Quantum coherent π-electron rotations in a non-planar chiral molecule induced by using a linearly polarized UV laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineo, Hirobumi; Fujimura, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    We propose an ultrafast quantum switching method of π-electron rotations, which are switched among four rotational patterns in a nonplanar chiral aromatic molecule (P)-2,2’- biphenol and perform the sequential switching among four rotational patterns which are performed by the overlapped pump-dump laser pulses. Coherent π-electron dynamics are generated by applying the linearly polarized UV pulse laser to create a pair of coherent quasidegenerated excited states. We also plot the time-dependent π-electron ring current, and discussed ring current transfer between two aromatic rings.

  5. Benchmarking Ground-State Geometries and Vertical Excitation Energies of a Selection of P-Type Semiconducting Molecules with Different Polarity.

    PubMed

    Brckner, Charlotte; Engels, Bernd

    2015-12-24

    A benchmark of TD-DFT, wave function-based and semiempiric methods was performed for the geometries and excitation energies of diverse molecular organic semiconductors with varying polarity. Geometries were benchmarked by means of RMSD (root-mean-square deviation) values and MAE (maximum absolute error) values of geometric parameters specific for the electronic structure of the respective molecule. MS-CASPT2 calculations were used to benchmark excitation energies with respect to a confidence interval around the values obtained with CASPT2. The effect of spin-component scaling (SCS) on several wave function-based methods was thoroughly evaluated. PMID:26625100

  6. Spectroscopy, reaction, and photodissociation in highly vibrationally excited molecules. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    Highly vibrationally excited molecules often control the course of chemical reactions in the atmosphere, combustion, plasmas, and many other environments. The research described in this Progress Report uses laser excitation and interrogation techniques to study and control the dynamics of highly vibrationally excited molecules. In particular, they show that it is possible to unravel the details and influence the course of photodissociation and bimolecular reaction. The experiments use laser excitation of overtone vibrations to prepare highly vibrationally excited molecules, frequently with single quantum state resolution, and laser spectroscopy to monitor the subsequent behavior of the excited molecule. We have studied the vibrationally mediated photodissociation and the bond- and state-selected bimolecular reaction of highly vibrationally excited molecules. In the first process, one photon creates a highly excited molecule, a second photon from another laser dissociates it, and light from a third laser detects the population of individual product quantum states. This approach allows us to explore otherwise inaccessible regions of the ground and excited state potential energy surface and, by exciting to the proper regions of the surface, to control the breaking of a selected chemical bond. In the second process, the highly vibrationally excited molecule reacts with an atom formed either in a microwave discharge or by photolysis and another laser interrogates the products. We have used this approach to demonstrate mode- and bond-selected bimolecular reactions in which the initial excitation controls the subsequent chemistry. 30 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Toward the Extension of High Order Harmonic Spectroscopy to Complex Molecules: Investigation of Aligned Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vozzi, C.; Torres, R.; Negro, M.; Brugnera, L.; Siegel, T.; Altucci, C.; Velotta, R.; Frassetto, F.; Villoresi, P.; Poletto, L.; De Silvestri, S.; Marangos, J. P.; Stagira, S.

    High-order harmonic generation is as a powerful tool for the study of molecular properties. Up to now this investigation tool has been confined to simple molecules, with a relatively high ionization potential, since ionization saturation hindered its exploitation to fragile molecules. In this work we show that such limitation can be overcome by using mid-IR ultrashort driving pulses; as prototypical molecules we considered hydrocarbons. Clear signatures of the highest occupied molecular orbital were found in the harmonic spectra generated in unsaturated aligned hydrocarbons like acetylene, ethylene, allene and 1,3-butadiene. Our findings demonstrate that high-order harmonic generation spectroscopy can be extended to complex molecular species.

  8. Highly mobile vortex structures inside polar twin boundaries in SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zykova-Timan, Tatyana; Salje, Ekhard K. H.

    2014-02-01

    We present computer simulations of previously unknown polarization singularities (vortexes) inside polar SrTiO3 twin boundaries. Usually polarity in twin walls is ferri-electric, whereas vortex excitations lead to true ferroelectricity on a very local scale. As a result, in-plane electric fields can selectively stabilize one of the vortex polarization states and enhance the ability of the walls to move. This behavior can explain the well-known and uniquely high, mobility of twin boundaries in SrTiO3. For nanoscale ferroelectric memory devices, we envisage a precisely controllable device, where a desired domain wall pattern is manipulated by shifting the vortex position electrically.

  9. High-resolution observations of the polar magnetic fields of the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, H.; Varsik, J.; Zirin, H.

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution magnetograms of the solar polar region were used for the study of the polar magnetic field. In contrast to low-resolution magnetograph observations which measure the polar magnetic field averaged over a large area, we focused our efforts on the properties of the small magnetic elements in the polar region. Evolution of the filling factor (the ratio of the area occupied by the magnetic elements to the total area) of these magnetic elements, as well as the average magnetic field strength, were studied during the maximum and declining phase of solar cycle 22, from early 1991 to mid-1993. We found that during the sunspot maximum period, the polar regions were occupied by about equal numbers of positive and negative magnetic elements, with equal average field strength. As the solar cycle progresses toward sunspot minimum, the magnetic field elements in the polar region become predominantly of one polarity. The average magnetic field of the dominant polarity elements also increases with the filling factor. In the meanwhile, both the filling factor and the average field strength of the non-dominant polarity elements decrease. The combined effects of the changing filling factors and average field strength produce the observed evolution of the integrated polar flux over the solar cycle. We compared the evolutionary histories of both filling factor and average field strength, for regions of high (70-80 deg) and low (60-70 deg) latitudes. For the south pole, we found no significant evidence of difference in the time of reversal. However, the low-latitude region of the north pole did reverse polarity much earlier than the high-latitude region. It later showed an oscillatory behavior. We suggest this may be caused by the poleward migration of flux from a large active region in 1989 with highly imbalanced flux.

  10. Automated High Resolution Optical Mapping Using Arrayed, Fluid-Fixed DNA Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Junping; Reed, Jason; Huang, John; Hu, Xinghua; Clarke, Virginia; Edington, Joanne; Housman, Dan; Anantharaman, Thomas S.; Huff, Edward J.; Mishra, Bud; Porter, Brett; Shenker, Alexander; Wolfson, Estarose; Hiort, Catharina; Kantor, Ron; Aston, Christopher; Schwartz, David C.

    1998-07-01

    New mapping approaches construct ordered restriction maps from fluorescence microscope images of individual, endonuclease-digested DNA molecules. In optical mapping, molecules are elongated and fixed onto derivatized glass surfaces, preserving biochemical accessibility and fragment order after enzymatic digestion. Measurements of relative fluorescence intensity and apparent length determine the sizes of restriction fragments, enabling ordered map construction without electrophoretic analysis. The optical mapping system reported here is based on our physical characterization of an effect using fluid flows developed within tiny, evaporating droplets to elongate and fix DNA molecules onto derivatized surfaces. Such evaporation-driven molecular fixation produces well elongated molecules accessible to restriction endonucleases, and notably, DNA polymerase I. We then developed the robotic means to grid DNA spots in well defined arrays that are digested and analyzed in parallel. To effectively harness this effect for high-throughput genome mapping, we developed: (i) machine vision and automatic image acquisition techniques to work with fixed, digested molecules within gridded samples, and (ii) Bayesian inference approaches that are used to analyze machine vision data, automatically producing high-resolution restriction maps from images of individual DNA molecules. The aggregate significance of this work is the development of an integrated system for mapping small insert clones allowing biochemical data obtained from engineered ensembles of individual molecules to be automatically accumulated and analyzed for map construction. These approaches are sufficiently general for varied biochemical analyses of individual molecules using statistically meaningful population sizes.

  11. Automated high resolution optical mapping using arrayed, fluid-fixed DNA molecules

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Junping; Reed, Jason; Huang, John; Hu, Xinghua; Clarke, Virginia; Edington, Joanne; Housman, Dan; Anantharaman, Thomas S.; Huff, Edward J.; Mishra, Bud; Porter, Brett; Shenker, Alexander; Wolfson, Estarose; Hiort, Catharina; Kantor, Ron; Aston, Christopher; Schwartz, David C.

    1998-01-01

    New mapping approaches construct ordered restriction maps from fluorescence microscope images of individual, endonuclease-digested DNA molecules. In optical mapping, molecules are elongated and fixed onto derivatized glass surfaces, preserving biochemical accessibility and fragment order after enzymatic digestion. Measurements of relative fluorescence intensity and apparent length determine the sizes of restriction fragments, enabling ordered map construction without electrophoretic analysis. The optical mapping system reported here is based on our physical characterization of an effect using fluid flows developed within tiny, evaporating droplets to elongate and fix DNA molecules onto derivatized surfaces. Such evaporation-driven molecular fixation produces well elongated molecules accessible to restriction endonucleases, and notably, DNA polymerase I. We then developed the robotic means to grid DNA spots in well defined arrays that are digested and analyzed in parallel. To effectively harness this effect for high-throughput genome mapping, we developed: (i) machine vision and automatic image acquisition techniques to work with fixed, digested molecules within gridded samples, and (ii) Bayesian inference approaches that are used to analyze machine vision data, automatically producing high-resolution restriction maps from images of individual DNA molecules. The aggregate significance of this work is the development of an integrated system for mapping small insert clones allowing biochemical data obtained from engineered ensembles of individual molecules to be automatically accumulated and analyzed for map construction. These approaches are sufficiently general for varied biochemical analyses of individual molecules using statistically meaningful population sizes. PMID:9653137

  12. Non-collinear generation of angularly isolated circularly polarized high harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickstein, Daniel D.; Dollar, Franklin J.; Grychtol, Patrik; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Shaw, Justin M.; Fan, Tingting; Dorney, Kevin M.; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.; Durfee, Charles G.

    2015-11-01

    We generate angularly isolated beams of circularly polarized extreme ultraviolet light through the first implementation of non-collinear high harmonic generation with circularly polarized driving lasers. This non-collinear technique offers numerous advantages over previous methods, including the generation of higher photon energies, the separation of the harmonics from the pump beam, the production of both left and right circularly polarized harmonics at the same wavelength and the capability of separating the harmonics without using a spectrometer. To confirm the circular polarization of the beams and to demonstrate the practicality of this new light source, we measure the magnetic circular dichroism of a 20 nm iron film. Furthermore, we explain the mechanisms of non-collinear high harmonic generation using analytical descriptions in both the photon and wave models. Advanced numerical simulations indicate that this non-collinear mixing enables the generation of isolated attosecond pulses with circular polarization.

  13. Single molecule investigations of DNA looping using the tethered particle method and translocation by acto-myosin using polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beausang, John F.

    Single molecule biophysics aims to understand biological processes by studying them at the single molecule level in real time. The proteins and nucleic acids under investigation typically exist in an aqueous environment within ten degrees of room temperature. These seemingly benign conditions are actually quite chaotic at the nanoscale, where single bio-molecules perform their function. As a result, sensitive experiments and statistical analyses are required to separate the weak single molecule signal from its background. Protein-DNA interactions were investigated by monitoring DNA looping events in tethered particle experiments. A new analysis technique, called the Diffusive hidden Markov method, was developed to extract kinetic rate constants from experimental data without any filtering of the raw data; a common step that improves the signal to noise ratio, but at the expense of lower time resolution. In the second system, translocation of the molecular motor myosin along its actin filament track was studied using polarized total internal reflection (polTIRF) microscopy, a technique that determines the orientation and wobble of a single fluorophore attached to the bio-molecule of interest. The range of resolvable angles was increased 4-fold to include a hemisphere of possible orientations. As a result, the handedness of actin filament twirling as it translocated along a myosin-coated surface was determined to be left-handed. The maximum time resolution of a polTIRF setup was increased 50-fold, in part by recording the arrival times and polarization state of single photons using a modified time-correlated single photon counting device. A new analysis, the Multiple Intensity Change Point algorithm, was developed to detect changes in molecular orientation and wobble using the raw time-stamped data with no user-defined bins or thresholds. The analysis objectively identified changes in the orientation of a bifunctional-rhodamine labeled calmodulin that was attached to a myosin V molecule translocating along an actin filament. Long intervals corresponding to stable positions between tilting motions of the lever arm during each step were routinely observed. Substeps in the cycle that preceded these long dwells were measured, but only occasionally most likely because of the low number of photons detected during these rapid events.

  14. Can ferroelectric polarization explain the high performance of hybrid halide perovskite solar cells?

    PubMed

    Sherkar, Tejas S; Jan Anton Koster, L

    2016-01-01

    The power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells based on the use of hybrid halide perovskites, CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I), now exceeds 20%. Recently, it was suggested that this high performance originates from the presence of ferroelectricity in the perovskite, which is hypothesized to lower charge recombination in the device. Here, we investigate and quantify the influence of mesoscale ferroelectric polarization on the device performance of perovskite solar cells. We implement a 3D drift diffusion model to describe the solar cell operation. To account for the mesoscale ferroelectricity, we incorporate domains defined by polarization strength, P, in 3D space, forming different polarization landscapes or microstructures. Study of microstructures with highly-ordered polarized domains shows that charge transport and recombination in the solar cell depends significantly on the polarization landscape viz. the orientation of domain boundaries and the size of domains. In the case of the microstructure with random correlated polarization, a realistic scenario, we find indication of the existence of channels for efficient charge transport in the device which leads to lowering of charge recombination, as evidenced by the high fill factor (FF). However, the high open-circuit voltage (VOC), which is typical of high performance perovskite solar cells, is unlikely to be explained by the presence of ferroelectric polarization in the perovskite. PMID:26612111

  15. A high-throughput screening fluorescence polarization assay for fatty acid adenylating enzymes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Kimberly D.; Aldrich, Courtney C.

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), encodes for an astonishing 34 fatty acid adenylating enzymes (FadDs), which play key roles in lipid metabolism. FadDs involved in lipid biosynthesis are functionally nonredundant and serve to link fatty acid and polyketide synthesis to produce some of the most architecturally complex natural lipids including the essential mycolic acids as well as the virulence-conferring phthiocerol dimycocerosates, phenolic glycolipids, and mycobactins. Here we describe the systematic development and optimization of a fluorescence polarization assay to identify small molecule inhibitors as potential antitubercular agents. We fluorescently labeled a bisubstrate inhibitor to generate a fluorescent probe/tracer, which bound with a KD of 245 nM to FadD28. Next, we evaluated assay performance by competitive binding experiments with a series of known ligands and assessed the impact of control parameters including incubation time, stability of the signal, temperature, and DMSO concentration. As a final level of validation the LOPAC1280 library was screened in a 384-well plate format and the assay performed with a Z-factor of 0.75 demonstrating its readiness for high-throughput screening. PMID:21771578

  16. Lossless compression of high resolution mass spectra of small molecules

    PubMed Central

    Blanckenburg, Bo; van der Burgt, Yuri E. M.; Deelder, Andr M.

    2010-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) provides the highest resolving power of any commercially available mass spectrometer. This advantage is most significant for species of low mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), such as metabolites. Unfortunately, FTICR spectra contain a very large number of data points, most of which are noise. This is most pronounced at the low m/z end of spectra, where data point density is the highest but peak density low. We therefore developed a filter that offers lossless compression of FTICR mass spectra from singly charged metabolites. The filter relies on the high resolving power and mass measurement precision of FTICR and removes only those m/z channels that cannot contain signal from singly charged organic species. The resulting pseudospectra still contain the same signal as the original spectra but less uninformative background. The filter does not affect the outcome of standard downstream chemometric analysis methods, such as principal component analysis, but use of the filter significantly reduces memory requirements and CPU time for such analyses. We demonstrate the utility of the filter for urinary metabolite profiling using direct infusion electrospray ionization and a 15 tesla FTICR mass spectrometer. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-010-0202-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20676216

  17. Effects of atomic hydrogen and deuterium exposure on high polarization GaAs photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    M. Baylac; P. Adderley; J. Brittian; J. Clark; T. Day; J. Grames; J. Hansknecht; M. Poelker; M. Stutzman; A. T. Wu; A. S. Terekhov

    2005-12-01

    Strained-layer GaAs and strained-superlattice GaAs photocathodes are used at Jefferson Laboratory to create high average current beams of highly spin-polarized electrons. High electron yield, or quantum efficiency (QE), is obtained only when the photocathode surface is atomically clean. For years, exposure to atomic hydrogen or deuterium has been the photocathode cleaning technique employed at Jefferson Laboratory. This work demonstrates that atomic hydrogen cleaning is not necessary when precautions are taken to ensure that clean photocathode material from the vendor is not inadvertently dirtied while samples are prepared for installation inside photoemission guns. Moreover, this work demonstrates that QE and beam polarization can be significantly reduced when clean high-polarization photocathode material is exposed to atomic hydrogen from an rf dissociator-style atomic hydrogen source. Surface analysis provides some insight into the mechanisms that degrade QE and polarization due to atomic hydrogen cleaning.

  18. Polarization and correlation studies on the electron capture into highly-charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, S.; Surzhykov, A.; Sthlker, Th.

    2003-12-01

    The recent progress in studying the electron capture into bare, high-Z ions is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the polarization of the emitted radiation and the angle-angle correlations as could be observed in coincidence experiments.

  19. Comparison of the polarization properties in the retinas of different rodents using high resolution polarization sensitive OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fialová, Stanislava; Augustin, Marco; Plasenzotti, Roberto; Rauscher, Sabine; Gröger, Marion; Pircher, Michael; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Baumann, Bernhard

    2015-07-01

    Animal models play an important role for understanding the pathophysiology of glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. With these models, longitudinal studies can be performed and therefore there is need for non-invasive evaluation of disease progress. For that purpose optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used. Since tissues with different polarization properties are important in these diseases, polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) could be a valuable tool in preclinical research. In this work a high resolution PS-OCT (HR-PS-OCT) system was used in-vivo for rodent retinal imaging. A super luminescent diode with a bandwidth of 100 nm was used as a light source that yielded an axial resolution of 5.1 μm in air (3.8 μm in tissue). The A-scan rate was 83 kHz, a whole 3D dataset was acquired in a few seconds (1536x1024x200 pixels in 3.5 s) which reduced motion artifacts. Rats (Sprague-Dawley, Long-Evans and Brown Norway) as well as mice (C57BL/6) were imaged. High resolution reflectivity images showed all retinal layers in all animals. From acquired data also phase retardation, fast axis orientation and degree of polarization uniformity (DOPU) images were calculated. On phase retardation images sclera was identified as birefringent and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid as depolarizing tissues. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the system for high speed/resolution imaging in follow up studies on rodents.

  20. A highly parallel microfluidic droplet method enabling single-molecule counting for digital enzyme detection

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zhichao; Zou, Yuan; Zhang, Mingxia; Lv, Jiangquan; Shen, Huali; Yang, Pengyuan; Zhang, Huimin; Zhu, Zhi; James Yang, Chaoyong

    2014-01-01

    Although digital detection of nucleic acids has been achieved by amplification of single templates in uniform microfluidic droplets and widely used for genetic analysis, droplet-based digital detection of proteins has rarely been reported, largely due to the lack of an efficient target amplification method for protein in droplets. Here, we report a key step towards digital detection of proteins using a highly parallel microfluidic droplet approach for single enzyme molecule detection in picoliter droplets via enzyme catalyzed signal amplification. An integrated microfluidic chip was designed for high throughput uniform droplet generation, monolayer droplet collection, incubation, detection, and release. Single ?-galatosidase (?-Gal) molecules and the fluorogenic substrate fluorescein di-?-D-galactopyranoside were injected from two separated inlets to form uniform 20??m droplets in fluorinated oil at a frequency of 6.6?kHz. About 200?000 droplets were captured as a monolayer in a capture well on-chip for subsequent imaging detection. A series of ?-Gal solutions at different concentrations were analyzed at the single-molecule level. With no enzyme present, no droplets were found to fluoresce, while brightly fluorescent droplets were observed under single-enzyme molecule conditions. Droplet fluorescence intensity distribution analysis showed that the distribution of enzyme molecules under single-molecule conditions matched well with theoretical prediction, further proving the feasibility of detecting single enzyme molecules in emulsion droplets. Moreover, the population of fluorescent droplets increased as the ?-Gal concentration increased. Based on a digital counting method, the measured concentrations of the enzyme were found to match well with input enzyme concentration, establishing the accuracy of the digital detection method for the quantification of ?-Gal enzyme molecules. The capability of highly parallel detection of single enzyme molecules in uniform picoliter droplets paves the way to microdroplet based digital detection of proteins. PMID:24753730

  1. Measurements of skylight polarization: a case study in urban region with high-loading aerosol.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lianghai; Gao, Jun; Fan, Zhiguo; Zhang, Jun

    2015-02-01

    We investigate skylight polarization patterns in an urban region using our developed full-Stokes imaging polarimeter. A detailed description of our imaging polarimeter and its calibration are given, then, we measure skylight polarization patterns at wavelength ?=488??nm and at solar elevation between -0510' and +3542' in the city of Hefei, China. We show that in an urban region with high-loading aerosols: (1) the measured degree of linear polarization reaches the maximum near sunset, and large areas of unpolarized sky exist in the forward sunlight direction close to the Sun; (2) the position of neural points shifts from the local meridian plane and, if compared with a clear sky, alters the symmetrical characteristics of celestial polarization pattern; and (3) the observed circular polarization component is negligible. PMID:25967834

  2. Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbabi, Amir; Horie, Yu; Bagheri, Mahmood; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-11-01

    Metasurfaces are planar structures that locally modify the polarization, phase and amplitude of light in reflection or transmission, thus enabling lithographically patterned flat optical components with functionalities controlled by design. Transmissive metasurfaces are especially important, as most optical systems used in practice operate in transmission. Several types of transmissive metasurface have been realized, but with either low transmission efficiencies or limited control over polarization and phase. Here, we show a metasurface platform based on high-contrast dielectric elliptical nanoposts that provides complete control of polarization and phase with subwavelength spatial resolution and an experimentally measured efficiency ranging from 72% to 97%, depending on the exact design. Such complete control enables the realization of most free-space transmissive optical elements such as lenses, phase plates, wave plates, polarizers, beamsplitters, as well as polarization-switchable phase holograms and arbitrary vector beam generators using the same metamaterial platform.

  3. Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission.

    PubMed

    Arbabi, Amir; Horie, Yu; Bagheri, Mahmood; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-11-01

    Metasurfaces are planar structures that locally modify the polarization, phase and amplitude of light in reflection or transmission, thus enabling lithographically patterned flat optical components with functionalities controlled by design. Transmissive metasurfaces are especially important, as most optical systems used in practice operate in transmission. Several types of transmissive metasurface have been realized, but with either low transmission efficiencies or limited control over polarization and phase. Here, we show a metasurface platform based on high-contrast dielectric elliptical nanoposts that provides complete control of polarization and phase with subwavelength spatial resolution and an experimentally measured efficiency ranging from 72% to 97%, depending on the exact design. Such complete control enables the realization of most free-space transmissive optical elements such as lenses, phase plates, wave plates, polarizers, beamsplitters, as well as polarization-switchable phase holograms and arbitrary vector beam generators using the same metamaterial platform. PMID:26322944

  4. Magnetic anisotropy and high-spin effects in single-molecule transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyazin, Alexander; van den Berg, Johan; Osorio, Edgar; Konstantinidis, Nikos; Leijnse, Martin; May, Falk; Hofstetter, Walter; Danieli, Chiara; Cornia, Andrea; Wegewijs, Maarten; van der Zant, Herre

    2011-03-01

    Fabrication of single-molecule transistors where electron transport occurs through an individual molecule has become possible due to the recent progress in molecular electronics. Three-terminal configuration allows charging molecules and performing transport spectroscopy in multiple redox states. Single-molecule magnets combining large spin with uniaxial anisotropy are of special interest as appealing candidates for high density memory applications and quantum information processing. We study single-molecule magnets Fe 4 . Three-terminal junctions are fabricated using electromigration of gold nanowires followed by a self-breaking. High-spin Kondo effect and inelastic cotunneling excitations show up in transport measurements. Several excitations feature the energy close to the energy of zero-field splitting (ZFS) of a ground spin multiplet in bulk. This splitting is caused by the anisotropy and is a hallmark of single-molecule magnets. We observe nonlinear Zeeman effect due to a misalignment of an anisotropy axis and a magnetic field direction. The ZFS energy is increased in oxidized and reduced states of the molecule indicating enhancement of the anisotropy in these states.

  5. HIGH-ENTROPY POLAR REGIONS AROUND THE FIRST PROTOSTARS

    SciTech Connect

    Turk, Matthew J.; Norman, Michael L.; Abel, Tom

    2010-12-20

    We report on simulations of the formation of the first stars in the universe, where we identify regions of hot atomic gas (f{sub H{sub 2}}< 10{sup -6}) at densities above 10{sup -14} g cm{sup -3}, heated to temperatures ranging between 3000 and 8000 K. Within this temperature range atomic hydrogen is unable to cool effectively. We describe the kinetic and thermal characteristics of these regions and investigate their origin. We find that these regions, while small in total mass fraction of the cloud, may be dynamically important over the accretion timescale for the central clump in the cloud, particularly as a chemical, rather than a radiative, mechanism for clearing the polar regions of the accretion disk of material and terminating accretion along these directions. These inherently three-dimensional effects stress the need for multi-dimensional calculations of protostellar accretion for reliable predictions of the masses of the very first stars.

  6. Self-assembled structures formed by a wedge-shaped molecule in 2D and 3D: the role of flexible side chains and polar head groups.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaomin; Mourran, Ahmed; Beginn, Uwe; Mller, Martin; Anokhin, Denis V; Ivanov, Dimitri A

    2010-02-21

    A wedge-shaped amphiphilic molecule, 3,4,5-tridodecyloxycinnamic acid, was used as a model system to explore the role of different constitutive elements of the chemical structure in the formation of 2D and 3D self-assemblies. The polar heads forming cyclic hydrogen-bonded dimers determine the two largest unit cell parameters, which depend only slightly on the dimensionality of the system (i.e. 2D versus 3D) and on the sample thermal history. By contrast, the structure of the alkyl side chains is very sensitive to the phase transformations, and is likely to be responsible for the rich polymorphic behaviour of the studied compound. Thus, in the monotropic SmC phase, the alkyl chains form a liquid-crystalline sub-lattice with hexagonal symmetry that can further crystallize either in a triclinic sub-cell (metastable crystalline phase) or in an orthorhombic sub-cell (stable crystalline phase). In 2D, at the interface with the graphite surface the molecular orientation is guided by the epitaxy. Although the largest lattice parameters are close to those in the bulk, the alkyl chains adopt a particular alternating orientation. In one molecule of the dimer, two alkyl chains have their molecular planes parallel to the substrate while the third chain is perpendicular to it, and the other way around for the other molecule of the dimer. To our knowledge, such alternating orientation of the alkyl chains in the monolayer is reported for the first time. PMID:20126757

  7. Reexamining the high-order harmonic generation of HD molecule in non-Born-Oppenheimer approximation.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongchuan; Yue, Shengjun; Wang, Huiqiao; Wu, Hongmei; Hu, Bitao

    2016-03-21

    The high-order harmonic generation of the HD molecule is studied in non-Born-Oppenheimer approximation. It is found that there are only the odd harmonics in the harmonic spectrum of the HD molecule though the generation of even harmonics is possible in principle. Theoretical analysis [T. Kreibich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 103901 (2001)] reveals that the nuclear dipole moment can contribute to the generation of the even harmonics, but the acceleration of the nucleus is about three orders of magnitude less than that of the electron. Hence, the even harmonics cannot be observed in the harmonic spectrum of the HD molecule. PMID:27004877

  8. Ultra high-throughput single molecule spectroscopy with a 1024 pixel SPAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colyer, Ryan A.; Scalia, Giuseppe; Villa, Federica A.; Guerrieri, Fabrizio; Tisa, Simone; Zappa, Franco; Cova, Sergio; Weiss, Shimon; Michalet, Xavier

    2011-03-01

    Single-molecule spectroscopy is a powerful approach to measuring molecular properties such as size, brightness, conformation, and binding constants. Due to the low concentrations in the single-molecule regime, measurements with good statistical accuracy require long acquisition times. Previously we showed a factor of 8 improvement in acquisition speed using a custom-CMOS 8x1 SPAD array. Here we present preliminary results with a 64X improvement in throughput obtained using a liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator (LCOS-SLM) and a novel standard CMOS 1024 pixel SPAD array, opening the way to truly high-throughput single-molecule spectroscopy.

  9. Ultra high-throughput single molecule spectroscopy with a 1024 pixel SPAD

    PubMed Central

    Colyer, Ryan A.; Scalia, Giuseppe; Villa, Federica A.; Guerrieri, Fabrizio; Tisa, Simone; Zappa, Franco; Cova, Sergio; Weiss, Shimon; Michalet, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Single-molecule spectroscopy is a powerful approach to measuring molecular properties such as size, brightness, conformation, and binding constants. Due to the low concentrations in the single-molecule regime, measurements with good statistical accuracy require long acquisition times. Previously we showed a factor of 8 improvement in acquisition speed using a custom-CMOS 8x1 SPAD array. Here we present preliminary results with a 64X improvement in throughput obtained using a liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator (LCOS-SLM) and a novel standard CMOS 1024 pixel SPAD array, opening the way to truly high-throughput single-molecule spectroscopy. PMID:24386535

  10. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J.; Mancuso, Christopher A.; Hogle, Craig W.; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Dorney, Kevin M.; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G.; Fullerton, Eric E.; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Milošević, Dejan B.; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A.; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform. PMID:26534992

  11. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J; Mancuso, Christopher A; Hogle, Craig W; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L; Dorney, Kevin M; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G; Fullerton, Eric E; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M; Milošević, Dejan B; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C

    2015-11-17

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform. PMID:26534992

  12. Gamma-ray polarization of the synchrotron self-compton process from a highly relativistic jet

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Zhe; Lin, Hai-Nan

    2014-11-01

    The high polarization observed in the prompt phase of some gamma-ray bursts invites extensive study of the emission mechanism. In this paper, we investigate the polarization properties of the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) process from a highly relativistic jet. A magnetic-dominated, baryon-loaded jet ejected from the central engine travels with a large Lorentz factor. Shells with slightly different velocities collide with each other and produce shocks. The shocks accelerate electrons to a power-law distribution and, at the same time, magnify the magnetic field. Electrons move in the magnetic field and produce synchrotron photons. Synchrotron photons suffer from the Compton scattering (CS) process and then are detected by an observer located slightly off-axis. We analytically derive the formulae of photon polarization in the SSC process in two magnetic configurations: a magnetic field in the shock plane and perpendicular to the shock plane. We show that photons induced by the SSC process can be highly polarized, with the maximum polarization Π ∼ 24% in the energy band [0.5, 5] MeV. The polarization depends on the viewing angles, peaking in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. In the energy band [0.05, 0.5] MeV, in which most γ-ray polarimeters are active, the polarization is about twice that in the Thomson limit, reaching Π ∼ 20%. This implies that the Klein-Nishina effect, which is often neglected in the literature, should be carefully considered.

  13. Interplay of the Kondo effect and spin-polarized transport in magnetic molecules, adatoms, and quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Misiorny, Maciej; Weymann, Ireneusz; Barna?, Jzef

    2011-03-25

    We study the interplay of the Kondo effect and spin-polarized tunneling in a class of systems exhibiting uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. Using the numerical renormalization group method we calculate the spectral functions and linear conductance in the Kondo regime. We show that the exchange coupling between conducting electrons and localized magnetic core generally leads to suppression of the Kondo effect. We also predict a nontrivial dependence of the tunnel magnetoresistance on the strength of exchange coupling and on the anisotropy constant. PMID:21517336

  14. Exchange Coupling Inversion in a High-Spin Organic Triradical Molecule.

    PubMed

    Gaudenzi, R; Burzurí, E; Reta, D; Moreira, I de P R; Bromley, S T; Rovira, C; Veciana, J; van der Zant, H S J

    2016-03-01

    The magnetic properties of a nanoscale system are inextricably linked to its local environment. In adatoms on surfaces and inorganic layered structures, the exchange interactions result from the relative lattice positions, layer thicknesses, and other environmental parameters. Here, we report on a sample-dependent sign inversion of the magnetic exchange coupling between the three unpaired spins of an organic triradical molecule embedded in a three-terminal device. This ferro-to-antiferromagnetic transition is due to structural distortions and results in a high-to-low spin ground-state change in a molecule traditionally considered to be a robust high-spin quartet. Moreover, the flexibility of the molecule yields an in situ electric tunability of the exchange coupling via the gate electrode. These findings open a route to the controlled reversal of the magnetic states in organic molecule-based nanodevices by mechanical means, electrical gating, or chemical tailoring. PMID:26862681

  15. Carbon molecules for intense high-order harmonics from laser-ablated graphite plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fareed, M. A.; Mondal, S.; Pertot, Y.; Ozaki, T.

    2016-02-01

    We present the simultaneous study of laser-induced plasma emission spectroscopy and high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from laser-ablated graphite plume. Time resolved evolution of carbon species in the ablation plume is investigated, revealing a clear abundance of C2 molecules under conditions optimal for graphite HHG. We also compare the high-order harmonic spectra with the photoionization cross-section of C2 molecules, which shows good agreement between the two. Our observations provide strong evidence that C2 molecules contribute to intense graphite HHG. Furthermore, properties of C2 molecules are investigated at different time periods of plasma evolution, and we identify the laser-ablation conditions for optimum harmonics yield.

  16. The Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (PolarVPRM): a parsimonious, satellite data-driven model of high-latitude CO2 exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luus, K. A.; Lin, J. C.

    2015-02-01

    We introduce the Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (PolarVPRM), a remote-sensing based approach for generating accurate, high resolution (?1 km2, three-hourly) estimates of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). PolarVPRM simulates NEE using polar-specific vegetation classes, and by representing high-latitude influences on NEE. We present a description, validation, and error analysis (first-order Taylor expansion) of PolarVPRM, followed by an examination of per-pixel trends (2001-2012) in model output for the North American terrestrial region north of 55 N. PolarVPRM was validated against eddy covariance observations from nine North American sites, of which three were used in model calibration. PolarVPRM performed well over all sites. Model intercomparisons indicated that PolarVPRM showed slightly better agreement with eddy covariance observations relative to existing models. Trend analysis (2001-2012) indicated that warming air temperatures and drought stress in forests increased growing season rates of respiration, and decreased rates of net carbon uptake by vegetation when air temperatures exceeded optimal temperatures for photosynthesis. Concurrent increases in growing season length at Arctic tundra sites allowed increases in photosynthetic uptake over time by tundra vegetation. PolarVPRM estimated that the North American high-latitude region changed from a carbon source (2001-2004) to sink (2005-2010) to source (2011-2012) in response to changing environmental conditions.

  17. Ultrafast spin-polarized lasing in a highly photoexcited semiconductor microcavity at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Feng-kuo; Xie, Wei; Lee, Yi-Shan; Lin, Sheng-Di; Lai, Chih-Wei

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate room-temperature spin-polarized ultrafast (10 ps ) lasing in a highly optically excited GaAs microcavity. This microcavity is embedded with InGaAs multiple quantum wells in which the spin relaxation time is less than 10 ps. The laser radiation remains highly circularly polarized even when excited by nonresonant elliptically polarized light. The lasing energy is not locked to the bare cavity resonance, and shifts 10 meV as a function of the photoexcited density. Such spin-polarized lasing is attributed to a spin-dependent stimulated process of correlated electron-hole pairs. These pairs are formed near the Fermi edge in a high-density electron-hole plasma coupled to the cavity light field.

  18. Tracing the structure of asymmetric molecules from high-order harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yanjun; Zhang, Bing

    2011-11-15

    We investigate high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from asymmetric molecules exposed to intense laser fields. We show that the emissions of odd and even harmonics depend differently on the orientation angle, the internuclear distance, as well as the effective charge. This difference mainly comes from different roles of intramolecular interference in the HHG of odd and even harmonics. These roles map the structure of the asymmetric molecule to the odd vs even HHG spectra.

  19. High-Field Dynamic Nuclear Polarization for Solid and Solution Biological NMR

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, A.B.; Pape, G. De; van der Wel, P.C.A.; Hu, K.-N.; Joo, C.-G.; Bajaj, V.S.; Mak-Jurkauskas, M.L.; Sirigiri, J.R.; Herzfeld, J.; Temkin, R.J.; Griffin, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) results in a substantial nuclear polarization enhancement through a transfer of the magnetization from electrons to nuclei. Recent years have seen considerable progress in the development of DNP experiments directed towards enhancing sensitivity in biological nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). This review covers the applications, hardware, polarizing agents, and theoretical descriptions that were developed at the Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology for high-field DNP experiments. In frozen dielectrics, the enhanced nuclear polarization developed in the vicinity of the polarizing agent can be efficiently dispersed to the bulk of the sample via 1H spin diffusion. This strategy has been proven effective in polarizing biologically interesting systems, such as nanocrystalline peptides and membrane proteins, without leading to paramagnetic broadening of the NMR signals. Gyrotrons have been used as a source of high-power (510 W) microwaves up to 460 GHz as required for the DNP experiments. Other hardware has also been developed allowing in situ microwave irradiation integrated with cryogenic magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR. Advances in the quantum mechanical treatment are successful in describing the mechanism by which new biradical polarizing agents yield larger enhancements at higher magnetic fields. Finally, pulsed methods and solution experiments should play a prominent role in the future of DNP. PMID:19194532

  20. Production of highly spin-polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium by spin-exchange optical pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Redsun, S.G.; Knize, R.J.; Cates, G.D.; Happer, W. )

    1990-08-01

    We have produced highly spin-polarized atomic hydrogen by spin-exchange optical pumping. A tunable ring dye laser is used to polarize rubidium atoms by optical pumping. The cell containing the rubidium vapor is coated with paraffin in order to reduce spin relaxation due to wall collisions. Hydrogen gas is dissociated in an inductive discharge and flows continuously through the cell, in which the hydrogen atoms are polarized by spin-exchange collisions with the polarized rubidium atoms. Atomic-hydrogen polarization as high as 2{l angle}{ital J}{sub {ital z}}{r angle}{sub H}=0.72(6) has been observed, which is the highest polarization yet produced by this method. However, the rubidium polarization may be limited to this value due to radiation trapping at higher rubidium densities. The spin-relaxation rate of atomic hydrogen on a paraffin-coated cell is also measured and corresponds to about 7600 wall bounces between wall relaxation.

  1. Single-Molecule Diodes with High On/Off Ratios Through Environmental Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzi, Brian; Xia, Jianlong; Dell, Emma; Adak, Olgun; Liu, Zhen-Fei; Neaton, Jeffrey; Campos, Luis; Venkataraman, Latha

    2015-03-01

    Single-Molecule diodes were first proposed with an asymmetric molecule comprising a donor-bridge-acceptor architecture to mimic a semiconductor p-n junction. Progress in molecular electronics has led to the realization of several single-molecule diodes; these have relied on asymmetric molecular backbones, asymmetric molecule-electrode linkers, or asymmetric electrode materials. Despite these advances, molecular diodes have had limited potential for functional applications due to several pitfalls, including low rectification ratios (``on''/``off'' current ratios <10). Here, we introduce a powerful approach for inducing rectification in conventionally symmetric single-molecule junctions, taking advantage of environmental factors about the junction. By utilizing an asymmetric environment instead of an asymmetric molecule, we reproducibly achieve high rectification ratios at low operating voltages for molecular junctions based on a family of symmetric small-gap molecules. This technique serves as an unconventional approach for developing functional molecular-scale devices and probing their charge transport characteristics. Furthermore, this technique should be applicable to other nanoscale devices, providing a general route for tuning device properties.

  2. Hyperfine energy levels of alkali-metal dimers: Ground-state polar molecules in electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldegunde, J.; Rivington, Ben A.; ?uchowski, Piotr S.; Hutson, Jeremy M.

    2008-09-01

    We investigate the energy levels of heteronuclear alkali-metal dimers in levels correlating with the lowest rotational level of the ground electronic state, which are important in efforts to produce ground-state ultracold molecules. We use density-functional theory to calculate nuclear quadrupole and magnetic coupling constants for KRb and RbCs and explore the hyperfine structure in the presence of electric and magnetic fields. For nonrotating states, the zero-field splittings are dominated by the electron-mediated part of the nuclear spin-spin coupling. They are a few kilohertz for KRb isotopologs and a few tens of kilohertz for RbCs isotopologs.

  3. High repetition rate Q-switched radially polarized laser with a graphene-based output coupler

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lifei; Jin, Chenjie; Qi, Mei; Chen, Xiaoming; Ren, Zhaoyu E-mail: rzy@nwu.edu.cn; Zheng, Xinliang E-mail: rzy@nwu.edu.cn; Bai, Jintao; Sun, Zhipei

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate a Q-switched radially polarized all-solid-state laser by transferring a graphene film directly onto an output coupler. The laser generates Q-switched radially polarized beam (QRPB) with a pulse width of 192?ns and 2.7?W average output power. The corresponding single pulse energy is up to 16.2??J with a high repetition rate of 167?kHz. The M{sup 2} factor and the polarization purity are ?2.1 and 96%, respectively. Our QRPB source is a simple and low-cost source for a variety of applications, such as industrial material processing, optical trapping, and microscopy.

  4. High repetition rate Q-switched radially polarized laser with a graphene-based output coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lifei; Zheng, Xinliang; Jin, Chenjie; Qi, Mei; Chen, Xiaoming; Ren, Zhaoyu; Bai, Jintao; Sun, Zhipei

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate a Q-switched radially polarized all-solid-state laser by transferring a graphene film directly onto an output coupler. The laser generates Q-switched radially polarized beam (QRPB) with a pulse width of 192 ns and 2.7 W average output power. The corresponding single pulse energy is up to 16.2 ?J with a high repetition rate of 167 kHz. The M2 factor and the polarization purity are 2.1 and 96%, respectively. Our QRPB source is a simple and low-cost source for a variety of applications, such as industrial material processing, optical trapping, and microscopy.

  5. Highly Effective Polarized Electron Sources Based on Strained Semiconductor Superlattice with Distributed Bragg Reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Gerchikov, L. G.; Kuz'michev, V. V.; Mamaev, Yu. A.; Vasiliev, D. A.; Yashin, Yu. P.; Aulenbacher, K.; Clendenin, J. E.; Maruyama, T.; Mikhrin, V. S.; Ustinov, V. M.; Vasiliev, A. P.; Zhukov, A. E.; Roberts, J. S.

    2008-02-06

    Resonance enhancement of the quantum efficiency of new polarized electron photocathodes based on a short-period strained superlattice structures is reported. The superlattice is a part of an integrated Fabry-Perot optical cavity. We demonstrate that the Fabry-Perot resonator enhances the quantum efficiency by the order of magnitude in the wavelength region of the main polarization maximum. The high structural quality implied by these results points to the very promising application of these photocathodes for spin-polarized electron sources.

  6. Highly Effective Polarized Electron Sources Based on Strained Semiconductor Superlattice with Distributed Bragg Reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Gerchikov, L.G.; Aulenbacher, K.; Clendenin, J.E.; Kuz'michev, V.V.; Mamaev, Yu.A.; Maruyama, T.; Mikhrin, V.S.; Roberts, J.S.; Utstinov, V.M.; Vasiliev, D.A.; Vasiliev, A.P.; Yashin, Yu.P.; Zhukov, A.E.; /St. Petersburg Polytechnic Inst. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /SLAC /Ioffe Phys. Tech. Inst. /Sheffield U.

    2007-11-28

    Resonance enhancement of the quantum efficiency of new polarized electron photocathodes based on a short-period strained superlattice structures is reported. The superlattice is a part of an integrated Fabry-Perot optical cavity. We demonstrate that the Fabry-Perot resonator enhances the quantum efficiency by the order of magnitude in the wavelength region of the main polarization maximum. The high structural quality implied by these results points to the very promising application of these photocathodes for spin-polarized electron sources.

  7. Time Resolved Spectroscopy of High Field Polars (FUSE 00)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The following work has been accomplished: 1) The emission lines of O VI1 and He II were used to produce Doppler tomograms of the plasma emission. 2) An improved interstellar absorption model is being developed for the CIAO spectral fitting program, Sherpa. Use of the earlier version of this model showed it to be inadequate for its purpose. Once this model is working, we intend to complete our analysis of V884 Her and those of other FUSE programs. In addition to the above work, this grant has helped support the following related work: 1) The publication of the paper "Periodicities in the X-ray intensity variations of TV Columbae: an Intermediate Polar" by Rana, V. R., Singh, K. P., Schlegel, E. M., & Barrett, P. 2004, AJ, 126,489, and 2) FUSE data of a possible nova-like variable Ret 1 has been analyzed and shown to contain a hot (37000 deg) white dwarf (WD 0334-6400). The FUV spectrum shows strong absorption lines of C III.

  8. Electrode fabrication for high-speed polarization mode converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, X.; Zhang, S.; Chen, C.; Poirier, M.; Shepherd, F. R.; Das, S. R.

    2004-05-01

    As part of the development of a traveling wave polarization converter (TWPC), a technique for producing ``T-electrodes'' adjacent to the ridge sidewalls and air bridges has been developed. To maximize the conversion efficiency, the rf electrodes on the etched floor are required to be very close to the ridge sidewalls. In the fabrication of the electrode, patterned seed layer stripes were first put on the etched floor on both sides of the waveguide by a metal lift-off process. Onto this seed layer, the T-electrode was electroplated through a patterned thick photoresist. After resist removal, the unwanted seed layer was stripped off by chemical etch back. Through this multistep process, the electrodes were constructed successfully with the desired proximity to the ridge waveguide. For easy chip assembly, the bond pads were designed to be on the same side of the device. Two long and wide metal air bridges over the ridge waveguide were made to connect the electrode on one side to the bond pads on the other side of the ridge. It was found that the air bridges were easily damaged in the bonding process prior to lap and polish because of the particular device structure, i.e., air bridges being the highest point of the wafer and only a small number of air bridges on the wafer. To protect the air bridge a patterned photoresist layer was applied before the wafer was bonded to a carrier. .

  9. High Efficacy Green LEDs by Polarization Controlled MOVPE

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, Christian

    2013-03-31

    Amazing performance in GaInN/GaN based LEDs has become possible by advanced epitaxial growth on a wide variety of substrates over the last decade. An immediate push towards product development and worldwide competition for market share have effectively reduced production cost and generated substantial primary energy savings on a worldwide scale. At all times of the development, this economic pressure forced very fundamental decisions that would shape huge industrial investment. One of those major aspects is the choice of epitaxial growth substrate. The natural questions are to what extend a decision for a certain substrate will limit the ultimate performance and to what extent, the choice of a currently more expensive substrate such as native GaN could overcome any of the remaining performance limitations. Therefore, this project has set out to explore what performance characteristic could be achieved under the utilization of bulk GaN substrate. Our work was guided by the hypotheses that line defects such as threading dislocations in the active region should be avoided and the huge piezoelectric polarization needs to be attenuated – if not turned off – for higher performing LEDs, particularly in the longer wavelength green and deep green portions of the visible spectrum. At their relatively lower performance level, deep green LEDs are a stronger indicator of relative performance improvements and seem particular sensitive to the challenges at hand.

  10. Extension of high harmonic spectroscopy in molecules by a 1300 nm laser field.

    PubMed

    Torres, R; Siegel, T; Brugnera, L; Procino, I; Underwood, Jonathan G; Altucci, C; Velotta, R; Springate, E; Froud, C; Turcu, I C E; Ivanov, M Yu; Smirnova, O; Marangos, J P

    2010-02-01

    The emerging techniques of molecular spectroscopy by high order harmonic generation have hitherto been conducted only with Ti:Sapphire lasers which are restricted to molecules with high ionization potentials. In order to gain information on the molecular structure, a broad enough range of harmonics is required. This implies using high laser intensities which would saturate the ionization of most molecular systems of interest, e.g. organic molecules. Using a laser at 1300 nm, we are able to extend the technique to molecules with relatively low ionization potentials (approximately 11 eV), observing wide harmonic spectra reaching up to 60 eV. This energy range improves spatial resolution of the high harmonic spectroscopy to the point where interference minima in harmonic spectra of N(2)O and C(2)H(2) can be observed. PMID:20174156

  11. Nonequilibrium electronic structure of interacting single-molecule nanojunctions: vertex corrections and polarization effects for the electron-vibron coupling.

    PubMed

    Dash, L K; Ness, H; Godby, R W

    2010-03-14

    We consider the interaction between electrons and molecular vibrations in the context of electronic transport in nanoscale devices. We present a method based on nonequilibrium Green's functions to calculate both equilibrium and nonequilibrium electronic properties of a single-molecule junction in the presence of electron-vibron interactions. We apply our method to a model system consisting of a single electronic level coupled to a single vibration mode in the molecule, which is in contact with two electron reservoirs. Higher-order diagrams beyond the usual self-consistent Born approximation (SCBA) are included in the calculations. In this paper we consider the effects of the double-exchange diagram and the diagram in which the vibron propagator is renormalized by one electron-hole bubble. We study in detail the effects of the first- and second-order diagrams on the spectral functions for a large set of parameters and for different transport regimes (resonant and off-resonant cases), both at equilibrium and in the presence of a finite applied bias. We also study the linear response (linear conductance) of the nanojunction for all the different regimes. We find that it is indeed necessary to go beyond the SCBA in order to obtain correct results for a wide range of parameters. PMID:20232953

  12. Nonequilibrium electronic structure of interacting single-molecule nanojunctions: Vertex corrections and polarization effects for the electron-vibron coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, L. K.; Ness, H.; Godby, R. W.

    2010-03-01

    We consider the interaction between electrons and molecular vibrations in the context of electronic transport in nanoscale devices. We present a method based on nonequilibrium Green's functions to calculate both equilibrium and nonequilibrium electronic properties of a single-molecule junction in the presence of electron-vibron interactions. We apply our method to a model system consisting of a single electronic level coupled to a single vibration mode in the molecule, which is in contact with two electron reservoirs. Higher-order diagrams beyond the usual self-consistent Born approximation (SCBA) are included in the calculations. In this paper we consider the effects of the double-exchange diagram and the diagram in which the vibron propagator is renormalized by one electron-hole bubble. We study in detail the effects of the first- and second-order diagrams on the spectral functions for a large set of parameters and for different transport regimes (resonant and off-resonant cases), both at equilibrium and in the presence of a finite applied bias. We also study the linear response (linear conductance) of the nanojunction for all the different regimes. We find that it is indeed necessary to go beyond the SCBA in order to obtain correct results for a wide range of parameters.

  13. Analysis of triplet production by a circularly polarized photon at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Gakh, G. I.; Konchatnij, M. I.; Levandovsky, I. S.; Merenkov, N. P.

    2013-07-15

    The possibility in principle of determining the circular polarization of a high-energy photon by measuring the created electron polarization in the process of triplet photoproduction {gamma} + e{sup -} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -} + e{sup -} is investigated. The respective event number, which depends on polarization states of the photon and the created electron, does not decrease as the photon energy increases, and this circumstance can ensure the high efficiency in such experiments. We study different double and single distributions of the created electron (or positron), which allow probing the photon circular polarization and measuring its magnitude (the Stokes parameter {xi}{sub 2}) using the technique of Sudakov variables. Some experimental setups with different rules for event selection are studied and the corresponding numerical estimations are presented.

  14. Polarization measurement of dielectronic recombination transitions in highly charged krypton ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Chintan; Jörg, Holger; Bernitt, Sven; Dobrodey, Stepan; Steinbrügge, René; Beilmann, Christian; Amaro, Pedro; Hu, Zhimin; Weber, Sebastian; Fritzsche, Stephan; Surzhykov, Andrey; Crespo López-Urrutia, José R.; Tashenov, Stanislav

    2015-10-01

    We report linear polarization measurements of x rays emitted due to dielectronic recombination into highly charged krypton ions. The ions in the He-like through O-like charge states were populated in an electron-beam ion trap with the electron-beam energy adjusted to recombination resonances in order to produce K α x rays. The x rays were detected with a newly developed Compton polarimeter using a beryllium scattering target and 12 silicon x-ray detector diodes sampling the azimuthal distribution of the scattered x rays. The extracted degrees of linear polarization of several dielectronic recombination transitions agree with results of relativistic distorted-wave calculations. We also demonstrate a high sensitivity of the polarization to the Breit interaction, which is remarkable for a medium-Z element like krypton. The experimental results can be used for polarization diagnostics of hot astrophysical and laboratory fusion plasmas.

  15. ABSOLUTE MEASUREMENT OF THE POLARIZATION OF HIGH ENERGY PROTON BEAMS AT RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    MAKDISI,Y.; BRAVAR, A. BUNCE, G. GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    The spin physics program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) requires knowledge of the beam polarization to better than 5%. Such a goal is made the more difficult by the lack of knowledge of the analyzing power of high energy nuclear physics processes. To overcome this, a polarized hydrogen jet target was constructed and installed at one intersection region in RHIC where it intersects both beams and utilizes the precise knowledge of the jet atomic hydrogen beam polarization to measure the analyzing power in proton-proton elastic scattering in the Nuclear Coulomb Interference (CNI) region at the prescribed RHIC proton beam energy. The reverse reaction is used to assess the absolute beam polarization. Simultaneous measurements taken with fast high statistics polarimeters that measure the p-Carbon elastic scattering process also in the CNI region use the jet results to calibrate the latter.

  16. High-contrast coherent population trapping based on crossed polarizers method.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yuichiro; Goka, Shigeyoshi

    2014-12-01

    A method based on crossed polarizers to observe high-contrast coherent population trapping (CPT) resonance has been developed. Because crossed polarizers have a simple optical system, our method is suitable for chip-scale atomic clocks (CSACs). In CPT, the Faraday rotation in a linearly polarized light field (lin||lin) was calculated using two pairs of ?-system models; the spectrum of the Faraday rotation is also estimated. After measuring the contrast and linewidth with the crossed-polarizer method, a comparison of the theoretical model and experimental data showed they were in good agreement. Moreover, the experimental results showed that a high contrast (88.4%) and narrow linewidth (1.15 kHz) resonance could be observed using a Cs gas cell and D1-line verticalcavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). PMID:25474771

  17. High-throughput screening identifies small molecules that enhance the pharmacological effects of oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Yang, B.; Ming, X.; Cao, C.; Laing, B.; Yuan, A.; Porter, M. A.; Hull-Ryde, E. A.; Maddry, J.; Suto, M.; Janzen, W. P.; Juliano, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic use of antisense and siRNA oligonucleotides has been constrained by the limited ability of these membrane-impermeable molecules to reach their intracellular sites of action. We sought to address this problem using small organic molecules to enhance the effects of oligonucleotides by modulating their intracellular trafficking and release from endosomes. A high-throughput screen of multiple small molecule libraries yielded several hits that markedly potentiated the actions of splice switching oligonucleotides in cell culture. These compounds also enhanced the effects of antisense and siRNA oligonucleotides. The hit compounds preferentially caused release of fluorescent oligonucleotides from late endosomes rather than other intracellular compartments. Studies in a transgenic mouse model indicated that these compounds could enhance the in vivo effects of a splice-switching oligonucleotide without causing significant toxicity. These observations suggest that selected small molecule enhancers may eventually be of value in oligonucleotide-based therapeutics. PMID:25662226

  18. High Resolution Core Valence Valence Auger Electron Specroscopy on Free Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, S.; Karlsson, L.

    1992-01-01

    Recent experimental results from Core Valence Valence (CVV) Auger electron spectroscopy on free molecules are discussed. The practical use of calculated potential curves for the dicationic final states is illustrated using the NO molecule as an example. The assignment of the CVV spectra to get experimental potential curves for the dicationic states of diatomic molecules is reviewed. The spin-orbit splitting of the initial core hole state in the Auger process is discussed and is related to the molecular field splitting of the Core levels. The importance of making monochromatized photon-impact experiments in order to study the high energy satellites is underlined. The Auger shake-up satellite spectrum of the N2 molecule is discussed as an example and it is found that the participator transitions dominate this spectrum.

  19. In situ Formation of Highly Conducting Covalent Au-C Contacts for Single-Molecule Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Z.L.; Hybertsen, M.; Skouta, R.; Vazquez, H.; Widawsky, J.R.; Schneebeli, S.; Chen, W.; Breslow, R.; Venkataraman, L.

    2011-06-01

    Charge transport across metal-molecule interfaces has an important role in organic electronics. Typically, chemical link groups such as thiols or amines are used to bind organic molecules to metal electrodes in single-molecule circuits, with these groups controlling both the physical structure and the electronic coupling at the interface. Direct metal-carbon coupling has been shown through C60, benzene and {pi}-stacked benzene but ideally the carbon backbone of the molecule should be covalently bonded to the electrode without intervening link groups. Here, we demonstrate a method to create junctions with such contacts. Trimethyl tin (SnMe{sub 3})-terminated polymethylene chains are used to form single-molecule junctions with a break-junction technique. Gold atoms at the electrode displace the SnMe{sub 3} linkers, leading to the formation of direct Au-C bonded single-molecule junctions with a conductance that is {approx}100 times larger than analogous alkanes with most other terminations. The conductance of these Au-C bonded alkanes decreases exponentially with molecular length, with a decay constant of 0.97 per methylene, consistent with a non-resonant transport mechanism. Control experiments and ab initio calculations show that high conductances are achieved because a covalent Au-C sigma ({sigma}) bond is formed. This offers a new method for making reproducible and highly conducting metal-organic contacts.

  20. Relativistic Effects and Polarization in Three High-Energy Pulsar Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyks, J.; Harding, Alice K.; Rudak, B.

    2004-01-01

    We present the influence of the special relativistic effects of aberration and light travel time delay on pulsar high-energy lightcurves and polarization characteristics predicted by three models: the two-pole caustic model, the outer gap model, and the polar cap model. Position angle curves and degree of polarization are calculated for the models and compared with the optical data on the Crab pulsar. The relative positions of peaks in gamma-ray and radio lightcurves are discussed in detail for the models. We find that the two-pole caustic model can reproduce qualitatively the optical polarization characteristics of the Crab pulsar - fast swings of the position angle and minima in polarization degree associated with both peaks. The anticorrelation between the observed flux and the polarization degree (observed in the optical band also for B0656+14) naturally results from the caustic nature of the peaks which are produced in the model due to the superposition of radiation from many different altitudes, ie. polarized at different angles. The two-pole caustic model also provides an acceptable interpretation of the main features in the Crab's radio profile. Neither the outer gap model nor the polar cap model are able to reproduce the optical polarization data on the Crab. Although the outer gap model is very successful in reproducing the relative positions of gamma-ray and radio peaks in pulse profiles, it can reproduce the high-energy lightcurves only when photon emission from regions very close to the light cylinder is included.

  1. High-density single-molecule analysis of cell surface dynamics in C. elegans embryos

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Francois B.; McFadden, William M.; Yao, Baixue; Munro, Edwin M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a general, versatile and non-invasive method to image single molecules near the cell surface that can be applied to any GFP-tagged protein in C. elegans embryos. We exploit tunable expression via RNAi and a dynamically exchanging monomer pool to achieve fast continuous single-molecule imaging at optimal densities with signal-to-noise ratios adequate for robust single particle tracking (SPT) analysis. We also introduce and validate a new method called smPReSS that infers exchange rates from quantitative analysis of single molecule photobleaching kinetics, without using SPT. Combining SPT and smPReSS allows spatially and temporally resolved measurements of protein mobility and exchange kinetics. We use these methods (a) to resolve distinct mobility states and spatial variation in exchange rates of the polarity protein Par-6 and (b) to measure spatiotemporal modulation of actin filament assembly and disassembly. The introduction of these methods in a powerful model system offers a promising new avenue to investigate dynamic mechanisms that pattern the embryonic cell surface. PMID:24727651

  2. Polarization diversity heterodyne receiver for high-sensitivity optical frequency modulated continuous wave system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weikang; Dong, Yi; Zhou, Qian; Qin, Jie; Shi, Hongxiao; Hu, Weisheng

    2015-08-01

    We proposed a scheme of optical frequency modulated continuous wave (OFMCW) system based on the polarization diversity heterodyne receiver (PDHR) with a frequency swept distributed feedback (DFB) laser. The adoption of PDHR in OFMCW system successfully reduced the polarization-induced fading and improved the signal to noise ratio (SNR). High-sensitivity OFMCW system is achieved, which has spatial resolution of 1.5 mm for distance of 1.5 km.

  3. Radial dose calculation due to the irradiation of a heavy ion: Role of composite electric field formed from the polarization of molecules and molecular ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moribayashi, Kengo

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses the role of composite electric field on radial doses through simulations due to the irradiation of a heavy ion. This composition electric field is formed from molecular ions, the polarization of molecules, and free electrons. Free electrons as well as these molecular ions are produced from the impact ionization of an incident ion or the other free electrons. The motions of the free electrons are simulated using a simulation model shown by Moribayashi, 2011. Phys. Rev. A. 84, 012702-1-012702-7 and Moribayashi, 2013a. Rad. Phys. Chem. 85, 36-41. This simulation model employs an isolated atom model that additionally may be able to treat the advantage of the free electron gas model. Some free electrons are trapped near the track of this incident ion and form plasma. The results obtained here show that this plasma plays a role of bringing about higher radial doses with increasing impact ionization cross sections of incident ions.

  4. Expression and polarization of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on human intestinal epithelia: consequences for CD11b/CD18-mediated interactions with neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Parkos, C. A.; Colgan, S. P.; Diamond, M. S.; Nusrat, A.; Liang, T. W.; Springer, T. A.; Madara, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epithelial dysfunction and patient symptoms in inflammatory intestinal diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease correlate with migration of neutrophils (PMN) across the intestinal epithelium. In vitro modeling of PMN transepithelial migration has revealed distinct differences from transendothelial migration. By using polarized monolayers of human intestinal epithelia (T84), PMN transepithelial migration has been shown to be dependent on the leukocyte integrin CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1), but not on CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1). Since intercellular adhesion molecule-I (ICAM-1) is an important endothelial counterreceptor for these integrins, its expression in intestinal epithelia and role in PMN-intestinal epithelial interactions was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A panel of antibodies against different domains of ICAM-1, polarized monolayers of human intestinal epithelia (T84), and natural human colonic epithelia were used to examine the polarity of epithelial ICAM-1 surface expression and the functional role of ICAM-1 in neutrophil-intestinal epithelial adhesive interactions. RESULTS: While no surface expression of ICAM-1 was detected on unstimulated T84 cells, interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) elicited a marked expression of ICAM-1 that selectively polarized to the apical epithelial membrane. Similarly, apically restricted surface expression of ICAM-1 was detected in natural human colonic epithelium only in association with active inflammation. With or without IFN gamma pre-exposure, physiologically directed (basolateral-to-apical) transepithelial migration of PMN was unaffected by blocking monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to ICAM-1. In contrast, PMN migration across IFN gamma-stimulated monolayers in the reverse (apical-to-basolateral) direction was inhibited by anti-ICAM-1 antibodies. Adhesion studies revealed that T84 cells adhered selectively to purified CD11b/CD18 and such adherence, with or without IFN gamma pre-exposure, was unaffected by ICAM-1 mAb. Similarly, freshly isolated epithelial cells from inflamed human intestine bound to CD11b/CD18 in an ICAM-1-independent fashion. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that ICAM-1 is strictly polarized in intestinal epithelia and does not represent a counterreceptor for neutrophil CD11b/CD18 during physiologically directed transmigration, but may facilitate apical membrane-PMN interactions after the arrival of PMN in the intestinal lumen. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:8827719

  5. Bombardment of gas molecules on single graphene layer at high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Murugesan, Ramki; Park, Jae Hyun; Ha, Dong Sung

    2014-12-09

    Graphite is widely used as a material for rocket-nozzle inserts due to its excellent thermo-physical properties as well as low density. During the operation of rockets, the surface of the graphite nozzle is subjected to very high heat fluxes and the undesirable erosion of the surface occurs due to the bombardment of gas molecules with high kinetic energy, which causes a significant reduction of nozzle performance. However, the understanding and quantification of such bombardment is not satisfactory due to its complexity: The bond breaking-forming happens simultaneously for the carbon atoms of graphene, some gas molecules penetrate through the surface, some of them are reflected from the surface, etc. In the present study, we perform extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the bombardment phenomena in high temperature environment (several thousand Kelvin). Advanced from the previous studies that have focused on the bombardment by light molecules (e.g., H{sub 2}), we will concentrate on the impact by realistic molecules (e.g., CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O). LAMMPS is employed for the MD simulations with NVE ensemble and AIREBO potential for graphene. The molecular understanding of the interaction between graphene and highly energetic gas molecules will enable us to design an efficient thermo-mechanical protection system.

  6. Salmonella enterica invasion of polarized epithelial cells is a highly cooperative effort.

    PubMed

    Lorkowski, Martin; Felipe-Lpez, Alfonso; Danzer, Claudia A; Hansmeier, Nicole; Hensel, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The invasion of polarized epithelial cells by Salmonella enterica requires the cooperative activity of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1)-encoded type III secretion system (T3SS) and the SPI4-encoded adhesin SiiE. The invasion of polarized cells is more efficient than that of nonpolarized cells, and we observed the formation of clusters of bacteria on infected cells. Here we demonstrate that the invasion of polarized cells is a highly cooperative activity. Using a novel live-cell imaging approach, we visualized the cooperative entry of multiple bacteria into ruffles induced on the apical surfaces of polarized cells. The induction of membrane ruffles by activity of Salmonella enables otherwise noninvasive mutant strains to enter polarized host cells. Bacterial motility and chemotaxis were of lower importance for cooperativity in polarized-cell invasion. We propose that cooperative invasion is a key factor for the very efficient entry into polarized cells and a factor contributing to epithelial damage and intestinal inflammation. PMID:24711567

  7. RHIC: The World's First High-Energy, Polarized-Proton Collider (423rd Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Mei

    2007-03-28

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL has been colliding polarized proton at a beam energy of 100 billion electron volts (GeV) since 2001. In addition to reporting upon the progress of RHIC polarized-proton program, this talk will focus upon the mechanisms that cause the beam to depolarize and the strategies developed to overcome this. As the world first polarized-proton collider, RHIC is designed to collide polarized protons up to an energy of 250 GeV, thereby providing an unique opportunity to measure the contribution made by the gluon to a proton's spin and to study the spin structure of proton. Unlike other high-energy proton colliders, however, the challenge for RHIC is to overcome the mechanisms that cause partial or total loss of beam polarization, which is due to the interaction of the spin vector with the magnetic fields. In RHIC, two Siberian snakes have been used to avoid these spin depolarizing resonances, which are driven by vertical closed-orbit distortion and vertical betatron oscillations. As a result, polarized-proton beams have been accelerated to 100 GeV without polarization loss, although depolarization has been observed during acceleration from 100 GeV to 205 GeV.

  8. High resolution measures of polarization and color of selected lunar areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, L. A.; Hall, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    High resolution observations of intensity, color (UBV) and polarization were obtained with scanning techniques for a number of lunar areas of special interest, including boundaries of some of the brightest and darkest lunar regions, certain Apollo landing sites and prominent craters. Two dimensional raster scans of colors were obtained for Alphonsus, Aristarchus, and Herodotus. The degree of polarization for any given phase angle appears to be roughly indicative of age. The darker younger mare surface are more highly polarized than the lighter and older mare surfaces, which appear to be more contaminated by lighter material from the highlands or by ray material thrown out from fresh craters. All mare surfaces are more highly polarized than the still older and lighter terra regions surrounding the maria. The very oldest craters are either dark-floored and show polarization characteristics similar to those of the mare surfaces, or if located in the highlands, they are less and less distinguishable from the highland background with greater age, and show the general highland polarization characteristics.

  9. Burn depth determination using high-speed polarization-sensitive Mueller optical coherence tomography with continuous polarization modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorovi?, Milo; Ai, Jun; Pereda Cubian, David; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong

    2006-02-01

    National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) estimates more than 1.1 million burn injuries per year in the United States, with nearly 15,000 fatalities from wounds and related complications. An imaging modality capable of evaluating burn depths non-invasively is the polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. We report on the use of a high-speed, fiber-based Mueller-matrix OCT system with continuous source-polarization modulation for burn depth evaluation. The new system is capable of imaging at near video-quality frame rates (8 frames per second) with resolution of 10 ?m in biological tissue (index of refraction: 1.4) and sensitivity of 78 dB. The sample arm optics is integrated in a hand-held probe simplifying the in vivo experiments. The applicability of the system for burn depth determination is demonstrated using biological samples of porcine tendon and porcine skin. The results show an improved imaging depth (1 mm in tendon) and a clear localization of the thermally damaged region. The burnt area determined from OCT images compares well with the histology, thus proving the system's potential for burn depth determination.

  10. Vibrationally induced inversion of photoelectron forward-backward asymmetry in chiral molecule photoionization by circularly polarized light

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Gustavo A.; Nahon, Laurent; Daly, Steven; Powis, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Electronnuclei coupling accompanying excitation and relaxation processes is a fascinating phenomenon in molecular dynamics. A striking and unexpected example of such coupling is presented here in the context of photoelectron circular dichroism measurements on randomly oriented, chiral methyloxirane molecules, unaffected by any continuum resonance. Here, we report that the forward-backward asymmetry in the electron angular distribution, with respect to the photon axis, which is associated with photoelectron circular dichroism can surprisingly reverse direction according to the ion vibrational mode excited. This vibrational dependence represents a clear breakdown of the usual FranckCondon assumption, ascribed to the enhanced sensitivity of photoelectron circular dichroism (compared with other observables like cross-sections or the conventional anisotropy parameter-?) to the scattering phase off the chiral molecular potential, inducing a dependence on the nuclear geometry sampled in the photoionization process. Important consequences for the interpretation of such dichroism measurements within analytical contexts are discussed. PMID:23828557

  11. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald

    2007-02-01

    Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  12. High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing of small-molecule organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kukjoo; Kim, Gyeomuk; Lee, Bo Ram; Ji, Sangyoon; Kim, So-Yun; An, Byeong Wan; Song, Myoung Hoon; Park, Jang-Ung

    2015-08-28

    The development of alternative organic light-emitting diode (OLED) fabrication technologies for high-definition and low-cost displays is an important research topic as conventional fine metal mask-assisted vacuum evaporation has reached its limit to reduce pixel sizes and manufacturing costs. Here, we report an electrohydrodynamic jet (e-jet) printing method to fabricate small-molecule OLED pixels with high resolution (pixel width of 5 ?m), which significantly exceeds the resolutions of conventional inkjet or commercial OLED display pixels. In addition, we print small-molecule emitting materials which provide a significant advantage in terms of device efficiency and lifetime compared to those with polymers. PMID:26214140

  13. High-Throughput Universal DNA Curtain Arrays for Single-Molecule Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo, Ignacio F.; Pasupathy, Praveenkumar; Brown, Maxwell; Manhart, Carol M.; Neikirk, Dean P.; Alani, Eric; Finkelstein, Ilya J.

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule studies of protein–DNA interactions have shed critical insights into the molecular mechanisms of nearly every aspect of DNA metabolism. The development of DNA curtains—a method for organizing arrays of DNA molecules on a fluid lipid bilayer—has greatly facilitated these studies by increasing the number of reactions that can be observed in a single experiment. However, the utility of DNA curtains is limited by the challenges associated with depositing nanometer-scale lipid diffusion barriers onto quartz microscope slides. Here, we describe a UV lithography-based method for large-scale fabrication of chromium (Cr) features and organization of DNA molecules at these features for high-throughput single-molecule studies. We demonstrate this approach by assembling 792 independent DNA arrays (containing >900 000 DNA molecules) within a single microfluidic flowcell. As a first proof of principle, we track the diffusion of Mlh1-Mlh3—a heterodimeric complex that participates in DNA mismatch repair and meiotic recombination. To further highlight the utility of this approach, we demonstrate a two-lane flowcell that facilitates concurrent experiments on different DNA substrates. Our technique greatly reduces the challenges associated with assembling DNA curtains and paves the way for the rapid acquisition of large statistical data sets from individual single-molecule experiments. PMID:26325477

  14. Quantifying and Optimizing Single-Molecule Switching Nanoscopy at High Speeds

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu; Long, Jane J.; Huang, Fang; Duim, Whitney C.; Kirschbaum, Stefanie; Zhang, Yongdeng; Schroeder, Lena K.; Rebane, Aleksander A.; Velasco, Mary Grace M.; Virrueta, Alejandro; Moonan, Daniel W.; Jiao, Junyi; Hernandez, Sandy Y.; Zhang, Yongli; Bewersdorf, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule switching nanoscopy overcomes the diffraction limit of light by stochastically switching single fluorescent molecules on and off, and then localizing their positions individually. Recent advances in this technique have greatly accelerated the data acquisition speed and improved the temporal resolution of super-resolution imaging. However, it has not been quantified whether this speed increase comes at the cost of compromised image quality. The spatial and temporal resolution depends on many factors, among which laser intensity and camera speed are the two most critical parameters. Here we quantitatively compare the image quality achieved when imaging Alexa Fluor 647-immunolabeled microtubules over an extended range of laser intensities and camera speeds using three criteria – localization precision, density of localized molecules, and resolution of reconstructed images based on Fourier Ring Correlation. We found that, with optimized parameters, single-molecule switching nanoscopy at high speeds can achieve the same image quality as imaging at conventional speeds in a 5–25 times shorter time period. Furthermore, we measured the photoswitching kinetics of Alexa Fluor 647 from single-molecule experiments, and, based on this kinetic data, we developed algorithms to simulate single-molecule switching nanoscopy images. We used this software tool to demonstrate how laser intensity and camera speed affect the density of active fluorophores and influence the achievable resolution. Our study provides guidelines for choosing appropriate laser intensities for imaging Alexa Fluor 647 at different speeds and a quantification protocol for future evaluations of other probes and imaging parameters. PMID:26011109

  15. Design of a polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detector with high detection efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fan; Xu, Ruiying; Zhu, Guanghao; Jin, Biaobing; Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) deliver superior performance over their competitors in the near-infrared regime. However, these detectors have an intrinsic polarization dependence on the incident wave because of their one-dimensional meander structure. In this paper, we propose an approach to eliminate the polarization sensitivity of SNSPDs by using near-field optics to increase the absorption of SNSPDs under transverse magnetic (TM) illumination. In addition, an optical cavity is added to our SNSPD to obtain nearly perfect absorption of the incident wave. Numerical simulations show that the maximum absorption of a designed SNSPD can reach 96% at 1550 nm, and indicate that the absorption difference between transverse electric (TE) and TM polarization is less than 0.5% across a wavelength window of 300 nm. Our work provides the first demonstration of the possibility of designing a polarization-insensitive and highly efficient SNSPD without performing device symmetry improvements. PMID:26948672

  16. Frequency tuning of polarization oscillations: Toward high-speed spin-lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemann, Markus; Pusch, Tobias; Michalzik, Rainer; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Spin-controlled vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (spin-VCSELs) offer a high potential to overcome several limitations of conventional purely charged-based laser devices. Presumably, the highest potential of spin-VCSELs lies in their ultrafast spin and polarization dynamics, which can be significantly faster than the intensity dynamics in conventional devices. Here, we experimentally demonstrate polarization oscillations in spin-VCSELs with frequencies up to 44 GHz. The results show that the oscillation frequency mainly depends on the cavity birefringence, which can be tuned by applying mechanical strain to the VCSEL structure. A tuning range of about 34 GHz is demonstrated. By measuring the polarization oscillation frequency and the birefringence governed mode splitting as a function of the applied strain simultaneously, we are able to investigate the correlation between birefringence and polarization oscillations in detail. The experimental findings are compared to numerical calculations based on the spin-flip model.

  17. Photonic generation of triangular pulses based on nonlinear polarization rotation in a highly nonlinear fiber.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Wei Yu; Sun, Wen Hui; Wang, Wen Ting; Liu, Jian Guo; Zhu, Ning Hua

    2014-08-15

    We propose a novel method to generate triangular pulses based on the nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) effect in a highly nonlinear fiber. A continuous wave probe beam is polarization-rotated by an intensity-modulated control beam via the NPR effect. A polarization-division-multiplexing emulator is exploited to split the probe beam into two orthogonally polarized states with imbalanced time delay. After detection by a photodetector, a 90° microwave phase shifter is used to compensate the phases of the fundamental and the third-order harmonic components in order to generate triangular pulses. Triangular pulses at 5 and 6 GHz with full duty cycles are experimentally generated. The root mean square errors between the generated and the simulated waveforms are 3.6e-4 and 1e-4 for triangular pulses at 5 and 6 GHz, respectively. PMID:25121867

  18. Design of a polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detector with high detection efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fan; Xu, Ruiying; Zhu, Guanghao; Jin, Biaobing; Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) deliver superior performance over their competitors in the near-infrared regime. However, these detectors have an intrinsic polarization dependence on the incident wave because of their one-dimensional meander structure. In this paper, we propose an approach to eliminate the polarization sensitivity of SNSPDs by using near-field optics to increase the absorption of SNSPDs under transverse magnetic (TM) illumination. In addition, an optical cavity is added to our SNSPD to obtain nearly perfect absorption of the incident wave. Numerical simulations show that the maximum absorption of a designed SNSPD can reach 96% at 1550 nm, and indicate that the absorption difference between transverse electric (TE) and TM polarization is less than 0.5% across a wavelength window of 300 nm. Our work provides the first demonstration of the possibility of designing a polarization-insensitive and highly efficient SNSPD without performing device symmetry improvements. PMID:26948672

  19. Theoretical study on the ground state of the polar alkali-metal-barium molecules: potential energy curve and permanent dipole moment.

    PubMed

    Gou, Dezhi; Kuang, Xiaoyu; Gao, Yufeng; Huo, Dongming

    2015-01-21

    In this paper, we systematically investigate the electronic structure for the (2)?(+) ground state of the polar alkali-metal-alkaline-earth-metal molecules BaAlk (Alk = Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs). Potential energy curves and permanent dipole moments (PDMs) are determined using power quantum chemistry complete active space self-consistent field and multi-reference configuration interaction methods. Basic spectroscopic constants are derived from ro-vibrational bound state calculation. From the calculations, it is shown that BaK, BaRb, and BaCs molecules have moderate values of PDM at the equilibrium bond distance (BaK:1.62 D, BaRb:3.32 D, and BaCs:4.02 D). Besides, the equilibrium bond length (4.93 and 5.19 ) and dissociation energy (0.1825 eV and 0.1817 eV) for the BaRb and BaCs are also obtained. PMID:25612710

  20. Theoretical study on the ground state of the polar alkali-metal-barium molecules: Potential energy curve and permanent dipole moment

    SciTech Connect

    Gou, Dezhi; Kuang, Xiaoyu Gao, Yufeng; Huo, Dongming

    2015-01-21

    In this paper, we systematically investigate the electronic structure for the {sup 2}Σ{sup +} ground state of the polar alkali-metal-alkaline-earth-metal molecules BaAlk (Alk = Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs). Potential energy curves and permanent dipole moments (PDMs) are determined using power quantum chemistry complete active space self-consistent field and multi-reference configuration interaction methods. Basic spectroscopic constants are derived from ro-vibrational bound state calculation. From the calculations, it is shown that BaK, BaRb, and BaCs molecules have moderate values of PDM at the equilibrium bond distance (BaK:1.62 D, BaRb:3.32 D, and BaCs:4.02 D). Besides, the equilibrium bond length (4.93 Å and 5.19 Å) and dissociation energy (0.1825 eV and 0.1817 eV) for the BaRb and BaCs are also obtained.

  1. Update on High-Resolution Geodetically Controlled LROC Polar Mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archinal, B.; Lee, E.; Weller, L.; Richie, J.; Edmundson, K.; Laura, J.; Robinson, M.; Speyerer, E.; Boyd, A.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Wagner, R.; Nefian, A.

    2015-10-01

    We describe progress on high-resolution (1 m/pixel) geodetically controlled LROC mosaics of the lunar poles, which can be used for locating illumination resources (for solar power or cold traps) or landing site and surface operations planning.

  2. High Latitude Meridional Flow on the Sun May Explain North-South Polar Field Asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosak, Katie; Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David

    2012-01-01

    We measured the flows of magnetic elements on the Sun at very high latitudes by analyzing magnetic images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission. Magnetic maps constructed using a fixed, and north ]south symmetric, meridional flow profile give weaker than observed polar fields in the North and stronger than observed polar fields in the South during the decline of Cycle 23 and rise of Cycle 24. Our measurements of the meridional flow at high latitudes indicate systematic north ]south differences. There was a strong flow in the North while the flow in the South was weaker. With these results, we have a possible solution to the polar field asymmetry. The weaker flow in the South should keep the polar fields from becoming too strong while the stronger flow in the North should strengthen the field there. In order to gain a better understanding of the Solar Cycle and magnetic flux transport on the Sun, we need further observations and analyses of the Sun fs polar regions in general and the polar meridional flow in particular

  3. High Latitude Meridional Flow on the Sun May Explain North-South Polar Field Asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosak, Katie; Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David

    2012-01-01

    We measured the flows of magnetic elements on the Sun at very high latitudes by analyzing magnetic images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission. Magnetic maps constructed using a fixed, and north-south symmetric, meridional flow profile give weaker than observed polar fields in the North and stronger than observed polar fields in the South during the decline of Cycle 23 and rise of Cycle 24. Our measurements of the meridional flow at high latitudes indicate systematic north-south differences. There was a strong flow in the North while the flow in the South was weaker. With these results, we have a possible solution to the polar field asymmetry. The weaker flow in the South should keep the polar fields from becoming too strong while the stronger flow in the North should strengthen the field there. In order to gain a better understanding of the Solar Cycle and magnetic flux transport on the Sun, we need further observations and analyses of the Sun's polar regions in general and the polar meridonal flow in particular.

  4. High Latitude Meridional Flow on the Sun May Explain North-South Polar Field Asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosak, Katie; Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David

    2012-01-01

    We measured the flows of magnetic elements on the Sun at very high latitudes by analyzing magnetic images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission. Magnetic maps constructed using a fixed, and north-south symmetric, meridional flow profile give weaker than observed polar fields in the North and stronger than observed polar fields in the South during the decline of Cycle 23 and rise of Cycle 24. Our measurements of the meridional flow at high latitudes indicate systematic north-south differences. In the fall of 2010 (when the North Pole was most visible), there was a strong flow in the North while in the spring of 2011 (when the South Pole was most visible) the flow there was weaker. With these results, we have a possible solution to this polar field asymmetry. The weaker flow in the South should keep the polar fields from becoming too strong while the stronger flow in the North should strengthen the field there. In order to gain a better understanding of the Solar Cycle and magnetic flux transport on the Sun, we need further observations and analyses of the Sun s polar regions in general and the polar meridional flow in particular.

  5. Ultra-high tunable liquid crystal-plasmonic photonic crystal fiber polarization filter.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Mohamed Farhat O; Heikal, A M; Younis, B M; Abdelrazzak, Maher; Obayya, S S A

    2015-03-23

    A novel ultra-high tunable photonic crystal fiber (PCF) polarization filter is proposed and analyzed using finite element method. The suggested design has a central hole infiltrated with a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) that offers high tunability with temperature and external electric field. Moreover, the PCF is selectively filled with metal wires into cladding air holes. Results show that the resonance losses and wavelengths are different in x and y polarized directions depending on the rotation angle ? of the NLC. The reported filter of compact device length 0.5 mm can achieve 600 dB / cm resonance losses at ? = 90 for x-polarized mode at communication wavelength of 1300 mm with low losses of 0.00751 dB / cm for y-polarized mode. However, resonance losses of 157.71 dB / cm at ? = 0 can be achieved for y-polarized mode at the same wavelength with low losses of 0.092 dB / cm for x-polarized mode. PMID:25837045

  6. Highly polarized muonic helium produced by collisions with optically pumped Rb

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    Highly polarized muonic helium has been formed by stopping unpolarized negative muons in a mixture of unpolarized gaseous He and laser optically pumped Rb vapor. The stopped muons form muonic He ions which are neutralized and polarized by collisions with Rb. Average polarizations for [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He of 26.8 [+-] 2.3% and 44.2 [+-] 3.5% were achieved, representing a tenfold increase over previous methods. Fitting the time dependent polarization to equations for spin exchange and polarized dissociative charge exchange derived through the use of spherical basis tensors, cross sections for both interactions were computed. The cross section for spin exchange was found to be [sigma][sub SE] = (1.36 [+-] 0.17 [+-] 0.25) x 10[sup [minus]14]cm[sup [minus]2], while the cross section for dissociative charge exchange was measured as [sigma][sub CE] = (4.47 [+-] 0.67 [+-] 0.82) x 10[sup [minus]14]cm[sup 2]. Highly polarized muonic He is valuable for measurements of the induced pseudoscalar coupling g[sub P] in nuclear muon capture.

  7. Signatures of symmetry and electronic structure in high-order harmonic generation in polyatomic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M. C. H.; Brichta, J.-P.; Bhardwaj, V. R.

    2010-06-15

    We report detailed measurements of high-order harmonic generation in chloromethane molecules (CCl{sub 4}, CHCl{sub 3}, and CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to show that fingerprints of symmetry and electronic structure can be decoded from high-order harmonic generation even in complex randomly oriented molecules. In our measurements, orbital symmetries of these molecules are manifested as both extended harmonic cutoffs and a local minimum in the ellipticity dependence of the cut-off harmonics, suggesting the occurrence of quantum interferences during ionization. The harmonic spectra exhibit distinct interference minima at {approx}42 and {approx}60 eV. We attribute the former to the Cooper minimum in the photoionization cross section and the latter to intramolecular interference during the recombination process.

  8. A fixed-charge model for alcohol polarization in the condensed phase, and its role in small molecule hydration.

    PubMed

    Fennell, Christopher J; Wymer, Karisa L; Mobley, David L

    2014-06-19

    We present a simple optimization strategy for incorporating experimental dielectric response information on neat liquids in classical molecular models of alcohol. Using this strategy, we determine simple and transferable hydroxyl modulation rules that, when applied to an existing molecular parameter set, result in a newly dielectric corrected (DC) parameter set. We applied these rules to the general Amber force field (GAFF) to form an initial set of GAFF-DC parameters, and we found this to lead to significant improvement in the calculated dielectric constant and hydration free energy values for a wide variety of small molecule alcohol models. Tests of the GAFF-DC parameters in the SAMPL4 blind prediction event for hydration show these changes improve agreement with experiment. Surprisingly, these simple modifications also outperform detailed quantum mechanical electric field calculations using a self-consistent reaction field environment coupling term. This work provides a potential benchmark for future developments in methods for representing condensed-phase environments in electronic structure calculations. PMID:24702668

  9. Permeation of protons, potassium ions, and small polar molecules through phospholipid bilayers as a function of membrane thickness.

    PubMed Central

    Paula, S; Volkov, A G; Van Hoek, A N; Haines, T H; Deamer, D W

    1996-01-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for solute permeation of lipid bilayers. Partitioning into the hydrophobic phase of the bilayer, followed by diffusion, is accepted by many for the permeation of water and other small neutral solutes, but transient pores have also been proposed to account for both water and ionic solute permeation. These two mechanisms make distinctively different predictions about the permeability coefficient as a function of bilayer thickness. Whereas the solubility-diffusion mechanism predicts only a modest variation related to bilayer thickness, the pore model predicts an exponential relationship. To test these models, we measured the permeability of phospholipid bilayers to protons, potassium ions, water, urea, and glycerol. Bilayers were prepared as liposomes, and thickness was varied systematically by using unsaturated lipids with chain lengths ranging from 14 to 24 carbon atoms. The permeability coefficient of water and neutral polar solutes displayed a modest dependence on bilayer thickness, with an approximately linear fivefold decrease as the carbon number varied from 14 to 24 atoms. In contrast, the permeability to protons and potassium ions decreased sharply by two orders of magnitude between 14 and 18 carbon atoms, and leveled off, when the chain length was further extended to 24 carbon atoms. The results for water and the neutral permeating solutes are best explained by the solubility-diffusion mechanism. The results for protons and potassium ions in shorter-chain lipids are consistent with the transient pore model, but better fit the theoretical line predicted by the solubility-diffusion model at longer chain lengths. PMID:8770210

  10. Permeation of protons, potassium ions, and small polar molecules through phospholipid bilayers as a function of membrane thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paula, S.; Volkov, A. G.; Van Hoek, A. N.; Haines, T. H.; Deamer, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for solute permeation of lipid bilayers. Partitioning into the hydrophobic phase of the bilayer, followed by diffusion, is accepted by many for the permeation of water and other small neutral solutes, but transient pores have also been proposed to account for both water and ionic solute permeation. These two mechanisms make distinctively different predictions about the permeability coefficient as a function of bilayer thickness. Whereas the solubility-diffusion mechanism predicts only a modest variation related to bilayer thickness, the pore model predicts an exponential relationship. To test these models, we measured the permeability of phospholipid bilayers to protons, potassium ions, water, urea, and glycerol. Bilayers were prepared as liposomes, and thickness was varied systematically by using unsaturated lipids with chain lengths ranging from 14 to 24 carbon atoms. The permeability coefficient of water and neutral polar solutes displayed a modest dependence on bilayer thickness, with an approximately linear fivefold decrease as the carbon number varied from 14 to 24 atoms. In contrast, the permeability to protons and potassium ions decreased sharply by two orders of magnitude between 14 and 18 carbon atoms, and leveled off, when the chain length was further extended to 24 carbon atoms. The results for water and the neutral permeating solutes are best explained by the solubility-diffusion mechanism. The results for protons and potassium ions in shorter-chain lipids are consistent with the transient pore model, but better fit the theoretical line predicted by the solubility-diffusion model at longer chain lengths.

  11. Tackling the bottleneck in bacterial signal transduction research: high-throughput identification of signal molecules.

    PubMed

    Krell, Tino

    2015-05-01

    Signal transduction processes are typically initiated by the interaction of signal molecules with sensor domains. The current lack of information on the signal molecules that feed into regulatory circuits forms a major bottleneck that hampers the understanding of regulatory processes. McKellar et al. report a high-throughput approach for the identification of signal molecules, which is based on thermal shift assays of recombinant sensor domains in the absence and presence of compounds from commercially available ligand collections. Initial binding studies with the sensor domain of the PctA chemoreceptor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed a close match between thermal shift assay results and microcalorimetric studies reported previously. Using thermal shift assays the authors then identify signals that bind to three chemoreceptors of the kiwifruit pathogen P. syringae pv. Actinidiae NZ-V13. Microcalorimetric binding studies and chemotaxis assays have validated the relevance of these ligands. The power of this technique lies in the combination of a high-throughput analytical tool with commercially available compound collections. The approach reported is universal since it can be employed to identify signal molecules to any type of sensor domain. There is no doubt that this technique will facilitate the identification of many signal molecules in future years. PMID:25708679

  12. Generating Polarized High-Brightness Muon Beams With High-Energy Gammas

    SciTech Connect

    Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2009-01-22

    Hadron colliders are impractical at very high energies as effective interaction energy is a fraction of the energies of the beams and luminosity must rise as energy squared. Further, the prevailing gluon-gluon background radiation makes it difficult to sort out events. e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders, on other hand, are constrained at TeV energies by beamstrahlung radiation and also by cost as long linacs are required to avoid synchrotron radiation in the rings. A muon collider will have the same advantages in energy reach as an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, but without prohibitive beamstrahlung- and synchrotron- radiation. Generation of the high-brightness polarized muon ({mu}{sup -}{mu}{sup +}) beams through gamma conversion into pairs in the nuclei field is considered in this paper. The dominant effect in the interaction of the high-energy photons with the solid target will be the production of electron-positron pairs. The low-phase space of the resulting muon beams adequately compensates for the small probability of generating a {mu}{sup -}{mu}{sup +} pair.

  13. Highly efficient broadband polarization retarders and tunable polarization filters made of composite stacks of ordinary wave plates.

    PubMed

    Dimova, E St; Ivanov, S S; Popkirov, G St; Vitanov, N V

    2014-05-01

    By using the formal analogy between the evolution of the state vector in quantum mechanics and the Jones vector in polarization optics, we construct and demonstrate experimentally efficient broadband half-wave polarization retarders and tunable narrowband polarization filters. Both the broadband retarders and the filters are constructed by the same set of stacked standard multiorder optical wave plates (WPs) rotated at different angles with respect to their fast polarization axes: for a certain set of angles this device behaves as a broadband polarization retarder, while for another set of angles it turns into a narrowband polarization filter. We demonstrate that the transmission profile of our filter can be centered around any desired wavelength in a certain vicinity of the design wavelength of the WPs solely by selecting appropriate rotation angles. PMID:24979626

  14. High-speed endless optical polarization stabilization using calibrated waveplates and field-programmable gate array-based digital controller.

    PubMed

    Hidayat, Ariya; Koch, Benjamin; Zhang, Hongbin; Mirvoda, Vitali; Lichtinger, Manfred; Sandel, David; No, Reinhold

    2008-11-10

    A truly endless polarization stabilization experiment with a tracking speed of 15 krad/s is presented. The high-speed polarization tracking is realized by using calibrated lithium niobate linear retardation waveplates as the polarization transformers combined with a very fast digital controller running on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). PMID:19581991

  15. Vacuum-UV spectroscopy of interstellar ice analogs. I. Absorption cross-sections of polar-ice molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Diaz, G. A.; Muoz Caro, G. M.; Chen, Y.-J.; Yih, T.-S.

    2014-02-01

    Context. The vacuum-UV (VUV) absorption cross sections of most molecular solids present in interstellar ice mantles with the exception of H2O, NH3, and CO2 have not been reported yet. Models of ice photoprocessing depend on the VUV absorption cross section of the ice to estimate the penetration depth and radiation dose, and in the past, gas phase cross section values were used as an approximation. Aims: We aim to estimate the VUV absorption cross section of molecular ice components. Methods: Pure ices composed of CO, H2O, CH3OH, NH3, or H2S were deposited at 8 K. The column density of the ice samples was measured in situ by infrared spectroscopy in transmittance. VUV spectra of the ice samples were collected in the 120-160 nm (10.33-7.74 eV) range using a commercial microwave-discharged hydrogen flow lamp. Results: We provide VUV absorption cross sections of the reported molecular ices. Our results agree with those previously reported for H2O and NH3 ices. Vacuum-UV absorption cross section of CH3OH, CO, and H2S in solid phase are reported for the first time. H2S presents the highest absorption in the 120-160 nm range. Conclusions: Our method allows fast and readily available VUV spectroscopy of ices without the need to use a synchrotron beamline. We found that the ice absorption cross sections can be very different from the gas-phase values, and therefore, our data will significantly improve models that simulate the VUV photoprocessing and photodesorption of ice mantles. Photodesorption rates of pure ices, expressed in molecules per absorbed photon, can be derived from our data. Data can be found at http://ghosst.osug.fr/

  16. High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing of small-molecule organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kukjoo; Kim, Gyeomuk; Lee, Bo Ram; Ji, Sangyoon; Kim, So-Yun; An, Byeong Wan; Song, Myoung Hoon; Park, Jang-Ung

    2015-08-01

    The development of alternative organic light-emitting diode (OLED) fabrication technologies for high-definition and low-cost displays is an important research topic as conventional fine metal mask-assisted vacuum evaporation has reached its limit to reduce pixel sizes and manufacturing costs. Here, we report an electrohydrodynamic jet (e-jet) printing method to fabricate small-molecule OLED pixels with high resolution (pixel width of 5 μm), which significantly exceeds the resolutions of conventional inkjet or commercial OLED display pixels. In addition, we print small-molecule emitting materials which provide a significant advantage in terms of device efficiency and lifetime compared to those with polymers.The development of alternative organic light-emitting diode (OLED) fabrication technologies for high-definition and low-cost displays is an important research topic as conventional fine metal mask-assisted vacuum evaporation has reached its limit to reduce pixel sizes and manufacturing costs. Here, we report an electrohydrodynamic jet (e-jet) printing method to fabricate small-molecule OLED pixels with high resolution (pixel width of 5 μm), which significantly exceeds the resolutions of conventional inkjet or commercial OLED display pixels. In addition, we print small-molecule emitting materials which provide a significant advantage in terms of device efficiency and lifetime compared to those with polymers. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03034j

  17. Enhanced Electron Attachment to Highly-Excited Molecules and Its Applications in Pulsed Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, W.X.; Ma, C.Y.; McCorkle, D.L.; Pinnaduwage, L.A.

    1999-06-27

    Studies conducted over the past several years have shown that electron attachment to highly-excited states of molecules have extremely large cross sections. We will discuss the implications of this for pulsed discharges used for H- generation, material processing, and plasma remediation.

  18. Optical attosecond mapping by polarization selective detection

    SciTech Connect

    Kitzler, Markus; Xie Xinhua; Scrinzi, Armin; Baltuska, Andrius

    2007-07-15

    We propose a general concept to use the spatial information encoded in the time-dependent polarization of high-order harmonic radiation generated by orthogonally polarized two-color laser fields. Based on polarization selective detection, we present two examples of applications: (i) a method for isolating a single attosecond pulse from an attosecond pulse train which is more efficient than the cutoff selection method and (ii) a technique for orbital tomography of molecules with attosecond resolution.

  19. Droplet-based microfluidic systems for high-throughput single DNA molecule isothermal amplification and analysis.

    PubMed

    Mazutis, Linas; Araghi, Ali Fallah; Miller, Oliver J; Baret, Jean-Christophe; Frenz, Lucas; Janoshazi, Agnes; Taly, Valrie; Miller, Benjamin J; Hutchison, J Brian; Link, Darren; Griffiths, Andrew D; Ryckelynck, Michael

    2009-06-15

    We have developed a method for high-throughput isothermal amplification of single DNA molecules in a droplet-based microfluidic system. DNA amplification in droplets was analyzed using an intercalating fluorochrome, allowing fast and accurate "digital" quantification of the template DNA based on the Poisson distribution of DNA molecules in droplets. The clonal amplified DNA in each 2 pL droplet was further analyzed by measuring the enzymatic activity of the encoded proteins after fusion with a 15 pL droplet containing an in vitro translation system. PMID:19518143

  20. Highly coherent spectroscopy of ultracold atoms and molecules in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Zelevinsky, Tanya; Blatt, Sebastian; Boyd, Martin M; Campbell, Gretchen K; Ludlow, Andrew D; Ye, Jun

    2008-02-22

    Cooling and trapping of neutral atoms using laser techniques has enabled extensive progress in precise, coherent spectroscopy. In particular, trapping ultracold atoms in optical lattices in a tight confinement regime allows us to perform high-resolution spectroscopy unaffected by atomic motion. We report on the recent developments of optical lattice atomic clocks that have led to optical spectroscopy coherent at the one second timescale. The lattice clock techniques also open a promising pathway toward trapped ultracold molecules and the possible precision measurement opportunities such molecules offer. PMID:18275047

  1. Detection of high and variable Optical Polarization in Blazar S5 0716+71 from MIRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baliyan, Ks; Ganesh, S.; Chandra, S.; Joshi, Uc

    2009-12-01

    Blazar S5 0716+714 (PKS 0716+71) is highly variable at short and long term timescales in all energy regimes. We monitored it for linear Optical Polarization using 1.2m Telescope at Mt Abu IR Observatory, India, mounted with two-channel PRL Polarimeter. It was found to have high and variable polarization during Dec 12-13, 2009. The source has been reported to be undergoing flaring activity at sub-mm (ATEL #2342) and a multifrequency campaign is already on.

  2. A differential polarized phase fluorometric study of the effects of high hydrostatic pressure upon the fluidity of cellular membranes.

    PubMed

    Chong, P L; Cossins, A R; Weber, G

    1983-01-18

    The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (up to 2 kbar) upon the fluidity and order of the synaptic and myelin membrane fractions of goldfish brain have been studied by using steady-state and differential polarized phase fluorometry. Probe motion provided a measure of membrane order (r infinity) and probe rotational rate (R). Membrane order became progressively greater as pressure was increased up to approximately 2 kbar. This effect was similar over the temperature range 5.6-34.3 degrees C. An increase in pressure of 1 kbar had an effect on membrane order that was equivalent to a 13-19 degrees C reduction in temperature. Membrane order was essentially identical during pressurization and depressurization. At 5.6 degrees C, pressurization caused a large increase in R, and similar, though less dramatic, anomalies occurred at higher temperatures. It is suggested that this is due to the segregation of probe molecules in highly ordered membranes, which leads either to excitation transfer between 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) molecules or to changes in the rotational motion of DPH from "sticking" to "slipping". PMID:6297548

  3. High Resolution Continuous Flow Analysis System for Polar Ice Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmayr, Remi; Azuma, Kumiko; Yamada, Hironobu; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Vallelonga, Paul; Azuma, Nobuhiko; Takata, Morimasa

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades, Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) technology for ice core analyses has been developed to reconstruct the past changes of the climate system 1), 2). Compared with traditional analyses of discrete samples, a CFA system offers much faster and higher depth resolution analyses. It also generates a decontaminated sample stream without time-consuming sample processing procedure by using the inner area of an ice-core sample.. The CFA system that we have been developing is currently able to continuously measure stable water isotopes 3) and electrolytic conductivity, as well as to collect discrete samples for the both inner and outer areas with variable depth resolutions. Chemistry analyses4) and methane-gas analysis 5) are planned to be added using the continuous water stream system 5). In order to optimize the resolution of the current system with minimal sample volumes necessary for different analyses, our CFA system typically melts an ice core at 1.6 cm/min. Instead of using a wire position encoder with typical 1mm positioning resolution 6), we decided to use a high-accuracy CCD Laser displacement sensor (LKG-G505, Keyence). At the 1.6 cm/min melt rate, the positioning resolution was increased to 0.27mm. Also, the mixing volume that occurs in our open split debubbler is regulated using its weight. The overflow pumping rate is smoothly PID controlled to maintain the weight as low as possible, while keeping a safety buffer of water to avoid air bubbles downstream. To evaluate the system's depth-resolution, we will present the preliminary data of electrolytic conductivity obtained by melting 12 bags of the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core. The samples correspond to different climate intervals (Greenland Stadial 21, 22, Greenland Stadial 5, Greenland Interstadial 5, Greenland Interstadial 7, Greenland Stadial 8). We will present results for the Greenland Stadial -8, whose depths and ages are between 1723.7 and 1724.8 meters, and 35.520 to 35.636 kyr b2k 7), respectively. The results show the conductivity measured upstream and downstream of the debubbler. We will calculate the depth resolution of our system and compare it with earlier studies. 1) Bigler at al, "Optimization of High-Resolution Continuous Flow Analysis For Transient Climate Signals in Ice Cores". Environ. Sci. Technol. 2011, 45, 4483-4489 2) Kaufmann et al, "An Improved Continuous Flow Analysis System for High Resolution Field Measurements on Ice Cores". Environmental Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 8044-8050 3) Gkinis, V., T. J. Popp, S. J. Johnsen and T, Blunier, 2010: A continuous stream flash evaporator for the calibration of an IR cavity ring down spectrometer for the isotopic analysis of water. Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies, 46(4), 463-475. 4) McConnell et al, "Continuous ice-core chemical analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2002, 36, 7-11 5) Rhodes et al, "Continuous methane measurements from a late Holocene Greenland ice core : Atmospheric and in-situ signals" Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 2013, 368, 9-19 6) Breton et al, "Quantifying Signal Dispersion in a Hybrid Ice Core Melting System". Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46, 11922-11928 7) Rasmussen et al, " A first chronology for the NEEM ice core". Climate of the Past. 2013, 9, 2967--3013

  4. Transport of dust to high northern latitudes in a Martian polar warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, J. R.

    1990-02-01

    The transport of dust in the Martian atmosphere into high northern latitudes as a result of a Martian polar-warming (and global-dust-storm) event was investigated using a simplified transport model in conjunction with a beta-plane dynamical model to simulate the transport of dust. Numerical experiments were performed to examine the influence of different warming dynamics and to assess the sensitivity of the transport to the initial dust distribution. Results indicate that substantial amounts of dust could be transported and deposited at high northern latitudes (extending to the pole) in a polar-warming event. The potential for the transport of water was also examined through simulations, with results indicating that large amounts of water could be transported to the north polar region in a warming, on the condition that substantial condensation and precipitation do not take place in the subpolar regions. However, the warmth of the Martian atmosphere during global dust storms makes the latter possible.

  5. Polarizing grating color filters with large acceptance angle and high transmittance.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhenyue; Zhang, Guiju; Zhu, Ruidong; Gao, Yating; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2016-01-01

    We design and simulate a polarizing color filter with a sub-wavelength metal-dielectric grating. It manifests several advantages: a large acceptance angle (up to ±50°), high transmittance (74.3%-92.7%), low absorption loss (∼3.3%), and a high extinction ratio. This polarizing color filter can be integrated into a liquid-crystal display (LCD) backlight system to simultaneously recycle the light according to its color and polarization. In combination with a specially designed directional backlight, this newly proposed LCD system can theoretically improve optical efficiency up to ∼2.5×, and also provides a large ambient contrast ratio and a wide view. Our approach enables an ultra-low-power LCD without using the complicated field-sequential-color technique. PMID:26835623

  6. A theoretical study of resonance Raman scattering from molecules: High pressure effect

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Y.; Lin, S. H.; Eyring, H.

    1980-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper has been to study the high pressure effect on the resonance Raman scattering (RRS) of molecules in a dense medium. In deriving the RRS cross section under high pressure, a different approach from that presented in the previous papers has been used, and the resulting expression for the RRS cross section can be used to treat both pressure and temperature effects. PMID:16592869

  7. High-Contrast NIR Polarization Imaging of MWC480

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElwain, M. W.; Kusakabe, N.; Hashimoto, J.; Kudo, T.; Kandori, R.; Miyama, S.; Morino, J.-I.; Suto, H.; Suzuki, R.; Tamura, M.; Grady, C. A.; Sitko, M. L.; Werren, C.; Day, A. N.; Beerman, C.; Iye, M.; Lynch, D. K.; Russell, R. W.; Brafford, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the key predictions of modeling from the IR excess of Herbig Ae stars is that for protoplanetary disks, where significant grain growth and settling has occurred, the dust disk has flattened to the point that it can be partially or largely shadowed by the innermost material at or near the dust sublimation radius. When the self-shadowing has already started, the outer disk is expected to be detected in scattered light only in the exceptional cases that the scale height of the dust disk at the sublimation radius is smaller than usual. High-contrast imaging combined with the IR spectral energy distribution allow us to measure the degree of flattening of the disk, as well as to determine the properties of the outer disk. We present polarimetric differential imaging in H band obtained with Subaru/HiCIAO of one such system, MWC 480. The HiCIAO data were obtained at a historic minimum of the NIR excess. The disk is detected in scattered light from 0".2-1"0 (27.4-137 AU). Together with the marginal detection of the disk from 1998 February 24 by HST / NICMOS, our data constrain the opening half angle for the disk to lie between 1.3 <= Theta <=2.2 deg. When compared with similar measures in CO for the gas disk from the literature, the dust disk subtends only approx 30% of the gas disk scale height (H/R approx 0. 03). Such a dust disk is a factor of 5-7 flatter than transitional disks, which have structural signatures that giant planets have formed.

  8. Colloidal lenses allow high-temperature single-molecule imaging and improve fluorophore photostability

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jerrod J.; Stavrakis, Stavros; Quake, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Although single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy was first demonstrated at near-absolute zero temperatures (1.8 K)1, the field has since advanced to include room-temperature observations2, largely owing to the use of objective lenses with high numerical aperture, brighter fluorophores and more sensitive detectors. This has opened the door for many chemical and biological systems to be studied at native temperatures at the single-molecule level both in vitro3–4 and in vivo5–6. However, it is difficult to study systems and phenomena at temperatures above 37 °C, because the index-matching fluids used with high-numerical-aperture objective lenses can conduct heat from the sample to the lens, and sustained exposure to high temperatures can cause the lens to fail. Here, we report that TiO2 colloids with diameters of 2 μm and a high refractive index can act as lenses that are capable of single-molecule imaging at 70 °C when placed in immediate proximity to an emitting molecule. The optical system is completed by a low-numerical-aperture optic that can have a long working distance and an air interface, which allows the sample to be independently heated. Colloidal lenses were used for parallel imaging of surface-immobilized single fluorophores and for real-time single-molecule measurements of mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes at 70 °C. Fluorophores in close proximity to TiO2 also showed a 40% increase in photostability due to a reduction of the excited-state lifetime. PMID:20023643

  9. Polarized x-ray absorption near-edge structure of highly oxidized chromium porphyrins

    SciTech Connect

    Penner-Hahn, J.E.; Benfatto, M.; Hedman, B.; Takahashi, T.; Doniach, S.; Groves, J.T.; Hodgson, K.O.

    1986-06-18

    Polarized X-ray absorption near-edge spectra have been measured for Cr/sup IV/(TTP)O and Cr/sup V/(TTP)N (TTP is the dianion of 5,10,15,20-tetra-p-tolylporphyrin). These spectra, which are very similar for the two molecules, show an intense preedge absorption feature polarized perpendicular to the porphyrin plane. The absorption edges are relatively featureless when the polarization is parallel to the porphyrin plane. On the basis of multiple-scattered-wave X..cap alpha.. calculations, the intense preedge feature is interpreted as a bound ..-->.. bound transition with significant metal character in the excited state. This transition, which has been observed in many metal-oxo species, was not observed in the putative ferryl (Fe=o) intermediates of horseradish peroxidase. The reasons for this absence in Fe=O species and its relationship to the reactivity of metal-oxo porphyrin complexes are discussed in light of the present results.

  10. Slowing and cooling of heavy or light (even with a tiny electric dipole moment) polar molecules using a novel, versatile electrostatic Stark decelerator.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Hou, Shunyong; Xu, Liang; Yin, Jianping

    2016-02-21

    To meet some demands for realizing precise measurements of an electric dipole moment of electron (eEDM) and examining cold collisions or cold chemical physics, we have proposed a novel, versatile electrostatic Stark decelerator with an array of true 3D electric potential wells, which are created by a series of horizontally-oriented, U-shaped electrodes with time-sequence controlling high voltages (±HV) and two guiding electrodes with a constant voltage. We have calculated the 2D electric field distribution, the Stark shifts of the four lowest rotational sub-levels of PbF molecules in the X1(2)Π1/2(v = 0) electronic and vibrational ground states as well as the population in the different rotational levels. We have discussed the 2D longitudinal and transverse phase-space acceptances of PbF molecules in our decelerator. Subsequently, we have simulated the dynamic processes of the decelerated PbF molecules using the 3D Monte-Carlo method, and have found that a supersonic PbF beam with a velocity of 300 m s(-1) can be efficiently slowed to about 5 m s(-1), which will greatly enhance the sensitivities to research a parity violation and measure an eEDM. In addition, we have investigated the dependences of the longitudinal velocity spread, longitudinal temperature and bunching efficiency on both the number of guiding stages and high voltages, and found that after bunching, a cold packet of PbF molecules in the J = 7/2, MΩ = -7/4 state with a longitudinal velocity spread of 0.69 m s(-1) (corresponding to a longitudinal temperature of 2.35 mK) will be produced by our high-efficient decelerator, which will generate a high energy-resolution molecular beam for studying cold collision physics. Finally, our novel decelerator can also be used to efficiently slow NO molecules with a tiny electric dipole moment (EDM) of 0.16 D from 315 m s(-1) to 28 m s(-1). It is clear that our proposed new decelerator has a good slowing performance and experimental feasibility as well as wide applications in the field of precise measurements and cold molecule physics. PMID:26823151

  11. Catalyst-site-controlled coordination polymerization of polar vinyl monomers to highly syndiotactic polymers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuetao; Ning, Yalan; Caporaso, Lucia; Cavallo, Luigi; Chen, Eugene Y-X

    2010-03-01

    This contribution reports a combined synthetic, kinetic, mechanistic, and theoretical/computational study of the recently discovered catalyst-site-controlled coordination polymerization of polar vinyl monomers [such as methyl methacrylate (MMA) and N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAA)] into highly syndiotactic polymers. Among the 12 C(s)-ligated ansa-cyclopentadienyl (Cp)-R(2)E(C,Si)-fluorenyl (Flu) group 4 metallocene catalyst systems examined-which varied in metal center, anion structure, bridging atom and substituents, and ligand substitution pattern-cationic ansa-metallocene ester enolate catalyst 6(+)[B(C(6)F(5))(4)](-), derived from the activation of the precatalyst [Ph(2)C(Cp)(2,7-(t)Bu(2)-Flu)]Zr[OC(O(i)Pr)=CMe(2)](2) with [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)], stood out as the best catalyst in all aspects of the MMA polymerization at room temperature, including the highest activity (1554 h(-1) TOF), efficiency (98% I*), syndiotacticity (94% rr), and control (predicted number-average molecular weight and 1.14 molecular weight distribution). Kinetic and mechanistic results are consistent with a catalyst-site-controlled, monometallic coordination-addition mechanism, involving fast intramolecular addition within the catalyst-monomer complex leading to the resting eight-membered ester enolate chelate, followed by the rate-limiting ring-opening of the chelate to regenerate the active species. This work has also uncovered several unique features of this polymerization system that are in marked contrast to the propylene polymerization by analogous C(s)-ligated cationic alkyl catalysts: a constant syndiotacticity of PMMA produced over a wide polymerization temperature range (i.e., from 0 degrees C, 94% rr to 25 degrees C, 94% rr to 50 degrees C, 93% rr); insensitivity of its high activity, degree of control, and stereoselectivity to solvent polarity and structure of weakly coordinating anions; and deviation from a pure site-control mechanism at high [MMA]/[catalyst] ratios. Computational results provide theoretical support for the proposed monomer-assisted, catalyst-site epimerization, after an enantiofacial mistake, to a thermodynamically more stable resting state, which accounts for the observed higher than expected [mr] contents based on a pure site-controlled mechanism. DFT calculations rationalize why the Ph(2)C< bridged catalyst 6 exhibits higher stereoselectivity than other catalysts with the Me(2)C< or Me(2)Si< bridge: the bridge rigidity pushes the eta(3)-bound Flu ligand closer to the growing chain and the monomer, thereby increasing DeltaE(stereo) between the competing transition states for the addition of a monomer molecule to the opposite (correct and wrong) enantiofaces of the enolate growing chain. The relative polymerization activity of this catalyst series is shown to correlate with the relative energetics of the back-biting of the penultimate unit and ion-pair formation. PMID:20121281

  12. Experimental Detection of Branching at a Conical Intersection in a Highly Fluorescent Molecule.

    PubMed

    Brazard, Johanna; Bizimana, Laurie A; Gellen, Tobias; Carbery, William P; Turner, Daniel B

    2016-01-01

    Conical intersections are molecular configurations at which adiabatic potential-energy surfaces touch. They are predicted to be ubiquitous, yet condensed-phase experiments have focused on the few systems with clear spectroscopic signatures of negligible fluorescence, high photoactivity, or femtosecond electronic kinetics. Although rare, these signatures have become diagnostic for conical intersections. Here we detect a coherent surface-crossing event nearly two picoseconds after optical excitation in a highly fluorescent molecule that has no photoactivity and nanosecond electronic kinetics. Time-frequency analysis of high-sensitivity measurements acquired using sub-8 fs pulses reveals phase shifts of the signal due to branching of the wavepacket through a conical intersection. The time-frequency analysis methodology demonstrated here on a model compound will enable studies of conical intersections in molecules that do not exhibit their diagnostic signatures. Improving the ability to detect conical intersections will enrich the understanding of their mechanistic role in molecular photochemistry. PMID:26647278

  13. Polarized light imaging of birefringence and diattenuation at high resolution and high sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Shalin B.; Shribak, Michael; Oldenbourg, Rudolf

    2013-09-01

    Polarized light microscopy provides unique opportunities for analyzing the molecular order in man-made and natural materials, including biological structures inside living cells, tissues, and whole organisms. 20 years ago, the LC-PolScope was introduced as a modern version of the traditional polarizing microscope enhanced by liquid crystal devices for the control of polarization, and by electronic imaging and digital image processing for fast and comprehensive image acquisition and analysis. The LC-PolScope is commonly used for birefringence imaging, analyzing the spatial and temporal variations of the differential phase delay in ordered and transparent materials. Here we describe an alternative use of the LC-PolScope for imaging the polarization dependent transmittance of dichroic materials. We explain the minor changes needed to convert the instrument between the two imaging modes, discuss the relationship between the quantities measured with each instrument, and touch on the physical connection between refractive index, birefringence, transmittance, diattenuation, and dichroism.

  14. Polarized light imaging of birefringence and diattenuation at high resolution and high sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Shalin B.; Shribak, Michael; Oldenbourg, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Polarized light microscopy provides unique opportunities for analyzing the molecular order in man-made and natural materials, including biological structures inside living cells, tissues, and whole organisms. 20 years ago, the LC-PolScope was introduced as a modern version of the traditional polarizing microscope enhanced by liquid crystal devices for the control of polarization, and by electronic imaging and digital image processing for fast and comprehensive image acquisition and analysis. The LCPolScope is commonly used for birefringence imaging, analyzing the spatial and temporal variations of the differential phase delay in ordered and transparent materials. Here we describe an alternative use of the LC-PolScope for imaging the polarization dependent transmittance of dichroic materials. We explain the minor changes needed to convert the instrument between the two imaging modes, discuss the relationship between the quantities measured with either instrument, and touch on the physical connection between refractive index, birefringence, transmittance, diattenuation, and dichroism. PMID:24273640

  15. X-Ray Polarization from High-mass X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallman, T.; Dorodnitsyn, A.; Blondin, J.

    2015-12-01

    X-ray astronomy allows study of objects that may be associated with compact objects, i.e., neutron stars or black holes, and also may contain strong magnetic fields. Such objects are categorically nonspherical, and likely noncircular when projected on the sky. Polarization allows study of such geometric effects, and X-ray polarimetry is likely to become feasible for a significant number of sources in the future. Potential targets for future X-ray polarization observations are the high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), which consist of a compact object in orbit with an early-type star. In this paper we show that X-ray polarization from HMXBs has a distinct signature that depends on the source inclination and orbital phase. The presence of the X-ray source displaced from the star creates linear polarization even if the primary wind is spherically symmetric whenever the system is viewed away from conjunction. Direct X-rays dilute this polarization whenever the X-ray source is not eclipsed; at mid-eclipse the net polarization is expected to be small or zero if the wind is circularly symmetric around the line of centers. Resonance line scattering increases the scattering fraction, often by large factors, over the energy band spanned by resonance lines. Real winds are not expected to be spherically symmetric, or circularly symmetric around the line of centers, owing to the combined effects of the compact object gravity and ionization on the wind hydrodynamics. A sample calculation shows that this creates polarization fractions ranging up to tens of percent at mid-eclipse.

  16. Recoil Polarization Measurements of the Proton Electromagnetic Form Factor Ratio to High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Puckett

    2010-02-01

    The electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon characterize the effect of its internal structure on its response to an electromagnetic probe as studied in elastic electronnucleon scattering. These form factors are functions of the squared four-momentum transfer Q2 between the electron and the proton. The two main classes of observables of this reaction are the scattering cross section and polarization asymmetries, both of which are sensitive to the form factors in different ways. When considering large f momentum transfers, double-polarization observables offer superior sensitivity to the electric form factor. This thesis reports the results of a new measurement of the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton at high momentum transfer using the recoil polarization technique. A polarized electron beam was scattered from a liquid hydrogen target, transferring polarization to the recoiling protons. These protons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer which was used to reconstruct their kinematics, including their scattering angles and momenta, and the position of the interaction vertex. A proton polarimeter measured the polarization of the recoiling protons by measuring the azimuthal asymmetry in the angular distribution of protons scattered in CH2 analyzers. The scattered electron was detected in a large acceptance electromagnetic calorimeter in order to suppress inelastic backgrounds. The measured ratio of the transverse and longitudinal polarization components of the scattered proton is directly proportional to the ratio of form factors GpE=GpM. The measurements reported in this thesis took place at Q2 =5.2, 6.7, and 8.5 GeV2, and represent the most accurate measurements of GpE in this Q2 region to date.

  17. Development of high-performance alkali-hybrid polarized 3He targets for electron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jaideep T.; Dolph, P. A. M.; Tobias, W. A.; Averett, T. D.; Kelleher, A.; Mooney, K. E.; Nelyubin, V. V.; Wang, Yunxiao; Zheng, Yuan; Cates, G. D.

    2015-05-01

    Background: Polarized 3He targets have been used as effective polarized neutron targets for electron scattering experiments for over twenty years. Over the last ten years, the effective luminosity of polarized 3He targets based on spin-exchange optical pumping has increased by over an order of magnitude. This has come about because of improvements in commercially-available lasers and an improved understanding of the physics behind the polarization process. Purpose: We present the development of high-performance polarized 3He targets for use in electron scattering experiments. Improvements in the performance of polarized 3He targets, target properties, and operating parameters are documented. Methods: We utilize the technique of alkali-hybrid spin-exchange optical pumping to polarize the 3He targets. Spectrally narrowed diode lasers used for the optical pumping greatly improved the performance. A simulation of the alkali-hybrid spin-exchange optical pumping process was developed to provide guidance in the design of the targets. Data was collected during the characterization of 24 separate glass target cells, each of which was constructed while preparing for one of four experiments at Jefferson Laboratory in Newport News, Virginia. Results: From the data obtained we made determinations of the so-called X -factors that quantify a temperature-dependent and as-yet poorly understood spin-relaxation mechanism that limits the maximum achievable 3He polarization to well under 100%. The presence of the X -factor spin-relaxation mechanism was clearly evident in our data. Good agreement between the simulation and the actual target performance was obtained by including details such as off-resonant optical pumping. Included in our results is a measurement of the K -3He spin-exchange rate coefficient kseK=(7.46 ±0.62 ) ×10-20cm3/s over the temperature range 503 K to 563 K. Conclusions: In order to achieve high performance under the operating conditions described in this paper, the K to Rb alkali vapor density ratio should be about 5 ±2 and the line width of the optical pumping lasers should be no more than 0.3 nm. Our measurements of the X -factors under these conditions seem to indicate the 3He polarization is limited to ≈90 %. The simulation results, now benchmarked against experimental data, are useful for the design of future targets. Further work is required to better understand the temperature dependence of the X -factor spin-relaxation mechanism and the limitations of our optical pumping simulation.

  18. Software for processing of experimental data on polarization laser sensing of high-level clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samokhvalov, I. V.; Volkov, S. N.; Bryukhanov, I. D.; Konoshonkin, A. V.; Zhivotenyuk, I. V.; Stykon, A. P.

    2015-11-01

    Methodology for determination of the optical and geometric characteristics of clouds is described. Problems of processing data obtained in experiments on polarization laser sensing of the atmosphere are discussed. Technique for reduction of the phase matrices of cirrus obtained with the high-altitude polarization lidar developed at National Research Tomsk State University to the symmetry plane affixed to the preferred orientation of ice crystals in cirrus is described. The experimental data are compared with the data of numerical modeling of phase matrices in the physical optics approximation and meteorological conditions over the lidar at cirrus altitudes.

  19. Hyperon Polarization and Single Spin Left-Right Asymmetry in Inclusive Production Processes at High Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo-tang, L.; Boros, C.; Boros, C.

    1997-11-01

    It is shown that the polarization of hyperons observed in high energy collisions using unpolarized hadron beams and unpolarized nucleon or nuclear targets is closely related to the left-right asymmetries observed in single spin inclusive hadron production processes. The relationship is most obvious for the production of the hyperons which have only one common valence quark with the projectile. Examples of this kind are given. Further implications of the existence of large polarization for a hyperon which has two valence quarks in common with the projectile and their consequences are discussed. A comparison with the available data is made. Further tests are suggested. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Remote sensing of high-latitude wetlands using polarized wide-angle imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Guillaume; Stearn, Joel; Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Ustin, Susan L.; Diaz Barrios, Martha C.; Morrissey, Leslie A.; Livingston, Gerald P.; Breon, Francois-Marie; Bouffies, Sophie; Leroy, Marc; Herman, Maurice; Balois, Jean-Yves

    1997-10-01

    Representing the areal extent of circumpolar wetlands is a critical step to quantifying the emission of methane, an important greenhouse gas. Present estimates of the areal extent of these wetlands differ nearly seven fold, implying large uncertainties exist in the prediction of circumpolar methane emission rates. Our objective is to use multi- directional and polarization measurement provided by the French POLDER sensor to improve this estimate. The results show that wetlands can be detected, classified and their area quantified using the unique, highly polarized angular signature of the sunglint measured over their water surfaces.

  1. Recoil polarization measurements of the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio at high momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Puckett

    2009-12-01

    Electromagnetic form factors are fundamental properties of the nucleon that describe the effect of its internal quark structure on the cross section and spin observables in elastic lepton-nucleon scattering. Double-polarization experiments have become the preferred technique to measure the proton and neutron electric form factors at high momentum transfers. The recently completed GEp-III experiment at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility used the recoil polarization method to extend the knowledge of the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio GpE/GpM to Q2 = 8.5 GeV2. In this paper we present the preliminary results of the experiment.

  2. Angular Correlation and Polarization Studies for Radiative Electron Capture into High-Z Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sthlker, Th.; Banas, D.; Fritzsche, S.; Gumberidze, A.; Kozhuharov, C.; Ma, X.; Orsic-Muthig, A.; Spillmann, U.; Sierpowski, D.; Surzhykov, A.; Tachenov, S.; Warczak, A.

    Recent photon correlation studies for Radiative Electron Capture into high-Z projectiles are reviewed. Emphasis is given to the investigation of polarization phenomena which are now accessible due to recent developments in position sensitive solid-states detectors. It is shown, that REC may provide a tool for the diagnostics and detection of the spin–polarization of particles involved in atomic collisions. Also the impact of REC studies for atomic structure studies is outlined. Here the strong alignment of excited states induced by REC allowed us to observe an interference between competing decay branches for the case of the Lyman-α1 transition in hydrogen-like ions.

  3. Long Lifetime and High-Fidelity Quantum Memory of Photonic Polarization Qubit by Lifting Zeeman Degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhongxiao; Wu, Yuelong; Tian, Long; Chen, Lirong; Zhang, Zhiying; Yan, Zhihui; Li, Shujing; Wang, Hai; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2013-12-01

    Long-lived and high-fidelity memory for a photonic polarization qubit (PPQ) is crucial for constructing quantum networks. We present a millisecond storage system based on electromagnetically induced transparency, in which a moderate magnetic field is applied on a cold-atom cloud to lift Zeeman degeneracy and, thus, the PPQ states are stored as two magnetic-field-insensitive spin waves. Especially, the influence of magnetic-field-sensitive spin waves on the storage performances is almost totally avoided. The measured average fidelities of the polarization states are 98.6% at 200?s and 78.4% at 4.5 ms, respectively.

  4. The interactions of ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses with large molecules and clusters: Experimental and computational studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakabe, S.; Nishihara, K.; Nakashima, N.; Kou, J.; Shimizu, S.; Zhakhovskii, V.; Amitani, H.; Sato, F.

    2001-05-01

    Recent experimental and computational studies on intense short-pulse-laser interactions with small objects such as molecules (C60) and clusters are reviewed. An anisotropic Coulomb explosion of C60 was observed, on irradiation by a high-intensity laser pulse (11016W/cm2). The energy distributions of Cq+ ions (q=1-4) (distributed over 1 keV) generated from the explosion process were characterized, with their dependence on laser polarization. These results are qualitatively explained by classical molecular-dynamics simulation. It was clearly established that the crucial process for the anisotropic Coulomb explosion is not electron impact ionization, but cascade hopping of electrons. An analytical model and three-dimensional particle simulations of intense laser interaction with a cluster of overdense plasma are presented. When the laser intensity is above a critical value, it blows off all electrons from the cluster and forms a non-neutral ion cloud. During the Coulomb explosion of the ion cloud, ions acquire energy. Ion energy spectra are discussed in detail for different densities and sizes of clusters with various laser intensities. It is shown that ultra-fast ions are produced for relatively large clusters, and that the ion energy reaches to three times greater than the maximum electrostatic potential energy of the ion cloud. The laser-driven Coulomb explosion of a cluster may provide a new high-energy ion source.

  5. High-order polarization mode crosstalk effect: a calibration scheme of white light-based optical coherence domain polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bing; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Jianzhong; Liang, Shuai; Yu, Zhangjun; Yuan, Yonggui; Peng, Feng; Zhou, Ai; Zhang, Yu; Yuan, Libo

    2015-09-01

    We propose a calibration scheme of the white light interferometer based optical coherence domain polarimetry (OCDP), which could be used to measure the ultra-weak polarization mode crosstalk (PMC) or the ultra-high polarization extinction ratio (PER) of different polarization optical devices. The calibration depends on the first and second order PMC effect of different polarization devices in series. The first and second PMCs between 0 and -90dB, established by five pieces of polarization maintaining fiber (PMF) and a Y-waveguide, is used to prove its feasibility.

  6. Characterization of highly scattering media by measurement of diffusely backscattered polarized light

    DOEpatents

    Hielscher, Andreas H.; Mourant, Judith R.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for recording spatially dependent intensity patterns of polarized light that is diffusely backscattered from highly scattering media are described. These intensity patterns can be used to differentiate different turbid media, such as polystyrene-sphere and biological-cell suspensions. Polarized light from a He-Ne laser (.lambda.=543 nm) is focused onto the surface of the scattering medium, and a surface area of approximately 4.times.4 cm centered on the light input point is imaged through polarization analysis optics onto a CCD camera. A variety of intensity patterns may be observed by varying the polarization state of the incident laser light and changing the analyzer configuration to detect different polarization components of the backscattered light. Experimental results for polystyrene-sphere and Intralipid suspensions demonstrate that the radial and azimuthal variations of the observed pattern depend on the concentration, size, and anisotropy factor, g, of the particles constituting the scattering medium. Measurements performed on biological cell suspensions show that intensity patterns can be used to differentiate between suspensions of cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Introduction of the Mueller-matrix for diffusely backscattered light, permits the selection of a subset of measurements which comprehensively describes the optical properties of backscattering media.

  7. Highly polarized light from stable ordered magnetic fields in GRB 120308A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundell, C. G.; Kopa?, D.; Arnold, D. M.; Steele, I. A.; Gomboc, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Harrison, R. M.; Smith, R. J.; Guidorzi, C.; Virgili, F. J.; Melandri, A.; Japelj, J.

    2013-12-01

    After the initial burst of ?-rays that defines a ?-ray burst (GRB), expanding ejecta collide with the circumburst medium and begin to decelerate at the onset of the afterglow, during which a forward shock travels outwards and a reverse shock propagates backwards into the oncoming collimated flow, or `jet'. Light from the reverse shock should be highly polarized if the jet's magnetic field is globally ordered and advected from the central engine, with a position angle that is predicted to remain stable in magnetized baryonic jet models or vary randomly with time if the field is produced locally by plasma or magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. Degrees of linear polarization of P ~ 10 per cent in the optical band have previously been detected in the early afterglow, but the lack of temporal measurements prevented definitive tests of competing jet models. Hours to days after the ?-ray burst, polarization levels are low (P < 4 per cent), when emission from the shocked ambient medium dominates. Here we report the detection of P = per cent in the immediate afterglow of Swift ?-ray burst GRB 120308A, four minutes after its discovery in the ?-ray band, decreasing to P = per cent over the subsequent ten minutes. The polarization position angle remains stable, changing by no more than 15 degrees over this time, with a possible trend suggesting gradual rotation and ruling out plasma or magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. Instead, the polarization properties show that GRBs contain magnetized baryonic jets with large-scale uniform fields that can survive long after the initial explosion.

  8. High spin polarization in CoFeMnGe equiatomic quaternary Heusler alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Bainsla, Lakhan; Suresh, K. G.; Nigam, A. K.; Manivel Raja, M.; Varaprasad, B. S. D. Ch. S.; Takahashi, Y. K.; Hono, K.

    2014-11-28

    We report the structure, magnetic property, and spin polarization of CoFeMnGe equiatomic quaternary Heusler alloy. The alloy was found to crystallize in the cubic Heusler structure (prototype LiMgPdSn) with considerable amount of DO{sub 3} disorder. Thermal analysis result indicated the Curie temperature is about 750 K without any other phase transformation up to melting temperature. The magnetization value was close to that predicted by the Slater-Pauling curve. Current spin polarization of P = 0.70 ± 0.01 was deduced using point contact andreev reflection measurements. The temperature dependence of electrical resistivity has been fitted in the temperature range of 5–300 K in order to check for the half metallic behavior. Considering the high spin polarization and Curie temperature, this material appears to be promising for spintronic applications.

  9. High-peak-power femtosecond pulse compression with polarization-maintaining ytterbium-doped fiber amplification.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, R E; Rulkov, A B; Popov, S V; Taylor, J R

    2007-05-15

    We report the generation of 140 fs pulses with a peak power of up to 270 kW using a fiber pulse source based on a polarization-maintaining ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier and a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror mode-locked fiber laser seed. The seed laser pulses were amplified and chirped in the fiber amplifier and subsequently compressed in an external transmission grating pair. The use of a polarization-maintaining amplifier addresses nonlinear polarization-induced limitations to the obtainable compressed pulse duration and quality that can arise if isotropic fiber amplification is used. Numerical simulations of the system support the experimental measurements and also confirm the role of fiber dispersion in obtaining high-quality compressed pulses. PMID:17440533

  10. Compartmentalized microchannel array for high-throughput analysis of single cell polarized growth and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Tao; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Szymanski, Craig J.; Liu, Bingwen; Baker, Scott E.; Orr, Galya; Evans, James E.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2015-11-04

    Interrogating polarized growth is technologically challenging due to extensive cellular branching and uncontrollable environmental conditions in conventional assays. Here we present a robust and high-performance microfluidic system that enables observations of polarized growth with enhanced temporal and spatial control over prolonged periods. The system has built-in tunability and versatility to accommodate a variety of science applications requiring precisely controlled environments. Using the model filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa, this microfluidic system enabled direct visualization and analysis of cellular heterogeneity in a clonal fungal cell population, nuclear distribution and dynamics at the subhyphal level, and quantitative dynamics of gene expression with single hyphal compartment resolution in response to carbon source starvation and exchange experiments. Although the microfluidic device is demonstrated on filamentous fungi, our technology is immediately extensible to a wide array of other biosystems that exhibit similar polarized cell growth with applications ranging from bioenergy production to human health.

  11. Compartmentalized microchannel array for high-throughput analysis of single cell polarized growth and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Tao; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Szymanski, Craig J.; Liu, Bingwen; Baker, Scott E.; Orr, Galya; Evans, James E.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2015-01-01

    Interrogating polarized growth is technologically challenging due to extensive cellular branching and uncontrollable environmental conditions in conventional assays. Here we present a robust and high-performance microfluidic system that enables observations of polarized growth with enhanced temporal and spatial control over prolonged periods. The system has built-in tunability and versatility to accommodate a variety of scientific applications requiring precisely controlled environments. Using the model filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa, our microfluidic system enabled direct visualization and analysis of cellular heterogeneity in a clonal fungal cell population, nuclear distribution and dynamics at the subhyphal level, and quantitative dynamics of gene expression with single hyphal compartment resolution in response to carbon source starvation and exchange. Although the microfluidic device is demonstrated on filamentous fungi, the technology is immediately extensible to a wide array of other biosystems that exhibit similar polarized cell growth, with applications ranging from bioenergy production to human health. PMID:26530004

  12. Compartmentalized microchannel array for high-throughput analysis of single cell polarized growth and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Geng, Tao; Bredeweg, Erin L; Szymanski, Craig J; Liu, Bingwen; Baker, Scott E; Orr, Galya; Evans, James E; Kelly, Ryan T

    2015-01-01

    Interrogating polarized growth is technologically challenging due to extensive cellular branching and uncontrollable environmental conditions in conventional assays. Here we present a robust and high-performance microfluidic system that enables observations of polarized growth with enhanced temporal and spatial control over prolonged periods. The system has built-in tunability and versatility to accommodate a variety of scientific applications requiring precisely controlled environments. Using the model filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa, our microfluidic system enabled direct visualization and analysis of cellular heterogeneity in a clonal fungal cell population, nuclear distribution and dynamics at the subhyphal level, and quantitative dynamics of gene expression with single hyphal compartment resolution in response to carbon source starvation and exchange. Although the microfluidic device is demonstrated on filamentous fungi, the technology is immediately extensible to a wide array of other biosystems that exhibit similar polarized cell growth, with applications ranging from bioenergy production to human health. PMID:26530004

  13. High spin polarization in CoFeMnGe equiatomic quaternary Heusler alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainsla, Lakhan; Suresh, K. G.; Nigam, A. K.; Manivel Raja, M.; Varaprasad, B. S. D. Ch. S.; Takahashi, Y. K.; Hono, K.

    2014-11-01

    We report the structure, magnetic property, and spin polarization of CoFeMnGe equiatomic quaternary Heusler alloy. The alloy was found to crystallize in the cubic Heusler structure (prototype LiMgPdSn) with considerable amount of DO3 disorder. Thermal analysis result indicated the Curie temperature is about 750 K without any other phase transformation up to melting temperature. The magnetization value was close to that predicted by the Slater-Pauling curve. Current spin polarization of P = 0.70 0.01 was deduced using point contact andreev reflection measurements. The temperature dependence of electrical resistivity has been fitted in the temperature range of 5-300 K in order to check for the half metallic behavior. Considering the high spin polarization and Curie temperature, this material appears to be promising for spintronic applications.

  14. Density ordering instabilities of quasi-two-dimensional fermionic polar molecules in single-layer and multilayer configurations: Exact treatment of exchange interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babadi, Mehrtash; Demler, Eugene

    2011-12-01

    We study the in-plane and out-of-plane density ordering instabilities of quasi-two-dimensional fermionic polar molecules in single-layer and multilayer configurations. We locate the soft modes by evaluating linear response functions within the conserving time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) approximation. The short-range exchange effects are taken into account by solving the Bethe-Salpeter integral equation numerically. An instability phase diagram is calculated for both single-layer and multilayer systems and the unstable wave vector is indicated. In all cases, the in-plane density wave instability is found to precede the out-of-plane instability. The unstable wave vector is found to be approximately twice the Fermi wave vector of one of the subbands at a time and can change discontinuously as a function of density and dipolar interaction strength. In multilayer configurations, we find a large enhancement of density-wave instability driven by dilute quasiparticles in the first excited subband. Finally, we provide a simple qualitative description of the phase diagrams using an RPA-like approach. Compared to previous works done within the RPA approximation, we find that inclusion of exchange interactions stabilize the normal liquid phase further and increase the critical dipolar interaction strength corresponding to the onset of density-wave instability by over a factor of two.

  15. Dipole polarizability of alkali-metal (Na, K, Rb)–alkaline-earth-metal (Ca, Sr) polar molecules: Prospects for alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Gopakumar, Geetha Abe, Minori; Hada, Masahiko; Kajita, Masatoshi

    2014-06-14

    Electronic open-shell ground-state properties of selected alkali-metal–alkaline-earth-metal polar molecules are investigated. We determine potential energy curves of the {sup 2}Σ{sup +} ground state at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles with partial triples (CCSD(T)) level of electron correlation. Calculated spectroscopic constants for the isotopes ({sup 23}Na, {sup 39}K, {sup 85}Rb)–({sup 40}Ca, {sup 88}Sr) are compared with available theoretical and experimental results. The variation of the permanent dipole moment (PDM), average dipole polarizability, and polarizability anisotropy with internuclear distance is determined using finite-field perturbation theory at the CCSD(T) level. Owing to moderate PDM (KCa: 1.67 D, RbCa: 1.75 D, KSr: 1.27 D, RbSr: 1.41 D) and large polarizability anisotropy (KCa: 566 a.u., RbCa: 604 a.u., KSr: 574 a.u., RbSr: 615 a.u.), KCa, RbCa, KSr, and RbSr are potential candidates for alignment and orientation in combined intense laser and external static electric fields.

  16. High Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Molecules of Terrestrial and Planetary Interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Richard S.

    2001-01-01

    In collaboration with the laboratory spectroscopy group of the Ames Atmospheric Physics Research Branch (SGP), high resolution infrared spectra of molecules that are of importance for the dynamics of the earth's and other planets' atmospheres were acquired using the SGP high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer and gas handling apparatus. That data, along with data acquired using similar instrumentation at the Kitt Peak National Observatory was analyzed to determine the spectral parameters for each of the rotationally resolved transitions for each molecule. Those parameters were incorporated into existing international databases (e.g. HITRANS and GEISA) so that field measurements could be converted into quantitative information regarding the physical and chemical structures of earth and planetary atmospheres.

  17. Selecting, Acquiring, and Using Small Molecule Libraries for High-Throughput Screening

    PubMed Central

    Dandapani, Sivaraman; Rosse, Gerard; Southall, Noel; Salvino, Joseph M.; Thomas, Craig J.

    2015-01-01

    The selection, acquisition and use of high quality small molecule libraries for screening is an essential aspect of drug discovery and chemical biology programs. Screening libraries continue to evolve as researchers gain a greater appreciation of the suitability of small molecules for specific biological targets, processes and environments. The decisions surrounding the make-up of any given small molecule library is informed by a multitude of variables and opinions vary on best-practices. The fitness of any collection relies upon upfront filtering to avoiding problematic compounds, assess appropriate physicochemical properties, install the ideal level of structural uniqueness and determine the desired extent of molecular complexity. These criteria are under constant evaluation and revision as academic and industrial organizations seek out collections that yield ever improving results from their screening portfolios. Practical questions including cost, compound management, screening sophistication and assay objective also play a significant role in the choice of library composition. This overview attempts to offer advice to all organizations engaged in small molecule screening based upon current best practices and theoretical considerations in library selection and acquisition. PMID:26705509

  18. Highly Ordered Surface Self-Assembly of Fe? Single Molecule Magnets.

    PubMed

    Erler, Philipp; Schmitt, Peter; Barth, Nicole; Irmler, Andreas; Bouvron, Samuel; Huhn, Thomas; Groth, Ulrich; Pauly, Fabian; Gragnaniello, Luca; Fonin, Mikhail

    2015-07-01

    Single molecule magnets (SMMs) have attracted considerable attention due to low-temperature magnetic hysteresis and fascinating quantum effects. The investigation of these properties requires the possibility to deposit well-defined monolayers or spatially isolated molecules within a well-controlled adsorption geometry. Here we present a successful fabrication of self-organized arrays of Fe4 SMMs on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) on Rh(111) as template. Using a rational design of the ligand shell optimized for surface assembly and electrospray as a gentle deposition method, we demonstrate how to obtain ordered arrays of molecules forming perfect hexagonal superlattices of tunable size, from small islands to an almost perfect monolayer. High-resolution low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) reveals that the Fe4 molecule adsorbs on the substrate in a flat geometry, meaning that its magnetic easy axis is perpendicular to the surface. By scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we infer that the majority- and minority-spin components of the spin-split lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) can be addressed separately on a submolecular level. PMID:26086677

  19. The last polar dinosaurs: high diversity of latest Cretaceous arctic dinosaurs in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godefroit, Pascal; Golovneva, Lina; Shchepetov, Sergei; Garcia, Géraldine; Alekseev, Pavel

    2009-04-01

    A latest Cretaceous (68 to 65 million years ago) vertebrate microfossil assemblage discovered at Kakanaut in northeastern Russia reveals that dinosaurs were still highly diversified in Arctic regions just before the Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction event. Dinosaur eggshell fragments, belonging to hadrosaurids and non-avian theropods, indicate that at least several latest Cretaceous dinosaur taxa could reproduce in polar region and were probably year-round residents of high latitudes. Palaeobotanical data suggest that these polar dinosaurs lived in a temperate climate (mean annual temperature about 10°C), but the climate was apparently too cold for amphibians and ectothermic reptiles. The high diversity of Late Maastrichtian dinosaurs in high latitudes, where ectotherms are absent, strongly questions hypotheses according to which dinosaur extinction was a result of temperature decline, caused or not by the Chicxulub impact.

  20. Ab initio potential energy surface for the highly nonlinear dynamics of the KCN molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Prraga, H.; Arranz, F. J. Benito, R. M.; Borondo, F.

    2013-11-21

    An accurate ab initio quantum chemistry study at level of quadratic configuration interaction method of the electronic ground state of the KCN molecule is presented. A fitting of the results to an analytical series expansion was performed to obtain a global potential energy surface suitable for the study of the associated vibrational dynamics. Additionally, classical Poincar surfaces of section for different energies and quantum eigenstates were calculated, showing the highly nonlinear behavior of this system.

  1. Extraction of Fixed-in-Space photoionization cross section and phase with high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh-Thu

    2010-03-01

    It has been known for over two decades that high-order harmonic generation (HHG) process occurs when an electron released earlier from an atom/molecule by an intense laser field returns to recombine with the parent ion. This relation between photo-recombination (or its time-reverse, photoionization process) and HHG has been firmly established on the quantitative level recently by the quantitative rescattering theory (QRS) [1]. According to the QRS, HHG signal can be expressed as a product of a returning electron wave packet and the laser-free photo-recombination differential cross section. The QRS has been carefully tested against available exact numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. Here we report comparisons with recent experimental data for magnitude, phase, polarization state, and ellipticity of the emitted harmonics for aligned molecules, from which the molecular frame photoionization cross sections and phases can be probed in great details [2]. We also address the issue about the contribution from inner molecular orbitals [3,4]. Finally, we will discuss the possibility for future dynamic chemical imaging with femto-second temporal resolution on an example of probing molecular dynamics of vibrationally excited N2O4 [5]. In collaboration with C.D. Lin, R.R. Lucchese, T. Morishita, C. Jin.[4pt] [1] A.T. Le et al, Phys. Rev. A. 80, 013401 (2009).[0pt] [2] X. Zhou et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).[0pt] [3] B.K. McFarland et al, Science 322, 1232 (2008).[0pt] [4] O. Smirnova et al, Nature 460, 972 (2009).[0pt] [5] W. Li et al, Science 322, 1207 (2008).

  2. The 20 GHz circularly polarized, high temperature superconducting microstrip antenna array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, Jarrett D.; Williams, Jeffery T.; Long, Stuart A.; Wolfe, John C.

    1994-01-01

    The primary goal was to design and characterize a four-element, 20 GHz, circularly polarized microstrip patch antenna fabricated from YBa2Cu3O(x) superconductor. The purpose is to support a high temperature superconductivity flight communications experiment between the space shuttle orbiter and the ACTS satellite. This study is intended to provide information into the design, construction, and feasibility of a circularly polarized superconducting 20 GHz downlink or cross-link antenna. We have demonstrated that significant gain improvements can be realized by using superconducting materials for large corporate fed array antennas. In addition, we have shown that when constructed from superconducting materials, the efficiency, and therefore the gain, of microstrip patches increases if the substrate is not so thick that the dominant loss mechanism for the patch is radiation into the surface waves of the conductor-backed substrate. We have considered two design configurations for a superconducting 20 GHz four-element circularly polarized microstrip antenna array. The first is the Huang array that uses properly oriented and phased linearly polarized microstrip patch elements to realize a circularly polarized pattern. The second is a gap-coupled array of circularly polarized elements. In this study we determined that although the Huang array operates well on low dielectric constant substrates, its performance becomes extremely sensitive to mismatches, interelement coupling, and design imperfections for substrates with high dielectric constants. For the gap-coupled microstrip array, we were able to fabricate and test circularly polarized elements and four-element arrays on LaAlO3 using sputtered copper films. These antennas were found to perform well, with relatively good circular polarization. In addition, we realized a four-element YBa2Cu3O(x) array of the same design and measured its pattern and gain relative to a room temperature copper array. The patterns were essentially the same as that for the copper array. The measured gain of the YBCO antenna was greater than that for the room temperature copper design at temperatures below 82K, reaching a value of 3.4 dB at the lowest temperatures.

  3. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization of 17O: Direct Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Michaelis, Vladimir K.; Corzilius, Bjrn; Smith, Albert A.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization of 17O was studied using four different polarizing agents the biradical TOTAPOL, and the monoradicals trityl and SA-BDPA, as well as a mixture of the latter two. Field profiles, DNP mechanisms and enhancements were measured to better understand and optimize directly polarizing this low-gamma quadrupolar nucleus using both mono- and bi-radical polarizing agents. Enhancements were recorded < 88 K and were > 100 using the trityl (OX063) radical and < 10 with the other polarizing agents. The > 10,000 fold savings in acquisition time enabled a series of biologically relevant small molecules to be studied with small sample sizes and the measurement of various quadrupolar parameters. The results are discussed with comparison to room temperature studies and GIPAW quantum chemical calculations. These experimental results illustrate the strength of high field DNP and the importance of radical selection for studying low-gamma nuclei. PMID:24195759

  4. Self-assembled, robust titanate nanoribbon membranes for highly efficient nanosolid capture and molecule discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xuebo; Zhou, Yun; Wu, Jun; Tang, Yuxin; Zhu, Lianwen; Gu, Li

    2013-03-01

    Supersaturation-directing self-assembly strategy for growing titanate nanoribbon membrane with capabilities of nanosolid capture and small molecule discrimination is reported. Owing to the distinct morphology of the nanoribbons and the accurate self-assembly process, the resulting membrane possesses outstanding mechanical properties (rupture strength exceeding 10 kg) and surprisingly high porosity (~97%), although there are no strong bonds among the nanoribbons. On the basis of the robustness of the membrane, we fabricated a column-shaped filter apparatus where the membrane acted as self-standing permeation barrier to evaluate its permeability and practical uses as molecule filter and nanosolid filter. The test of the membrane with pure water reveals that the membrane possesses a fast permeability while consumes very low energy due to the significantly high porosity. The test of the membrane with 13 nm Au solution and yellow-emitting CdTe QDs reveals that both the nanosolids are completely removed from the solution, indicating the membrane is an efficient nanosolid filter. The high efficiency is because the membrane is free of deficiencies and the flat and broad surfaces of the nanoribbons are ideal permeation barriers. The test of the membrane with charged molecules reveals that cationic species and anionic species are discriminated and at the same time the cationic species are enriched on the membrane, which indicate that the membrane is an ideal molecule filter too. The present work should provide a significant step forward to bringing macroscopic architectures assembled by 1D nanostructure much closer to real-world applications involving isolation and enrichment of biomolecules, catalyst reclamation, environmental remediation, and water purification. More broadly, through the on-demand capture of tiny nanosolids with optical, electrical, magnetic, and/or catalytic functionality, it is able to design and construct novel macroscopic nanocomposites readily; this will extend the applications of the titanate nanoribbon membrane beyond separation to the areas of photoelectrochemical devices, chemical sensors, catalysis, plasmonics, and so on.Supersaturation-directing self-assembly strategy for growing titanate nanoribbon membrane with capabilities of nanosolid capture and small molecule discrimination is reported. Owing to the distinct morphology of the nanoribbons and the accurate self-assembly process, the resulting membrane possesses outstanding mechanical properties (rupture strength exceeding 10 kg) and surprisingly high porosity (~97%), although there are no strong bonds among the nanoribbons. On the basis of the robustness of the membrane, we fabricated a column-shaped filter apparatus where the membrane acted as self-standing permeation barrier to evaluate its permeability and practical uses as molecule filter and nanosolid filter. The test of the membrane with pure water reveals that the membrane possesses a fast permeability while consumes very low energy due to the significantly high porosity. The test of the membrane with 13 nm Au solution and yellow-emitting CdTe QDs reveals that both the nanosolids are completely removed from the solution, indicating the membrane is an efficient nanosolid filter. The high efficiency is because the membrane is free of deficiencies and the flat and broad surfaces of the nanoribbons are ideal permeation barriers. The test of the membrane with charged molecules reveals that cationic species and anionic species are discriminated and at the same time the cationic species are enriched on the membrane, which indicate that the membrane is an ideal molecule filter too. The present work should provide a significant step forward to bringing macroscopic architectures assembled by 1D nanostructure much closer to real-world applications involving isolation and enrichment of biomolecules, catalyst reclamation, environmental remediation, and water purification. More broadly, through the on-demand capture of tiny nanosolids with optical, electrical, magnetic, and/or catalytic functionality, it

  5. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the High Altitude Cusp: Polar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Guan; Blanco-Cano, X.; Russell, C. T.; Zhou, X.-W.; Mozer, F.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic field data from the Polar Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE) show that narrow band waves at frequencies approximately 0.2 to 3 Hz are a permanent feature in the vicinity of the polar cusp. The waves have been found in the magnetosphere adjacent to the cusp (both poleward and equatorward of the cusp) and in the cusp itself. The occurrence of waves is coincident with depression of magnetic field strength associated with enhanced plasma density, indicating the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp region. The wave frequencies are generally scaled by the local proton cyclotron frequency, and vary between 0.2 and 1.7 times local proton cyclotron frequency. This suggests that the waves are generated in the cusp region by the precipitating magnetosheath plasma. The properties of the waves are highly variable. The waves exhibit both lefthanded and right-handed polarization in the spacecraft frame. The propagation angles vary from nearly parallel to nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. We find no correlation among wave frequency, propagation angle and polarization. Combined magnetic field and electric field data for the waves indicate that the energy flux of the waves is guided by the background magnetic field and points downward toward the ionosphere.

  6. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the High-Altitude Cusp: Polar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, G.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Russell, C. T.; Zhou, X.-W.; Mozer, F.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic field data from the Polar Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE) show that narrow-band waves at frequencies approx. 0.2-3 Hz are a permanent feature in the vicinity of the polar cusp. The waves have been found in the magnetosphere adjacent to the cusp (both poleward and equatorward of the cusp) and in the cusp itself. The occurrence of waves is coincident with depression of magnetic field strength associated with enhanced plasma density, indicating the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp region. The wave frequencies are generally scaled by the local proton cyclotron frequency and vary between 0.2 and 1.7 times local proton cyclotron frequency. This suggests that the waves are generated in the cusp region by the precipitating magnetosheath plasma. The properties of the waves are highly variable. The waves exhibit both left-handed and right-handed polarization in the spacecraft frame. The propagation angles vary from nearly parallel to nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. We find no correlation among wave frequency, propagation angle, and polarization. Combined magnetic field and electric field data for the waves indicate that the energy flux of the waves is guided by the background magnetic field and points downward toward the ionosphere.

  7. Highly sensitive naphthalimide-based fluorescence polarization probe for detecting cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ti; Fu, Congying; Huang, Chusen; Yang, Haotian; Jia, Nengqin

    2015-05-13

    Fluorescence polarization (FP)-based signal is a self-referencing fluorescence signal, and it is less dependent on dye concentration and environmental interferences, which makes FP measurement an attractive alternative sensing technology to fluorescence intensity-based detection. However, most of the fluorescence polarization probes were constructed by introducing fluorescein, rhodamine, and cyanine dyes, which have relatively shorter excited-state lifetimes compared with BODIPY and naphthalimide dyes. Herein, a first naphthalimide based fluorescence polarization probe (BIO) was designed and synthesized for selective and direct detection of cancer cells. The relatively longer excited-state lifetimes and high photostability of naphthalimide makes BIO more sensitive and accuracy in quantitative determination of HeLa cells in homogeneous solution without cell lysis and further separation steps. The detection limit of BIO for HeLa cells was about 85 cells mL(-1), the linear range was from 2.5 10(2) cells mL(-1) to 1 10(6) cells mL(-1) and the response time is no more than 25 min. Moreover, due to the relatively high photostability of naphthalimide, BIO was particularly suitable for live cell imaging under continuous irradiation with confocal microscopy, and the specific interaction of BIO with CD44-overexpressing cell lines was clearly visualized. Importantly, this BIO based sensing platform offers a direct and real-time tool for cancer cell diagnosis when complemented with the use of naphthalimide-based fluorescence polarization probe. PMID:25898141

  8. Topological Defect Structure and Annihilation in High-Polarization Freely Suspended Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chenhui; Pattanaporkratana, Apichart; Maclennan, Joseph; Clark, Noel

    2007-03-01

    The texture of freely suspended liquid crystal SmC* films of a high polarization material C7 [4-(3-methyl-2-chloropentanoyloxy)-4'-heptyloxybiphenyl] is studied using polarized light microscopy. In particular, we focus on c-director defects with topological strength --1 found in the chessboard texture. Due to the competition between the elastic energy and the electrostatic energy of polarization splay, the c-director field near the defect core consists of four domains with homogenous orientation of the c-director inside each domain. The boundaries between domains are sharp and the c-director orientation jumps by 90 degrees at each boundary. We will present experimental and theoretical studies of the structure of these polarization-stabilized discontinuities. We will also present studies of the annihilation dynamics of +1 and --1 pairs of defects on this high-P material film and compare them to those on low-P material films. [1] E. Demikhov, Europhys. Lett. 25 (4), 259 (1994). [2] E. Demikhov and H. Stegemeyer, Liq. Cry. 18, 37 (1995). [3] Ch. Bahr and G. Heppke, Phys. Chem. 91, 925 (1987). [4] D. R. Link, N. Chattham, J.E. Maclennan, and N.A. Clark, Phys. Rev. E 71, 021704 (2005). This work is supported by NSF MRSEC Grant DMR0213918.

  9. Separations method for polar molecules

    DOEpatents

    Thoma, Steven G.; Bonhomme, Francois R.

    2004-07-27

    A method for separating at least one compound from a liquid mixture containing different compounds where anew crystalline manganese phosphate composition with the formula Mn.sub.3 (PO.sub.4).sub.4.2(H.sub.3 NCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.3 N.6(H.sub.2 O) is dispersed in the liquid mixture, selectively intercalating one or more compounds into the crystalline structure of the Mn.sub.3 (PO.sub.4).sub.4.2(H.sub.3 NCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.3 N.6(H.sub.2 O).

  10. High resolution mass spectrometry method and system for analysis of whole proteins and other large molecules

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Harris, William A. (Naperville, IL) [Naperville, IL

    2010-03-02

    A matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) method and related system for analyzing high molecular weight analytes includes the steps of providing at least one matrix-containing particle inside an ion trap, wherein at least one high molecular weight analyte molecule is provided within the matrix-containing particle, and MALDI on the high molecular weight particle while within the ion trap. A laser power used for ionization is sufficient to completely vaporize the particle and form at least one high molecular weight analyte ion, but is low enough to avoid fragmenting the high molecular weight analyte ion. The high molecular weight analyte ion is extracted out from the ion trap, and is then analyzed using a detector. The detector is preferably a pyrolyzing and ionizing detector.

  11. Significantly elevated dielectric permittivity of Si-based semiconductor/polymer 2-2 composites induced by high polarity polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yefeng; Gong, Honghong; Xie, Yunchuan; Wei, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Zhicheng

    2016-02-01

    To disclose the essential influence of polymer polarity on dielectric properties of polymer composites filled with semiconductive fillers, a series of Si-based semiconductor/polymer 2-2 composites in a series model was fabricated. The dielectric permittivity of composites is highly dependant on the polarity of polymer layers as well as the electron mobility in Si-based semiconductive sheets. The huge dielectric permittivity achieved in Si-based semiconductive sheets after being coated with high polarity polymer layers is inferred to originate from the strong induction of high polarity polymers. The increased mobility of the electrons in Si-based semiconductive sheets coated by high polarity polymer layers should be responsible for the significantly enhanced dielectric properties of composites. This could be facilely achieved by either increasing the polarity of polymer layers or reducing the percolative electric field of Si-based semiconductive sheets. The most promising 2-2 dielectric composite was found to be made of α-SiC with strong electron mobility and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with high polarity, and its highest permittivity was obtained as 372 at 100 Hz although the permittivity of α-SiC and PVA is 3–5 and 15, respectively. This work may help in the fabrication of high dielectric constant (high-k) composites by tailoring the induction effect of high polarity polymers to semiconductors.

  12. Non-uniform annular rings-based metasurfaces for high-efficient and polarization-independent focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tong; Wang, Saisai; Zhang, Xu-Lin; Deng, Zi-Lan; Hang, Zhi Hong; Sun, Hong-Bo; Wang, Guo Ping

    2015-12-01

    A reflection metasurface, composed of metallic annular rings, is presented for realizing high-efficient and polarization-independent focusing. By varying the inner and outer radii of the isotropic rings, we can achieve a full modulation on the phase from -180 to 180. By properly arranging the annular rings, we design gradient metasurfaces for focusing without polarization sensitivity by finite element method simulations and further demonstrate the focusing effect with high-efficient and polarization-independent performance experimentally in the microwave domain. In addition, the structure is also proved applicable in the optical domain by simulations. This work expands the capabilities of metasurfaces to focusing and imaging applications without polarization limitations.

  13. Macroscopic Measurement of Resonant Magnetization Tunneling in High-Spin Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Jonathan R.; Sarachik, M. P.; Tejada, J.; Maciejewski, J.; Ziolo, R.

    1996-03-01

    We report the observation of steps in the hysteresis loop of a macroscopic sample of oriented crystals of Mn_12O_12(CH_3COO)_16(H_2O)_4, a high-spin (S=10) molecule. The steps occur at regular intervals of magnetic field, every 0.46 T. The magnetic relaxation rate increases substantially when the field is tuned to a step. We interpret these effects as manifestations of thermally assisted, field-tuned resonant tunneling between quantum spin states. A simple model is presented that accounts for the observations and yields good quantitative agreement with measured values of the anisotropy barrier. We attribute the observation of quantum-mechanical phenomena on a macroscopic scale to tunneling in a large (Avogadro's) number of magnetically identical molecules.

  14. Correlating Molecular Structures with Transport Dynamics in High-Efficiency Small-Molecule Organic Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jiajun; Chen, Yani; Wu, Xiaohan; Zhang, Qian; Kan, Bin; Chen, Xiaoqing; Chen, Yongsheng; Huang, Jia; Liang, Ziqi

    2015-06-24

    Efficient charge transport is a key step toward high efficiency in small-molecule organic photovoltaics. Here we applied time-of-flight and organic field-effect transistor to complementarily study the influences of molecular structure, trap states, and molecular orientation on charge transport of small-molecule DRCN7T (D1) and its analogue DERHD7T (D2). It is revealed that, despite the subtle difference of the chemical structures, D1 exhibits higher charge mobility, the absence of shallow traps, and better photosensitivity than D2. Moreover, charge transport is favored in the out-of-plane structure within D1-based organic solar cells, while D2 prefers in-plane charge transport. PMID:26066398

  15. Diamond nanowires for highly sensitive matrix-free mass spectrometry analysis of small molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffinier, Yannick; Szunerits, Sabine; Drobecq, Herv; Melnyk, Oleg; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2011-12-01

    This paper reports on the use of boron-doped diamond nanowires (BDD NWs) as an inorganic substrate for matrix-free laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) analysis of small molecules. The diamond nanowires are prepared by reactive ion etching (RIE) with oxygen plasma of highly boron-doped (the boron level is 1019 B cm-3) or undoped nanocrystalline diamond substrates. The resulting diamond nanowires are coated with a thin silicon oxide layer that confers a superhydrophilic character to the surface. To minimize droplet spreading, the nanowires were chemically functionalized with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) and then UV/ozone treated to reach a final water contact angle of 120. The sub-bandgap absorption under UV laser irradiation and the heat confinement inside the nanowires allowed desorption/ionization, most likely via a thermal mechanism, and mass spectrometry analysis of small molecules. A detection limit of 200 zeptomole for verapamil was demonstrated.

  16. Diamond nanowires for highly sensitive matrix-free mass spectrometry analysis of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Coffinier, Yannick; Szunerits, Sabine; Drobecq, Herv; Melnyk, Oleg; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of boron-doped diamond nanowires (BDD NWs) as an inorganic substrate for matrix-free laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) analysis of small molecules. The diamond nanowires are prepared by reactive ion etching (RIE) with oxygen plasma of highly boron-doped (the boron level is 10(19) B cm(-3)) or undoped nanocrystalline diamond substrates. The resulting diamond nanowires are coated with a thin silicon oxide layer that confers a superhydrophilic character to the surface. To minimize droplet spreading, the nanowires were chemically functionalized with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) and then UV/ozone treated to reach a final water contact angle of 120. The sub-bandgap absorption under UV laser irradiation and the heat confinement inside the nanowires allowed desorption/ionization, most likely via a thermal mechanism, and mass spectrometry analysis of small molecules. A detection limit of 200 zeptomole for verapamil was demonstrated. PMID:22080363

  17. Spin-polarized photoemission from AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction: A convenient highly polarized electron source

    SciTech Connect

    Ciccacci, F.; Drouhin, H.; Hermann, C.; Houdre, R.; Lampel, G.

    1989-02-13

    We analyze the operation of a spin-polarized electron source, consisting of a 100 A GaAs cap on top of Al/sub 0.3/Ga/sub 0.7/As, excited at 300 or 120 K by a He-Ne laser. The cap allows easy activation to negative electron affinity while the alloy permits gap matching to the light source, and thus large electron spin polarization (30% at 300 K, 36% at 120 K). We compare yield curves, energy distribution curves, and polarized energy distribution curves obtained on samples with 100 and 1000 A caps and on bulk GaAs. The X conduction minimum position in the alloy is also determined.

  18. Ultra high resolution molecular beam cars spectroscopy with application to planetary atmospheric molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of high resolution pulsed and continuous wave (CW) coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurements in pulsed and steady state supersonic expansions were demonstrated. Pulsed molecular beam sources were characterized, and saturation of a Raman transition and, for the first time, the Raman spectrum of a complex molecular cluster were observed. The observation of CW CARS spectra in a molecular expansion and the effects of transit time broadening is described. Supersonic expansion is established as a viable technique for high resolution Raman spectroscopy of cold molecules with resolutions of 100 MH2.

  19. Highly enantioselective adsorption of small prochiral molecules on a chiral intermetallic compound.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Jan; Grning, Oliver; Brune, Harald; Widmer, Roland

    2015-03-23

    Intrinsically chiral surfaces of intermetallic compounds are shown to be novel materials for enantioselective processes. Their advantage is the significantly higher thermal and chemical stability, and therefore their extended application range for catalyzed chiral reactions compared to surfaces templated with chiral molecular modifiers or auxiliaries. On the Pd1 -terminated PdGa(111) surface, room-temperature adsorption of a small prochiral molecule (9-ethynylphenanthrene) leads to exceptionally high enantiomeric excess ratios of up to 98?%. Our findings highlight the great potential of intrinsically chiral intermetallic compounds for the development of novel, enantioselective catalysts that can be operated at high temperatures and potentially also in harsh chemical environments. PMID:25655521

  20. Time and Space Resolved High Harmonic Imaging of Electron Tunnelling from Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, O.

    2009-05-01

    High harmonic generation in intense laser fields carries the promise of combining sub-Angstrom spatial and attosecond temporal resolution of electronic structures and dynamics in molecules, see e.g. [1-3]. High harmonic emission occurs when an electron detached from a molecule by an intense laser field recombines with the parent ion [4]. Similar to Young's double-slit experiment, recombination to several ``lobes'' of the same molecular orbital can produce interference minima and maxima in harmonic intensities [1]. These minima (maxima) carry structural information -- they occur when the de-Broglie wavelength of the recombining electron matches distances between the centers. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that amplitude minima (maxima) in the harmonic spectra can also have dynamical origin, reflecting multi-electron dynamics in the molecule. We use high harmonic spectra to record this dynamics and reconstruct the position of the hole left in the molecule after ionization. Experimental data are consistent with the hole starting in different places as the ionization dynamics changes from tunnelling to the multi-photon regime. Importantly, hole localization and subsequent attosecond dynamics are induced even in the tunnelling limit. Thus, even ``static'' tunnelling induced by a tip of a tunnelling microscope will generate similar attosecond dynamics in a sample. We anticipate that our approach will become standard in disentangling spatial and temporal information from high harmonic spectra of molecules.[4pt] In collaboration with Serguei Patchkovskii, National Research Council, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6, Canada; Yann Mairesse, NRC Canada and CELIA, Universit'e Bordeaux I, UMR 5107 (CNRS, Bordeaux 1, CEA), 351 Cours de la Lib'eration, 33405 Talence Cedex, France; Nirit Dudovich, NRC Canada and Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel; David Villeneuve, Paul Corkum, NRC Canada; and Misha Yu. Ivanov, NRC Canada and Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London SW7 2BW, United Kingdom. [4pt] [1] Lein, M., et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183903 (2002).[0pt] [2] Itatani, J. et al. Nature 432, 834 (2004).[0pt] [3] Baker, S. et al Science 312, 424 (2006).[0pt] [4] Corkum, P. B.Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).

  1. Experimental setup for laser spectroscopy of molecules in a high magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Takazawa, Yasuyuki Kimura and Ken

    2011-01-15

    An experimental setup to measure the effects of a high magnetic field on the structure and decay dynamics of molecules is designed and constructed. A vacuum chamber is mounted in the bore of a superconducting magnet. A molecular beam passes in the chamber. Pulsed laser light excites the molecules in the field. The parent or fragment ions are extracted by an electric field parallel to the magnetic field. They are detected by a microchannel plate. Their mass and charge are determined by the time-of-flight method. The performance of the setup was examined using resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization through the X{sup 2} {Pi}-A{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +} transition of nitric oxide (NO) molecules. The ions were detected with sufficient mass resolution to discriminate the species in a field of up to 10 T. This is the first experiment to succeed in the mass-selective detection of ions by the time-of-flight method in a high magnetic field. By measuring NO{sup +} ion current as a function of the laser frequency, the X{sup 2}{Pi}-A{sup 2} {Sigma}{sup +} rotational transition lines, separated clearly from the background noise, were observed in fields of up to 10 T. From the relative strengths of the transition lines, the ion detection efficiency was determined as a function of the magnetic field strength. This setup was shown to be applicable in a field higher than 10 T. The Landau levels of molecules were successfully observed to demonstrate the setup.

  2. COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES AT HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION TOWARD ORION-KL. I. SPATIAL SCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.; Friedel, Douglas N. E-mail: friedel@astro.illinois.edu

    2012-08-01

    Here we present high spatial resolution (<1'') observations of molecular emission in Orion-KL conducted using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. This work was motivated by recent millimeter continuum imaging studies of this region conducted at a similarly high spatial resolution, which revealed that the bulk of the emission arises from numerous compact sources, rather than the larger-scale extended structures typically associated with the Orion Hot Core and Compact Ridge. Given that the spatial extent of molecular emission greatly affects the determination of molecular abundances, it is important to determine the true spatial scale for complex molecules in this region. Additionally, it has recently been suggested that the relative spatial distributions of complex molecules in a source might give insight into the chemical mechanisms that drive complex chemistry in star-forming regions. In order to begin to address these issues, this study seeks to determine the spatial distributions of ethyl cyanide [C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN], dimethyl ether [(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}O], methyl formate [HCOOCH{sub 3}], formic acid [HCOOH], acetone [(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CO], SiO, methanol [CH{sub 3}OH], and methyl cyanide [CH{sub 3}CN] in Orion-KL at {lambda} = 3 mm. We find that for all observed molecules, the molecular emission arises from multiple components of the cloud that include a range of spatial scales and physical conditions. Here, we present the results of these observations and discuss the implications for studies of complex molecules in star-forming regions.

  3. Introducing a high gravity field to enhance infiltration of small molecules into polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolin; Zhao, Kun; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Yue; Shao, Lei; Zhang, Yajun; Shi, Feng

    2015-07-28

    Loading functional small molecules into nano-thin films is fundamental to various research fields such as membrane separation, molecular imprinting, interfacial reaction, drug delivery etc. Currently, a general demand for enhancing the loading rate without affecting the film structures exists in most infiltration phenomena. To handle this issue, we have introduced a process intensification method of a high gravity technique, which is a versatile energy form of mechanical field well-established in industry, into the investigations on diffusion/infiltration at the molecular level. By taking a polyelectrolyte multilayer as a model thin film and a photo-reactive molecule, 4,4'-diazostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid disodium salt (DAS), as a model small functional molecule, we have demonstrated remarkably accelerated adsorption/infiltration of DAS into a poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) multilayer by as high as 20-fold; meanwhile, both the film property of the multilayer and photoresponsive-crosslinking function of DAS were not disturbed. Furthermore, the infiltration of DAS and the surface morphology of the multilayer could be tuned based on their high dependence on the intensity of the high gravity field regarding different rotating speeds. The mechanism of the accelerated adsorption/infiltration under the high gravity field was interpreted by the increased turbulence of the diffusing layer with the thinned laminar boundary layer and the stepwise delivery of the local concentration gradient from the solution to the interior of the multilayer. The introduction of mechanical field provides a simple and versatile strategy to address the paradox of the contradictory loading amount and loading rate, and thus to promote applications of various membrane processes. PMID:26086776

  4. Southern Hemisphere strong polar mesoscale cyclones in high-resolution datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezza, Alexandre; Sadler, Katherine; Uotila, Petteri; Vihma, Timo; Mesquita, Michel D. S.; Reid, Phil

    2015-12-01

    Mesoscale cyclones are small low-pressure systems (usually <500 km in radius) that often appear embedded in synoptic structures. These events can be weak and short lived or vigorous and destructive. Here we use an automatic tracking scheme to investigate two subsets of Southern Hemisphere mesoscale cyclones that are strong and have the potential to cause damage, namely "polar lows" (i.e., strong and short lived) and "explosive cyclones" (i.e., rapid intensification but not necessarily short lived). A short climatology (2009-2012) is obtained by using high resolution (0.5) Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) mean sea level pressure. The results show a significant improvement of spatial detail compared to the 0.75 resolution ERA-interim dataset, with a total count approximately 46 % higher in AMPS. The subset of mesoscale cyclones that are explosive is small, with a total genesis number of about 13 % that of polar lows. In addition, only about 1 % of the polar lows are explosive, suggesting that cyclones that undergo rapid intensification tend to become larger longer lived (and hence are no longer regarded as polar lows). Mesoscale cyclones are more frequent in winter, with a maximum concentration around the Antarctic but also occurring as far north as Tasmania and New Zealand. Analysis of sensible heat flux and sea ice extent anomalies during the genesis days shows that there is a large spread of genesis points over both positive and negative flux anomalies in winter, with a somewhat random pattern in the other seasons.

  5. High-speed polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography for retinal diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Biwei; Wang, Bingqing; Vemishetty, Kalyanramu; Nagle, Jim; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Tianyi; Rylander, Henry G., III; Milner, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    We report design and construction of an FPGA-based high-speed swept-source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (SS-PS-OCT) system for clinical retinal imaging. Clinical application of the SS-PS-OCT system is accurate measurement and display of thickness, phase retardation and birefringence maps of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in human subjects for early detection of glaucoma. The FPGA-based SS-PS-OCT system provides three incident polarization states on the eye and uses a bulk-optic polarization sensitive balanced detection module to record two orthogonal interference fringe signals. Interference fringe signals and relative phase retardation between two orthogonal polarization states are used to obtain Stokes vectors of light returning from each RNFL depth. We implement a Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) to compute accurate phase retardation and birefringence maps. For each retinal scan, a three-state Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear algorithm is applied to 360 clusters each consisting of 100 A-scans to determine accurate maps of phase retardation and birefringence in less than 1 second after patient measurement allowing real-time clinical imaging-a speedup of more than 300 times over previous implementations. We report application of the FPGA-based SS-PS-OCT system for real-time clinical imaging of patients enrolled in a clinical study at the Eye Institute of Austin and Duke Eye Center.

  6. Theory of intense-field dynamic alignment and high-order harmonic generation from coherently rotating molecules and interpretation of intense-field ultrafast pump-probe experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurrouf, A.; Faisal, F. H. M.

    2009-02-01

    A quantum theory of intense-field pump-probe experiments proposed by us recently [F. H. M. Faisal , Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 143001 (2007) and F. H. M. Faisal and A. Abdurrouf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123005 (2008)] is derived here fully and applied to investigate the phenomena of dynamic alignment and high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from coherently rotating linear molecules. The theory is developed from the basic quantum transition amplitude for the HHG and used to relate the Fourier transform (FT) of the expectation value of the dipole operator to the rate of emission of the HHG photons. It permits us to give analytical expressions for the HHG signals and their simultaneous dependence on the two externally available control parametersthe delay-time, td , between the pump and the probe pulse, and the relative angle, ? , between their polarizations. A relation between the basic one-molecule and the macroscopic many-molecule HHG signals is obtained from the phase-matching condition for HHG in an ideal medium. The requirement for the coherent HHG signal and the elastic molecular transition, in contrast to the inelastic transitions and the hyper-Raman emission, is discussed. The effect of the delayed probe pulse on the dynamic alignment induced by the pump-pulse, the mean rotational energy of the molecule during the period between the pump and the probe pulse, as well as a method of estimating the effective temperature of the molecules are analyzed. A revival theorem on the number of fractional revivals, equal to the lowest power of the cosine operator in the Hamiltonian of the system, times the maximum powers of the cosine-moments present in the signal, is derived and used to interpret the observed fractional revivals and their relative phases. A magic polarization angle ?c=arctan2?55 , at which the signals for all td approach each other closely, is identified as a generic signature of a ?g symmetry of the active orbital. Similarly, the presence of a crossing neighborhood near ?c is shown to be a generic signature of an active ?g orbital. At an operational angle ?c?55 in the laboratory, a steady emission of high-order harmonic radiation from coherently rotating molecules with ?g orbital symmetry (e.g., N2 ) can be obtained. Finally, explicit numerical calculations are performed at specific experimental parameter values in the time domain as well as in the frequency domain. The results well reproduce all the salient features of the experimental observations for N2 and O2 , and provide a unified theoretical interpretation of the same.

  7. Pressure-induced penetration of guest molecules in high-silica zeolites: the case of mordenite.

    PubMed

    Arletti, R; Leardini, L; Vezzalini, G; Quartieri, S; Gigli, L; Santoro, M; Haines, J; Rouquette, J; Konczewicz, L

    2015-10-01

    A synthetic high-silica mordenite (HS-MOR) has been compressed in both non-penetrating (silicone oil, s.o.) and penetrating [methanol?:?ethanol?:?water (16?:?3?:?1) (m.e.w.), water?:?ethanol (3?:?1) (w.e.), and ethylene glycol (e.gl.)] pressure transmitting media (PTM). In situ high-pressure (HP) synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) experiments allowed the unit cell parameters to be followed up to 1.6, 1.8, 8.4, and 6.7 GPa in s.o., w.e., m.e.w., and e.gl., respectively. Moreover, e.gl. was also used as a PTM in in situ HP Raman and ex situ IR experiments. The structural refinement of HS-MOR compressed in e.gl. at 0.1 GPa - the lowest investigated pressure - revealed the presence of 3.5 ethylene glycol molecules per unit cell. The infrared spectrum of the recovered sample, after compression to 1 GPa, is consistent with the insertion of ethylene glycol molecules in the pores. XRPD and Raman spectroscopy experiments performed under pressure indicated the insertion of a small number of guest molecules. Ethylene glycol is partially retained inside mordenite upon pressure release. A symmetry lowering was observed in s.o. above 0.8 GPa, while above 1.6 GPa the patterns indicated a rapid loss of long range order. From ambient pressure (Pamb) to 1.6 GPa, a high cell volume contraction (?V = -9.5%) was determined. The patterns collected with penetrating PTM suggested the penetration of guest molecules into the porous host matrix, starting from a very low P regime. The entrapment of PTM molecules inside micropores contributes to the stiffening of the structure and, as a consequence, to the decrease of the compressibility with respect to that measured in s.o. From the structural point of view, HS-MOR reacts to compression and to the penetration of different guest species with appropriate framework deformations. Interestingly, ethylene glycol is partially retained inside mordenite upon pressure release, which is of importance for potential application of this composite material. PMID:26325490

  8. Broadband polarization independent nanophotonic coupler for silicon waveguides with ultra-high efficiency.

    PubMed

    Cheben, Pavel; Schmid, Jens H; Wang, Shurui; Xu, Dan-Xia; Vachon, Martin; Janz, Siegfried; Lapointe, Jean; Painchaud, Yves; Picard, Marie-Jose

    2015-08-24

    Coupling of light to and from integrated optical circuits has been recognized as a major practical challenge since the early years of photonics. The coupling is particularly difficult for high index contrast waveguides such as silicon-on-insulator, since the cross-sectional area of silicon wire waveguides is more than two orders of magnitude smaller than that of a standard single-mode fiber. Here, we experimentally demonstrate unprecedented control over the light coupling between the optical fiber and silicon chip by constructing the nanophotonic coupler with ultra-high coupling efficiency simultaneously for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations. We specifically demonstrate a subwavelength refractive index engineered nanostructure to mitigate loss and wavelength resonances by suppressing diffraction effects, enabling a coupling efficiency over 92% (0.32 dB) and polarization independent operation for a broad spectral range exceeding 100 nm. PMID:26368222

  9. Highly sensitive immunoassay of protein molecules based on single nanoparticle fluorescence detection in a nanowell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jin-Hee; Kim, Hee-Joo; Lakshmana, Sudheendra; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kennedy, Ian M.

    2011-03-01

    A nanoarray based-single molecule detection system was developed for detecting proteins with extremely high sensitivity. The nanoarray was able to effectively trap nanoparticles conjugated with biological sample into nanowells by integrating with an electrophoretic particle entrapment system (EPES). The nanoarray/EPES is superior to other biosensor using immunoassays in terms of saving the amounts of biological solution and enhancing kinetics of antibody binding due to reduced steric hindrance from the neighboring biological molecules. The nanoarray patterned onto a layer of PMMA and LOL on conductive and transparent indium tin oxide (ITO)-glass slide by using e-beam lithography. The suspension of 500 nm-fluorescent (green emission)-carboxylated polystyrene (PS) particles coated with protein-A followed by BDE 47 polyclonal antibody was added to the chip that was connected to the positive voltage. The droplet was covered by another ITO-coated-glass slide and connected to a ground terminal. After trapping the particles into the nanowells, the solution of different concentrations of anti-rabbit- IgG labeled with Alexa 532 was added for an immunoassay. A single molecule detection system could quantify the anti-rabbit IgG down to atto-mole level by counting photons emitted from the fluorescent dye bound to a single nanoparticle in a nanowell.

  10. Enhancement of Small Molecule Delivery by Pulsed High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound: A Parameter Exploration.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yufeng; Wang, Yak-Nam; Farr, Navid; Zia, Jasmine; Chen, Hong; Ko, Bong Min; Khokhlova, Tatiana; Li, Tong; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapeutic drug delivery is often ineffective within solid tumors, but increasing the drug dose would result in systemic toxicity. The use of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has the potential to enhance penetration of small molecules. However, operation parameters need to be optimized before the use of chemotherapeutic drugs in vivo and translation to clinical trials. In this study, the effects of pulsed HIFU (pHIFU) parameters (spatial-average pulse-average intensity, duty factor and pulse repetition frequency) on the penetration as well as content of small molecules were evaluated in ex vivo porcine kidneys. Specific HIFU parameters resulted in more than 40 times greater Evans blue content and 3.5 times the penetration depth compared with untreated samples. When selected parameters were applied to porcine kidneys in vivo, a 2.3-fold increase in concentration was obtained after a 2-min exposure to pHIFU. Pulsed HIFU has been found to be an effective modality to enhance both the concentration and penetration depth of small molecules in tissue using the optimized HIFU parameters. Although, performed in normal tissue, this study has the promise of translation into tumor tissue. PMID:26803389

  11. Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh-Thu; Lucchese, R. R.; Tonzani, S.; Morishita, T.; Lin, C. D.

    2009-07-01

    The quantitative rescattering theory (QRS) for high-order harmonic generation (HHG) by intense laser pulses is presented. According to the QRS, HHG spectra can be expressed as a product of a returning electron wave packet and the photorecombination differential cross section of the laser-free continuum electron back to the initial bound state. We show that the shape of the returning electron wave packet is determined mostly by the laser. The returning electron wave packets can be obtained from the strong-field approximation or from the solution of the time-dependent Schrdinger equation (TDSE) for a reference atom. The validity of the QRS is carefully examined by checking against accurate results for both harmonic magnitude and phase from the solution of the TDSE for atomic targets within the single active electron approximation. Combining with accurate transition dipoles obtained from state-of-the-art molecular photoionization calculations, we further show that available experimental measurements for HHG from partially aligned molecules can be explained by the QRS. Our results show that quantitative description of the HHG from aligned molecules has become possible. Since infrared lasers of pulse durations of a few femtoseconds are easily available in the laboratory, they may be used for dynamic imaging of a transient molecule with femtosecond temporal resolutions.

  12. Mapping of intracellular halogenous molecules by low and high resolution SIMS microscopy.

    PubMed

    Berry, J P; Galle, P; Chassoux, D; Escaig, F; Linarez-Cruz, L G; Lespinats, G

    1992-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of halogenous molecules has been studied by SIMS microscopy in cultured cells of a human breast carcinoma (MCF-7 cell line). Two instruments of microanalysis were used. A low lateral resolution ion microscope (SMI 300 CAMECA) and a prototype scanning ion microscope equipped with a cesium gun that gives high lateral resolution images. This apparatus has been developed by G Slodzian, in Onera Laboratories (Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Arospatiales). Molecules studied by low lateral resolution ion microscope were halogenous steroids: fluorometholone, triamcinolone, bromocriptine and bromoandrosterone. Analytical images show that the first two compounds are mainly localized in the nuclear structure of MCF-7 cells whereas the last two molecules are localized in cytoplasm of these cells. Images were obtained with a resolution of 1 micron. With the scanning ion microscope, it is now possible to obtain images at the ultrastructural level. Four analytical images can be simultaneously obtained by a single scan of the imaged area, corresponding to a depth of erosion of the section of ten nm. The intranuclear distributions of three pyrimidine analogs, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-fluorouracil have been studied in phase S and M of MCF-7 cells and these images have been compared to the distribution of sulfur, nitrogen and phosphorus. All these images have been obtained with a lateral resolution better than 100 nm. PMID:1511252

  13. Intensity and polarization dependences of the supercontinuum generation in birefringent and highly nonlinear microstructured fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proulx, Antoine; Mnard, Jean-Michel; H, Nicolas; Laniel, Jacques M.; Valle, Ral; Par, Claude

    2003-12-01

    We present experimental results highlighting the physica mechanism responsible for the initial spectral broadening of femtosecond Ti:Sapphire pulses in a highly birefringent microstructured fiber having a small effective area. By rotating the input polarization and varying the injected power while monitoring the resulting changes in the output spectrum, we are bringing clear evidences that the initial broadening mechanism leading to a broadband supercontinuum is indeed the fission of higher-order solitons into redshifted fundamental solitons along with blueshifted nonsolitonic radiation.

  14. Calculating X-ray Absorption Spectra of Open-Shell Molecules with the Unrestricted Algebraic-Diagrammatic Construction Scheme for the Polarization Propagator.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Jan; Wormit, Michael; Dreuw, Andreas

    2014-10-14

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a powerful tool that provides information about the electronic structure of molecules via excitation of electrons from the K-shell core region to the unoccupied molecular levels. These high-lying electronic core-excited states can be accurately calculated using the algebraic-diagrammatic construction scheme of second order ADC(2) by applying the core-valence separation (CVS) approximation to the ADC(2) working equations. For the first time, an efficient implementation of an unrestricted CVS-ADC(2) variant CVS-UADC(2) is presented for the calculation of open-shell molecules by treating ? and ? spins separately from each other. The potential of the CVS-UADC(2) method is demonstrated with a set of small organic radicals by comparison with standard TD-DFT/B3LYP values and experimental data. It turns out that the extended variant CVS-UADC(2)-x, in particular, provides the most accurate results with errors of only 0.1% compared to experimental values. This remarkable agreement justifies the prediction of yet nonrecorded experimental XAS spectra like the one of the anthracene cation. The cation exhibits additional peaks due to the half-filled single-occupied molecular orbital, which may help to distinguish cation from the neutral species. PMID:26588152

  15. Polar Cap Convection Structures: Relations to High Speed Streams and Plasma Sheet Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, L. R.; Nishimura, T.; Kim, H.; Angelopoulos, V.; Heinselman, C. J.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Sofko, G. J.; Donovan, E.

    2011-12-01

    The orientation and magnitude of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and solar wind dynamic pressure are well known to affect the strength of convection. However, radar measurements of high-latitude ionospheric convection show evidence that ULF power in the IMF has an additional substantial effect on the strength of convection within the polar caps, and on the nightside within both the aurora ionosphere and the plasma sheet. Convection flows during periods of large north-south IMF fluctuations are observed to be as strong as for steady and large southward IMF periods, and substantially enhanced convection is observed for northward IMF intervals when the IMF exhibits high ULF power. Since ULF power is particularly high during high-speed solar wind streams (HSS), these effects are particularly important and likely a major contributor to disturbances within the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system during HSS. However, observations during periods of Alfvnic magnetic fluctuations without high-speed solar wind indicate that the enhanced flows are at least in part directly due to the Alfvnic magnetic fluctuations and are not solely due to the high-speed solar wind. We furthermore find that the enhanced polar-cap convection driven by the ULF power in the solar wind is highly structured in time, and is associated with many substorms, including during periods of northward IMF. A possible cause of the connection to convection and disturbances within the plasma sheet is indicated by recent radar observations of flows within the polar cap. The observations suggest that meso-scale flow channels from deep within the region of open polar cap field lines may cross the nightside polar cap boundary into the closed field line region and contribute to the triggering of equatorward (earthward) meso-scale flows across the ionospheric (equatorial) end of plasma sheet fields lines and lead to PBIs and streamers. This includes the streamers that have been postulated to bring new plasma equatorward (earthward) and lead to substorm onset. Such a connection offers an explanation for the enhanced convection, plasma pressures, and substorm activity that has been observed within the plasma sheet during periods of enhanced ULF fluctuations, including during HSS.

  16. High-Speed Atomic Force Microscopy for Studying the Dynamic Behavior of Protein Molecules at Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Toshio; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Kodera, Noriyuki; Miyagi, Atsushi; Nakakita, Ryo; Yamashita, Hayato; Sakashita, Mitsuru

    2006-03-01

    In the quest for the mechanism of protein functions, various key techniques and instruments have been developed. This is an era when scrutinizing a certain protein from various angles is becoming possible through combined knowledge of its structure and function. However, it is necessary to link these different aspects of a protein along a time axis, but no technology is available for tracing a protein in action, at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Atomic force microscopy made it possible for the first time to view a nanometer-scale world in an aqueous environment. In 2001, we developed the first-generation high-speed atomic force microscope (AFM) that could capture moving protein molecules on video at 80 ms/frame. Since then, we have been carrying out various efforts to increase its scan rate as well as to substantially reduce tip-sample interaction force. The reduction in this force is a key to making the high-speed AFM practically useful in life sciences. Various new techniques and devices developed in the past four years have brought the AFM to its second-generation stage. It can now capture weakly interacting protein molecules successively without disturbing their physiological function. Here, we report our efforts made over the past four years, the present capacity of the high-speed AFM, and our preliminary work on the next generation of the instrument.

  17. On-bead antibody-small molecule conjugation using high-capacity magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Nath, Nidhi; Godat, Becky; Benink, Hélène; Urh, Marjeta

    2015-11-01

    Antibodies labeled with small molecules such as fluorophore, biotin or drugs play an important role in various areas of biological research, drug discovery and diagnostics. However, the majority of current methods for labeling antibodies is solution-based and has several limitations including the need for purified antibodies at high concentrations and multiple buffer exchange steps. In this study, a method (on-bead conjugation) is described that addresses these limitations by combining antibody purification and conjugation in a single workflow. This method uses high capacity-magnetic Protein A or Protein G beads to capture antibodies directly from cell media followed by conjugation with small molecules and elution of conjugated antibodies from the beads. High-capacity magnetic antibody capture beads are key to this method and were developed by combining porous and hydrophilic cellulose beads with oriented immobilization of Protein A and Protein G using HaloTag technology. With a variety of fluorophores it is shown that the on-bead conjugation method is compatible with both thiol- and amine-based chemistry. This method enables simple and rapid processing of multiple samples in parallel with high-efficiency antibody recovery. It is further shown that recovered antibodies are functional and compatible with downstream applications. PMID:26316179

  18. Comparison of sugar molecule decomposition through glucose and fructose: a high-level quantum chemical study.

    SciTech Connect

    Assary, R. S.; Curtiss, L. A.

    2012-02-01

    Efficient chemical conversion of biomass is essential to produce sustainable energy and industrial chemicals. Industrial level conversion of glucose to useful chemicals, such as furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, and levulinic acid, is a major step in the biomass conversion but is difficult because of the formation of undesired products and side reactions. To understand the molecular level reaction mechanisms involved in the decomposition of glucose and fructose, we have carried out high-level quantum chemical calculations [Gaussian-4 (G4) theory]. Selective 1,2-dehydration, keto-enol tautomerization, isomerization, retro-aldol condensation, and hydride shifts of glucose and fructose molecules were investigated. Detailed kinetic and thermodynamic analyses indicate that, for acyclic glucose and fructose molecules, the dehydration and isomerization require larger activation barriers compared to the retro-aldol reaction at 298 K in neutral medium. The retro-aldol reaction results in the formation of C2 and C4 species from glucose and C3 species from fructose. The formation of the most stable C3 species, dihydroxyacetone from fructose, is thermodynamically downhill. The 1,3-hydride shift leads to the cleavage of the C-C bond in the acyclic species; however, the enthalpy of activation is significantly higher (50-55 kcal/mol) than that of the retro-aldol reaction (38 kcal/mol) mainly because of the sterically hindered distorted four-membered transition state compared to the hexa-membered transition state in the retro-aldol reaction. Both tautomerization and dehydration are catalyzed by a water molecule in aqueous medium; however, water has little effect on the retro-aldol reaction. Isomerization of glucose to fructose and glyceraldehyde to dihydroxyacetone proceeds through hydride shifts that require an activation enthalpy of about 40 kcal/mol at 298 K in water medium. This investigation maps out accurate energetics of the decomposition of glucose and fructose molecules that is needed to help find more efficient catalysts for the conversion of hexose to useful chemicals.

  19. Highly polarized emission of the liquid crystalline conjugated polymer by controlling the surface anchoring energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In Jo, Soo; Kim, Youngsik; Baek, Ji-Ho; Yu, Chang-Jae; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated a highly polarized organic light-emitting diode (OLED) through the enhancement of the orientational ordering of the emitting polymer with a nematic liquid crystalline (LC) phase. The highly ordered state of the conjugate polymer was obtained by thermal annealing at the nematic temperature and strong azimuthal anchoring energy of the underlying polyimide. The order parameter of the conjugate polymer was analyzed using a second-harmonic generation model and the dichroic ratio was measured to be 22 : 1. Also, we applied our optimized OLED with high optical polarizability to an effective light source for a twisted nematic LC display.

  20. Impact ionization in N-polar AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Killat, N. E-mail: Martin.Kuball@bristol.ac.uk; Uren, M. J.; Kuball, M. E-mail: Martin.Kuball@bristol.ac.uk; Keller, S.; Kolluri, S.; Mishra, U. K.

    2014-08-11

    The existence of impact ionization as one of the open questions for GaN device reliability was studied in N-polar AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors. Electroluminescence (EL) imaging and spectroscopy from underneath the device gate contact revealed the presence of hot electrons in excess of the GaN bandgap energy even at moderate on-state bias conditions, enabling impact ionization with hole currents up to several hundreds of pA/mm. The detection of high energy luminescence from hot electrons demonstrates that EL analysis is a highly sensitive tool to study degradation mechanisms in GaN devices.