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1

Highly potent, orally available anti-inflammatory broad-spectrum chemokine inhibitors.  

PubMed

A series of 3-acylaminocaprolactams are inhibitors of chemokine-induced chemotaxis. Branching of the side chain alpha-carbon provides highly potent inhibitors of a range of CC and CXC chemokines. The most potent compound has an ED(50) of 40 pM. Selected compounds were tested in an in vivo inflammatory assay, and the best compound reduces TNF-alpha levels with an ED(50) of 0.1 microg/kg when administered by either subcutaneous injection or oral delivery. PMID:19425597

Fox, David J; Reckless, Jill; Lingard, Hannah; Warren, Stuart; Grainger, David J

2009-06-11

2

Discovery of a highly potent anti-inflammatory epoxyisoprostane-derived lactone.  

PubMed

Epoxyisoprostanes EI (1) and EC (2) are effective inhibitors of the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12. In detailed studies toward the investigation of the molecular mode of action of these structures, a highly potent lactone (3) derived from 1 was identified. The known isoprostanoids 1 and 2 are most likely precursors of 3, the product of facile intramolecular reaction between the epoxide with the carboxylic acid in 2. PMID:25474746

Egger, Julian; Bretscher, Peter; Freigang, Stefan; Kopf, Manfred; Carreira, Erick M

2014-12-17

3

Tricyclic Compounds Containing Non-enolizable Cyano Enones. A Novel Class of Highly Potent Anti-inflammatory and Cytoprotective Agents=  

PubMed Central

Forty-four novel tricycles containing non-enolizable cyano enones (TCEs) were designed and synthesized on the basis of a semisynthetic pentacyclic triterpenoid, bardoxolone methyl, which is currently being developed in Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of severe chronic kidney disease in diabetic patients. Most of the TCEs having two different kinds of non-enolizable cyano enones in rings A and C are highly potent suppressors of induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase stimulated with interferon-?, and highly potent inducers of the cytoprotective enzymes heme oxygenase-1 and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1. Among these compounds, (±)-(4bS,8aR,10aS)-10a-ethynyl-4b,8,8-trimethyl-3,7-dioxo-3,4b,7,8,8a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-2,6-dicarbonitrile ((±)-31) is the most potent in these bioassays in our pool of drug candidates including semisynthetic triterpenoids and synthetic tricycles. These facts strongly suggest that an essential factor for potency is not a triterpenoid skeleton, but the cyano enone functionality. Notably, TCE 31 reduces hepatic tumorigenesis induced with aflatoxin in rats. Further preclinical studies and detailed mechanism studies on 31 are in progress. PMID:21361338

Honda, Tadashi; Yoshizawa, Hidenori; Sundararajan, Chitra; David, Emilie; Lajoie, Marc J.; Favaloro, Frank G.; Janosik, Tomasz; Su, Xiaobo; Honda, Yukiko; Roebuck, Bill D.; Gribble, Gordon W.

2011-01-01

4

Discovery of GW870086: a potent anti-inflammatory steroid with a unique pharmacological profile  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Glucocorticoids are highly effective therapies for a range of inflammatory diseases. Advances in the understanding of the diverse molecular mechanisms underpinning glucocorticoid action suggest that anti-inflammatory molecules with reduced side effect liabilities can be discovered. Here we set out to explore whether modification of the 17? position of the steroid nucleus could generate molecules with a unique pharmacological profile and to determine whether such molecules would retain anti-inflammatory activity. Experimental Approach The pharmacological properties of GW870086 were compared with fluticasone propionate (FP) using a range of cellular and in vivo model systems, including extensive gene expression profiling. Key Results GW870086 repressed inflammatory cytokine release from lung epithelial cells in a similar manner to FP but antagonized the effect of dexamethasone on MMTV-driven reporter gene transactivation. GW870086 had a strong effect on the expression of some glucocorticoid-regulated genes (such as PTGS2), while having minimal impact on the expression of other known target genes (such as SGK). GW870086 retained the ability to strengthen tight junctions in epithelial cell culture but, unlike FP, was unable to protect the culture from elastase-mediated damage. In murine models of irritant-induced contact dermatitis and ovalbumin-induced allergic inflammation, GW870086 showed comparable anti-inflammatory efficacy to FP. Conclusion and Implications GW870086 is a potent anti-inflammatory compound with a unique ability to regulate only a subset of those genes that are normally affected by classical glucocorticoids. It has the potential to become a new topical steroid with a different safety profile to existing therapies. PMID:23639214

Uings, I J; Needham, D; Matthews, J; Haase, M; Austin, R; Angell, D; Leavens, K; Holt, J; Biggadike, K; Farrow, S N

2013-01-01

5

6-Hydroxyflavone and Derivatives Exhibit Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity among Mono-, Di- and Polyhydroxylated Flavones in Kidney Mesangial Cells  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory responses by kidney mesangial cells play a critical role in the glomerulonephritis. The anti-inflammatory potential of nineteen mono-, di- and polyhydroxylated flavones including fisetin, quercetin, morin, tricetin, gossypetin, apigenin and myricetin were investigated on rat mesangial cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as the inflammatory stimuli. 6-Hydroxyflavone and 4?,6-dihydroxyflavone exhibited high activity with IC50 in the range of 2.0 ?M, a much better inhibition potential in comparison to the well-studied polyhydroxylated flavones. Interestingly, the anti-inflammatory activity was not due to direct quenching of NO radicals. Investigation on derivatives with methylation, acetylation or sulfation of 6-hydroxyl group revealed that 6-methoxyflavone was the most potent with an IC50 of 192 nM. Mechanistic study indicated that the anti-inflammatory activity of 6-methoxyflavone arose via the inhibition of LPS-induced downstream inducible NO synthase in mesangial cells. The identification of 6-hydroxyflavone and 6-methoxyflavone with potent anti-inflammatory activity in kidney mesangial cells provides a new flavone scaffold and direction to develop naturally derived products for potential nephritis prevention and treatment. PMID:25790236

Sidhu, Preetpal Singh; Desai, Umesh R.; Zhou, Qibing

2015-01-01

6

CHF6001 I: a novel highly potent and selective phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with robust anti-inflammatory activity and suitable for topical pulmonary administration.  

PubMed

This study examined the pharmacologic characterization of CHF6001 [(S)-3,5-dichloro-4-(2-(3-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl)-2-(3-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-(methylsulfonamido)benzoyloxy)ethyl)pyridine 1-oxide], a novel phosphodiesterase (PDE)4 inhibitor designed for treating pulmonary inflammatory diseases via inhaled administration. CHF6001 was 7- and 923-fold more potent than roflumilast and cilomilast, respectively, in inhibiting PDE4 enzymatic activity (IC50 = 0.026 ± 0.006 nM). CHF6001 inhibited PDE4 isoforms A-D with equal potency, showed an elevated ratio of high-affinity rolipram binding site versus low-affinity rolipram binding site (i.e., >40) and displayed >20,000-fold selectivity versus PDE4 compared with a panel of PDEs. CHF6001 effectively inhibited (subnanomolar IC50 values) the release of tumor necrosis factor-? from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, human acute monocytic leukemia cell line macrophages (THP-1), and rodent macrophages (RAW264.7 and NR8383). Moreover, CHF6001 potently inhibited the activation of oxidative burst in neutrophils and eosinophils, neutrophil chemotaxis, and the release of interferon-? from CD4(+) T cells. In all these functional assays, CHF6001 was more potent than previously described PDE4 inhibitors, including roflumilast, UK-500,001 [2-(3,4-difluorophenoxy)-5-fluoro-N-((1S,4S)-4-(2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzamido)cyclohexyl)nicotinamide], and cilomilast, and it was comparable to GSK256066 [6-((3-(dimethylcarbamoyl)phenyl)sulfonyl)-4-((3-methoxyphenyl)amino)-8-methylquinoline-3-carboxamide]. When administered intratracheally to rats as a micronized dry powder, CHF6001 inhibited liposaccharide-induced pulmonary neutrophilia (ED50 = 0.205 ?mol/kg) and leukocyte infiltration (ED50 = 0.188 ?mol/kg) with an efficacy comparable to a high dose of budesonide (1 ?mol/kg i.p.). In sum, CHF6001 has the potential to be an effective topical treatment of conditions associated with pulmonary inflammation, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:25576075

Moretto, Nadia; Caruso, Paola; Bosco, Raffaella; Marchini, Gessica; Pastore, Fiorella; Armani, Elisabetta; Amari, Gabriele; Rizzi, Andrea; Ghidini, Eleonora; De Fanti, Renato; Capaldi, Carmelida; Carzaniga, Laura; Hirsch, Emilio; Buccellati, Carola; Sala, Angelo; Carnini, Chiara; Patacchini, Riccardo; Delcanale, Maurizio; Civelli, Maurizio; Villetti, Gino; Facchinetti, Fabrizio

2015-03-01

7

Stereocontrolled Total Synthesis of the Potent Anti-inflammatory and Pro-resolving Lipid Mediator Resolvin D3 and its Aspirin-Triggered 17R-Epimer  

PubMed Central

The first total synthesis of stereochemically pure resolvin D3 and aspirin-triggered resolvin D3 is reported. These enzymatic metabolites of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions. The convergent synthetic strategy is based on enantiomerically pure starting materials and it is highly stereocontrolled. PMID:23510485

Winkler, Jeremy W.; Uddin, Jasim; Serhan, Charles N.

2013-01-01

8

Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil as a potent anti-inflammatory and antifungal drugs  

PubMed Central

Background Volatile oils obtained from lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Poaceae family] are used in traditional medicine as remedies for the treatment of various diseases. Aims In the present study, lemon grass essential oil (LGEO) was evaluated for its in vivo topical and oral anti-inflammatory effects, and for its in vitro antifungal activity using both liquid and vapor phases. Methods The chemical profile of LGEO as determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis revealed two major components: geranial (42.2%), and neral (31.5%). The antifungal activity of LGEO was evaluated against several pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi using disc diffusion and vapor diffusion methods. Results LGEO exhibited promising antifungal effect against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and Aspergillus niger, with different inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) (35–90 mm). IZD increased with increasing oil volume. Significantly, higher anti-Candida activity was observed in the vapor phase. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect, LGEO (10 mg/kg, administered orally) significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema with a similar effect to that observed for oral diclofenac (50 mg/kg), which was used as the positive control. Oral administration of LGEO showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, topical application of LGEO in vivo resulted in a potent anti-inflammatory effect, as demonstrated by using the mouse model of croton oil-induced ear edema. To our knowledge, this is the first such report to be published. The topical application of LGEO at doses of 5 and 10 µL/ear significantly reduced acute ear edema induced by croton oil in 62.5 and 75% of the mice, respectively. In addition, histological analysis clearly confirmed that LGEO inhibits the skin inflammatory response in animal models. Conclusion Results of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for the treatment of fungal infections and skin inflammation that should be explored in future studies. PMID:25242268

Boukhatem, Mohamed Nadjib; Ferhat, Mohamed Amine; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Saidi, Fairouz; Kebir, Hadjer Tchoketch

2014-01-01

9

Synthesis and biological evaluation of pyrazolylthiazole carboxylic acids as potent anti-inflammatory-antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed

Current Letter presents design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel series of pyrazolylthiazole carboxylates 1a-1p and corresponding acid derivatives 2a-2p. All 32 novel compounds were tested for their in vivo anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema method as well as for in vitro antimicrobial activity. All the tested compounds exhibited excellent AI activity profile. Three compounds 1p (R=Cl, R(1)=Cl), 2c (R=H, R(1)=F) and 2n (R=Cl, R(1)=OCH3) were identified as potent anti-inflammatory agents exhibiting edema inhibition of 93.06-89.59% which is comparable to the reference drug indomethacin (91.32%) after 3h of carrageenan injection while most of the other compounds displayed inhibition ?80%. In addition, pyrazolylthiazole carboxylic acids (2a-2p) also showed good antimicrobial profile. Compound 2h (R=OCH3, R(1)=Cl) showed excellent antimicrobial activity (MIC 6.25?g/mL) against both Gram positive bacteria comparable with the reference drug ciprofloxacin (MIC 6.25?g/mL). PMID:25702850

Khloya, Poonam; Kumar, Satish; Kaushik, Pawan; Surain, Parveen; Kaushik, Dhirender; Sharma, Pawan K

2015-03-15

10

Potent anti-inflammatory effects of systemically-administered curcumin modulates periodontal disease in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Curcumin is a plant-derived dietary spice with various biological activities, including anti-tumoral and anti-inflammatory. Its therapeutic applications have been studied in a variety of conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, colon cancer and depression; but no studies evaluated the effects of curcumin on periodontal disease in vivo. Methods Experimental periodontal disease was induced in rats by placing cotton ligatures around both lower first molars. Curcumin was given to the rats intragastrically daily in two doses (30 and 100 mg/Kg) during 15 days. Control animals received ligatures but only the corn oil vehicle by gavage and no treatment negative control animals were included. Bone resorption was assessed by microcomputer tomography and the inflammatory status was evaluated by stereometric analysis. RT-qPCR and ELISA were used to determine the expression of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthase on the gingival tissues. Modulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NK-kB activation was assessed by western blot. Results Bone resorption was effectively induced in the experimental period, but it was not affected by either dose of curcumin. Curcumin effectively inhibited cytokine gene expression at mRNA and protein levels and dose-dependently inhibited activation of NF-kB in the gingival tissues. p38 MAPK activation was not inhibited by curcumin. Curcumin-treated animals also presented a marked reduction on the inflammatory cell infiltrate and increased collagen content and fibroblastic cell numbers. Conclusions Curcumin did not prevent alveolar bone resorption, but its potent anti-inflammatory effect suggests it may have a therapeutic potential in periodontal diseases. PMID:21306385

Guimarăes, Morgana R.; Coimbra, Leila S.; de Aquino, Sabrina Garcia; Spolidorio, Luis C.; Kirkwood, Keith L.; Junior, Carlos Rossa

2011-01-01

11

A novel caffeoyl triterpene attenuates cerebral ischemic injury with potent anti-inflammatory and hypothermic effects.  

PubMed

Despite the intense efforts in searching for stroke therapies, an urgent need still exists to explore novel neuroprotective agents for ischemic stroke that have high efficacy and wide therapeutic time-window. Here, we provide the first demonstration that 28-O-caffeoyl betulin (B-CA), a novel derivative of naturally occurring caffeoyl triterpene, could significantly alleviate brain infarction and neurological deficit when given as late as 6 h after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat. Moreover, post-ischemia B-CA administration exhibited long-term (14 days post stroke) protective effects on both brain infarction and functional (i.e., motor and sensory) deficits. Protective B-CA effects correlated with decreased inflammatory responses as indicated by inhibition of microglia and astrocyte activation [stained with ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) antibody, respectively], as well as suppression of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, and cyclooxygenase-2 overproduction in the ipsilateral cortex of ischemic rat. B-CA administration caused significant hypothermia in the focal cerebral ischemic rat, which may contribute to its ameliorative effects on brain damage and inflammation. In view of its potency in wide therapeutic time-window, robust anti-inflammatory and hypothermic effects, this novel caffeoyl triterpene derivative may lead toward the development of effective therapeutic strategies for the treatment of ischemic stroke. We documented for the first time that 28-O-caffeoyl betulin (B-CA), a novel synthetic caffeoyl triterpene inspired from active natural principles of Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb, possessed robust neuroprotection with a wide and clinically useful therapeutic time window against ischemic stroke, correlating with the anti-inflammatory and hypothermic effects. Thus, this novel caffeoyl triterpene derivative may lead toward the development of effective therapeutic strategies for the treatment of ischemic stroke. PMID:25626516

Ruan, Zhi; Wang, Hong Min; Huang, Xiao Tian; Fu, Yan; Wu, Jian; Ye, Chun Yan; Li, Jin Long; Wu, Lei; Gong, Qi; Zhao, Wei Min; Zhang, Hai Yan

2015-04-01

12

Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Novel Microtubule-Modulating Brominated Noscapine Analogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noscapine, a plant-derived, non-toxic, over-the-counter antitussive alkaloid has tubulin-binding properties. Based upon the structural resemblance of noscapine to colchicine, a tubulin-binding anti-inflammatory drug, noscapine and its semi-synthetic brominated analogs were examined for in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Brominated noscapine analogs were found to inhibit cytokine and chemokine release from macrophage cell lines but did not affect cell viability. Brominated noscapine analogs

Susu Zughaier; Prasanthi Karna; David Stephens; Ritu Aneja; Laurent Rénia

2010-01-01

13

Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Carbohydrate Polymer with Oxide of Zinc  

PubMed Central

Pebisut is a biological adhesive composed of naturally occurring carbohydrates combined with zinc oxide (ZnO) initially used as a coadjutant for healing of anastomoses. Likewise some works demonstrated that carbohydrate complexes exerts anti-inflammatory activity and it is widely known that ZnO modulate inflammation. However, the direct effects of Pebisut on isolated cells and acute inflammatory responses remained to be investigated. The present study evaluated anti-inflammatory effect of Pebisut using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated human mononuclear cells, chemotaxis, and cell infiltration in vivo in a murine model of peritonitis. Our data show that human cells treated with different dilutions of Pebisut release less IL-6, IL-1?, and IL-8 after LPS stimuli compared with the control treated cells. In addition, Pebisut lacked chemotactic activity in human mononuclear cells but was able to reduce chemotaxis towards CCL2, CCL5, and CXCL12 that are representative mononuclear cells chemoattractants. Finally, in a murine model of peritonitis, we found less number of macrophages (F4/80+) and T lymphocytes (CD3+) in peritoneal lavages from animals treated with Pebisut. Our results suggest that Pebisut has anti-inflammatory activity, which might have a beneficial effect during anastomoses healing or wounds associated with excessive inflammation. PMID:24757670

Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adan; Nieto-Velázquez, Nayeli Goreti; Espinosa-Monroy, Lorena; Torres-Ramos, Yessica; Montoya-Estrada, Araceli; Cueto, Jorge; Hicks, Juan Jose; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo

2014-01-01

14

Separation of flavonoids from Millettia griffithii with high-performance counter-current chromatography guided by anti-inflammatory activity.  

PubMed

Millettia griffithii is a unique Chinese plant located in the southern part of Yunnan Province. Up to now, there is no report about its phytochemical or related bioactivity research. In our previous study, the n-hexane crude extract of Millettia griffithii revealed significant anti-inflammatory activity at 100 ?g/mL, inspiring us to explore the anti-inflammatory constituents. Four fractions (I, II, III, and A) were fractionated from n-hexane crude extract by high-performance counter-current chromatography with solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (8:9:8:9, v/v) and then were investigated for the potent anti-inflammatory activity. Fraction A, with the most potent inhibitory activity was further separated to give another four fractions (IV, V, VI, and B) with solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (8:4:8:4, v/v). Compound V and fraction B exhibited remarkable anti-inflammatory activity with nitric oxide inhibitory rate of 80 and 65%, which was worth further fractionation. Then, three fractions (VII, VIII, and IX) were separated from fraction B with a solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (8:1:8:1, v/v), with compound VIII demonstrating the most potent inhibitory activity (80%). Finally, the IC50 values of compound V and VIII were tested as 38.2 and 14.9 ?M. The structures were identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and(1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. PMID:25413585

Tang, Huan; Wu, Bo; Chen, Kai; Pei, Heying; Wu, Wenshuang; Ma, Liang; Peng, Aihua; Ye, Haoyu; Chen, Lijuan

2015-02-01

15

High density lipoprotein mediates anti-inflammatory transcriptional reprogramming of macrophages via the transcriptional repressor ATF3  

PubMed Central

High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) mediates reverse cholesterol transport and it is known to be protective against atherosclerosis. In addition, HDL has potent anti-inflammatory properties that may be critical for protection against other inflammatory diseases. The molecular mechanisms of how HDL can modulate inflammation, particularly in immune cells such as macrophages, remain poorly understood. Here we identify the transcriptional repressor ATF3, as an HDL-inducible target gene in macrophages that down-regulates the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines. The protective effects of HDL against TLR-induced inflammation were fully dependent on ATF3 in vitro and in vivo. Our findings may explain the broad anti-inflammatory and metabolic actions of HDL and provide the basis for predicting the success of novel HDL-based therapies. PMID:24317040

De Nardo, Dominic; Labzin, Larisa I.; Kono, Hajime; Seki, Reiko; Schmidt, Susanne V.; Beyer, Marc; Xu, Dakang; Zimmer, Sebastian; Lahrmann, Catharina; Schildberg, Frank A.; Vogelhuber, Johanna; Kraut, Michael; Ulas, Thomas; Kerksiek, Anja; Krebs, Wolfgang; Bode, Niklas; Grebe, Alena; Fitzgerald, Michael L.; Hernandez, Nicholas J.; Williams, Bryan; Knolle, Percy; Kneilling, Manfred; Röcken, Martin; Lütjohann, Dieter; Wright, Samuel D.; Schultze, Joachim L.; Latz, Eicke

2014-01-01

16

Potent anti-inflammatory action of calcitonin gene-related peptide.  

PubMed

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), but not substance P (SP), was found to inhibit edema-promoting actions of inflammatory mediators (histamine, leukotrine B4, 5-hydroxytryptamine) in vivo in the hamster cheek pouch, human skin, and rat paw. The effect of CGRP was present in the low nanomolar dose range, and it was mimicked by activation of sensory nerves with capsaicin which caused release of endogenous CGRP-like immunoreactivity (IR). The findings provide new information on the potential impact of sensory nerve activation during inflammatory processes by indicating that sensory nerves may play an anti-inflammatory role. PMID:1719983

Raud, J; Lundeberg, T; Brodda-Jansen, G; Theodorsson, E; Hedqvist, P

1991-11-14

17

Lipidated ?-peptide/?-peptoid hybrids with potent anti-inflammatory activity.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated, optimized, and characterized a novel subclass of host defense peptide (HDP) mimics based on ?-peptide/?-peptoid hybrid oligomers with an alternating cationic/hydrophobic design with respect to their ability to modulate the pro-inflammatory response by human primary leukocytes upon exposure to bacterial components. Structure-activity studies revealed that certain lipidated ?-peptide/?-peptoid hybrid oligomers possess anti-inflammatory activities in the submicromolar range with low cytotoxicity, and that the anti-inflammatory activity of the HDP mimics is dependent on the length and position of the lipid element(s). The resulting lead compound, Pam-(Lys-?NSpe)6-NH2, blocks LPS-induced cytokine secretion with a potency comparable to that of polymyxin B. The mode of action of this HDP mimic appears not to involve direct LPS interaction since it, in contrast to polymyxin B, displayed only minor activity in the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Flow cytometry data showed specific interaction of a fluorophore-labeled lipidated ?-peptide/?-peptoid hybrid with monocytes and granulocytes indicating a cellular target expressed by these leukocyte subsets. PMID:25489798

Skovbakke, Sarah L; Larsen, Camilla J; Heegaard, Peter M H; Moesby, Lise; Franzyk, Henrik

2015-01-22

18

Arzanol, a Potent mPGES-1 Inhibitor: Novel Anti-Inflammatory Agent  

PubMed Central

Arzanol is a novel phloroglucinol ?-pyrone, isolated from a Mediterranean plant Helichrysum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. microphyllum which belongs to the family Asteraceae. Arzanol has been reported to possess a variety of pharmacological activities. However, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV, and antioxidant activities have been studied in some detail. Arzanol has been reported to inhibit inflammatory transcription factor NF?B activation, HIV replication in T cells, releases of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-?, and biosynthesis of PGE2 by potentially inhibiting mPGES-1 enzyme. Diversity of mechanisms of actions of arzanol may be useful in treatment of disease involving these inflammatory mediators such as autoimmune diseases and cancer. This review presents comprehensive information on the chemistry, structure-activity relationship, and pharmacological activities of arzanol. In addition this review discusses recent developments and the scope for future research in these aspects. PMID:24198734

Kothavade, Pankaj S.; Nagmoti, Dnyaneshwar M.; Bulani, Vipin D.; Juvekar, Archana R.

2013-01-01

19

Lipophilic stinging nettle extracts possess potent anti-inflammatory activity, are not cytotoxic and may be superior to traditional tinctures for treating inflammatory disorders  

PubMed Central

Extracts of four plant portions (roots, stems, leaves and flowers) of Urtica dioica, (the stinging nettle) were prepared using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) involving water, hexanes, methanol and dichloromethane. The extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity in an NF-?B luciferase and MTT assay using macrophage immune (RAW264.7) cells. A standardized commercial ethanol extract of nettle leaves were also evaluated. The methanolic extract of the flowering portions displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity on par with the standard anti-inflammatory agent celastrol (1) but was moderately cytotoxic. Alternatively, the polar extracts (water, methanol, ethanol) of the roots, stems and leaves plant portions displayed moderate to weak anti-inflammatory activity, while the methanol and especially the water soluble extracts exhibited noticeable cytotoxicity. In contrast, the lipophilic dichloromethane extracts of the roots, stems and leaves exhibited potent anti-inflammatory effects ? 1 with minimal cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. Collectively these results suggest that using lipophilic extracts of the roots, stems or leaves of stinging nettle may be more effective then traditional tinctures (water, methanol, ethanol) to undergo clinical evaluations for the treatment of inflammatory disorders including arthritis. A chemical investigation into the lipophillic extracts of stinging nettle to identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for their observed anti-inflammatory activity is further warranted. PMID:23092723

Johnson, Tyler A.; Sohn, Johann; Inman, Wayne D.; Bjeldanes, Leonard F.; Rayburn, Keith

2012-01-01

20

Anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties of a potent histamine H1 receptor antagonist, desloratadine citrate disodium injection, and its anti-inflammatory mechanism on EA.hy926 endothelial cells.  

PubMed

The present study, demonstrates that, desloratadine citrate disodium injection (DLC) possesses antihistaminic, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties and elucidates its molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory properties. In vitro antihistamine activity of DLC was determined in guinea pig isolated tissues. In vivo antihistamine effects were evaluated after following intravenous administration of DLC in mice with histamine- induced paw edema and in rats with increased capillary permeability. Anti-allergic effects were assessed through passive cutaneous anaphylactic (PCA) reactions in sensitized rodents and ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis in rats. Anti-inflammatory properties and molecular mechanisms of DLC were determined on histamine- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced EA.hy926 endothelial cells. DLC exhibited significant and reversible inhibition of histamine-induced contractions of isolated guinea pig ileum with pA2 value of 8.88. Histamine-induced paw edema and increased capillary permeability were notably inhibited by DLC intravenous administration. In the model of PCA reactions, DLC showed significant activity in a dose-dependent nd potently inhibited both the early-phase and late-phase allergic reaction of ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis in rats. DLC alleviated the rhinitis symptoms and inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration, IL-4 and protein leakage in nasal lavage fluid (NLF). In EA.hy926 cells, DLC significantly inhibited the histamine- and LPS- induced IL-6 and IL-8 production and P-selectin and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. Moreover, DLC reduced translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) to the nucleus in activated EA.hy926 cells. These results provide evidence that DLC possesses potent antihistaminic, anti-allergic and, anti-inflammatory properties via suppressing IL-6, IL-8, P-selectin and ICAM-1 expression. PMID:25704613

Jie, Qiong; Kodithuwakku, Nandani Darshika; Yuan, Xin; He, Guangwei; Chen, Meiling; Xu, Shuhong; Wu, Yulin

2015-05-01

21

TOPICAL ANTIHISTAMINES DISPLAY POTENT ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY LINKED IN PART TO ENHANCED PERMEABILITY BARRIER FUNCTION  

PubMed Central

Systemic antagonists of the histamine type 1 and 2 receptors (H1/2r) are widely used as anti-pruritics and central sedatives, but demonstrate only modest anti-inflammatory activity. Because many inflammatory dermatoses result from defects in cutaneous barrier function, and because keratinocytes express both Hr1 and Hr2, we hypothesized that H1/2r antagonists might be more effective, if they were used topically to treat inflammatory dermatoses. Topical H1/2r antagonists additively enhanced permeability barrier homeostasis in normal mouse skin by: i) stimulation of epidermal differentiation, leading to thickened cornified envelopes; and ii) enhanced epidermal lipid synthesis and secretion. Since barrier homeostasis was enhanced to a comparable extent in mast cell-deficient mice, with no further improvement following application of topical H1/2r antagonists, H1/2r antagonists likely oppose mast cell-derived histamine. In four immunologically-diverse, murine disease models, characterized by either inflammation alone (acute irritant contact dermatitis, acute allergic contact dermatitis), or by prominent barrier abnormalities (subacute allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis), topical H1/2r agonists aggravated, while H1/2r antagonists improved inflammation and/or barrier function. The apparent ability of topical H1r/2r antagonists to target epidermal H1/2r could translate into increased efficacy in the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, likely due to decreased inflammation and enhanced barrier function. These results could shift current paradigms of antihistamine utilization from a predominantly-systemic to a topical approach. PMID:23014339

Lin, Tzu-Kai; Man, Mao-Qiang; Santiago, Juan-Luis; Park, Kyungho; Roelandt, Truus; Oda, Yuko; Hupe, Melanie; Crumrine, Debra; Lee, Hae-Jin; Gschwandtner, Maria; Thyssen, Jacob P.; Trullas, Carles; Tschachler, Erwin; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Elias, Peter M.

2012-01-01

22

Lipophilic stinging nettle extracts possess potent anti-inflammatory activity, are not cytotoxic and may be superior to traditional tinctures for treating inflammatory disorders.  

PubMed

Extracts of four plant portions (roots, stems, leaves and flowers) of Urtica dioica (the stinging nettle) were prepared using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) involving water, hexanes, methanol and dichloromethane. The extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities in an NF-?B luciferase and MTT assay using macrophage immune (RAW264.7) cells. A standardized commercial ethanol extract of nettle leaves was also evaluated. The methanolic extract of the flowering portions displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity on par with a standard compound celastrol (1) but were moderately cytotoxic. Alternatively, the polar extracts (water, methanol, ethanol) of the roots, stems and leaves displayed moderate to weak anti-inflammatory activity, while the methanol and especially the water soluble extracts exhibited noticeable cytotoxicity. In contrast, the lipophilic dichloromethane extracts of the roots, stems and leaves exhibited potent anti-inflammatory effects greater than or equal to 1 with minimal cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. Collectively these results suggest that using lipophilic extracts of stinging nettle may be more effective than traditional tinctures (water, methanol, ethanol) in clinical evaluations for the treatment of inflammatory disorders especially arthritis. A chemical investigation into the lipophilic extracts of stinging nettle to identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for their observed anti-inflammatory activity is further warranted. PMID:23092723

Johnson, Tyler A; Sohn, Johann; Inman, Wayne D; Bjeldanes, Leonard F; Rayburn, Keith

2013-01-15

23

Anti-inflammatory activity of cinnamon (C. zeylanicum and C. cassia) extracts - identification of E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxy cinnamaldehyde as the most potent bioactive compounds.  

PubMed

Chronic inflammation is a contributing factor in many age-related diseases. In a previous study, we have shown that Sri Lankan cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) was one of the most potent anti-inflammatory foods out of 115 foods tested. However, knowledge about the exact nature of the anti-inflammatory compounds and their distribution in the two major cinnamon species used for human consumption is limited. The aim of this investigation was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of C. zeylanicum and C. cassia and elucidate their main phytochemical compounds. When extracts were tested in LPS and IFN-? activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, most of the anti-inflammatory activity, measured by down-regulation of nitric oxide and TNF-? production, was observed in the organic extracts. The most abundant compounds in these extracts were E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde. The highest concentration of E-cinnamaldehyde was found in the DCM extract of C. zeylanicum or C. cassia (31 and 34 mg g(-1) of cinnamon, respectively). When these and other constituents were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 macrophages, the most potent compounds were E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde, which exhibited IC50 values for NO with RAW 264.7 cells of 55 ± 9 ?M (7.3 ± 1.2 ?g mL(-1)) and 35 ± 9 ?M (5.7 ± 1.5 ?g mL(-1)), respectively; and IC50 values for TNF-? of 63 ± 9 ?M (8.3 ± 1.2 ?g mL(-1)) and 78 ± 16 ?M (12.6 ± 2.6 ?g mL(-1)), respectively. If therapeutic concentrations can be achieved in target tissues, cinnamon and its components may be useful in the treatment of age-related inflammatory conditions. PMID:25629927

Gunawardena, Dhanushka; Karunaweera, Niloo; Lee, Samiuela; van Der Kooy, Frank; Harman, David G; Raju, Ritesh; Bennett, Louise; Gyengesi, Erika; Sucher, Nikolaus J; Münch, Gerald

2015-03-11

24

Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ursolic Acid, a Triterpenoid Antioxidant, Is Mediated through Suppression of NF-?B, AP-1 and NF-AT  

PubMed Central

Background Ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid, is the major component of many plants including apples, basil, cranberries, peppermint, rosemary, oregano and prunes and has been reported to possess antioxidant and anti-tumor properties. These properties of UA have been attributed to its ability to suppress NF-?B (nuclear factor kappa B) activation. Since NF-?B, in co-ordination with NF-AT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) and AP-1(activator protein-1), is known to regulate inflammatory genes, we hypothesized that UA might exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects. Methodology/Principal Findings The anti-inflammatory effects of UA were assessed in activated T cells, B cells and macrophages. Effects of UA on ERK, JNK, NF-?B, AP-1 and NF-AT were studied to elucidate its mechanism of action. In vivo efficacy of UA was studied using mouse model of graft-versus-host disease. UA inhibited activation, proliferation and cytokine secretion in T cells, B cells and macrophages. UA inhibited mitogen-induced up-regulation of activation markers and co-stimulatory molecules in T and B cells. It inhibited mitogen-induced phosphorylation of ERK and JNK and suppressed the activation of immunoregulatory transcription factors NF-?B, NF-AT and AP-1 in lymphocytes. Treatment of cells with UA prior to allogenic transplantation significantly delayed induction of acute graft-versus-host disease in mice and also significantly reduced the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IFN-?. UA treatment inhibited T cell activation even when added post-mitogenic stimulation demonstrating its therapeutic utility as an anti-inflammatory agent. Conclusions/Significance The present study describes the detailed mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of UA. Further, UA may find application in the treatment of inflammatory disorders. PMID:22363615

Checker, Rahul; Sandur, Santosh K.; Sharma, Deepak; Patwardhan, Raghavendra S.; Jayakumar, S.; Kohli, Vineet; Sethi, Gautam; Aggarwal, Bharat B.; Sainis, Krishna B.

2012-01-01

25

Ethanol Extract of Peanut Sprout Exhibits a Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Both an Oxazolone-Induced Contact Dermatitis Mouse Model and Compound 48/80-Treated HaCaT Cells  

PubMed Central

Background We developed an ethanol extract of peanut sprouts (EPS), a peanut sprout-derived natural product, which contains a high level of trans-resveratrol (176.75 µg/ml) and was shown to have potent antioxidant activity. Objective We evaluated the potential anti-inflammatory activity of EPS by measuring its antioxidant potential in skin. Methods The anti-inflammatory activity of EPS was tested using two models of skin inflammation: oxazolone (OX)-induced contact dermatitis in mice and compound 48/80-treated HaCaT cells. As biomarkers of skin inflammation, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels were measured. Results OX-induced contact dermatitis was suppressed markedly in mice that were treated with an ointment containing 5% EPS as evidenced by a decrease in the extent of scaling and thickening (p<0.05) and supported by a histological study. COX-2 (messenger RNA [mRNA] and protein) and NGF (mRNA) levels, which were upregulated in the skin of OX-treated mice, were suppressed markedly in the skin of OX+EPS-treated mice. Consistent with this, compound 48/80-induced expression of COX-2 (mRNA and protein) and NGF (mRNA) in HaCaT cells were suppressed by EPS treatment in a dose-dependent manner. As an inhibitor of NF-?B, I?B protein levels were dose-dependently upregulated by EPS. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis revealed that EPS scavenged compound 48/80-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HaCaT cells. Conclusion EPS exerts a potent anti-inflammatory activity via its anti-oxidant activity in both mouse skin and compound 48/80-treated HaCaT cells in vitro. Compound 48/80-treated HaCaT cells are a useful new in vitro model of skin inflammation.

Choi, Da-In; Choi, Jee-Young; Kim, Young Jee; Lee, Jee-Bum; Kim, Sun-Ouck; Shin, Hyong-Taek

2015-01-01

26

Design of iodine-lithium-alpha-dextrin liquid crystal with potent antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties.  

PubMed

An ideal antimicrobial should be not toxic and possess board spectrum antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal activity, excluding resistance and should affect pathogen-mediated damage of host physiology including immune, nervous and endocrine systems. With the purpose of a combination of nonspecific antimicrobial action of molecular and ionized iodine with systemic immune-modulating property of the negatively charged polysaccharides a complex drug of iodine and lithium on a template of a alpha-dextrin liquid crystal was designed. The physicochemical model of iodine-lithium-alpha-dextrin (ILalphaD) is based on the human blood and the stereochemistry of moving equilibred systems of dynamically balanced organic polymers conformation complexed with the iodine and lithium molecules. Here we reviewed the antibacterial, antiviral, immune-modulating and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in vivo and in vitro as well as pharmacokinetics, metabolism, chronic toxicity, cumulative properties, embryo toxicity and carcinogenicity of ILalphaD. Clinical efficacy, tolerability and safety of ILalphaD monotherapy have been evaluated in HIV-infected patients, administered intravenously for a total of 12 infusions in 4 cycles. ILalphaD therapy contributes to anti-HIV and anti-inflammatory effects, resolution of dermatological and neurological pathology and dramatically improves the quality of life reflecting on enhanced treatment adherence. ILalphaD appears to be safe and perspective for an adjuvant therapy of bacterial and viral infections, including HIV/AIDS, hypothyroid, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases for controlling pathogen production from infected cells, immune response, inflammation and metabolism. PMID:19355958

Davtyan, Tigran K; Mkhitaryan, Levon M; Gabrielyan, Emil S

2009-01-01

27

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Marrubium alysson extracts in high cholesterol-fed rabbits.  

PubMed

The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of hexane (HEXA), chloroform (CHLORO), ethyl acetate (EA) and total alcoholic (T. ALCOH) extracts of Marrubium alysson in hypercholesterolemic-fed rabbits were evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in male rabbits by high cholesterol diet (HCD) (350 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. Hypercholesterolemic rabbits were allocated into groups, treated with simvastatin (SIM 5 mg/kg), different extracts of M. alysson at two doses of 250, 500 mg/kg. A normal control group and an HCD control one were used for comparison. Lipid profile, as well as oxidized low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (ox-LDL-C), myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) and superoxide anion production (O2•(-)), C-reactive protein (CRP) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were also evaluated. In addition, histological examination of ascending aorta was performed. We found dyslipidemia associated with significant increases in ox-LDL-C 123.5 ± 9.8 nmol MDA/mg non-HDL, MPO activity 0.08 ± 0.05 U/100 mg tissue and O2•(-) production 3.5 ± 0.3 nmol cytochrome C reduced/min/g tissue × 10(-4) in hypercholerterolemic rabbits. In addition, there was a significant increase in CRP 6.6 ± 0.49 ?mol/L and MCP-1 190.9 ± 6.4 pg/ml and its mRNA expression in HCD. Intima appeared thick with thick plaques surrounding the intima and luminal narrowing. SIM, EA and HEXA extracts of M. alysson had lipid lowering effect, decrease in ox-LDL-C, MPO, O2•(-), CRP and MCP-1 mRNA expression with improvement of the pathological picture. M. alysson enhanced the stability of plaque, had lipid lowering, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. PMID:25473336

Essawy, Soha S; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Ghazy, Nabila M; Badr, Jihan M; Sterner, Olov

2014-11-01

28

Synthesis of some potent immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory metabolites by fungal transformation of anabolic steroid oxymetholone  

PubMed Central

Background Biotransformation of organic compounds by using microbial whole cells provides an efficient approach to obtain novel analogues which are often difficult to synthesize chemically. In this manuscript, we report for the first time the microbial transformation of a synthetic anabolic steroidal drug, oxymetholone, by fungal cell cultures. Results Incubation of oxymetholone (1) with Macrophomina phaseolina, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Fusarium lini produced 17?-hydroxy-2-(hydroxy-methyl)-17?-methyl-5?-androstan-1-en-3-one (2), 2?,17?-di(hydroxyl-methyl)-5?-androstan-3?,17?-diol (3), 17?-methyl-5?-androstan-2?,3?,17?-triol (4), 17?-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-17?-methyl-androst-1,4-dien-3-one (5), 17?-hydroxy-2?-(hydroxy-methyl)-17?-methyl-5?-androstan-3-one (6), and 2?-(hydroxymethyl)-17?-methyl-5?-androstan-3?-17?-diol (7). Their structures were deduced by spectral analyses, as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Compounds 2–5 were identified as the new metabolites of 1. The immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities and cytotoxicity of compounds 1–7 were evaluated by observing their effects on T-cell proliferation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and normal cell growth in MTT assays, respectively. These compounds showed immunosuppressant effect in the T-cell proliferation assay with IC50 values between 31.2 to 2.7 ?g/mL, while the IC50 values for ROS inhibition, representing anti-inflammatory effect, were in the range of 25.6 to 2.0 ?g/mL. All the compounds were found to be non-toxic in a cell-based cytotoxicity assay. Conclusion Microbial transformation of oxymetholone (1) provides an efficient method for structural transformation of 1. The transformed products were obtained as a result of de novo stereoselective reduction of the enone system, isomerization of double bond, insertion of double bond and hydroxylation. The transformed products, which showed significant immunosuppressant and anti-inflammatory activities, can be further studied for their potential as novel drugs. PMID:23237028

2012-01-01

29

An anti-inflammatory principle from cactus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous studies, the ethanol extract of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) showed potent anti-inflammatory action. In the present study, following fractionation of the methanol extract of cactus stems guided by adjuvant-induced chronic inflammation model in mice, an active anti-inflammatory principle has been isolated and identified as ?-sitosterol.

Eun-Hee Park; Ja-Hoon Kahng; Sang Hyun Lee; Kuk-Hyun Shin

2001-01-01

30

Synthesis of some novel 2-[2-(aroyl-aroxy)-methyl]-4-phenyl-1,3-thiazoles as potent anti-inflammatory agents.  

PubMed

A series of 2-[2-(aroyl-aroxy)-methyl]-4-phenyl-1,3-thiazoles 4a-j were obtained via multiple step synthesis sequence beginning with the hydroxybenzophenones (1a-g). Hydroxybenzophenones on reaction with chloroacetonitrile affords [(2-benzoyl) phenoxy] acetonitrile (2a-g), which reacts with H(2)S/NH(4)OH and yields [(2-benzoyl) phenoxy] acetothiamide (3a-g), which on treatment with phenacylbromides affords 2-[2-(aroyl-aroxy)-methyl]-4-phenyl-1,3-thiazoles (4a-j). All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity and were compared with standard drugs. Of the compounds studied, (4g), compounds with chloro substituents showed more potent activity than the standard drug phenyl butazone at all doses tested. PMID:20102372

Rai, Neithnadka Premsai; Venu, T D; Manuprasad, B K; Shashikanth, Sheena; Arunachalam, P N; Firdouse, Aiysha

2010-04-01

31

In vitro and in vivo characterization of A-940894: a potent histamine H4 receptor antagonist with anti-inflammatory properties  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: The histamine H4 receptor is widely expressed in cells of immune origin and has been shown to play a role in a variety of inflammatory processes mediated by histamine. In this report, we describe the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties of a potent histamine H4 receptor antagonist, A-940894 (4-piperazin-1-yl-6,7-dihydro-5H-benzo[6,7]cyclohepta[1,2-d]pyrimidin-2-ylamine). Experimental approach: We have analysed the pharmacological profile of A-940894 at mouse native, rat recombinant and human recombinant and native, histamine H4 receptors by radioligand binding, calcium mobilization, mast cell shape change, eosinophil chemotaxis assays and in the mouse model of zymosan-induced peritonitis. Key results: A-940894 potently binds to both human and rat histamine H4 receptors and exhibits considerably lower affinity for the human histamine H1, H2 or H3 receptors. It potently blocked histamine-evoked calcium mobilization in the fluorometric imaging plate reader assays and inhibited histamine-induced shape change of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells and chemotaxis of human eosinophils in vitro. In a mouse mast cell-dependent model of zymosan-induced peritonitis, A-940894 significantly blocked neutrophil influx and reduced intraperitoneal prostaglandin D2 levels. Finally, A-940894 has good pharmacokinetic properties, including half-life and oral bioavailability in rats and mice. Conclusions and Implications: These data suggest that A-940894 is a potent and selective histamine H4 receptor antagonist with pharmacokinetic properties suitable for long-term in vivo testing and could serve as a useful tool for the further characterization of histamine H4 receptor pharmacology. PMID:19413570

Strakhova, MI; Cuff, CA; Manelli, AM; Carr, TL; Witte, DG; Baranowski, JL; Vortherms, TA; Miller, TR; Rundell, L; McPherson, MJ; Adair, RM; Brito, AA; Bettencourt, BM; Yao, BB; Wetter, JM; Marsh, KC; Liu, H; Cowart, MD; Brioni, JD; Esbenshade, TA

2009-01-01

32

Anti-inflammatory effects of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation: frequency and power dependence.  

PubMed

Using a model of acute zymosan-induced footpad edema in NMRI mice, the frequency and power dependence of anti-inflammatory effect of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR) was found. Single whole-body exposure of animals to EHF EMR at the intensity of 0.1 mW/cm(2) for 20 min at 1 h after zymosan injection reduced both the footpad edema and local hyperthermia on average by 20% at the frequencies of 42.2, 51.8, and 65 GHz. Some other frequencies from the frequency range of 37.5-70 GHz were less effective or not effective at all. At fixed frequency of 42.2 GHz and intensity of 0.1 mW/cm(2), the effect had bell-shaped dependence on exposure duration with a maximum at 20-40 min. Reduction of intensity to 0.01 mW/cm(2) resulted in a change of the effect dependence on exposure duration to a linear one. Combined action of cyclooxygenase inhibitor sodium diclofenac and EHF EMR exposure caused a partial additive effect of decrease in footpad edema. Combined action of antihistamine clemastine and EHF EMR exposure caused a dose-dependent abolishment of the anti-inflammatory effect of EHF EMR. The results obtained suggest that arachidonic acid metabolites and histamine are involved in realization of anti-inflammatory effects of low-intensity EHF EMR. PMID:18044738

Gapeyev, A B; Mikhailik, E N; Chemeris, N K

2008-04-01

33

Synthesis and biological activity of NOSH-naproxen (AVT-219) and NOSH-sulindac (AVT-18A) as potent anti-inflammatory agents with chemotherapeutic potential  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide- (NO) and hydrogen sulfide- (H2S) releasing naproxen (NOSH-naproxen) and NO and H2S-releasing sulindac (NOSH-sulindac) were synthesized and their cell growth inhibitory properties were evaluated in four different human cancer cell lines. These cell lines are of adenomatous (colon, pancreas), epithelial (breast), and lymphocytic (leukemia) origin. Using HT-29 human colon cancer cells, NOSH-naproxen and NOSH-sulindac increased apoptosis, and inhibited proliferation. NOSH-naproxen caused a G0/G1 whereas NOSH-sulindac caused a G2/M block in the cell cycle. Both compounds exhibited significant anti-inflammatory properties, using the carrageenan rat paw edema model. Reconstitution and structure-activity studies representing a fairly close approximation to the intact molecule showed that NOSH-naproxen was approximately 8000-fold more potent than the sum of its parts in inhibiting cell growth. Our data suggest that these compounds merit further investigation as potential anti-cancer agents. PMID:24273639

Kodela, Ravinder; Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kashfi, Khosrow

2013-01-01

34

[Pharmacological analysis of anti-inflammatory effects of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation].  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory effect of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR, 42.0 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2) was compared with the action of the known anti-inflammatory drug sodium diclofenac and the antihistamine clemastine on acute inflammatory reaction in NMRI mice. The local inflammatory reaction was induced by intraplantar injection of zymosan into the left hind paw. Sodium diclofenac in doses of 2, 3, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg or clemastine in doses of 0.02, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally 30 min after the initiation of inflammation. The animals were whole-body exposed to EHF EMR for 20 min at 1 h after the initiation of inflammation. The inflammatory reaction was assessed over 3 - 8 h after the initiation by measuring the footpad edema and hyperthermia of the inflamed paw. Sodium diclofenac in doses of 5 - 20 mg/kg reduced the exudative edema on the average by 26% as compared to the control. Hyperthermia of the inflamed paw decreased to 60% as the dose of was increased diclofenac up to 20 mg/kg. EHF EMR reduced both the footpad edema and hyperthermia by about 20%, which was comparable with the effect of a single therapeutic dose of diclofenac (3 - 5 mg/kg). The combined action of diclofenac and the exposure to the EHF EMR caused a partial additive effect. Clemastine in doses of 0.02-0.4 mg/kg it did not cause any significant effects on the exudative edema, but in a dose of 0.6 mg/kg it reduced edema by 14 - 22% by 5 - 8 h after zymosan injection. Clemastine caused a dose-dependent increase in hyperthermia of inflamed paw at doses of 0.02-0.2 mg/kg and did not affect the hyperthermia at doses of 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg. The combined action of clemastine and EHF EMR exposure caused a dose-dependent abolishment of the anti-inflammatory effect of EHF EMR. The results obtained suggest that both arachidonic acid metabolites and histamine are involved in the realization of anti-inflammatory effects of low-intensity PMID:17175917

Gapeev, A B; Lushnikov, K V; Shumilina, Iu V; Chemeris, N K

2006-01-01

35

Antihyperglycemic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. Extract and Its Active Compound Xanthorrhizol in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice  

PubMed Central

Xanthorrhizol, a natural compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (Java turmeric), has been reported to possess antioxidant and anticancer properties; however, its effects on metabolic disorders remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of xanthorrhizol (XAN) and C. xanthorrhiza extract (CXE) with standardized XAN on hyperglycemia and inflammatory markers in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese mice. Treatment with XAN (10 or 25?mg/kg/day) or CXE (50 or 100?mg/kg/day) significantly decreased fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels in HFD-induced obese mice. XAN and CXE treatments also lowered insulin, glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), and triglyceride (TG) levels in serum. Epididymal fat pad and adipocyte size were decreased by high doses of XAN (26.6% and 20.1%) and CXE (25.8% and 22.5%), respectively. XAN and CXE treatment also suppressed the development of fatty liver by decreasing liver fat accumulation. Moreover, XAN and CXE significantly inhibited production of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adipose tissue (27.8–82.7%), liver (43.9–84.7%), and muscle (65.2–92.5%). Overall, these results suggest that XAN and CXE, with their antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities, might be used as potent antidiabetic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25053966

2014-01-01

36

Salutary Effects of Hemodialysis on Low-Density Lipoprotein Proinflammatory and High-Density Lipoprotein Anti-inflammatory Properties in Patient With End-Stage Renal Disease  

PubMed Central

End-stage renal disease (ESRD) causes oxidative stress, inflammation, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) deficiency and accelerated atherosclerosis. Uptake of oxidized LDL by macrophages results in foam cell and plaque formation. HDL mitigates atherosclerosis via reverse cholesterol transport and inhibition of LDL oxidation. ESRD heightens LDL inflammatory activity and suppresses HDL anti-inflammatory activity. The effect of hemodialysis on the LDL and HDL inflammatory properties is unknown. By removing the potential pro-oxidant/proinflammatory uremic toxins, dialysis may attenuate LDL inflammatory and HDL anti-inflammatory properties. Conversely, exposure to dialyzer membrane and tubing and influx of impurities from dialysate can intensify LDL and HDL inflammatory activities. This study examined the effect of hemodialysis on LDL and HDL inflammatory activities. Plasma samples were obtained from 12 normal control and 26 ESRD patients before and after hemodialysis with (16 patients) or without (10 patients) heparinization. HDL and LDL were isolated and tested for monocyte chemotactic activity in cultured endothelial cells. ESRD patients had increased LDL chemotactic activity, reduced HDL anti-inflammatory activity, paraoxonase and glutathione peroxidase levels, and elevated plasma IL-6 before dialysis. Hemodialysis partially improved LDL inflammatory and HDL anti-inflammatory activities and enhanced patients’ HDL ability to suppress their LDL inflammatory activity. The salutary effect on LDL inflammatory activity was significantly greater in patients dialyzed with than those without heparin. ESRD heightens LDL inflammatory and impairs HDL anti-inflammatory activities. Hemodialysis partially improves LDL and HDL inflammatory activities. The salutary effects of hemodialysis are in part mediated by heparin, which is known to possess lipolytic and antioxidant properties. PMID:21830637

Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Navab, Kaveh; Gollapudi, Pavan; Moradi, Hamid; Pahl, Madeleine V.; Barton, Cyril H.; Fogelman, Alan M.; Navab, Mohamad

2012-01-01

37

Potent anti-inflammatory activity of sesquiterpene lactones from Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass., a Q'eqchi' Maya traditional medicine.  

PubMed

The widespread use of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass. by Q'eqchi' Maya and indigenous healers throughout the Caribbean for inflammatory conditions prompted the study of the anti-inflammatory activity of this traditional medicine. The objectives of this study were to conduct a detailed ethnobotanical investigation of the uses of N. lobata by the Q'eqchi' Maya of Belize for a variety of inflammatory symptoms and to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract and isolated sesquiterpene lactones. The crude 80% EtOH extract of N. lobata leaves administered at 100 ?g/mL reduced LPS-stimulated TNF-? production in THP-1 monocytes by 72% relative to the stimulated vehicle control. Isolated sesquiterpene lactones, neurolenins B, C+D, lobatin B and 9?-hydroxy-8?-isovalerianyloxy-calyculatolide were more active (IC50=0.17-2.32 ?M) than the positive control parthenolide (IC50=4.79 ?M). The results provide a pharmacological and phytochemical basis for the traditional use of this leaf for inflammatory conditions. PMID:23747054

Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Choueiri, Christine; Saleem, Ammar; Asim, Muhammd; Caal, Federico; Cal, Victor; Rojas, Marco Otarola; Pesek, Todd; Durst, Tony; Arnason, John Thor

2013-08-01

38

Anti-inflammatory ingredients.  

PubMed

There is a growing public awareness and concern among individuals regarding the condition of their skin, with a concomitant desire to use natural products to treat skin conditions. The increased interest in these products has spurred scientific and clinical studies evaluating the composition and clinical usefulness of natural products in the treatment of inflammatory skin dermatoses. There are numerous natural ingredients that have been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory properties that make formulations containing these ingredients attractive treatment options. This article summarizes the active ingredients, anti-inflammatory properties, clinical effects, and therapeutic potential of colloidal oatmeal, feverfew, licorice, aloe vera, chamomile, and turmeric. Potential therapeutic indications include erythema induced by ultraviolet light, rosacea, atopic dermatitis, sensitive and irritated skin, drug-induced skin eruptions, and psoriasis. These products may be particularly well suited as alternatives to pharmacologic therapies in chronic conditions for which long-term use is required. PMID:18681154

Wu, Jessica

2008-07-01

39

Anti-inflammatory effect of water-soluble complex of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate with highly branched ?-1,3-glucan on contact dermatitis.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory effect on contact dermatitis of the water solubilized 1'-Acetoxychavicol Acetate (ACA) by complexation with ?-1,3-glucan isolated form Aureobasidium pullulans black yeast is reported. It is well-known that ACA possesses a function to inhibit the activation of NF-?B by which genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors are regulated. However, because ACA is quite insoluble in water, its usefulness has been extremely limited. On the other hand, a triple-helical polysaccharide ?-1,3-glucan can include hydrophobic compounds into intrastrand hydrophobic cavity and solubilize poorly water-soluble compounds. In this study, solubilization of ACA by complexation with highly branched ?-1,3-glucan was achieved. The effect of anti-inflammatory response of water-soluble ACA complex with ?-1,3-glucan was confirmed in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25661358

Li, Jiawei; Aizawa, Yui; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Kasahara, Emiko; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Suzuki, Toshio; Ikeda, Atsushi; Azuma, Hideki; Nagasaki, Takeshi

2015-02-01

40

Mushrooms: A Potential Natural Source of Anti-Inflammatory Compounds for Medical Applications  

PubMed Central

For centuries, macrofungi have been used as food and medicine in different parts of the world. This is mainly attributed to their nutritional value as a potential source of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, and minerals. In addition, they also include many bioactive metabolites which make mushrooms and truffles common components in folk medicine, especially in Africa, the Middle East, China, and Japan. The reported medicinal effects of mushrooms include anti-inflammatory effects, with anti-inflammatory compounds of mushrooms comprising a highly diversified group in terms of their chemical structure. They include polysaccharides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, and many other low molecular weight molecules. The aims of this review are to report the different types of bioactive metabolites and their relevant producers, as well as the different mechanisms of action of mushroom compounds as potent anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:25505823

Elsayed, Elsayed A.; El Enshasy, Hesham; Wadaan, Mohammad A. M.; Aziz, Ramlan

2014-01-01

41

Anti-Inflammatory Iridoids of Botanical Origin  

PubMed Central

Inflammation is a manifestation of a wide range of disorders which include; arthritis, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, inflammatory bowel syndrome, physical injury and infection amongst many others. Common treatment modalities are usually non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, paracetamol, indomethacin and ibuprofen as well as corticosteroids such as prednisone. These however, may be associated with a host of side effects due to non-selectivity for cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes involved in inflammation and those with selectivity may be highly priced. Thus, there is a continuing search for safe and effective anti-inflammatory molecules from natural sources. Research has confirmed that iridoids exhibit promising anti-inflammatory activity which may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammation. Iridoids are secondary metabolites present in various plants, especially in species belonging to the Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae, Loganiaceae, Rubiaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Verbenaceae families. Many of these ethnobotanicals have an illustrious history of traditional use alluding to their use to treat inflammation. Although iridoids exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities such as cardiovascular, hepatoprotection, hypoglycaemic, antimutagenic, antispasmodic, anti-tumour, antiviral, immunomodulation and purgative effects this review will acutely focus on their anti-inflammatory properties. The paper aims to present a summary for the most prominent iridoid-containing plants for which anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vitro and / or in vivo. PMID:22414102

Viljoen, A; Mncwangi, N; Vermaak, I

2012-01-01

42

Molecular mechanisms of inflammation. Anti-inflammatory benefits of virgin olive oil and the phenolic compound oleocanthal.  

PubMed

Chronic inflammation is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory disease states including cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, degenerative joint diseases and neurodegenerative diseases. Chronic inflammatory states are poorly understood, however it is known that dietary habits can evoke or attenuate inflammatory responses. Popular methods to deal with inflammation and its associated symptoms involve the use of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, however the use of these drugs are associated with severe side effects. Therefore, investigations concerned with natural methods of inflammatory control are warranted. A traditional Mediterranean diet has been shown to confer some protection against the pathology of chronic diseases through the attenuation of pro-inflammatory mediators and this has been partially attributed to the high intake of virgin olive oil accompanying this dietary regime. Virgin olive oil contains numerous phenolic compounds that exert potent anti-inflammatory actions. Of interest to this paper is the recently discovered phenolic compound oleocanthal. Oleocanthal is contained in virgin olive oil and possesses similar anti-inflammatory properties to ibuprofen. This pharmacological similarity has provoked interest in oleocanthal and the few studies conducted thus far have verified its anti-inflammatory and potential therapeutic actions. A review of the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet and anti-inflammatory properties of virgin olive oil is presented with the additional emphasis on the pharmacological and anti-inflammatory properties of the phenolic compound oleocanthal. PMID:21443487

Lucas, Lisa; Russell, Aaron; Keast, Russell

2011-01-01

43

Defining the anti-inflammatory activity of a potent myxomaviral chemokine modulating protein, M-T7, through site directed mutagenesis.  

PubMed

Viral chemokine modulating proteins provide new and extensive sources for therapeutics. Purified M-T7, a poxvirus-derived secreted immunomodulatory protein, reduces mononuclear cell invasion and atheroma in rodent models of angioplasty injury as well as aortic and renal transplant, improving renal allograft survival. M-T7 is a rabbit species-specific interferon gamma receptor (IFN?R) homolog, but also inhibits chemokine/glycosaminoglycan (GAG) interactions for C, CC and CXC chemokines, with cross-species specific inhibitory activity. M-T7 anti-atheroma activity is blunted in GAG deficient mouse aortic transplants, but not in CC chemokine receptor deficient transplants, supporting M-T7 interference in chemokine/GAG interactions as the basis of the atheroma-inhibitory activity. We have assessed point mutants of M-T7 both in vivo in a mouse angioplasty model and in vitro in tissue culture and binding assays, in order to better define the primary mechanism of anti-atheroma activity. Of these M-T7 mutants, the R(171)E and E(209)I M-T7 mutants lost inhibitory activity for plaque growth in hyperlipidemic ApoE(-/-) mice after angioplasty injury and R(171)E, moreover, greatly exacerbated plaque growth and inflammation. F(137)D retained some inhibitory activity for plaque growth. In contrast, for cell migration assays, M-T7-His6X, F(137)D, R(171)E, and E(209)I all inhibited CC chemokine (RANTES) mediated cell migration. For the ligand binding assays, R(171)E and E(209)I had significantly reduced binding to RANTES and IFN?, whereas F(137)D retained wild-type binding activity. Heparin treatment further reduced RANTES binding of all three M-T7 mutants. In summary, point mutations of M-T7, R(171)E and E(209)I, exhibited reduced anti-inflammatory properties in vivo after mouse angioplasty with a loss of in vitro binding to RANTES and IFN?, indicating these point mutations partially disrupt M-T7 ligand-binding activities. Unexpectedly, the M-T7 mutants all retained inhibitory activity for human monocyte THP-1 cell migration ex vivo, suggesting additional inhibitory properties against human monocyte THP-1 cells that are independent of chemokine inhibition. PMID:24211016

Bartee, M Y; Chen, H; Dai, E; Liu, L Y; Davids, J A; Lucas, A

2014-01-01

44

Anti-inflammatory activity and qualitative analysis of different extracts of Maytenus obscura (A. Rich.) Cuf. by high performance thin layer chromatography method  

PubMed Central

Objective To perform aqueous ethanol soluble fraction (AESF) and dichloromethane extract of aerial parts of Maytenus obscura (A. Rich.) Cuf. using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and to test anti-inflammatory activity of these extracts. Methods HPTLC studies were carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat IV applicator, TLC scanner 3, Reprostar 3, CAMAG ADC 2 and WIN CATS-4 software were used. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested by injecting different groups of rats (6 each) with formalin in hind paw and measuring the edema volume before and 1 h later formalin injection. Control group received saline i.p. The extracts treatment was injected i.p. in doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg 1 h before formalin administration. Indomethacin (30 mg/kg) was used as standard. Results The results of preliminary phytochemical studies confirmed the presence of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, phenol, flavonoid, saponin, triterpenoid, alkaloid and anthraquinone in both extracts. Chromatography was performed on glass-backed silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates with the green solvents toluene: ethyacetate: glacial acetic acid (5:3:0.2, v/v/v) as mobile phase. HPTLC finger printing of AESF revealed major eight peaks with Rf values in the range of 0.28 to 0.80 and the dichloromethane revealed major 11 peaks with Rf values in the range of 0.12 to 0.76. The purity of sample was confirmed by comparing the absorption spectra at start, middle and end position of the band. Treatment of rats (i.p.) with AESF and dichloromethane in doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg inhibited singnificantly (P<0.05, n=6) formalin-induced inflammation by 50%, 55.9%, 45.5%, and 51.4%, respectively. Conclusions HPTLC finger printing of AESF and dichloromethane of Maytenus obscura revealed eight major spots for alcoholic extracts and nine major spots for dichloromethane extracts. These HPTLC profiles may be of great usefulness in the quality control of herbal products containing these extracts. The anti-inflammatory activity of both extracts also revealed the medicinal importance of these extracts. The plant can be further explored for the isolation of phytoconstituents having anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:25182287

Alajmi, Mohamed F.; Alam, Perwez

2014-01-01

45

Anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory mechanisms prevent contact hypersensitivity to Arnica montana L.  

PubMed

Sesquiterpene lactones (SL), secondary plant metabolites from flowerheads of Arnica, exert anti-inflammatory effects mainly by preventing nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation because of alkylation of the p65 subunit. Despite its known immunosuppressive action, Arnica has been classified as a plant with strong potency to induce allergic contact dermatitis. Here we examined the dual role of SL as anti-inflammatory compounds and contact allergens in vitro and in vivo. We tested the anti-inflammatory and allergenic potential of SL in the mouse contact hypersensitivity model. We also used dendritic cells to study the activation of NF-kappaB and the secretion of interleukin (IL)-12 in the presence of different doses of SL in vitro. Arnica tinctures and SL potently suppressed NF-kappaB activation and IL-12 production in dendritic cells at high concentrations, but had immunostimulatory effects at low concentrations. Contact hypersensitivity could not be induced in the mouse model, even when Arnica tinctures or SL were applied undiluted to inflamed skin. In contrast, Arnica tinctures suppressed contact hypersensitivity to the strong contact sensitizer trinitrochlorobenzene and activation of dendritic cells. However, contact hypersensitivity to Arnica tincture could be induced in acutely CD4-depleted MHC II knockout mice. These results suggest that induction of contact hypersensitivity by Arnica is prevented by its anti-inflammatory effect and immunosuppression as a result of immune regulation in immunocompetent mice. PMID:18341569

Lass, Christian; Vocanson, Marc; Wagner, Steffen; Schempp, Christoph M; Nicolas, Jean-Francois; Merfort, Irmgard; Martin, Stefan F

2008-10-01

46

Structural Insights into the Interaction Between a Potent Anti-Inflammatory Protein, Viral CC Chemokine Inhibitor (vCCI), and the Human CC Chemokine, Eotaxin-1  

SciTech Connect

Chemokines play important roles in the immune system, not only recruiting leukocytes to the site of infection and inflammation but also guiding cell homing and cell development. The soluble poxvirusencoded protein vCCI, a CC chemokine inhibitor, can bind to human CC chemokines tightly to impair the host immune defense. This protein has no known homologs in eukaryotes, and may represent a potent method to stop inflammation. Previously, our structure of the vCCI:MIP-1? complex indicated that vCCI uses negatively charged residues in ?-sheet II to interact with positively charged residues in the MIP-1?N-terminus, 20’s region and 40’s loop. However, the interactions between vCCI and other CC chemokines have not yet been fully explored. Here, we used NMR and fluorescence anisotropy to study the interaction between vCCI and eotaxin-1 (CCL11), another CC chemokine that is an important factor in the asthma response. NMR results reveal that the binding pattern is very similar to the vCCI:MIP-1?complex, and suggest that electrostatic interactions provide a major contribution to binding. Fluorescence anisotropy results on variants of eotaxin-1 further confirm the critical roles of the charged residues in eotaxin. Compared to wild-type eotaxin, single, double, or triple mutations at these critical charged residues weaken the binding. One exception is the K47A mutation that exhibits increased affinity for vCCI, which can be explained structurally. In addition, the binding affinity between vCCI and other wild type CC chemokines, MCP-1, MIP-1? and RANTES, were determined as 1.09 nM, 1.16 nM, and 0.22 nM, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first work quantitatively measuring the binding affinity between vCCI and different CC chemokines.

Kuo, Nai-Wei; Gao, Yong; Schill, Megan S.; Isern, Nancy G.; Dupureur, Cynthia M.; Liwang, Patricia J.

2014-01-30

47

High-throughput determination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in human plasma by HILIC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

A simple and sensitive method was developed and validated here for the analysis of thirteen nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in human plasma samples by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). A small volume of plasma (20?L) spiked with compounds was diluted with 80?L of 10-mM ammonium acetate followed by a simple protein precipitation with 400?L of acetonitrile. After centrifugation, the clear supernatant extract was directly injected into the HILIC-MS/MS, without any solvent evaporation and reconstitution steps. The chromatographic separation of the NSAIDs was achieved on a Unison UK-Amino HILIC column (50mm×3mm i.d., particle size 3?m) with a linear gradient elution system composed of 10mM ammonium acetate (pH 6.8) and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. The mass spectra obtained by HILIC-MS showed base peak ions due to [M+H](+) for indomethacin, oxaprozin, ketoprofen, alminoprofen, zaltoprofen, tiaprofenic acid, pranoprofen, and ketoprofen-d3 and due to [M-H](-) for etodolac, ibuprofen, diclofenac, fenoprofen, loxoprofen, naproxen, and ibuprofen-d3. Recoveries of these thirteen NSAIDs in plasma were 34.8-113% and the lower limits of quantitation were 0.125-1.25?g/mL. The intra- and interday coefficient of variations for all drugs in plasma were less than 14.6%. The data obtained from actual plasma determinations of zaltoprofen, ibuprofen, and diclofenac are also presented. PMID:24036363

Nemoto, Tetsuya; Lee, Xiao-Pen; Kumazawa, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Chika; Fujishiro, Masaya; Marumo, Akemi; Shouji, Yukiko; Inagaki, Katsunori; Sato, Keizo

2014-01-01

48

Cholinergic Anti-Inflammatory Pathway Activity and High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1) Serum Levels in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1) is a cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory diseases. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, a vagus nerve-dependent mechanism, inhibits HMGB1 release in experimental disease models. Here, we examine the relationship between vagus nerve activity and HMGB1 in patients with RA. We compared RR interval variability, an index of cardiac vagal modulation, HMGB1 and hsCRP serum levels, and disease activity scores in thirteen RA patients and eleven age- and sex-matched controls. In RA patients, serum levels of HMGB1 and hsCRP were elevated as compared with controls (HMGB1 = 71 ng/mL [45–99] vs. 18 ng/mL [0–40], P < 0.0001; hsCRP = 14.5 mg/L [0.7–59] vs. 1 mg/L [0.4–2.9], P < 0.001). RR interval variability in RA patients was significantly decreased as compared with controls (HF = 38 msec2 [14–80] vs. 288 msec2 [38–364], P < 0.0001; rMSSD = 20.9 ± 9.79 msec, 52.6 ± 35.3 msec, P < 0.01). HMGB1 levels and RR interval variability were significantly related (rho = ?0.49, P < 0.01). HMGB1 serum levels significantly correlated with disease activity scores (DAS-28) in patients with RA (P = 0.004). The study design does not enable a determination of causality, but the results are consistent with the hypothesis that decreased cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway activity is associated with increased HMGB1 levels in patients with RA. PMID:17597834

Goldstein, Richard S; Bruchfeld, Annette; Yang, Lihong; Qureshi, Abdul R; Gallowitsch-Puerta, Margot; Patel, Nirav B; Huston, Brett J; Chavan, Sangeeta; Rosas-Ballina, Mauricio; Gregersen, Peter K; Czura, Christopher J; Sloan, Richard P; Sama, Andrew E; Tracey, Kevin J

2007-01-01

49

Antioxidant properties of proanthocyanidins of Uncaria tomentosa bark decoction: a mechanism for anti-inflammatory activity.  

PubMed

Decoctions prepared from the bark of Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) are widely used in the traditional Peruvian medicine for the treatment of several diseases, in particular as a potent anti-inflammatory agent. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine if the well-known anti-inflammatory activity of cat's claw decoction was related with its reactivity with the oxidant species generated in the inflammatory process and to establish a relationship between such antioxidant ability and its phenolic composition. We observed that the decoction prepared according to the traditional Peruvian medicine presented a potent radical scavenger activity, as suggested by its high capacity to reduce the free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, and by its reaction with superoxide anion, peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals as well as with the oxidant species, hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorous acid. It also protected membrane lipids against peroxidation induced by the iron/ascorbate system, as evaluated by the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs). The decoction phenolic profile was established by chromatographic analysis (HPLC/DAD and TLC) revealing essentially the presence of proanthocyanidins (oligomeric procyanidins) and phenolic acids, mainly caffeic acid. Thus, our results provide evidence for an antioxidant mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of cat's claw and support some of the biological effects of proanthocyanidins, more exactly its antioxidant and radical scavenging activities. PMID:15649515

Gonçalves, Cristina; Dinis, Teresa; Batista, Maria Teresa

2005-01-01

50

High temperature–high efficiency liquid chromatography using sub-2 ?m coupled columns for the analysis of selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and veterinary antibiotics in environmental samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high efficiency HPLC method was developed by coupling three sub-2?m columns in series and operating them at high temperature for the separation of selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and veterinary antibiotics in environmental samples. The separation was performed at 80°C to reduce the solvent viscosity, thus reducing the column backpressure. The chromatographic performance of high temperature-extended column length HPLC method

Heba Shaaban; Tadeusz Górecki

2011-01-01

51

Comparison of anti-inflammatory effects and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between therapy with quadruple-dose rosuvastatin and rosuvastatin combined with ezetimibe  

PubMed Central

Background Statins are frequently administered to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and vascular inflammation, because LDL-C and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) are associated with high risk for cardiovascular events. When statins do not reduce LDL-C to desired levels in high-risk patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), ezetimibe can be added or the statin dose can be increased. However, which strategy is more effective for treating patients with CAD has not been established. The present study compares anti-inflammatory effects and lipid profiles in patients with CAD and similar LDL-C levels who were treated by increasing the statin dose or by adding ezetimibe to the original rosuvastatin dose to determine the optimal treatment for such patients. Methods 46 patients with high-risk CAD and LDL-C and hs-CRP levels of >70 mg/dL and >1.0 mg/L, respectively, that were not improved by 4 weeks of rosuvastatin (2.5 mg/day) were randomly assigned to receive 10 mg (R10, n?=?24) of rosuvastatin or 2.5 mg/day of rosuvastatin combined with 10 mg/day of ezetimibe (R2.5/E10, n?=?22) for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was a change in hs-CRP. Results Baseline characteristics did not significantly differ between the groups. At 12 weeks, LDL-C and inflammatory markers (hs-CRP, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and pentraxin 3) also did not significantly differ between the two groups (LDL-C: R10 vs. R2.5/E10: -19.4?±?14.2 vs. -22.4?±?14.3 mg/dL). However, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly improved in the R10, compared with R2.5/E10 group (4.6?±?5.9 vs. 0.0?±?6.7 mg/dL; p?anti-inflammatory effects under an equal LDL-C reduction in patients with high-risk CAD despite 2.5 mg/day of rosuvastatin. However, R10 elevated HDL-C more effectively than R2.5/E10. Trial registration UMIN000003746 PMID:23374898

2013-01-01

52

Synthesis of novel 1,2-benzothiazine 1,1-dioxide-3-ethanone oxime N-aryl acetamide ether derivatives as potent anti-inflammatory agents and inhibitors of monocyte-to-macrophage transformation.  

PubMed

A series of novel 1,2-benzothiazine 1,1-dioxide-3-ethanone oxime N-aryl acetamide ether derivatives 7a-h and 9a-h were synthesized starting from sodium salt of saccharin 1 in series of steps. Final compounds 7a-h and 9a-h were evaluated for the anti-inflammatory activity and their ability to inhibit monocyte-to-macrophage transformation. Compounds 7e, 9b, 9e and 9h showed impressive anti-inflammatory activities (TNF-?, IL-8 and MCP-1) at micro molar concentration which was found to be better than positive control i.e., piroxicam. Compound 9e marginally and compound 9h significantly inhibited PMA-induced MMP-9 gelatinase activity. Also compounds 9e and 9h greatly inhibited the PMA-induced monocyte-to-macrophage transformation, a pre-requisite step in the formation of atheroma. PMID:24531227

Gannarapu, Malla Reddy; Vasamsetti, Sathish Babu; Punna, Nagender; Royya, Naresh Kumar; Pamulaparthy, Shanthan Rao; Nanubolu, Jagadeesh Babu; Kotamraju, Srigiridhar; Banda, Narsaiah

2014-03-21

53

Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant, Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory, Tyrosinase Inhibitory and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Selected Agro-Industrial By-products  

PubMed Central

Evaluation of abundantly available agro-industrial by-products for their bioactive compounds and biological activities is beneficial in particular for the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, rapeseed meal, cottonseed meal and soybean meal were investigated for the presence of bioactive compounds and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. Methanolic extracts of rapeseed meal showed significantly (P < 0.01) higher phenolics and flavonoids contents; and significantly (P < 0.01) higher DPPH and nitric oxide free radical scavenging activities when compared to that of cottonseed meal and soybean meal extracts. Ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid tests results showed rapeseed meal with the highest antioxidant activity (P < 0.01) followed by BHT, cotton seed meal and soybean meal. Rapeseed meal extract in xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory assays showed the lowest IC50 values followed by cottonseed and soybean meals. Anti-inflammatory assay using IFN-?/LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells indicated rapeseed meal is a potent source of anti-inflammatory agent. Correlation analysis showed that phenolics and flavonoids were highly correlated to both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Rapeseed meal was found to be promising as a natural source of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities in contrast to cotton and soybean meals. PMID:22272095

Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abdullah, Norhani; Hendra, Rudi; Karimi, Ehsan

2011-01-01

54

Anti-inflammatory Agents: Present and Future  

PubMed Central

Inflammation involving the innate and adaptive immune systems is a normal response to infection. However, when allowed to continue unchecked, inflammation may result in autoimmune or autoinflammatory disorders, neurodegenerative disease, or cancer. A variety of safe and effective anti-inflammatory agents are available, including aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, with many more drugs under development. In particular, the new era of anti-inflammatory agents includes “biologicals” such as anticytokine therapies and small molecules that block the activity of kinases. Other anti-inflammatories currently in use or under development include statins, histone deacetylase inhibitors, PPAR agonists, and small RNAs. This Review discusses the current status of anti-inflammatory drug research and the development of new anti-inflammatory therapeutics. PMID:20303881

Dinarello, Charles A.

2012-01-01

55

De Novo Design and Synthesis of Ultra-Short Peptidomimetic Antibiotics Having Dual Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammatory Activities  

PubMed Central

Background Much attention has been focused on the design and synthesis of potent, cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that possess both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. However, their development into therapeutic agents has been limited mainly due to their large size (12 to 50 residues in length) and poor protease stability. Methodology/Principal Findings In an attempt to overcome the issues described above, a set of ultra-short, His-derived antimicrobial peptides (HDAMPs) has been developed for the first time. Through systematic tuning of pendant hydrophobic alkyl tails at the N(?)- and N(?)-positions on His, and the positive charge of Arg, much higher prokaryotic selectivity was achieved, compared to human AMP LL-37. Additionally, the most potent HDAMPs showed promising dual antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as anti–methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity and proteolytic resistance. Our results from transmission electron microscopy, membrane depolarization, confocal laser-scanning microscopy, and calcein-dye leakage experiments propose that HDAMP-1 kills microbial cells via dissipation of the membrane potential by forming pore/ion channels on bacterial cell membranes. Conclusion/Significance The combination of the ultra-short size, high-prokaryotic selectivity, potent anti-MRSA activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and proteolytic resistance of the designed HDAMP-1, -3, -5, and -6 makes these molecules promising candidates for future antimicrobial therapeutics. PMID:24302996

Ahn, Mija; Hwang, Eunha; Sohn, Hoik; Park, Hyo-Nam; Lee, Eunjung; Seo, Ji-Hyung; Cheong, Chaejoon; Nam, Ky-Youb; Hyun, Jae-Kyung; Jeong, Ki-Woong; Kim, Yangmee; Shin, Song Yub; Bang, Jeong Kyu

2013-01-01

56

Anti-inflammatory Activity of a High-molecular-weight Cranberry Fraction on Macrophages Stimulated by Lipopolysaccharides from Periodontopathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting oral tissues. The continuous, high production of cytokines by host cells triggered by periodontopathogens is thought to be responsible for the destruction of tooth-supporting tissues. Macrophages play a critical role in this host inflammatory response to periodontopathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of non-dialyzable material prepared from cranberry

C. Bodet; F. Chandad; D. Grenier

2006-01-01

57

Gut health immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions of gut enzyme digested high protein micro-nutrient dietary supplement-Enprocal  

PubMed Central

Background Enprocal is a high-protein micro-nutrient rich formulated supplementary food designed to meet the nutritional needs of the frail elderly and be delivered to them in every day foods. We studied the potential of Enprocal to improve gut and immune health using simple and robust bioassays for gut cell proliferation, intestinal integrity/permeability, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. Effects of Enprocal were compared with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC), heat treated skim milk powder, and other commercially available milk derived products. Results Enprocal (undigested) and digested (Enprocal D) selectively enhanced cell proliferation in normal human intestinal epithelial cells (FHs74-Int) and showed no cytotoxicity. In a dose dependent manner Enprocal induced cell death in Caco-2 cells (human colon adencarcinoma epithelial cells). Digested Enprocal (Enprocal D: gut enzyme cocktail treated) maintained the intestinal integrity in transepithelial resistance (TEER) assay, increased the permeability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and did not induce oxidative stress to the gut epithelial cells. Enprocal D upregulated the surface expression of co-stimulatory (CD40, CD86, CD80), MHC I and MHC II molecules on PMA differentiated THP-1 macrophages in coculture transwell model, and inhibited the monocyte/lymphocyte (THP-1/Jurkat E6-1 cells)-epithelial cell adhesion. In cytokine secretion analyses, Enprocal D down-regulated the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and TNF-?) and up-regulated IFN-?, IL-2 and IL-10. Conclusion Our results indicate that Enprocal creates neither oxidative injury nor cytotoxicity, stimulates normal gut cell proliferation, up regulates immune cell activation markers and may aid in the production of antibodies. Furthermore, through downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, Enprocal appears to be beneficial in reducing the effects of chronic gut inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Stimulation of normal human fetal intestinal cell proliferation without cell cytotoxicity indicates it may also be given as infant food particularly for premature babies. PMID:19183498

Kanwar, Jagat R; Kanwar, Rupinder K

2009-01-01

58

High on treatment platelet reactivity against aspirin by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs--pharmacological mechanisms and clinical relevance.  

PubMed

Inhibition of platelet function by aspirin results from irreversible inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase (COX)-1. While sufficient inhibition is obtained at antiplatelet doses (75-325 mg/day) in most (?95%) treated patients, the antiplatelet effect of aspirin and subsequent cardiovascular risk reduction is much less in clinical settings and disease-dependent. Several reasons for this "high on treatment platelet reactivity" are known. This paper reviews the evidence for an interaction between aspirin and other COX inhibitors, namely non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Numerous experimental studies demonstrated a pharmacodynamic interaction between aspirin and NSAIDs. This likely occurs within the hydrophobic substrate channel of platelet COX-1 and might be explained by molecular competition between inhibitor drugs and substrate (arachidonic acid) at overlapping binding sites. This interaction is found with some compounds, notably ibuprofen and dipyrone (metamizole), but not with others, such as diclofenac and acetaminophen (paracetamol). Hence, this interaction is not a class effect of NSAIDs and/or non-steroidal analgesics but rather due to specific structural requirements which still remain to be defined. In vivo studies on healthy subjects and patients tend to confirm this type of interaction as well as large differences between NSAIDs and non-steroidal analgesics, respectively. These interactions may be clinically relevant and may increase the cardiovascular risk in long-term treatment for primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention in patients with chronic inflammation, such as rheumatoid arthritis. These patients have an elevated risk for myocardial infarctions and may require chronic antiplatelet treatment by aspirin in addition to treatment of inflammatory pain. PMID:23238666

Hohlfeld, T; Saxena, A; Schrör, K

2013-05-01

59

Curcumin analogues as possible anti-proliferative & anti-inflammatory agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of novel curcumin analogues has been designed, synthesized and tested in vitro\\/in vivo as potential multi-target agents. Their anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities were studied. Compounds 1b and 2b were stronger inhibitors of soybean lipoxygenase (LOX) than curcumin. Analogue 1b was also the most potent aldose reductase (ALR2) inhibitor. Two compounds, (1a and 1f) exhibited in vivo anti-inflammatory activity

A.-M. Katsori; M. Chatzopoulou; K. Dimas; C. Kontogiorgis; A. Patsilinakos; T. Trangas; D. Hadjipavlou-Litina

2011-01-01

60

Role of Effective Composition on Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Sedative-Hypnotic Capacities of 6 Common Edible Lilium Varieties.  

PubMed

Nine Lilium samples (belong to 6 different cultivars with different maturity stage) were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF), total saponins (TS), total carbohydrates (TC, polysaccharides), and soluble proteins contents (SP), and the monomeric components were quantified utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD) associated with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Antioxidant activity (reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity), anti-inflammatory (xylene-induced mouse ear edema detumescent assay and carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema detumescent assay), and sedative-hypnotic capacities (sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep assay) were comparatively evaluated in mouse model. Additionally, correlation analysis and principal component analysis were carried out to detect clustering and elucidate relationships between components' concentrations and bioactivities to clarify the role of effective composition. Lilium bulbs in later maturity stage preliminary evidenced higher saponins content, and lower phenolic acids and flavonoids content. The result demonstrated that Lilium bulbs generally had distinct antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and sedative-hypnotic capacities. Varieties statistically differed (P < 0.05) in chemical composition and bioactivities. Lilium varieties of Dongbei and Lanzhou presented potent sedative-hypnotic effect and anti-inflammatory activity. The antioxidant capacity was related to the phenolic acids and flavonoids contents, the anti-inflammatory and sedative-hypnotic capacities were related to the saponins content. This is first study presenting comprehensive description of common edible Lilium bulbs' chemical compositions, sedative-hypnotic, and anti-inflammatory capacities grown in China. It would informatively benefit the genetic selection and cultivated optimization of Lilium varieties to improve nutritional quality, and promote Lilium bulbs as a therapeutic functional food worldwide. PMID:25702713

Wang, Tingting; Huang, Hanhan; Zhang, Yao; Li, Xia; Li, Hongfa; Jiang, Qianqian; Gao, Wenyuan

2015-04-01

61

Problems in selection of topical anti-inflammatory corticosteroids  

PubMed Central

Desonide, a non-fluorinated topical corticosteroid (16-alpha-hydroxyprednisolone acetonide), is compared with its fluorinated analogue, triamcinolone acetonide, as to vasoconstriction ability and epidermal penetration rate. Clinical effectiveness of desonide is further assessed by means of a double-blind paired comparison with an accepted potent fluorinated steroid, betamethasone 17-valerate. It is demonstrated that fluorination of the steroid molecule is not necessary to achieve potent topical anti-inflammatory effect. Vasoconstriction and epidermal penetration are not enhanced by fluorination in the drugs studied. PMID:4682636

Stewart, Wm. D.; Runikis, J. O.; Verma, S. C.; Wallace, S.

1973-01-01

62

Evaluation of Anti -Inflammatory Activity of Eclipta alba in rats.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory effect of the plant of Eclipta alba (Family - Asteraceae) was evaluated using carrageenin, mediators such as histamine and serotonin induced paw oedema, and cotton pellet induced granuloma tests for their effect on acute and chronic phase inflammation models in rats. Maximum inhibition (55.85%) was noted at the dose of 500 mg/kg after 3 hr of drug treatment in carrageenin induced paw oedema, whereas the Indomethacin (standard drug ) produced 61.30% of inhibition. In the chronic model (cotton pellet induced granuloma) the CEEA and standard drug showed decreased formation of granuloma tissue by 49.7,41.5,22.1% and 53.48 % respectively. The results indicate the potent anti-inflammatory effect and therapeutic efficacy of Eclipta alba extract on animal models, which is compared with Indomethacin. PMID:22557164

Kumar, S Suresh; Sivakumar, T; Chandrasekar, M J N; Suresh, B

2005-01-01

63

High temperature-high efficiency liquid chromatography using sub-2 ?m coupled columns for the analysis of selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and veterinary antibiotics in environmental samples.  

PubMed

A high efficiency HPLC method was developed by coupling three sub-2 ?m columns in series and operating them at high temperature for the separation of selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and veterinary antibiotics in environmental samples. The separation was performed at 80°C to reduce the solvent viscosity, thus reducing the column backpressure. The chromatographic performance of high temperature-extended column length HPLC method was used to determine the most widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and veterinary antibiotics such as sulphonamides in wastewater samples. The method could simultaneously determine 24 pharmaceuticals in short analysis time with high efficiency. The method involved pre-concentration and clean-up by solid phase extraction (SPE) using Oasis HLB extraction cartridges. It was validated based on linearity, precision, detection and quantification limits, selectivity and accuracy. Good recoveries were obtained for all analytes ranging from 72.7% to 98.2% with standard deviations not higher than 6%, except for acetaminophen and acetyl salicylic acid, for which low recovery was obtained. The detection limits of the studied pharmaceuticals ranged from 2 to 16 ?g L(-1), while limits of quantification were in the range from 7 to 54 ?g L(-1) with UV detection. PMID:21819871

Shaaban, Heba; Górecki, Tadeusz

2011-09-19

64

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for rheumatoid arthritis during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

QUESTION I am treating two pregnant patients who have rheumatoid arthritis with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Are these medications safe at high doses during pregnancy? ANSWER While these medications do not appear to increase overall rates of congenital malformations, they do increase the risk of ductus arteriosus constriction or closure. PMID:16060172

Florescu, Ana; Koren, Gideon

2005-01-01

65

Anti-inflammatory potential of allyl-isothiocyanate – role of Nrf2, NF-?B and microRNA-155  

PubMed Central

Abstract In this study, the underlying mechanisms of the potential anti-inflammatory properties of allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) were analysed in vitro and in vivo. Murine RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were supplemented with increasing concentrations of AITC. In addition, C57BL/6 mice (n= 10 per group) were fed a pro-inflammatory high-fat diet and AITC was administered orally via gavage for 7 days. Biomarkers of inflammation were determined both in cultured cells and in mice. AITC significantly decreased tumour necrosis factor ? mRNA levels and its secretion in LPS stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, gene expression of other pro-inflammatory markers including interleukin-1? and inducible nitric oxide synthase were down-regulated following AITC treatment. AITC decreased nuclear p65 protein levels, a subunit of the transcription factor NF-?B. Importantly, our data indicate that AITC significantly attenuated microRNA-155 levels in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. The anti-inflammatory effects of AITC were accompanied by an increase in Nrf2 nuclear translocation and consequently by an increase of mRNA and protein levels of the Nrf2 target gene heme-oxygenase 1. AITC was slightly less potent than sulforaphane (used as a positive control) in down-regulating inflammation in LPS-stimulated macrophages. A significant increase in nuclear Nrf2 and heme-oxygenase 1 gene expression and only a moderate down-regulation of interleukin-1? and microRNA-155 levels due to AITC was found in mouse liver. Present data suggest that AITC exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity in cultured macrophages in vitro but has only little anti-inflammatory activity in mice in vivo. PMID:21692985

Wagner, Anika Eva; Boesch-Saadatmandi, Christine; Dose, Janina; Schultheiss, Gerhard; Rimbach, Gerald

2012-01-01

66

Anti-inflammatory constituents of the red alga Gracilaria verrucosa and their synthetic analogues.  

PubMed

A chemical study on the anti-inflammatory components of the red alga Gracilaria verrucosa led to the isolation of new 11-deoxyprostaglandins ( 1- 4), a ceramide ( 5), and a C 16 keto fatty acid ( 6), along with known oxygenated fatty acids ( 7- 14). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS data. The absolute configurations of compounds 1- 5 were determined by Mosher's method. The anti-inflammatory activity of the isolated compounds ( 1- 14) was evaluated by determining their inhibitory effects on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators (NO, IL-6, and TNF-alpha) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. Compounds 9 and 10 exhibited the most potent activity. In the evaluation of these two compounds and derivatized analogues ( 15- 40), the anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in some synthetic analogues. These enone fatty acids were investigated as potential anti-inflammatory leads for the first time. PMID:18220352

Dang, Hung The; Lee, Hye Ja; Yoo, Eun Sook; Shinde, Pramod B; Lee, Yoon Mi; Hong, Jongki; Kim, Dong Kyoo; Jung, Jee H

2008-02-01

67

Structures and mechanism for the design of highly potent glucocorticoids.  

PubMed

The evolution of glucocorticoid drugs was driven by the demand of lowering the unwanted side effects, while keeping the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects. Potency is an important aspect of this evolution as many undesirable side effects are associated with use of high-dose glucocorticoids. The side effects can be minimized by highly potent glucocorticoids that achieve the same treatment effects at lower doses. This demand propelled the continuous development of synthetic glucocorticoids with increased potencies, but the structural basis of their potencies is poorly understood. To determine the mechanisms underlying potency, we solved the X-ray structures of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) ligand-binding domain (LBD) bound to its endogenous ligand, cortisol, which has relatively low potency, and a highly potent synthetic glucocorticoid, mometasone furoate (MF). The cortisol-bound GR LBD revealed that the flexibility of the C1-C2 single bond in the steroid A ring is primarily responsible for the low affinity of cortisol to GR. In contrast, we demonstrate that the very high potency of MF is achieved by its C-17? furoate group completely filling the ligand-binding pocket, thus providing additional anchor contacts for high-affinity binding. A single amino acid in the ligand-binding pocket, Q642, plays a discriminating role in ligand potency between MF and cortisol. Structure-based design led to synthesis of several novel glucocorticoids with much improved potency and efficacy. Together, these results reveal key structural mechanisms of glucocorticoid potency and provide a rational basis for developing novel highly potent glucocorticoids. PMID:24763108

He, Yuanzheng; Yi, Wei; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Zhou, X Edward; Tolbert, W David; Tang, Xiaobo; Yang, Jing; Yang, Huaiyu; Shi, Jingjing; Hou, Li; Jiang, Hualiang; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric

2014-06-01

68

The promotion of functional urinary bladder regeneration using anti-inflammatory nanofibers.  

PubMed

Current attempts at tissue regeneration utilizing synthetic and decellularized biologic-based materials have typically been met in part by innate immune responses in the form of a robust inflammatory reaction at the site of implantation or grafting. This can ultimately lead to tissue fibrosis with direct negative impact on tissue growth, development, and function. In order to temper the innate inflammatory response, anti-inflammatory signals were incorporated through display on self-assembling peptide nanofibers to promote tissue healing and subsequent graft compliance throughout the regenerative process. Utilizing an established urinary bladder augmentation model, the highly pro-inflammatory biologic scaffold (decellularized small intestinal submucosa) was treated with anti-inflammatory peptide amphiphiles (AIF-PAs) or control peptide amphiphiles and used for augmentation. Significant regenerative advantages of the AIF-PAs were observed including potent angiogenic responses, limited tissue collagen accumulation, and the modulation of macrophage and neutrophil responses in regenerated bladder tissue. Upon further characterization, a reduction in the levels of M2 macrophages was observed, but not in M1 macrophages in control groups, while treatment groups exhibited decreased levels of M1 macrophages and stabilized levels of M2 macrophages. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production was decreased while anti-inflammatory cytokines were up-regulated in treatment groups. This resulted in far fewer incidences of tissue granuloma and bladder stone formation. Finally, functional urinary bladder testing revealed greater bladder compliance and similar capacities in groups treated with AIF-PAs. Data demonstrate that AIF-PAs can alleviate galvanic innate immune responses and provide a highly conducive regenerative milieu that may be applicable in a variety of clinical settings. PMID:25145852

Bury, Matthew I; Fuller, Natalie J; Meisner, Jay W; Hofer, Matthias D; Webber, Matthew J; Chow, Lesley W; Prasad, Sheba; Thaker, Hatim; Yue, Xuan; Menon, Vani S; Diaz, Edward C; Stupp, Samuel I; Cheng, Earl Y; Sharma, Arun K

2014-11-01

69

The promotion of functional urinary bladder regeneration using anti-inflammatory nanofibers  

PubMed Central

Current attempts at tissue regeneration utilizing synthetic and decellularized biologic-based materials have typically been met in part by innate immune responses in the form of a robust inflammatory reaction at the site of implantation or grafting. This can ultimately lead to tissue fibrosis with direct negative impact on tissue growth, development, and function. In order to temper the innate inflammatory response, anti-inflammatory signals were incorporated through display on self-assembling peptide nanofibers to promote tissue healing and subsequent graft compliance throughout the regenerative process. Utilizing an established urinary bladder augmentation model, the highly pro-inflammatory biologic scaffold (decellularized small intestinal submucosa) was treated with anti-inflammatory peptide amphiphiles (AIF-PAs) or control peptide amphiphiles and used for augmentation. Significant regenerative advantages of the AIF-PAs were observed including potent angiogenic responses, limited tissue collagen accumulation, and the modulation of macrophage and neutrophil responses in regenerated bladder tissue. Upon further characterization, a reduction in the levels of M2 macrophages was observed, but not in M1 macrophages in control groups, while treatment groups exhibited decreased levels of M1 macrophages and stabilized levels of M2 macrophages. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production was decreased while anti-inflammatory cytokines were up-regulated in treatment groups. This resulted in far fewer incidences of tissue granuloma and bladder stone formation. Finally, functional urinary bladder testing revealed greater bladder compliance and similar capacities in groups treated with AIF-PAs. Data demonstrate that AIF-PAs can alleviate galvanic innate immune responses and provide a highly conducive regenerative milieu that may be applicable in a variety of clinical settings. PMID:25145852

Bury, Matthew I.; Fuller, Natalie J.; Meisner, Jay W.; Hofer, Matthias D.; Webber, Matthew J.; Chow, Lesley W.; Prasad, Sheba; Thaker, Hatim; Yue, Xuan; Menon, Vani S.; Diaz, Edward C.; Stupp, Samuel I.; Cheng, Earl Y.; Sharma, Arun K.

2014-01-01

70

The Role of Intestinal Microflora in Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Baicalin in Mice  

PubMed Central

Baicalin, a main constituent of the rhizome of Scutellaria baicalensis, is metabolized to baicalein and oroxylin A in the intestine before its absorption. To understand the role of intestinal microflora in the pharmacological activities of baicalin, we investigated its anti-inflammatory effect in mice treated with and without antibiotics. Orally administered baicalin showed the anti-inflammatory effect in mice than intraperitoneally treated one, apart from intraperitoneally administered its metabolites, baicalein and oroxylin A, which potently inhibited LPS-induced inflammation. Of these metabolites, oroxylin A showed more potent anti-inflammatory effect. However, treatment with the mixture of cefadroxil, oxytetracycline and erythromycin (COE) significantly attenuated the anti-inflammatory effect of orally administered baicalin in mice. Treatment with COE also reduced intestinal bacterial fecal ?-glucuronidase activity. The metabolic activity of human stools is significantly different between individuals, but neither between ages nor between male and female. Baicalin was metabolized to baicalein and oroxylin A, with metabolic activities of 1.427 ± 0.818 and 1.025 ± 0.603 pmol/min/mg wet weight, respectively. Baicalin and its metabolites also inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-? and IL-1?, and the activation of NF-?B in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. Of them, oroxylin A showed the most potent inhibition. Based on these findings, baicalin may be metabolized to baicalein and oroxylin A by intestinal microflora, which enhance its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting NF-?B activation. PMID:24116272

Jung, Myung-Ah; Jang, Se-Eun; Hong, Sung-Woon; Hana, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun

2012-01-01

71

Synthesis, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic activities of certain novel Schiff's bases as fenamate isosteres.  

PubMed

A series of certain novel Schiff bases as fenamate isosteres (VI:a-k) were synthesized to locate analgesic, anti-inflammatory agent with minimal ulcerogenic potential. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were elucidated on the basis of their elemental analysis as well as IR, and NMR and mass spectroscopic data. All the compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan induced paw oedema method. The compounds possessing good anti-inflammatory activity were further tested for analgesic, ulcerogenic, lipid peroxidation potentials and liver toxicity. Compounds (VI-c), (VI-f), (VI-h) and (VI-i) showed the best anti-inflammatory and significant analgesic activities at doses comparable to that of the standard drug Indomethacin. However, compounds (VI-c) and (VI-f) could be considered the most potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic molecules with maximum reduction in gastro-intestinal ulceration with no hepatocyte necrosis or liver degeneration. PMID:25522819

Alafeefy, Ahmed M; Bakht, Mohammed A; Ganaie, Majid A; Ansarie, Mohd N; El-Sayed, Nahed N; Awaad, Amani S

2015-01-15

72

Anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids: changing concepts.  

PubMed

Despite being the most effective anti-inflammatory treatment for chronic inflammatory diseases, the mechanisms by which glucocorticoids (corticosteroids) effect repression of inflammatory gene expression remain incompletely understood. Direct interaction of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) with inflammatory transcription factors to repress transcriptional activity, i.e. transrepression, represents one mechanism of action. However, transcriptional activation, or transactivation, by NR3C1 also represents an important mechanism of glucocorticoid action. Glucocorticoids rapidly and profoundly increase expression of multiple genes, many with properties consistent with the repression of inflammatory gene expression. For example: the dual specificity phosphatase, DUSP1, reduces activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases; glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (TSC22D3) represses nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcriptional responses; inhibitor of ?B? (NFKBIA) inhibits NF-?B; tristraprolin (ZFP36) destabilises and translationally represses inflammatory mRNAs; CDKN1C, a cell cycle regulator, may attenuate JUN N-terminal kinase signalling; and regulator of G-protein signalling 2 (RGS2), by reducing signalling from G?q-linked G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), is bronchoprotective. While glucocorticoid-dependent transrepression can co-exist with transactivation, transactivation may account for the greatest level and most potent repression of inflammatory genes. Equally, NR3C1 transactivation is enhanced by ?2-adrenoceptor agonists and may explain the enhanced clinical efficacy of ?2-adrenoceptor/glucocorticoid combination therapies in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Finally, NR3C1 transactivation is reduced by inflammatory stimuli, including respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus. This provides an explanation for glucocorticoid resistance. Continuing efforts to understand roles for glucocorticoid-dependent transactivation will provide opportunities to improve glucocorticoid therapies. PMID:23747654

Newton, Robert

2014-02-01

73

Evaluation of Anti-nociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Novel Chalcone Derivatives.  

PubMed

Chalcone (1,3-diarylprop-2-en-1-one) derivatives have been introduced as selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. In the present study, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of eight novel compounds were evaluated in male mice and Wistar rats by using the writhing and formalin-induced paw edema tests respectively. The activities of the compounds were compared with celecoxib as a reference drug. Then, novel compounds were divided into two regioisomeric groups based on the position of the methylsulfonyl substitution. Compounds with substituents such as: 1) H, 2) Me, 3) F and 4) Cl at para position of the phenyl ring of (E)-3-(4-Methanesulfonylphenyl)-1-phenylprop-2 en-1-one were selected in the first group. The regioisomer compounds with 5) H, 6) Me, 7) F and 8) OMe substitutions at C-4 of phenyl ring of (E)-1-(4-Methanesulfonylphenyl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one were chosen as second group. All compounds showed dose-dependent anti-nociceptive activity in writhing test. Interestingly, the potency of anti-nociceptive effect of compounds 1, 2, 5 and 6 were significantly higher than celecoxib. The regioisomeric compounds 1 and 5 with high anti-nociceptive effects, showed a significant dose-dependent anti inflammatory activity in the paw edema test as well. The results showed that compounds with no substituent or small size substituents at para position of the phenyl ring are the most potent compound in writhing test. Our results revealed that the introduction of a bulky group such as methoxy or chlorine at the vicinal aromatic chain of the derivatives decreases the anti-inflammatory/ anti-nociceptive effects. The comparison of estimated ED50 of each pair of the regioisomeric compounds indicates that the relative position of SO2Me to carbonyl moiety did not affect the potency. PMID:24250683

Razmi, Ali; Zarghi, Afshin; Arfaee, Sara; Naderi, Nima; Faizi, Mehrdad

2013-01-01

74

Studies on tracheorelaxant and anti-inflammatory activities of rhizomes of Polygonatum verticillatum  

PubMed Central

Background The present study describes the tracheorelaxant and anti-inflammatory effects of Polygonatum verticillatum which may support its medicinal use in hyperactive airway complaints and inflammatory disorders. Methods The tracheorelaxant activity of crude extract of the rhizomes of P. verticillatum (PR) was assessed in isolated guinea-pig tracheal tissues immersed in tissue organ bath filled with Tyrode’s solution and a continuous supply of carbogen gas (95% O2 and 5% CO2). The contractile and relaxant responses of the tissue were measured using isometric transducers coupled with Power-Lab data acquisition system. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model, while the lipoxygenase inhibitory activity was performed in the in-vitro assay. Various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques were used for the isolation and characterization of pure molecules. Results In isolated guinea-pig tracheal preparations, PR caused complete inhibition of the high K+ (80 mM) and carbachol-induced contractions however, it was more potent against K+ than CCh, similar to verapamil. Pretreatment of the tissue with PR, displaced the Ca2+ concentration-response curves to the right, similar to that induced by verapamil, indicating the presence of Ca2+ channel blocking like activity. When tested on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, PR demonstrated a marked reduction in edema with 65.22% protection at 200 mg/kg, similar to aspirin. In the in-vitro assay, PR showed lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (IC50: 102?±?0.19 ?g/mL), similar to baicalein. Bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid and ?-sitosterol. Conclusions These results indicate that the plant possesses tracheorelaxant, mediated possibly through a Ca2+ channel blockade mechanism, and anti-inflammatory activities, which may explain the medicinal use of this plant in airway disorders and inflammation. PMID:23895558

2013-01-01

75

Evaluation of Anti-nociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Novel Chalcone Derivatives  

PubMed Central

Chalcone (1,3-diarylprop-2-en-1-one) derivatives have been introduced as selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. In the present study, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of eight novel compounds were evaluated in male mice and Wistar rats by using the writhing and formalin-induced paw edema tests respectively. The activities of the compounds were compared with celecoxib as a reference drug. Then, novel compounds were divided into two regioisomeric groups based on the position of the methylsulfonyl substitution. Compounds with substituents such as: 1) H, 2) Me, 3) F and 4) Cl at para position of the phenyl ring of (E)-3-(4-Methanesulfonylphenyl)-1-phenylprop-2 en-1-one were selected in the first group. The regioisomer compounds with 5) H, 6) Me, 7) F and 8) OMe substitutions at C-4 of phenyl ring of (E)-1-(4-Methanesulfonylphenyl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one were chosen as second group. All compounds showed dose-dependent anti-nociceptive activity in writhing test. Interestingly, the potency of anti-nociceptive effect of compounds 1, 2, 5 and 6 were significantly higher than celecoxib. The regioisomeric compounds 1 and 5 with high anti-nociceptive effects, showed a significant dose-dependent anti inflammatory activity in the paw edema test as well. The results showed that compounds with no substituent or small size substituents at para position of the phenyl ring are the most potent compound in writhing test. Our results revealed that the introduction of a bulky group such as methoxy or chlorine at the vicinal aromatic chain of the derivatives decreases the anti-inflammatory/ anti-nociceptive effects. The comparison of estimated ED50 of each pair of the regioisomeric compounds indicates that the relative position of SO2Me to carbonyl moiety did not affect the potency. PMID:24250683

Razmi, Ali; Zarghi, Afshin; Arfaee, Sara; Naderi, Nima; Faizi, Mehrdad

2013-01-01

76

Anti-inflammatory, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, COX-1 inhibitory, and free radical scavenging effects of Rumex nepalensis.  

PubMed

Evaluation of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of RUMEX NEPALENSIS roots in a TPA-induced acute inflammation mouse model demonstrated a significant reduction in ear edema. The extracts were further tested on purified enzymes for COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition to elucidate their mechanism of action, and a strong inhibition was observed. Six anthraquinones and two naphthalene derivatives were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract. Among the isolated compounds, emodin was found to be a potent inhibitor with slight selectivity towards COX-2, and nepodin exhibited selectivity towards COX-1. Emodin, endocrocin, and nepodin also exhibited significant topical anti-inflammatory activity in mice. Interestingly, nepodin showed better radical scavenging activity than trolox and ascorbic acid against DPPH and ABTS radicals. The strong radical scavenging activity of chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts could be explained by the presence of nepodin as well as by the high phenolic content of the ethyl acetate extract. Thus, the anti-inflammatory effect of R. NEPALENSIS roots was assumed to be mediated through COX inhibition by anthraquinones and naphthalene derivatives and through the radical scavenging activities of naphthalene derivatives. PMID:20379952

Gautam, Raju; Karkhile, Kailas V; Bhutani, Kamlesh K; Jachak, Sanjay M

2010-10-01

77

Rose geranium essential oil as a source of new and safe anti-inflammatory drugs  

PubMed Central

Background Since the available anti-inflammatory drugs exert an extensive variety of side effects, the search for new anti-inflammatory agents has been a priority of pharmaceutical industries. Aims The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil of rose geranium (RGEO). Methods The chemical composition of the RGEO was investigated by gas chromatography. The major components were citronellol (29.13%), geraniol (12.62%), and citronellyl formate (8.06%). In the carrageenan-induced paw edema, five different groups were established and RGEO was administered orally in three different doses. Results RGEO (100 mg/kg) was able to significantly reduce the paw edema with a comparable effect to that observed with diclofenac, the positive control. In addition, RGEO showed a potent anti-inflammatory activity by topical treatment in the method of croton oil-induced ear edema. When the dose was 5 or 10 µl of RGEO per ear, the inflammation was reduced by 73 and 88%, respectively. This is the first report to demonstrate a significant anti-inflammatory activity of Algerian RGEO. In addition, histological analysis confirmed that RGEO inhibited the inflammatory responses in the skin. Conclusion Our results indicate that RGEO may have significant potential for the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs with improved safety profile. PMID:24103319

Boukhatem, Mohamed Nadjib; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Ferhat, Mohamed Amine; Saidi, Fairouz; Mekarnia, Maamar

2013-01-01

78

Oxpholipin 11D: An Anti-Inflammatory Peptide That Binds Cholesterol and Oxidized Phospholipids  

PubMed Central

Background Many Gram-positive bacteria produce pore-forming exotoxins that contain a highly conserved, 12-residue domain (ECTGLAWEWWRT) that binds cholesterol. This domain is usually flanked N-terminally by arginine and C-terminally by valine. We used this 14-residue sequence as a template to create a small library of peptides that bind cholesterol and other lipids. Methodology/Results Several of these peptides manifested anti-inflammatory properties in a predictive in vitro monocyte chemotactic assay, and some also diminished the pro-inflammatory effects of low-density lipoprotein in apoE-deficient mice. The most potent analog, Oxpholipin-11D (OxP-11D), contained D-amino acids exclusively and was identical to the 14-residue design template except that diphenylalanine replaced cysteine-3. In surface plasmon resonance binding studies, OxP-11D bound oxidized (phospho)lipids and sterols in much the same manner as D-4F, a widely studied cardioprotective apoA-I-mimetic peptide with anti-inflammatory properties. In contrast to D-4F, which adopts a stable ?-helical structure in solution, the OxP-11D structure was flexible and contained multiple turn-like features. Conclusion Given the substantial evidence that oxidized phospholipids are pro-inflammatory in vivo, OxP-11D and other Oxpholipins may have therapeutic potential. PMID:20418958

Ruchala, Piotr; Navab, Mohamad; Jung, Chun-Ling; Hama-Levy, Susan; Micewicz, Ewa D.; Luong, Hai; Reyles, Jonathan E.; Sharma, Shantanu; Waring, Alan J.; Fogelman, Alan M.; Lehrer, Robert I.

2010-01-01

79

Anti-inflammatory sesquiterpenes from Curcuma zedoaria.  

PubMed

From the methanolic extract of the rhizome of Curcuma zedoaria, we isolated anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene furanodiene (1) and furanodienone (2) along with new sesquiterpene compound 3 and known eight sesquiterpenes, zederone (4), curzerenone (5), curzeone (6), germacrone (7), 13-hydroxygermacrone (8), dehydrocurdione (9), curcumenone (10), and zedoaronediol (11). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The anti-inflammatory effect of isolated components on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation of mouse ears were examined. Compounds 1 and 2 suppressed the TPA-induced inflammation of mouse ears by 75% and 53%, respectively, at a dose of 1.0 micromol. Their activities are comparable to that of indomethacin, the normally used anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:16901812

Makabe, H; Maru, N; Kuwabara, A; Kamo, T; Hirota, M

2006-06-01

80

Anti-inflammatory effects of five commercially available mushroom species determined in lipopolysaccharide and interferon-? activated murine macrophages.  

PubMed

Inflammation is a well-known contributing factor to many age-related chronic diseases. One of the possible strategies to suppress inflammation is the employment of functional foods with anti-inflammatory properties. Edible mushrooms are attracting more and more attention as functional foods since they are rich in bioactive compounds, but their anti-inflammatory properties and the effect of food processing steps on this activity has not been systematically investigated. In the present study, White Button and Honey Brown (both Agaricus bisporus), Shiitake (Lentinus edodes), Enoki (Flammulina velutipes) and Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) preparations were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-? (IFN-?) activated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Potent anti-inflammatory activity (IC??<0.1 mg/ml), measured as inhibition of NO production, could be detected in all raw mushroom preparations, but only raw Oyster (IC??=0.035 mg/ml), Shiitake (IC??=0.047 mg/ml) and Enoki mushrooms (IC??=0.099 mg/ml) showed also potent inhibition of TNF-? production. When the anti-inflammatory activity was followed through two food-processing steps, which involved ultrasonication and heating, a significant portion of the anti-inflammatory activity was lost suggesting that the anti-inflammatory compounds might be susceptible to heating or prone to evaporation. PMID:24262531

Gunawardena, Dhanushka; Bennett, Louise; Shanmugam, Kirubakaran; King, Kerryn; Williams, Roderick; Zabaras, Dimitrios; Head, Richard; Ooi, Lezanne; Gyengesi, Erika; Münch, Gerald

2014-04-01

81

Anti-Inflammatory and Pro-Resolving Lipid Mediators  

PubMed Central

The popular view that all lipid mediators are pro-inflammatory arises largely from the finding that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs block the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. The resolution of inflammation was widely held to be a passive event until recently, with the characterization of novel biochemical pathways and lipid-derived mediators that are actively turned on in resolution possessing potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions. A lipid mediator informatics approach was employed to systematically identify new families of endogenous local-acting mediators from omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) in resolving exudates in addition to the lipoxins and aspirin-triggered lipoxins generated from arachidonic acid. These new chemical mediator families were coined resolvins and protectins, given their potent bioactions. In this annual review, we present recent advances on the biosynthesis and stereospecific actions of these new pro-resolving mediators, which have also proven to be organ protective and anti-fibrotic. PMID:18233953

Serhan, Charles N.; Yacoubian, Stephanie; Yang, Rong

2009-01-01

82

CHF6001 II: a novel phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, suitable for topical pulmonary administration--in vivo preclinical pharmacology profile defines a potent anti-inflammatory compound with a wide therapeutic window.  

PubMed

CHF6001 [(S)-3,5-dichloro-4-(2-(3-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl)-2-(3-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-(methylsulfonamido)benzoyloxy)ethyl)pyridine 1-oxide] is a novel phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor designed for use in pulmonary diseases by inhaled administration. Intratracheal administration of CHF6001 to ovalbumin-sensitized Brown-Norway rats suppressed the antigen-induced decline of lung functions (ED50 = 0.1 µmol/kg) and antigen-induced eosinophilia (ED50 = 0.03 µmol/kg) when administered (0.09 ?mol/kg) up to 24 hours before antigen challenge, in agreement with CHF6001-sustained lung concentrations up to 72 hours after intratracheal treatment (mean residence time 26 hours). Intranasal, once daily administration of CHF6001 inhibited neutrophil infiltration observed after 11 days of tobacco smoke exposure in mice, both upon prophylactic (0.15-0.45 µmol/kg per day) or interventional (0.045-0.45 µmol/kg per day) treatment. CHF6001 was ineffective in reversing ketamine/xylazine-induced anesthesia (a surrogate of emesis in rat) up to 5 µmol/kg administered intratracheally, a dose 50- to 150-fold higher than anti-inflammatory ED50 observed in rats. When given topically to ferrets, no emesis and nausea were evident up to 10 to 20 µmol/kg, respectively, whereas the PDE4 inhibitor GSK-256066 (6-[3-(dimethylcarbamoyl)phenyl]sulfonyl-4-(3-methoxyanilino)-8-methylquinoline-3-carboxamide) induced nausea at 1 µmol/kg intratracheally. A 14-day inhalation toxicology study in rats showed a no-observed-adverse-effect level dose of 4.4 µmol/kg per day for CHF6001, lower than the 0.015 ?mol/kg per day for GSK-256066. CHF6001 was found effective and extremely well tolerated upon topical administration in relevant animal models, and may represent a step forward in PDE4 inhibition for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive respiratory disease. PMID:25576073

Villetti, Gino; Carnini, Chiara; Battipaglia, Loredana; Preynat, Laurent; Bolzoni, Pier Tonino; Bassani, Franco; Caruso, Paola; Bergamaschi, Marco; Pisano, Anna Rita; Puviani, Veronica; Stellari, Fabio Franco; Cenacchi, Valentina; Volta, Roberta; Bertacche, Vittorio; Mileo, Valentina; Bagnacani, Valentina; Moretti, Elisa; Puccini, Paola; Catinella, Silvia; Facchinetti, Fabrizio; Sala, Angelo; Civelli, Maurizio

2015-03-01

83

Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Natural Products Isolated from Soft Corals of Taiwan between 2008 and 2012  

PubMed Central

This review reports details on the natural products isolated from Taiwan soft corals during the period 2008–2012 focusing on their in vitro and/or in vivo anti-inflammatory activities. Chemical structures, names, and literature references are also reported. This review provides useful and specific information on potent anti-inflammatory marine metabolites for future development of immune-modulatory therapeutics. PMID:24152566

Wei, Wen-Chi; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Duh, Chang-Yih; Chen, Bo-Wei; Sheu, Jyh-Horng; Yang, Ning-Sun

2013-01-01

84

[Effects of an additional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory therapy with carprofen (Rimadyl Rind) in cases of severe mastitis of high yielding cows].  

PubMed

This field study focuses on the possible effects of a combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory treatment (carprofen) and a local and parenteral antibiotic on cure rates, survival rate and return to milk production of severe clinical mastitis cases. 69 cows in 3 herds (blocked by parity) with severe clinical mastitis during the first 120 d of lactation (median = 28 d) were treated with antibiotics and one-half of these cows were treated with 1.4 mg/kg bodyweight carprofen (Rimadyl Rind, Pfizer GmbH Tiergesundheit, Germany). Double milk samples for bacteriology were collected from clinically affected udder quarters before treatment and at 14 (+/- 3) and 21 (+/- 3) days after commencement of treatment for cytomicro-temperature, clinical, bacteriological, cytobacteriological cure rate and in the number of cows that were defined as treatment failures (i.e., died, re-treated, relapse). Six (22.2%) vs. seven (19.4%) cows in the carprofen and control groups failed, respectively. The milk yield was significantly higher in the carprofen-treated group compared with the control group after treatment. The present work gives first indications that treatment of cows with severe clinical mastitis with a combination of carprofen and antibiotics could result in a faster return to milk production compared to treatment with antibiotics alone. If this effect can be affiliated to the administration of carprofen alone has to be examined in further studies. PMID:21465772

Krömker, Volker; Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Abograra, Ismail; Zinke, Claudia; Friedrich, Julia

2011-01-01

85

Orthogonal array designs for the optimization of liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection.  

PubMed

Orthogonal array designs (OADs) were applied for the first time to optimize liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (LLLME) conditions for the analysis of three nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug residues (2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid, ketoprofen, and naproxen) in wastewater samples. Six relevant factors were investigated: type of organic solvent, composition of donor phase and acceptor phase, stirring speed, extraction time and salt concentration. In the first stage, mixed-level orthogonal array design, an OA16 (4(1) x 2(12)) matrix was employed to study the effect of six factors, by which the effect of each factor was estimated using individual contributions as response functions. Based on the results of the first stage, 1-octanol was chosen as organic solvent for extraction. The other five factors were selected for further optimization using an OA16 (4(5)) matrix and a 4 x 4 table to locate more exact levels for each variable. The relative standard deviations for the reproducibility of optimized LLLME varied from 6.2 to 7.1%. The coefficients of determination for calibration curves were higher than 0.9950. The method detection limits for drugs spiked in ultrapure water were in the range of 0.03-0.3 ng/mL. The final optimized conditions were applied to the analysis of drug residues in three wastewater samples in Singapore. PMID:16199224

Wu, Jingming; Lee, Hian Kee

2005-10-28

86

Determination of Residual Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Aqueous Sample Using Magnetic Nanoparticles Modified with Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide by High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

PubMed Central

A simple and sensitive solid-phase extraction method for separation and preconcentration of trace amount of four nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (naproxen, indomethacin, diclofenac, and ibuprofen) using Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles modified with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide has been developed. For this purpose, the surface of MNPs was modified with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant. Effects of different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of drugs including the pH, amount of salt, shaking time, eluent type, the volume of solvent, amount of adsorbent, sample volume, and the time of desorption were investigated and optimized. Methanol has been used as desorption solvent and the extracts were analysed on a reversed-phase octadecyl silica column using 0.02 M phosphate-buffer (pH = 6.02) acetonitrile (65?:?35?v/v) as the mobile phase and the effluents were measured at 202?nm with ultraviolet detector. The relative standard deviation (RSD%) of the method was investigated at three concentrations (25, 50, and 200?ng/mL) and was in the range of 3.98–9.83% (n = 6) for 50?ng/mL. The calibration curves obtained for studied drugs show reasonable linearity (R2 > 0.99) and the limit of detection (LODs) ranged between 2 and 7?ng/mL. Finally, the proposed method has been effectively employed in extraction and determination of the drugs in biological and environmental samples. PMID:24982923

Khoeini Sharifabadi, Malihe; Saber-Tehrani, Mohammad; Waqif Husain, Syed; Mehdinia, Ali; Aberoomand-Azar, Parviz

2014-01-01

87

Radiobiological mechanisms of anti-inflammatory radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiotherapy with total doses of ?6 Gy has been given as very effective and low risk treatment of painful degenerative joint diseases and other inflammatory processes. Recent radiobiological experiments in vitro and in vivo identified mechanisms which may be related to these anti-inflammatory radiation effects, in particular functional modulation of the adhesion of white blood cells to activated endothelial cells

Klaus-Rüdiger Trott; Friedrich Kamprad

1999-01-01

88

Anti-inflammatory capabilities of macrolides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrolide antibiotics play a significant role in clinical practise due not only to their antibacterial activity, but also to their accompanying anti-inflammatory effect that is independent of their antibiotic action. Several studies reported in literature show that macrolides affect several inflammatory processes, such as migration of neutrophils, the oxidative burst in phagocytes and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, although the precise

Jadwiga Zalewska-Kaszubska; Dorota Górska

2001-01-01

89

Determination of four acidic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in wastewater samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet and high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A simple, environmentally friendly, and sensitive dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet for the extraction of four acidic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ketoprofen, naproxen, ibuprofen, and diclofenac) from wastewater samples subsequent by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis was developed. The influence of extraction parameters such as pH, the effect of solution ionic strength, type of extraction solvent, disperser solvent, and extraction solvent volume were studied. High enrichment factors (283-302) were obtained through the developed method. The method provides good linearity (r > 0.999) in a concentration range of 1-100 ?g/L, good intra- and inter-day precision (relative standard deviation < 7%) and low limits of quantification. The relative recoveries of the selected compounds were situated over 80% both in synthetic and real water samples. The developed method has been successfully applied for the analysis of the selected compounds in wastewater samples. PMID:25487631

Beldean-Galea, Mihail Simion; Coman, Virginia; Thiébaut, Didier; Vial, Jérome

2015-02-01

90

Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from fruits, herbs and spices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammation plays an important role in various diseases with high prevalence within populations such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis and asthma. Here we demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of various fruits, herbs and spices in a lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage model. These compounds acted by reduction of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production, enhancement of anti-inflammatory IL-10 production, or reduction of

Monika Mueller; Stefanie Hobiger; Alois Jungbauer

2010-01-01

91

Anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract of Verbena officinalis L.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory activity of a 50% methanol extract of the leaves of Verbena officinalis L. was investigated on topical and oral administration. In the TPA-induced ear inflammation model, the extract showed a high reduction of edema, but in the carrageenin-induced rat paw edema the effect observed was less at the two doses employed. These results confirm the use of this plant in folk medicine as a topical anti-inflammatory, herbal drug. PMID:23196030

Calvo, M I; Vilalta, N; San Julián, A; Fernández, M

1998-12-01

92

Microextraction by packed sorbent and high performance liquid chromatography determination of seven non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in human plasma and urine.  

PubMed

This paper reports a new MEPS-HPLC-PDA method for the simultaneous analysis of seven non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Furprofen, Indoprofen, Ketoprofen, Fenbufen, Flurbiprofen, Indomethacin, and Ibuprofen) in human plasma and urine. NSAIDs were resolved on a Gemini C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm; 5 ?m particle size) using a gradient elution mode with a run time of 25 min, comprising re-equilibration, without further purification. The method was validated over the concentration range from 0.1 to 10 ?g/mL for all the analytes both in human plasma and urine, using Benzyl 4-hydroxybenzoate as the internal standards. This method was successfully tested to NSAIDs analyses in real matrices, in order to check the method potentiality and the correct response. The results from assay validations show that the method is selective, sensitive and robust. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.1 ?g/mL for all analytes, and weighted-matrix-matched standard curves showed a good linearity up to 10 ?g/mL. In order to check the correct response for over-range samples, parallelism tests were also assessed. In the entire analytical range the intra and inter-day precision (RSD%) values were ? 7.31% and ? 13.5%, respectively. For all the analytes the intra and inter-day trueness (Bias%) values ranged from -11.3% to 10.2%. To our knowledge, this is the first MEPS-HPLC-PDA based method that uses MEPS procedure for simultaneous determination of these seven NSAIDs in plasma and urine samples. PMID:25278162

Locatelli, Marcello; Ferrone, Vincenzo; Cifelli, Roberta; Barbacane, Renato Carmine; Carlucci, Giuseppe

2014-11-01

93

Anti-inflammatory and pharmacokinetics evaluation of PEGylated ibuprofen tablet formulation.  

PubMed

To develop a novel PEGylated ibuprofen tablet formulations and evaluate its anti-inflammatory activity and pharmacokinetics profile in an animal model. Six batches of PEGylated ibuprofen tablets were prepared by direct compression using Avicel® and lactose as the binder diluents. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of the tablets was carried out as well as the pharmacokinetics profiles. The PEGylated ibuprofen tablet reduced carrageenan-induced inflammation in experimental animals and sustained its anti-inflammatory action for over 10 h. The pharmacokinetics profile of the optimized formulations were greater than that of the marketed sample and the pure drug sample. In conclusion, PEGylation of ibuprofen conferred a high level of anti-inflammatory activity and slowed plasma clearance level, indicating sustained release. Thus, further exploration of this novel formulation to be used as an alternative carrier for this drug is required. PMID:24191762

Mumuni, Momoh A; Kenechukwu, Franklin Chimaobi; Chime, Salome Amarachi; Ogbonna, John Dike; Mora, A T

2014-06-01

94

Intravital Microscopic Methods to Evaluate Anti-inflammatory Effects and Signaling Mechanisms Evoked by Hydrogen Sulfide.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous signaling molecule with potent anti-inflammatory properties. Exogenous application of H2S donors, administered either acutely during an inflammatory response or as an antecedent preconditioning intervention that invokes the activation of anti-inflammatory cell survival programs, effectively limits leukocyte rolling, adhesion and emigration, generation of reactive oxygen species, chemokine and cell adhesion molecule expression, endothelial barrier disruption, capillary perfusion deficits, and parenchymal cell dysfunction and injury. This chapter focuses on intravital microscopic methods that can be used to assess the anti-inflammatory effects exerted by H2S, as well as to explore the cellular signaling mechanisms by which this gaseous molecule limits the aforementioned inflammatory responses. Recent advances include use of intravital multiphoton microscopy and optical biosensor technology to explore signaling mechanisms in vivo. PMID:25747477

Zuidema, Mozow Y; Korthuis, Ronald J

2015-01-01

95

Comparison of beneficial actions of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to flavonoids.  

PubMed

Inflammation is involved in increasing number of diseases necessitating the development of new, effective and safe treatments. Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been helpful in many instances, but they only inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX), but not the generation or actions of cytokines. Instead, some natural flavonoids have multiple anti-inflammatory effects, including COX inhibition, and a much safer profile. Increasing evidence indicates that inflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of many diseases that also involve mast cells. Consequently, the need for new, effective and safe anti-inflammatory drugs is all the more urgent. Corticosteroids are quite potent, but have many adverse effects such as increased risk of infections, osteoporosis, glaucoma and depression. Biological agents such anti-TNF are useful in certain conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, but has been associated with increased risk of infection and leukemia. PMID:23489682

Conti, P; Varvara, G; Murmura, G; Tete, S; Sabatino, G; Saggini, A; Rosati, M; Toniato, E; Caraffa, A; Antinolfi, P; Pandolfi, F; Potalivo, G; Galzio, R; Theoharides, T C

2013-01-01

96

Anti-inflammatory properties of new bioisosteres of indomethacin synthesized from safrole which are sulindac analogues.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory activities of new compounds (I, II, III and IV) synthesized in 30% overall yield from the abundant natural product safrole, the principal chemical constituent of the oil of sassafras (Ocotea pretiosa, Lauraceae), were determined in mice. The synthesis of these new indenyl-acetic acids (I and II) and indenyl-propionic acids (III and IV) was based on the minimal structural features of non-steroid anti-inflammatory agents of the aryl- or heteroarylcarboxylic acid group. The compounds exhibited potencies 4- to 10-fold less than that of indomethacin in inhibiting carrageenan-induced hindpaw edema. In contrast, like sulindac, all the new compounds were more potent than indomethacin in antagonizing writhing pain and increased vascular permeability caused by acetic acid. The results confirm the anticipated bioisosteric relationship between these synthetic derivatives, designed as sulindac analogues, and the classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin. PMID:2638933

Pereira, E F; Pereira, N A; Lima, M E; Coelho, F A; Barreiro, E J

1989-01-01

97

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of human placenta extract.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the effects of human placenta extract (HPE, Laennec inj.) on pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators secreted from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. We found that HPE significantly inhibited the production of nitric oxide, tumour necrosis factor-? and cyclooxygenase-2. We studied the anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of HPE in murine models of inflammation/inflammatory pain. Rats were assigned to six groups and were administered either saline or HPE (0.33, 1, 3 and 6 mL kg?ą) intraperitoneally. Diclofenac was used as a positive control. HPE attenuated the swelling of the rat's hind paw. The vascular permeability induced by acetic acid was significantly reduced by HPE. HPE reduced the formation of granuloma in carrageenan air pouch and hind paw oedema in complete Freund's adjuvant-induced chronic arthritis in rats. HPE attenuated writhing episodes. An increase in hot-plate latency was observed in mice receiving HPE. HPE also increased the pain threshold in the Randall-Selitto test. In the tail-flick assay, HPE prolonged the reaction time of rats to radiant heat stimulation. These results suggest that HPE has potent anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities. PMID:21726131

Lee, Kwan-Hoo; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Woo-Cheol; Kim, Sang Hoon; Lee, Sung Youl; Lee, Sun-Mee

2011-07-01

98

QSAR and Docking Studies on Capsazepine Derivatives for Immunomodulatory and Anti-Inflammatory Activity  

PubMed Central

Capsazepine, an antagonist of capsaicin, is discovered by the structure and activity relationship. In previous studies it has been found that capsazepine has potency for immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory activity and emerging as a favourable target in quest for efficacious and safe anti-inflammatory drug. Thus, a 2D quantitative structural activity relationship (QSAR) model against target tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) was developed using multiple linear regression method (MLR) with good internal prediction (r2?=?0.8779) and external prediction (r2pred?=?0.5865) using Discovery Studio v3.5 (Accelrys, USA). The predicted activity was further validated by in vitro experiment. Capsazepine was tested in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation in peritoneal mouse macrophages. Anti-inflammatory profile of capsazepine was assessed by its potency to inhibit the production of inflammatory mediator TNF-?. The in vitro experiment indicated that capsazepine is an efficient anti-inflammatory agent. Since, the developed QSAR model showed significant correlations between chemical structure and anti-inflammatory activity, it was successfully applied in the screening of forty-four virtual derivatives of capsazepine, which finally afforded six potent derivatives, CPZ-29, CPZ-30, CPZ-33, CPZ-34, CPZ-35 and CPZ-36. To gain more insights into the molecular mechanism of action of capsazepine and its derivatives, molecular docking and in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) studies were performed. The results of QSAR, molecular docking, in silico ADMET screening and in vitro experimental studies provide guideline and mechanistic scope for the identification of more potent anti-inflammatory & immunomodulatory drug. PMID:25003344

Shukla, Aparna; Sharma, Pooja; Prakash, Om; Singh, Monika; Kalani, Komal; Khan, Feroz; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar Umrao; Luqman, Suaib; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar

2014-01-01

99

A study of the novel anti-inflammatory agent florifenine topical anti-inflammatory activity and influence on arachidonic acid metabolism and neutrophil functions.  

PubMed

We have evaluated the effects of the novel anti-inflammatory agent florifenine, 2-(1-Pyrrolidinyl)ethyl N-[7-(trifluoromethyl)-4-quinolyl]anthranilate, on topical inflammation in mice, free radical-mediated reactions, arachidonic acid metabolism and some neutrophil functions. Topical administration of florifenine produced dose-related anti-inflammatory activity in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear oedema and with a lower potency, in the response induced by arachidonic acid (AA). Florifenine also inhibited neutrophil migration and PGE2 content in the inflammed ears. In human whole blood, florifenine was a potent and selective inhibitor of TXB2 generation. This anti-inflammatory agent did not exert antioxidant effects but inhibited elastase release in human neutrophils without affecting superoxide anion generation. Florifenine administration to mice dose-dependently inhibited leukocyte migration and PGE2 levels in the air pouch inflammation induced by zymosan. These results demonstrate the topical anti-inflammatory activity of florifenine and provide a basis for understanding the mechanisms involved in the inhibitory effects of this agent on inflammatory responses. PMID:7609784

Bustos, G; Ferrándiz, M L; Sanz, M J; Payá, M; Alcaraz, M J

1995-03-01

100

Anti-inflammatory actions of acupuncture.  

PubMed Central

Acupuncture has a beneficial effect when treating many diseases and painful conditions, and therefore is thought to be useful as a complementary therapy or to replace generally accepted pharmacological intervention. The attributive effect of acupuncture has been investigated in inflammatory diseases, including asthma, rhinitis, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, epicondylitis, complex regional pain syndrome type 1 and vasculitis. Large randomised trials demonstrating the immediate and sustained effect of acupuncture are missing. Mechanisms underlying the ascribed immunosuppressive actions of acupuncture are reviewed in this communication. The acupuncture-controlled release of neuropeptides from nerve endings and subsequent vasodilative and anti-inflammatory effects through calcitonine gene-related peptide is hypothesised. The complex interactions with substance P, the analgesic contribution of beta-endorphin and the balance between cell-specific pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-10 are discussed. PMID:12775355

Zijlstra, Freek J; van den Berg-de Lange, Ineke; Huygen, Frank J P M; Klein, Jan

2003-01-01

101

The serpin saga; development of a new class of virus derived anti-inflammatory protein immunotherapeutics.  

PubMed

Serine proteinase inhibitors, also called serpins, are an ancient grouping of proteins found in primitive organisms from bacteria, protozoa and horseshoe crabs and thus likely present at the time of the dinosaurs, up to all mammals living today. The innate or inflammatory immune system is also an ancient metazoan regulatory system, providing the first line of defense against infection or injury. The innate inflammatory defense response evolved long before acquired, antibody dependent immunity. Viruses have developed highly effective stratagems that undermine and block a wide variety of host inflammatory and immune responses. Some of the most potent of these immune modifying strategies utilize serpins that have also been developed over millions of years, including the hijacking by some viruses for defense against host immune attacks. Serpins represent up to 2-10 percent of circulating plasma proteins, regulating actions as wide ranging as thrombosis, inflammation, blood pressure control and even hormone transport. Targeting serpin-regulated immune or inflammatory pathways makes evolutionary sense for viral defense and many of these virus-derived inhibitory proteins have proven to be highly effective, working at very low concentrations--even down to the femptomolar to picomolar range. We are studying these viral anti-inflammatory proteins as a new class of immunomodulatory therapeutic agents derived from their native viral source. One such viral serpin, Serp-1 is now in clinical trial (conducted by VIRON Therapeutics, Inc.) for acute unstable coronary syndromes (unstable angina and small heart attacks), representing a 'first in class' therapeutic study. Several other viral serpins are also currently under investigation as anti-inflammatory or anti-immune therapeutics. This chapter describes these original studies and the ongoing analysis of viral serpins as a new class of virus-derived immunotherapeutic. PMID:20054981

Lucas, Alexandra; Liu, Liying; Dai, Erbin; Bot, Ilze; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Munuswamy-Ramunujam, Ganesh; Davids, Jennifer A; Bartee, Mee Y; Richardson, Jakob; Christov, Alexander; Wang, Hao; Macaulay, Colin; Poznansky, Mark; Zhong, Robert; Miller, Leslie; Biessen, Erik; Richardson, Mary; Sullivan, Collin; Moyer, Richard; Hatton, Mark; Lomas, David A; McFadden, Grant

2009-01-01

102

Novel N-phenylcarbamothioylbenzamides with anti-inflammatory activity and prostaglandin E2 inhibitory properties  

PubMed Central

A number of 2-((4-ethylphenoxy)methyl)-N-(substituted-phenylcarbamothioyl) benzamides (1a–h) were synthesized via reaction of 2-((4-ethylphenoxy)methyl)benzoyl isothiocyanate (2) as a key intermediate with several substituted primary aromatic amines. The new compounds were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR), infrared spectrometry (IR), mass spectrometry (MS), and elemental analysis. The anti-inflammatory activity of 1a–h was investigated by acute carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice using the reference drug indomethacin. The results obtained indicated that, of the derivatives developed, 1a and 1d–h exhibited significantly higher anti-inflammatory activity (26.81%–61.45%) when compared with the reference drug indomethacin (22.43%) (P = 0.0490 for 1a, 0.0015 for 1d, 0.0330 for 1f, and P < 0.001 for 1e and 1h). Moreover, the ulcer incidence of 20% for 1e and 1h was clearly lower when compared with the indomethacin group (in which the ulcer incidence was 80%). Of particular note, the ulcer index of 0.2 for 1e was significantly less than that in the indomethacin group (0.6, P = 0.014). Additionally, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) inhibitory properties were found to be high with 1e (68.32 pg/mL), significantly different from those of the placebo group (530.13 pg/mL, P < 0.001), and equipotent to the effect observed in the indomethacin-pretreated group (96.13 pg/mL, P > 0.05). Moreover, the PGE2 level of 54.15 pg/mL with 1h was also significantly different from that of the placebo group (P < 0.001) and of the indomethacin group (P < 0.05). The significant inhibition of PGE2 observed with 1e (68.32 pg/mL) and 1h (54.15 pg/mL) agree with their observed ulcer incidences. Our overall findings for N-phenylcarbamothioylbenzamides 1a–h clearly suggest that the compounds exhibit an anti-inflammatory effect, potently inhibit PGE2 synthesis, and markedly demonstrate low ulcer incidence. PMID:24039398

Limban, Carmen; Missir, Alexandru Vasile; Fahelelbom, Khairi Mustafa Salem; Al-Tabakha, Moawia Mohammad; Caproiu, Miron Teodor; Sadek, Bassem

2013-01-01

103

Erdosteine: antitussive and anti-inflammatory effects.  

PubMed

Erdosteine is a multifactorial drug currently used in COPD for its rheologic activity on bronchial secretions and its positive effects on bacterial adhesiveness. Erdosteine produces an active metabolite (Met 1) which was shown to produce antioxidant effects during the respiratory burst of human PMNs, due to the presence of an SH group. The substantial antitussive effects of erdosteine were first documented in clinical trials even though mucolytic agents are regarded as not consistently effective in ameliorating cough in patients with bronchitis, although they may be of benefit to this population in other ways. Actually, a mucolytic drug could exert antitussive effects if it also affects mucus consistency and enhances ciliary function. In the last decade, data from several studies on animal models pointed to the possible antitussive and anti-inflammatory properties of erdosteine and an indirect anti-inflammatory mechanism of action was suggested. Recently, data from some controlled versus placebo studies documented the antioxidant properties of erdosteine in humans and in current smokers with COPD. The mechanism of action was described as related to erdosteine's ability to inhibit some inflammatory mediators and some pro-inflammatory cytokines that are specifically involved in oxidative stress. As oxidative stress is also presumed to impair beta-adrenoceptor function and contribute to airway obstruction, specific controlled studies recently investigated the effect of antioxidant intervention on short-term airway response to salbutamol in nonreversible COPD, according to a double-blind design versus placebo and NAC. Only erdosteine consistently restored a significant short-term reversibility in COPD subjects, previously unresponsive to beta(2) adrenergics. This peculiar activity of erdosteine (to our knowledge never previously assessed) proved related to the ROS scavenging activity (which actually proved equal to that of N), and its significant inhibiting effect on lipoperoxidation (8-isoprostane) proved discriminant between treatments, with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects the main determinants of the erdosteine multifactorial properties. In addition, antitussive effects may be regarded as related to its anti-inflammatory properties via the improvement of mucociliary clearance and the reduction of chemokines from epithelial cells. Finally, a sort of "sensitization" of 2-adrenoceptors can also be speculated due to the same mechanisms of action; if confirmed by further controlled studies, this particular property would suggest a novel therapeutic role of erdosteine in COPD. PMID:18185958

Dal Negro, Roberto W

2008-01-01

104

Evaluation of the antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of ethanolic extract of Ammi majus seeds in albino rats and mice.  

PubMed

Pharmacological and biochemical studies on the Ammi majus seeds L. (family Umbelliferae) grown in Egypt are limited. Furocoumarins are the major constituents in the plant seeds. In the present study, the evaluation of the antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities on albino rats and mice was done. After 2 months of administration, both the doses (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight [bwt], respectively) of the alcoholic extract of the A. majus seed result in a significant decrease in the concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein and increase in the concentration of high-density lipoprotein. The extract was found to inhibit the rat paw edema at both the doses, which means that it exerts a significant anti-inflammatory activity compared with control-untreated groups at the intervals of 30 and 60 minutes posttreatment. The antipyretic effect of the extract was quite obvious; it showed that 100 mg/kg bwt was more potent in lowering body temperature starting after 1 hour of treatment than the lower dose (50 mg/kg bwt). It is worth to mention that the A. majus extract with its coumarin contents as well as the tested biological activities of the plant was investigated for the first time in the current study. In conclusion, ethanolic extract of the A. majus seeds had antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities that are dose dependant. PMID:22550046

Koriem, Khaled M M; Asaad, Gihan F; Megahed, Hoda A; Zahran, Hanan; Arbid, Mahmoud S

2012-06-01

105

Anti-inflammatory property of 401 (MCD-peptide), a peptide from the venom of the bee Apis mellifera (L.).  

PubMed

1 Peptide 401, a potent mast cell degranulating factor from bee venom, substantially inhibited the oedema provoked by subplantar injection of carrageenin or intra-articular injection of turpentine in the rat. The ED(50) of 401 was c. 0.1 mg/kg. The anti-inflammatory effect was assessed by measurement of the increased (125)I-albumin content of an injected site in comparison with an uninjected contralateral site.2 Peptide 401 also suppressed the increased vascular permeability due to intradermal injection of various smooth muscle spasmogens (histamine, bradykinin, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and prostaglandins).3 Other comparable mast cell degranulating agents (48/80 and melittin) showed little evidence of anti-inflammatory activity when tested at comparable dosage on turpentine arthritis and carrageenin oedema.4 The anti-inflammatory effects were not abolished by pretreatment with mepyramine and methysergide, which abolished the increased vascular permeability produced by local injection of 401.5 The anti-inflammatory action of 401 was not affected by regional denervation or pretreatment with phenoxybenzamine, and was reduced but not abolished by adrenalectomy.6 Measurement of skin temperature, fractional extraction of (86)Rb and blood flow in perfused mesentery gave no evidence that the anti-inflammatory action of 401 was due to reduced tissue perfusion.7 It is concluded that 401 may exert its anti-inflammatory action directly by making the vascular endothelium anergic to phlogistic stimuli. PMID:4152780

Hanson, J M; Morley, J; Soria-Herrera, C

1974-03-01

106

Adiponectin: anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that plays an essential role in regulating several metabolic functions through the secretion of biological mediators called "adipokines". Dysregulation of adipokines plays a crucial role in obesity-related diseases. Adiponectin (APN) is the most abundant adipokine accounting for the 0.01% of total serum protein, and is involved in a wide variety of physiological processes including energy metabolism, inflammation, and vascular physiology. APN plasma levels are reduced in individuals with obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease, all traits with low-grade chronic inflammation. It is has been suggested that the absence of APN anti-inflammatory effects may be a contributing factor to this inflammation. APN inhibits the expression of tumor necrosis factor-?-induced endothelial adhesion molecules, macrophage-to-foam cell transformation, tumor necrosis factor-? expression in macrophages and adipose tissue, and smooth muscle cell proliferation. It also has anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant effects, which play a role in its cardioprotective action. This review will focus on APN as an anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic and cardioprotective plasma protein. PMID:22796520

Villarreal-Molina, M T; Antuna-Puente, B

2012-10-01

107

Anti-inflammatory potential of silk sericin.  

PubMed

Silk sericin was found to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are related to the inflammatory reaction. The objectives of this study were to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of sericin in vivo using the carrageenan-induced rat edema model and changes in the histology of tissues. The effects of sericin on the expression of COX-2 and iNOS were also evaluated. Sericin solutions at 0.004-0.080 mg/mL were applied topically to the top of the hind paw and carrageenan (1.0 mg) was injected subcutaneously to the plantar surface of the right hind paw. Our results indicated that sericin significantly reduced the inflammation in rats' paw compared with the negative control (water and acetone) and its effect at 0.080 mg/mL was only slightly lower than that of 1.0% w/v indomethacin. Similar numbers of polymorphonuclear and macrophage cells were found in rats' tissue treated with indomethacin and sericin solution, while the numbers were significantly higher in their absence. The gene expression results by RT-PCR showed that the COX-2 and iNOS genes were down-regulated in samples treated with sericin in a dose dependent manner. These data indicated that the anti-inflammatory properties of sericin may be partly attributable to the suppression of the COX-2 enzyme and nitric oxide production. PMID:23738464

Aramwit, Pornanong; Towiwat, Pasarapa; Srichana, Teerapol

2013-04-01

108

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids  

PubMed Central

Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are generated by the activity of both selective and also more general cytochrome p450 (CYP) enzymes on arachidonic acid and inactivated largely by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), which converts them to their corresponding dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs). EETs have been shown to have a diverse range of effects on the vasculature including relaxation of vascular tone, cellular proliferation, and angiogenesis as well as the migration of smooth muscle cells. This paper will highlight the growing evidence that EETs also mediate a number of anti-inflammatory effects in the cardiovascular system. In particular, numerous studies have demonstrated that potentiation of EET activity using different methods can inhibit inflammatory gene expression and signalling pathways in endothelial cells and monocytes and in models of cardiovascular diseases. The mechanisms by which EETs mediate their effects are largely unknown but may include direct binding to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), or transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, which initiate anti-inflammatory signalling cascades. PMID:22848834

Thomson, Scott J.; Askari, Ara; Bishop-Bailey, David

2012-01-01

109

Anti-inflammatory and related pharmacological activities of cultured mycelia and fruiting bodies of Cordyceps militaris.  

PubMed

This study aimed to elucidate pharmacological activities of Cordyceps militaris. The 70% ethanolic extracts of cultured mycelia (CME) and fruiting bodies (FBE) of Cordyceps militaris were prepared. CME was able to directly scavenge the stable free radical diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), indicating its antioxidant activity. Both CME and FBE showed topical anti-inflammatory activity in the croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. CME was found to contain acute anti-inflammatory activity, which was evaluated using the carrageenin-induced edema, and also strong antinociceptive activity in writhing test. CME and FBE contain potent inhibitory activity on the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. Cordycepin, a metabolite of Cordyceps militaris, appeared to be at least partly responsible for its anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic activities. CME concentration-dependently inhibited the NO production and iNOS expression upon stimulation by lipoposaccharide in RAW 264.7, a murine macrophage cell line. In brief, we demontrate that Cordyceps militaris possesses anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activites, and related antioxidant, anti-angiogenic, and NO production-inhibitory activities. PMID:15619578

Won, So-Young; Park, Eun-Hee

2005-01-15

110

Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of leaf extract of Valeriana wallichii DC.  

PubMed

Valeriana wallichii DC (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used traditional remedies for various complications associated with nervous system and digestion. No antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory studies have so far been carried out on the aerial parts of the plant. The present work was focused to evaluate the antimicrobial (antifungal and antibacterial) and anti-inflammatory properties of V. wallichii using reported methods. Chloroform fraction (VW-2) and hexane fraction (VW-3) exhibited significant activity against S. aureus and B. subtilus, respectively. The chloroform fraction (VW-2) showed significant activity against S. aureus with 0.27 mg/ml MIC, where 0.31 mg/ml MIC was deduced for VW-3 fraction against B. subtilus. VW-3 fraction was also found to be the most potent inhibitor of M. canis, showing 70% inhibition with an MIC value of 0.19 mg/ml. Considerable inhibitory activity was also observed for VW-2 and water fraction (VW-6) against M. canis and A. flavus. A remarkable anti-inflammatory like activity was observed for the crude extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg at all observed durations. Other doses of the sample also showed excellent activity. Looking to these results it may be concluded that V. wallichii may be a potential source for activity guided isolation of natural products with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory-like properties. PMID:23009985

Khuda, Fazli; Iqbal, Zafar; Zakiullah; Khan, Ayub; Nasir, Fazli

2012-10-01

111

Modulation of cyclophosphamide-induced early lung injury by curcumin, an anti-inflammatory antioxidant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclophosphamide causes lung injury in rats through its ability to generate free radicals with subsequent endothelial and epithelial cell damage. In order to observe the protective effects of a potent anti-inflammatory antioxidant, curcumin (diferuloyl methane) on cyclophosphamide-induced early lung injury, healthy pathogen free male Wistar rats were exposed to 20 mg\\/100 g body weight of cyclophosphamide, intraperitoneally as a single

Narayanan Venkatesan; Gowri Chandrakasan

1995-01-01

112

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Parthenolide-Depleted Feverfew ( Tanacetum parthenium )  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Extracts of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch. Bip., a plant known under the common name “Feverfew”, contains the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide, a potent\\u000a skin sensitizer. To eliminate the risk of skin sensitization from Feverfew, we developed a parthenolide-depleted extract of\\u000a Feverfew (PD-Feverfew) and determined its effectiveness as an anti-inflammatory agent. We confirmed that PD-Feverfew was sufficiently\\u000a depleted of parthenolide since PD-Feverfew

R. Sur; K. Martin; F. Liebel; P. Lyte; S. Shapiro; M. Southall

2009-01-01

113

Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of 2-(2-aroylaroxy)-4,6-dimethoxy pyrimidines.  

PubMed

Reaction of 6a-f individually with 2-methylsulfonyl-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine yielded 7a-f in excellent yield. The newly synthesized heterocycles were characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, and mass spectral data. Compounds 7a-f was screened for their anti-inflammatory activity and were compared with standard drugs. Of the compounds studied, the compound 7e showed more potent activity than the standard drugs at all doses tested. PMID:18621525

Venu, T D; Khanum, S A; Firdouse, Aiysha; Manuprasad, B K; Shashikanth, Sheena; Mohamed, Riyaz; Vishwanth, Bannikuppe Sannanaik

2008-08-01

114

Develop Anti-Inflammatory Nanotherapies to Treat Cardiovascular Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of disease-related death in the world, accounting for 30 % global mortality. The majority of CVD is caused by atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of major arteries featured by the deposition of lipids and cholesterol. Inflammation of atherosclerosis is mainly promoted by the pathological macrophages and monocytes, and modulating their functions has been proposed as a promising therapeutic target. This dissertation first presents the development of a novel simvastatin-loaded high-density lipoprotein (HDL) based nanoparticle ([S]-rHDL), which was able to deliver anti-inflammatory simvastatin preferentially to inflammatory monocytes in the blood and to macrophages in advanced atherosclerotic plaques, leading to the reduced inflammation in the tissue. Second, extensive in vivo characterization of [S]-rHDL in a mouse atherosclerosis model revealed that the anti-inflammatory capability of [S]-rHDL derived from its effects on blood monocytes, endothelial layer, monocyte recruitment, and plaque macrophage function. Third, a translational study that integrated the use of [S]-rHDL into oral statin treatment demonstrated a great potential for this nanomedicine as an attractive addition to the current high-dose oral statin standard-of-care for acute coronary syndrome. Finally, preliminary results suggested potential applications of the rHDL platform to other macrophage-implicated diseases.

Tang, Jun

115

Evaluation of Anticancer, Antioxidant, and Possible Anti-inflammatory Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Indian Traditional Medication.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer, antioxidant, and possible anti-inflammatory properties of diverse medicinal plants frequently used in Indian traditional medication. The selected botanicals such as Soymida fembrifuga (Roxb.) A. Juss. (Miliaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. (Menispermaceae), Lavandula bipinnata (L.) O. Ktze. (Lamiaceae), and Helicteres isora L. (Sterculiaceae) extracted in different solvents were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer and antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that H. isora has potent cytotoxic activity toward the selected cancer cells such as HeLa-B75 (34.21 ± 0.24%), HL-60 (30.25 ± 1.36%), HEP-3B (25.36 ± 1.78%), and PN-15 (29.21 ± 0.52%). Interestingly, the selected botanicals selectively inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) more than (COX-1), which are the key enzymes implicated in inflammation. COX-2 inhibition was observed to be in the range of 19.66-49.52% as compared to COX-1 inhibition (3.93-19.61%). The results of the antioxidant study revealed that the selected plants were found to be effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), and superoxide radical (SOR) scavenging agents. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint of flavonoids was used as a measure of quality control of the selected plant samples. The results of the present findings strengthen the potential of the selected plants as a resource for the discovery of novel anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant agents. PMID:25379467

Shaikh, Rafik; Pund, Mahesh; Dawane, Ashwini; Iliyas, Sayyed

2014-10-01

116

Carbon Monoxide Induces Cytoprotection in Rat Orthotopic Lung Transplantation via Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Apoptotic Effects  

PubMed Central

Successful lung transplantation has been limited by the high incidence of acute graft rejection. There is mounting evidence that the stress response gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and/or its catalytic by-product carbon monoxide (CO) confers cytoprotection against tissue and cellular injury. This led us to hypothesize that CO may protect against lung transplant rejection via its anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. Orthotopic left lung transplantation was performed in Lewis rat recipients from Brown-Norway rat donors. HO-1 mRNA and protein expression were markedly induced in transplanted rat lungs compared to sham-operated control lungs. Transplanted lungs developed severe intraalveolar hemorrhage, marked infiltration of inflammatory cells, and intravascular coagulation. However, in the presence of CO exposure (500 ppm), the gross anatomy and histology of transplanted lungs showed marked preservation. Furthermore, transplanted lungs displayed increased apoptotic cell death compared with the transplanted lungs of CO-exposed recipients, as assessed by TUNEL and caspase-3 immunostaining. CO exposure inhibited the induction of IL-6 mRNA and protein expression in lung and serum, respectively. Gene array analysis revealed that CO also down-regulated other proinflammatory genes, including MIP-1? and MIF, and growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor, which were up-regulated by transplantation. These data suggest that the anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties of CO confer potent cytoprotection in a rat model of lung transplantation. PMID:12819027

Song, Ruiping; Kubo, Masatoshi; Morse, Danielle; Zhou, Zhihong; Zhang, Xuchen; Dauber, James H.; Fabisiak, James; Alber, Sean M.; Watkins, Simon C.; Zuckerbraun, Brian S.; Otterbein, Leo E.; Ning, Wen; Oury, Tim D.; Lee, Patty J.; McCurry, Kenneth R.; Choi, Augustine M.K.

2003-01-01

117

Evaluation of Anticancer, Antioxidant, and Possible Anti-inflammatory Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Indian Traditional Medication  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer, antioxidant, and possible anti-inflammatory properties of diverse medicinal plants frequently used in Indian traditional medication. The selected botanicals such as Soymida fembrifuga (Roxb.) A. Juss. (Miliaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. (Menispermaceae), Lavandula bipinnata (L.) O. Ktze. (Lamiaceae), and Helicteres isora L. (Sterculiaceae) extracted in different solvents were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer and antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that H. isora has potent cytotoxic activity toward the selected cancer cells such as HeLa-B75 (34.21 ± 0.24%), HL-60 (30.25 ± 1.36%), HEP-3B (25.36 ± 1.78%), and PN-15 (29.21 ± 0.52%). Interestingly, the selected botanicals selectively inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) more than (COX-1), which are the key enzymes implicated in inflammation. COX-2 inhibition was observed to be in the range of 19.66-49.52% as compared to COX-1 inhibition (3.93-19.61%). The results of the antioxidant study revealed that the selected plants were found to be effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), and superoxide radical (SOR) scavenging agents. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint of flavonoids was used as a measure of quality control of the selected plant samples. The results of the present findings strengthen the potential of the selected plants as a resource for the discovery of novel anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant agents. PMID:25379467

Shaikh, Rafik; Pund, Mahesh; Dawane, Ashwini; Iliyas, Sayyed

2014-01-01

118

Structure-based design of phthalimide derivatives as potential cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors: Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.  

PubMed

A group of 30 cyclic imides (1-10a-c) was designed for evaluation as a selective COX-2 inhibitor and investigated in vivo for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Compounds 6a, 6b, 7a and 7b exhibit optimal COX-2 inhibitory potency (IC50 = 0.18, 0.24, 0.28 and 0.36 ?M; respectively) and selectivity index (SI) range of 363-668. In vitro COX-1/COX-2 inhibition structure-activity studies identified compound 6a as a highly potent (IC50 = 0.18 ?M), and an extremely selective [COX-2 (SI) = 668] comparable to celecoxib [COX-2 (SI) > 384], COX-2 inhibitor that showed superior anti-inflammatory activity (ED50 = 54.0 mg/kg) relative to diclofenac (ED50 = 114 mg/kg). Molecular Docking study of the synthesized compound 6a into the active site of COX-2 revealed a similar binding mode to SC-558, a selective COX-2 inhibitor. Docking study showed that the methoxy moeities of 6a inserted deep inside the 2°-pocket of the COX-2 active site, where the O-atoms of such groups underwent an H-bonding interaction with His(90) (3.02 ?), Arg(513) (1.94, 2.83 ?), and Gln(192) (3.25 ?). PMID:25549551

Alanazi, Amer M; El-Azab, Adel S; Al-Suwaidan, Ibrahim A; ElTahir, Kamal Eldin H; Asiri, Yousif A; Abdel-Aziz, Naglaa I; Abdel-Aziz, Alaa A-M

2015-03-01

119

Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of Untreated, Germinated, and Fermented Mung Bean Aqueous Extract  

PubMed Central

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of untreated mung bean (MB), germinated mung bean (GMB), and fermented mung bean (FMB) was performed on both in vitro (inhibition of inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide(NO)) and in vivo (inhibition of ear oedema and reduction of response to pain stimulus) studies. Results showed that both GMB and FMB aqueous extract exhibited potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro results showed that GMB and FMB were potent inflammatory mediator (NO) inhibitors at both 2.5 and 5?mg/mL. Further in vivo studies showed that GMB and FMB aqueous extract at 1000?mg/kg can significantly reduce ear oedema in mice caused by arachidonic acid. Besides, both 200?mg/kg and 1000?mg/kg concentrations of GMB and FMB were found to exhibit potent antinociceptive effects towards hotplate induced pain. With these, it can be concluded that GMB and FMB aqueous extract exhibited potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. PMID:25045389

Ali, Norlaily Mohd; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Yeap, Swee-Keong; Ho, Wan-Yong; Beh, Boon-Kee; Koh, Soo-Peng; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

2014-01-01

120

[Anti-inflammatory action of 2-(2-fluoro-4-biphenylyl) propionic acid (flubiprofen].  

PubMed

2-(2-fluoro-4-biphenylyl) propionic acid (flurbipofen, FP-70), a newly synthesized anti-inflammatory agent, was examined for its effects and then compared with the actions of other standard drugs. Inhibition of capillary permeability in mice: the activity of FP-70 was 7.8 times as potent as ibuprofen (IP), 61 times that of acetylsalicylic acid (AS), 5.7 times that of indomethacin (IM) and 25 times that of phenylbutazone (PB). Inhibition of carrageenin-induced edema in rat paw: the activity of FP-70 was 52 times as potent as IP, 250 times that of potent as AS, 14 times that of potent as IM and 110 times that of potent as PB. Inhibition of heat-induced coagulation of BSA: the activity of FP-70 showed the marked effects much the same as IP. In adrenalectomized rat, FP-70 was also effective. Inhibition of the ultra-violet erythema in guinea-pigs, the activity of FP-70 was 26 times as potent as IP, 790 times that of AS, 25 times that of IM and 68 times that of PB. Regarding the inhibition of CMC induced pouch in rats, the potency of FP-70 was to the same degree as that of predonisolone. In adjuvant induced arthritis in rats, FP-70 reduced and cured inflammatory syndromes and activity was the same or more effective than that of IM. From these results, FP-70 appears to be a most potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:1238328

Takase, K; Masumoto, S; Okumura, M

1975-09-01

121

Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of eight pear cultivars.  

PubMed

The contents of total phenolics, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins, and total triterpenes of eight pear samples were determined, and the monomeric compounds were identified and quantitated using high-performance liquid chromatography. The in vitro antioxidant and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of the different pear cultivars were compared. Arbutin and catechin were the dominant polyphenol compounds in the eight pear varieties, followed by chlorogenic acid, quercetin, and rutin. In addition, Xuehua pear and Nanguo pear had significantly higher total phenolics and flavonoids contents, while Dangshansu pear had the largest total triterpenes value (209.2 mg/100 g). Xuehua pear and Nanguo pear also were the highest in total anthocyanins. The pears with high total phenolics and total flavonoids contents had significantly higher antioxidant and anti-inflammatory abilities than those of other species. Anthocyanins were correlated to antioxidant capacity in pears, whereas total triterpenoids were strongly correlated to anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:22880800

Li, Xia; Zhang, Jun-Ying; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Ying; Wang, Hai-Yang; Cao, Jing-Guo; Huang, Lu-Qi

2012-09-01

122

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and anti oxidant activity of a poly herbal formulation - Chyavana drink  

PubMed Central

The study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of a poly herbal formulation-Chyavana drink. The inflammation was induced in albino rats by carrageenan. The formulation was effective when compared with a known anti-inflammatory drug. The antioxidant activity was studied by invitro methods. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be showing higher percentage of inhibition and reducing power at high concentrations. The phenolic content of Chyavana drink was observed to be high showing a good antioxidant effect. PMID:22557286

Poornima, K.; Thangal, Haseeb Koya; Karpagavalli, S.

2008-01-01

123

The anti-inflammatory agent flufenamic acid depresses store-operated channels by altering mitochondrial calcium homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fenamates like flufenamic acid (FFA) are anti-inflammatory drugs known to alter ion fluxes through the plasma membrane. They are for instance potent blockers of cation and anion channels, and FFA is now commonly used to block currents through TRP channels and receptor-operated channels. However, FFA exerts complex and multifaceted actions on ion transport systems and, in most instances, a molecular

Peng Tu; Gérard Brandolin; Alexandre Bouron

2009-01-01

124

Curcumin, an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, induces heme oxygenase-1 and protects endothelial cells against oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curcumin, a widely used spice and coloring agent in food, has been shown to possess potent antioxidant, antitumor promoting and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism(s) of such pleiotropic action by this yellow pigment is unknown; whether induction of distinct antioxidant genes contributes to the beneficial activities mediated by curcumin remains to be investigated. In the present

Roberto Motterlini; Roberta Foresti; Rekha Bassi; Colin J Green

2000-01-01

125

Berries: anti-inflammatory effects in humans.  

PubMed

A sustained pro-inflammatory state is a major contributing factor in chronic disease development, progression, and complication, including the most commonly known diseases: cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's, and type 2 diabetes. Fruits, such as berries, contain polyphenol compounds purported to have anti-inflammatory activity in humans. Among the most notable polyphenols in berries are anthocyanins, responsible for their distinctive colors of red, blue, and purple. Berries have been studied widely for their antioxidant properties; however, preclinical data suggest important effects on inflammatory pathways. Correspondingly, the effects of berries, including extracts and purified anthocyanins, have been the subject of a number of human trials. This review aims to evaluate the current state of the human science on berry (products) as a source of dietary polyphenols, particularly anthocyanins, to modulate inflammatory status. Identifying dietary strategies that manage the modern-day inflammatory burden has important implications for chronic disease risk reduction and informing dietary guidelines aimed at achieving and maintaining health. PMID:24512603

Joseph, Shama V; Edirisinghe, Indika; Burton-Freeman, Britt M

2014-05-01

126

Repositioning drugs for inflammatory disease - fishing for new anti-inflammatory agents.  

PubMed

Inflammation is an important and appropriate host response to infection or injury. However, dysregulation of this response, with resulting persistent or inappropriate inflammation, underlies a broad range of pathological processes, from inflammatory dermatoses to type 2 diabetes and cancer. As such, identifying new drugs to suppress inflammation is an area of intense interest. Despite notable successes, there still exists an unmet need for new effective therapeutic approaches to treat inflammation. Traditional drug discovery, including structure-based drug design, have largely fallen short of satisfying this unmet need. With faster development times and reduced safety and pharmacokinetic uncertainty, drug repositioning - the process of finding new uses for existing drugs - is emerging as an alternative strategy to traditional drug design that promises an improved risk-reward trade-off. Using a zebrafish in vivo neutrophil migration assay, we undertook a drug repositioning screen to identify unknown anti-inflammatory activities for known drugs. By interrogating a library of 1280 approved drugs for their ability to suppress the recruitment of neutrophils to tail fin injury, we identified a number of drugs with significant anti-inflammatory activity that have not previously been characterized as general anti-inflammatories. Importantly, we reveal that the ten most potent repositioned drugs from our zebrafish screen displayed conserved anti-inflammatory activity in a mouse model of skin inflammation (atopic dermatitis). This study provides compelling evidence that exploiting the zebrafish as an in vivo drug repositioning platform holds promise as a strategy to reveal new anti-inflammatory activities for existing drugs. PMID:25038060

Hall, Christopher J; Wicker, Sophie M; Chien, An-Tzu; Tromp, Alisha; Lawrence, Lisa M; Sun, Xueying; Krissansen, Geoffrey W; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S

2014-09-01

127

Repositioning drugs for inflammatory disease – fishing for new anti-inflammatory agents  

PubMed Central

Inflammation is an important and appropriate host response to infection or injury. However, dysregulation of this response, with resulting persistent or inappropriate inflammation, underlies a broad range of pathological processes, from inflammatory dermatoses to type 2 diabetes and cancer. As such, identifying new drugs to suppress inflammation is an area of intense interest. Despite notable successes, there still exists an unmet need for new effective therapeutic approaches to treat inflammation. Traditional drug discovery, including structure-based drug design, have largely fallen short of satisfying this unmet need. With faster development times and reduced safety and pharmacokinetic uncertainty, drug repositioning – the process of finding new uses for existing drugs – is emerging as an alternative strategy to traditional drug design that promises an improved risk-reward trade-off. Using a zebrafish in vivo neutrophil migration assay, we undertook a drug repositioning screen to identify unknown anti-inflammatory activities for known drugs. By interrogating a library of 1280 approved drugs for their ability to suppress the recruitment of neutrophils to tail fin injury, we identified a number of drugs with significant anti-inflammatory activity that have not previously been characterized as general anti-inflammatories. Importantly, we reveal that the ten most potent repositioned drugs from our zebrafish screen displayed conserved anti-inflammatory activity in a mouse model of skin inflammation (atopic dermatitis). This study provides compelling evidence that exploiting the zebrafish as an in vivo drug repositioning platform holds promise as a strategy to reveal new anti-inflammatory activities for existing drugs. PMID:25038060

Hall, Christopher J.; Wicker, Sophie M.; Chien, An-Tzu; Tromp, Alisha; Lawrence, Lisa M.; Sun, Xueying; Krissansen, Geoffrey W.; Crosier, Kathryn E.; Crosier, Philip S.

2014-01-01

128

Anti-inflammatory action of ?-irradiated genistein in murine peritoneal macrophage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This present study was to examine the cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of gamma (?)-irradiated genistein in murine peritoneal macrophage. Inflammation to macrophage was induced by adding the lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ?-Irradiated genistein significantly decreased the cytotoxicity to murine peritoneal macrophage in dose ranges from 5 to 10 ?M than that of non-irradiated genistein. Anti-inflammatory activity within the doses less than 2 ?M showed that ?-irradiated genistein treatment remarkably reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by decreasing the nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (TNF-?, IL-6) production. In a structural analysis through the high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), ?-irradiated genistein showed a new peak production distinguished from main peak of genistein (non-irradiated). Therefore, increase of anti-inflammatory activity may closely mediate with structural changes induced by ? irradiation exposure. Based on the above result, ?-irradiation could be an effective tool for reduction of toxicity and increase of physiological activity of biomolecules.

Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Baek; Song, Du-Sup; Jin, Yeung-Bae; Park, Jae-Nam; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jong-Heum; Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun

2014-12-01

129

Evaluation of Phytochemical Screening and Anti Inflammatory Activity of Leaves and Stem of Mikania scandens (L.) Wild  

PubMed Central

Background: The greatest disadvantage in the presently available potent synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs lies in their toxicity and reappearance of symptoms after discontinuation. Hence, people are returning to the natural products with the hope of safety and security. Several species of Mikania have been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. Aim: The present study aims to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of the leaves and stem of Mikania scandens in vivo and in vitro. Materials and Methods: The in vitro bioassay consisted of assaying the effect of the extracts against denaturation of protein (egg albumin) and measuring the absorbance. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity was checked by measuring the percentage inhibition of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema after oral administration of the extracts to male Wistar rats. Results: The plant extracts revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, steroids and flavonoids in both the leaf and stem extracts. The in vitro study of leaf extracts of M. scandens demonstrated that at 16000 ?g/ml concentration a better anti-inflammatory activity was exhibited which is more than the stem extracts. Similarly in the in vivo study, carrageenan induced inflammation was significantly antagonized by M. scandens leaf extract, with inhibition of 50% at 1000 mg/kg. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of both leaf and stem of M. scandens showed potent anti-inflammatory activity. In comparison the leaf extract found to be more potent in both the conditions in vivo and in vitro, comparing with the standard drug diclofenac sodium and traditional control rumalaya perhaps due to the presence of phytochemicals like alkaloids and flavonoids in the plant. PMID:25221699

Banerjee, S; Chanda, A; Adhikari, A; Das, AK; Biswas, S

2014-01-01

130

Use of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs That Elevate Cardiovascular Risk: An Examination of Sales and Essential Medicines Lists in Low-, Middle-, and High-Income Countries  

PubMed Central

Background Certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (e.g., rofecoxib [Vioxx]) increase the risk of heart attack and stroke and should be avoided in patients at high risk of cardiovascular events. Rates of cardiovascular disease are high and rising in many low- and middle-income countries. We studied the extent to which evidence on cardiovascular risk with NSAIDs has translated into guidance and sales in 15 countries. Methods and Findings Data on the relative risk (RR) of cardiovascular events with individual NSAIDs were derived from meta-analyses of randomised trials and controlled observational studies. Listing of individual NSAIDs on Essential Medicines Lists (EMLs) was obtained from the World Health Organization. NSAID sales or prescription data for 15 low-, middle-, and high-income countries were obtained from Intercontinental Medical Statistics Health (IMS Health) or national prescription pricing audit (in the case of England and Canada). Three drugs (rofecoxib, diclofenac, etoricoxib) ranked consistently highest in terms of cardiovascular risk compared with nonuse. Naproxen was associated with a low risk. Diclofenac was listed on 74 national EMLs, naproxen on just 27. Rofecoxib use was not documented in any country. Diclofenac and etoricoxib accounted for one-third of total NSAID usage across the 15 countries (median 33.2%, range 14.7–58.7%). This proportion did not vary between low- and high-income countries. Diclofenac was by far the most commonly used NSAID, with a market share close to that of the next three most popular drugs combined. Naproxen had an average market share of less than 10%. Conclusions Listing of NSAIDs on national EMLs should take account of cardiovascular risk, with preference given to low risk drugs. Diclofenac has a risk very similar to rofecoxib, which was withdrawn from worldwide markets owing to cardiovascular toxicity. Diclofenac should be removed from EMLs. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23424288

McGettigan, Patricia; Henry, David

2013-01-01

131

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Palmitoylethanolamide on Human Adipocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity leads to the appearance of an inflammatory process, which can be initiated even with a moderate weight gain. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous lipid, secreted by human adipocytes, that possesses numerous anti-inflammatory properties. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of PEA on human adipocytes, as well as in a murine model. The production

Laurence Hoareau; Marion Buyse; Franck Festy; Palaniyandi Ravanan; Marie-Paule Gonthier; Isabel Matias; Stefania Petrosino; Frank Tallet; Christian Lefebvre d'Hellencourt; Maya Cesari; Vincenzo Di Marzo; Régis Roche

2009-01-01

132

The vagus nerve and the nicotinic anti-inflammatory pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological anti-inflammatory mechanisms are selected by evolution to effectively control the immune system and can be exploited for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Recent studies indicate that the vagus nerve (which is the longest of the cranial nerves and innervates most of the peripheral organs) can modulate the immune response and control inflammation through a 'nicotinic anti-inflammatory pathway' dependent on

Luis Ulloa

2005-01-01

133

Sol-gel-derived magnetic SiO2/TiO2 nanocomposite reinforced hollow fiber-solid phase microextraction for enrichment of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs from human hair prior to high performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Hollow fiber-solid phase micro-extraction (HF-SPME) technique containing sol-gel-derived Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 core-double shell nanocomposite as a novel high efficiency sorbent, coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was used to extraction and determination of six non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; acetylsalicylic acid, naproxen, piroxicam, diclofenac, indomethacin and mefenamic acid, in hair samples. First, magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) ions (where the ratio of Fe(II) to Fe(III) is 1:2 and a non-oxidizing environment), in alkaline medium to produce magnetite particles. Subsequently, surface of Fe3O4-NPs was modified with SiO2 and TiO2 using layer-by-layer chemical technique. A core-shell structure of Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 composite was prepared by coating magnetite core particles with silica and titania layers. In the proposed method, NSAIDs were extracted by the synthesized nanocomposite and analyzed by HPLC. The parameters affecting the efficiency of magnetic nanoparticle (MNPs) assisted HF-SPME were investigated and optimized. The method validation was included and satisfying results with high pre-concentration factors (405 up to 2450) were obtained. It owes large surface area and porosity of the nano-adsorbent. Under the optimal conditions, the method detection limits (S/N=3) were in the range of 0.01-0.10?gml(-1) and the limits of quantification (S/N=10) between 0.04 and 0.30?gml(-1). Relative standard deviations were 3.09-6.61%. Eventually, the method was successfully applied to human hair after administration of NSAIDs. PMID:25464107

Es'haghi, Zarrin; Esmaeili-Shahri, Effat

2014-10-01

134

Luteolin exhibits anti-inflammatory effects by blocking the activity of heat shock protein 90 in macrophages.  

PubMed

Septic diseases represent the prevalent complications in intensive care units. Luteolin, a plant flavonoid, has potent anti-inflammatory properties; however, the molecular mechanism beneath luteolin mediated immune modulation remains unclear. Here in vitro investigations showed that luteolin dose-dependently inhibited LPS-triggered secretion and relocation of high mobility group B-1 (HMGB1) and LPS-induced production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and nitric oxide (NO) in macrophages. The mechanism analysis demonstrated that luteolin reduced the release of HMGB1 through destabilizing c-Jun and suppressed HMGB1-induced aggravation of inflammatory cascade through reducing Akt protein level. As an inhibitor of Hsp90, luteolin destabilized Hsp90 client protein c-Jun and Akt. In vivo investigations showed that luteolin effectively protected mice from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lethality. In conclusion, the present study suggested that luteolin may act as a potential therapeutic reagent for treating septic diseases. PMID:24321097

Chen, Dan; Bi, Aijing; Dong, Xiaoliang; Jiang, Yi; Rui, Bing; Liu, Jinjiao; Yin, Zhimin; Luo, Lan

2014-01-01

135

The glucocorticoid receptor as target for classic and novel anti-inflammatory therapy.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoids are well known for their potent anti-inflammatory and immune-suppressive actions. Their clinical usefulness remains limited due to serious side effects that have necessitated a search for ways of improving their benefit-risk ratios. Mechanistically, glucocorticoids function by interacting with an intracellular receptor, the glucocorticoid receptor, a ligand-regulated transcription factor that positively or negatively alters the expression of specific genes. While it is well accepted that distinct negative regulatory action of this receptor forms the basis of the desired anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids, not much is known about the function of the receptor that contributes to its side effects. The fact that a number of cellular metabolic control genes are positively regulated by glucocorticoids makes positive regulation of gene expression an attractive mode of action for the adverse effects. Positive regulation of gene expression by glucocorticoids, however, occurs through different mechanisms and in cell-type specific manner making it difficult to predict its possible biological effects in one single assay procedure. Recent advances in the molecular action of the receptor are gradually revealing different assays and important characteristics that can be put together in determining the physiological consequences of the different transactivation functions of the glucocorticoid receptor. These will provide invaluable source of information for the search of glucocorticoid receptor agonists with potent anti-inflammatory but reduced side effects. PMID:15584885

Cato, Andrew C B; Schäcke, Heike; Sterry, Wolfram; Asadullah, Khusru

2004-12-01

136

Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity assessment of plants used as remedy in Turkish folk medicine.  

PubMed

Ethanolic and aqueous extracts from seven plant species used in Turkish traditional medicine were evaluated for in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities; Helleborus orientalis Lam. roots and herbs, Juglans regia L. leaves, Laurocerasus officinalis Roemer leaves, Nerium oleander L. dried and fresh flowers and leaves, Rhododendron ponticum L. leaves, Rubus hirtus Walds. et Kit aerial parts and Rubus sanctus Schreber aerial parts and roots. All the plant extracts, except the aqueous extract of Rubus hirtus, were shown to possess significant antinociceptive activity in varying degrees against p-benzoquinone-induced abdominal contractions in mice. However, only the ethanolic extracts of Helleborus orientalis roots, Juglans regia leaves, Laurocerasus officinalis leaves, Nerium oleander dried and fresh flowers, and Rhododendron ponticum leaves exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model in mice without inducing any gastric damage. Results of the present study confirmed the folkloric claim that all the selected materials to possess potent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:14522443

Erdemoglu, Nurgun; Küpeli, Esra; Ye?ilada, Erdem

2003-11-01

137

Artificial matrices with high-sulfated glycosaminoglycans and collagen are anti-inflammatory and pro-osteogenic for human mesenchymal stromal cells.  

PubMed

Bone healing has been described to be most efficient if the early inflammatory phase is resolved timely. When the inflammation elevates or is permanently established, bone healing becomes impaired and, moreover, bone destruction often takes place. Systemic disorders such as diabetes and bone diseases like arthritis and osteoporosis are associated with sustained inflammation and delayed bone healing. One goal of biomaterial research is the development of materials/surface modifications which support the healing process by inhibiting the inflammatory bone erosion and suppressing pro-inflammatory mediators and by that promoting the bone repair process. In the present study, the influence of artificial extracellular matrices (aECM) on the interleukin (IL)-1?-induced pro-inflammatory response of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC) was studied. hMSC cultured on aECM composed of collagen I and high-sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) derivatives did not secrete IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and prostaglandin E2 in response to IL-1?. The activation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor ?Bp65 induced by IL-1?, tumor necrosis factor-? or lipopolysaccharide was abrogated. Furthermore, these aECM promoted the osteogenic differentiation of hMSC as determined by an increased activity of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP); however, the aECM had no effect on the IL-1?-induced TNAP activity. These data suggest that aECM with high-sulfated GAG derivatives suppress the formation of pro-inflammatory mediators and simultaneously promote the osteogenic differentiation of hMSC. Therefore, these aECM might offer an interesting approach as material/surface modification supporting the bone healing process. PMID:24706396

Hempel, Ute; Matthäus, Claudia; Preissler, Carolin; Möller, Stephanie; Hintze, Vera; Dieter, Peter

2014-09-01

138

Assessment of Anti-inflammatory Activity of Taxus Baccata Linn. Bark Extract.  

PubMed

Taxus baccata (L) known as Sthauneyaka in Sanskrit(1) has wide range of biological activities including analgesic, anti-malarial, anti-rheumatic, sedative, anti-spasmodic, aphrodisiac and anti-asthmatic. In the present study, the dried and powdered bark of Taxus baccata (L) was extracted with 95% ethanol and ether at room temperature and screened for their anti--inflammatory activity by Carrageenan-induced paw edema method in rat. 95% ethanol extract exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity at 200mg/kg four hours after administration in comparison with ether extract, as well reference standard, Aspirin. The observed pharmacological activities provide a scientific basis for the folklore use of the plant in treating acute inflammation. PMID:22557354

Dutta, Satyajit; Mariappan, G; Sarkar, Dipankar; Sarkar, Piyali

2010-01-01

139

Anti-Leishmanial, Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Activities of Phenolic Derivatives from Tibouchina paratropica.  

PubMed

A new phenolic derivative, 2,8-dihydroxy-7H-furo[2,3-f]chromen-7-one (1), together with isoquercitrin (2), was isolated from the aerial parts of Tibouchina paratropica. Compound structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Both compounds show antimicrobial activity towards a panel of bacterial and fungal pathogens, and compound 1 displayed potent anti-parasitic activity against Leishmania donovani (IC50 ?=?0.809?µg/mL). In addition, an 85% reduction in the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was recorded when macrophages challenged with lipopolysaccharide were exposed to compound 1, but no effect on the anti-inflammatory IL-10 was observed. Compound 2 showed neither anti-parasitic nor anti-inflammatory properties. In addition, no cytotoxic activities were observed against the human-derived macrophage THP-1 cells. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25417600

Tracanna, María I; Fortuna, Antonio M; Contreras Cárdenas, Angel V; Marr, Alexandra K; McMaster, W Robert; Gómez-Velasco, Anaximandro; Sánchez-Arreola, Eugenio; Hernández, Luis Ricardo; Bach, Horacio

2015-03-01

140

Controlled tetra-Fc sialylation of IVIg results in a drug candidate with consistent enhanced anti-inflammatory activity  

PubMed Central

Despite the beneficial therapeutic effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in inflammatory diseases, consistent therapeutic efficacy and potency remain major limitations for patients and physicians using IVIg. These limitations have stimulated a desire to generate therapeutic alternatives that could leverage the broad mechanisms of action of IVIg while improving therapeutic consistency and potency. The identification of the important anti-inflammatory role of fragment crystallizable domain (Fc) sialylation has presented an opportunity to develop more potent Ig therapies. However, translating this concept to potent anti-inflammatory therapeutics has been hampered by the difficulty of generating suitable sialylated products for clinical use. Therefore, we set out to develop the first, to our knowledge, robust and scalable process for generating a well-qualified sialylated IVIg drug candidate with maximum Fc sialylation devoid of unwanted alterations to the IVIg mixture. Here, we describe a controlled enzymatic, scalable process to produce a tetra-Fc–sialylated (s4-IVIg) IVIg drug candidate and its qualification across a wide panel of analytic assays, including physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, biodistribution, and in vivo animal models of inflammation. Our in vivo characterization of this drug candidate revealed consistent, enhanced anti-inflammatory activity up to 10-fold higher than IVIg across different animal models. To our knowledge, this candidate represents the first s4-IVIg suitable for clinical use; it is also a valuable therapeutic alternative with more consistent and potent anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:25733881

Washburn, Nathaniel; Schwab, Inessa; Ortiz, Daniel; Bhatnagar, Naveen; Lansing, Jonathan C.; Medeiros, Amy; Tyler, Steven; Mekala, Divya; Cochran, Edward; Sarvaiya, Hetal; Garofalo, Kevin; Meccariello, Robin; Meador, James W.; Rutitzky, Laura; Schultes, Birgit C.; Ling, Leona; Avery, William; Nimmerjahn, Falk; Manning, Anthony M.; Kaundinya, Ganesh V.; Bosques, Carlos J.

2015-01-01

141

Estimation of total phenolic content, in-vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of flowers of Moringa oleifera  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate and compare the antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of flowers of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) grown in Oman. Methods Flowers of M. oleifera were collected in the month of December 2012 and identified by a botanist. Alcoholic extract of the dry pulverized flowers of M. oleifera were obtained by cold maceration method. The ethanolic flower extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening as the reported methods. Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to estimate total phenolic content. DPPH was used to determine in-vitro antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity of flowers was investigated by protein denaturation method. Results Phytochemical analysis of extract showed presence of major classes of phytochemicals such as tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides etc. M. oleifera flowers were found to contain 19.31 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent of total phenolics in dry extract but exhibited moderate antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of plant extract was significant and comparable with the standard drug diclofenac sodium. Conclusions The results of our study suggest that flowers of M. oleifera possess potent anti-inflammatory activity and are also a good source of natural antioxidants. Further study is needed to identify the chemical compounds responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:23905019

Alhakmani, Fatma; Kumar, Sokindra; Khan, Shah Alam

2013-01-01

142

Wound repair and anti-inflammatory potential of Lonicera japonica in excision wound-induced rats  

PubMed Central

Background Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae), a widely used traditional Chinese medicinal plant, is used to treat some infectious diseases and it may have uses as a healthy food and applications in cosmetics and as an ornamental groundcover. The ethanol extract of the flowering aerial parts of L. japonica (LJEE) was investigated for its healing efficiency in a rat excision wound model. Methods Excision wounds were inflicted upon three groups of eight rats each. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction in skin wound sites in rats treated with simple ointment base, 10% (w/w) LJEE ointment, or the reference standard drug, 0.2% (w/w) nitrofurazone ointment. The effects of LJEE on the contents of hydroxyproline and hexosamine during healing were estimated. The antimicrobial activity of LJEE against microorganisms was also assessed. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of LJEE was investigated to understand the mechanism of wound healing. Results LJEE exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Candida tropicalis. The ointment formulation prepared with 10% (w/w) LJEE exhibited potent wound healing capacity as evidenced by the wound contraction in the excision wound model. The contents of hydroxyproline and hexosamine also correlated with the observed healing pattern. These findings were supported by the histopathological characteristics of healed wound sections, as greater tissue regeneration, more fibroblasts, and angiogenesis were observed in the 10% (w/w) LJEE ointment-treated group. The results also indicated that LJEE possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity, as it enhanced the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines that suppress proinflammatory cytokine production. Conclusions The results suggest that the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of LJEE act synergistically to accelerate wound repair. PMID:23173654

2012-01-01

143

A neutrophil multitarget functional bioassay to detect anti-inflammatory natural products.  

PubMed

A multitarget functional bioassay was optimized as a method for detecting substances interacting with the inflammatory process of activated neutrophil granulocytes, mainly to release elastase detected by p-nitroanilide (pNA) formation. Using this bioassay, 100 fractionated extracts of 96 plants were screened, with results presented in a manner that links recorded biological activity to phylogenetic information. The plants were selected to represent a major part of the angiosperms, with emphasis on medicinal plants, Swedish anti-inflammatory plants, and plants known to contain peptides. Of the tested extracts, 41% inhibited pNA formation more than 60%, and 3% stimulated formation. The extract of Digitalis purpurea enhanced pNA formation, and digitoxin, the active compound, was isolated and identified. Plant extracts that exhibited potent nonselective inhibition (>80% inhibition) were evaluated further for direct inhibition of isolated elastase and trypsin enzyme. The inhibitory effect of most tested extracts on the isolated enzyme elastase was similar to that of PAF- and fMLP-induced pNA formation. Compared to trypsin, inhibition of elastase by extracts of Rubus idaeus and Tabernaemontana dichotoma was significantly higher (80% and 99%, respectively). Inhibition of trypsin by the extract of Reseda luteola was high (97%). Orders such as Lamiales and Brassicales were shown to include a comparably high proportion of plants with inhibitory extracts. PMID:11809061

Johansson, Senia; Göransson, Ulf; Luijendijk, Teus; Backlund, Anders; Claeson, Per; Bohlin, Lars

2002-01-01

144

Anti-inflammatory triterpenoids from mysterious mushroom Ganoderma lucidum and their potential possibility in modern medicine.  

PubMed

Ganoderma lucidum, a mushroom long used in the East for a broad range of disorders, contains numerous pharmacologically active compounds. Very important of them are highly oxygenated anti-inflammatory triterpenes, which are the aim of this mini-review. PMID:10812678

Patocka, J

1999-01-01

145

Acai juice attenuates atherosclerosis in apoe deficient mice through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective - Acai fruit pulp has received much attention because of its high antioxidant capacity and potential anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, athero-protective effects of açaí juice were investigated in apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE -/-) mice. Methods and Results - ApoE-/- mice were f...

146

Antidepressant augmentation with anti-inflammatory agents.  

PubMed

Antidepressant augmentation strategies are commonly employed to treat depressed patients who do not respond to antidepressant monotherapy. Neuroinflammatory mechanisms have been implicated in depression, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been found effective in animal models of depression both in monotherapy and when used to augment antidepressant drugs. However, results with NSAIDs have been mixed in human observational studies, with both better and worse depression outcomes reported. Four small (pooled N = 160) randomized controlled trials suggest that celecoxib (200-400 mg/d) augmentation of antidepressant medication improves 4-6 week outcomes in major depressive disorder. There are no data, however, to support the use of celecoxib or other NSAIDs in antidepressant-resistant depression. There are also concerns about adverse events associated with NSAID treatment, and about pharmacodynamic drug interactions between these drugs and serotonin reuptake inhibitors. A reasonable conclusion for the present is that NSAID augmentation of antidepressants is, at best, a tentative approach in nonrefractory major depression. PMID:25295422

Andrade, Chittaranjan

2014-09-01

147

The anti-inflammatory action of nepitrin, a flavonoid.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory efficacy of nepitrin (5,3',4'-trihydroxy-6-methoxy flavone), a flavonoid, was investigated in both acute and chronic models of inflammation in rats. Nepitrin was found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity in the exudative and proliferative phases of inflammation. This action of nepitrin could be due to its anti-bradykinin and anti-angiotensin action. Nepitrin also possessed anti-pyretic and weak analgesic activity. The study reveals that nepitrin may be useful as an anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic agent. PMID:6982607

Agarwal, O P

1982-07-01

148

Anti-inflammatory and antipruritic effects of luteolin from Perilla (P. frutescens L.) leaves.  

PubMed

Perilla (Perilla frutescens L.) leaves have shown therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of inflammatory disorders, allergies, bronchial asthma, and systemic damage due to free radicals. In the present study we analyzed the active constituents in perilla leaves using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and isolated luteolin, a polyphenolic flavonoid. We investigated the anti-inflammatory and antipruritic properties of luteolin. Luteolin inhibited the secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1? (IL-1 ?) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) from human mast cells (HMC-1) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 in a dose-dependent manner. Luteolin also significantly reduced the histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells stimulated by compound 48/80, a potent histamine liberator. Furthermore, the administration of luteolin markedly inhibited the scratching behavior and vascular permeability induced by pruritogens, such as compound 48/80 or serotonin, in ICR mice. These results suggested that luteolin has potential as a therapeutic agent against inflammation and itch-related skin diseases. PMID:24871572

Jeon, In Hwa; Kim, Hyeon Soo; Kang, Hyun Ju; Lee, Hyun-Seo; Jeong, Seung Il; Kim, Sang Jun; Jang, Seon Il

2014-01-01

149

Anti-inflammatory therapies for cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Atherothrombosis is no longer considered solely a disorder of lipoprotein accumulation in the arterial wall. Rather, the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic lesions is currently understood to have major inflammatory influences that encompass components of both the innate and acquired immune systems. Promising clinical data for 'upstream' biomarkers of inflammation such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as 'downstream' biomarkers such as C-reactive protein, observations regarding cholesterol crystals as an activator of the IL-1? generating inflammasome, and recent Mendelian randomization data for the IL-6 receptor support the hypothesis that inflammatory mediators of atherosclerosis may converge on the central IL-1, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-?), IL-6 signalling pathway. On this basis, emerging anti-inflammatory approaches to vascular protection can be categorized into two broad groups, those that target the central IL-6 inflammatory signalling pathway and those that do not. Large-scale Phase III trials are now underway with agents that lead to marked reductions in IL-6 and C-reactive protein (such as canakinumab and methotrexate) as well as with agents that impact on diverse non-IL-6-dependent pathways (such as varespladib and darapladib). Both approaches have the potential to benefit patients and reduce vascular events. However, care should be taken when interpreting these trials as outcomes for agents that target IL-6 signalling are unlikely to be informative for therapies that target alternative pathways, and vice versa. As the inflammatory system is redundant, compensatory, and crucial for survival, evaluation of risks as well as benefits must drive the development of agents in this class. PMID:24864079

Ridker, Paul M; Lüscher, Thomas F

2014-07-14

150

Evaluation of the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities of Euphorbia hirta ethanolic extract.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of a Euphorbia hirta L. extract. The antioxidant activities of whole E. hirta ethanol extract were determined by electron spin resonance spectrophotometric analysis of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, and alkyl radical levels and by using an online high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay. The E. hirta ethanol extract (0.5 mg/mL) exhibited DPPH-scavenging activity of 61.19% ± 0.22%, while the positive control (0.5 mg/mL ascorbic acid) had 100% ± 0.22% activity. The concentration of the extract required to trap 50% of DPPH (IC50) was 0.205 mg/mL. Online HPLC analysis of the extract also showed strong antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of the E. hirta extract was assessed in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory activity was highest in the presence of 200 µg/mL E. hirta extract, and nitric oxide production was decreased significantly (p < 0.05). The extract also showed selective anticancer activity at a concentration of 100 µg/mL (p < 0.05). These results indicated that E. hirta may warrant further investigation for the development of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer herbal medications. PMID:25225720

Sharma, Neelesh; Samarakoon, Kalpa W; Gyawali, Rajendra; Park, Yang-Ho; Lee, Sung-Jin; Oh, Sung Jong; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Jeong, Dong Kee

2014-01-01

151

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Delonix regia (Boj. Ex. Hook).  

PubMed

The present work was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Delonix regia leaves (Family: Caesalpiniaceae). The powder of Delonix regia leaves was subjected to extraction with ethanol in soxhlet extractor. The ethanol extract after preliminary phytochemical investigation showed the presence of sterols, triterpenoids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma at a three different doses (100, 200, and 400?mg/kg b.w. p.o.) of ethanol extract. The ethanol extract of Delonix regia leaves was exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity at the dose of 400?mg/kg in both models when compared with control group. Indomethacin (10?mg/kg b.w. p.o) was also shown significant anti-inflammatory activity in both models. PMID:22110490

Shewale, Vaishali D; Deshmukh, Tushar A; Patil, Liladhar S; Patil, Vijay R

2012-01-01

152

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of ketoprofen in palm oil esters nanoemulsion.  

PubMed

Ketoprofen is a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug has been used in the treatment of various kinds of pains, inflammation and arthritis. However, oral administration of ketoprofen produces serious gastrointestinal adverse effects. One of the promising methods to overcome these adverse effects is to administer the drug through the skin. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects from topically applied ketoprofen entrapped palm oil esters (POEs) based nanoemulsion and to compare with market ketoprofen product, Fastum(®) gel. The novelty of this study is, use of POEs for the oil phase of nanoemulsion. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic studies were performed on rats by carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema test and carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia pain threshold test to compare the ketoprofen entrapped POEs based nanoemulsion formulation and market formulation. Results indicated that there are no significant different between ketoprofen entrapped POEs nanoemulsion and market formulation in carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema study and carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia pain threshold study. However, it shows a significant different between POEs nanoemulsion formulation and control group in these studies at p<0.05. From these results it was concluded that the developed nanoemulsion have great potential for topical application of ketoprofen. PMID:21099145

Sakeena, M H F; Yam, M F; Elrashid, S M; Munavvar, A S; Azmin, M N

2010-01-01

153

The anti-inflammatory action of nepitrin, a flavonoid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anti-inflammatory efficacy of nepitrin (5,3?,4?-trihydroxy-6-methoxy flavone), a flavonoid, was investigated in both acute and chronic models of inflammation in rats. Nepitrin was found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity in the exudative and proliferative phases of inflammation. This action of nepitrin could be due to its anti-bradykinin and anti-angiotensin action. Nepitrin also possessed anti-pyretic and weak analgesic activity. The study

O. P. Agarwal

1982-01-01

154

Identification of anti-inflammatory constituents in Hypericum perforatum and Hypericum gentianoides extracts using RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages  

PubMed Central

Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) is an herb widely used as supplement for mild to moderate depression. Our prior studies revealed synergistic anti-inflammatory activity associated with 4 bioactive compounds in a fraction of H. perforatum ethanol extract. Whether these 4 compounds also contributed to the ethanol extract activity was addressed in the research reported here. Despite the popularity of H. perforatum, other Hypericum species with different phytochemical profiles could have their anti-inflammatory potentials attributed to these or other compounds. In the current study, ethanol extracts of different Hypericum species were compared for their inhibitory effect on LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. Among these extracts, those made from H. perforatum and H. gentianoides demonstrated stronger overall efficacy. LC-MS analysis indicated the 4 compounds in H. perforatum extract and pseudohypericin in all active fractions. The 4 compounds accounted for a significant part of the extract’s inhibitory activity on PGE2, NO, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) in RAW 264.7 as well as peritoneal macrophages. Pseudohypericin was the most important contributor of the anti-inflammatory potential among the 4 compounds. The lipophilic fractions of H. gentianoides extract, which did not contain the previously identified active constituents, decreased PGE2 and NO potently. These fractions were rich in acylphloroglucinols, including uliginosin A that accounted for a proportion of the anti-inflammatory activity observed with the active fractions. Overall, the current study revealed a different group of major anti-inflammatory constituents in H. gentianoides, while showing that a previously identified 4 compounds combination was important for H. perforatum’s anti-inflammatory potential. PMID:21855951

Huang, Nan; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Hauck, Cathy; Nikolau, Basil J.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Birt, Diane F.

2011-01-01

155

Physicochemical characteristics and anti-inflammatory activities of antrodan, a novel glycoprotein isolated from Antrodia cinnamomea mycelia.  

PubMed

Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) is a unique fungus found inhabiting the rotten wood of Cinnamomum kanehirai. A submerged liquid culture of AC has been developed and its bioproducts have been used to meet the market demand for natural fruiting bodies. AC exhibits anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. Previously, we isolated polysaccharide AC-2 from AC mycelia by means of alkali extraction with subsequent acid precipitation and found it had a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, a novel polysaccharide named "antrodan" was obtained by further purification of AC-2 using Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. Antrodan exhibited a molecular weight of 442 kD and contained a particularly high content of uronic acid (152.6±0.8 mg/g). The protein content was 71.0%, apparently, higher than the carbohydrate content (14.1%), and thus antrodan was characterized as a glycoprotein. Its total glucan content was 15.65%, in which ?-glucan (14.20%) was prominently higher than ?-glucan (1.45%). Its FTIR confirmed the presence of ?-linkages between sugars, and intramolecular amide bonds between sugars and amino acids. Its 1H-NMR spectrum showed that antrodan was a complex union of ?- and ?-glucans, which had (1?4)-linked ?-Glcp and (1?3)-linked ?-Glcp linkages to the carbohydrate chains via asparagine linked to protein site. Biologically, antrodan was confirmed to be totally non-detrimental to RAW 264.7 cell line even at dose as high as 400 ?g/mL. It showed potent suppressing effect on the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 cell line. Moreover, antrodan significantly reduced the nitrogen oxide production at doses as low as 18.75 ?g/mL. PMID:24451244

Chiu, Chun-Hung; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Ker, Yaw-Bee; Chen, Chin-Chu; Lee, Arwen; Chang, Wan-Lin; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Peng, Robert Y

2013-01-01

156

Structure-activity relationships of 6-(aminomethylphenoxy)-benzoxaborole derivatives as anti-inflammatory agent.  

PubMed

A series of novel 6-(aminomethylphenoxy)benzoxaborole analogs was synthesized for the investigation of the structure-activity relationship of the inhibition of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6, from lipopolysaccharide stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Compounds 9d and 9e showed potent activity against all three cytokines with IC50 values between 33 and 83nM. Chloro substituted analog 9e (AN3485) is considered to be a promising lead for novel anti-inflammatory agent with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile. PMID:23411072

Akama, Tsutomu; Virtucio, Charlotte; Dong, Chen; Kimura, Richard; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Nieman, James A; Sharma, Rashmi; Lu, Xiaosong; Sales, Marcelo; Singh, Rajeshwar; Wu, Anne; Fan, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Liang; Plattner, Jacob J; Jarnagin, Kurt; Freund, Yvonne R

2013-03-15

157

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of A-286501, a novel orally active adenosine kinase inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adenosine (ADO) is an inhibitory neuromodulator that can increase nociceptive thresholds in response to noxious stimulation. Inhibition of the ADO-metabolizing enzyme, adenosine kinase (AK) increases extracellular ADO concentrations at sites of tissue trauma and AK inhibitors may have therapeutic potential as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents. N7-((1?R,2?S,3?R,4?S)-2?,3?-dihydroxy-4?-amino-cyclopentyl)-4-amino-5-bromo-pyrrolo[2,3-a]pyrimidine (A-286501) is a novel and potent (IC50=0.47nM) carbocyclic nucleoside AK inhibitor that has no

Michael F. Jarvis; Haixia Yu; Steve McGaraughty; Carol T. Wismer; Joe Mikusa; Chang Zhu; Katharine Chu; Kathy Kohlhaas; Marlon Cowart; Chih-Hung Lee; Andrew O. Stewart; Bryan F. Cox; James Polakowski; Elizabeth A. Kowaluk

2002-01-01

158

The Anti-inflammatory Effects of Water Extract from Cordyceps militaris in Murine Macrophage  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of hot water extract from Cordyceps militaris fruiting bodies (CMWE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) release in RAW 264.7 cells. The treatment of macrophages with various concentrations of hot CMWE significantly reduced LPS-induced production as well as NO, TNF-? and IL-6 secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that CMWE have potent inhibitory effects on the production of these inflammatory mediators. PMID:23956624

Jo, Wol Soon; Choi, Yoo Jin; Kim, Hyoun Ji; Lee, Jae Yun; Nam, Byung Hyouk; Lee, Jae Dong; Lee, Sang Wha; Seo, Su Yeong

2010-01-01

159

Synthesis and crystallographic analysis of benzophenone derivatives--the potential anti-inflammatory agents.  

PubMed

Fries rearrangement of substituted phenyl benzoates 1a-j to substituted hydroxy benzophenones 2a-j was achieved in excellent yield. Further benzoylation of 2a-j to benzoyloxy benzophenones 4a-n, a benzophenone analogue was achieved in good yield. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity and were compared with standard drugs. Out of the compounds studied, the compounds 4c, 4e, 4g, 4h and 4k with chloro and methyl substituents at para position showed more potent activity than the standard drugs at all doses tested. PMID:17376692

Venu, T D; Shashikanth, S; Khanum, S A; Naveen, S; Firdouse, Aiysha; Sridhar, M A; Shashidhara Prasad, J

2007-05-15

160

Anti-inflammatory activity of parthenolide-depleted Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium).  

PubMed

Extracts of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch. Bip., a plant known under the common name "Feverfew", contains the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide, a potent skin sensitizer. To eliminate the risk of skin sensitization from Feverfew, we developed a parthenolide-depleted extract of Feverfew (PD-Feverfew) and determined its effectiveness as an anti-inflammatory agent. We confirmed that PD-Feverfew was sufficiently depleted of parthenolide since PD-Feverfew did not inhibit TNF-alpha induced-NF-kappaB activity unlike parthenolide containing whole Feverfew. PD-Feverfew directly inhibited the activity of pro-inflammatory enzymes 5-lipoxygenase, phosphodiesterase-3 and phosphodiesterase-4. PD-Feverfew inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory mediators nitric oxide, PGE(2) and TNF-alpha from macrophages and TNF-alpha, IL-2, IFN-gamma and IL-4 from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Additionally, PD-Feverfew inhibited TPA-induced release of PGE(2) from human skin equivalents. In vivo, PD-Feverfew inhibited oxazolone-induced dermatitis, and was more potent than whole Feverfew in reducing TPA-induced dermatitis. Finally the efficacy of PD-Feverfew was confirmed clinically by a reduction in erythema in a methyl nicotinate-induced vasodilation model. In conclusion, our results indicate that PD-Feverfew extracts have potent anti-inflammatory activity suggesting that this botanical would be efficacious in relieving inflammation without inducing immune sensitization. PMID:19112586

Sur, R; Martin, K; Liebel, F; Lyte, P; Shapiro, S; Southall, M

2009-02-01

161

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of the ethanol extract from Murdannia loriformis (Hassk.) Rolla Rao et Kammathy  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Murdannia loriformis (hassk) Rolla Roa et Kammathy, family Commelinaceae, is used by Chinese practitioners as a remedy for cancer in an early stage, and also for treating other diseases including colds, throat infections, pneumonia, diabetes mellitus, flu and inflammation. Although anticancer as well as other pharmacological effects of M. loriformis have been reported, its anti-inflammatory and other activities related to inflammation are still limited. Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema in rats, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. The analgesic and antipyretic activities were determined by formalin test in mice and yeast-induced hyperthermia in rats, respectively. Results: The ethanol extract of the aerial part of M. loriformis exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on the rat paw edema induced by carrageenan and arachidonic acid. It also showed an inhibitory effect on the granuloma and the transudative formation of the rat implanted with cotton pellets as well as lowered the elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity to normal level. It exerted potent analgesic effect on both the early and late phase of formalin test as well as the antipyretic effect on yeast-induced hyperthermic rats. The oral single high dose of the extract of 5,000 mg/Kg did not produce death or any abnormalities or changes of the internal organs of rats during 14 days of the observed period. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study support the use of the plant in traditional medicine for inflammatory ailments. PMID:25671174

Kunnaja, Phraepakaporn; Wongpalee, Somsakul Pop; Panthong, Ampai

2014-01-01

162

Myxomaviral Anti-Inflammatory Serpin Reduces Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell Growth in Mice  

PubMed Central

Modification of the tumor microenvironment by inflammatory cells represents a newly recognized driving force in cancer with critical roles in tumor invasion, growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Increased thrombolytic cascade serine proteases, specifically urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor, correlate with inflammatory cell migration, pancreatic cancer growth, invasion and unfavorable outcomes. Inflammation in pancreatic cancer is linked with myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) activity and cancer progression. Myxomavirus is a complex DNA virus encoding highly potent immune modulators. Serp-1 and M-T7 are two such secreted anti-inflammatory myxomaviral proteins. Serp-1 inhibits uPA, plasmin and coagulation factor X while M-T7 inhibits C, CC, and CXC chemokines. We have explored the potential use of these viral proteins for treatment of a range of human cancer isolates engrafted in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Engrafted tumors were treated with either Serp-1, neuroserpin, a related mammalian serpin that inhibits thrombolytic proteases, or M-T7. Serp-1 and neuroserpin inhibited growth of the pancreatic cancer cell line Hs766t (P=0.03 and P=0.01, respectively) at 4 weeks after implantation. Serp-1 also inhibited growth of a second pancreatic cancer cell line MIA PaCa-2 in mice (P=0.02). Growth of the human breast cancer line MDA231 was not inhibited by Serp-1. M-T7, in contrast, did not alter growth of any of the cancer cell lines tested after implant into SCID mice. Serpin inhibition of pancreatic tumor growth was associated with a significant decrease in splenocyte MDSC counts by flow cytometry (P=0.009), without detected change in other splenocyte subpopulations. Serp-1 and NSP treatment also significantly reduced macrophage infiltration in tumors (P=0.001). In summary two anti-inflammatory serpins reduced inflammatory macrophage invasion and pancreatic tumor cell growth, suggesting potential therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25798214

Zheng, Donghang; Chen, Hao; Bartee, Mee Y; Williams, Jennifer; Davids, Jennifer A; Lomas, David A; McFadden, Grant; Lucas, Alexandra R

2014-01-01

163

Furan fatty acid as an anti-inflammatory component from the green-lipped mussel Perna canaliculus  

PubMed Central

A lipid extract of Perna canaliculus (New Zealand green-lipped mussel) has reportedly displayed anti-inflammatory effects in animal models and in human controlled studies. However, the anti-inflammatory lipid components have not been investigated in detail due to the instability of the lipid extract, which has made the identification of the distinct active components a formidable task. Considering the instability of the active component, we carefully fractionated a lipid extract of Perna canaliculus (Lyprinol) and detected furan fatty acids (F-acids). These naturally but rarely detected fatty acids show potent radical-scavenging ability and are essential constituents of plants and algae. Based on these data, it has been proposed that F-acids could be potential antioxidants, which may contribute to the protective properties of fish and fish oil diets against chronic inflammatory diseases. However, to date, in vivo data to support the hypothesis have not been obtained, presumably due to the limited availability of F-acids. To confirm the in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of F-acids in comparison with that of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), we developed a semisynthetic preparation and examined its anti-inflammatory activity in a rat model of adjuvant-induced arthritis. Indeed, the F-acid ethyl ester exhibited more potent anti-inflammatory activity than that of the EPA ethyl ester. We report on the in vivo activity of F-acids, confirming that the lipid extract of the green-lipped mussel includes an unstable fatty acid that is more effective than EPA. PMID:21972415

Wakimoto, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Hikaru; Nii, Hirohiko; Kimura, Kaori; Egami, Yoko; Oka, Yusuke; Yoshida, Masae; Kida, Eri; Ye, Yiping; Akahoshi, Saeko; Asakawa, Tomohiro; Matsumura, Koichi; Ishida, Hitoshi; Nukaya, Haruo; Tsuji, Kuniro; Kan, Toshiyuki; Abe, Ikuro

2011-01-01

164

Modeling Natural Anti-Inflammatory Compounds by Molecular Topology  

PubMed Central

One of the main pharmacological problems today in the treatment of chronic inflammation diseases consists of the fact that anti-inflammatory drugs usually exhibit side effects. The natural products offer a great hope in the identification of bioactive lead compounds and their development into drugs for treating inflammatory diseases. Computer-aided drug design has proved to be a very useful tool for discovering new drugs and, specifically, Molecular Topology has become a good technique for such a goal. A topological-mathematical model, obtained by linear discriminant analysis, has been developed for the search of new anti-inflammatory natural compounds. An external validation obtained with the remaining compounds (those not used in building up the model), has been carried out. Finally, a virtual screening on natural products was performed and 74 compounds showed actual anti-inflammatory activity. From them, 54 had been previously described as anti-inflammatory in the literature. This can be seen as a plus in the model validation and as a reinforcement of the role of Molecular Topology as an efficient tool for the discovery of new anti-inflammatory natural compounds. PMID:22272145

Galvez-Llompart, María; Zanni, Riccardo; García-Domenech, Ramón

2011-01-01

165

Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg.  

PubMed Central

The Chir Pine, Pinus roxburghii, named after William Roxburgh, is a pine native to the Himalaya. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (Pinaceae) is traditionally used for several medicinal purposes in India. As the oil of the plant is extensively used in number of herbal preparation for curing inflammatory disorders, the present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of its bark extract. Dried and crushed leaves of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with alcohol. The alcoholic extract at the doses of 100?mg/kg, 300?mg/kg, and 500?mg/kg body weight was subjected to evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animal models. Analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests in Swiss albino mice; acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in Wistar albino rats. Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin were employed as reference drugs for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. In the present study, the alcoholic bark extract of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. demonstrated significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the tested models. PMID:22761611

Kaushik, Dhirender; Kumar, Ajay; Kaushik, Pawan; Rana, A. C.

2012-01-01

166

Immune-stimulatory and anti-inflammatory activities of Curcuma longa extract and its polysaccharide fraction  

PubMed Central

Background: While curcuminoids have been reported to possess diverse biological activities, the anti-inflammatory activity of polar extracts (devoid of curcuminoids) of Curcuma longa (C. longa) has seldom been studied. In this study, we have investigated immune-stimulatory and anti-inflammatory activities of an aqueous based extract of C. longa (NR-INF-02) and its fractions in presence and absence of mitogens. Materials and Methods: Effects of NR-INF-02 (Turmacin™, Natural Remedies Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore, India) on proliferation, nitric oxide (NO), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukins (ILs) and prostaglandin (PGE2) levels of mouse splenocytes and mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) cells were determined. Results: NR-INF-02 increased splenocytes number in presence and absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or concanavalin A. Treatment of NR-INF-02 showed a significant increase of NO, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, interferon (IFN) gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and MCP-1 production in unstimulated mouse splenocytes and mouse macrophages. Interestingly, NR-INF-02 showed potent inhibitory effect towards release of PGE2 and IL-12 levels in LPS stimulated mouse splenocytes. Further, NR-INF-02 was fractionated into polysaccharide fraction (F1) and mother liquor (F2) to study their immune-modulatory effects. F1 was found to be more potent than F2 toward inhibiting PGE2 and IL-12 in LPS stimulated splenocytes. Conclusion: Present findings revealed the novel anti-inflammatory property of NR-INF-02 and its polysaccharide fraction by inhibiting the secretion of IL-12 and PGE2 in vitro. PMID:23798880

Chandrasekaran, Chinampudur V.; Sundarajan, Kannan; Edwin, Jothie R.; Gururaja, Giligar M.; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Agarwal, Amit

2013-01-01

167

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl (Ka??ak?ri) extract in laboratory animals  

PubMed Central

Context: Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl (Ka??ak?ri) is a diffuse herb with prickly stem, traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation and one in the group of da?am?la (group of ten herbs) herbs commonly used drug in Ayurveda. Aims: In continuation of search for potent natural anti-inflammatory agents, the present research work was planned to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extract of S. xanthocarpum whole plant. Settings and Design: The ethanol extract was evaluated at dose 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg p.o. in rats. Materials and Methods: Using pharmacological screening models carrageenan induced rat paw edema, histamine induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma in rats. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained was analyzed statistically using analysis of variance followed by post-hoc Dunnett test, P < 0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Results: Acute treatment didn’t show anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan and histamine induced paw edema. However, administration of 100 mg/kg p.o for 7 day reduced the granuloma formation in cotton pellet granuloma model. Conclusions: Present results support the traditional use of plant for anti-inflammatory activity. In brief, the results provide scientific pharmacological basis for the therapeutic use of S. xanthocarpum. PMID:24991071

More, Shraddha K.; Lande, Anirudha A.; Jagdale, Priti G.; Adkar, Prafulla P.; Ambavade, Shirishkumar D.

2013-01-01

168

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Emblica officinalis in Rodent Models of Acute and Chronic Inflammation: Involvement of Possible Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Emblica officinalis, commonly known as amla in Ayurveda, is unarguably the most important medicinal plant for prevention and treatment of various ailments. The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis (HAEEO). Acute inflammation in rats was induced by the subplantar injection of carrageenan, histamine, serotonin, and prostaglandin E2 and chronic inflammation was induced by the cotton pellet granuloma. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of HAEEO at all the tested doses (300, 500, and 700?mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited rat paw edema against all phlogistic agents and also reduced granuloma formation. However, at the dose of 700?mg/kg, HAEEO exhibited maximum anti-inflammatory activity in all experimental models, and the effects were comparable to that of the standard anti-inflammatory drugs. Additionally, in paw tissue the antioxidant activity of HAEEO was also measured and it was found that HAEEO significantly (P < 0.001) increased glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity and subsequently reduced lipid peroxidation evidenced by reduced malondialdehyde. Taken all together, the results indicated that HAEEO possessed potent anti-inflammatory activity and it may hold therapeutic promise in the management of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:25215258

Golechha, Mahaveer; Sarangal, Vikas; Ojha, Shreesh; Bhatia, Jagriti; Arya, Dharmveer S.

2014-01-01

169

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 81 Chinese Herb Extracts and Their Correlation with the Characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine  

PubMed Central

Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO) production and cell growth in LPS/IFN?-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100??g/mL). Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100??g/mL), Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFN?-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:24696703

Chen, Chang-Liang; Zhang, Dan-Dan

2014-01-01

170

Anti-inflammatory effects of 81 chinese herb extracts and their correlation with the characteristics of traditional chinese medicine.  

PubMed

Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO) production and cell growth in LPS/IFN?-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100??g/mL). Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100??g/mL), Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFN?-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:24696703

Chen, Chang-Liang; Zhang, Dan-Dan

2014-01-01

171

Inflammatory Regulation Effect and Action Mechanism of Anti-Inflammatory Effective Parts of Housefly (Musca domestica) Larvae on Atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

The protein-enriched extracts of housefly larvae were segregated by gel-filtration chromatography (GFC) and then anti-inflammatory activity screening in RAW264.7 (induced by LPS) was carried out. After acquire the anti-inflammatory effective parts, its anti-atherosclerotic properties in vivo were then evaluated. Results showed that the anti-inflammatory effective parts of housefly larvae were low-molecular-weight parts. After treated with the effective parts oral gavaged for 4 weeks, the atherosclerotic lesions of the mouse were significantly decreased. The inflammatory and lipid parameters were also reduced (except HDL which was increased). Western blot analysis demonstrated that the effective parts exerted potent inhibitory effect on expression of p65 in nucleus and cytoplasm. The results of immunofluorescence microscopy analysis also showed that the expressions of p65 both in cytoplasm and nucleus were significantly reduced. The hypothesis that the anti-inflammatory effective parts of housefly larvae possessed anti-atherosclerosis activity in mouse and the possible mechanism could be associated with the inhibition of expression and nuclear transfer of NF- ? B p65 could be derived. PMID:23554828

Chu, Fu Jiang; Jin, Xiao Bao; Xu, Yin Ye; Ma, Yan; Li, Xiao Bo; Lu, Xue Mei; Liu, Wen Bin; Zhu, Jia Yong

2013-01-01

172

The Effect of Polyphenols Isolated from Cynanchi wilfordii Radix with Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Anti-bacterial Activity.  

PubMed

Recently, Cynanchi wilfordii Radix has gained wide use in Asian countries as a functional food effective for relieving fatigue, osteoporosis, and constipation, particularly in menopausal disorders. However, its anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities have not been explored in detail to date. The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-bacterial properties of the Cynanchi wilfordii Radix extracts obtained with water, methanol, ethanol, and acetone were compared. All 4 polyphenol-containing extracts exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The ethanol extract was found to elicit the most potent reduction of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and cytokine (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-?) levels, as well as inhibit the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a concentration-dependent manner. The evaluation of antioxidant activity also revealed the ethanol extract to have the highest free radical scavenging activity, measured as 85.3±0.4%, which is equivalent to 99.9% of the activity of ? -tocopherol. In the assessment of anti-bacterial activity, only ethanol extract was found to inhibit the growth of the Bacillus species Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis. These results show that polyphenols of Cynanchi wilfordii Radix have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-bacterial properties that can be exploited and further improved for use as a supplementary functional food, in cosmetics, and for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:25729277

Jeong, Sunyoung; Lee, Sunwoo; Choi, Woo Jin; Sohn, Uy Dong; Kim, Wonyong

2015-03-01

173

The Effect of Polyphenols Isolated from Cynanchi wilfordii Radix with Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Anti-bacterial Activity  

PubMed Central

Recently, Cynanchi wilfordii Radix has gained wide use in Asian countries as a functional food effective for relieving fatigue, osteoporosis, and constipation, particularly in menopausal disorders. However, its anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities have not been explored in detail to date. The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-bacterial properties of the Cynanchi wilfordii Radix extracts obtained with water, methanol, ethanol, and acetone were compared. All 4 polyphenol-containing extracts exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The ethanol extract was found to elicit the most potent reduction of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and cytokine (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-?) levels, as well as inhibit the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a concentration-dependent manner. The evaluation of antioxidant activity also revealed the ethanol extract to have the highest free radical scavenging activity, measured as 85.3±0.4%, which is equivalent to 99.9% of the activity of ? -tocopherol. In the assessment of anti-bacterial activity, only ethanol extract was found to inhibit the growth of the Bacillus species Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis. These results show that polyphenols of Cynanchi wilfordii Radix have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-bacterial properties that can be exploited and further improved for use as a supplementary functional food, in cosmetics, and for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:25729277

Jeong, Sunyoung; Lee, Sunwoo; Choi, Woo Jin; Sohn, Uy Dong

2015-01-01

174

Isolation and characterization of novel protein with anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory properties from Aloe vera leaf gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aloe protein of 14kDa from the Aloe vera leaf gel was isolated by an ion exchange chromatography using DEAE-cellulose and CM-cellulose column. The purified Aloe protein exhibited a potent anti-fungal activity against Candida paraprilosis, Candida krusei and Candida albicans. In addition, the purified Aloe protein also showed an anti-inflammatory property against pure lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 with 84% and 73%

Swagata Das; Biswajit Mishra; Kamaldeep Gill; Abhay Kumar Singh; Mou Sinha; Sujata Sharma; Immaculata Xess; Krishna Dalal; Tej Pal Singh; Sharmistha Dey

2011-01-01

175

Tetra- and pentacyclic triterpene acids from the ancient anti-inflammatory remedy frankincense as inhibitors of microsomal prostaglandin E(2) synthase-1.  

PubMed

The microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 is the terminal enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandin (PG)E2 from cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived PGH2. We previously found that mPGES-1 is inhibited by boswellic acids (IC50 = 3-30 ?M), which are bioactive triterpene acids present in the anti-inflammatory remedy frankincense. Here we show that besides boswellic acids, additional known triterpene acids (i.e., tircuallic, lupeolic, and roburic acids) isolated from frankincense suppress mPGES-1 with increased potencies. In particular, 3?-acetoxy-8,24-dienetirucallic acid (6) and 3?-acetoxy-7,24-dienetirucallic acid (10) inhibited mPGES-1 activity in a cell-free assay with IC50 = 0.4 ?M, each. Structure-activity relationship studies and docking simulations revealed concrete structure-related interactions with mPGES-1 and its cosubstrate glutathione. COX-1 and -2 were hardly affected by the triterpene acids (IC50 > 10 ?M). Given the crucial role of mPGES-1 in inflammation and the abundance of highly active triterpene acids in frankincence extracts, our findings provide further evidence of the anti-inflammatory potential of frankincense preparations and reveal novel, potent bioactivities of tirucallic acids, roburic acids, and lupeolic acids. PMID:24844534

Verhoff, Moritz; Seitz, Stefanie; Paul, Michael; Noha, Stefan M; Jauch, Johann; Schuster, Daniela; Werz, Oliver

2014-06-27

176

Tetra- and Pentacyclic Triterpene Acids from the Ancient Anti-inflammatory Remedy Frankincense as Inhibitors of Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase-1  

PubMed Central

The microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 is the terminal enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandin (PG)E2 from cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived PGH2. We previously found that mPGES-1 is inhibited by boswellic acids (IC50 = 3–30 ?M), which are bioactive triterpene acids present in the anti-inflammatory remedy frankincense. Here we show that besides boswellic acids, additional known triterpene acids (i.e., tircuallic, lupeolic, and roburic acids) isolated from frankincense suppress mPGES-1 with increased potencies. In particular, 3?-acetoxy-8,24-dienetirucallic acid (6) and 3?-acetoxy-7,24-dienetirucallic acid (10) inhibited mPGES-1 activity in a cell-free assay with IC50 = 0.4 ?M, each. Structure–activity relationship studies and docking simulations revealed concrete structure-related interactions with mPGES-1 and its cosubstrate glutathione. COX-1 and -2 were hardly affected by the triterpene acids (IC50 > 10 ?M). Given the crucial role of mPGES-1 in inflammation and the abundance of highly active triterpene acids in frankincence extracts, our findings provide further evidence of the anti-inflammatory potential of frankincense preparations and reveal novel, potent bioactivities of tirucallic acids, roburic acids, and lupeolic acids. PMID:24844534

2014-01-01

177

Effects of C-glycosylation on anti-diabetic, anti-Alzheimer's disease and anti-inflammatory potential of apigenin.  

PubMed

Apigenin has gained particular interests in recent years as a beneficial and health promoting agent because of its low intrinsic toxicity. Vitexin and isovitexin, naturally occurring C-glycosylated derivatives of apigenin, have been known to possess potent anti-diabetic, anti-Alzheimer's disease (anti-AD), and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study was designed to investigate the anti-diabetic, anti-AD, and anti-inflammatory potential of apigenin and its two C-glycosylated derivatives, vitexin and isovitexin by in vitro assays including rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR), human recombinant aldose reductase (HRAR), advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), ?-site amyloid precursor (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), and nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Among them, isovitexin was found as the most potent inhibitor against RLAR, HRAR, AGE, AChE, and BChE while vitexin showed the most potent PTP1B inhibitory activity. Despite the relatively weak anti-diabetic and anti-AD potentials, apigenin showed powerful antiinflammatory activity by inhibiting NO production and iNOS and COX-2 expression while vitexin and isovitexin were inactive. Therefore, it could be speculated that C-glycosylation of apigenin at different positions might be closely linked to relative intensity of anti-diabetic, anti-AD, and anti-inflammatory potentials. PMID:24291393

Choi, Jae Sue; Islam, Md Nurul; Ali, Md Yousof; Kim, Eon Ji; Kim, Young Myeong; Jung, Hyun Ah

2014-02-01

178

PURGATIVE AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF CASSIA DIDYMOBOTRYA, FRESEN  

PubMed Central

Aqueous and ethanol extracts of cassia didymobotraya were investigated for purgative and anit-inflammatory activities in albino mice and rats, respectively at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Anti-inflammatory activity was screened by 1% carageenan induced paw edema method and purgative activity was screened by the method described by Akah etal, Both the extracts exhibited significant purgative and anti-inflammatory activities, which are comparable to standard drugs, Senna (20mg/kg) and indomethacin (20mg/kg). Ethanol extract showed higher purgative and anti-inflammatory than aqueous extract. The percentage of protection of aqueous, ethanol extracts and indomethacin were found to be 35.29,37.25 and 43.13. PMID:22557069

Mahadevan, N.; Upendra, B.G.; Subburaju, T.; Elango, K.; Suresh, B.

2002-01-01

179

Biological evaluation of synthetic chalcone and flavone derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents  

PubMed Central

Flavonoids and chalcones are natural plant derived compounds with inherent therapeutic value for a range of human pathologies. In this study, a series of 24 substituted chalcones and flavones were synthesized and subsequently screened for anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (1 µg/ml)-activated BV-2 microglial cells by assessing initial production/release of nitric oxide (NO). The data obtained eliminate the majority of compounds as weak or non-effective, whereas 2?-hydroxy-3,4,5,3?,4?-pentamethoxychalcone (1) and 2?-hydroxy-3,4,5-trimethoxychalcone (2) were potent, having an IC50 of 1.10 and 2.26 µM, respectively; with greater potency than L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine selective iNOS inhibitor (IC50 = 3.1 µM) but less than steroidal dexamethasone (IC50 < 200 nM). The most potent compound (chalcone 1) attenuated NO parallel to reducing iNOS protein expression, events also corresponding to reduction of IL-1?, IL-10 and IL-6 pro-inflammatory cytokines. These findings suggest that the presence of electron donating groups OH and OCH3 on both A and B rings of synthetic compounds correlate to stronger anti-inflammatory potency.

Mateeva, Nelly; Gangapuram, Madhavi; Mazzio, Elizabeth; Eyunni, Suresh; Soliman, Karam F. A.

2015-01-01

180

Anti-inflammatory properties of drugs from saffron crocus.  

PubMed

The medicinal uses of saffron (Crocus sativus Linnaeus) have a long history beginning in Asian countries since the Late Bronze Age. Recent studies have validated its potential to lower the risk of several diseases. Some metabolites derived from saffron stigmas exert numerous therapeutic effects due to hypolipidemic, antitussive, antioxidant, antidiabetic activities and many others. Water and ethanol extracts of Crocus sativus L. are cardioprotective and counteract neurodegenerative disorders. Many of these medicinal properties of saffron can be attributed to a number of its compounds such as crocetin, crocins and other substances having strong antioxidant and radical scavenger properties against a variety of radical oxygen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Botany, worldwide spreading of cultivars, biochemical pathways, active constituents and chemical detection methods are reviewed. Therapeutic uses of saffron principles with particular regard to those exhibiting antioxidant and thus anti-inflammatory features are discussed. To date, very few adverse health effects of saffron have been demonstrated. At high doses (more than 5 g/die day), it should be avoided in pregnancy owing to its uterine stimulation activity. PMID:22934747

Poma, Anna; Fontecchio, Gabriella; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Chichiriccň, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

181

Nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs prevent the recurrence of heterotopic ossification after excision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prophylactic effect of nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs on the recurrence of high-grade periarticular heterotopic ossification after resection was studied in ten patients operated on for loosening of one or both components of a cemented total hip prosthesis. These drugs, given at a standard dosage for 1–3 weeks after surgery, prevented the recurrence of heterotopic ossification. In some patients the range

B. Sodemann; P.-E. Persson; O. S. Nilsson

1990-01-01

182

The laser desorption/laser ionization mass spectra of some anti-inflammatory drugs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IR laser desorption/ultraviolet laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectra are reported for the anti-inflammatory drugs indomethacin, acemetacin, ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, diflunisal and mefenamic acid. It is found that the six compounds can be readily ionized by two photon absorption at a fixed wavelength of 266 nm. Mass spectra have been obtained under conditions of high ionizing irradiance and the observed fragmentation behaviour is discussed.

Milnes, John; Rogers, Kevin; Jones, Sian; Gormally, John

1994-03-01

183

Anti-inflammatory effects of chronic aspirin on brain arachidonic acid metabolites  

PubMed Central

Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators derived from arachidonic acid (AA) modulate peripheral inflammation and its resolution. Aspirin (ASA) is a unique non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which switches AA metabolism from prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) to lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and 15-epi-LXA4. However it is unknown whether chronic therapeutic doses of ASA are anti-inflammatory in the brain. We hypothesized that ASA would dampen increases in brain concentrations of AA metabolites in a rat model of neuroinflammation, produced by a 6-day intracerebroventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In rats infused with LPS (0.5 ng/h) and given ASA-free water to drink, concentrations in high-energy microwaved brain of PGE2, TXB2 and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) were elevated. In rats infused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid, 6 weeks of treatment with a low (10 mg/kg/day) or high (100 mg/kg/day) ASA dose in drinking water decreased brain PGE2, but increased LTB4, LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4 concentrations. Both doses attenuated the LPS effects on PGE2, and TXB2. The increments in LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4 caused by high-dose ASA were significantly greater in LPS-infused rats. The ability of ASA to increase anti-inflammatory LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4 and reduce pro-inflammatory PGE2 and TXB2 suggests considering aspirin further for treating clinical neuroinflammation. PMID:20981485

Basselin, Mireille; Ramadan, Epolia; Chen, Mei; Rapoport, Stanley I.

2010-01-01

184

Protection from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric ulcers by dietary nitrate.  

PubMed

Nitrate is abundant in our diet with particularly high levels in many vegetables. Ingested nitrate is concentrated in saliva and reduced to nitrite by bacteria in the oral cavity. We recently reported that application of nitrite-containing saliva to the gastric mucosa increases superficial blood flow and mucus generation via acid-catalyzed formation of bioactive nitrogen oxides including nitric oxide. Here we studied if dietary supplementation with nitrate would protect against gastric damage caused by a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Rats received sodium nitrate in the drinking water for 1 week in daily doses of 0.1 or 1 mmol kg(-1). Control rats received 1 mmol kg(-1) sodium chloride. Diclofenac (30 mg kg(-1)) was then given orally and the animals were examined 4 h later. In separate experiments we studied the effects of dietary nitrate on intragastric NO levels and mucus formation. Luminal levels of NO gas were greatly increased in nitrate-fed animals. The thickness of the mucus layer increased after nitrate supplementation and gene expression of MUC6 was upregulated in the gastric mucosa. Nitrate pretreatment dose dependently and potently reduced diclofenac-induced gastric lesions. Inflammatory activity was reduced in the rats receiving nitrate as indicated by lower mucosal myeloperoxidase activity and expression of inducible NO synthase. We conclude that dietary nitrate protects against diclofenac-induced gastric ulcers likely via enhanced nitrite-dependent intragastric NO formation and concomitant stimulation of mucus formation. Future studies will reveal if a diet rich in nitrate can offer an additional nutritional approach to preventing and treating peptic ulcer disease. PMID:17275683

Jansson, Emmelie A; Petersson, Joel; Reinders, Claudia; Sobko, Tanja; Björne, Hĺkan; Phillipson, Mia; Weitzberg, Eddie; Holm, Lena; Lundberg, Jon O

2007-02-15

185

Anti-inflammatory effect of Prunus yedoensis through inhibition of nuclear factor-?B in macrophages  

PubMed Central

Background Prunus yedoensis (PY) is a traditional anti-allergy and anti-inflammatory herb medicine used in South Korea. However, until date, little is known regarding its mechanism of action. Methods In order to elucidate the mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect of PY, the constituents of PY were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production were measured enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). The expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) were also measured by western blotting in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells treated with PY. Results The results indicate that (50, 100 ?g/mL) methanol and ethyl acetate fractionation extracts of PY not only inhibited LPS-mediated NO production and iNOS expression, but also decreased LPS-induced PGE2 production and COX-2 expression. The anti-inflammatory effects of PY were also due to the attenuation of nuclear translocation of NF-?B, as evaluated by the use of anti-p50 on nuclear fractions. LPS-induced nuclear translocation of NF-?B decreased significantly by the methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of PY. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses revealed that methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction have similar patterns of retention time and peaks. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that methanol extracts and the ethyl acetate fraction of PY have anti-inflammatory properties, thus emphasizing the potential of PY as a natural health product. PMID:23631356

2013-01-01

186

Evaluation of analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity on Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. Leaf  

PubMed Central

Background: Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. is an important medicinal plant of family Boraginaceae. Traditionally, its leaves are used to treat fever, headache, and joint pain but its medicinal activities have not been proven by research. Objective: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of C. dichotoma G. Forst. leaf extract. Material and Methods: The various extracts of leaf powder were prepared by using soxhlet apparatus. The methanol extract was selected for pharmacological study. To evaluate analgesic activity, Eddy's hot plate method, to study anti-inflammatory activity, carageenan-induced rat paw edema method, and to study antipyretic activity, yeast-induced pyrexia method was used. SD female rats (180-200 g) were used for the study. Results: In all three tests, the methanol extract high dose (400 mg/kg) was found to be highly significant as compared to standard drug. Conclusion: This study proved the traditional uses of plant leaves and concluded the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of the leaf methanol extract. PMID:25598647

Gupta, Richa; Kaur, Jagjit

2015-01-01

187

Anti-inflammatory activity of lanoconazole, a topical antifungal agent.  

PubMed

Topical antifungal agents which have anti-inflammatory effects have the potential to provide additional clinical benefits. Therefore, an anti-inflammatory activity of lanoconazole (LCZ), a topical antifungal agent, was investigated against in vitro and in vivo models of inflammation. The release of interleukin-8 (IL-8) from human epidermal keratinocytes stimulated by the addition of 100 ?g ml(-1) ?-glucan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was significantly inhibited by LCZ at the concentration of 10(-5)  mol l(-1) . The release of interferon-? and IL-2 from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by the addition of 30 and 100 ?g ml(-1) phytohemagglutinin was significantly inhibited by LCZ at the concentrations of 10(-7) and 10(-6)  mol l(-1) , respectively. The increase in the ear thickness induced by topical application of 0.01% 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate and 1% 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB) after sensitisation with 3% TNCB were established as the mouse models of irritant and contact dermatitis, respectively. Application of 1% and 3% LCZ showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity against both the irritant and contact dermatitis models. These findings suggest that LCZ possesses an anti-inflammatory activity, which may be partially helpful in the treatment of dermatomycoses. PMID:25675966

Uratsuji, Hideya; Nakamura, Aki; Yamada, Yoshihito; Hashimoto, Kei; Matsumoto, Tatsumi; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Ishii, Ritsuko

2015-04-01

188

Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs in Ophthalmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are increasingly employed in ophthalmology to reduce miosis and inflammation, manage scleritis, and prevent and treat cystoid macular edema associated with cataract surgery. In addition, they may decrease postoperative pain and photophobia associated with refractive surgery and may reduce the itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis. In recent years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved

Stephen J. Kim; Allan J. Flach; Lee M. Jampol

2010-01-01

189

Anti-inflammatory and side effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most commonly used drugs in inflammatory diseases, since they are effec- tive in management of pain, fever, redness, edema arising as a consequence of inflammatory mediator release. Studies have shown that both therapeutic and side effects of NSAIDs are dependent on cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition. COX isoforms have been named constitutive (COX-1) and inducible (COX-2).

Halis Süleyman; Berna Demircan; Yalçin Karagöz

190

The Use of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent advances in the understanding of the mechanism of action and clinical pharmacology of the new nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can help practitioners decide which to use and how to administer them. Indications for and effects of NSAIDs are described. (MT)

Calabrese, Leonard H.; Rooney, Theodore W.

1986-01-01

191

Type I Interferons as Anti-Inflammatory Mediators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The type I interferons (IFNs), IFN-? and IFN-?, are cytokines that have antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities. Data are now emerging that suggest that type I IFNs are also important mediators of anti-inflammatory responses. These findings, largely driven by studies to explain the beneficial effects of IFN-? in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, offer a number of mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory properties of type I IFNs. Type I IFNs, through their ability to induce the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10), mediate the inhibition of proinflammatory gene products. In addition, type I IFNs induce other immunosuppressive mediators such as suppressor of cytokine signaling–1 (SOCS-1) and tristetrapolin (TTP), which act by divergent mechanisms to restore homeostasis to the immune system. Furthermore, type I IFNs mediate anti-inflammatory and protective effects in a variety of autoimmune disease models such as experimental colitis, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, experimental arthritis, and neonatal inflammation. Here, we discuss the molecular basis for the anti-inflammatory properties of type I IFNs and their therapeutic potential in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

Etty N. Benveniste (University of Alabama at Birmingham; Department of Cell Biology REV)

2007-12-11

192

Topical Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Therapy in Ophthalmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topically applied nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used in the management and prevention of ocular inflammation and cystoid macular edema related to cataract surgery and the maintenance of mydriasis during cataract surgery. Other common uses are the reduction of discomfort after refractive surgery or in allergic conjunctivitis. NSAIDs primarily act as cyclooxygenase inhibitors and thus reduce the formation of

Rainer Schalnus

2003-01-01

193

Hepatocellular damage from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for the management of rheumatological disorders, and as analgesics and antipyretics. Hepatotoxicity is an uncommon, but potentially lethal complication, which usually occurs within 12 weeks of starting therapy. It can occur with all NSAIDs, but appears to be more common with diclofenac and particularly sulindac. Female patients aged >50 years, with autoimmune

N. O'connor; P. I. DARGAN; A. L. JONES

2003-01-01

194

Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of Tagetes minuta essential oil in activated macrophages  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Tagetes minuta (T. minuta) essential oil. Methods In the present study T. minuta essential oil was obtained from leaves of T. minuta via hydro-distillation and then was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The anti-oxidant capacity of T. minuta essential oil was examined by measuring reactive oxygen, reactive nitrogen species and hydrogen peroxide scavenging. The anti-inflammatory activity of T. minuta essential oil was determined through measuring NADH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-? mRNA expression in lipopolysacharide-stimulated murine macrophages using real-time PCR. Results Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the main components in the T. minuta essential oil were dihydrotagetone (33.86%), E-ocimene (19.92%), tagetone (16.15%), cis-?-ocimene (7.94%), Z-ocimene (5.27%), limonene (3.1%) and epoxyocimene (2.03%). The T. minuta essential oil had the ability to scavenge all reactive oxygen/reactive nitrogen species radicals with IC50 12-15 µg/mL, which indicated a potent radical scavenging activity. In addition, T. minuta essential oil significantly reduced NADH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthaseand TNF-? mRNA expression in the cells at concentrations of 50 µg/mL, indicating a capacity of this product to potentially modulate/diminish immune responses. Conclusions T. minuta essential oil has radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities and could potentially be used as a safe effective source of natural anti-oxidants in therapy against oxidative damage and stress associated with some inflammatory conditions. PMID:25182441

Karimian, Parastoo; Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Amirghofran, Zahra

2014-01-01

195

Anti-inflammatory effect of D-allose in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.  

PubMed

D-allose, a type of rare sugar, can produce inhibitory effects on activated leukocytes in various organs, including immunosuppressive effects and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as anti-oxyradical effects. The present experiment was performed to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory effects of D-allose in acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model was applied in rats. D-allose was administered two times via a tail vein (300 mg/kg, 1 hour before ischemia and 10 hours after reperfusion). After 22 hours of reperfusion following 2 hours of ischemia, brain damage was evaluated by cerebral infarct volume. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity assay by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and protein expression of MPO and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by immunohistochemistry were evaluated to investigate the potential mechanisms of D-allose. The experimental results showed that D-allose exhibited significant neuroprotective effects against acute cerebral I/R injury. The infarct volume in D-allose-treated rats (90.9 ± 13.5 mm(3)) was significantly smaller than that in vehicle rats (114.9 ± 15.3 mm(3), p < 0.01). D-allose treatment significantly suppressed the MPO activity and the number of MPO-positive cells compared with those in the vehicle group, suggesting that treatment with D-allose can reduce the infiltration of leukocytes into the ischemic tissue. Treatment of D-allose also significantly decreased the number of COX-2-positive cells and microglial activation in the ischemic tissue. The present results demonstrate that D-allose exerts potent neuroprotective effects against acute cerebral I/R injury, and constitute the first evidence of anti-inflammatory effects of D-allose which considerably contributes to the beneficial effects. Treatment with D-allose might provide a new strategy and clinically beneficial outcome for acute ischemic stroke. PMID:23803614

Gao, Dakuan; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Takehiro; Lu, Feng; Fei, Zhou; Tamiya, Takashi

2013-01-01

196

Evolving Therapeutic Strategies to Improve Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Safety.  

PubMed

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) possess potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties through inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2), which are responsible for synthesis of proinflammatory mediators. NSAIDs are frequently used for treatment of acute and chronic pain conditions. However, their use is associated with serious dose-dependent gastrointestinal (GI), cardiovascular, renal, and hepatic adverse effects, which pose a serious clinical concern for both patients and physicians. During the past 2 decades, approaches to improving the tolerability of NSAIDs were mainly directed toward discovery of COX-2 selective NSAIDs (coxibs), which were expected to minimize the risk of GI injury. Unfortunately, the results from multiple clinical studies have shown that treatment with coxibs may increase the risk for cardiovascular complications. This review summarizes current strategies used to reduce the toxicity of NSAIDs and outlines novel therapeutic approaches still in preclinical development. To minimize the risk of GI ulcerations and bleeding, combination therapies with gastroprotective agents are currently recommended. The new therapeutic agents anticipated to have similar effects include nitric oxide- and hydrogen sulfide-releasing NSAIDs. Novel manufacturing technologies enhance dissolution and absorption of NSAID products, allowing for their administration at low doses, which could lead to improved drug tolerability without diminishing the analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy of NSAIDs. This principle is in line with the current recommendation by the US Food and Drug Administration that NSAIDs should be used at the lowest effective dosage. Finally, NSAID formulations targeted directly to the site of inflammation are expected to reduce systemic drug exposure and thus decrease the risk of systemic adverse effects. PMID:25251373

McCarberg, Bill H; Cryer, Byron

2014-09-23

197

Methanol extract of Xanthium strumarium L. possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities.  

PubMed

As an attempt to identify bioactive natural products with anti-inflammatory activity, we evaluated the effects of the methanol extract of the semen of Xanthium strumarium L. (MEXS) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production in RAW 264.7 cells. Our data indicate that MEXS is a potent inhibitor of NO, PGE2 and TNF-alpha production. Consistent with these findings, the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-alpha mRNA were down-regulated in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, MEXS inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) DNA binding activity and the translocation of NF-kappaB to the nucleus by blocking the degradation of inhibitor of kappa B-alpha (IkappaB-alpha). We further evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of MEXS in vivo. MEXS (100, 200 mg/kg/d, p.o.) reduced acute paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats, and showed analgesic activities in an acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and a hot plate test in mice. Thus, our study suggests that the inhibitions of iNOS, COX-2 expression, and TNF-alpha release by the methanol extract of the semen of Xanthium strumarium L. are achieved by blocking NF-kappaB activation, and that this is also responsible for its anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:15635170

Kim, In-Tae; Park, Young-Mi; Won, Jong-Heon; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Park, Hee-Juhn; Choi, Jong-Won; Lee, Kyung-Tae

2005-01-01

198

Screening of Bioactive Compounds from Moutan Cortex and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Rat Synoviocytes  

PubMed Central

Moutan Cortex, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of various diseases, is the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews (Paeoniaceae). Most of the pharmacological investigations of Moutan Cortex have been addressed to its central nervous system activities, anti-oxidative and sedative actions. Otherwise, there are few reports about the active compounds with anti-inflammatory activity of Moutan Cortex. The aim of the present study was to screen and identify bioactive compounds with anti-inflammatory effect from Moutan Cortex. With the aid of preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique, ethyl acetate and ethanol extract of Moutan Cortex were isolated into twenty-two fractions. Bioactivities of these fractions were evaluated by measuring expression of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in rat synoviocytes subjected to interleukin-1? (IL-1?). Eight compounds were isolated from six active fractions and identified by HPLC/MSn. Purified compounds, paeoniflorin, paeonol and pentagalloylglucose resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of TNF-? synthesis and IL-6 production in synoviocytes treated with proinflammatory mediator. These results suggested that paeonol, paeoniflorin, glycosides and pentagalloylglucose contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect of Moutan Cortex. PMID:18955220

Wu, Mengjie

2009-01-01

199

Mechanisms of Action of Ig Preparations: Immunomodulatory and Anti-Inflammatory Effects  

PubMed Central

Primary immunodeficiency (PID) disorders that predispose patients to recurrent infections require immunoglobulin (Ig) replacement therapy. Ig replacement therapy has been stated as beneficial, although the optimal IgG trough level to be maintained over time in order to minimize infectious risk has not been established. The most common route of administration of Ig has been intravenously, although there are different options, one of them being the subcutaneous route. Ig replacement therapy has been a life-saving treatment for patients suffering from primary and secondary antibody immunodeficiency. The key role of regular Ig replacement in patients with antibody deficiencies is related to the ability to provide specific antibodies that could not be produced by these patients as demonstrated by the reduction of severe infections such as meningitis and pneumonia. The therapeutic benefits of Ig may also be due to an active role in various anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities, which may complicate the clinical picture of PID. Anti-inflammatory activities are seen more generally when intravenous Ig is administered at high dose. The immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities are important not only in the treatment of autoimmune diseases but also in patients suffering from immunodeficiency. PMID:25628625

Matucci, Andrea; Maggi, Enrico; Vultaggio, Alessandra

2015-01-01

200

Evaluation of in-vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity of indometacin from liposomal vesicles.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in-vivo drug release profile of indometacin-loaded liposomes into the skin. Large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), composed of dipalmitoyl-L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol (9:1), were obtained using the extrusion method and then incorporated in hydrogels (LUV-A and LUV-B). The delivery of indometacin from the liposomal system was evaluated by determining its in-vivo local anti-inflammatory activity after cutaneous application of liposomal gel formulations; the anti-inflammatory activity is directly proportional to the amount of drug that actually crosses the skin. UVB-induced erythema on healthy human volunteers was chosen as the inflammatory model and the extent of erythema was monitored by the non-invasive technique of reflectance spectrophotometry. The results showed that LUV dispersions containing indometacin provided a high percentage of entrapped drug (approximately 84%). Furthermore, in-vivo findings revealed that the anti-inflammatory effect was more prolonged when indometacin was delivered from a liposomal gel formulation rather than from a gel formulation without liposomes. In particular, the indometacin-loaded gel formulation LUV-A showed a sustained effect, probably related to an interaction between LUV lipids and stratum corneum lipid structure. This interaction produces a depot in the stratum corneum that ensures sustained release of the drug to deeper skin layers. PMID:15482636

Puglia, Carmelo; Trombetta, Domenico; Venuti, Vincenza; Saija, Antonella; Bonina, Francesco

2004-10-01

201

Binary graft modification of polypropylene for anti-inflammatory drug-device combo products.  

PubMed

Temperature- and pH-responsive copolymers were ?-ray grafted onto polypropylene (PP) to provide its surface with capability to load and to control the release of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with the aim of being useful as component of drug-eluting medical devices. Poly(N,N'-dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate) (PDMAEMA) or poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) were grafted onto PP films via a direct method, and then poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) was grafted applying a preirradiation method. The binary graft copolymers showed hemocompatibility and certain capability to adsorb albumin. (PP-g-DMAEMA)-g-NIPAAm exhibited higher affinity for ibuprofen and, particularly, diclofenac than (PP-g-4VP)-g-NIPAAm. Sustained release was observed under physiological conditions. Cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of NSAID-eluting (PP-g-DMAEMA)-g-NIPAAm films were evaluated on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. First, dose dependence of anti-inflammatory activity and cytotoxicity of ibuprofen and diclofenac on RAW 264.7 cells were investigated to elucidate the ranges of drug concentration that the graft copolymers should provide. Optimal concentrations of diclofenac and ibuprofen at which they reduce inflammation while maintaining cell viability were determined to be 200 ?g/mL and above 400 ?g/mL in culture medium. Sequential grafting of DMAEMA and NIPAAm made PP surface to exhibit remarkably high affinity to diclofenac, being able to load and to regulate drug release fulfilling in vitro requirements to avoid inflammatory response. PMID:24615379

Melendez-Ortiz, Hector Ivan; Díaz-Rodríguez, Patricia; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Concheiro, Angel; Bucio, Emilio

2014-04-01

202

Imaging the Efficacy of Anti-Inflammatory Liposomes in a Rabbit Model of Atherosclerosis by Non-Invasive Imaging  

PubMed Central

Nanomedicine can provide a potent alternative to current therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis. For example, the encapsulation of anti-inflammatory drugs into liposomes improves their pharmacokinetics and biodistribution, thereby enhancing bioavailability to atherosclerotic plaques and improving therapeutic efficacy. The evaluation of this type of experimental therapeutics can greatly benefit from in vivo evaluation to assess biological changes, which can be performed by non-invasive imaging techniques, such as 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) and dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Here, we will illustrate the methods for inducing atherosclerosis in a rabbit model, the production of anti-inflammatory liposomes and monitoring of therapeutic efficacy of experimental therapeutics with the above-mentioned imaging techniques. PMID:22449928

Lobatto, Mark E.; Calcagno, Claudia; Metselaar, Josbert M.; Storm, Gert; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.

2013-01-01

203

Bioassay-guided isolation of iridoid glucosides with antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities from Veronica anagallis-aquatica L.  

PubMed

Extracts obtained from the herbs of various Veronica species are used as folk remedy worldwide for the treatment of various inflammatory ailments including rheumatism. In vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. aerial parts were investigated. Methanolic extract of the plant was shown to possess significant inhibitory activity against carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model and of p-benzoquinone-induced writhings in mice. Through bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation procedures eight compounds, aquaticoside A (1), aquaticoside B (2), aquaticoside C (3), veronicoside (4), catalposide (5), verproside (6), verminoside (7) and martynoside (8) were isolated and their structures were elucidated by spectral techniques. Catapol derivative iridoid glucosides, verproside (6) and catalposide (5), were found to possess potent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, per os without inducing any apparent acute toxicity as well as gastric damage. Results of the present study supported the utilization of the plant in Turkish folk medicine. PMID:16019176

Küpeli, Esra; Harput, U Sebnem; Varel, Mehtap; Yesilada, Erdem; Saracoglu, Iclal

2005-11-14

204

Celecoxib analogs bearing benzofuran moiety as cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors: design, synthesis and evaluation as potential anti-inflammatory agents.  

PubMed

Novel series of celecoxib analogs endowed with benzofuran moiety 3a-e and 9a-d were synthesized and evaluated for COX-1/COX-2 inhibitory activity in vitro. The most potent and selective COX-2 inhibitors - compounds 3c, 3d, 3e, 9c and 9d - were assessed for their anti-inflammatory activity and ulcerogenic liability in vivo. The 3-(pyridin-3-yl)pyrazole derivatives 3c and 3e exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory activity, that is equipotent to celecoxib. Furthermore, the tested compounds proved to have better gastric safety profile compared to celecoxib. In particular, compound 3e demonstrated about 40% reduction in ulcerogenic potential relative to the reference drug. Finally, molecular docking simulation of the new compounds in COX-2 active site and drug likeness studies showed good agreement with the obtained pharmaco-biological results. PMID:24607877

Hassan, Ghaneya Sayed; Abou-Seri, Sahar Mahmoud; Kamel, Gehan; Ali, Mamdouh Moawad

2014-04-01

205

Anti-Diabetic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Green and Red Kohlrabi Cultivars (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes)  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant potential, and total phenolic content (TPC) of green and red kohlrabi cultivars. Anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated via protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP1B) and rat lens aldose reductase inhibitory assays and cell-based lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory assays in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. In addition, scavenging assays using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical, and peroxynitrite (ONOO?) were used to evaluate antioxidant potential and TPC was selected to assess phytochemical characteristics. Between the two kohlrabi cultivars, red kohlrabi (RK) had two times more TPC than green kohlrabi (GK) and showed significant antioxidant effects in DPPH, ABTS, and ONOO? scavenging assays. Likewise, methanol (MeOH) extracts of RK and GK inhibited LPS-induced NO production in a dose dependent manner that was further clarified by suppression of iNOS and COX-2 protein production. The MeOH extracts of RK and GK exhibited potent inhibitory activities against PTP1B with the corresponding IC50 values of 207±3.48 and 287±3.22 ?g/mL, respectively. Interestingly, the RK MeOH extract exhibited significantly stronger anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and antioxidant effects than that of GK MeOH extract. As a result, our study establishes that RK extract with a higher TPC might be useful as a potent anti-diabetic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25580392

Jung, Hyun Ah; Karki, Subash; Ehom, Na-Yeon; Yoon, Mi-Hee; Kim, Eon Ji; Choi, Jae Sue

2014-01-01

206

Anti-Diabetic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Green and Red Kohlrabi Cultivars (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes).  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant potential, and total phenolic content (TPC) of green and red kohlrabi cultivars. Anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated via protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP1B) and rat lens aldose reductase inhibitory assays and cell-based lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory assays in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. In addition, scavenging assays using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical, and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) were used to evaluate antioxidant potential and TPC was selected to assess phytochemical characteristics. Between the two kohlrabi cultivars, red kohlrabi (RK) had two times more TPC than green kohlrabi (GK) and showed significant antioxidant effects in DPPH, ABTS, and ONOO(-) scavenging assays. Likewise, methanol (MeOH) extracts of RK and GK inhibited LPS-induced NO production in a dose dependent manner that was further clarified by suppression of iNOS and COX-2 protein production. The MeOH extracts of RK and GK exhibited potent inhibitory activities against PTP1B with the corresponding IC50 values of 207±3.48 and 287±3.22 ?g/mL, respectively. Interestingly, the RK MeOH extract exhibited significantly stronger anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and antioxidant effects than that of GK MeOH extract. As a result, our study establishes that RK extract with a higher TPC might be useful as a potent anti-diabetic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25580392

Jung, Hyun Ah; Karki, Subash; Ehom, Na-Yeon; Yoon, Mi-Hee; Kim, Eon Ji; Choi, Jae Sue

2014-12-01

207

Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of caffeoyl hemiterpene glycosides from Spiraea prunifolia.  

PubMed

Activity guided isolation of a Spiraea prunifolia extract yielded five caffeoyl hemiterpene glycosides: 4'-(6-O-caffeoyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-2'-methyl butyric acid, 1-O-caffeoyl-6-O-(4'-hydroxy-2'-methylene-butyroyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside, 1,2-O-dicaffeoyl-6-O-(4'-hydroxy-2'-methylene-butyroyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-caffeoyl-6-O-(4'-caffeoyl-2'-methylene-butyroyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside, and 1-O-caffeoyl-6-O-(4'-caffeoyl-3'-hydroxy-2'-methylene-butyroyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside, and nine known compounds. Structures were elucidated by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectra and FAB-MS. To evaluate the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of all fourteen compounds, DPPH radical scavenging, NBT superoxide scavenging, and inhibition of nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were examined. Three of the caffeoyl hemiterpene glycosides exhibited potent anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities compared with Vitamin C and l-NMMA, which were used as positive controls. PMID:24161492

Park, Sang Hee; Park, Kwan Hee; Oh, Myeong Hwan; Kim, Han Hyuk; Choe, Kang In; Kim, So Ra; Park, Kwang Jun; Lee, Min Won

2013-12-01

208

Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils from Acacia mearnsii de Wild.  

PubMed

The volatile oils of the leaves and the stem bark of Acacia mearnsii de Wild obtained by hydro-distillation were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 20, 38, 29 and 38 components accounted for 93.8%, 92.1%, 78.5% and 90.9% of the total oils of the fresh, dry leaves and fresh, dry stem bark, respectively. The major components of the oil were octadecyl alcohol (25.5%) and phytol (10.5%); cis-verbenol (29.5%); phytol (10.1%) and phytol (23.4%) for the fresh leaves, dried leaves, fresh stem, dry stem bark, respectively. Oral administration of essential oils at a dose of 2% showed significant (p < 0.05) anti-inflammatory properties in the albumin-induced test model in rats. Oils from the fresh leaves and dry stems inhibited inflammation beyond 4 h post treatment. The potent anti-inflammatory activity of essential oils of A. mearnsii hereby confirmed its traditional use in treating various inflammatory diseases. PMID:25422136

Avoseh, Opeyemi N; Oyedeji, Ope-Oluwa O; Aremu, Kayode; Nkeh-Chungag, Benedicta N; Songca, Sandile P; Oluwafemi, Samuel O; Oyedeji, Adebola O

2014-11-25

209

Convergence of Nitric Oxide and Lipid Signaling: Anti-Inflammatory Nitro-Fatty Acids  

PubMed Central

The signaling mediators nitric oxide (·NO) and oxidized lipids, once viewed to transduce metabolic and inflammatory information via discrete and independent pathways, are now appreciated as interdependent regulators of immune response and metabolic homeostasis. The interactions between these two classes of mediators result in reciprocal control of mediator sythesis that is strongly influenced by the local chemical environment. The relationship between the two pathways extends beyond co-regulation of ·NO and eicosanoid formation to converge via the nitration of unsaturated fatty acids to yield nitro derivatives (NO2-FA). These pluripotent signaling molecules are generated in vivo as an adaptive response to oxidative inflammatory conditions and manifest predominantly anti-inflammatory signaling reactions. These actions of NO2-FA are diverse, with these species serving as a potential chemical reserve of ·NO, reacting with cellular nucleophiles to post-translationally modify protein structure, function and localization. In this regard these species act as potent endogenous ligands for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ?. Functional consequences of these signaling mechanisms have been shown in multiple model systems, including the inhibition of platelet and neutrophil functions, induction of heme oxygenase-1, inhibition of LPS-induced cytokine release in monocytes, increased insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in adipocytes and relaxation of pre-constricted rat aortic segments. These observations have propelled further in vitro and in vivo studies of mechanisms of NO2-FA signaling and metabolism, highlighting the therapeutic potential of this class of molecules as anti-inflammatory drug candidates. PMID:19200454

Baker, Paul R.S.; Schopfer, Francisco J.; O’Donnell, Valerie B.; Freeman, Bruce A.

2009-01-01

210

Enhancing the anti-inflammatory activity of chalcones by tuning the Michael acceptor site.  

PubMed

Inflammatory signaling pathways orchestrate the cellular response to infection and injury. These pathways are known to be modulated by compounds that alkylate cysteinyl thiols. One class of phytochemicals with strong thiol alkylating activity is the chalcones. In this study we tested fourteen chalcone derivatives, ?-X-substituted 2',3,4,4'-tetramethoxychalcones (?-X-TMCs, X = H, F, Cl, Br, I, CN, Me, p-NO2-C6H4, Ph, p-OMe-C6H4, NO2, CF3, COOEt, COOH), for their ability to modulate inflammatory responses, as monitored by their influence on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activity, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, and cytokine expression levels. We confirmed that the transcriptional activity of Nrf2 was activated by ?-X-TMCs while for NF-?B it was inhibited. For most ?-X-TMCs, anti-inflammatory activity was positively correlated with thiol alkylating activity, i.e. stronger electrophiles (X = CF3, Br and Cl) being more potent. Notably, this correlation did not hold true for the strongest electrophiles (X = CN and NO2) which were found to be ineffective as anti-inflammatory compounds. These results emphasize the idea that chemical fine-tuning of electrophilicity is needed to achieve and optimize desired therapeutic effects. PMID:25622264

Rücker, Hannelore; Al-Rifai, Nafisah; Rascle, Anne; Gottfried, Eva; Brodziak-Jarosz, Lidia; Gerhäuser, Clarissa; Dick, Tobias P; Amslinger, Sabine

2015-02-24

211

[Anti-inflammatory actions of proteases, bromelain, trypsin and their mixed preparation (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Anti-inflammatory actions of proteases, bromelain (BR), trypsin (TR) and their mixed preparation (KT) were studied mainly in rabbits using various experimental test methods. Inhibitory action of edema formation induced by carrageenin was observed to be dose dependent with oral administrations of KT. This inhibitory action of KT was more remarkable than actions of BR and TR, suggesting a possible synergism between the latter two. Such action was also observed with non-steroidal anti-rheumatic drugs, phenylbutazone (PB), indomethacin and acetylsalicylic acid. Oral administration of KT exerted definite inhibition or a tendency toward inhibition against paw edema induced by dextran, histamine or egg albumin or skin edema induced by anti-rabbit serum and thermal stimulation. Furthermore, inhibition of vascular permeability increase induced by histamine and bradykinin as well as a tendency toward inhibition against protein exudation in CMC-pouch method were observed. On the other hand, contrary to PB, potent inhibitory action was not manifested in the persistent proliferative inflammation models, the granuloma formation induced formalin soaked filter paper and cotton pellet and the mustard edema. Therefore, it can be deduced that the inhibitory action of KT against edema formation may be dependent mainly on the inhibitory action of vascular permeability increase and the anti-inflammatory action may be specific for acute exudative inflammation. PMID:395051

Ito, C; Yamaguchi, K; Shibutani, Y; Suzuki, K; Yamazaki, Y; Komachi, H; Ohnishi, H; Fujimura, H

1979-04-20

212

[Anti-inflammatory activity of the dry distillation tar of delipidated soybean (Glyteer) (2)].  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory effects of Glyteer (GL) were investigated by its local administration using the CMC-pouch method in rats, and the effects were compared with those of betamethasone 17-valerate (BV, 1 mg), phenylbutazone (PB, 10 mg), flufenamic acid (FA, 10 mg), bufexamac (BM, 10 and 20 mg), bendazac (BZ, 10 and 20 mg), icthammol (IT, 10 mg) and pine tar (PT, 10 mg). At three hours after CMC-treatment, GL (10 mg) significantly inhibited not only the protein exudation, but also the leucocyte migration. The inhibitory activity of GL on the leucocyte migration had the same potency as that of FA, but was stronger than those of PB, BV, BM, BZ, IT and PT. Furthermore, in relation to the leucocyte migration, GL markedly inhibited not only the neutrophil, but also the macrophage migration. At three hours after CMC-treatment, the inhibitory activity of GL on the neutrophil migration had the same potency as those of PB and FA, but was stronger than those of BV, BM, BZ, IT and PT. On the other hand, GL, BM, BZ, FA, IT and PT had an inhibitory activity on the macrophage migration, and the activity was more potent in GL, FA and IT. From these results, it is suggested that the inhibition of GL on increased vascular permeability and leucocyte migration is one of the mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory action. PMID:3371789

Takeuchi, K; Ito, K; Namikawa, S

1988-01-01

213

Acai Juice Attenuates Atherosclerosis Through Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects in ApoE Deficient Mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: Acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been shown to exhibit extremely high antioxidant capacity. Antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory effects of acai pulp or acai juices have been studied in human, animal and cell culture models. However, their potential effects on atheroscl...

214

Bisdemethylcurcumin and structurally related hispolon analogues of curcumin exhibit enhanced prooxidant, anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro.  

PubMed

Curcumin, a component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) contains two hydroxyl, two methoxy and two phenyl groups but how these groups contribute to its activity is poorly understood. We synthesized analogues that varied in inclusion of these groups and compared their activity. We found that bisdemethylcurcumin (BDC) was more potent than curcumin as an anti-inflammatory agent as indicated by suppression of TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation, more potent as an anti-proliferative agent, and more potent in inducing ROS. Hispolon, which lacks one aromatic unit in relation to curcumin, also exhibited enhanced anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities. When synthetic curcumin (Cur-S) was compared with bisdemethylcurcumin (BDC), hispolon, hispolon methyl ether (HME), dehydroxy hispolon (DH), hydroxy hispolon (HH), methoxy hispolon methyl ether (MHME), and methoxy hispolon (MH), we found that following order of anti-inflammatory activity: BDC=Hispolon>HME>HH>Cur-S>MHME>MH>DH; for anti-proliferative: Hispolon>BDC>MHME>Cur-S>MH>HME=HH>DH; and for prooxidant: BDC>Cur-S=MHME>HH>MH+HME>DH (254-1414 mean fluorescence intensity). Thus, dehydroxy hispolon was least potent for all three activities. Overall the results indicate that the substitution of a hydroxyl group for a methoxy group at the meta positions of the phenyl rings in curcumin significantly enhanced the anti-inflammatory activity, and the removal of phenyl ring at the 7(th) position of the heptadiene back bone and addition of hydroxyl group significantly increased the anti-proliferative activity of curcumin. PMID:20138025

Ravindran, Jayaraj; Subbaraju, Gottumukkala V; Ramani, Modukuri V; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B

2010-06-01

215

Bisdemethylcurcumin and Structurally Related Hispolon Analogues of Curcumin Exhibit Enhanced Prooxidant, Anti-Proliferative and Anti-inflammatory Activities in vitro  

PubMed Central

Curcumin, a component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Curcumin (diferuloylemethane) contains two hydroxyl, two methoxy and two phenyl groups but how these groups contribute to its activity is poorly understood. We synthesized analogues that varied in inclusion of these groups and compared their activity. We found that bisdemethylcurcumin (BDC) was more potent than curcumin as an anti-inflammatory agent as indicated by suppression of TNF-induced NF-?B activation, more potent as an anti-proliferative agent, and more potent in inducing ROS. Hispolon, which lacks one aromatic unit in relation to curcumin, also exhibited enhanced anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities. When synthetic curcumin (Cur-S) was compared with bisdemethylcurcumin (BDC), hispolon, hispolon methyl ether (HME), dehydroxy hispolon (DH), hydroxy hispolon (HH), methoxy hispolon methyl ether (MHME), and methoxy hispolon (MH), we found that following order of anti-inflammatory activity: BDC=Hispolon>HME> HH>Cur-S>MHME>MH>DH; for anti-proliferative Hispolon> BDC>MHME> Cur-S>MH>HME=HH>DH; and for prooxidant BDC>Cur-S=MHME>HH>MH+HME>DH (254-1414 mean fluorescence intensity). Thus dehydroxyhispolon was least potent for all three activities. Overall the results indicates that the substitution of a hydroxyl group for a methoxy group at the meta positions of the phenyl rings in curcumin significantly enhanced the anti-inflammatory activity, and the removal of phenyl ring at the 7th position of the heptadiene back bone and addition of hydroxyl group significantly increased the anti-proliferative activity of curcumin. PMID:20138025

Ravindran, Jayaraj; Subbaraju, Gottumukkala V.; Ramani, Modukuri V.; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

2010-01-01

216

Mexican Arnica Anti–Inflammatory Action: Plant Age is Correlated with the Concentration of Anti–Inflammatory Sesquiterpenes in the Medicinal Plant Heterotheca inuloides Cass. (Asteraceae) 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexican Arnica Anti–Inflammatory Action: Plant Age Is Correlated with the Concentration of Anti–inflammatory Sesquiterpenes\\u000a in the Medicinal Plant \\u000a Heterotheca inuloides\\u000a Cass. (Asteraceae). Mexican árnica (Heterotheca inuloides Cass.) is a widely used anti–inflammatory medicinal plant in Mexican folk medicine. Although it has been suggested that plant\\u000a age, fertilization, and harvesting regime influence the concentration of secondary compounds affecting the therapeutic activity

Robert Bye; Guillermo Delgado

2008-01-01

217

Anti-Inflammatory Therapy in Chronic Disease: Challenges and Opportunities  

PubMed Central

A number of widespread and devastating chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease, have a pathophysiologically important inflammatory component. In these diseases, the precise identity of the inflammatory stimulus is often unknown and, if known, is difficult to remove. Thus, there is interest in therapeutically targeting the inflammatory response. Although there has been success with anti-inflammatory therapy in chronic diseases triggered by primary inflammation dysregulation or autoimmunity, there are considerable limitations. In particular, the inflammatory response is critical for survival. As a result, redundancy, compensatory pathways, and necessity narrow the risk:benefit ratio of anti-inflammatory drugs. However, new advances in understanding inflammatory signaling and its links to resolution pathways, together with new drug development, offer promise in this area of translational biomedical research. PMID:23307734

Tabas, Ira; Glass, Christopher K.

2013-01-01

218

Anti-Inflammatory Drug Design Using a Molecular Hybridization Approach  

PubMed Central

The design of new drugs with better physiochemical properties, adequate absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, effective pharmacologic potency and lacking toxicity remains is a challenge. Inflammation is the initial trigger of several different diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, asthma, atherosclerosis, colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, depression, cancer; and disorders such as obesity and sexual dysfunction. Although inflammation is not the direct cause of these disorders, inflammatory processes often increase related pain and suffering. New anti-inflammatory drugs developed using molecular hybridization techniques to obtain multiple-ligand drugs can act at one or multiple targets, allowing for synergic action and minimizing toxicity. This work is a review of new anti-inflammatory drugs developed using the molecular modification approach.

Bosquesi, Priscila Longhin; Melo, Thais Regina Ferreira; Vizioli, Ednir Oliveira; dos Santos, Jean Leandro; Chung, Man Chin

2011-01-01

219

Constituents from Vigna vexillata and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity  

PubMed Central

The seeds of Vigna genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of V. vexillata demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the anti-inflammatory principles of V. vexillata. One new sterol (1) and two new isoflavones (2,3) were reported from the natural sources for the first time and their chemical structures were determined by the spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. In addition, 37 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Among the isolates, daidzein (23), abscisic acid (25), and quercetin (40) displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release. PMID:22949828

Leu, Yann-Lii; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Liou, Kun-Pei; Huang, Bow-Shin; Chen, Guo-Feng

2012-01-01

220

Heterotheca inuloides: Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterotheca inuloides Cass. (Asteraceae) is used in the traditional medicine of Mexico. The aqueous extract obtained from the flowers of H. inuloides was assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced edema test. At 100 mg\\/kg, i.p, it produced 29% inhibition of inflammation. Ethyl ether (HI-1), butanol (HI-2) and aqueous fraction (HI-3) were obtained from the aqueous extract. The biological assay, by

Rosa M Gené; Laura Segura; Tomŕs Adzet; Esther Marin; José Iglesias

1998-01-01

221

Aspririn and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug hypersensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) sensitivities encompass a diverse group\\u000a of both pharmacological and hypersensitivity reactions. Conventionally, hypersensitivities include aspirin-exacerbated respiratory\\u000a disease (AERD), ASA-induced urticaria, and anaphylaxis. With an increasing prevalence of coronary artery disease in an aging\\u000a population, aspirin continues to play a significant role in cardiac prophylaxis in a large patient population. Invariably,

James S. W. Kong; Suzanne S. Teuber; M. Eric Gershwin

2007-01-01

222

Recent considerations in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug gastropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservative calculations estimate that approximately 107,000 patients are hospitalized annually for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-related gastrointestinal (GI) complications and at least 16,500 NSAID-related deaths occur each year among arthritis patients alone. The figures for all NSAID users would be overwhelming, yet the scope of this problem is generally under-appreciated. The Arthritis, Rheumatism, and Aging Medical Information System (ARAMIS) Post-Marketing Surveillance

Gurkirpal Singh

1998-01-01

223

IL6 and APPs: anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive mediators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute inflammation is accompanied by changes in the concentrations of acute phase proteins (APPs), While much is known about the cytokines involved in the initiation of inflammation, less is known about the mediators involved in its resolution. Recent data suggest that interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-6-regulated APPs are anti-inflammatory and immuno-suppressive, and may negatively regulate the acute phase response.

Herbert Tilg; Charles A. Dinarello; James W. Mier

1997-01-01

224

Anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoids from Eupatorium arnottianum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three anti-inflammatory compounds: nepetin, jaceosidin and hispidulin have been isolated and identified from Eupatorium arnottianum Griseb. dichloromethane extract. Nepetin reduced the TPA mouse ear edema by 46.9% and jaceosidin by 23.2% (1mg\\/ear). Both compounds inhibited the NF ?B induction by 91 and 77%, respectively.Furthermore phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract has led to the identification of eriodictyol, hyperoside, rutin, caffeic

M. Clavin; S. Gorzalczany; A. Macho; E. Muńoz; G. Ferraro; C. Acevedo; V. Martino

2007-01-01

225

Pharmacological interactions of anti-inflammatory-analgesics in odontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this second article we describe the more interesting pharmacological interactions in dental practice based on the prescription of analgesic narcotics, paracetamol and non-selective non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAI) (which inhibit cyclooxigenase 1 -COX 1- and cyclooxigenase 2 -COX 2-) and selective NSAIs (COX 2 inhibitors). The importance of preventing the appearance of these pharmacological interactions is because these are medicaments

Gerardo Gómez-Moreno; Javier Guardia; Antonio Cutando; José Luis Calvo Guirado

2009-01-01

226

Anti-inflammatory activities of flavonoids isolated from Caesalpinia pulcherrima  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anti-inflammatory activities of five flavonoids, namely 5,7-dimethoxyflavanone (1), 5,7-dimethoxy-3?,4?-methylenedioxyflavanone (2), isobonducellin (3), 2?-hydroxy-2,3,4?,6?-tetramethoxychalcone (4) and bonducellin (5), all of them isolated from Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon (IFN)-? activated murine peritoneal macrophages. These five compounds significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the inflammatory mediators; nitric oxide (NO), and cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-12].

Yerra Koteswara Rao; Shih-Hua Fang; Yew-Min Tzeng

2005-01-01

227

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of human placenta extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the effects of human placenta extract (HPE, Laennec inj.) on pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators secreted from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. We found that HPE significantly inhibited the production of nitric oxide, tumour necrosis factor-? and cyclooxygenase-2. We studied the anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of HPE in murine models of inflammation\\/inflammatory pain. Rats were assigned to six

Kwan-Hoo Lee; Tae-Hoon Kim; Woo-Cheol Lee; Sang Hoon Kim; Sung Youl Lee; Sun-Mee Lee

2011-01-01

228

Hypersensitivity Reactions to Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: An Update  

PubMed Central

After beta lactam antibiotics, hypersensitivity reactions to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the second cause of hypersensitivity to drugs. Acute manifestations affect the respiratory tract (aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease), the skin (urticaria and angioedema), or are generalized (anaphylaxis). Correct diagnosis and treatment in order to prevent unnecessary morbidity and the potential risk of death from these severe reactions, and to provide proper medical advice on future drug use frequently requires the participation of allergology specialists familiar with these clinical conditions.

Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Caballero-Fonseca, Fernan; Capriles-Hulett, Arnaldo; González-Aveledo, Luis

2010-01-01

229

Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory activities of Plantago major L  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities of Plantago major L. (PM). Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity: Control and reference groups were administered isotonic saline solution (ISS) and indomethacin, respectively. Plantago major groups were injected PM in doses of 5 mg/kg (PM-I), 10 mg/kg (PM-II), 20 mg/kg (PM-III) and 25 mg/kg (PM-IV). Before and three hours after the injections, the volume of right hind-paw of rats was measured using a plethysmometer. Hepatoprotective Activity: The hepatotoxicity was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration. Control, CCl4 and reference groups received isotonic saline solution, CCl4 and silibinin, respectively. Plantago major groups received CCl4 (0.8 ml/kg) and PM in doses of 10, 20 and 25 mg/kg, respectively for seven days. Blood samples and liver were collected on the 8th day after the animals were killed. Results: Plantago major had an anti-inflammatory effect matching to that of control group at doses of 20 and 25 mg/kg. It was found that reduction in the inflammation was 90.01% with indomethacin, 3.10% with PM-I, 41.56% with PM-II, 45.87% with PM-III and 49.76% with PM-IV. Median effective dose (ED50) value of PM was found to be 7.507 mg/kg. Plantago major (25 mg/kg) significantly reduced the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels when compared to the CCl4 group. The histopathological findings showed a significant difference between the PM (25 mg/kg) and CCl4 groups. Conclusion: The results showed that PM had a considerable anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities. PMID:20442819

Türel, Idris; Özbek, Hanefi; Erten, Remzi; Öner, Ahmet Cihat; Cengiz, Nureddin; Yilmaz, Orhan

2009-01-01

230

Anti-inflammatory activity of Chinese medicinal vine plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts from nine vine plants used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammatory conditions were evaluated against a panel of key enzymes relating to inflammation. The enzymes included cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO). The vine plants studied were: the stem of Spatholobus suberectus Dunn, the stem of Trachelospermum jasminoides

Rachel W Li; G David Lin; Stephen P Myers; David N Leach

2003-01-01

231

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of silver nanoparticles biosynthesized from aqueous leaves extracts of four Terminalia species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmentally friendly synthesis of nanoparticles process is a revolutionary step in the field of nanotechnology. In recent years plant mediated biological synthesis of nanoparticles has been gaining importance due to its simplicity and eco-friendliness. In this study, a simple and an efficient eco-friendly approach for the biosynthesis of stable, monodisperse silver nanoparticles using aqueous extracts of four Terminalia species, namely, Terminalia catappa, Terminalia mellueri, Terminalia bentazoe and Terminalia bellerica were described. The silver nanoparticles were characterized in terms of synthesis, capping functionalities (polysaccharides, phenolics and flavonoidal compounds) and microscopic evaluation by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed a simple and feasible approach for obtaining stable aqueous monodispersive silver nanoparticles. Furthermore, biological activity of the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was examined. Concerning this, dose-dependent antioxidant activity of silver nanoparticles imparted by the plant phenolic and flavonoidal components was evaluated using in vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and found to be comparable to standard ascorbic acid. The same holds true for the anti-inflammatory activity where Terminalia catappa and Terminalia mellueri have a high-test inhibition percentage better than that of ascorbic acid in the carrageenan induced hind paw edema. The results also revealed that the aqueous extract of Terminallia catapa and its silver nanoparticles recorded the most potent in vivo antioxidant effect.

El-Rafie, Hanaa Mohamed; Abdel-Aziz Hamed, Manal

2014-09-01

232

High-performance enantiomer separation of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by 3 ?m reversed-phase chiral columns and application to the optical purity testing of naproxen drug substances and its formulations.  

PubMed

The enantiomer separation of five nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, ketoprofen (KP) and naproxen (NX), which are included in The Japanese Pharmacopoeia 16th edition (JP16), was investigated by employing four kinds of 3 ?m reversed-phase chiral columns (AD-3R, AS-3R, OD-3R and OJ-3R). Except for KP, the enantiomers of four NSAIDs were successfully separated by one of the four columns. Among five NSAIDs, only NX has been used as a single enantiomer (S-form, active form) in the clinical field (JP16); therefore, optical purity testing method of NX is required for its quality evaluation. Among four CSPs, the method was developed by using an AS-3R column, which showed good enantioselectivity for NX enantiomers. By optimizing the conditions, the resolution (Rs) of 2.55 was obtained for NX enantiomers within approximately 6 min. The minor enantiomer R-form eluted before the main active enantiomer S-form. Finally, the developed method was applied to the optical purity testing of NX active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), and its formulations (tablet and capsule). Other than the minor enantiomer (R-form, inactive form, 0.21 - 0.78%), normal (not chiral) impurities at levels of 0.01-0.3% were simultaneously separated and determined by the method, showing an excellent separation capability of the method for those impurities including the minor enantiomer. The content uniformity test of the NX tablet according to JP16 was also successfully performed by the method with the AS-3R column. Normal phase separation with two chiral columns (AD-H and OD-H) and capillary electrophoretic (CE) separation were also investigated for five NSAIDs enantiomers to discuss the enantioselectivity. PMID:24614736

Tanaka, Moe; Nagamatsu, Kumi; Nishi, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

233

Anti-inflammatory effects of Allium schoenoprasum L. leaves.  

PubMed

Allium schoenoprasum has antimicrobial and antifungal properties and is used to relieve pain from sunburn and sore throat. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of the extracts from A. schoenoprasum leaves. A 1:1 (w:v) extract was prepared by a modified Squibb repercolation method. The total phenolic content of 68.5±2 g gallic acid aquivalent (GAE)/g plant was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl bleaching method (6.72±0.44 g/mg DPPH) and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (132.8±23 g trolox eq./g plant) assay. Analysis of the extracts using the hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition assay or the electron spin resonance did not yield signals above the detection limit. The anti-inflammatory effects of three extract concentrations (25%, 50%, 100%) were evaluated in vivo on a model turpentine oil-induced inflammation in rats. These three extracts were also evaluated in vitro for the ability to inhibit phagocytosis, the accumulation of total nitrites and nitrates in the serum, the total oxidative status, the total antioxidant response and the oxidative stress index. Pure extracts (100% concentration) had the best inhibitory activity on phagocytosis and oxidative stress. In conclusion, these results support the hypothesis that extracts from A. schoenoprasum leaves exert anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting phagocytosis through the reduction of nitro-oxidative stress. PMID:24781739

Parvu, A E; Parvu, M; Vlase, L; Miclea, P; Mot, A C; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, R

2014-04-01

234

Anti-inflammatory activity of Shirishavaleha: An Ayurvedic compound formulation.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth.), viz. the bark (Twak) and the heartwood (Sara). The activity was screened in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model in albino rats. The raw materials were collected and authenticated in the university and the trial formulations were prepared by following standard classical guidelines. Randomly selected animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. The test drugs were administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg for 5 days. Phenylbutazone was used as the standard anti-inflammatory drug for comparison. Between the two different test samples studied, the formulation made from heartwood showed a weak anti-inflammatory activity in this model while that made from the bark produced a considerable suppression of edema after 6 h. It appears that the bark sample would be preferable for clinical use. PMID:21455445

Yadav, Shyamlal Singh; Galib; Ravishankar, B; Prajapati, P K; Ashok, B K; Varun, B

2010-10-01

235

UV Filters, Ingredients with a Recognized Anti-Inflammatory Effect  

PubMed Central

Background To explain observed differences during SPF determination using either an in vivo or in vitro method, we hypothesized on the presence of ingredients having anti-inflammatory properties. Methodology/Principal Findings To research our hypothesis, we studied the 21 UV filters both available on the market and authorized by European regulations and subjected these filters to the phorbol-myristate-acetate test using mice. We then catalogued the 13 filters demonstrating a significant anti-inflammatory effect with edema inhibition percentages of more than 70%. The filters are: diethylhexyl butamido triazone (92%), benzophenone-5 and titanium dioxide (90%), benzophenone-3 (83%), octocrylčne and isoamyl p-methoxycinnamate (82%), PEG-25 PABA and homosalate (80%), octyl triazone and phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid (78%), octyl dimethyl PABA (75%), bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine and diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexylbenzoate (70%). These filters were tested at various concentrations, including their maximum authorized dose. We detected a dose-response relationship. Conclusions/Significance The anti-inflammatory effect of a sunscreen ingredient may affect the in vivo SPF value. PMID:23284607

Couteau, Céline; Chauvet, Catherine; Paparis, Eva; Coiffard, Laurence

2012-01-01

236

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF MIRABILIS JALAPA LINN. LEAVES  

PubMed Central

Mirabilis Jalapa Linn. is a widely used traditional medicine in many parts of the world for the treatment of various diseases viz. virus inhibitory activity, anti tumour activity. It is claimed in traditional medicine that the leaves of the plant are used in the treatment of inflammation. In the present study, the total alcoholic extract and successive petroleum ether fractions of leaves of Mirabilis Jalapa Linn were screened for its anti-inflammatory activity using carageenan induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma models. The total alcoholic extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg p.o and successive petroleum ether fraction at the dose of 200 mg/kg exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema model (p<0.01). In cotton pellet granuloma model, the total alcoholic extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg and successive petroleum ether fraction at the dose of 200 mg/kg inhibited granuloma formation significantly (p<0.05) indicating that both test samples inhibit the increase in number of fibroblasts and synthesis of collagen and mucopolysaccharides during granuloma tissue formation during the chronic inflammation. These experimental results have established a pharmacological evidence for the folklore claim of the drug to be used as an anti inflammatory agent. PMID:24825972

Nath, Lekshmi. R.; Manjunath, K. P.; Savadi, R. V.; Akki, K. S.

2010-01-01

237

Anti-inflammatory activity of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs  

PubMed Central

Accumulating epidemiological and clinical evidence shows that inflammation is an important risk factor for various human diseases. Thus, suppressing chronic inflammation has the potential to delay, prevent, and control various chronic diseases, including cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, joint, skin, pulmonary, blood, lymph, liver, pancreatic, and intestinal diseases. Various natural products from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have been shown to safely suppress proinflammatory pathways and control inflammation-associated disease. In vivo and/or in vitro studies have demonstrated that anti-inflammatory effects of TCM occur by inhibition of the expression of master transcription factors (for example, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B)), pro-inflammatory cytokines (for example, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), chemokines (for example, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)-24), intercellular adhesion molecule expression and pro-inflammatory mediators (for example, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2)). However, a handful of review articles have focused on the anti-inflammatory activities of TCM and explore their possible mechanisms of action. In this review, we summarize recent research attempting to identify the anti-inflammatory constituents of TCM and their molecular targets that may create new opportunities for innovation in modern pharmacology. PMID:24716101

Pan, Min-Hsiung; Chiou, Yi-Shiou; Tsai, Mei-Ling; Ho, Chi-Tang

2011-01-01

238

Melittin-glutathione S-transferase fusion protein exhibits anti-inflammatory properties and minimal toxicity.  

PubMed

Although potent, proteins often require chemical modification for therapeutic use. Immunogenicity, difficult synthesis, and scale-up of these modifications are all engineering obstacles that stand in the way of expanding the use of these therapeutics. Melittin, a peptide derived from bee venom, has been shown to modulate inflammation. Although potentially therapeutic, the native peptide causes cell lysis and toxicity significantly hindering therapeutic application. Based upon the knowledge of the pore formation mechanism, we examined the toxicity and therapeutic effect of a melittin fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase. The fusion of melittin and glutathione S-transferase results in diminished toxicity of the peptide and retained anti-inflammatory properties at doses that exceed toxic concentration of native melittin. Our results suggest that fusion proteins, particularly those of glutathione-S-transferase, may be facile modifications to control protein activity. PMID:25240321

Rayahin, Jamie E; Buhrman, Jason S; Gemeinhart, Richard A

2014-12-18

239

Anti-inflammatory compounds from the aerial parts of Aceriphyllum rossii.  

PubMed

A new megastigmane glycoside, galloyl linarionoside A (1), together with 13 known compounds (2-14) were isolated from the aerial parts of Aceriphyllum rossii ENGLER. (Saxifragaceae). The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were established mainly by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, mass spectrometry, and modified Mosher's method. Among the isolates, compounds 4, 5, 6 and 7 showed potent inhibitory activity against the lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophage cells with IC50 values of 12.5, 9.5, 10.5 and 9.3 µM, respectively. The anti-inflammatory effect of compound 7 was accompanied by dose-dependent decreases in the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 proteins not in the inhibitor kappa B (I?B)-dependent nuclear factor-kappa B activation. PMID:24492589

Trang, Tran Thi Thu; Cuong, To Dao; Hung, Tran Manh; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Jeong Hyung; Woo, Mi Hee; Choi, Jae Sue; Lee, Hyeong Kyu; Min, Byung Sun

2014-01-01

240

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of selected medicinal plants and fungi containing phenolic and flavonoid compounds  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to determine the relationship between the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the thirteen herbs and two fungi extracts, and their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Methods Antioxidant activities were evaluated by four assays: an antioxidant activity assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a DPPH ((2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay to assess free radical scavenging, an assay assessing ferrous ions or iron (II) chelating ability, and a ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride methods, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activities were determined by measuring the inhibition of nitric oxide and TNF-? production in lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-?-activated J774A.1 macrophages. Their cytotoxicities against macrophages were determined by MTT assay. Results A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activities and the total phenolic and flavonoid content of the plant extracts was found. The plant extracts with high phenolic and flavonoid content also exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity with good cell viability. Conclusion The selected herbs could be a rich source of antioxidants and free radical scavenging compounds. The levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were correlated with the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts from the herbs. PMID:23176585

2012-01-01

241

Appraisal of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of various extracts from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus florida.  

PubMed

Pleurotus florida has been widely used for nutritional and medicinal purposes. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the fruiting bodies of P. florida extracted with acetone, methanol, and hot water. The antioxidant activities of the acetone and methanol extracts of P. florida showed stronger inhibition of ?-carotene-linoleic acid compared to that of the hot water extract. The acetone extract (8 mg/mL) showed a high reducing power of 1.86. The acetone and methanol extracts showed more effective DPPH radical scavenging activities than the hot water extract. The chelating effect of the extracts at lower concentrations was significantly effective compared to that of the positive control. Thirteen phenolic compounds were detected from acetonitrile and hydrochloric acid solvent extracts. Nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in lipolysaccahride (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line, were inhibited significantly by the mushroom extracts in a concentration dependent manner. The anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced edema in the rat hind-paw reduced significantly by the mushroom extracts. Therefore, we have demonstrated that P. florida fruiting bodies possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activites related to their inhibitory activities on NO production, iNOS protein expression, and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. The results suggest that the fruiting bodies of P. florida are a good source of natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:24647033

Im, Kyung Hoan; Nguyen, Trung Kien; Shin, Do Bin; Lee, Kyung Rim; Lee, Tae Soo

2014-01-01

242

Improved antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential in mice consuming sour cherry juice (Prunus Cerasus cv. Maraska).  

PubMed

The present investigation tested the in vivo antioxidant efficacy (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase; Gpx), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and anti-inflammatory properties (cyclooxygenase-2; COX-2) of sour cherry juices obtained from an autochthonous cultivar (Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska) that is grown in coastal parts of Croatia. Antioxidant potential was tested in mouse tissue (blood, liver, and brain), LPO (liver, brain) and anti-inflammatory properties in glycogen elicited macrophages. Additionally, the concentration of cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-rutinoside and total anthocyanins present in Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska cherry juice was determined. Mice were randomly divided into a control group (fed with commercial food pellets) and 2 experimental groups (fed with commercial food pellets with 10% or 50% of cherry juice added). Among the anthocyanins, the cyanidin-3-glucoside was present in the highest concentration. These results show antioxidant action of cherry juice through increased SOD (liver, blood) and Gpx (liver) activity and decreased LPO concentration. The study highlights cherry juice as a potent COX-2 inhibitor and antioxidant in the liver and blood of mice, but not in the brain. Thus, according to our study, Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska cherry juice might potentially be used as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory product with beneficial health-promoting properties. PMID:19763832

Sari?, Ana; Sobocanec, Sandra; Balog, Tihomir; Kusi?, Borka; Sverko, Visnja; Dragovi?-Uzelac, Verica; Levaj, Branka; Cosi?, Zrinka; Macak Safranko, Zeljka; Marotti, Tatjana

2009-12-01

243

Green synthesis and anti-inflammatory studies of a series of 1,1-bis(heteroaryl)alkane derivatives.  

PubMed

Molecular iodine has been used as an efficient catalyst for a double Friedel-Crafts reaction of various heteroarenes, i.e. 2-methylfuran, 2-ethylfuran, 2-methylthiophene, pyrrole, N-methylpyrrole and indole, using aldehydes as alkylating agents under "open-flask" conditions with toluene or water as the reaction media. In the presence of 10 mol% iodine in toluene at room temperature, both aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes reacted smoothly to give the corresponding bis(heteroaryl)alkanes in good to excellent yields. Interestingly, with water as the solvent, the bis(heteroaryl)alkane adducts were obtained in moderate to good yields. The use of mild reaction conditions, low catalyst loadings, and eco-friendly reagents in a single step synthesis are the advantages of the present procedure. In an effort to discover novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, the synthesized bis(heteroaryl)alkanes were evaluated for the anti-inflammatory activity in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage model. These compounds (50 ?M) significantly inhibited NO production and did not exhibit significant cytotoxic effects on macrophage cells. Among them, bis[(5-methyl)2-furyl](4-nitrophenyl) methane exhibited the most potent inhibition of NO with IC50 value of 42.4 ± 1.9, which is similar to that of the positive control, aminoguanidine (43.3 ± 2.5 ?M). Thus, the bis[(5-methyl)2-furyl](4-nitrophenyl) methane could be considered a lead compound for the development of novel anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:24996142

Jaratjaroonphong, Jaray; Tuengpanya, Surisa; Saeeng, Rungnapha; Udompong, Sarinporn; Srisook, Klaokwan

2014-08-18

244

Bioactivity-guided fractionation for anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties and constituents of Xanthium strumarium L.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to fractionate an extract of Xanthium strumarium L. (EXS) and to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the extract and its fractions. The ethanol extract of X. strumarium (EXS) was fractionated on the basis of polarity. Among the different fractions, the n-butanol fraction showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity in the croton-oil-induced ear edema test and furthermore reduced the number of writhings induced by acetic acid in mice in a dose-dependent manner. This indicates that the n-butanol fraction of X. strumarium possesses potent analgesic effects which are likely to be mediated by its anti-inflammatory activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation of EXS led to the isolation and identification of ten caffeoylquinic acids and three heterocyclics by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) from the active n-butanol fraction, implying that the active compounds are polar in nature. The isolated caffeoylquinic acids could partially explain the antinociceptive effect of X. strumarium polar extract. PMID:17350237

Han, T; Li, H-L; Zhang, Q-Y; Han, P; Zheng, H-C; Rahman, K; Qin, L-P

2007-12-01

245

Chlorophyll revisited: anti-inflammatory activities of chlorophyll a and inhibition of expression of TNF-? gene by the same.  

PubMed

In view of the folklore use of green leaves to treat inflammation, the anti-inflammatory property of chlorophylls and their degradation products were studied. Chlorophyll a and pheophytin a (magnesium-free chlorophyll a) from fresh leaves showed potent anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice and formalin-induced paw edema in rats. Chlorophyll a inhibited bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-? (a pro-inflammatory cytokine) gene expression in HEK293 cells, but it did not influence the expression of inducible nitric acid synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 genes. Chlorophyll b only marginally inhibited both inflammation and TNF-? gene expression. But both chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b showed the same level of marginal inhibition on 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate-induced NF-?B activation. Chlorophylls and pheophytins showed in vitro anti-oxidant activity. The study shows that chlorophyll a and its degradation products are valuable and abundantly available anti-inflammatory agents and promising for the development of phytomedicine or conventional medicine to treat inflammation and related diseases. PMID:22038065

Subramoniam, Appian; Asha, Velikkakathu V; Nair, Sadasivan Ajikumaran; Sasidharan, Sreejith P; Sureshkumar, Parameswaran K; Rajendran, Krishnan Nair; Karunagaran, Devarajan; Ramalingam, Krishnan

2012-06-01

246

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil of Nepeta crispa Willd. in experimental rat models.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil of Nepeta crispa. The study was done using the tail-flick and formalin test pain models and the paw oedema model of inflammation. Male Wistar rats were used as the animal model. The essential oil dose-dependently produced analgesia in the acute pain models, including the tail-flick (p?potent anti-inflammatory effects in the formalin-induced paw inflammation model and significantly reduced the paw oedema in all applied doses (p?anti-inflammatory effect suggest both central and peripheral mechanisms of action for the essential oil obtained from N. crispa. PMID:21981349

Ali, Taskina; Javan, Mohammad; Sonboli, Ali; Semnanian, Saeed

2012-01-01

247

Transdermal microemulsions of Boswellia carterii Bird: formulation, characterization and in vivo evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Boswellia species are trees (family: Bruseraceae) found in India, Northern Africa and the Middle East. Objective: This study aims at formulating low dose biologically active fraction from the oleogum resin of Boswellia carterii (BC) in transdermal (TD) microemulsions (MEs) to acquire promoted anti-inflammatory efficacy. Materials and methods: The bioactive fraction of the oleogum resin of BC was tested for solubility in different components. The most efficient were selected for constructing phase diagrams for ME preparation. The bioactive fraction was assayed by high performance liquid chromatography for 3-acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acid (AKBA), at 210?nm. The bioactive fraction was incorporated in 6?MEs. ME systems were evaluated for drug content and optimized systems were tested for characterization, permeation, skin irritancy and in vivo evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity. Results and Discussion: Two systems were selected; ME1 and ME4 composed of Tween 80: PEG 400 at 1:1 and 2:1 ratio, with oil content 7.78 and 17.5%, respectively. The systems showed high encapsulation efficiency >83%, small droplet size <100?nm, and suitable pH for topical application. Permeation parameters for ME1 were higher compared to ME4. Both MEs were non irritant. ME1 showed significantly higher anti-inflammatory activity versus the standard TD anti-inflammatory piroxicam. Conclusions: Optimized TD BC MEs could be used as a safe, effective and long acting alternative to oral anti-inflammatories, providing higher and prolonged efficacy and better patient compliance. PMID:24725029

Mostafa, Dina Mahmoud; Ammar, Nagwa Mohammed; Basha, Mona; Hussein, Rehab Ali; El Awdan, Sally; Awad, Gamal

2014-04-14

248

Puerarin partly counteracts the inflammatory response after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion via activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway  

PubMed Central

Puerarin, a major isoflavonoid derived from the Chinese medical herb radix puerariae (Gegen), has been reported to inhibit neuronal apoptosis and play an anti-inflammatory role in focal cerebral ischemia model rats. Recent findings regarding stroke pathophysiology have recognized that anti-inflammation is an important target for the treatment of ischemic stroke. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is a highly robust neural-immune mechanism for inflammation control. This study was to investigate whether activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway can be involved in the mechanism of inhibiting the inflammatory response during puerarin-induced cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Results showed that puerarin pretreatment (intravenous injection) reduced the ischemic infarct volume, improved neurological deficit after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and decreased the levels of interleukin-1?, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? in brain tissue. Pretreatment with puerarin (intravenous injection) attenuated the inflammatory response in rats, which was accompanied by janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) inhibition. These observations were inhibited by the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (?7nAchR) antagonist ?-bungarotoxin (?-BGT). In addition, puerarin pretreatment increased the expression of ?7nAchR mRNA in ischemic cerebral tissue. These data demonstrate that puerarin pretreatment strongly protects the brain against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and inhibits the inflammatory response. Our results also indicated that the anti-inflammatory effect of puerarin may partly be mediated through the activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. PMID:25206641

Liu, Xiaojie; Mei, Zhigang; Qian, Jingping; Zeng, Yongbao; Wang, Mingzhi

2013-01-01

249

A hexane fraction of American ginseng suppresses mouse colitis and associated colon cancer: anti-inflammatory and proapoptotic mechanisms.  

PubMed

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory condition associated with a high colon cancer risk. We have previously reported that American ginseng extract significantly reduced the inflammatory parameters of chemically induced colitis. The aim of this study was to further delineate the components of American ginseng that suppress colitis and prevent colon cancer. Among five different fractions of American ginseng (butanol, hexane, ethylacetate, dichloromethane, and water), a hexane fraction has particularly potent antioxidant and proapoptotic properties. The effects of this fraction were shown in a mouse macrophage cell line (ANA-1 cells), in a human lymphoblastoid cell line (TK6), and in an ex vivo model (CD4(+)/CD25(-) primary effector T cells). A key in vivo finding was that compared with the whole American ginseng extract, the hexane fraction of American ginseng was more potent in treating colitis in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) mouse model, as well as suppressing azoxymethane/DSS-induced colon cancer. Furthermore, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) labeling of inflammatory cells within the colonic mesenteric lymph nodes was elevated in mice consuming DSS + the hexane fraction of American ginseng. Results are consistent with our in vitro data and with the hypothesis that the hexane fraction of American ginseng has anti-inflammatory properties and drives inflammatory cell apoptosis in vivo, providing a mechanism by which this fraction protects from colitis in this DSS mouse model. This study moves us closer to understanding the molecular components of American ginseng that suppress colitis and prevent colon cancer associated with colitis. PMID:22293630

Poudyal, Deepak; Le, Phuong Mai; Davis, Tia; Hofseth, Anne B; Chumanevich, Alena; Chumanevich, Alexander A; Wargovich, Michael J; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Windust, Anthony; Hofseth, Lorne J

2012-04-01

250

5-Arylidene-2-imino-4-thiazolidinones: Design and synthesis of novel anti-inflammatory agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis and pharmacological activity of 5-arylidene-2-imino-4-thiazolidinones (3a–8a) are described. All derivatives exhibited significant activity levels in models of acute inflammation such as carrageenan-induced paw and pleurisy edema in rats. In particular, 5-(3-methoxyphenylidene)-2-phenylimino-3-propyl-4-thiazolidinone (3a) displayed high levels of carrageenan-induced paw edema inhibition comparable to those of indomethacin. In addition the ability of such a new class of anti-inflammatory agents to

Rosaria Ottanŕ; Rosanna Maccari; Maria Letizia Barreca; Giuseppe Bruno; Archimede Rotondo; Antonietta Rossi; Giuseppa Chiricosta; Rosanna Di Paola; Lidia Sautebin; Salvatore Cuzzocrea; Maria Gabriella Vigorita

2005-01-01

251

Magnetoliposomes loaded with poly-unsaturated Fatty acids as novel theranostic anti-inflammatory formulations.  

PubMed

We describe the preparation, physico-chemical characterization and anti-inflammatory properties of liposomes containing the superparamagnetic nanoparticle Nanotex, the fluorescent dye Rhodamine-100 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ethyl ester (?-3 PUFA-EE), as theranostic anti-inflammatory agents. Liposomes were prepared after drying chloroform suspensions of egg phosphatidylcholine, hydration of the lipid film with aqueous phases containing or not Nanotex, Rhodamine-100 dye or ?-3 PUFA-EE, and eleven extrusion steps through nanometric membrane filters. This resulted in uniform preparations of liposomes of approximately 200 nm diameter. Extraliposomal contents were removed from the preparation by gel filtration chromatography. High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (1)H NMR Spectroscopy of the liposomal preparations containing ?-3 PUFA-EE revealed well resolved (1)H resonances from highly mobile ?-3 PUFA-EE, suggesting the formation of very small (ca. 10 nm) ?-3 PUFA-EE nanogoticules, tumbling fast in the NMR timescale. Chloroform extraction of the liposomal preparations revealed additionally the incorporation of ?-3 PUFA-EE within the membrane domain. Water diffusion weighted spectra, indicated that the goticules of ?-3 PUFA-EE or its insertion in the membrane did not affect the average translational diffusion coefficient of water, suggesting an intraliposomal localization, that was confirmed by ultrafiltration. The therapeutic efficacy of these preparations was tested in two different models of inflammatory disease as inflammatory colitis or the inflammatory component associated to glioma development. Results indicate that the magnetoliposomes loaded with ?-3 PUFA-EE allowed MRI visualization in vivo and improved the outcome of inflammatory disease in both animal models, decreasing significantly colonic inflammation and delaying, or even reversing, glioma development. Together, our results indicate that magnetoliposomes loaded with ?-3 PUFA-EE may become useful anti-inflammatory agents for image guided drug delivery. PMID:25767616

Calle, Daniel; Negri, Viviana; Ballesteros, Paloma; Cerdán, Sebastián

2015-01-01

252

Magnetoliposomes Loaded with Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acids as Novel Theranostic Anti-Inflammatory Formulations  

PubMed Central

We describe the preparation, physico-chemical characterization and anti-inflammatory properties of liposomes containing the superparamagnetic nanoparticle Nanotex, the fluorescent dye Rhodamine-100 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ethyl ester (?-3 PUFA-EE), as theranostic anti-inflammatory agents. Liposomes were prepared after drying chloroform suspensions of egg phosphatidylcholine, hydration of the lipid film with aqueous phases containing or not Nanotex, Rhodamine-100 dye or ?-3 PUFA-EE, and eleven extrusion steps through nanometric membrane filters. This resulted in uniform preparations of liposomes of approximately 200 nm diameter. Extraliposomal contents were removed from the preparation by gel filtration chromatography. High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning 1H NMR Spectroscopy of the liposomal preparations containing ?-3 PUFA-EE revealed well resolved 1H resonances from highly mobile ?-3 PUFA-EE, suggesting the formation of very small (ca. 10 nm) ?-3 PUFA-EE nanogoticules, tumbling fast in the NMR timescale. Chloroform extraction of the liposomal preparations revealed additionally the incorporation of ?-3 PUFA-EE within the membrane domain. Water diffusion weighted spectra, indicated that the goticules of ?-3 PUFA-EE or its insertion in the membrane did not affect the average translational diffusion coefficient of water, suggesting an intraliposomal localization, that was confirmed by ultrafiltration. The therapeutic efficacy of these preparations was tested in two different models of inflammatory disease as inflammatory colitis or the inflammatory component associated to glioma development. Results indicate that the magnetoliposomes loaded with ?-3 PUFA-EE allowed MRI visualization in vivo and improved the outcome of inflammatory disease in both animal models, decreasing significantly colonic inflammation and delaying, or even reversing, glioma development. Together, our results indicate that magnetoliposomes loaded with ?-3 PUFA-EE may become useful anti-inflammatory agents for image guided drug delivery. PMID:25767616

Calle, Daniel; Negri, Viviana; Ballesteros, Paloma; Cerdán, Sebastián

2015-01-01

253

Discovery and structure-activity relationships of 6-(benzoylamino)benzoxaboroles as orally active anti-inflammatory agents.  

PubMed

Structure-activity relationships of 6-(benzoylamino)benzoxaborole analogs were investigated for the inhibition of TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 from lipopolysaccharide stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Compound 1q showed potent activity against all three cytokines with IC50 values between 0.19 and 0.50?M, inhibited LPS-induced TNF-? and IL-6 elevation in mice and improved collagen-induced arthritis in mice. Compound 1q (AN4161) is considered to be a promising lead for novel anti-inflammatory agent with an excellent pharmacokinetic profile. PMID:24075731

Akama, Tsutomu; Dong, Chen; Virtucio, Charlotte; Freund, Yvonne R; Chen, Daitao; Orr, Matthew D; Jacobs, Robert T; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Hernandez, Vincent; Liu, Yang; Wu, Anne; Bu, Wei; Liu, Liang; Jarnagin, Kurt; Plattner, Jacob J

2013-11-01

254

IL-37 (IL-1F7) the newest anti-inflammatory cytokine which suppresses immune responses and inflammation.  

PubMed

Cytokines such as interleukins, chemokines and interferons are immunomodulating and inflammatory agents, characterized by considerable redundancy, in that many cytokines appear to share similar functions. Virtually all nucleated cells, but especially epithelial cells and macrophages, are potent producers of cytokines. The objective of this study is to review the detailed mechanism of action and the biological profiles of IL-37, the newest anti-inflammatory cytokine. This review focuses on IL-37, a key cytokine in regulating inflammatory responses, mainly by inhibiting the expression, production and function of proinflammatory cytokines: IL-1 family pro-inflammatory effects are markedly suppressed by IL-37. PMID:22507315

Tete, S; Tripodi, D; Rosati, M; Conti, F; Maccauro, G; Saggini, A; Cianchetti, E; Caraffa, A; Antinolfi, P; Toniato, E; Castellani, M L; Conti, P; Theoharides, T C

2012-01-01

255

Synthesis and biological evaluation of quinic acid derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents.  

PubMed

Quinic acid (QA) esters found in hot water extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (a.k.a. cat's claw) exert anti-inflammatory activity through mechanisms involving inhibition of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB). Herein, we describe the synthesis and biological testing of novel QA derivatives. Inhibition of NF-kappaB was assessed using A549 (Type II alveolar epithelial-like) cells that stably express a secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter driven by an NF-kappaB response element. A549-NF-kappaB cells were stimulated with TNF-alpha (10 ng/mL) in the presence or absence of QA derivative for 18 hours followed by measurement of SEAP activity. Amide substitution at the carboxylic acid position yielded potent inhibitors of NF-kappaB. A variety of modifications to the amide substitution were tolerated with the N-propyl amide derivative being the most potent. Further examination of the SAR demonstrated that acetylation of the hydroxyl groups reduced NF-kappaB inhibitory activity. QA amide derivatives lacked anti-oxidant activity and were found to be neither anti-proliferative nor cytotoxic at concentrations up to 100 microM. In conclusion, we have discovered a novel series of non-toxic QA amides that potently inhibit NF-kappaB, despite their lack of anti-oxidant activity. Mechanistic studies and pre-clinical efficacy studies in various inflammatory animal models are on-going. PMID:19674895

Zeng, Kui; Thompson, Karin Emmons; Yates, Charles R; Miller, Duane D

2009-09-15

256

Novel Anti-inflammatory Activity of Epoxyazadiradione against Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor  

PubMed Central

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is responsible for proinflammatory reactions in various infectious and non-infectious diseases. We have investigated the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of epoxyazadiradione, a limonoid purified from neem (Azadirachta indica) fruits, against MIF. Epoxyazadiradione inhibited the tautomerase activity of MIF of both human (huMIF) and malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum (PfMIF) and Plasmodium yoelii (PyMIF)) non-competitively in a reversible fashion (Ki, 2.11–5.23 ?m). Epoxyazadiradione also significantly inhibited MIF (huMIF, PyMIF, and PfMIF)-mediated proinflammatory activities in RAW 264.7 cells. It prevented MIF-induced macrophage chemotactic migration, NF-?B translocation to the nucleus, up-regulation of inducible nitric-oxide synthase, and nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells. Epoxyazadiradione not only exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in vitro but also in vivo. We tested the anti-inflammatory activity of epoxyazadiradione in vivo after co-administering LPS and MIF in mice to mimic the disease state of sepsis or bacterial infection. Epoxyazadiradione prevented the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? when LPS and PyMIF were co-administered to BALB/c mice. The molecular basis of interaction of epoxyazadiradione with MIFs was explored with the help of computational chemistry tools and a biological knowledgebase. Docking simulation indicated that the binding was highly specific and allosteric in nature. The well known MIF inhibitor (S,R)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazole acetic acid methyl ester (ISO-1) inhibited huMIF but not MIF of parasitic origin. In contrast, epoxyazadiradione inhibited both huMIF and plasmodial MIF, thus bearing an immense therapeutic potential against proinflammatory reactions induced by MIF of both malaria parasites and human. PMID:22645149

Alam, Athar; Haldar, Saikat; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V.; Kumar, Rahul; Goyal, Manish; Iqbal, Mohd Shameel; Pal, Chinmay; Dey, Sumanta; Bindu, Samik; Sarkar, Souvik; Pal, Uttam; Maiti, Nakul C.; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

2012-01-01

257

Novel methylxanthine derivative-mediated anti-inflammatory effects in inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed

Family 18 chitinases have a binding capacity with chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine. Recent studies strongly suggested that chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1, also known as YKL-40) and acidic mammalian chitinase, the two major members of family 18 chitinases, play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), bronchial asthma and several other inflammatory disorders. Based on the data from high-throughput screening, it has been found that three methylxanthine derivatives, caffeine, theophylline, and pentoxifylline, have competitive inhibitory effects against a fungal family 18 chitinase by specifically interacting with conserved tryptophans in the active site of this protein. Methylxanthine derivatives are also known as adenosine receptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and histone deacetylase inducers. Anti-inflammatory effects of methylxanthine derivatives have been well-documented in the literature. For example, a beneficial link between coffee or caffeine consumption and type 2 diabetes as well as liver cirrhosis has been reported. Furthermore, theophylline has a long history of being used as a bronchodilator in asthma therapy, and pentoxifylline has an immuno-modulating effect for peripheral vascular disease. However, it is still largely unknown whether these methylxanthine derivative-mediated anti-inflammatory effects are associated with the inhibition of CHI3L1-induced cytoplasmic signaling cascades in epithelial cells. In this review article we will examine the above possibility and summarize the biological significance of methylxanthine derivatives in intestinal epithelial cells. We hope that this study will provide a rationale for the development of methylxanthine derivatives, in particular caffeine, -based anti-inflammatory therapeutics in the field of IBD and IBD-associated carcinogenesis. PMID:24574789

Lee, In-Ah; Kamba, Alan; Low, Daren; Mizoguchi, Emiko

2014-02-01

258

Anti-inflammatory guaiane-type sesquiterpenes from the fruits of Pittosporum undulatum.  

PubMed

Two unprecedented guaiane-type sesquiterpene glycosides (undulatumosides A and B) were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation from the MeOH extract of Pittosporum undulatum fruits, along with six known compounds, including the guaiane isomers 5-guaien-11-ol and 4-guaien-11-ol. The structures of the compounds were established as 4-guaiene-11-O-?-d-(3'-angeloxy-6'-deoxy)-glucopyranoside and 1(5)-guaiene-11-O-?-d-(3'-angeloxy-6'-deoxy)-glucopyranoside by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D homo- and heteronuclear NMR experiments (COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY), and HR-mass spectrometry. P. undulatum is a highly invasive weed that often outcompetes other plants, yet its fruits have become a traditional anti-inflammatory medicine in Azores. Therefore, aiming to investigate the claimed properties, the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of guaiane-type sesquiterpenes was evaluated by analyzing their inhibitory effects on chemical mediators released by the LPS activated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages cell line. In addition, the cytotoxicity of these compounds was also evaluated in this cell line. Undulatumoside A, 5-guaien-11-ol and 4-guaien-11-ol displayed anti-inflammatory activity with IC50 values of 16.4, 8.1 and 7.2?M, respectively, comparable to that of the positive control, indomethacin (IC50=18.2 ?M), with no cytotoxic effects (IC50 ? 198 ?M). Furthermore, the same set of compounds was also assessed for anti-proliferative activity in lung large cell carcinoma COR-L23 and amelanotic melanoma C32 cells. PMID:23899690

Mendes, Sofia A C; Mansoor, Tayyab A; Rodrigues, Ana; Armas, Jácome Bruges; Ferreira, Maria-José U

2013-11-01

259

Novel methylxanthine derivative-mediated anti-inflammatory effects in inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

Family 18 chitinases have a binding capacity with chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine. Recent studies strongly suggested that chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1, also known as YKL-40) and acidic mammalian chitinase, the two major members of family 18 chitinases, play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), bronchial asthma and several other inflammatory disorders. Based on the data from high-throughput screening, it has been found that three methylxanthine derivatives, caffeine, theophylline, and pentoxifylline, have competitive inhibitory effects against a fungal family 18 chitinase by specifically interacting with conserved tryptophans in the active site of this protein. Methylxanthine derivatives are also known as adenosine receptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and histone deacetylase inducers. Anti-inflammatory effects of methylxanthine derivatives have been well-documented in the literature. For example, a beneficial link between coffee or caffeine consumption and type 2 diabetes as well as liver cirrhosis has been reported. Furthermore, theophylline has a long history of being used as a bronchodilator in asthma therapy, and pentoxifylline has an immuno-modulating effect for peripheral vascular disease. However, it is still largely unknown whether these methylxanthine derivative-mediated anti-inflammatory effects are associated with the inhibition of CHI3L1-induced cytoplasmic signaling cascades in epithelial cells. In this review article we will examine the above possibility and summarize the biological significance of methylxanthine derivatives in intestinal epithelial cells. We hope that this study will provide a rationale for the development of methylxanthine derivatives, in particular caffeine, -based anti-inflammatory therapeutics in the field of IBD and IBD-associated carcinogenesis. PMID:24574789

Lee, In-Ah; Kamba, Alan; Low, Daren; Mizoguchi, Emiko

2014-01-01

260

Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs and reproduction  

PubMed Central

Rheumatic diseases in women of childbearing years may necessitate drug treatment during a pregnancy, to control maternal disease activity and to ensure a successful pregnancy outcome. This survey is based on a consensus workshop of international experts discussing effects of anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and biological drugs during pregnancy and lactation. In addition, effects of these drugs on male and female fertility and possible long-term effects on infants exposed to drugs antenatally are discussed where data were available. Recommendations for drug treatment during pregnancy and lactation are given. PMID:16712713

Řstensen, Monika; Khamashta, Munther; Lockshin, Michael; Parke, Ann; Brucato, Antonio; Carp, Howard; Doria, Andrea; Rai, Raj; Meroni, Pierluigi; Cetin, Irene; Derksen, Ronald; Branch, Ware; Motta, Mario; Gordon, Caroline; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Spinillo, Arsenio; Friedman, Deborah; Cimaz, Rolando; Czeizel, Andrew; Piette, Jean Charles; Cervera, Ricard; Levy, Roger A; Clementi, Maurizio; De Carolis, Sara; Petri, Michelle; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Faden, David; Valesini, Guido; Tincani, Angela

2006-01-01

261

Calcium Fructoborate—Potential Anti-inflammatory Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium fructoborate is a boron-based nutritional supplement. Its chemical structure is similar to one of the natural forms\\u000a of boron such as bis-manitol, bis-sorbitol, bis-fructose, and bis-sucrose borate complexes found in edible plants. In vitro studies revealed that calcium fructoborate is a superoxide ion\\u000a scavenger and anti-inflammatory agent. It may influence macrophage production of inflammatory mediators, can be beneficial\\u000a for

Romulus Ion Scorei; Petre Rotaru

262

Topical Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are nowadays widely used in ophthalmology to reduce eye inflammation, pain, and cystoid macular edema associated with cataract surgery. Recently, new topical NSAIDs have been approved for topical ophthalmic use, allowing for greater drug penetration into the vitreous. Hence, new therapeutic effects can be achieved, such as reduction of exudation secondary to age-related macular degeneration or diabetic maculopathy. We provide an updated review on the clinical use of NSAIDs for retinal diseases, with a focus on the potential future applications. PMID:24227908

Parmeggiani, Francesco; Romano, Mario R.; dell'Omo, Roberto

2013-01-01

263

[Anti-inflammatory effect of aluminum or aurin tricarboxylic acid].  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory effect of aurin tricarboxylic acid is studied in rats after parenteral injection of 20 and 50 mg/kg. Aurin tricarboxylic acid reduces: the carrageenan-induced oedemas in paws, the carragenan-induced pleural effusion, the carragen-induced granulation tissue growth and the Freund adjuvant-induced arthritis. As non steroďdal antiinflammatory drugs, the aurin tricarboxylic acid inhibits (ED50 = 0.34.10-2 M) the human erythrocyte delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, a zinc dependent enzyme. A possible interaction between zinc-enzymes and non steroďdal antiinflammatory compounds is suggested. PMID:6449986

Allain, P; Leblondel, G; Streichenberger, G

1980-01-01

264

Modulation of Intestinal Inflammation by Yeasts and Cell Wall Extracts: Strain Dependence and Unexpected Anti-Inflammatory Role of Glucan Fractions  

PubMed Central

Yeasts and their glycan components can have a beneficial or adverse effect on intestinal inflammation. Previous research has shown that the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii (Sb) reduces intestinal inflammation and colonization by Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to identify dietary yeasts, which have comparable effects to the anti-C. albicans and anti-inflammatory properties of Sb and to assess the capabilities of yeast cell wall components to modulate intestinal inflammation. Mice received a single oral challenge of C. albicans and were then given 1.5% dextran-sulphate-sodium (DSS) for 2 weeks followed by a 3-day restitution period. S. cerevisiae strains (Sb, Sc1 to Sc4), as well as mannoprotein (MP) and ?-glucan crude fractions prepared from Sc2 and highly purified ?-glucans prepared from C. albicans were used in this curative model, starting 3 days after C. albicans challenge. Mice were assessed for the clinical, histological and inflammatory responses related to DSS administration. Strain Sc1-1 gave the same level of protection against C. albicans as Sb when assessed by mortality, clinical scores, colonization levels, reduction of TNF? and increase in IL-10 transcription. When Sc1-1 was compared with the other S. cerevisiae strains, the preparation process had a strong influence on biological activity. Interestingly, some S. cerevisiae strains dramatically increased mortality and clinical scores. Strain Sc4 and MP fraction favoured C. albicans colonization and inflammation, whereas ?-glucan fraction was protective against both. Surprisingly, purified ?-glucans from C. albicans had the same protective effect. Thus, some yeasts appear to be strong modulators of intestinal inflammation. These effects are dependent on the strain, species, preparation process and cell wall fraction. It was striking that ?-glucan fractions or pure ?-glucans from C. albicans displayed the most potent anti-inflammatory effect in the DSS model. PMID:22848391

Jawhara, Samir; Habib, Khalid; Maggiotto, François; Pignede, Georges; Vandekerckove, Pascal; Maes, Emmanuel; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Fontaine, Thierry; Guerardel, Yann; Poulain, Daniel

2012-01-01

265

Anti-inflammatory agents of the carbamoylmethyl ester class: synthesis, characterization, and pharmacological evaluation  

PubMed Central

In this study, target compounds 5–12 were synthesized via acid amine coupling of ibuprofen and naproxen with methyl ester derivatives of amino acids, namely, l-proline, sarcosine, l-tyrosine, and l-glutamic acid. When tested for anti-inflammatory activity using the acute carrageenan-induced hind paw method in rats, compounds 5–12 showed significantly greater anti-inflammatory activity, in the range of 40.64%–87.82%, compared with a placebo control group (P < 0.001). Among the newly synthesized compounds 5–12, naproxen derivatives 9–12 with anti-inflammatory activity ranging between 66.99% and 87.82% showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) potency than ibuprofen derivatives 5–8 with inhibition in the range of 22.03%–52.91% and control groups of ibuprofen (76.34%) or naproxen (75.59%, P < 0.05). Moreover, derivatives 9–12 derived from naproxen, in particular compounds 9 and 10 which achieved 83.91% and 87.82% inhibition of inflammation, respectively, showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher potency than naproxen derivatives 11 and 12. Notably, among naproxen derivatives 9–12, the gastric ulcerogenicity for 9 (ulcer index 11.73) and 10 (ulcer index 12.30) was found to be significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of the active ibuprofen and naproxen control groups with ulcer indices of 22.87 and 24.13, respectively. On the other hand, naproxen derivatives 9–11 showed significant inhibition (P < 0.05) of prostaglandin E2 synthesis when compared with the active control group receiving indomethacin, suggesting a correlation between the observed low ulcerogenicity and effect on prostaglandin E2 synthesis for compounds 9 and 10. However, significant inhibition of prostaglandin E2 observed for naproxen derivative 11 (107.51) did not correlate with its observed ulcer index (16.84). Our overall findings for carbamoylmethyl ester derivatives named 5–12 clearly suggest that the compounds showing potent antiinflammatory effect. PMID:23576876

Sadek, Bassem; Hamruoni, Amar Mansuor; Adem, Abdu

2013-01-01

266

Imbricaric Acid and Perlatolic Acid: Multi-Targeting Anti-Inflammatory Depsides from Cetrelia monachorum  

PubMed Central

In vitro screening of 17 Alpine lichen species for their inhibitory activity against 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 and nuclear factor kappa B revealed Cetrelia monachorum (Zahlbr.) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb. As conceivable source for novel anti-inflammatory compounds. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic crude extract resulted in the isolation and identification of 11 constituents, belonging to depsides and derivatives of orsellinic acid, olivetolic acid and olivetol. The two depsides imbricaric acid (4) and perlatolic acid (5) approved dual inhibitory activities on microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (IC50 = 1.9 and 0.4 µM, resp.) and on 5-lipoxygenase tested in a cell-based assay (IC50 = 5.3 and 1.8 µM, resp.) and on purified enzyme (IC50 = 3.5 and 0.4 µM, resp.). Additionally, these two main constituents quantified in the extract with 15.22% (4) and 9.10% (5) showed significant inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced nuclear factor kappa B activation in luciferase reporter cells with IC50 values of 2.0 and 7.0 µM, respectively. In a murine in vivo model of inflammation, 5 impaired the inflammatory, thioglycollate-induced recruitment of leukocytes to the peritoneum. The potent inhibitory effects on the three identified targets attest 4 and 5 a pronounced multi-target anti-inflammatory profile which warrants further investigation on their pharmacokinetics and in vivo efficacy. PMID:24130812

Oettl, Sarah K.; Gerstmeier, Jana; Khan, Shafaat Y.; Wiechmann, Katja; Bauer, Julia; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Malainer, Clemens; Awad, Ezzat M.; Uhrin, Pavel; Heiss, Elke H.; Waltenberger, Birgit; Remias, Daniel; Breuss, Johannes M.; Boustie, Joel; Dirsch, Verena M.; Stuppner, Hermann; Werz, Oliver; Rollinger, Judith M.

2013-01-01

267

Tubastatin, a selective histone deacetylase 6 inhibitor shows anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic effects.  

PubMed

Epigenetic modifications represent a promising new approach to modulate cell functions as observed in autoimmune diseases. Emerging evidence suggests the utility of HDAC inhibitors in the treatment of chronic immune and inflammatory disorders. However, class and isoform selective inhibition of HDAC is currently favored as it limits the toxicity that has been observed with pan-HDAC inhibitors. HDAC6, a member of the HDAC family, whose major substrate is ?-tubulin, is being increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders. The present study was carried out to study the potential anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic effects of HDAC6 selective inhibitor Tubastatin. Tubastatin, a potent human HDAC6 inhibitor with an IC50 of 11 nM showed significant inhibition of TNF-? and IL-6 in LPS stimulated human THP-1 macrophages with an IC50 of 272 nM and 712 nM respectively. Additionally, Tubastatin inhibited nitric oxide (NO) secretion in murine Raw 264.7 macrophages dose dependently with an IC50 of 4.2 ?M and induced ?-tubulin hyperacetylation corresponding to HDAC6 inhibition in THP-1 cells without affecting the cell viability. Tubastatin showed significant inhibition of paw volume at 30 mg/kg i.p. in a Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced animal model of inflammation. The disease modifying activity of Tubastatin was also evident in collagen induced arthritis DBA1 mouse model at 30 mg/kg i.p. The significant attenuation of clinical scores (~70%) by Tubastatin was confirmed histopathologically and was found comparable to dexamethasone (~90% inhibition of clinical scores). Tubastatin showed significant inhibition of IL-6 in paw tissues of arthritic mice. The present work has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic effects of a selective HDAC6 inhibitor Tubastatin. PMID:23541634

Vishwakarma, Santosh; Iyer, Lakshmi R; Muley, Milind; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Shastry, Arun; Saxena, Ambrish; Kulathingal, Jayanarayan; Vijaykanth, G; Raghul, J; Rajesh, Navin; Rathinasamy, Suresh; Kachhadia, Virendra; Kilambi, Narasimhan; Rajgopal, Sridharan; Balasubramanian, Gopalan; Narayanan, Shridhar

2013-05-01

268

Differential effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on mitochondrial dysfunction during oxidative stress.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of several non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on swelling related properties of mitochondria, with an emphasis on compounds that are marketed and utilized topically in the eye (nepafenac, ketorolac, diclofenac, bromfenac), and compared these to the effects of amfenac (a metabolite of nepafenac) and to celecoxib (active principle of Celebrex). With the exception of the last compound, none of the drugs promote swelling of normal mitochondria that are well energized by succinate oxidation. However, swelling is seen when the mitochondria are under an oxidative stress due to the presence of t-butylhydroperoxide. When used at 200 microM the order of potency is celecoxib > bromfenac > diclofenac > ketorolac > amfenac > nepafenac approximately equal to 0. Again with the exception of celecoxib, this swelling is not seen when mitochondria are depleted of endogenous Ca(2+) and is accelerated when exogenous Ca(2+) is provided. Sr(2+) does not substitute for exogenous Ca(2+) and prevents swelling in the presence of endogenous Ca(2+) only. The same is true for ruthenium red (inhibitor of the Ca(2+) uniporter), for cyclosporin A (inhibitor of the mitochondrial permeability transition), and for a 3.4 kDa polyethylene glycol (polymer that cancels the force which drives swelling following the permeability transition). It is concluded that several non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs promote the mitochondrial permeability transition under conditions of oxidative stress and in a Ca(2+) dependent fashion, whereas celecoxib functions by another mechanism. Potency of those compounds that promote the transition varies widely with bromfenac being the most potent and nepafenac having almost no effect. The mitochondrial dysfunction which is caused by the transition may underlie side effects that are produced by some of these compounds. PMID:19810214

Lal, Nirupama; Kumar, Jitendra; Erdahl, Warren E; Pfeiffer, Douglas R; Gadd, Martha E; Graff, Gustav; Yanni, John M

2009-10-01

269

Anti-inflammatory and redox-protective activities of citronellal.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory and redox protective effects of the citronellal (CT) were evaluated using in vivo and in vitro tests. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of CT (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) inhibited (p < 0.05) the carrageenan-induced leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity. Additionally, the carrageenan- and arachidonic acid-induced rat hind paw edema was significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) by i.p. administration of 100 and 200 mg/kg of the compound. When the redox activity was evaluated, CT (200 mg/kg) significantly reduced hepatic lipoperoxidation (p < 0.001), as well as oxidation of plasmatic (p < 0.05) and hepatic (p < 0.01) proteins. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that CT possesses anti-inflammatory and redox protective activities. It is suggested that its effects are associated with the inhibition of the enzymes in the arachidonic acid pathway, which prevent cell migration by inhibiting leukotriene production, edema formation and the increase of reactive oxygen species in tissues. Therefore, CT is of potential benefit to manage inflammatory disorders and correlated damages caused by oxidant agents. PMID:22446600

Melo, Mônica S; Guimarăes, Adriana G; Santana, Michele F; Siqueira, Rosana S; De Lima, Amanda Do Carmo B; Dias, Antonio S; Santos, Márcio Roberto V; Onofre, Alexandre S C; Quintans, Jullyana S S; De Sousa, Damiăo P; Almeida, Jackson R G S; Estevam, Charles S; Araujo, Brancilene S; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

2011-01-01

270

Synthesis of diosgenin analogues as potential anti-inflammatory agents.  

PubMed

We herein report the synthesis of diosgenin analogues from commercially available diosgenin as the starting material. The structures of newly synthesised compounds were confirmed by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry. All analogues were evaluated for in-vitro anti-inflammatory profile against LPS-induced inflammation in primary peritoneal macrophages isolated from mice by quantification of pro-inflammatory (TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1?) cytokines in cell culture supernatant using the ELISA technique followed by in-vitro cytotoxicity study. Among the synthesised analogues, analogue 15 [(E) 26-(3',4',5'-trimethoxybenzylidene)-furost-5en-3?-acetate)] showed significant anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner without any cytotoxicity. Efficacy and safety of analogue 15 were further validated in an in-vivo system using LPS-induced sepsis model and acute oral toxicity in mice. Oral administration of analogue 15 inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum, attenuated the liver and lung injury and reduced the mortality rate in sepsis mice. Acute oral toxicity study showed that analogue 15 is non-toxic at higher dose in BALB/c mice. Molecular docking study revealed the strong binding affinity of diosgenin analogues to the active site of the pro-inflammatory proteins. These findings suggested that analogue 15 may be a useful therapeutic candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:24816230

Singh, Monika; Hamid, A A; Maurya, Anil K; Prakash, Om; Khan, Feroz; Kumar, Anant; Aiyelaagbe, O O; Negi, Arvind S; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar U

2014-09-01

271

?-Mangostin: Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Metabolism by Human Cells  

PubMed Central

Information about the anti-inflammatory activity and metabolism of ?-mangostin (?-MG), the most abundant xanthone in mangosteen fruit, in human cells is limited. On the basis of available literature, we hypothesized that ?-MG will inhibit the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by control and activated macrophage-like THP-1, hepatic HepG2, enterocyte-like Caco-2, and colon HT-29 human cell lines, as well as primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), and that such activity would be influenced by the extent of metabolism of the xanthone. ?-MG attenuated TNF-? and IL-8 secretion by the various cell lines but increased TNF-? output by both quiescent and LPS-treated MDM. The relative amounts of free and phase II metabolites of ?-MG and other xanthones present in media 24 h after addition of ?-MG was shown to vary by cell type and inflammatory insult. Increased transport of xanthones and their metabolites across Caco-2 cell monolayers suggests enhanced absorption during an inflammatory episode. The anti-inflammatory activities of xanthones and their metabolites in different tissues merit consideration. PMID:23578285

Gutierrez-Orozco, Fabiola; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Lesinski, Gregory B.; Suksamrarn, Sunit; Failla, Mark L.

2013-01-01

272

Anti-Inflammatory Polymeric Coatings for Implantable Biomaterials and Devices  

PubMed Central

Synthetic polymer coatings are used extensively in modern medical devices and implants because of their material versatility and processability. These coatings are designed for specific applications by controlling composition and physical and chemical properties, and they can be formed into a variety of complex structures and shapes. However, implantation of these materials into the body elicits a strong inflammatory host response that significantly limits the integration and biological performance of devices. Biomaterial-mediated inflammation is a complex reaction involving protein adsorption, leukocyte recruitment and activation, secretion of inflammatory mediators, and fibrous encapsulation of the implant. Significant research efforts have focused on modifying material properties using various anti-inflammatory polymeric surface coatings to generate more biocompatible implants. This minireview provides a brief background on the events of biomaterial-mediated inflammation and highlights various approaches used for modifying material surfaces to modulate inflammatory responses. These include both passive and active strategies, such as nonfouling surface treatments and delivery of anti-inflammatory agents, respectively. Novel approaches will be needed to extend the in vivo lifetime and performance of devices and reduce the need for multiple implantation surgeries. PMID:19885288

Bridges, Amanda W.; García, Andrés J.

2008-01-01

273

Analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties of Euphorbia hirta.  

PubMed

Lyophilised aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) has been evaluated for analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties in mice and rats, in order to complete its activity profile, after the confirmation of the existence of a central depressant activity particularly expressed by a strong sedative effect, associated with anxiolytic effects. This study leads us to the conclusion that this plant extract exerts central analgesic properties. Such a dose-dependent action was obtained against chemical (writhing test) and thermic (hot plate test) stimuli, respectively, from the doses of 20 and 25 mg/kg and it was inhibited by a naloxone pretreatment, a specific morphinic antagonist compound. An antipyretic activity was obtained at the sedative doses of 100 and 400 mg/kg, on the yeast-induced hyperthermia. Finally, significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects were observed on an acute inflammatory process (carrageenan-induced edema test in rats) from the dose of 100 mg/kg. On the other hand, plant extract remained inactive on chronic processes such as Freund's adjuvant-induced rheumatoid arthritis, after a chronic treatment during fourteen days at the daily dose of 200 or 400 mg/kg; however, if inefficacy was observed on rat backpaws edema and on loss of weight, the aqueous extract reduced the inflammatory hyperalgia. PMID:1896520

Lanhers, M C; Fleurentin, J; Dorfman, P; Mortier, F; Pelt, J M

1991-06-01

274

Mechanisms for anti-inflammatory effects of 1-[15(S)-hydroxyeicosapentaenoyl] lysophosphatidylcholine, administered intraperitoneally, in zymosan A-induced peritonitis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs) with polyunsaturated acyl chains are known to exert anti-inflammatory actions. 15-Lipoxygeanation is crucial for anti-inflammatory action of polyunsaturated acylated lysoPCs. Here, the anti-inflammatory actions of 1-(15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoyl)-lysoPC (15-HEPE-lysoPC) and its derivatives were examined in a mechanistic analysis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Anti-inflammatory actions of 15-HEPE-lysoPC in zymosan A-induced peritonitis of mice were examined by measuring plasma leakage and leucocyte infiltration, and determining levels of lipid mediators or cytokines. KEY RESULTS When each lysoPC, administered i.v., was assessed for its ability to suppress zymosan A-induced plasma leakage, 15-HEPE-lysoPC was found to be more potent than 1-(15-hydroperoxyeicosapentaenoyl)-lysoPC or 1-eicosapentaenoyl-lysoPC. Separately, i.p. administration of 15-HEPE-lysoPC markedly inhibited plasma leakage, in contrast to 15-HEPE, which had only a small effect. 15-HEPE-lysoPC also decreased leucocyte infiltration. Moreover, it reduced the formation of LTC4 and LTB4, 5-lipoxygenation products, as well as the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The time-course study indicated that 15-HEPE-lysoPC might participate in both the early inflammatory phase and resolution phase. Additionally, 15-HEPE-lysoPC administration caused a partial suppression of LTC4-induced plasma leakage and LTB4-induced leucocyte infiltration. In the metabolism study, peritoneal exudate was shown to contain lysoPC-hydrolysing activity, crucial for anti-inflammatory activity, and a system capable of generating lipoxin A from 15-hydroxy eicosanoid precursor. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 15-HEPE-lysoPC, a precursor for 15-HEPE in target cells, induced anti-inflammatory actions by inhibiting the formation of pro-inflammatory leukotrienes and cytokines, and by enhancing the formation of lipoxin A. 15-HEPE-lysoPC might be one of many potent anti-inflammatory lipids in vivo. PMID:21091644

Hung, Nguyen Dang; Kim, Mee Ree; Sok, Dai-Eun

2011-01-01

275

Identification of 5-lipoxygenase and microsomal prostaglandin E 2 synthase-1 as functional targets of the anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic garcinol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Garcinol (camboginol) from the fruit rind of Guttiferae species shows anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory properties, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that garcinol potently interferes with 5-lipoxygenase (EC 7.13.11.34) and microsomal prostaglandin (PG)E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 (EC 5.3.99.3), enzymes that play pivotal roles in inflammation and tumorigenesis. In cell-free assays, garcinol inhibited the activity of purified 5-lipoxygenase and

Andreas Koeberle; Hinnak Northoff; Oliver Werz

2009-01-01

276

A cluster randomised stepped wedge trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted information technology-based intervention in reducing high-risk prescribing of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antiplatelets in primary medical care: The DQIP study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background High-risk prescribing of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antiplatelet agents accounts for a significant proportion of hospital admissions due to preventable adverse drug events. The recently completed PINCER trial has demonstrated that a one-off pharmacist-led information technology (IT)-based intervention can significantly reduce high-risk prescribing in primary care, but there is evidence that effects decrease over time and employing additional pharmacists to facilitate change may not be sustainable. Methods/design We will conduct a cluster randomised controlled with a stepped wedge design in 40 volunteer general practices in two Scottish health boards. Eligible practices are those that are using the INPS Vision clinical IT system, and have agreed to have relevant medication-related data to be automatically extracted from their electronic medical records. All practices (clusters) that agree to take part will receive the data-driven quality improvement in primary care (DQIP) intervention, but will be randomised to one of 10 start dates. The DQIP intervention has three components: a web-based informatics tool that provides weekly updated feedback of targeted prescribing at practice level, prompts the review of individual patients affected, and summarises each patient's relevant risk factors and prescribing; an outreach visit providing education on targeted prescribing and training in the use of the informatics tool; and a fixed payment of 350 GBP (560 USD; 403 EUR) up front and a small payment of 15 GBP (24 USD; 17 EUR) for each patient reviewed in the 12 months of the intervention. We hypothesise that the DQIP intervention will reduce a composite of nine previously validated measures of high-risk prescribing. Due to the nature of the intervention, it is not possible to blind practices, the core research team, or the data analyst. However, outcome assessment is entirely objective and automated. There will additionally be a process and economic evaluation alongside the main trial. Discussion The DQIP intervention is an example of a potentially sustainable safety improvement intervention that builds on the existing National Health Service IT-infrastructure to facilitate systematic management of high-risk prescribing by existing practice staff. Although the focus in this trial is on Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antiplatelets, we anticipate that the tested intervention would be generalisable to other types of prescribing if shown to be effective. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, dossier number: NCT01425502 PMID:22444945

2012-01-01

277

1,5-Diphenylpent-3-en-1-ynes and methyl naphthalene carboxylates from Lawsonia inermis and their anti-inflammatory activity.  

PubMed

Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae) known as henna is one of the most popular and ancient plants used in cosmetics and hair dying. It is cultivated for its leaves but other parts such as seeds, flowers, stem bark and roots are also used in traditional medicine for millennia. Henna tattoo paste also proved to be beneficial for wound healing and in several skin diseases suggesting potent anti-inflammatory activity. To evaluate henna anti-inflammatory activity, 31 compounds, including three 1,5-diphenylpent-3-en-1-yne derivatives, lawsochylin A-C and three methyl naphthalene carboxylates, lawsonaphthoate A-C, were isolated from the stems and leaves of henna utilizing a bioassay-guided fractionation. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data. Two compounds, lawsochylin A and lawsonaphthoate A showed potent anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of superoxide anion generation (IC(50)=1.80 and 1.90 ?g/ml) and elastase release (IC(50)=1.58 and 3.17 ?g/ml) of human neutrophils in response to fMLP or cytochalasin B. Moreover, the known compounds, luteolin, apigenin, 4S-4-hydroxy-?-tetralone, and 2-butoxysuccinic acid, also showed potent inhibition of superoxide anion generation (IC(50)=0.75-1.78 ?g/ml) and elastase release (IC(50)=1.62-3.61 ?g/ml). PMID:23351982

Liou, Jing-Ru; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Du, Ying-Chi; Tseng, Chao-Neng; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chuang, Yueh-Lin; Hsu, Yu-Ming; Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Wu, Chin-Chun; Chen, Shu-Li; Hou, Ming-Feng; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

2013-04-01

278

Development of affinity labeling agents based on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: labeling of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug binding site of 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) exert their effect by inhibiting the target enzyme cyclooxygenase (prostaglandin H2 synthase); however, little is known about the peptides comprising its NSAID binding site. Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenases also bind NSAIDs, but their NSAID binding sites have not been well characterized. Using existing synthetic strategies, we have incorporated the bromoacetoxy affinity labeling moiety around the perimeter of two potent NSAIDs, indomethacin and mefenamate, a N-phenylanthranilate. The compounds synthesized were 1-(4-(bromoacetamido)benzyl)-5-methoxy-2-methylindole-3-acetic acid (1), 3-(2-(2-bromoacetoxy)ethyl)-1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-5-methoxy-2-methylindole (2), 4-(bromoacetamido)-N-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)anthranilic acid (3), N-(3-(bromoacetamido)phenyl)-anthranilic acid (4), and N-(4-(bromoacetamido)phenyl)anthranilic acid (5). To access whether these compounds have general utility in labeling NSAID binding sites, the compounds were evaluated as affinity labeling agents for 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 alpha-HSD) from rat liver cytosol. This enzyme displays 9-, 11-, and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activity, is inhibited potently by NSAIDs, and is homologous to bovine lung prostaglandin F synthase. Compounds 1-5 were shown to affinity label the NSAID binding site of 3 alpha-HSD. They inactivated 3 alpha-HSD through an E.I complex in a time- and concentration-dependent manner with t1/2 values ranging from seconds to hours. Ligands that compete for the active site of 3 alpha-HSD (NAD+ and indomethacin) afforded protection against inactivation, and the inactivators could demonstrate competitive kinetics against 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid substrates by forming an E.NAD+.I complex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1747374

Askonas, L J; Penning, T M

1991-12-10

279

Obtaining from Grape Pomace an Enzymatic Extract with Anti-inflammatory Properties.  

PubMed

Grape pomace, a winemaking industry by-product, is a rich source of bioactive dietary compounds. Using proteases we have developed an enzymatic process for obtaining a water-soluble extract (GP-EE) that contains biomolecules such as peptides, carbohydrates, lipids and polyphenols in soluble form. Of especial interest is its high polyphenol content (12 %), of which 77 % are flavonoids and 33 % are phenolic acids. The present study evaluates in vitro the potential anti-inflammatory effect of GP-EE by monitoring the expression of inflammatory molecules on N13 microglia cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). GP-EE decreases the mRNA levels of the inflammatory molecules studied. The molecules under study were as follows: inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor- ? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), the ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1(Iba-1) and the Toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4), as well as the iNOS protein level in LPS-stimulated microglia. Our findings suggest that, as a result of its ability to regulate excessive microglial activation, GP-EE possesses anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, acting as a chemopreventive agent, it may be of therapeutic interest in neurodegenerative diseases involving neuroinflammation. We can, therefore, propose GP-EE as a useful natural extract and one that would be beneficial to apply in the field of functional foods. PMID:25535003

Rodríguez-Morgado, B; Candiracci, M; Santa-María, C; Revilla, E; Gordillo, B; Parrado, J; Castańo, A

2015-03-01

280

Purification and anti-inflammatory action of tripeptide from salmon pectoral fin byproduct protein hydrolysate.  

PubMed

In this study, the anti-inflammatory peptide from salmon pectoral fin byproduct protein hydrolysate by pepsin hydrolysis, was purified and identified using Sephadex G-25 gel permeation chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (TOF LC/MS/MS). The purified anti-inflammatory peptide was identified to be a tripeptide (PAY). Lipopolysaccharide treatment significantly (p<0.05) stimulated the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in RAW264.7 cells. However, PAY treatment significantly (p<0.05) inhibited the production of NO by 63.80% and PGE2 by 45.33%. Western blotting analysis revealed that PAY significantly (p<0.05) suppressed the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, which are responsible for the production of NO and PGE2. Additionally, PAY treatment also significantly (p<0.05) attenuated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6 and -1?. PMID:25172694

Ahn, Chang-Bum; Cho, Young-Sook; Je, Jae-Young

2015-02-01

281

[Synthesis and biological evaluation of indole derivatives acting as anti-inflammatory or antitumoral drugs].  

PubMed

Two axes of research have been explored, one about promising non-acidic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory derivatives, with indolin-2-one as structural core and another one about aromatase inhibitors, characterized by azolylmethyl or alpha-azolylbenzyl chain on indole nucleus. Knoevenagel reaction led to indolin-2-ones substituted by either 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol chain or 1, 4-dihydropyridine chain, revealing antioxydant or anti-inflammatory activities. Aromatase is a logical target in the treatment of hormono-dependent breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Among non steroidal inhibitors of this enzyme, diverse compounds with anilino or azaheterocyclic moiety are currently used or undergoing clinical trials. Our pharmacomodulation in azolylmethylindole or alpha-azolylbenzylindole series led to compounds with high level aromatase inhibitory activity. Work to determine their selectivity by measuring their inhibitory effect on P450 17alpha enzyme was also carried out. A first molecular modeling approach with Discover software was performed to evaluate interactions between our molecules and the catalytic site of P450cam. PMID:11060408

Le Borgne, M; Duflos, M; Le Baut, G; Nicholls, P J; Hartmann, R W

2000-10-01

282

Anti-inflammatory response following uptake of apoptotic bodies by meningothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Meningothelial cells (MECs) are the cellular components of the meninges. As such, they provide important barrier function for the central nervous system (CNS) building the interface between neuronal tissue and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and are also part of the immune response of the CNS. Methods Human, immortalized MECs were analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy to study the uptake of apoptotic cells. Furthermore, cytokine and chemokine production by MECs was analyzed by cytokine array and ELISA. Results We found that MECs are highly active phagocytes able of ingesting and digesting large amounts of apoptotic cells. Furthermore, the uptake of apoptotic cells by MECs was immune suppressive via inhibiting the secretion of pro-inflammatory and chemoattractant cytokines and chemokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-16, MIF, and CXCL1, while increasing the secretion of anti-inflammatory IL-1 receptor antagonist by MECs. Conclusion MECs respond with the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines following the uptake of apoptotic cells potentially connecting these cells to processes important for the shut-down of immune responses in the brain. PMID:24565420

2014-01-01

283

Identification of Novel Anti-inflammatory Agents from Ayurvedic Medicine for Prevention of Chronic Diseases  

PubMed Central

Inflammation, although first characterized by Cornelius Celsus, a physician in first Century Rome, it was Rudolf Virchow, a German physician in nineteenth century who suggested a link between inflammation and cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, pulmonary diseases, neurological diseases and other chronic diseases. Extensive research within last three decades has confirmed these observations and identified the molecular basis for most chronic diseases and for the associated inflammation. The transcription factor, Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-?B) that controls over 500 different gene products, has emerged as major mediator of inflammation. Thus agents that can inhibit NF-?B and diminish chronic inflammation have potential to prevent or delay the onset of the chronic diseases and further even treat them. In an attempt to identify novel anti-inflammatory agents which are safe and effective, in contrast to high throughput screen, we have turned to “reverse pharmacology” or “bed to benchside” approach. We found that Ayurveda, a science of long life, almost 6000 years old, can serve as a “goldmine” for novel anti-inflammatory agents used for centuries to treat chronic diseases. The current review is an attempt to provide description of various Ayurvedic plants currently used for treatment, their active chemical components, and the inflammatory pathways that they inhibit. PMID:21561421

Aggarwal, Bharat B.; Prasad, Sahdeo; Reuter, Simone; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Yadev, Vivek R.; Park, Byoungduck; Kim, Ji Hye; Gupta, Subash C.; Phromnoi, Kanokkarn; Sundaram, Chitra; Prasad, Seema; Chaturvedi, Madan M.; Sung, Bokyung

2011-01-01

284

Exopolysaccharide produced by Pleurotus sajor-caju: Its chemical structure and anti-inflammatory activity.  

PubMed

Edible mushrooms are high nutritional value foods, which contain proteins, fibers, minerals, vitamins, and carbohydrates. Among their carbohydrates are some polysaccharides with recognized therapeutic effects. It was reported in this manuscript the structural characterization and antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Pleurotus sajor-caju. The purified EPS was a mannogalactan (PEIsR), which was composed by mannose (37.0%), galactose (39.7%), and 3-O-methyl-galactose (23.3%). The polysaccharide was purified by freeze-thawing and dialysis, and it was characterized by GC-MS analysis and NMR spectroscopy. The mannogalactan is constituted by a main chain of (1?6)-linked ?-D-Galp and 3-O-methyl-?-D-Galp units. Some of the ?-D-Galp units were substituted at O-2 by non-reducing end units of ?-D-Manp. According to the literature review conducted, this is the first time that a methylated polysaccharide was observed on EPS of P. sajor-caju. The mannogalactan was able to reduce the nociception, in vivo, in the writhing and formalin tests and also reduced the carrageenan-induced paw edema, which indicates that it could be an effective antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25600989

Silveira, Marcia L L; Smiderle, Fhernanda R; Agostini, Franciane; Pereira, Eduardo M; Bonatti-Chaves, Mariane; Wisbeck, Elisabeth; Ruthes, Andréa Caroline; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Cipriani, Thales R; Furlan, Sandra A; Iacomini, Marcello

2015-04-01

285

Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Inonotus obliquus and germinated brown rice extracts.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus (IO) is parasitic mushroom that grows on birch and other trees in Russia, Korea, Europe and United States. However, IO is not readily available for consumption due to its high cost and difficult growth. In this regard, IO was inoculated on germinated brown rice (GBR) in the present study and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the IO grown on germinated brown rice (IOGBR) extracts were evaluated extensively and compared with those for IO and GBR. IOGBR showed highest antioxidant activities with scavenging total intracellular ROS and MDA levels as well as increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity in the H?O?-stimulated mice liver. It also exhibited best inflammatory activities by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE?, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 in an LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell line. This study provides a comparative approach to find out an excellent natural source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agent as a dietary supplement. PMID:23917116

Debnath, Trishna; Park, Sa Ra; Kim, Da Hye; Jo, Jeong Eun; Lim, Beong Ou

2013-01-01

286

Incorporation of Eicosatrienoic Acid Exerts Mild Anti-inflammatory Properties in Murine RAW264.7 Cells.  

PubMed

Eicosatrienoic acid (?11,14,17-20:3; ETrA) is a rare naturally occurring n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Using murine RAW264.7 cells, the objectives were to determine how ETrA modulated phospholipid fatty acid compositions and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Incubation cells with ETrA dose-dependently increased the proportions of phospholipid ETrA and its metabolites to 33 % of the fatty acid total. Incorporation of ETrA also reduced the proportions of total n-6 PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) by 30 and 60 %, respectively. ETrA suppressed LPS-stimulated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B)-mediated nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. However, no such suppressive effect on the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cytokines, or expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was observed. As compared with ETrA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) exerted a more potent anti-inflammatory effect. In conclusion, although ETrA suppresses significant NO synthesis and iNOS expression, this n-3 PUFA was a less potent anti-inflammatory agent than EPA. PMID:24993153

Chen, Szu-Jung; Chuang, Lu-Te; Chen, Sung-Nien

2015-04-01

287

Thymoquinone poly (lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles exhibit enhanced anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and chemosensitization potential.  

PubMed

Thymoquinone (TQ), derived from the medicinal spice Nigella sativa (also called black cumin), has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. In this report we employed polymer-based nanoparticle approach to improve upon its effectiveness and bioavailability. TQ was encapsulated with 97.5% efficiency in biodegradable nanoparticulate formulation based on poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and the stabilizer polyethylene glycol (PEG)-5000. Dynamic laser light scattering and transmission electron microscopy confirmed particle diameter between 150 and 200nm. Electrophoretic gel shift mobility assay showed that TQ nanoparticles (NP) were more active than TQ in inhibiting NF-kappaB activation and in suppressing the expression of cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), those are markers of cell proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis, respectively. TQ-NP were also more potent than TQ in suppressing proliferation of colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and multiple myeloma cells. Esterase staining for plasma membrane integrity revealed that TQ-NP were more potent than TQ in sensitizing leukemic cells to TNF- and paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Overall our results demonstrate that encapsulation of TQ into nanoparticles enhances its anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and chemosensitizing effects. PMID:20105430

Ravindran, Jayaraj; Nair, Hareesh B; Sung, Bokyung; Prasad, Sahdeo; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R; Aggarwal, Bharat B

2010-06-01

288

Xanthine oxidase inhibitory properties and anti-inflammatory activity of 2-amino-5-alkylidene-thiazol-4-ones.  

PubMed

Thirty 2-amino-5-alkylidene-thiazol-4-ones were assayed for inhibitory activity against commercial enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) in vitro and XO in rat liver homogenate as well as for anti-inflammatory response on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). 4-((2-Benzylamino-4-oxothiazol-5(4H)-ylidene)-methyl)benzonitrile showed the most potent inhibitory effect against commercial XO (IC50=17.16?g/mL) as well as against rat liver XO (IC50=24.50?g/mL). All compounds containing the 4-cyanobenzylidene group or (indol-3-yl)methylene group at the position 5 of thiazol-4-one moiety were moderately potent inhibitors of commercial XO. The assayed compounds were docked into the crystal structures of XO enzyme complexes with three diverse inhibitors (PDB codes: 1FIQ, 1VDV, and 1V97) using OEDocking software. Our results strongly point to a correlation between the data on inhibitory activity against commercial XO and data on antioxidant activity of studied compounds, screened using a lipid peroxidation (LP) method. 2-(Benzylamino)-5-((thiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiazol-4(5H)-one showed the highest anti-inflammatory response on PBMCs, exerted most probably through the NF-?B inhibition. Studied 2-amino-5-alkylidene-thiazol-4-ones obey the "Rule of five" and meet all criteria for good solubility and permeability. PMID:25619642

Smelcerovic, Zaklina; Veljkovic, Andrej; Kocic, Gordana; Yancheva, Denitsa; Petronijevic, Zivomir; Anderluh, Marko; Smelcerovic, Andrija

2015-03-01

289

Anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of methyl palmitate  

SciTech Connect

Methyl palmitate (MP) has been shown earlier to inhibit Kupffer cells and rat peritoneal macrophages. To evaluate the potential of MP to inhibit the activation of other macrophages, RAW cells (macrophages of alveolar origin) were treated with varying concentrations of MP (0.25, 0.5, 1 mM). Assessment of cytotoxicity using MTT assay revealed that 0.25 and 0.5 mM are not toxic to RAW cells. MP was able to inhibit the phagocytic function of RAW cells. Treatment of cells with MP 24 hours prior to LPS stimulation significantly decreased nitric oxide release and altered the pattern of cytokines release; there was a significant decrease in TNF-{alpha} and a significant increase in IL-10 compared to the controls. However, there is a non-significant change in IL-6 level. Furthermore, phosphorylation of inhibitory kappa B (I{kappa}B{alpha}) protein was significantly decreased in RAW cells treated with 0.5 mM MP after LPS stimulation. Based upon the in-vitro results, it was examined whether MP treatment will be effective in preventing bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in-vivo. Bleomycin given by itself caused destruction of the lung architecture characterized by pulmonary fibrosis with collapse of air alveoli and emphysematous. Bleomycin induced a significant increase in hydroxyproline level and activated NF-{kappa}B, p65 expression in the lung. MP co-treatment significantly ameliorated bleomycin effects. These results suggest that MP has a potential of inhibiting macrophages in general. The present study demonstrated for the first time that MP has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effect that could be through NF-kB inhibition. Thus MP like molecule could be a promising anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drug. - Research Highlights: >Methyl palmitate is a universal macrophage inhibitor. >It could be a promising nucleus of anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drugs. >The underlying mechanism of these effects could be through NF-kB inhibition.

El-Demerdash, Ebtehal, E-mail: ebtehal_dm@yahoo.com

2011-08-01

290

Investigation of the Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Aloe vera Gel (97.5%) in the Ultraviolet Erythema Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Aloe vera is a natural product that is frequently used in soothing skin care products such as aftersun lotions. In the present study we aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory potential of a highly concentrated A. vera gel in the UV erythema test in vivo. Methods: 40 volunteers with skin types II and III were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled,

J. Reuter; A. Jocher; J. Stump; B. Grossjohann; G. Franke; C. M. Schempp

2008-01-01

291

Harnessing the anti-inflammatory potential of palmitoylethanolamide.  

PubMed

Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-?) ligand that exerts anti-inflammatory, analgesic and neuroprotective actions. PEA is synthetized from phospholipids through the sequential actions of N-acyltransferase and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-preferring phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), and its actions are terminated by its hydrolysis by two enzymes, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and N-acylethanolamine-hydrolysing acid amidase (NAAA). Here, we review the impact of PEA administration in inflammatory and neurodegenerative settings and the differential role of FAAH and NAAA in controlling PEA levels. Recent studies with NAAA inhibitors put forth this enzyme as capable of increasing PEA levels in vivo in inflammatory processes, and identified it as an interesting target for drug discovery research. Thus, PEA hydrolysis inhibitors could constitute potential therapeutic alternatives in chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24952959

Alhouayek, Mireille; Muccioli, Giulio G

2014-10-01

292

Anti-inflammatory effects of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives  

SciTech Connect

NF-{kappa}B family of transcription factors are involved in numerous cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, and inflammation. It was reported that hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (HADs) are inhibitors of NF-{kappa}B activation. Rice bran oil contains a lot of phytosteryl ferulates, one of HADs. We have investigated effects of phytosteryl ferulates on NF-{kappa}B activation in macrophage. Cycloartenyl ferulate (CAF), one of phytosteryl ferulates, significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production and mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenese-2 but upregulated SOD activity. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay revealed that CAF inhibited DNA-binding of NF-{kappa}B. CAF and phytosteryl ferulates probably have potentially anti-inflammatory properties.

Nagasaka, Reiko [Department of Food Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 5-7 Konan 4, Minato, Tokyo 108-8477 (Japan); Chotimarkorn, Chatchawan [Department of Food Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 5-7 Konan 4, Minato, Tokyo 108-8477 (Japan); Shafiqul, Islam Md. [Department of Veterinary Pharmacology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Hori, Masatoshi [Department of Veterinary Pharmacology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Ozaki, Hiroshi [Department of Veterinary Pharmacology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Ushio, Hideki [Department of Food Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 5-7 Konan 4, Minato, Tokyo 108-8477 (Japan)]. E-mail: hushio@kaiyodai.ac.jp

2007-06-29

293

Anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoids from Eupatorium arnottianum.  

PubMed

Three anti-inflammatory compounds: nepetin, jaceosidin and hispidulin have been isolated and identified from Eupatorium arnottianum Griseb. dichloromethane extract. Nepetin reduced the TPA mouse ear edema by 46.9% and jaceosidin by 23.2% (1mg/ear). Both compounds inhibited the NF kappaB induction by 91 and 77%, respectively. Furthermore phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract has led to the identification of eriodictyol, hyperoside, rutin, caffeic and chlorogenic acids. All these compounds are reported for the first time in this species. The finding of topical antiinflammatory activity exerted by Eupatorium arnottianum extract and the identification of active principles could support the use of this plant for the treatment of inflammatory affections. PMID:17570627

Clavin, M; Gorzalczany, S; Macho, A; Muńoz, E; Ferraro, G; Acevedo, C; Martino, V

2007-07-25

294

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and the Kidney  

PubMed Central

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit the isoenzymes COX-1 and COX-2 of cyclooxygenase (COX). Renal side effects (e.g., kidney function, fluid and urinary electrolyte excretion) vary with the extent of COX-2-COX-1 selectivity and the administered dose of these compounds. While young healthy subjects will rarely experience adverse renal effects with the use of NSAIDs, elderly patients and those with co-morbibity (e.g., congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis or chronic kidney disease) and drug combinations (e.g., renin-angiotensin blockers, diuretics plus NSAIDs) may develop acute renal failure. This review summarizes our present knowledge how traditional NSAIDs and selective COX-2 inhibitors may affect the kidney under various experimental and clinical conditions, and how these drugs may influence renal inflammation, water transport, sodium and potassium balance and how renal dysfunction or hypertension may result.

Hörl, Walter H.

2010-01-01

295

Anti-inflammatory activity of four Bolivian Baccharis species (Compositae).  

PubMed

Hexanic, dichloromethanic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts from Baccharis obtusifolia HBK, Baccharis latifolia (R. et P.) Pers., Baccharis pentlandii D.C. and Baccharis subulata Wedd., plants used in the traditional medicine of South America have been studied for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity in cellular systems. Calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages were validated as a source of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) (prostaglandin E2, PGE2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) (leukotriene C4, LTC4), and mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used for testing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) activity. Most of the extracts tested were active in all assays. PMID:16202549

Abad, M J; Bessa, A L; Ballarin, B; Aragón, O; Gonzales, E; Bermejo, P

2006-02-20

296

Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Barettin  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present novel bioactivity for barettin isolated from the marine sponge Geodia barretti. We found that barettin showed strong antioxidant activity in biochemical assays as well as in a lipid peroxidation cell assay. A de-brominated synthetic analogue of barettin did not show the same activity in the antioxidant cell assay, indicating that bromine is important for cellular activity. Barettin was also able to inhibit the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and TNF? from LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. This combination of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities could indicate that barettin has an atheroprotective effect and may therefore be an interesting product to prevent development of atherosclerosis. PMID:23880935

Lind, Karianne F.; Hansen, Espen; Řsterud, Bjarne; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Bayer, Annette; Engqvist, Magnus; Leszczak, Kinga; Jřrgensen, Trond Ř.; Andersen, Jeanette H.

2013-01-01

297

Anti-inflammatory cyclopeptides from exocarps of sugar-apples.  

PubMed

Two new cyclic peptides, fanlizhicyclopeptide A, cyclo(Pro(1)-Pro(2)-Tyr(3)-Leu(4)-Pro(5)-Gly(6)-Val(7)) (1), and fanlizhicyclopeptide B, cyclo(Pro(1)-Ile(2)-Tyr(3)-Ala(4)-Gly(5)) (2), were isolated along with six known kaurane diterpenoids and a known clovane sesquiterpene from the exocarps of sugar-apples, the fruit of Annona squamosa. Their structures were elucidated by ESI MS/MS experiments, 1D and 2D NMR data and chemical degradation. In the anti-inflammatory assay, both 1 and 2 showed in vitro inhibitory effects on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-? and IL-6, in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. PMID:24444902

Wu, Ping; Wu, Min; Xu, Liangxiong; Xie, Haihui; Wei, Xiaoyi

2014-01-01

298

Pharmacological interactions of anti-inflammatory-analgesics in odontology.  

PubMed

In this second article we describe the more interesting pharmacological interactions in dental practice based on the prescription of analgesic narcotics, paracetamol and non-selective non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAI) (which inhibit cyclooxigenase 1 -COX 1- and cyclooxigenase 2 -COX 2-) and selective NSAIs (COX 2 inhibitors). The importance of preventing the appearance of these pharmacological interactions is because these are medicaments prescribed daily in odontology for moderate pain treatment and inflammation in the oral cavity. Paracetamol can interact with warfarin and therefore care should be taken with chronic alcoholic patients. All NSAIs reduce renal blood flow and consequently are capable of reducing the efficacy of medicaments used for treating arterial hypertension, which act via a renal mechanism. Especial attention should be taken considering the risk of interaction between the antagonists of AT1 receptors of angiostensin II (ARAII) and the NSAIs. PMID:19179955

Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Guardia, Javier; Cutando, Antonio; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis

2009-02-01

299

Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of azadirachtin in mice.  

PubMed

Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) extracts have been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties. However, the activities of azadirachtin, a limonoid and the major bioactive compound found in the extracts, have been poorly investigated in animal models. In the present study, we investigated the effects induced by azadirachtin in experimental models of pain and inflammation in mice. Carrageenan-induced paw edema and fibrovascular tissue growth induced by subcutaneous cotton pellet implantation were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of azadirachtin in mice. Zymosan-induced writhing and hot plate tests were employed to evaluate the antinociceptive activity. To explore putative mechanisms of action, the level of tumor necrosis factor-? in inflammatory tissue was measured and the effect induced by opioidergic and serotonergic antagonists was evaluated. Previous per os (p.?o.) administration of azadirachtin (120 mg/kg) significantly reduced the acute paw edema induced by carrageenan. However, the concomitant increase of the paw concentration of tumor necrosis factor-? induced by this inflammatory stimulus was not reduced by azadirachtin. In addition to inhibiting the acute paw edema induced by carrageenan, azadirachtin (6, 60, and 120 mg/kg) inhibited the proliferative phase of the inflammatory response, as demonstrated by the reduced formation of fibrovascular tissue growth. Azadirachtin (120 mg/kg) also inhibited the nociceptive response in models of nociceptive (hot plate) and inflammatory (writhing induced by zymosan) pain. The activity of azadirachtin (120 mg/kg) in the model of nociceptive pain was attenuated by a nonselective opioid antagonist, naltrexone (10 mg/kg, i.?p.), but not by a nonselective serotonergic antagonist, cyproheptadine. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the activity of azadirachtin in experimental models of nociceptive and inflammatory pain, and also in models of acute and chronic inflammation. Finally, multiple mechanisms, including the inhibition of the production of inflammatory mediators and activation of endogenous opioid pathways, may mediate azadirachtin activities in experimental models of inflammation and pain. PMID:24871207

Soares, Darly G; Godin, Adriana M; Menezes, Raquel R; Nogueira, Rafaela D; Brito, Ana Mercy S; Melo, Ivo S F; Coura, Giovanna Maria E; Souza, Danielle G; Amaral, Flávio A; Paulino, Tony P; Coelho, Márcio M; Machado, Renes R

2014-06-01

300

Antitumor Agents. 271. Total Synthesis and Evaluation of Brazilein and Analogs as Anti-inflammatory and Cytotoxic Agents  

PubMed Central

The first total synthesis of the naturally occurring tetracyclic homoisoflavonoid brazilein (1) and 14 new analogs (1a–n) is reported. Target compounds and intermediates were assayed for anti-inflammatory effects on superoxide anion generation and elastase release by human neutrophils in response to fMLP/CB, and for cytotoxic activity against nasopharyngeal (KB), vincristine-resistant nasopharyngeal (KBvin), lung (A549) and prostate (DU-145) human cancer cell lines. The most active compound 1b showed potent effects on superoxide anion generation and elastase release with IC50 values of 1.2 and 1.9 µM, respectively, and was 65 times more potent than phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), the positive control, in the latter assay. Additionally, 1b exhibited broad spectrum in vitro anticancer activity with IC50 values of 6–11 µM against the four tested cancer cell lines. PMID:20036537

Yen, Chiao-Ting; Nakagawa-Goto, Kyoko; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Wu, Pei-Chi; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Lai, Wan-Chun; Bastow, Kenneth F.; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

2010-01-01

301

Phytochemical Compositions and Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Crude Extracts from Ficus pandurata H. (Moraceae)  

PubMed Central

Background. Ficus pandurata H. (Moraceae) is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine as a healthy food condiment or a medicine for treatment of various diseases including inflammation. Objective. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the phytochemical compositions and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of crude water (FPW) and ethanolic extracts (FPE) from Ficus pandurata H. Methods. Phytochemical compositions were identified by a high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry method (HPLC-ESI-MS). The antioxidant activities were evaluated by diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical assays, and the anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated by paw edema and levels of inflammatory mediator TNF-? and PGE2 in monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced rats. Results. Six compounds were identified by HPLC-MS method, and abundance of phenolics was found in FPE. The FPE showed concentration-dependent-significant scavenging of DPPH and hydroxyl radicals with IC50 values 118.4 and 192.9??g/mL, respectively. The FPE treatment significantly inhibited the paw edema and the production of TNF-? and PGE2 in MSU crystal-induced rats. Conclusion. The FPE exerted stronger antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities which may be attributed to its high phenolic content. PMID:24191163

Lv, Huiqing; Zhang, Xiaoping; Chen, XueZhi; Xie, Zhijun; Wen, Chengping; Jiang, Kezhi

2013-01-01

302

Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of endophytic fungi Talaromyces wortmannii extracts against acne-inducing bacteria.  

PubMed

Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease, causing significant psychosocial problems such as anxiety and depression similar to a chronic illness for those afflicted. Currently, obtainable agents for acne treatment have limited use. Thus, development of novel agents to treat this disease is a high medical need. The anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes has been implicated in the inflammatory phase of acne vulgaris by activating pro-inflammatory mediators such as the interleukin-8 (IL-8) via the NF-?B and MAPK pathways. Talaromyces wortmannii is an endophytic fungus, which is known to produce high bioactive natural compounds. We hypothesize that compound C but also the crude extract from T. wortmannii may possess both antibacterial activity especially against P. acnes and also anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting TNF-?-induced ICAM-1 expression and P. acnes-induced IL-8 release. Treatment of keratinocytes (HaCaT) with P. acnes significantly increased NF-?B and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation, as well as IL-8 release. Compound C inhibited P. acnes-mediated activation of NF-?B and AP-1 by inhibiting I?B degradation and the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK MAP kinases, and IL-8 release in a dose-dependent manner. Based on these results, compound C has effective antimicrobial activity against P. acnes and anti-inflammatory activity, and we suggest that this substance or the crude extract are alternative treatments for antibiotic/anti-inflammatory therapy for acne vulgaris. PMID:24887557

Pretsch, Alexander; Nagl, Michael; Schwendinger, Katja; Kreiseder, Birgit; Wiederstein, Martina; Pretsch, Dagmar; Genov, Miroslav; Hollaus, Ralph; Zinssmeister, Daniela; Debbab, Abdesamad; Hundsberger, Harald; Eger, Andreas; Proksch, Peter; Wiesner, Christoph

2014-01-01

303

Issues surrounding the anti-inflammatory actions of the citrus polymethoxylated flavones  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The polymethoxylated flavones in citrus have been evaluated for their in vivo anti-inflammatory actions in several animal assays. Strong anti-inflammatory effects were observed following administration of 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF) dissolved in vegetable oil by intraperitoneal (i.p.) ...

304

Neurobiology of Aging, in press Steroid and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cognitive decline, and dementia  

E-print Network

decline, and dementia Marie-Laure Ancelin, PhD.a,b,§,* , Isabelle Carričre, PhD.a,b,§ , Catherine Helmer persons. Cognitive performance, clinical diagnosis of dementia, and anti-inflammatory use were evaluated of incident dementia over 7 years. Nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drug use was not significantly associated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

305

Preventative oral methylthioadenosine is anti-inflammatory and reduces DSS-induced colitis in mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Methylthioadenosine (MTA) is a precursor of the methionine salvage pathway and has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties in various models of acute and chronic inflammation. However, the anti-inflammatory properties of MTA in models of intestinal inflammation are not defined. We hypothesiz...

306

Hypericum in Infection: Identification of Anti-viral and Anti-inflammatory Constituents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Iowa Center for Research on Botanical Dietary Supplements seeks to optimize Echinacea, Hypericum and Prunella supplements for human-health benefit, focusing on anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and anti-pain effects. This paper reports on ongoing anti-viral and anti-inflammatory studies on Hypericu...

307

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of selected Chinese medicinal plants and their relation with antioxidant content  

PubMed Central

Background The main aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of forty four traditional Chinese medicinal herbal extracts and to examine these activities in relation to their antioxidant content. Methods The antioxidant activities were investigated using DPPH radical scavenging method and yeast model. The anti-inflammatory properties of the herbal extracts were evaluated by measuring their ability to inhibit the production of nitric oxide and TNF-? in RAW 264.7 macrophages activated by LPS and IFN- ?, respectively. The cytotoxic effects of the herbal extracts were determined by Alomar Blue assay by measuring cell viability. In order to understand the variation of antioxidant activities of herbal extracts with their antioxidant contents, the total phenolics, total flavonoids and trace metal (Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn, Se and Mo) quantities were estimated and a correlation analysis was carried out. Results Results of this study show that significant levels of phenolics, flavonoids and trace metal contents were found in Ligustrum lucidum, Paeonia suffuticosa, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Sanguisorba officinalis, Spatholobus suberectus, Tussilago farfara and Uncaria rhyncophylla, which correlated well with their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Some of the plants displayed high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities but contained low levels of phenolics and flavonoids. Interestingly, these plants contained significant levels of trace metals (such as Zn, Mg and Se) which are likely to be responsible for their activities. Conclusions The results indicate that the phenolics, flavonoids and trace metals play an important role in the antioxidant activities of medicinal plants. Many of the plants studied here have been identified as potential sources of new antioxidant compounds. PMID:23038995

2012-01-01

308

Comparison of Piroxicam Pharmacokinetics and Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Rats after Intra-Articular and Intramuscular Administration  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic profile and therapeutic efficacy of piroxicam (PX), a long acting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of arthritis, following intra-articular (IA) injection in comparison to the pharmacokinetic profile and therapeutic efficacy of PX after intramuscular (IM) injection. In the pharmacokinetic study in rats, systemic exposure and pharmacokinetic parameters of PX after a single IA dose were compared with systemic exposure and pharmacokinetic parameters of PX after administration of the same dose IM (0.6 mg/kg). The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of IA PX were evaluated simultaneously in a monoiodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis rat model. The plasma PX concentration rapidly rose following IA injection, and it was comparable to the plasma PX concentration following IM injection, suggesting the rapid efflux of the drug molecule from the joint cavity. However, in the efficacy study, the IA PX administration significantly reduced the knee swelling by reducing the level of prostaglandin E2 in the joint, compared to that following administration of IA vehicle and after administration of the IM PX dose. In addition, we found that the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive efficacies of IA PX were synergistically increased upon co-treatment with hyaluronic acid (HA), a potent agent for the treatment of osteoarthritis, at the weight ratio of 1:1 or 1:2, and these effects were more pronounced than those following administration of HA or PX alone. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the efficacy of the IA use of PX alone and/or in combination with HA in osteoarthritis. PMID:25009708

Park, Chan Woong; Ma, Kyung Wan; Jang, Sun Woo; Son, Miwon; Kang, Myung Joo

2014-01-01

309

Comparison of piroxicam pharmacokinetics and anti-inflammatory effect in rats after intra-articular and intramuscular administration.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic profile and therapeutic efficacy of piroxicam (PX), a long acting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of arthritis, following intra-articular (IA) injection in comparison to the pharmacokinetic profile and therapeutic efficacy of PX after intramuscular (IM) injection. In the pharmacokinetic study in rats, systemic exposure and pharmacokinetic parameters of PX after a single IA dose were compared with systemic exposure and pharmacokinetic parameters of PX after administration of the same dose IM (0.6 mg/kg). The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of IA PX were evaluated simultaneously in a monoiodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis rat model. The plasma PX concentration rapidly rose following IA injection, and it was comparable to the plasma PX concentration following IM injection, suggesting the rapid efflux of the drug molecule from the joint cavity. However, in the efficacy study, the IA PX administration significantly reduced the knee swelling by reducing the level of prostaglandin E2 in the joint, compared to that following administration of IA vehicle and after administration of the IM PX dose. In addition, we found that the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive efficacies of IA PX were synergistically increased upon co-treatment with hyaluronic acid (HA), a potent agent for the treatment of osteoarthritis, at the weight ratio of 1:1 or 1:2, and these effects were more pronounced than those following administration of HA or PX alone. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the efficacy of the IA use of PX alone and/or in combination with HA in osteoarthritis. PMID:25009708

Park, Chan Woong; Ma, Kyung Wan; Jang, Sun Woo; Son, Miwon; Kang, Myung Joo

2014-05-01

310

Involvement of proton-sensing receptor TDAG8 in the anti-inflammatory actions of dexamethasone in peritoneal macrophages  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glucocorticoid (GC) induced the expression of proton-sensing TDAG8 in macrophages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GC enhanced acidic pH-induced cAMP accumulation and inhibition of TNF-{alpha} production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enhancement of the GC-induced actions was lost by TDAG8 deficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GC-induced anti-inflammatory actions are partly mediated by TDAG8 expression. -- Abstract: Dexamethasone (DEX), a potent glucocorticoid, increased the expression of T-cell death associated gene 8 (TDAG8), a proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor, which is associated with the enhancement of acidic pH-induced cAMP accumulation, in peritoneal macrophages. We explored the role of increased TDAG8 expression in the anti-inflammatory actions of DEX. The treatment of macrophages with either DEX or acidic pH induced the cell death of macrophages; however, the cell death was not affected by TDAG8 deficiency. While DEX inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, an inflammatory cytokine, which was independent of TDAG8, at neutral pH, the glucocorticoid enhanced the acidic pH-induced inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} production in a manner dependent on TDAG8. In conclusion, the DEX-induced increase in TDAG8 expression is in part involved in the glucocorticoid-induced anti-inflammatory actions through the inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production under the acidic pH environment. On the other hand, the role of TDAG8 in the DEX-induced cell death is questionable.

He, Xiao-dong; Tobo, Masayuki; Mogi, Chihiro; Nakakura, Takashi; Komachi, Mayumi; Murata, Naoya; Takano, Mutsumi; Tomura, Hideaki; Sato, Koichi [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan); Okajima, Fumikazu, E-mail: fokajima@showa.gunma-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan)

2011-12-02

311

Dimethoxycurcumin, a metabolically stable analogue of curcumin, exhibits anti-inflammatory activities in murine and human lymphocytes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate whether dimethoxycurcumin (DiMC), a synthetic curcumin analogue having higher metabolic stability over curcumin, could exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in murine and human lymphocytes. Both curcumin and DiMC suppressed mitogen as well as antigen driven proliferation of murine splenic lymphocytes. Further, mitogen and antigen-stimulated cytokine (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IFN-?) secretion by T cells was also abrogated by curcumin and DiMC. Interestingly, curcumin and DiMC suppressed B cell proliferation induced by lipopolysaccharide. Curcumin and DiMC also inhibited Con A-induced activation of early and late T cell activation markers. They scavenged basal reactive oxygen species and depleted GSH levels in lymphocytes. The suppression of mitogen-induced T cell proliferation and cytokine secretion by curcumin and DiMC was significantly abrogated by thiol containing antioxidants suggesting a role for redox in their anti-inflammatory activity. Further, the possibility of curcumin and DiMC directly interacting with thiol-containing antioxidant GSH was monitored by changes in absorbance. Both curcumin and DiMC inhibited Con A induced activation of NF-?B and MAPK. More importantly, curcumin and DiMC inhibited phytohaemagglutinin induced proliferation and cytokine secretion by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. To explore their therapeutic efficacy, they were added to lymphocytes post-Con A stimulation and we observed a significant suppression of IL-2, IL-6 and IFN-?. The present study for the first time demonstrates the potent anti-inflammatory activity of DiMC. Further, DiMC could find application as an alternative to curcumin, which is currently used in several clinical studies, due to its superior bioavailability and comparable efficacy. PMID:21726543

Patwardhan, Raghavendra S; Checker, Rahul; Sharma, Deepak; Kohli, Vineet; Priyadarsini, K I; Sandur, Santosh K

2011-09-15

312

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica Linn. leaves.  

PubMed

Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) is commonly known as edible fig. The leaves, roots, fruits and latex of the plant are medicinally used in different diseases. The leaves are claimed to be effective in various inflammatory conditions like painful or swollen piles, insect sting and bites. However, there has been no report on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Our study validated the traditional claim with pharmacological data. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the drug could be due to the presence of steroids and flavanoids, respectively, which are reported to be present in the drug. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug could be due to its free radical scavenging activity. Further work is also required to isolate and characterise the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:21644169

Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

2012-01-01

313

Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel indole-2-one and 7-aza-2-oxindole derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents  

PubMed Central

Sepsis, a typically acute inflammatory disease, is the biggest cause of death in ICU (intensive care unit). Novel anti-inflammatory alternatives are still in urgent need. In this study, we designed and synthesized 30 indole-2-one and 7-aza-2-oxindole derivatives based on the skeleton of tenidap, and their anti-inflammatory activity was determined by evaluating the inhibitory potency against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-6 release in RAW264.7 macrophages. Quantitative SAR (structure–activity relationship) analysis revealed that a high molecular polarizability and low lipid/water partition coefficient (ALogP) in indole-2-one are beneficial for anti-inflammatory activity. Moreover, compounds 7i and 8e inhibited the expression of TNF-?, IL-6, COX-2, PGES, and iNOS in LPS-stimulated macrophages, and 7i exhibited a significant protection from LPS-induced septic death in mouse models. These data present a series of new indole-2-one compounds with potential therapeutic effects in acute inflammatory diseases. PMID:25378906

Chen, Gaozhi; Jiang, Lili; Dong, Lili; Wang, Zhe; Xu, Fengli; Ding, Ting; Fu, Lili; Fang, Qilu; Liu, Zhiguo; Shan, Xiaoou; Liang, Guang

2014-01-01

314

Release of endogenous anti-inflammatory complement regulators FHL-1 and factor H protects synovial fibroblasts during rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown aetiology predominantly affecting cells and tissues of synovial joints. Here we show that the two important complement regulators FHL-1 and factor H play a protective anti-inflammatory role in rheumatoid arthritis. Expression analyses at the mRNA- and protein level show in vitro expression and secretion of both regulators by synovial fibroblasts derived from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Similarly the two regulators are synthesized in vivo in diseased synovial tissue, and in particular synovial lining cells express high levels of FHL-1. The anti-inflammatory role of these regulators in rheumatoid arthritis is highlighted by their induction with IFN-? and dexamethasone, whilst the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-? had no effect. Transient transfection experiments with various FHL-1/factor H promoter-luciferase reporter constructs into cells of distinct origin show independent cell and tissue specific promoter regulated transcription of these two regulators. The inducible expression, specifically of FHL-1 has physiological consequences. By binding directly to surfaces the released proteins protect cells from inflammatory damage and complement-mediated cell lysis. This study shows a novel protective and anti-inflammatory role of the two important complement regulators FHL-1 and factor H in rheumatoid arthritis and suggests a disease controlling role of the two proteins. PMID:12780697

FRIESE, M A; MANUELIAN, T; JUNNIKKALA, S; HELLWAGE, J; MERI, S; PETER, H H; GORDON, D L; EIBEL, H; ZIPFEL, P F

2003-01-01

315

Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry study of anti-inflammatory activity of plantain (Plantago L.) species.  

PubMed

To evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of selected Plantago species (P. lanceolata L. and P. major L.) an optimized in vitro test for determination of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) inhibition potency was undertaken. By using intact cell system (platelets) as a source of COX-1 and 12-LOX enzymes and highly sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS technique for detection of main arachidonic acid metabolites formed by COX-1 and 12-LOX, this test provides efficient method for evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of plant extracts and isolated compounds. Our results validated the well-known COX-1 inhibitory activity of P. lanceolata and P. major methanol extracts (concentration required for 50% inhibition (IC(50)) was 2.00 and 0.65 mg/ml, respectively). Furthermore, 12-LOX inhibitory activity of examined extracts was reported for the first time (IC(50)=0.75 and 1.73 mg/ml for P. lanceolata and P. major, respectively). Although renowned inhibitors, such as acetylsalicylic acid and quercetin showed higher activity, this study verifies P. lanceolata and P. major as considerable anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:20219312

Beara, Ivana N; Orci?, Dejan Z; Lesjak, Marija M; Mimica-Duki?, Neda M; Pekovi?, Biljana A; Popovi?, Mira R

2010-09-01

316

A comparative anti-inflammatory activity of raw and processed Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) seeds on albino rats  

PubMed Central

Seeds of Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Kupeelu only after passing through specific purificatory procedures in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel) etc. Strychnos nux vomica seeds are extensively advocated for nervous debility, paralysis, and weakness of limbs, sexual weakness, dyspepsia, and dysentery and in rheumatism where it can be assumed that besides other properties, Kupeelu may have some sort of anti-inflammatory activity too. In the present study, the powder of raw and processed Kupeelu seeds (processed / purified with Kanji i.e sour gruel) as test drugs were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by employing Carrageenan and Formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema in Wistar strain albino rats at a dose of 22.5 mg/kg body weight orally. This study reveals that both raw and purified Kupeelu showed presence of highly significant anti-inflammatory activity against formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema, but did not have similar activity against Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema. PMID:23284209

Mitra, Swarnendu; Kumar, Vijay; Ashok, BK; Acharya, R N; Ravishankar, B

2011-01-01

317

A comparative anti-inflammatory activity of raw and processed Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) seeds on albino rats.  

PubMed

Seeds of Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Kupeelu only after passing through specific purificatory procedures in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel) etc. Strychnos nux vomica seeds are extensively advocated for nervous debility, paralysis, and weakness of limbs, sexual weakness, dyspepsia, and dysentery and in rheumatism where it can be assumed that besides other properties, Kupeelu may have some sort of anti-inflammatory activity too. In the present study, the powder of raw and processed Kupeelu seeds (processed / purified with Kanji i.e sour gruel) as test drugs were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by employing Carrageenan and Formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema in Wistar strain albino rats at a dose of 22.5 mg/kg body weight orally. This study reveals that both raw and purified Kupeelu showed presence of highly significant anti-inflammatory activity against formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema, but did not have similar activity against Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema. PMID:23284209

Mitra, Swarnendu; Kumar, Vijay; Ashok, Bk; Acharya, R N; Ravishankar, B

2011-10-01

318

Antibacterial Activities and In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory (Membrane Stability) Properties of Methanolic Extracts of Gardenia coronaria Leaves  

PubMed Central

This work is carried out with Gardenia coronaria leaves that belong to the family Rubiaceae, which is a small-to-medium-sized but tall, deciduous tree, 7.6–9?m high on an average. Leaves are used for the treatment of rheumatic pain and bronchitis. The leaf of the plant consists of coronalolide, coronalolic acid, coronalolide methyl ester, ethyl coronalolate acetate triterpenes (secocycloartanes), and so forth. Methanol extract from the leaves of Gardenia coronaria was completely screened for membrane stability and antibacterial activity. The lower concentrations of Methanolic leaf extract of Gardenia coronaria gave good antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, but higher concentrations gave relatively more projecting antibacterial activity in vitro as compared with Kanamycin. The crude drug's anti-inflammatory effects were compared with those of Aspirin as positive control. The Methanolic extracts of Gardenia coronaria leaves possessed a broad spectrum antibacterial activity against a variety of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms like Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Shigella sonnei, Shigella boydii, and Proteus mirabilis, with a zone of inhibition from 10 to 16?mm. The extract also showed good membrane stability to be considered as having significant anti-inflammatory action. PMID:24695677

Jainul, Mohammed Abdullah; Faruq, Kazi Omar; Islam, Atiqul

2014-01-01

319

Systematic review of herbals as potential anti-inflammatory agents: Recent advances, current clinical status and future perspectives  

PubMed Central

Many synthetic drugs reported to be used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders are of least interest now a days due to their potential side effects and serious adverse effects and as they are found to be highly unsafe for human assistance. Since the last few decades, herbal drugs have regained their popularity in treatment against several human ailments. Herbals containing anti-inflammatory activity (AIA) are topics of immense interest due to the absence of several problems in them, which are associated with synthetic preparations. The primary objective of this review is to provide a deep overview of the recently explored anti-inflammatory agents belonging to various classes of phytoconstituents like alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, polyphenolic compounds, and also the compounds isolated from plants of marine origin, algae and fungi. Also, it enlists a distended view on potential interactions between herbals and synthetic preparations, related adverse effects and clinical trials done on herbals for exploring their AIA. The basic aim of this review is to give updated knowledge regarding plants which will be valuable for the scientists working in the field of anti-inflammatory natural chemistry. PMID:22279370

Beg, Sarwar; Swain, Suryakanta; Hasan, Hameed; Barkat, M Abul; Hussain, Md Sarfaraz

2011-01-01

320

Therapeutic effects of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera) in the prevention of diseases via modulation of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-tumour activity  

PubMed Central

The current mode of treatment of various diseases based on synthetic drugs is expensive, alters genetic and metabolic pathways and also shows adverse side effects. Thus, safe and effective approach is needed to prevent the diseases development and progression. In this vista, Natural products are good remedy in the treatment/management of diseases and they are affordable and effective without any adverse effects. Dates are main fruit in the Arabian Peninsula and are considered to be one of the most significant commercial crops and also have been documented in Holy Quran and modern scientific literatures. Earlier studies have shown that constituents of dates act as potent antioxidant, anti-tumour as well as anti-inflammatory, provide a suitable alternative therapy in various diseases cure. In this review, dates fruits has medicinal value are summarized in terms of therapeutic implications in the diseases control through anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour and ant-diabetic effect. PMID:24753740

Rahmani, Arshad H; Aly, Salah M; Ali, Habeeb; Babiker, Ali Y; Srikar, Sauda; khan, Amjad A

2014-01-01

321

Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and liver-protective effects of anoectochilus formosanus, ganoderma lucidum and gynostemma pentaphyllum in rats.  

PubMed

The pharmacological effects of Anoectochilus formosanus, Ganoderma lucidum and Gynostemma pentaphyllum were studied against carrageenan-induced paw edema and CC1(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The water extracts of G. pentaphyllum and G. lucidum were found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced edema. The administration of Gynostemma pentaphyllum displayed an activity even more potent than indomethacin. In contrast, Anoectochilus formosanus showed a delayed onset of anti-inflammatory activity starting from 4 hrs post carrageenan administration. However, A. formosanus significantly decreased the acute increase in serum GOT and GPT level caused by CC1(4). Histological changes such as necrosis, fatty change, ballooning degeneration, inflammatory infiltration of lymphocytes and Kupffer cells around the central vein were simultaneously improved by the treatment of A. formosanus. PMID:8328423

Lin, J M; Lin, C C; Chiu, H F; Yang, J J; Lee, S G

1993-01-01

322

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Polyphenols-Rich Extract from Tea (Camellia sinensis) Flowers in Acute and Chronic Mice Models  

PubMed Central

While beneficial health properties of tea leaves have been extensively studied, less attention is paid to the flowers of tea. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of hot water extract of tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers were investigated. Pharmacological studies found that administration of tea flowers extract (TFE) could effectively inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema and carrageenin-induced paw edema. Furthermore, administration of TFE also protected against Propionibacterium acnes (P. ances) plus lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-) induced liver inflammation by reversing the histologic damage and plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increase. Moreover, the levels of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-(TNF)-? and interleukin-(IL-) 1? mRNA in mouse liver were markedly suppressed after treatment with TFE in mice with immunological liver inflammation. These results indicated that tea flowers had potent anti-inflammatory effects on acute and immunological inflammation in vivo, and may be used as a functional natural food. PMID:22900128

Chen, Bang-Tian; Li, Wei-Xi; He, Rong-Rong; Li, Yi-Fang; Tsoi, Bun; Zhai, Yu-Jia; Kurihara, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

323

Anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, free-radical-scavenging, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract.  

PubMed

Hawthorn [Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and Crataegus oxyacantha L.; sin. Crataegus laevigata (Poiret) DC., Rosaceae] leaves, flowers, and berries are used in traditional medicine in the treatment of chronic heart failure, high blood pressure, arrhythmia, and various digestive ailments, as well as geriatric and antiarteriosclerosis remedies. According to European Pharmacopoeia 6.0, hawthorn berries consist of the dried false fruits of these two species or their mixture. The present study was carried out to test free-radical-scavenging, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract. Phenolic compounds represented 3.54%, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Determination of total flavonoid aglycones content yielded 0.18%. The percentage of hyperoside, as the main flavonol component, was 0.14%. With respect to procyanidins content, the obtained value was 0.44%. DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the extract was concentration-dependent, with EC50 value of 52.04 microg/mL (calculation based on the total phenolic compounds content in the extract). Oral administration of investigated extract caused dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect in a model of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The obtained anti-inflammatory effect was 20.8, 23.0, and 36.3% for the extract doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively. In comparison to indomethacin, given in a dose producing 50% reduction of rat paw edema, the extract given in the highest tested dose (200 mg/kg) showed 72.4% of its activity. Gastroprotective activity of the extract was investigated using an ethanol-induced acute stress ulcer in rats with ranitidine as a reference drug. Hawthorn extract produced dose-dependent gastroprotective activity (3.8 +/- 2.1, 1.9 +/- 1.7, and 0.7 +/- 0.5 for doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively), with the efficacy comparable to that of the reference drug. Antimicrobial testing of the extract revealed its moderate bactericidal activity, especially against gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus flavus, Bacillus subtilis, and Lysteria monocytogenes, with no effect on Candida albicans. All active components identified in the extract might be responsible for activities observed. PMID:18698794

Tadi?, Vanja M; Dobri?, Silva; Markovi?, Goran M; Dordevi?, Sofija M; Arsi?, Ivana A; Menkovi?, Nebojsa R; Stevi?, Tanja

2008-09-10

324

Staging Anti-Inflammatory Therapy in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is controversial because conclusions from numerous epidemiological studies reporting delayed onset of AD in NSAID users have not been corroborated in clinical trials. The purpose of this personal view is to revise the case for NSAIDs in AD therapeutics in light of: (i) the last report from the only primary prevention trial in AD, ADAPT, which, although incomplete, points to significant protection in long-term naproxen users, and (ii) the recently proposed dynamic model of AD evolution. The model contends that there is a clinical silent phase in AD that can last up to 20?years, the duration depending on life style habits, genetic factors, or cognitive reserve. The failure of many purported disease-modifying drugs in AD clinical trials is forcing the view that treatments will only be efficacious if administered pre-clinically. Here we will argue that NSAIDs failed in clinical trials because they are disease-modifying drugs, and they should be administered in early stages of the disease. A complete prevention trial in cognitively normal individuals is thus called for. Further, the shift of anti-inflammatory treatment to early stages uncovers a knowledge void about the targets of NSAIDs in asymptomatic individuals. AD researchers have mostly relied on post-mortem analysis of A? plaque-laden brains from demented patients or animal models, thus drawing conclusions about AD pathogenesis based on late symptoms. We will discuss evidence in support that defective, not excessive, inflammation underlies AD pathogenesis, that NSAIDs are multifunctional drugs acting on inflammatory and non-inflammatory targets, and that astrocytes and microglia may play differing roles in disease progression, with an emphasis of ApoE?4 as a key, undervalued target of NSAIDs. According to a meta-analysis of epidemiological data, NSAIDs afford an average protection of 58%. If this figure is true, and translated into patient numbers, NSAID treatment may revive as a worth pursuing strategy to significantly reduce the socio-economical burden imposed by AD. PMID:21152343

Lichtenstein, Mathieu P.; Carriba, Paulina; Masgrau, Roser; Pujol, Aurora; Galea, Elena

2010-01-01

325

Diastereomeric Spirooxindoles as Highly Potent and Efficacious MDM2 Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Small-molecule inhibitors that block the MDM2-p53 protein-protein interaction (MDM2 inhibitors) are being intensely pursued as a new therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment. We previously published a series of spirooxindole-containing compounds as a new class of MDM2 small-molecule inhibitors. We report herein a reversible ring opening-cyclization reaction for some of these spirooxindoles, which affords four diastereomers from a single compound. Our biochemical binding data showed that the stereo-chemistry in this class of compounds has a major effect on their binding affinities to MDM2; with >100-fold difference between the most potent and the least potent stereoisomers. Our study has led to the identification of a set of highly potent MDM2 inhibitors with a stereochemistry that is different from that of our previously reported compounds. The most potent compound (MI-888) binds to MDM2 with a Ki value of 0.44 nM and achieves complete and long-lasting tumor regression in an animal model of human cancer. PMID:23641733

Zhao, Yujun; Liu, Liu; Sun, Wei; Lu, Jianfeng; McEachern, Donna; Xiaoqin, Li; Yu, Shanghai; Bernard, Denzil; Ochsenbein, Philippe; Ferey, Vincent; Carry, Jean-Christophe; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Sun, Duxin; Wang, Shaomeng

2013-01-01

326

Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Anti-Angiogenic and Skin Whitening Activities of Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica Hara Extract  

PubMed Central

This work aimed to assess some pharmacological activities of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara. The dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara were extracted with 70% ethanol to generate the powdered extract, named PLE. Anti-angiogenic activity was detected using chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated via analyzing nitric oxide (NO) content, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the stimulated macrophage cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and -2 (MMP-2) activities in the culture media were detected using zymography. PLE exhibits an anti-angiogenic activity in the CAM assay, and displays an inhibitory action on the generation of NO in the LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. In the stimulated macrophage cells, it is able to diminish the enhanced ROS level. It can potently scavenge the stable DPPH free radical. It suppresses the induction of iNOS and COX-2 and the enhanced MMP-9 activity in the stimulated macrophage cells. Both monooxygenase and oxidase activities of tyrosinase were strongly inhibited by PLE. Taken together, the dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara possess anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and skin whitening activities, which might partly provide its therapeutic efficacy in traditional medicine. PMID:24009862

Jung, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Young-Wook; Lim, Hye-Won; Choi, Hojin; Ji, Dam-Jung; Lim, Chang-Jin

2013-01-01

327

Sulphurous thermal water increases the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and modulates antioxidant enzyme activity.  

PubMed

The beneficial effects of hot springs have been known for centuries and treatments with sulphurous thermal waters are recommended in a number of chronic pathologies as well as acute recurrent infections. However, the positive effects of the therapy are often evaluated in terms of subjective sense of wellbeing and symptomatic clinical improvements. Here, the effects of an S-based compound (NaSH) and of a specific sulphurous thermal water characterized by additional ions such as sodium chloride, bromine and iodine (STW) were investigated in terms of cytokine release and anti-oxidant enzyme activity in primary human monocytes and in saliva from 50 airway disease patients subjected to thermal treatments. In vitro, NaSH efficiently blocked the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and counterbalanced the formation of ROS. Despite STW not recapitulating these results, possibly due to the low concentration of S-based compounds reached at the minimum non-toxic dilution, we found that it enhanced the release of IL-10, a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine. Notably, higher levels of IL-10 were also observed in patients' saliva following STW treatment and this increase correlated positively with salivary catalase activity (r2 = 0.19, *p less than 0.01). To our knowledge, these results represent the first evidence suggesting that S-based compounds and STW may prove useful in facing chronic inflammatory and age-related illness due to combined anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. PMID:24067460

Prandelli, C; Parola, C; Buizza, L; Delbarba, A; Marziano, M; Salvi, V; Zacchi, V; Memo, M; Sozzani, S; Calza, S; Uberti, D; Bosisio, D

2013-01-01

328

Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Broccoli Florets in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells.  

PubMed

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italia) florets were extracted with 80% methanol and the extract was sequentially fractionated with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and distilled water. The extract and the fractions were evaluated for total phenolic content, sulforaphane content, antioxidant activity, and anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The total phenolic content and sulforaphane content of the ethyl acetate fraction (EF) were 35.5 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and 620.2 ?g/g, respectively. These values were higher than those of the 80% methanol extract and organic solvent fractions. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity of the EF [1,588.7 ?M Trolox equivalents (TE)/mg] was 11-fold higher than that of the distilled water fraction (143.7 ?M TE/mg). The EF inhibited nitric oxide release from LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited I?B-? degradation and nuclear factor-?B activation in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. In conclusion, the EF of broccoli florets exerted potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:25054107

Hwang, Joon-Ho; Lim, Sang-Bin

2014-06-01

329

Screening anti-inflammatory compounds in injured spinal cord with microarrays: a comparison of bioinformatics analysis approaches.  

PubMed

Inflammatory responses contribute to secondary tissue damage following spinal cord injury (SCI). A potent anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid, methylprednisolone (MP), is the only currently accepted therapy for acute SCI but its efficacy has been questioned. To search for additional anti-inflammatory compounds, we combined microarray analysis with an explanted spinal cord slice culture injury model. We compared gene expression profiles after treatment with MP, acetaminophen, indomethacin, NS398, and combined cytokine inhibitors (IL-1ra and soluble TNFR). Multiple gene filtering methods and statistical clustering analyses were applied to the multi-dimensional data set and results were compared. Our analysis showed a consistent and unique gene expression profile associated with NS398, the selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, in which the overall effect of these upregulated genes could be interpreted as neuroprotective. In vivo testing demonstrated that NS398 reduced lesion volumes, unlike MP or acetaminophen, consistent with a predicted physiological effect in spinal cord. Combining explanted spinal cultures, microarrays, and flexible clustering algorithms allows us to accelerate selection of compounds for in vivo testing. PMID:14970362

Pan, Jonathan Z; Jörnsten, Rebecka; Hart, Ronald P

2004-04-13

330

Cyclodextrin-Complexed Curcumin Exhibits Anti-inflammatory and Antiproliferative Activities Superior to Those of Curcumin Through Higher Cellular Uptake  

PubMed Central

Curcumin, a yellow pigment present in the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), has been linked with multiple beneficial activities, but its optimum potential is limited by poor bioavailability, in part due to lack of solubility in aqueous solvents. To overcome the solubility problem, we have recently developed a novel cyclodextrin complex of curcumin (CDC) and examined here this compound for anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects. Using the electrophoretic gel shift mobility assay, we found that CDC was more active than free curcumin in inhibiting TNF-induced activation of the inflammatory transcription factor NF-?B and in suppressing gene products regulated by NF-?B, including those involved in cell proliferation (cyclin D1), invasion (MMP-9), and angiogenesis (VEGF). CDC was also more active than free curcumin in inducing the death receptors DR4 and DR5. Annexin V staining, cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP, and DNA fragmentation showed that CDC was more potent than free curcumin in inducing apoptosis of leukemic cells. Antiproliferative assays also demonstrated that CDC was more active than free curcumin in suppressing proliferation of various cancer cell lines. The cyclodextrin vehicle had no effect in these assays. Compared with free curcumin, CDC had a greater cellular uptake and longer half-life in the cells. Overall we demonstrated that CDC had superior attributes compared with free curcumin for cellular uptake and for antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:20599780

Yadav, Vivek R.; Prasad, Sahdeo; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Ravindran, Jayaraj; Chaturvedi, Madan M; Vaahtera, Lauri; Parkkinen, Jaakko; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

2010-01-01

331

Anti-Inflammatory and PPAR Transactivational Effects of Oleanane-Type Triterpenoid Saponins from the Roots of Pulsatilla koreana  

PubMed Central

In this study, 23 oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins were isolated from a methanol extract of the roots of Pulsatilla koreana. The NF-?B inhibitory activity of the isolated compounds was measured in TNF?-treated HepG2 cells using a luciferase reporter system. Compounds 19–23 inhibited TNF?-stimulated NF-?B activation in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 values ranging from 0.75–8.30 ?M. Compounds 19 and 20 also inhibited the TNF?-induced expression of iNOS and ICAM-1 mRNA. Moreover, effect of the isolated compounds on PPARs transcriptional activity was assessed. Compounds 7–11 and 19–23 activated PPARs the transcriptional activity significantly in a dose-dependent manner, with EC50 values ranging from 0.9–10.8 ?M. These results suggest the presence of potent anti-inflammatory components in P. koreana, and will facilitate the development of novel anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:25143813

Li, Wei; Yan, Xi Tao; Sun, Ya Nan; Ngan, Thi Thanh; Shim, Sang Hee; Kim, Young Ho

2014-01-01

332

Synthesis and biological comparison of enantiomers of mepenzolate bromide, a muscarinic receptor antagonist with bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory activities.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by abnormal inflammatory responses and airflow limitations. We recently proposed that the muscarinic antagonist mepenzolate bromide (mepenzolate) would be therapeutically effective against COPD due to its muscarinic receptor-dependent bronchodilatory activity as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Mepenzolate has an asymmetric carbon atom, thus providing us with the opportunity to synthesize both of its enantiomers ((R)- and (S)-mepenzolate) and to examine their biochemical and pharmacological activities. (R)- or (S)-mepenzolate was synthesized by condensation of benzilic acid with (R)- or (S)-alcohol, respectively, followed by quaternization of the tertiary amine. As predicted by computational simulation, a filter-binding assay in vitro revealed that (R)-mepenzolate showed a higher affinity for the muscarinic M3 receptor than (S)-mepenzolate. In vivo, the bronchodilatory activity of (R)-mepenzolate was superior to that of (S)-mepenzolate, whereas anti-inflammatory activity was indistinguishable between the two enantiomers. We confirmed that each mepenzolate maintained its original stereochemistry in the lung when administered intratracheally. These results suggest that (R)-mepenzolate may have superior properties to (S)-mepenzolate as a drug to treat COPD patients given that the former has more potent bronchodilatory activity than the latter. PMID:24844758

Yamashita, Yasunobu; Tanaka, Ken-Ichiro; Asano, Teita; Yamakawa, Naoki; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Ishihara, Tomoaki; Hanaya, Kengo; Shoji, Mitsuru; Sugai, Takeshi; Wada, Mitsuhito; Mashimo, Tadaaki; Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Mizushima, Tohru

2014-07-01

333

Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Anti-Angiogenic and Skin Whitening Activities of Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica Hara Extract.  

PubMed

This work aimed to assess some pharmacological activities of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara. The dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara were extracted with 70% ethanol to generate the powdered extract, named PLE. Anti-angiogenic activity was detected using chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated via analyzing nitric oxide (NO) content, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the stimulated macrophage cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and -2 (MMP-2) activities in the culture media were detected using zymography. PLE exhibits an anti-angiogenic activity in the CAM assay, and displays an inhibitory action on the generation of NO in the LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. In the stimulated macrophage cells, it is able to diminish the enhanced ROS level. It can potently scavenge the stable DPPH free radical. It suppresses the induction of iNOS and COX-2 and the enhanced MMP-9 activity in the stimulated macrophage cells. Both monooxygenase and oxidase activities of tyrosinase were strongly inhibited by PLE. Taken together, the dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara possess anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and skin whitening activities, which might partly provide its therapeutic efficacy in traditional medicine. PMID:24009862

Jung, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Young-Wook; Lim, Hye-Won; Choi, Hojin; Ji, Dam-Jung; Lim, Chang-Jin

2013-01-01

334

Ampiroxicam, an anti-inflammatory agent which is a prodrug of piroxicam.  

PubMed

Ampiroxicam is a nonacidic ether carbonate prodrug of piroxicam. Our results demonstrate that, in contrast to piroxicam, ampiroxicam does not possess detectable prostaglandin synthesis inhibitory activity in vitro. Ampiroxicam, however, has similar in vivo potency to piroxicam in suppressing paw swelling in rat adjuvant arthritis. In an acute model of paw inflammation in rats, ampiroxicam is less potent than piroxicam itself: the ED50's of ampiroxicam are 9- and 3.5-fold higher than those of piroxicam following a single or multiple (5) daily oral doses, respectively. Using the phenylbenzoquinone stretching test as a method of evaluating acute analgetic activity, the ED50 for ampiroxicam is about 3-fold higher than that of piroxicam. These tests of activity share the property of being partially prostaglandin-dependent. Ampiroxicam itself is not observed in plasma after oral dosing to man, nor in the rat, dog, and monkey as reported here. Bioavailability studies show that conversion to piroxicam is about 100%, 90%, 70%, and 50% in these four species, respectively. These results indicate that ampiroxicam's anti-inflammatory activity is produced in vivo by conversion to piroxicam and support its credentials as an efficacious prodrug of piroxicam. PMID:8304243

Carty, T J; Marfat, A; Moore, P F; Falkner, F C; Twomey, T M; Weissman, A

1993-07-01

335

Tristetraprolin is required for full anti-inflammatory response of murine macrophages to IL-10 1  

PubMed Central

IL-10 is essential for inhibiting chronic and acute inflammation by decreasing the amounts of proinflammatory cytokines made by activated macrophages. IL-10 controls pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production indirectly via the transcription factor Stat3. One of the most physiologically significant IL-10 targets is tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), a potent pro-inflammatory mediator that is the target for multiple anti-TNFalpha clinical strategies in Crohn’s Disease and rheumatoid arthritis. The anti-inflammatory effects of IL-10 seem to be mediated by several incompletely understood transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. Here we show that in LPS-activated bone marrow-derived murine macrophages, IL-10 reduces the mRNA and protein levels of TNFalpha and IL-1alpha in part through the RNA destabilizing factor tristetraprolin (TTP). TTP is known for its central role in destabilizing mRNA molecules containing class II AU-rich elements in 3? untranslated regions. We found that IL-10 initiates a Stat3-dependent increase of TTP expression accompanied by a delayed decrease of p38MAPK activity. The reduction of p38MAPK activity releases TTP from the p38MAPK-mediated inhibition thereby resulting in diminished mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines. These findings establish that TTP is required for full responses of bone marrow-derived murine macrophages to IL-10. PMID:19542371

Schaljo, Barbara; Kratochvill, Franz; Gratz, Nina; Sadzak, Iwona; Sauer, Ines; Hammer, Michael; Vogl, Claus; Strobl, Birgit; Müller, Mathias; Blackshear, Perry J.; Poli, Valeria; Lang, Roland; Murray, Peter J.; Kovarik, Pavel

2009-01-01

336

Anti-ischemic and anti-inflammatory activity of (S)-cis-verbenol.  

PubMed

(S)-cis-verbenol, a natural metabolite from (-)-alpha-pinene of host pine tree, has been suggested to have anti-ischemic activity. However, the exact mechanism for the anti-ischemic activity of (S)-cis-verbenol remains unclear yet. In the present study, (S)-cis-verbenol reduced cerebral ischemic injury caused by 1.5-h middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 24-h reperfusion. Furthermore, (S)-cis-verbenol significantly prevented neuronal cell death caused by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD, 1 h) and subsequent re-oxygenation (5 h). While (S)-cis-verbenol did not inhibit the NMDA-stimulated calcium influx, it reduced the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) elevated by OGD/re-oxygenation. ORAC assay indicated that (S)-cis-verbenol potently eliminated peroxyl radicals. In DPPH and DHR123 fluorescence assays, however, (S)-cis-verbenol did not show a direct ROS scavenging effect. Furthermore, (S)-cis-verbenol reduced the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in ischemic brain and immunostimulated glial cells. The present results indicate that (S)-cis-verbenol may be a useful therapeutic agent due to its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:20214504

Choi, In-Young; Lim, Ji H; Hwang, Sunyoung; Lee, Jae-Chul; Cho, Geum-Sil; Kim, Won-Ki

2010-05-01

337

Monoterpenoid indole alkaloids from Alstonia yunnanensis and their cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities.  

PubMed

The 80% ethanol extract of Alstonia yunnanensis afforded five new monoterpenoid indole alkaloids: 11-hydroxy-6,7-epoxy-8-oxo-vincadifformine (1), 14-chloro-15-hydroxy- vincadifformine (2), perakine N(4)-oxide (3), raucaffrinoline N(4)-oxide (4), and vinorine N(1),N(4)-dioxide (5), together with three known compounds: 11-methoxy-6,7-epoxy-8-oxo- vincadifformine (6), vinorine N(4)-oxide (7) and vinorine (8). The structures of the isolated compounds were established based on 1D and 2D (1H-1H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and ROESY) NMR spectroscopy, in addition to high resolution mass spectrometry. The isolated compounds were tested in vitro for cytotoxic potential against seven tumor cell lines and anti-inflammatory activities. Compounds 3, 4 and 7 exhibited weak cytotoxicity against the tested cell lines and selective inhibition of Cox-2 (> 85%). PMID:23159924

Cao, Peng; Liang, Yong; Gao, Xu; Li, Xiao-Ming; Song, Zhen-Quan; Liang, Guobiao

2012-01-01

338

Polymorphisms of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 gene associated with malignancy in female reproductive system.  

PubMed

Association of three polymorphisms (1082G/A, 819C/T, and 592C/A) of the promotor region of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 gene with malignancy of female reproductive organs was revealed by SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) method in ethnic groups of Adygei Republic. Breast cancer, cervical cancer, and cancer of the uterine corpus are associated with allele 592A (?=0.042) in Circassians and with polymorphism 819T in Russians (?=0.046). Irrespective of the ethnicity, allele 819T was signifi cantly more often (?<0.05) detected in prevalent forms of breast cancer involving regional lymph nodes. 1082G polymorphism is associated with low-differentiated adenocarcinoma. In women of Adygei Republic, ATA/GCA gaplotypes are associated with high risk factors for breast cancer. PMID:25778657

Tuguz, A R; Anokhina, E N; Muzhenya, D V; Rudenko, K A

2015-03-01

339

Effect of phonophoresis on skin permeation of commercial anti-inflammatory gels: sodium diclofenac and ketoprofen.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the use of ultrasound in combination with the commercial anti-inflammatory drugs ketoprofen and sodium diclofenac, according to the parameters used in physiotherapy. Ketoprofen and sodium diclofenac were used in the Franz diffusion cell model adapted to an ultrasound transducer in three conditions: no ultrasound, one application of ultrasound and two applications of ultrasound. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify the total amount of drug permeating skin per unit area, as well as flux and latency. The results showed that for ketoprofen, the amount of drug permeating skin and flux increased with two ultrasound applications. Permeation of sodium diclofenac decreased in the presence of ultrasound. Ultrasound parameters and drug properties must be considered in the use of phonophoresis. PMID:23820249

Souza, Jaqueline; Meira, Alianise; Volpato, Nadia Maria; Mayorga, Paulo; Gottfried, Carmem

2013-09-01

340

Ammonium glycyrrhizinate-loaded niosomes as a potential nanotherapeutic system for anti-inflammatory activity in murine models  

PubMed Central

Background Liquorice extracts demonstrate therapeutic efficacy in treating dermatitis, eczema, and psoriasis when compared with corticosteroids. In this work, nonionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes, NSVs) containing polysorbate 20 (Tween 20), cholesterol, and cholesteryl hemisuccinate at different molar concentrations were used to prepare monoammonium glycyrrhizinate (AG)-loaded NSVs. The anti-inflammatory properties of AG-loaded NSVs were investigated in murine models. Methods The physicochemical properties of the NSVs were characterized using dynamic light scattering. The fluidity of the lipid bilayer was evaluated by measuring the fluorescence intensity of diphenylhexatriene. The drug entrapment efficiency of AG was assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The physicochemical stability of the NSVs was evaluated as a function of time using dynamic light scattering combined with Turbiscan Lab® Expert analysis. Serum stability was determined by incubating the NSVs with 10% v/v fetal bovine serum. The cytotoxic effects of the NSVs were investigated in human dermal fibroblasts using the Trypan blue dye exclusion assay (for cell mortality) and an MTT assay (for cell viability). Release profiles for the AG-loaded NSVs were studied in vitro using cellulose membranes. NSVs showing the most desirable physicochemical properties were selected to test for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in murine models. The anti-inflammatory activity of the NSVs was investigated by measuring edema and nociception in mice stimulated with chemical agents. Results NSVs showed favorable physicochemical properties for in vitro and in vivo administration. In addition, they demonstrated long-term stability based on Turbiscan Lab Expert analysis. The membrane fluidity of the NSVs was not affected by self-assembling of the surfactants into colloidal structures. Fluorescence anisotropy was found to be independent of the molar ratios of cholesteryl hemisuccinate and/or cholesterol during preparation of the NSVs. The anti-inflammatory AG drug showed no effect on the stability of the NSVs. In vivo experiments demonstrated that AG-loaded NSVs decreased edema and nociceptive responses when compared with AG alone and empty NSVs. In vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that pH sensitive and neutral NSVs show no statistical significant difference. Conclusion NSVs were nontoxic and showed features favorable for potential administration in vivo. In addition, neutral NSVs showed signs of increased anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive responses when compared with AG. PMID:24493924

Marianecci, Carlotta; Rinaldi, Federica; Di Marzio, Luisa; Mastriota, Marica; Pieretti, Stefano; Celia, Christian; Paolino, Donatella; Iannone, Michelangelo; Fresta, Massimo; Carafa, Maria

2014-01-01

341

Anti-inflammatory effects of linagliptin in hemodialysis patients with diabetes.  

PubMed

Inflammation and glycemic control are important prognosis-related factors for hemodialysis (HD) patients; moreover, inflammation affects insulin secretion. Here, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of monotherapy with linagliptin-a dipeptidase-4 inhibitor-in HD patients with type 2 diabetes. We examined 21 diabetic HD patients who were not receiving oral diabetes drugs or insulin therapy and with poor glycemic control (glycated albumin [GA] level, >20%). Linagliptin (5 mg) was administered to the patients daily. The levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, GA, blood glucose, and active glucagon-like peptide-1 were determined before and 6 months after treatment. Body weight and serum levels of albumin, hemoglobin, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also recorded before and after treatment. The levels of PGE2 and GA were significantly decreased 1 month after starting linagliptin therapy, whereas the IL-6 levels were significantly decreased 6 months after starting linagliptin therapy. After 6 months of treatment, the PGE2 levels decreased from 188 ± 50 ng/mL to 26 ± 5 ng/mL; IL-6 levels, from 1.5 ± 0.4 pg/mL to 0.6 ± 0.1 pg/mL; and GA levels, from 21.3% ± 0.6% to 18.0% ± 0.6%. Glucagon-like peptide-1 levels increased 2.5-fold during the treatment. Over the 6-month treatment period, body weight and levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, blood glucose, albumin, hemoglobin, and cholesterol did not change; none of the patients exhibited hypoglycemia. The anti-inflammatory effects of linagliptin monotherapy indicate that it may serve as a useful glucose control strategy for HD patients with diabetes. PMID:24405885

Nakamura, Yuya; Tsuji, Mayumi; Hasegawa, Hitomi; Kimura, Kengo; Fujita, Kiichiro; Inoue, Michiyasu; Shimizu, Tatsuo; Gotoh, Hiromichi; Goto, Yoshikazu; Inagaki, Masahiro; Oguchi, Katsuji

2014-04-01

342

Plasma and synovial fluid interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and substance P concentrations in rheumatoid arthritis patients: Effect of the nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs indomethacin, diclofenac and naproxen  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed an open, between patients, placebo controlled study in order to evaluate the effect of the treatment with the non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs indomethacin, diclofenac and naproxen on the concentrations of the cytokines IL-1? and IL-6 and of the neuropeptide substance P in plasma and synovial fluid of 24 rheumatoid arthritis patients. All patients had high synovial fluid

P. Sacerdote; M. Carrabba; A. Galante; R. Pisati; B. Manfredi; A. E. Panerai

1995-01-01

343

Modification of palm oil for anti-inflammatory nutraceutical properties.  

PubMed

Palm oil is one of the most important edible oils in the world. Its composition (rich in palmitate and oleate) make it suitable for general food uses but its utility could be increased if its fatty acid quality could be varied. In this study, we have modified a palm olein fraction by transesterification with the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, alpha-linolenate or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Evaluation of the potential nutritional efficacy of the oils was made using chondrocyte culture systems which can be used to mimic many of the degenerative and inflammatory pathways involved in arthritis. On stimulation of such cultures with interleukin-1alpha, they showed increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2, the inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1alpha and IL-1beta and the proteinase ADAMTS-4. This increased expression was not affected by challenge of the cultures with palm olein alone but showed concentration-dependent reduction by the modified oil in a manner similar to EPA. These results show clearly that it is possible to modify palm oil conveniently to produce a nutraceutical with effective anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:19449050

Zainal, Zaida; Longman, Andrea J; Hurst, Samantha; Duggan, Katrina; Hughes, Clare E; Caterson, Bruce; Harwood, John L

2009-07-01

344

Anti-Inflammatory Dimethylfumarate: A Potential New Therapy for Asthma?  

PubMed Central

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, which results from the deregulated interaction of inflammatory cells and tissue forming cells. Beside the derangement of the epithelial cell layer, the most prominent tissue pathology of the asthmatic lung is the hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC) bundles, which actively contributes to airway inflammation and remodeling. ASMCs of asthma patients secrete proinflammatory chemokines CXCL10, CCL11, and RANTES which attract immune cells into the airways and may thereby initiate inflammation. None of the available asthma drugs cures the disease—only symptoms are controlled. Dimethylfumarate (DMF) is used as an anti-inflammatory drug in psoriasis and showed promising results in phase III clinical studies in multiple sclerosis patients. In regard to asthma therapy, DMF has been anecdotally reported to reduce asthma symptoms in patients with psoriasis and asthma. Here we discuss the potential use of DMF as a novel therapy in asthma on the basis of in vitro studies of its inhibitory effect on ASMC proliferation and cytokine secretion in ASMCs. PMID:23606796

Roth, Michael

2013-01-01

345

Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antiulcer properties of Porphyra vietnamensis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antiulcer effects of red seaweed Porphyra vietnamensis (P. vietnamenis). Materials and Methods: Aqueous (POR) and alcoholic (PE) fractions were successfully isolated from P. vietnamenis. Further biological investigations were performed using a classic test of paw edema induced by carrageenan, writhing induced by acetic acid, hot plate method and naproxen induced gastro-duodenal ulcer. Results: Among the fractions POR showed better activity. POR and PE significantly (p < 0.05) reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in a dose dependent manner. In the writhing test POR significantly (p < 0.05) reduced abdominal writhes than PE. In hot plate method POR showed better analgesic activity than PE. POR showed comparable ulcers reducing potential (p<0.01) to that of omeprazole, and has more ulcer reducing potential then PE. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that P. vietnamenis aqueous fraction possesses biological activity that is close to the standards taken for the treatment of peripheral painful or/and inflammatory and ulcer conditions.

Bhatia, Saurabh; Sharma, Kiran; Sharma, Ajay; Nagpal, Kalpana; Bera, Tanmoy

2015-01-01

346

Generation and Dietary Modulation of Anti-Inflammatory Electrophilic Omega-3 Fatty Acid Derivatives  

PubMed Central

Dietary ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decrease cardiovascular risk via suppression of inflammation. The generation of electrophilic ?,?-unsaturated ketone derivatives of the ?-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in activated human macrophages is catalyzed by cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2). These derivatives are potent pleiotropic anti-inflammatory signaling mediators that act via mechanisms including the activation of Nrf2-dependent phase 2 gene expression and suppression of pro-inflammatory NF-?B-driven gene expression. Herein, the endogenous generation of ?-3 PUFAs electrophilic ketone derivatives and their hydroxy precursors was evaluated in human neutrophils. In addition, their dietary modulation was assessed through a randomized clinical trial. Methods Endogenous generation of electrophilic omega-3 PUFAs and their hydroxy precursors was evaluated by mass spectrometry in neutrophils isolated from healthy subjects, both at baseline and upon stimulation with calcium ionophore. For the clinical trial, participants were healthy adults 30–55 years of age with a reported EPA+DHA consumption of ?300 mg/day randomly assigned to parallel groups receiving daily oil capsule supplements for a period of 4 months containing either 1.4 g of EPA+DHA (active condition, n?=?24) or identical appearing soybean oil (control condition, n?=?21). Participants and laboratory technicians remained blinded to treatment assignments. Results 5-lypoxygenase-dependent endogenous generation of 7-oxo-DHA, 7-oxo-DPA and 5-oxo-EPA and their hydroxy precursors is reported in human neutrophils stimulated with calcium ionophore and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Dietary EPA+DHA supplementation significantly increased the formation of 7-oxo-DHA and 5-oxo-EPA, with no significant modulation of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolite levels. Conclusions The endogenous detection of these electrophilic ?-3 fatty acid ketone derivatives supports the precept that the benefit of ?-3 PUFA-rich diets can be attributed to the generation of electrophilic oxygenated metabolites that transduce anti-inflammatory actions rather than the suppression of pro-inflammatory AA metabolites. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00663871 PMID:24736647

Cipollina, Chiara; Salvatore, Sonia R.; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Schopfer, Francisco J.

2014-01-01

347

Anti-inflammatory and mast cell protective effect of ficus religiosa.  

PubMed

The aqueous extract of bark of Ficus religiosa was prepared and investigated for its anti-inflammatory effect and for its protective effect on mast cells against degranulation. A significant anti-inflammatory effect was observed in both acute and chronic models of inflammation. The extract also protected mast cells from degranulation induced by various degranulatiors. The observed anti-inflammatory and mast cell protective effect may be responsible for the beneficial effect of Ficus religiosa in kumkum dermatitis and other inflammatory conditions. PMID:22556521

Viswanathan, S; Thirugnanasambantham, P; Reddy, M K; Narasimhan, S; Subramaniam, G A

1990-10-01

348

Anti - inflammatory and sedative - hypnotic activity of the methanolic extract of the leaves of mentha arvensis.  

PubMed

Mentha arvensis Linn, a plant used as traditional medicine and in perfumery, has now been explored for its pharmacological activities as an anti-inflammatory and also as sedativehypnotic plant drug. The methanolic extract of the leaves after being processed, was taken for the pharmacological study. Anti-inflammatory activity was carried out on albino rats. Further, the activity was compared to that of a standard anti-inflammatory drug - nimesulide and the percent inhibition of oedema determined. The sedative hypnotic activity, when carried out on mice, showed the potentiation of pentobarbitone induced sleeping time. The data of average recovery time was analyzed to show the standard deviation from the mean. PMID:22557118

Verma, S M; Arora, H; Dubey, R

2003-10-01

349

The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Flavanol-Rich Lychee Fruit Extract in Rat Hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

Flavanol (flavan-3-ol)-rich lychee fruit extract (FRLFE) is a mixture of oligomerized polyphenols primarily derived from lychee fruit and is rich in flavanol monomers, dimers, and trimers. Supplementation with this functional food has been shown to suppress inflammation and tissue damage caused by high-intensity exercise training. However, it is unclear whether FRLFE has in vitro anti-inflammatory effects, such as suppressing the production of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) and the proinflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO), which is synthesized by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Here, we analyzed the effects of FRLFE and its constituents on the expression of inflammatory genes in interleukin 1? (IL-1?)-treated rat hepatocytes. FRLFE decreased the mRNA and protein expression of the iNOS gene, leading to the suppression of IL-1?-induced NO production. FRLFE also decreased the levels of the iNOS antisense transcript, which stabilizes iNOS mRNA. By contrast, unprocessed lychee fruit extract, which is rich in flavanol polymers, and flavanol monomers had little effect on NO production. When a construct harboring the iNOS promoter fused to the firefly luciferase gene was used, FRLFE decreased the luciferase activity in the presence of IL-1?, suggesting that FRLFE suppresses the promoter activity of the iNOS gene at the transcriptional level. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that FRLFE reduced the nuclear transport of a key regulator, nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B). Furthermore, FRLFE inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-?B inhibitor ? (I?B-?). FRLFE also reduced the mRNA levels of NF-?B target genes encoding cytokines and chemokines, such as TNF-?. Therefore, FRLFE inhibited NF-?B activation and nuclear translocation to suppress the expression of these inflammatory genes. Our results suggest that flavanols may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of FRLFE and may be used to treat inflammatory diseases. PMID:24705335

Yamanishi, Ryota; Yoshigai, Emi; Okuyama, Tetsuya; Mori, Masatoshi; Murase, Hiromitsu; Machida, Toru; Okumura, Tadayoshi; Nishizawa, Mikio

2014-01-01

350

Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of 2-substituted benzo[b]thiophenes as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents.  

PubMed

An efficient method for trapping isocyanate 4, generated from the Curtius rearrangement, with ethyl alcohol to afford the carbamate 5 is reported. 5-Nitrobenzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxylic acid 1 is converted to the corresponding hydrazide 2 by the reaction with hydrazine hydrate and then to the azide 3 with nitrous acid, followed by thermal rearrangement, cooling, and trapping in one pot reaction. The carbamate 5 is treated with hydrazine hydrate to afford the desired, Zileuton analogue, 4-(5-nitrobenzo[b]thiophene-2-yl)semicarbazide 6. Also the reactivity of hydrazide 2 towards some carboxyaldehydes and phenylisothiocyanate afforded the corresponding carbohydrazides 7, 8 and phenylthiosemicarbazide 9, respectively. Compounds 9, 2 and 6, respectively, were more potent as anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive agents. PMID:18433939

Fakhr, Issa M I; Radwan, Mohamed A A; el-Batran, Seham; Abd el-Salam, Omar M E; el-Shenawy, Siham M

2009-04-01

351

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Simvastatin in Hemodialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Patients in the final stages of renal failure have accelerated inflammation conditions. Inflammation causes progressive kidney damage, faster progression of atherogenesis, chronic malnutrition and increased anemia, resulting in lower life expectancy of patients under dialysis. Statins have pleiotropic effects, because the drug has effects more than just decreasing lipids such as antioxidant effects, changes in endothelial dysfunction, stabilizing the plaque and immune system regulator. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate anti-inflammatory effect of simvastatin (one of the statins) in patients under hemodialysis. Patients and Methods In this clinical trial study, 40 patients under hemodialysis were studied for 12 weeks. Patients were divided into treatment (25 cases) and control groups (15 cases). The treatment group received a daily dosage of 20 mg of simvastatin, while the control group received no medication. The serum amounts of hs-CRP, IL6, Hb and WBC count were measured and compared at baseline and after 12 weeks. In addition, probable hepatic and muscular complications were studied in patients. Results At baseline, each of treatment and control groups had similar characteristics. During the study, the average level of CRP decreased in the treatment group (P = 0.04), while it was increased in the control group. The amount of serum IL-6 dropped in the treatment group (P = 0.01); however, it was increased in the control group. In both groups, the level of Hb increased significantly at the end of study in the treatment group (P = 0.007) and the control group (P = 0.016). The average WBC count decreased significantly in the treatment group and the control group (P = 0.003). There was no significant change in hepatic and muscular enzymes in the two groups. Conclusions End stage renal disease (ESRD) have accelerated inflammatory conditions. Simvastatin clearly lowers the serum levels of CRP and IL-6, and the white blood cell count in dialysis patients. Administering Simvastatin to dialysis patients is safe.

Shahbazian, Heshmatollah; Atrian, Afagh; Yazdanpanah, Leila; Lashkarara, Gholam Reza; Zafar Mohtashami, Azita

2015-01-01

352

Discovery of dual inhibitors of the immune cell PI3Ks p110delta and p110gamma: a prototype for new anti-inflammatory drugs.  

PubMed

PI3Kdelta and PI3Kgamma regulate immune cell signaling, while the related PI3Kalpha and PI3Kbeta regulate cell survival and metabolism. Selective inhibitors of PI3Kdelta/gamma represent a potential class of anti-inflammatory agents lacking the antiproliferative effects associated with PI3Kalpha/beta inhibition. Here we report the discovery of PI3Kdelta/gamma inhibitors that display up to 1000-fold selectivity over PI3Kalpha/beta and evaluate these compounds in a high-content inflammation assay using mixtures of primary human cells. We find selective inhibition of only PI3Kdelta is weakly anti-inflammatory, but PI3Kdelta/gamma inhibitors show superior inflammatory marker suppression through suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFalpha production and T cell activation. Moreover, PI3Kdelta/gamma inhibition yields an anti-inflammatory signature distinct from pan-PI3K inhibition and known anti-inflammatory drugs, yet bears striking similarities to glucocorticoid receptor agonists. These results highlight the potential of selectively designing drugs that target kinases with shared biological function. PMID:20189103

Williams, Olusegun; Houseman, Benjamin T; Kunkel, Eric J; Aizenstein, Brian; Hoffman, Randy; Knight, Zachary A; Shokat, Kevan M

2010-02-26

353

Anticancer, Anti-Inflammatory, and Analgesic Activities of Synthesized 2-(Substituted phenoxy) Acetamide Derivatives  

PubMed Central

The aphorism was to develop new chemical entities as potential anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic agents. The Leuckart synthetic pathway was utilized in development of novel series of 2-(substituted phenoxy)-N-(1-phenylethyl)acetamide derivatives. The compounds containing 1-phenylethylamine as basic moiety attached to substituted phenols were assessed for their anticancer activity against MCF-7 (breast cancer), SK-N-SH (neuroblastoma), anti-inflammatory activity, and analgesic activity. These investigations revealed that synthesized products 3a–j with halogens on the aromatic ring favors as the anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. Among all, compound 3c N-(1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenoxy)acetamide exhibited anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities. In conclusion, 3c may have potential to be developed into a therapeutic agent. PMID:25197642

Pal, Dilipkumar; Hegde, Rahul Rama; Hashim, Syed Riaz

2014-01-01

354

Theacrine, a purine alkaloid with anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of theacrine (1, 3, 7, 9-tetramethyluric acid), a purine alkaloid which is abundantly present in Camellia kucha, were investigated. Xylene-induced ear edema, acetic acid-induced vascular permeability and lambda-carrageenan-induced paw edema were used to investigate anti-inflammatory activity, and acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests were used to determine analgesic effect. Oral administration of theacrine (8-32 mg/kg) induced dose-related anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. On the other hand, oral caffeine administration (8-32 mg/kg) did not show an inhibitory effect on the inhibition of inflammatory response or cause analgesia. Additionally, the result of the acute toxicity test showed that the LD(50) of theacrine was 810.6 mg/kg (769.5-858.0mg/kg). The data obtained suggest theacrine possessed analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:20227468

Wang, Yuanyuan; Yang, Xiaorong; Zheng, Xinqiang; Li, Jing; Ye, Chuangxing; Song, Xiaohong

2010-09-01

355

Anti-inflammatory properties of clovamide and Theobroma cacao phenolic extracts in human monocytes: evaluation of respiratory burst, cytokine release, NF-?B activation, and PPAR? modulation.  

PubMed

There is a great interest in the potential health benefits of biologically active phenolic compounds in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and dark chocolate. We investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of clovamide (a N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acid amide present in cocoa beans) and two phenolic extracts from unroasted and roasted cocoa beans, by evaluating superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) production, cytokine release, and NF-?B activation in human monocytes stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The effects of rosmarinic acid are shown for comparison. Clovamide and rosmarinic acid inhibited PMA-induced O(2)(-) production and cytokine release (with a bell-shaped curve and maximal inhibition at 10-100 nM), as well as PMA-induced NF-?B activation; the two cocoa extracts were less effective. In all tests, clovamide was the most potent compound and also enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) activity, which may exert anti-inflammatory effects. These findings indicate clovamide as a possible bioactive compound with anti-inflammatory activity in human cells. PMID:21486087

Zeng, Huawu; Locatelli, Monica; Bardelli, Claudio; Amoruso, Angela; Coisson, Jean Daniel; Travaglia, Fabiano; Arlorio, Marco; Brunelleschi, Sandra

2011-05-25

356

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? mediates the anti-inflammatory effect of 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinecarboxylic acid derivatives: synthesis and biological evaluation.  

PubMed

Seven 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinecarboxylic acid derivatives (HPs), aza-analogues of salicylic acid and structurally close to other potent inflammatory pyridine compounds such as aminopyridinylmethanols and aminopyridinamines, were synthesized, and their anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated. The synthesis was performed by adopting a general procedure involving an intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition of oxazoles with acrylic acid to form various substituted pyridinic acids. The newly synthesized HPs did not exhibit cytotoxic activity on human monocytes-derived macrophages at concentrations up to 10(2) ?M. Anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was screened in vitro by evaluating the capability to inhibit cytokines release from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated human macrophages. 3-Hydroxy-1-methyl-4-pyridinecarboxylic acid (24) was found to be the most active HP. At 10 ?M concentration, HP 24 reduced LPS-induced and nuclear factor-?B activation and cyclooxygenase-2 expression, while increased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-?) mRNA transcript level. Indeed, pre-treatment of LPS-exposed human macrophages with PPAR-? specific antagonist completely prevented HP 24-induced TNF-? and IL8 down regulation, demonstrating that the PPAR? pathway is mandatory for the HP 24 anti-inflammatory effect. Finally, daily treatment with HP 24 ameliorated the outcome of DSS-induced colitis in mice, significantly reducing colonic MPO activity and IL-1? tissue levels. PMID:23416190

Brun, Paola; Dean, Annalisa; Di Marco, Valerio; Surajit, Pathak; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Carta, Davide; Ferlin, Maria Grazia

2013-04-01

357

Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Extracts from the Bulbils of Dioscorea bulbifera L. var sativa (Dioscoreaceae) in Mice and Rats  

PubMed Central

The aqueous and methanol extracts from the dry bulbils of Dioscorea bulbifera L. var sativa (Dioscoreaceae)—evaluated orally at the doses of 300 and 600?mg/kg against pain induced by acetic acid, formalin, pressure and against inflammation induced by carrageenan, histamine, serotonin and formalin in mice and rats, showed a dose dependant inhibition of pain and inflammation with a maximum effect of 56.38%, 73.06% and 42.79% produced by the aqueous extract, respectively on pain induced by acetic acid, formalin and pressure while the methanol extract at the same dose respectively inhibited these models of pain by 62.70%, 84.54% and 47.70%. The oral administration of aqueous and methanol extracts caused significant anti-inflammatory activity on paw oedema induced by histamine, serotonin and formalin. The present results show that the bulbils of Dioscorea bulbifera var sativa possess potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. These activities may results from the inhibition of inflammatory mediators such as histamine, serotonin and prostaglandins. Thus, the analgesic activity of the bulbils of Dioscorea bulbifera may be at least partially linked to its anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:20953397

Mbiantcha, M.; Kamanyi, A.; Teponno, R. B.; Tapondjou, A. L.; Watcho, P.; Nguelefack, T. B.

2011-01-01

358

Synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel class of curcumin analogs as anti-inflammatory agents for prevention and treatment of sepsis in mouse model  

PubMed Central

A novel class of asymmetric mono-carbonyl analogs of curcumin (AMACs) were synthesized and screened for anti-inflammatory activity. These analogs are chemically stable as characterized by UV absorption spectra. In vitro, compounds 3f, 3m, 4b, and 4d markedly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6 in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 values in low micromolar range. In vivo, compound 3f demonstrated potent preventive and therapeutic effects on LPS-induced sepsis in mouse model. Compound 3f downregulated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 MAPK and suppressed I?B? degradation, which suggests that the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of compound 3f may be through downregulating nuclear factor kappa binding (NF-?B) and ERK pathways. Also, we solved the crystal structure of compound 3e to confirm the asymmetrical structure. The quantitative structure–activity relationship analysis reveals that the electron-withdrawing substituents on aromatic ring of lead structures could improve activity. These active AMACs represent a new class of anti-inflammatory agents with improved stability, bioavailability, and potency compared to curcumin. Our results suggest that 3f may be further developed as a potential agent for prevention and treatment of sepsis or other inflammation-related diseases.

Zhao, Chengguang; Zhang, Yali; Zou, Peng; Wang, Jian; He, Wenfei; Shi, Dengjian; Li, Huameng; Liang, Guang; Yang, Shulin

2015-01-01

359

Design, synthesis and evaluation of a series of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug conjugates as novel neuroinflammatory inhibitors.  

PubMed

Neuroinflammation is involved in the process of several central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, ischemia and multiple sclerosis. As the macrophages in the central nervous system, microglial cell function in the innate immunity of the brain and are largely responsible for the inflammation-mediated neurotoxicity. Prevention of microglia activation might alleviate neuronal damage and degeneration under the inflammatory conditions, and therefore, represents a possible therapeutic approach to the aforementioned CNS diseases. Here we report the synthesis of a number of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) conjugates, and the evaluation of their anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells and primary mouse microglial cells. Among the tested analogues, compounds 8 and 11 demonstrated potent inhibition of nitric oxide production with no or weak cell toxicity. Compound 8 also significantly suppressed the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-6, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Further mechanistic studies indicated that compound 8 significantly suppressed phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and subsequent activation of activator of transcription 1 (AP-1). Furthermore, in a co-culture system, compound 8 inhibited the cytotoxicity generated by LPS-activated microglia toward HT-22 neuroblastoma cells. Collectively, these experimental results demonstrated that compound 8 possessed potent anti-neuroinflammatory activity via inhibition of microglia activation, and might serve as a potential lead for the therapeutic treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases. PMID:25765352

Xu, Zhixiang; Wu, Jing; Zheng, Jiyue; Ma, Haikuo; Zhang, Hongjian; Zhen, Xuechu; Zheng, Long Tai; Zhang, Xiaohu

2015-04-01

360

Effect of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory medications on the sense of taste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elderly individuals and HIV-infected patients have a disproportionate number of taste complaints relative to the general population, and these taste alterations are correlated with the use of medications. Clinical reports of taste disorders have been associated with many drugs, including antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory medications. The purpose of this study was to quantify the taste effects of 6 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Susan S Schiffman; Jennifer Zervakis; Holly L Westall; Brevick G Graham; Anna Metz; Jeanette L Bennett; Alison E Heald

2000-01-01

361

Anti-inflammatory and antiulcerogenic effects of the aqueous extract of Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm.  

PubMed

An aqeuous extract of Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., from which a tea is prepared and consumed as treatment for various diseases in northeastern Turkey, was tested for its anti-inflammatory and antiulcerogenic effects in rats. The carrageenan-induced paw edema, cotton pellet granuloma and indomethacin-induced gastric damage models were used to determine these effects. The extract exhibited moderate anti-inflammatory and strong antiulcerogenic activities. PMID:13678242

Süleyman, H; Odabasoglu, F; Aslan, A; Cakir, A; Karagoz, Y; Gocer, F; Halici, M; Bayir, Y

2003-01-01

362

Anti-inflammatory Active Compounds from the n-Hexane Extract of Euphorbia hirta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The n-hexane extract of the aerial parts of Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) and its main triterpenes, ?-amyrin (1), 24-methy- lencycloartenol (2), and ?-sitosterol (3) were evaluated for anti- inflammatory effects in mice. Both the extract and the triterpenes exerted significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity in the TPA-induced ear model. Some dual and triplet combinations of the triterpenes were tested as

Mariano Martínez-Vázquez; Teresa O. Ramírez Apan; María Eugenia Lazcano; Robert Bye; D. F. México

1999-01-01

363

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Tanacetum parthenium L. extract in mice and rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral administration of the feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) extract led to significant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects against acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, respectively. These responses were dose-dependent (10, 20, 40 mg\\/kg, p.o.). Parthenolide (1, 2 mg\\/kg i.p.), the active constituent of the extract also produced antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Naloxone (1 mg\\/kg i.p.), an opiate

Naveen K Jain; Shrinivas K Kulkarni

1999-01-01

364

Cyclooxygenase1 and Cyclooxygenase2 Selectivity of Widely Used Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Both isoforms of cyclo-oxygenase, COX-1 and COX-2, are inhibited to varying degrees by all of the available nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Because inhibition of COX-1 by NSAIDs is linked to gastrointestinal ulcer formation, those drugs that selectively inhibit COX-2 may have less gastrointestinal toxicity. We measured the extent to which NSAIDs and other anti-inflammatory or analgesic drugs inhibit COX-1

Byron Cryer; Mark Feldman

1998-01-01

365

Anti-inflammatory activity of the topical preparation of Valeriana wallichii and Achyranthes aspera leaves.  

PubMed

In vivo and in vitro screening of anti inflammatory activity of Valeriana wallichii and Achyranthes aspera leaves crude extract was performed, using standardized procedures. Methanolic crude extract topical formulation (cream) of Valeriana wallichii and Achyranthes aspera leaves (Family Valerianaceae and Amaranthaceae respectively), were screened for their anti-inflammatory activity, through "Carrageenan induced hind paw edema" test, for their effect on the acute and chronic phase inflammation models in male Wistar rats. Methanolic extract and its fractions were also evaluated for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity using lipoxygenase inhibition assay. Leaves of Valeriana wallichii showed significant (P<0.001), dose dependant anti inflammatory activity, comparable with that of the standard, in animal model. The ethyl acetate fraction of Valeriana wallichii also showed considerable (IC 50=73 ± 0.36) in vitro anti-inflammatory activity as compared to standard (6.11 ± 0.02). Similarly Achyranthes aspera leaves showed relatively weak (p>0.05) in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. However, its activity was comparable with that of standard at 10% concentration after 5 hrs of carrageenan injection. This activity was present in ethyl acetate fraction during in vitro screening (IC 50=76 ± 0.14) as compared to that of standard (IC 50=6.11 ± 0.02). The combined in vitro and in vivo Anti-inflammatory screening shows that the ethyl acetate fraction of the crude extract of Valeriana wallichii and Achyranthes aspera can be used for the isolation of new Anti-inflammatory lead compounds. PMID:23625416

Khuda, Fazli; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Ayub; Zakiullah; Nasir, Fazli; Shah, Yasar

2013-05-01

366

A comparative study of sodium houttuyfonate and 2-undecanone for their in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities and stabilities.  

PubMed

Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (H. cordata) is an anti-inflammatory herbal drug that is clinically used in Asia. The essential oil obtained from H. cordata is known to contain 2-undecanone (2-methyl nonyl ketone). In addition, sodium houttuyfonate is a compound that can be derived from H. cordata and has important clinical uses as an anti-inflammatory agent. Sodium houttuyfonate can be converted to decanoyl acetaldehyde (houttuynin) and then to 2-undecanone. Therefore, the experiments described here explore the comparative anti-inflammatory activities of these compounds. Sodium houttuyfonate showed more potent anti-inflammatory activities than that of 2-undecanone at the same dosage, both in vitro and in vivo, although both compounds significantly inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), but increased the secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, both compounds showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects on xylene-induced mouse ear edema. In a previous study, we found sodium houttuyfonate to be transformed to 2-undecanone during steam distillation (SD). Optimum therapeutic effects are related to the stability and pharmacological activity of the drugs. Consequently, we studied the stability of sodium houttuyfonate under a simulated gastrointestinal environment with the main influencing factors being solvent, temperature and pH effects. For the first time, sodium houttuyfonate and 2-undecanone were detected simultaneously in the mouse serum and the gastrointestinal tissue after oral administration. Sodium houttuyfonate is detected within a short period of time in the systemic circulation and tissues without conversion to 2-undecanone. PMID:25514406

Chen, Jing; Wang, Wenqing; Shi, Chunyang; Fang, Jianguo

2014-01-01

367

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of selected medicinal plants of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.  

PubMed

In present study, the anti-inflammatory potential of three medicinal plants, Xanthium strumarium, Achyranthes aspera and Duchesnea indica were evaluated, using both in vitro and in vivo assays. Carrageenan induced hind paw edema model was used to carry out the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity, while for in vitro screening lipoxygenase inhibition assay was used. Crude extract of all the selected plants depicted significant (plt;0.001) anti-inflammatory activity, at late phase of inflammation. Achyranthes aspera also showed considerable anti-inflammatory activity (47%) at relatively lower concentration (200 mg/ml), at the initial phase of inflammation. Similarly the ethyl acetate fraction of all the selected plants showed significant lipoxygenase inhibition activity when compared with the standard drug (Baicalein). The results obtained from both in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction of the crude extract of all the selected plants can be used for the isolation of new lead compounds with better anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:24577927

Khuda, Fazli; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Ayub; Zakiullah; Shah, Yasar; Ahmad, Lateef; Nasir, Fazli; Hassan, Muhammad; Ismail; Shah, Waheed Ali

2014-03-01

368

Substituted phenyl groups improve the pharmacokinetic profile and anti-inflammatory effect of urea-based soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors in murine models  

PubMed Central

Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors (sEHIs) are anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-hypertensive, cardio- and renal-protective in multiple animal models. However, the earlier adamantyl-containing urea-based inhibitors are rapidly metabolized. Therefore, new potent inhibitors with the adamantyl group replaced by a substituted phenyl group were synthesized to presumptively offer better pharmacokinetic (PK) properties.. Here we describe the improved PK profile of these inhibitors and the anti-inflammatory effect of the most promising one in a murine model. The PK profiles of inhibitors were determined following p.o. administration and serial bleeding in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl)urea(TPPU), the most promising inhibitor among the five sEHIs tested, was investigated in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged murine model. The earlier broadly-used adamantyl-containing sEHI, trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (t-AUCB), was used for comparison. Compared with the earlier adamantyl-containing urea-based inhibitors, substituted phenyl-containing urea-based inhibitors afford more favorable PK properties, such as higher Cmaxs, larger AUCs and longer t1/2s, which, as expected, show more stable metabolic stability. Moreover, oral administration of TPPU dramatically reversed the shifts caused by LPS-challenge in plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines, epoxides and corresponding diols, which is more potent than t-AUCB. The substituted phenyl-containing sEHIs are more metabolically stable than those with adamantyl group, resulting in more potent efficacy in vivo. This indicates a new strategy for development of sEHIs for further study toward clinical trials. PMID:23291046

Liu, Jun-Yan; Lin, Yan-Ping; Qiu, Hong; Morisseau, Christophe; Rose, Tristan E.; Hwang, Sung Hee; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Hammock, Bruce D.

2013-01-01

369

Variation in antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of different growth forms of Malva parviflora and evidence for synergism of the anti-inflammatory compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malva parviflora leaves and roots were collected from five sites within the Qacha's Nek District in Lesotho. These plants had two distinct growth forms — upright and prostrate. Hexane, methanol and water extracts were made from the plant material and tested for antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity using the disc diffusion and cyclooxygenase-1 (Cox-1) bioassays, respectively. Hexane, methanol and water extracts

T. L. Shale; W. A. Stirk; J. van Staden

2005-01-01

370

Pharmacokinetic drug interactions with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.  

PubMed

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most widely used drugs. Drug interactions with this class of compounds are frequently reported and can be pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic in nature. The pharmacokinetic interactions can be divided into 3 classes: (1) drugs affecting the pharmacokinetics of an NSAID. (2) an NSAID interfering with the pharmacokinetics of another NSAID and (3) NSAIDs altering the pharmacokinetics of another drug. Although the pharmacokinetics of some NSAIDs may be significantly affected by the concurrent administration of certain other drugs (including other NSAIDs), this type of interaction only occasionally leads to serious complications. Concurrent administration of antacids or sucralfate may delay the rate of oral absorption of NSAIDs but generally has little effect on the extent. Use of antacids increases urinary pH, leading to increased renal excretion of unchanged salicylic acid and decreased plasma concentrations of this antirheumatic agent. The H2-receptor blocking agent cimetidine inhibits the oxidative metabolism of many concurrently administered drugs, including certain NSAIDs. Probenecid inhibits the renal secretion of drug glucuronides and this will lead to accumulation in plasma of those NSAIDs eliminated primarily by the formation of labile acyl glucuronides such as naproxen, ketoprofen, indomethacin, carprofen. Cholestyramine decreases the oral absorption of many concurrently administered drugs, including NSAIDs. It may also decrease plasma concentrations of those NSAIDs undergoing enterohepatic circulation (e.g. piroxicam, tenoxicam) by interrupting the enterohepatic cycle. Corticosteroids stimulate the clearance of salicylic acid, leading to low plasma salicylate concentrations. Plasma concentrations of many NSAIDs are significantly reduced when the NSAID is coadministered with aspirin. The clinical relevance of most of these interactions is not well established. However, in those cases where the interaction results in elevated plasma concentrations of the NSAID, special caution should be exercised to avoid excessive accumulation of the NSAID especially in elderly and/or very sick patients who may be more sensitive to the more serious gastroduodenal and renal side-effects of these agents. By virtue of their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, NSAIDs may significantly affect the disposition kinetics of a number of other drugs. They can displace other drugs from their plasma protein binding sites, inhibit their metabolism or interfere with their renal excretion. If the affected drug has a narrow therapeutic index, the interaction may be clinically significant. The pyrazole NSAIDs (phenylbutazone, oxyphenbutazone, azapropazone) inhibit the metabolism of many drugs such as the coumarin anticoagulants, oral antidiabetics and anticonvulsants such as phenytoin. Salicylates displace oral anticoagulants from their plasma protein binding sites.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2199127

Verbeeck, R K

1990-07-01

371

Structure activity relationship studies of anti-inflammatory TMMC derivatives: 4-Dimethylamino group on the B ring responsible for lowering the potency  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously synthesized 2?,4?,6?-tris(methoxymethoxy)chalcone (TMMC) derivatives with various substituents on the A ring\\u000a that showed potent anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NO production in RAW 264.7 cells. The 2?-hydroxy group on the A\\u000a ring could elevate the electrophilicity of Michael addition of GSH and electron donating groups on the A ring could stabilize\\u000a the GSH adduct by decreasing the acidity of

Ying Lan Jin; Xing Yu Jin; Feng Jin; Dong Hwan Sohn; Hak Sung Kim

2008-01-01

372

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs attenuate the vascular responses in aging metabolic syndrome rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: Metabolic syndrome (MS) and aging are low-grade systemic inflammatory conditions, and inflammation is a key component of endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) upon the vascular reactivity in aging MS rats. Methods: MS was induced in young male rats by adding 30% sucrose in drinking water over 6, 12, and 18 months. When the treatment was finished, the blood samples were collected, and aortas were dissected out. The expression of COX isoenzymes and PLA2 in the aortas was analyzed using Western blot analysis. The contractile responses of aortic rings to norepinephrine (1 ?mol/L) were measured in the presence or absence of different NSAIDs (10 ?mol/L for each). Results: Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-?, and IL-1?) in control rats were remained stable during the aging process, whereas serum IL-6 in MS rats were significantly increased at 12 and 18 months. The levels of COX isoenzyme and PLA2 in aortas from control rats increased with the aging, whereas those in aortas from MS rats were irregularly increased with the highest levels at 6 months. Pretreatment with acetylsalicylic acid (a COX-1 preferential inhibitor), indomethacin (a non-selective COX inhibitor) or meloxicam (a COX-2 preferential inhibitor) decreased NE-induced contractions of aortic rings from MS rats at all the ages, with meloxicam being the most potent. Acetylsalicylic acid also significantly reduced the maximum responses of ACh-induced vasorelaxation of aortic rings from MS rats, but indomethacin and meloxicam had no effect. Conclusion: NSAIDs can directly affect vascular responses in aging MS rats. Understanding the effects of NSAIDs on blood vessels may improve the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and MS in the elders. PMID:25263337

Rubio-Ruiz, María Esther; Pérez-Torres, Israel; Diaz-Diaz, Eulises; Pavón, Natalia; Guarner-Lans, Verónica

2014-01-01

373

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Mediates the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ethyl Pyruvate in Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a simple aliphatic ester of the metabolic intermediate pyruvate that has been demonstrated to be a potent anti-inflammatory agent in a variety of in vivo and in vitro model systems. However, the protective effects and mechanisms underlying the actions of EP against endothelial cell (EC) inflammatory injury are not fully understood. Previous studies have confirmed that endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) plays an important role in regulating the pathological process of EC inflammation. In this study, our aim was to explore the effects of EP on tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-induced inflammatory injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to explore the role of ERS in this process. TNF-? treatment not only significantly increased the adhesion of monocytes to HUVECs and inflammatory cytokine (sICAM1, sE-selectin, MCP-1 and IL-8) production in cell culture supernatants but it also increased ICAM and MMP9 protein expression in HUVECs. TNF-? also effectively increased the ERS-related molecules in HUVECs (GRP78, ATF4, caspase12 and p-PERK). EP treatment effectively reversed the effects of the TNF-?-induced adhesion of monocytes on HUVECs, inflammatory cytokines and ERS-related molecules. Furthermore, thapsigargin (THA, an ERS inducer) attenuated the protective effects of EP against TNF-?-induced inflammatory injury and ERS. The PERK siRNA treatment not only inhibited ERS-related molecules but also mimicked the protective effects of EP to decrease TNF-?-induced inflammatory injury. In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time that EP can effectively reduce vascular endothelial inflammation and that this effect at least in part depends on the attenuation of ERS. PMID:25470819

Yi, Wei; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Dajun; Yang, Honggang; Geng, Ting; Xing, Jianzhou; Zhang, Yu; Tan, Songtao; Yi, Dinghua

2014-01-01

374

Toll-like receptors as a target of food-derived anti-inflammatory compounds.  

PubMed

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in linking pathogen recognition with the induction of innate immunity. They have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, representing potential targets for prevention/treatment. Vegetable-rich diets are associated with the reduced risk of several inflammatory disorders. In the present study, based on an extensive screening of vegetable extracts for TLR-inhibiting activity in HEK293 cells co-expressing TLR with the NF-?B reporter gene, we found cabbage and onion extracts to be the richest sources of a TLR signaling inhibitor. To identify the active substances, we performed activity-guiding separation of the principal inhibitors and identified 3-methylsulfinylpropyl isothiocyanate (iberin) from the cabbage and quercetin and quercetin 4'-O-?-glucoside from the onion, among which iberin showed the most potent inhibitory effect. It was revealed that iberin specifically acted on the dimerization step of TLRs in the TLR signaling pathway. To gain insight into the inhibitory mechanism of TLR dimerization, we developed a novel probe combining an isothiocyanate-reactive group and an alkyne functionality for click chemistry and detected the probe bound to the TLRs in living cells, suggesting that iberin disrupts dimerization of the TLRs via covalent binding. Furthermore, we designed a variety of iberin analogues and found that the inhibition potency was influenced by the oxidation state of the sulfur. Modeling studies of the iberin analogues showed that the oxidation state of sulfur might influence the global shape of the isothiocyanates. These findings establish the TLR dimerization step as a target of food-derived anti-inflammatory compounds. PMID:25294874

Shibata, Takahiro; Nakashima, Fumie; Honda, Kazuya; Lu, Yu-Jhang; Kondo, Tatsuhiko; Ushida, Yusuke; Aizawa, Koichi; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Oe, Sho; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Takashi; Uchida, Koji

2014-11-21

375

Anti-inflammatory effect of antidiabetic thiazolidinediones prevents bone resorption rather than cartilage changes in experimental polyarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone are high-affinity peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? agonists with potent anti-diabetic properties and potential anti-inflammatory effects. We compared the ability of a range of oral doses of these thiazolidinediones, including those sufficient to restore insulin sensitization, to inhibit the pathogenesis of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). Methods AIA was induced in Lewis rats by a subcutaneous injection of 1 mg of complete Freund's adjuvant. Rats were treated orally for 21 days with pioglitazone 3, 10 or 30 mg/kg/day, rosiglitazone 3 or 10 mg/kg/day, or with vehicle only. The time course of AIA was evaluated by biotelemetry to monitor body temperature and locomotor activity, by clinical score and plethysmographic measurement of hindpaw oedema. At necropsy, RT-PCR analysis was performed on synovium, liver and subcutaneous fat. Changes in cartilage were evaluated by histological examination of ankle joints, radiolabelled sulphate incorporation (proteoglycan synthesis), glycosaminoglycan content (proteoglycan turnover) and aggrecan expression in patellar cartilage. Whole-body bone mineral content was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results The highest doses of rosiglitazone (10 mg/kg/day) or pioglitazone (30 mg/kg/day) were required to reduce fever peaks associated with acute or chronic inflammation, respectively, and to decrease arthritis severity. At these doses, thiazolidinediones reduced synovitis and synovial expression of TNF-?, IL-1? and basic fibroblast growth factor without affecting neovascularization or the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Thiazolidinediones failed to prevent cartilage lesions and arthritis-induced inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis, aggrecan mRNA level or glycosaminoglycan content in patellar cartilage, but reduced bone erosions and inflammatory bone loss. A trend towards lower urinary levels of deoxipyridinolin was also noted in arthritic rats treated with thiazolidinediones. Rosiglitazone 10 mg/kg/day or pioglitazone 30 mg/kg/day increased the expression of PPAR-? and adiponectin in adipose tissue, confirming that they were activating PPAR-? in inflammatory conditions, although an increase in fat mass percentage was observed for the most anti-arthritic dose. Conclusion These data emphasize that higher dosages of thiazolidinediones are required for the treatment of arthritis than for restoring insulin sensitivity but that thiazolidinediones prevent inflammatory bone loss despite exposing animals to increased fatness possibly resulting from excessive activation of PPAR-?. PMID:18199331

Koufany, Meriem; Moulin, David; Bianchi, Arnaud; Muresan, Mikhaela; Sebillaud, Sylvie; Netter, Patrick; Weryha, Georges; Jouzeau, Jean-Yves

2008-01-01

376

Rapid resolution of cellulitis in patients managed with combination antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy.  

PubMed

There is some evidence to suggest that host inflammatory response has some effect on the clinical manifestations of cellulitis. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate whether the addition of oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) therapy to antibiotic treatment hastens resolution of cellulitis-related inflammation. Patients presenting in the emergency department with signs and symptoms of class II cellulitis were assigned to receive treatment with either antibiotic therapy alone (intravenous, supplemented with oral cephalexin or an equivalent) for 10 days (n = 33) or antibiotic therapy for 10 days plus an oral anti-inflammatory (ibuprofen 400 mg every 6 hours) for 5 days (n = 31). Patients were discharged as soon as possible to complete their therapy on an outpatient basis. The addition of an oral anti-inflammatory agent significantly (P < .05) shortened the time to regression of inflammation and complete resolution of cellulitis. Twenty-four of 29 evaluable patients (82.8%) who received supplemental anti-inflammatory treatment showed regression of inflammation within 1 to 2 days compared with only 3 of 33 patients (9.1%) treated without an anti-inflammatory in the same time frame. All patients receiving adjunctive anti-inflammatory treatment experienced complete resolution of cellulitis in 4 to 5 days or less, while 24.2% (8/33) of patients treated with antibiotic alone required 6 to 7 days, and 6.1% (2/33) required 7 days or more (P < .05). This small preliminary study provides some promising data, suggesting that the supplemental use of anti-inflammatory therapy may hasten the time to regression of inflammation and complete resolution of cellulitis. PMID:15839362

Dall, Lawrence; Peterson, Sandford; Simmons, Tom; Dall, Amy

2005-03-01

377

Fish oil and indomethacin in combination potently reduce dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis in LDLR(-/-) mice.  

PubMed

Fish oil (FO) is a potent anti-inflammatory and lipid-lowering agent. Because inflammation can modulate lipid metabolism and vice versa, we hypothesized that combining FO with cyclooxygenase inhibitors (COXIBs), well-known anti-inflammatory drugs, can enhance the anti-inflammatory and lipid-lowering effect of FO. LDLR(-/-) mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with 6% olive oil or FO for 12 wk in the presence or absence of indomethacin (Indo, 6 mg/l drinking water). FO reduced plasma total cholesterol by 30% but, in combination with Indo, exerted a greater decrease (44%). The reduction of liver cholesterol ester (CE) and triglycerides (TG) by FO (63% and 41%, respectively) was enhanced by Indo (80% in CE and 64% in TG). FO + Indo greatly increased the expression of genes modulating lipid metabolism and reduced the expression of inflammatory genes compared with control. The mRNA and/or protein expression of pregnane X receptor (PXR) and cytochrome P450 isoforms that alter inflammation and/or lipid metabolism are increased to a greater extent in mice that received FO + Indo. Moroever, the nuclear level of PXR is significantly increased in FO + Indo group. Combining FO with COXIBs may exert their beneficial effects on inflammation and lipid metabolism via PXR and cytochrome P450. PMID:22847176

Murali, Ganesan; Milne, Ginger L; Webb, Corey D; Stewart, Ann B; McMillan, Ryan P; Lyle, Brandon C; Hulver, Matthew W; Saraswathi, Viswanathan

2012-10-01

378

Relationship between phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibition and anti-inflammatory activity of CI-1044 in rat airways.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory effects of CI-1044 and of the other selective PDE4 inhibitors rolipram and cilomilast were investigated in Brown-Norway (BN) rats, against lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) production in whole blood and antigen-induced lung eosinophilia. In vitro, CI-1044 inhibited TNFalpha production with an IC(50) of 0.31 microm being equipotent to Cilomilast (IC(50) = 0.26 microm) and rolipram (IC(50) = 0.11 microm). Given orally, CI-1044 inhibited ex vivo TNFalpha production with an ED(50) value of 0.4 mg/kg after single administration, whereas rolipram (ED(50) = 1.4 mg/kg) and cilomilast (ED(50) = 1.6 mg/kg) were less potent. In the same ex vivo setting, but given repeatedly, CI-1044 led to an ED(50) of 0.5 mg/kg corresponding to a plasma concentration of 82.6 ng/mL (0.22 microm). In vivo, CI-1044 prevented TNFalpha release with an ED(50) of 1 mg/kg p.o. and inhibited ovalbumin-induced lung eosinophilia following single or repeated oral administration with an ED(50) of 3.25 and 4.8 mg/kg p.o., respectively, suggesting the absence of pharmacological tolerance. CI-1044 in this model was equipotent to rolipram (81% inhibition at 10 mg/kg) but better than cilomilast (25% inhibition at 10 mg/kg). Finally, CI-1044 (10 mg/kg) inhibited inflammatory cell recruitment with a long duration of action (up to 8 h) and was still active when given post-challenge. Our data show that CI-1044 is an orally active PDE4 inhibitor that may be used as an anti-inflammatory therapy in lung inflammatory diseases. PMID:19650853

Pruniaux, Marie-Pierre; Lagente, Vincent; Ouaged, Malika; Bertin, Bernadette; Moreau, François; Julien-Larose, Christine; Rocher, Marie-Noelle; Leportier, Christelle; Martin, Brigitte; Bouget, Anita; Dubuit, Jean-Pierre; Burnouf, Catherine; Doherty, Annette M; Bertrand, Claude P

2010-02-01

379

In vivo evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and neuropharmacological activities of the chemical constituent from Nepeta clarkei.  

PubMed

The plant species of genus Nepeta are used to treat various human diseases and for ornamental purposes as well. Nepethalate B (1) was isolated as a result of phytochemical investigations of Nepeta clarkei and was subjected in the present study for investigation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and central nervous system (CNS) depressant activities. The percentage inhibition in phase I of the acetic acid induced writhing test of compound 1 (dose of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg of body weight) was 53.3, 58.0 and 86.7 % respectively. These results were found significantly higher (P < 0.01) as compared to the negative control. Moreover, the percentage inhibitions of three phases for 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg were higher than the values obtained for Aspirin (positive control). In formalin test, the percentage pain inhibition between 0 and 5 min (early phase) was 68.0, 25.5, and 75.5 % for 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg intra-peritoneal doses of compound 1 respectively. In case of late phase (20-30 min) it was 63.0, 66.7 and 48.1 %, respectively. In comparison to aspirin, overall percentage inhibition of compound 1 was significantly higher in early and late phases. Interestingly, at all doses compound 1 showed more potent anti-inflammatory effects in terms of intensity and duration as compared to aspirin. The gross behavioral study of nepethalate B (1) was also carried out and the results revealed that it exhibited CNS depression in the mice and showed a prominent decrease in locomotor activity. PMID:25245563

Hussain, Javid; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Khan, Abdul Latif; Rizvi, Tania Shamim; Mohammad, Faryal Vali; Mehjabeen; Ali, Liaqat

2014-09-23

380

A Systematic Review for Anti-Inflammatory Property of Clusiaceae Family: A Preclinical Approach  

PubMed Central

Background. Clusiaceae family (sensu lato) is extensively used in ethnomedicine for treating a number of disease conditions which include cancer, inflammation, and infection. The aim of this review is to report the pharmacological potential of plants of Clusiaceae family with the anti-inflammatory activity in animal experiments. Methods. A systematic review about experiments investigating anti-inflammatory activity of Clusiaceae family was carried out by searching bibliographic databases such as Medline, Scopus and Embase. In this update, the search terms were “anti-inflammatory agents,” “Clusiaceae,” and “animals, laboratory.” Results. A total of 255 publications with plants this family were identified. From the initial 255 studies, a total of 21 studies were selected for the final analysis. Studies with genera Allanblackia, Clusia, Garcinia or Rheedia, and Hypericum showed significant anti-inflammatory activity. The findings include a decrease of total leukocytes, a number of neutrophils, total protein concentration, granuloma formation, and paw or ear edema formation. Other interesting findings included decreased of the MPO activity, and inflammatory mediators such as NF-?B and iNOS expression, PGE2 and Il-1? levels and a decrease in chronic inflammation. Conclusion. The data reported suggests the anti-inflammatory effect potential of Clusiaceae family in animal experiments. PMID:24976853

de Melo, Mônica Santos; Quintans, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza; Duarte, Marcelo Cavalcante; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Moraes, Valéria Regina de Souza; de Araújo-Júnior, Joăo Xavier

2014-01-01

381

Anti-inflammatory Activity and Mechanism of Surfactin in Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Macrophages.  

PubMed

Surfactin is primarily produced by Bacillus natto TK-1 and is one of the most powerful biosurfactants. It consists of a heptapeptide interlinked with a ?-hydroxy fatty acid. Because of its special structure, surfactin shows broad biological effects, including anti-tumour, anti-microbial and anti-mycoplasma activities. It also has potential anti-inflammatory activity; however, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of surfactin has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of surfactin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Surfactin exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect without cytotoxicity at certain concentrations, and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells appeared normal after surfactin treatment. Surfactin significantly inhibited the increased expression of IFN-?, IL-6, iNOS and nitric oxide (NO). TLR4 is the critical receptor for LPS; therefore, the TLR4 signal transduction pathway is the primary pathway that mediates LPS-induced inflammation. The results show that surfactin downregulated the LPS-induced TLR4 protein expression of macrophages and indicated that the surfactin-mediated signal pathway was involved in with TLR4. The subsequent studies demonstrated that surfactin exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by attenuating the activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), which is involved in the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) cell signalling pathways. These results suggest that surfactin may be a new therapeutic agent for inflammation. PMID:25331175

Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Chuan; Dong, Bin; Ma, Xiaolei; Hou, Lihua; Cao, Xiaohong; Wang, Chunling

2015-04-01

382

Uncoupling of Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that is carried by a quarter of the healthy human population and that can cause severe infections. This pathobiosis has been linked to a balance between Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent pro- and anti-inflammatory responses. The relationship between these two types of responses is unknown. Analysis of 16 nasal isolates of S. aureus showed heterogeneity in their capacity to induce pro- and anti-inflammatory responses, suggesting that these two responses are independent of each other. Uncoupling of these responses was corroborated by selective signaling through phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-mTOR and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) for the anti-inflammatory response and through p38 for the proinflammatory response. Uncoupling was also observed at the level of phagocytosis and phagosomal processing of S. aureus, which were required solely for the proinflammatory response. Importantly, the anti-inflammatory properties of an S. aureus isolate correlated with its ability to modulate T cell immunity. Our results suggest the presence of anti-inflammatory TLR2 ligands in the staphylococcal cell wall, whose identification may provide templates for novel immunomodulatory drugs. PMID:25644014

Peres, Adam G; Stegen, Camille; Li, Junbin; Xu, An Qi; Levast, Benoit; Surette, Michael G; Cousineau, Benoit; Desrosiers, Martin; Madrenas, Joaquín

2015-04-01

383

Anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene lactones from Lychnophora trichocarpha Spreng. (Brazilian Arnica).  

PubMed

The aerial parts of Lychnophora trichocarpha Spreng. (Asteraceae) are used macerated in water or ethanol to treat inflammation, pain, rheumatism, contusions, bruises and insect bites in Brazilian traditional medicine. In this study, anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extract from aerial parts of L. trichocarpha and its ethyl acetate fraction was investigated. Sesquiterpene lactones, lychnopholide (Lyc) and eremantholide C (EreC), isolated of ethyl acetate fraction, were also assayed for in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. Topical treatment with ointments containing ethanol extract, its ethyl acetate fraction and sesquiterpene lactones significantly reduced carrageenan-induced mice paw oedema. In vitro assays demonstrated that Lyc inhibited interferon -?/lipopolysaccharide -stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production in J774A.1 macrophages and increased production of IL-10 anti-inflammatory cytokine. The reduction of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) production by EreC was accompanied by an increased production of IL-10 in a concentration-dependent manner in J774A.1 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effect of Lyc seems to involve the inhibition of production of NO and increased production of IL-10. The mechanism of the effect of EreC on the reduction of carrageenan-induced paw oedema may be attributed to inhibition of production of TNF-? and stimulation of IL-10 production. The results corroborate the use of ethanol extract from Lychnophora trichocarpha in folk medicine for anti-inflammatory action and indicate that the topical route is suitable for use. PMID:22619042

Ferrari, Fernanda C; Ferreira, Leidiane C; Souza, Maíra R; Grabe-Guimarăes, Andrea; Paula, Carmen A; Rezende, Simone A; Saúde-Guimarăes, Dęnia A

2013-03-01

384

Inhibitory effects of anti-inflammatory drugs on type II collagen induced arthritis in rats.  

PubMed Central

The effects of steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the established lesion of type II collagen induced arthritis in rats were evaluated by measuring the hind paw oedema and anti-type II collagen antibody titre. Dexamethasone, a steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, reduced the anti-type II collagen antibody titre and markedly suppressed the established lesion of type II collagen induced arthritis in rats. A rebound of the arthritis, i.e., a rapid recovery of the hind paw swelling took place after withdrawal of the treatment with steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including dexamethasone, prednisolone, and hydrocortisone. On the other hand, indomethacin, benoxaprofen, piroxicam, and tiflamizole, which are cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors in prostaglandin synthesis, had no effect on anti-type II collagen antibody titre, but suppressed the established lesion of the arthritis without causing an apparent rebound of the arthritis after withdrawal of the drug treatment. These results suggest that the level of anti-type II collagen antibodies has no relation to the intensity of hind paw swelling in the established lesion of the arthritis, though the antibodies contribute to the incidence of the arthritis. It also indicates that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs having inhibitory action on cyclo-oxygenase are useful antiarthritic drugs without causing the rebound phenomenon, an untoward side effect after withdrawal of steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:3662643

Yamaki, K; Nakagawa, H; Tsurufuji, S

1987-01-01

385